Sample records for lacticin rm analysis

  1. Immunodetection of the Bacteriocin Lacticin RM: Analysis of the Influence of Temperature and Tween 80 on Its Expression and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Tomer; Yarmus, Merav; Halevy, Galia; Shapira, Roni

    2004-01-01

    Immunoassays with specific antibodies offer higher sensitivity than do bioassays with indicator strains in the detection and quantification of several bacteriocins. Here we present the purification of lacticin RM and the production of specific polyclonal antibodies to a synthetic peptide resembling an internal fragment of the mature bacteriocin. The specificity and sensitivity of the generated polyclonal antibodies were evaluated in various immunoassays. The detection limits of lacticin RM were found to be 1.9, 0.16, and 0.18 μg ml−1 for Western blot, immuno-dot blot, and noncompetitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. Immunoassay sensitivities were 12.5-fold higher than that of the agar diffusion test (ADT). The production of lacticin RM showed temperature dependency, with 3, 4.2, 12.7, 28.9, 37.8, and 12 μg ml−1 at 37, 30, 20, 15, 10, and 4°C, respectively. Temperature-stability analysis demonstrated that lacticin RM is sensitive to mild temperature, but the loss of activity does not seem to result from protein degradation. Tween 80 increased the concentration of lacticin RM eightfold and probably affected the results of the ADT either by enhancing the activity of lacticin RM or by increasing the sensitivity of the indicator strain. The use of antibodies for the specific detection and quantification of lacticin RM can expand our knowledge of its production and stability, with important implications for further investigation and future application. PMID:15066801

  2. Generation of food-grade lactococcal starters which produce the lantibiotics lacticin 3147 and lacticin 481.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Lisa; Ryan, Maire P; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2003-06-01

    Transconjugant lactococcal starters which produce both lantibiotics lacticin 3147 and lacticin 481 were generated via conjugation of large bacteriocin-encoding plasmids. A representative of one of the resultant strains proved more effective at killing Lactobacillus fermentum and inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes LO28H than either of the single bacteriocin-producing parental strains, demonstrating the potential of these transconjugants as protection cultures for food safety applications.

  3. Generation of Food-Grade Lactococcal Starters Which Produce the Lantibiotics Lacticin 3147 and Lacticin 481

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Lisa; Ryan, Maire P.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Transconjugant lactococcal starters which produce both lantibiotics lacticin 3147 and lacticin 481 were generated via conjugation of large bacteriocin-encoding plasmids. A representative of one of the resultant strains proved more effective at killing Lactobacillus fermentum and inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes LO28H than either of the single bacteriocin-producing parental strains, demonstrating the potential of these transconjugants as protection cultures for food safety applications. PMID:12788782

  4. Structural analysis and characterization of lacticin Q, a novel bacteriocin belonging to a new family of unmodified bacteriocins of gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Koji; Ichimasa, Shiro; Zendo, Takeshi; Koga, Shoko; Yoneyama, Fuminori; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2007-05-01

    Lactococcus lactis QU 5 isolated from corn produces a novel bacteriocin, termed lacticin Q. By acetone precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, lacticin Q was purified from the culture supernatant of this organism, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5,926.50 Da by mass spectrometry. Subsequent analyses of amino acid and DNA sequences revealed that lacticin Q comprised 53 amino acid residues and that its N-terminal methionine residue was formylated. In contrast to most bacteriocins produced by gram-positive bacteria, lacticin Q had no N-terminal extensions such as leader or signal sequences. It showed 66% and 48% identity to AucA, a hypothetical protein from Corynebacterium jeikeium plasmid pA501, and aureocin A53, a bacteriocin from Staphylococcus aureus A53, respectively. The characteristics of lacticin Q were determined and compared to those of nisin A. Similar to nisin A, lacticin Q exhibited antibacterial activity against various gram-positive bacteria. Lacticin Q was very stable against heat treatment and changes in pH; in particular, it was stable at alkaline pH values, while nisin A was inactivated. Moreover, lacticin Q induced ATP efflux from a Listeria sp. strain in a shorter time and at a lower concentration than nisin A, indicating that the former affected indicator cells in a different manner from that of the latter. The results described here clarified the fact that lacticin Q belongs to a new family of class II bacteriocins and that it can be employed as an alternative to or in combination with nisin A.

  5. Expression and purification of lacticin Q by small ubiquitin-related modifier fusion in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingshan; Yu, Zhanqiao; Han, Bing; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Rijun

    2012-04-01

    Lacticin Q is a broad-spectrum class II bacteriocin with potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotics. The objective of this study was to produce recombinant lacticin Q using a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion protein expression system. The 168-bp lacticin Q gene was cloned into the expression vector pET SUMO and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The soluble fusion protein was recovered with a Ni-NTA Sepharose column (95% purity); 130 mg protein was obtained per liter of fermentation culture. The SUMO tag was then proteolytically cleaved from the protein, which was re-applied to the column. Finally, about 32 mg lacticin Q (≥96% purity) was obtained. The recombinant protein exhibited antimicrobial properties similar to that of the native protein, demonstrating that lacticin Q had been successfully expressed by the SUMO fusion system.

  6. Use of lacticin 481 to facilitate delivery of the bacteriophage resistance plasmid, pCBG104 to cheese starters.

    PubMed

    Mills, S; Coffey, A; O'Sullivan, L; Stokes, D; Hill, C; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P

    2002-01-01

    Use of lacticin 481 to facilitate the conjugal transfer of the bacteriophage resistance plasmid pCBG104 to various starter cultures. A raw milk isolate of Lactococcus was found to harbour determinants for lacticin 481 production and immunity and phage resistance on a plasmid designated pCBG104. The lacticin 481 was successfully used to mobilize the phage resistance determinant to a variety of cheese starters enabling the formation of highly phage resistant starters. In addition, it facilitated the stacking of a number of phage resistance genes, namely a type I restriction modification system, a phage abortive infection system and a phage adsorption blocking system in a single Lactococcus strain without the use of recombinant techniques. The transconjugants were all shown to produce lacticin 481 and to contain the entire 481 operon. Subsequently one transconjugant was selected and successfully used for large-scale cheddar cheese manufacture. Lacticin 481 could be used as a food-grade selectable marker to facilitate the introduction of advantageous traits to starter cultures for industrial food fermentations. Food-grade selectable markers greatly facilitate the introduction of various advantageous traits to starter cultures for industrial food fermentation. Indeed self-cloning which is becoming increasingly important for strain improvement has a requirement for the identification and demonstration of the utility of tools such as lacticin 481.

  7. An application in cheddar cheese manufacture for a strain of Lactococcus lactis producing a novel broad-spectrum bacteriocin, lacticin 3147.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, M P; Rea, M C; Hill, C; Ross, R P

    1996-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis DPC3147, a strain isolated from an Irish kefir grain, produces a bacteriocin with a broad spectrum of inhibition. The bacteriocin produced is heat stable, particularly at a low pH, and inhibits nisin-producing (Nip+) lactococci. On the basis of the observation that the nisin structural gene (nisA) does not hybridize to DPC3147 genomic DNA, the bacteriocin produced was considered novel and designated lacticin 3147. The genetic determinants which encode lacticin 3147 are contained on a 63-kb plasmid, which was conjugally mobilized to a commercial cheese starter, L. lactis subsp. cremoris DPC4268. The resultant transconjugant, DPC4275, both produces and is immune to lacticin 3147. The ability of lacticin 3147-producing lactococci to perform as cheddar cheese starters was subsequently investigated in cheesemaking trials. Bacteriocin-producing starters (which included the transconjugant strain DPC4275) produced acid at rates similar to those of commercial strains. The level of lacticin 3147 produced in cheese remained constant over 6 months of ripening and correlated with a significant reduction in the levels of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Such results suggest that these starters provide a means of controlling developing microflora in ripened fermented products. PMID:8593062

  8. Lacticin LC14, a new bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis BMG6.14: isolation, purification and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Lasta, Samar; Ouzari, Hadda; Andreotti, Nicolas; Fajloun, Ziad; Mansuelle, Pascal; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Sampieri, Francois; Sabatier, Jean Marc

    2012-08-01

    A new bacteriocin, lacticin LC14, produced by Lactococcus lactis BMG6.14, was isolated and characterized. It was purified to homogeneity from overnight broth culture by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sep-Pak chromatography, and two steps of reversed-phase HPLC. Lacticin LC14 showed bactericidal-type antimicrobial activity against several lactic acid bacteria and pathogenic strains including Listeria monocytogenes. It was inactivated by proteinase K and pronase E, but was resistant to papain, lysozyme, lipase and catalase. Lacticin LC14 was heat resistant, stable over a wide range of pH (2-10) and after treatment by solvents and detergents. Its N-terminal end was found unreactive towards Edman sequencing. Based on MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, its molecular mass was 3333.7 Da. LC14 amino acid composition revealed a high proportion of hydrophobic residues, but no modified ones. LC14 may be able to challenge other well known other bacteriocins in probiotic and therapeutic applications.

  9. A Multibacteriocin Cheese Starter System, Comprising Nisin and Lacticin 3147 in Lactococcus lactis, in Combination with Plantaricin from Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Mills, S.; Griffin, C.; O'Connor, P. M.; Serrano, L. M.; Meijer, W. C.; Hill, C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Functional starter cultures demonstrating superior technological and food safety properties are advantageous to the food fermentation industry. We evaluated the efficacies of single- and double-bacteriocin-producing starters of Lactococcus lactis capable of producing the class I bacteriocins nisin A and/or lacticin 3147 in terms of starter performance. Single producers were generated by mobilizing the conjugative bacteriophage resistance plasmid pMRC01, carrying lacticin genetic determinants, or the conjugative transposon Tn5276, carrying nisin genetic determinants, to the commercial starter L. lactis CSK2775. The effect of bacteriocin coproduction was examined by superimposing pMRC01 into the newly constructed nisin transconjugant. Transconjugants were improved with regard to antimicrobial activity and bacteriophage insensitivity compared to the recipient strain, and the double producer was immune to both bacteriocins. Bacteriocin production in the starter was stable, although the recipient strain proved to be a more efficient acidifier than transconjugant derivatives. Overall, combinations of class I bacteriocins (the double producer or a combination of single producers) proved to be as effective as individual bacteriocins for controlling Listeria innocua growth in laboratory-scale cheeses. However, using the double producer in combination with the class II bacteriocin producer Lactobacillus plantarum or using the lacticin producer with the class II producer proved to be most effective for reducing bacterial load. As emergence of bacteriocin tolerance was reduced 10-fold in the presence of nisin and lacticin, we suggest that the double producer in conjunction with the class II producer could serve as a protective culture providing a food-grade, multihurdle approach to control pathogenic growth in a variety of industrial applications. IMPORTANCE We generated a suite of single- and double-bacteriocin-producing starter cultures capable of generating the

  10. RM-CLEAN: RM spectra cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, George

    2017-08-01

    RM-CLEAN reads in dirty Q and U cubes, generates rmtf based on the frequencies given in an ASCII file, and cleans the RM spectra following the algorithm given by Brentjens (2007). The output cubes contain the clean model components and the CLEANed RM spectra. The input cubes must be reordered with mode=312, and the output cubes will have the same ordering and thus must be reordered after being written to disk. RM-CLEAN runs as a MIRIAD (ascl:1106.007) task and a Python wrapper is included with the code.

  11. R/M Analysis of Electromechanical Equipments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    modifying existing R/M prediction and demonstration techniques to account for considerations of R/M performance of E/M equipments in the C31 systems...00 a’a - CC C a a a a’ a a ~ a’ a a’ a 000 CeCa’ 0Ca’Ca’ OCOtOaC CC a’ a-, C’.a’ CC a’a’ a S -C a’ a’ -~ a~g a’a a’ C C C~ CC fla’C - acCa ’ CCOCa~. 00...any of the other systems studied. The data are also higher quality because of the command interest in this high cost system and because of the safety

  12. Using the load-velocity relationship for 1RM prediction.

    PubMed

    Jidovtseff, Boris; Harris, Nigel K; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Cronin, John B

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the load-velocity relationship to accurately predict a bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Data from 3 different bench press studies (n = 112) that incorporated both 1RM assessment and submaximal load-velocity profiling were analyzed. Individual regression analysis was performed to determine the theoretical load at zero velocity (LD0). Data from each of the 3 studies were analyzed separately and also presented as overall group mean. Thereafter, correlation analysis provided quantification of the relationships between 1RM and LD0. Practically perfect correlations (r = ∼0.95) were observed in our samples, confirming the ability of the load-velocity profile to accurately predict bench press 1RM.

  13. Supramaximal Eccentrics Versus Traditional Loading in Improving Lower-Body 1RM: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Buskard, Andrew N L; Gregg, Heath R; Ahn, Soyeon

    2018-06-11

    Guidelines for improving maximal concentric strength through resistance training (RT) have traditionally included large muscle-group exercises, full ranges of motion, and a load approximating 85% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Supramaximal eccentric training (SME; controlled lowering of loads above the concentric 1RM) has also been shown to be effective at increasing concentric 1RM in the lower body, but concerns regarding injury risk, postexercise soreness, and null benefit over traditional methods (TRAD) may limit the practical utility of this approach. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SME elicits greater lower-body strength improvements than TRAD. Key inclusion criteria were regular exercise modalities typical of nonspecialized exercise facilities (e.g., leg press; key exclusion: isokinetic dynamometer) and at least 6 weeks of RT exposure, leading to 5 studies included in the current meta-analysis. Unbiased effect-size measures that quantify the mean difference in lower-body 1RM between SME and TRAD were extracted. Supramaximal eccentric training did not appear to be more effective than TRAD at increasing lower-body 1RM ([Formula: see text] = .33, SE = .26, z = 1.26, 95% CI [-0.20, 0.79], p = .20, I 2  = 56.78%) under a random-effects model where between-study variance was estimated using maximum likelihood estimation ([Formula: see text] 2 = .25). The selection of SME over TRAD in RT programs designed to increase lower-body 1RM does not appear warranted in all populations. Further research should clarify the merit of periodic SME in TRAD-dominant RT programs as well as whether a differential effect exists in trained individuals.

  14. Galerkin analysis of kinematic dynamos in the von Kármán geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marié, L.; Normand, C.; Daviaud, F.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate dynamo action by solving the kinematic dynamo problem for velocity fields of the von Kármán type between two coaxial counter-rotating propellers in a cylinder. A Galerkin method is implemented that takes advantage of the symmetries of the flow and their subsequent influence on the nature of the magnetic field at the dynamo threshold. Distinct modes of instability have been identified that differ by their spatial and temporal behaviors. Our calculations give the result that a stationary and antisymmetric mode prevails at the dynamo threshold. We then present a quantitative analysis of the results based on the parametric study of four interaction coefficients obtained by reduction of our initially large eigenvalue problem. We propose these coefficients to measure the relative importance of the different mechanisms at play in the von Kármán kinematic dynamo.

  15. Characterization and application of enterocin RM6, a bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Huang, En; Zhang, Liwen; Chung, Yoon-Kyung; Zheng, Zuoxing; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2013-01-01

    Use of bacteriocins in food preservation has received great attention in recent years. The goal of this study is to characterize enterocin RM6 from Enterococcus faecalis OSY-RM6 and investigate its efficacy against Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. Enterocin RM6 was purified from E. faecalis culture supernatant using ion exchange column, multiple C18-silica cartridges, followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of enterocin RM6 is 7145.0823 as determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis revealed that enterocin RM6 is a 70-residue cyclic peptide with a head-to-tail linkage between methionine and tryptophan residues. The peptide sequence of enterocin RM6 was further confirmed by sequencing the structural gene of the peptide. Enterocin RM6 is active against Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Enterocin RM6 (final concentration in cottage cheese, 80 AU/mL) caused a 4-log reduction in population of L. monocytogenes inoculated in cottage cheese within 30 min of treatment. Therefore, enterocin RM6 has potential applications as a potent antimicrobial peptide against foodborne pathogens in food.

  16. Development of 1RM Prediction Equations for Bench Press in Moderately Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Macht, Jordan W; Abel, Mark G; Mullineaux, David R; Yates, James W

    2016-10-01

    Macht, JW, Abel, MG, Mullineaux, DR, and Yates, JW. Development of 1RM prediction equations for bench press in moderately trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2901-2906, 2016-There are a variety of established 1 repetition maximum (1RM) prediction equations, however, very few prediction equations use anthropometric characteristics exclusively or in part, to estimate 1RM strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an original 1RM prediction equation for bench press using anthropometric and performance characteristics in moderately trained male subjects. Sixty male subjects (21.2 ± 2.4 years) completed a 1RM bench press and were randomly assigned a load to complete as many repetitions as possible. In addition, body composition, upper-body anthropometric characteristics, and handgrip strength were assessed. Regression analysis was used to develop a performance-based 1RM prediction equation: 1RM = 1.20 repetition weight + 2.19 repetitions to fatigue - 0.56 biacromial width (cm) + 9.6 (R = 0.99, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 3.5 kg). Regression analysis to develop a nonperformance-based 1RM prediction equation yielded: 1RM (kg) = 0.997 cross-sectional area (CSA) (cm) + 0.401 chest circumference (cm) - 0.385%fat - 0.185 arm length (cm) + 36.7 (R = 0.81, SEE = 13.0 kg). The performance prediction equations developed in this study had high validity coefficients, minimal mean bias, and small limits of agreement. The anthropometric equations had moderately high validity coefficient but larger limits of agreement. The practical applications of this study indicate that the inclusion of anthropometric characteristics and performance variables produce a valid prediction equation for 1RM strength. In addition, the CSA of the arm uses a simple nonperformance method of estimating the lifter's 1RM. This information may be used to predict the starting load for a lifter performing a 1RM prediction protocol or a 1RM testing protocol.

  17. Characterization and Application of Enterocin RM6, a Bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoon-Kyung; Yousef, Ahmed E.

    2013-01-01

    Use of bacteriocins in food preservation has received great attention in recent years. The goal of this study is to characterize enterocin RM6 from Enterococcus faecalis OSY-RM6 and investigate its efficacy against Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. Enterocin RM6 was purified from E. faecalis culture supernatant using ion exchange column, multiple C18-silica cartridges, followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of enterocin RM6 is 7145.0823 as determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis revealed that enterocin RM6 is a 70-residue cyclic peptide with a head-to-tail linkage between methionine and tryptophan residues. The peptide sequence of enterocin RM6 was further confirmed by sequencing the structural gene of the peptide. Enterocin RM6 is active against Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Enterocin RM6 (final concentration in cottage cheese, 80 AU/mL) caused a 4-log reduction in population of L. monocytogenes inoculated in cottage cheese within 30 min of treatment. Therefore, enterocin RM6 has potential applications as a potent antimicrobial peptide against foodborne pathogens in food. PMID:23844357

  18. RM2: rms error comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    The root-mean-square error performance measure is used to compare the relative performance of several widely known source coding algorithms with the RM2 image data compression system. The results demonstrate that RM2 has a uniformly significant performance advantage.

  19. Broadband Photometric Reverberation Mapping Analysis on SDSS-RM and Stripe 82 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haowen; Yang, Qian; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2018-02-01

    We modified the broadband photometric reverberation mapping (PRM) code, JAVELIN, and tested the availability to get broad-line region time delays that are consistent with the spectroscopic reverberation mapping (SRM) project SDSS-RM. The broadband light curves of SDSS-RM quasars produced by convolution with the system transmission curves were used in the test. We found that under similar sampling conditions (evenly and frequently sampled), the key factor determining whether the broadband PRM code can yield lags consistent with the SRM project is the flux ratio of the broad emission line to the reference continuum, which is in line with the previous findings. We further found a critical line-to-continuum flux ratio, about 6%, above which the mean of the ratios between the lags from PRM and SRM becomes closer to unity, and the scatter is pronouncedly reduced. We also tested our code on a subset of SDSS Stripe 82 quasars, and found that our program tends to give biased lag estimations due to the observation gaps when the R-L relation prior in Markov Chain Monte Carlo is discarded. The performance of the damped random walk (DRW) model and the power-law (PL) structure function model on broadband PRM were compared. We found that given both SDSS-RM-like or Stripe 82-like light curves, the DRW model performs better in carrying out broadband PRM than the PL model.

  20. Yersinia ruckeri sp. nov., the redmouth (RM) bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, W.H.; Ross, A.J.; Brenner, Don J.; Fanning, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of the redmouth (RM) bacterium, one of the etiological agents of redmouth disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and certain other fishes, were characterized by means of their biochemical reactions, by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization, and by determination of guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) ratios in DNA. The DNA relatedness studies confirmed the fact that the RM bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and that they comprise a single species that is not closely related to any other species of Enterobacteriaceae. They are about 30% related to species of both Serratia and Yersinia. A comparison of the biochemical reactions of RM bacteria and serratiae indicated that there are many differences between these organisms and that biochemically the RM bacteria are most closely related to yersiniae. The G+C ratios of RM bacteria were approximated to be between 47.5 and 48.5% These values are similar to those of yersiniae but markedly different from those of serratiae. On the basis of their biochemical reactions and their G+C ratios, the RM bacteria are considered to be a new species of Yersinia, for which the name Yersinia ruckeri is proposed. Strain 2396-61 (= ATCC 29473) is designated the type strain of the species.

  1. Reliability improvements on Thales RM2 rotary Stirling coolers: analysis and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquil, J. M.; Seguineau, C.; Martin, J.-Y.; Benschop, T.

    2016-05-01

    The cooled IR detectors are used in a wide range of applications. Most of the time, the cryocoolers are one of the components dimensioning the lifetime of the system. The cooler reliability is thus one of its most important parameters. This parameter has to increase to answer market needs. To do this, the data for identifying the weakest element determining cooler reliability has to be collected. Yet, data collection based on field are hardly usable due to lack of informations. A method for identifying the improvement in reliability has then to be set up which can be used even without field return. This paper will describe the method followed by Thales Cryogénie SAS to reach such a result. First, a database was built from extensive expertizes of RM2 failures occurring in accelerate ageing. Failure modes have then been identified and corrective actions achieved. Besides this, a hierarchical organization of the functions of the cooler has been done with regard to the potential increase of its efficiency. Specific changes have been introduced on the functions most likely to impact efficiency. The link between efficiency and reliability will be described in this paper. The work on the two axes - weak spots for cooler reliability and efficiency - permitted us to increase in a drastic way the MTTF of the RM2 cooler. Huge improvements in RM2 reliability are actually proven by both field return and reliability monitoring. These figures will be discussed in the paper.

  2. Estimation of 1RM for knee extension based on the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition.

    PubMed

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, with data regarding the body composition incorporated as another independent variable, in addition to the maximal isometric muscle strength. [Results] Through single regression analysis with the maximal isometric muscle strength as an independent variable, the following regression formula was created: 1RM (kg)=0.714 + 0.783 × maximal isometric muscle strength (kgf). On multiple regression analysis, only the total muscle mass was extracted. [Conclusion] A highly accurate regression formula to estimate 1RM was created based on both the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition. Using a hand-held dynamometer and body composition analyzer, it was possible to measure these items in a short time, and obtain clinically useful results.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of the Role of GlnD/GlnBK in Nitrogen Stress Adaptation by Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021

    PubMed Central

    Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Rice, Jennifer; Kahn, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional changes in the nitrogen stress response (NSR) of wild type S. meliloti Rm1021, and isogenic strains missing both PII proteins, GlnB and GlnK, or carrying a ΔglnD-sm2 mutation were analyzed using whole-genome microarrays. This approach allowed us to identify a number of new genes involved in the NSR and showed that the response of these bacteria to nitrogen stress overlaps with other stress responses, including induction of the fixK2 transcriptional activator and genes that are part of the phosphate stress response. Our data also show that GlnD and GlnBK proteins may regulate many genes that are not part of the NSR. Analysis of transcriptome profiles of the Rm1021 ΔglnD-sm2 strain allowed us to identify several genes that appear to be regulated by GlnD without the participation of the PII proteins. PMID:23516427

  4. Rehabilitation Medicine Educational Experiences: A Retrospective Study of Exposure to RM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobmeyer, Thomas W.

    1979-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine: the effect of rehabilitation medicine (RM) educational experiences during medical school on physicians' awareness of RM; attitude toward RM; the management of long-term care; and the tendency to seek expert consultation and patient referral when necessary. (Author/MH)

  5. The population dynamics of bacteria, phage and RM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guet, Calin; Levin, Bruce; Pleska, Maros

    Viruses drive and mediate bacterial evolution as parasites and vectors of horizontal gene transfer, respectively. Temperate bacteriophages, defined by the ability to lysogenize a fraction of hosts and to transmit horizontally as well as vertically in the form of prophages, frequently carry genes that increase fitness or contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. Restriction-modification (RM) systems, which are widely diverse and ubiquitous among bacteria, can prevent infections leading to lysis, but their effect on lysogeny is not clear. We show that RM systems prevent lytic and lysogenic infections to the same extent and therefore represent a molecular barrier to prophage acquisition. Surprisingly, we find that this negative effect can be overcome and even reversed at the population level, as a consequence of dynamic interactions between viruses, hosts and RM systems. Thus the population dynamics of bacteria carrying RM systems impacts bacterial genome-wide evolution. .

  6. Chemical synthesis, NMR analysis and evaluation on a cancer xenograft model (HL-60) of the aminosteroid derivative RM-133.

    PubMed

    Maltais, René; Hospital, Audrey; Delhomme, Audrey; Roy, Jenny; Poirier, Donald

    2014-04-01

    The aminosteroid derivative RM-133 has been reported to be a promising pro-apoptotic agent showing activity on various cancer cell lines. Following the development of solid-phase synthesis that generated a series of libraries of aminosteroid derivatives, we now report the development of a convenient liquid phase chemical synthesis of RM-133, the most promising candidate, in order to obtain sufficient quantities to proceed with the first preclinical assays. A simple and convergent six-step synthesis was designed and allowed the preparation of a gram-quantity scale of RM-133. This aminosteroid derivative was also fully characterized by NMR experiments which revealed an interesting mixture of conformers. Finally, the in vivo potency of RM-133 was evaluated on a xenograft model in nude mice with HL-60 tumors, which has resulted in the blocking of tumor progression by 57%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction of $$\\sin^2\\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff}$$ and indirect measurement of $$m_w$$ from the 9 fb$$^{-1}$$ full run ii sample of $$\\mu^+\\mu^-$$ events at cdf

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bodek, A.

    2014-09-19

    We report on the extraction ofmore » $$\\sin^2\\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff}$$ and indirect measurement of the mass of the W boson from the forward-backward asymmetry of $$\\mu^+\\mu^-$$ events in the $Z$ boson mass region. The data sample collected by the CDF detector corresponds to the full 9 fb$$^{-1}$$ run II sample. We measure $$\\sin^2 \\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff} = 0.2315 \\pm 0.0010$$,$$ \\sin^2 \\theta_W = 0.2233 \\pm 0.0009$$ and $$M_W ({\\rm indirect}) = 80.365 \\pm 0.047 \\;{\\rm GeV}/c^2$$, where each uncertainty includes both statistical and systematic contributions.« less

  8. Von Kármán between Aachen and Pasadena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Egon; Kalkmann, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    In the Introduction the reader is referred back to the academic ceremonials held after Theodore von Kármán's death in Aachen in May 1963. His work as the first director of the Aerodynamisches Institut (Institute of Aerodynamics) of the RWTH Aachen University of Technology from 1913 on and his initiative to re-establish international cooperation after World War I, resulting in the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM), are commented on. The following chapter describes von Kármán's relation to his former teacher Ludwig Prandtl. Some of von Kármán's scientific contributions during his time in Aachen are briefly reviewed. Thereafter, his first contacts to the California Institute of Technology are covered. Finally, the scientific and political circumstances, which led to von Kármán's decision to leave Germany in the early thirties, are elucidated in some detail. The English translation of the titles of the Aachen papers is given in Appendix I.

  9. The Experience of Persons With Multiple Sclerosis Using MS INFoRm: An Interactive Fatigue Management Resource.

    PubMed

    Pétrin, Julie; Akbar, Nadine; Turpin, Karen; Smyth, Penelope; Finlayson, Marcia

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to understand participants' experiences with a self-guided fatigue management resource, Multiple Sclerosis: An Interactive Fatigue Management Resource ( MS INFoRm), and the extent to which they found its contents relevant and useful to their daily lives. We recruited 35 persons with MS experiencing mild to moderate fatigue, provided them with MS INFoRm, and then conducted semistructured interviews 3 weeks and 3 months after they received the resource. Interpretive description guided the analysis process. Findings indicate that participants' experience of using MS INFoRm could be understood as a process of change, influenced by their initial reactions to the resource. They reported experiencing a shift in knowledge, expectations, and behaviors with respect to fatigue self-management. These shifts led to multiple positive outcomes, including increased levels of self-confidence and improved quality of life. These findings suggest that MS INFoRm may have a place in the continuum of fatigue management interventions for people with MS.

  10. 1RM prediction: a novel methodology based on the force-velocity and load-velocity relationships.

    PubMed

    Picerno, Pietro; Iannetta, Danilo; Comotto, Stefania; Donati, Marco; Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Zok, Mounir; Tollis, Giorgio; Figura, Marco; Varalda, Carlo; Di Muzio, Davide; Patrizio, Federica; Piacentini, Maria Francesca

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a novel approach for predicting the one-repetition maximum (1RM). The prediction is based on the force-velocity and load-velocity relationships determined from measured force and velocity data collected during resistance-training exercises with incremental submaximal loads. 1RM was determined as the load corresponding to the intersection of these two curves, where the gravitational force exceeds the force that the subject can exert. The proposed force-velocity-based method (FVM) was tested on 37 participants (23.9 ± 3.1 year; BMI 23.44 ± 2.45) with no specific resistance-training experience, and the predicted 1RM was compared to that achieved using a direct method (DM) in chest-press (CP) and leg-press (LP) exercises. The mean 1RM in CP was 99.5 kg (±27.0) for DM and 100.8 kg (±27.2) for FVM (SEE = 1.2 kg), whereas the mean 1RM in LP was 249.3 kg (±60.2) for DM and 251.1 kg (±60.3) for FVM (SEE = 2.1 kg). A high correlation was found between the two methods for both CP and LP exercises (0.999, p < 0.001). Good agreement between the two methods emerged from the Bland and Altman plot analysis. These findings suggest the use of the proposed methodology as a valid alternative to other indirect approaches for 1RM prediction. The mathematical construct is simply based on the definition of the 1RM, and it is fed with subject's muscle strength capacities measured during a specific exercise. Its reliability is, thus, expected to be not affected by those factors that typically jeopardize regression-based approaches.

  11. Reliability and Validity of the Load-Velocity Relationship to Predict the 1RM Back Squat.

    PubMed

    Banyard, Harry G; Nosaka, Kazunori; Haff, G Gregory

    2017-07-01

    Banyard, HG, Nosaka, K, and Haff, GG. Reliability and validity of the load-velocity relationship to predict the 1RM back squat. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1897-1904, 2017-This study investigated the reliability and validity of the load-velocity relationship to predict the free-weight back squat one repetition maximum (1RM). Seventeen strength-trained males performed three 1RM assessments on 3 separate days. All repetitions were performed to full depth with maximal concentric effort. Predicted 1RMs were calculated by entering the mean concentric velocity of the 1RM (V1RM) into an individualized linear regression equation, which was derived from the load-velocity relationship of 3 (20, 40, 60% of 1RM), 4 (20, 40, 60, 80% of 1RM), or 5 (20, 40, 60, 80, 90% of 1RM) incremental warm-up sets. The actual 1RM (140.3 ± 27.2 kg) was very stable between 3 trials (ICC = 0.99; SEM = 2.9 kg; CV = 2.1%; ES = 0.11). Predicted 1RM from 5 warm-up sets up to and including 90% of 1RM was the most reliable (ICC = 0.92; SEM = 8.6 kg; CV = 5.7%; ES = -0.02) and valid (r = 0.93; SEE = 10.6 kg; CV = 7.4%; ES = 0.71) of the predicted 1RM methods. However, all predicted 1RMs were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.71-1.04) from the actual 1RM. Individual variation for the actual 1RM was small between trials ranging from -5.6 to 4.8% compared with the most accurate predictive method up to 90% of 1RM, which was more variable (-5.5 to 27.8%). Importantly, the V1RM (0.24 ± 0.06 m·s) was unreliable between trials (ICC = 0.42; SEM = 0.05 m·s; CV = 22.5%; ES = 0.14). The load-velocity relationship for the full depth free-weight back squat showed moderate reliability and validity but could not accurately predict 1RM, which was stable between trials. Thus, the load-velocity relationship 1RM prediction method used in this study cannot accurately modify sessional training loads because of large V1RM variability.

  12. Morphodynamic Modeling Using The SToRM Computational System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, F.

    2016-12-01

    The framework of the work presented here is the open source SToRM (System for Transport and River Modeling) eco-hydraulics modeling system, which is one of the models released with the iRIC hydraulic modeling graphical software package (http://i-ric.org/). SToRM has been applied to the simulation of various complex environmental problems, including natural waterways, steep channels with regime transition, and rapidly varying flood flows with wetting and drying fronts. In its previous version, however, channel bed was treated as static and the ability of simulating sediment transport rates or bed deformation was not included. The work presented here reports SToRM's newly developed extensions to expand the system's capability to calculate morphological changes in alluvial river systems. The sediment transport module of SToRM has been developed based on the general recognition that meaningful advances depend on physically solid formulations and robust and accurate numerical solution methods. The basic concepts of mass and momentum conservation are used, where the feedback mechanisms between the flow of water, the sediment in transport, and the bed changes are directly incorporated in the governing equations used in the mathematical model. This is accomplished via a non-capacity transport formulation based on the work of Cao et al. [Z. Cao et al., "Non-capacity or capacity model for fluvial sediment transport," Water Management, 165(WM4):193-211, 2012], where the governing equations are augmented with source/sink terms due to water-sediment interaction. The same unsteady, shock-capturing numerical schemes originally used in SToRM were adapted to the new physics, using a control volume formulation over unstructured computational grids. The presentation will include a brief overview of these methodologies, and the result of applications of the model to a number of relevant physical test cases with movable bed, where computational results are compared to experimental data.

  13. Combined use of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and Raman microscopy (RM): investigations on EPS-Matrix.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael; Ivleva, Natalia P; Haisch, Christoph; Niessner, Reinhard; Horn, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was applied in combination with Raman microscopy (RM) for the characterization of heterotrophic biofilms. Compared to CLSM, RM allows for a deeper insight into the chemical structure of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the biofilm matrix. A low load of glucose (2 g m(-2)d(-1)) was applied as substrate to ensure small growth rates of the heterotrophic biofilm. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on the chemical composition of EPS, a three funnel flow system was used, wherein biofilms were grown at Reynolds numbers of 1000, 2500 and 4000, respectively. 31 and 92 days after inoculation with activated sludge supernatant RM was applied as an additional technique to standard CLSM measurements for a more detailed analysis of the biofilm matrix. Polysaccharide-related Raman bands are in good agreement with the lectin binding analysis from CLSM. For the older biofilm, lectin binding analysis showed no change in the composition of EPS, whereas Raman spectra pointed out a change of EPS composition from predominantly polysaccharides to predominantly (glyco) proteins. For the applied substrate condition no significant influence of the Reynolds number on the chemical properties was observed.

  14. Update on lifetime tests results and analysis carried out on Thales Cryogenics integral coolers (RM family)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Martin, Jean-Yves; Bruins, Peter; Benschop, A. A. J.

    2003-01-01

    The life time tests realised on the serial production of Rotary Mmonoblock RM2 coolers show a measured MTTF of 4900 hours. The conventional test profile applied to these coolers is representative of operation in typical application. The duration of such life time tests is very long. The results of a design change and its impact on MTTF are available only several months after the assembly of the prototypes. We decided to develop a test method in order to reduce the duration of these life time tests. The principle is to define a test protocol easy to implement, more severe than typical application profile in order to accelerate life time tests. The accelerated test profile was defined and tested successfully. This new technique allows us to reduce life time tests costs and duration and thus the costs involved. As a consequence, we decided to have a screening of our production with this accelerated test. This allows us to master continuously the quality of our serial products and to collect additional data. This paper presents the results of life time tests performed on RM2 coolers according to the conventional and accelerated test profiles as well as the first results on the new RM2 design which show a calculated MTTF of 10000 hours.

  15. mRM - multiscale Routing Model for Land Surface and Hydrologic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Thober, S.; Mai, J.; Samaniego, L. E.; Gochis, D. J.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Routing streamflow through a river network is a basic step within any distributed hydrologic model. It integrates the generated runoff and allows comparison with observed discharge at the outlet of a catchment. The Muskingum routing is a textbook river routing scheme that has been implemented in Earth System Models (e.g., WRF-HYDRO), stand-alone routing schemes (e.g., RAPID), and hydrologic models (e.g., the mesoscale Hydrologic Model). Most implementations suffer from a high computational demand because the spatial routing resolution is fixed to that of the elevation model irrespective of the hydrologic modeling resolution. This is because the model parameters are scale-dependent and cannot be used at other resolutions without re-estimation. Here, we present the multiscale Routing Model (mRM) that allows for a flexible choice of the routing resolution. mRM exploits the Multiscale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) included in the open-source mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM, www.ufz.de/mhm) that relates model parameters to physiographic properties and allows to estimate scale-independent model parameters. mRM is currently coupled to mHM and is presented here as stand-alone Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). The mRM source code is highly modular and provides a subroutine for internal re-use in any land surface scheme. mRM is coupled in this work to the state-of-the-art land surface model Noah-MP. Simulation results using mRM are compared with those available in WRF-HYDRO for the Red River during the period 1990-2000. mRM allows to increase the routing resolution from 100m to more than 10km without deteriorating the model performance. Therefore, it speeds up model calculation by reducing the contribution of routing to total runtime from over 80% to less than 5% in the case of WRF-HYDRO. mRM thus makes discharge data available to land surface modeling with only little extra calculations.

  16. Broadband Photometric Reverberation Mapping Analysis on SDSS-RM and Stripe 82 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haowen; Yang, Qian; Wu, Xuebing; Shen, Yue

    2018-01-01

    We extended the broadband photometric reverberation mapping (PRM) code, JAVELIN and test the availability to get broad line region (BLR) time delays that are consistent with spectroscopic reverberation mapping (SRM) projects. Broadband light curves of SDSS-RM quasars produced by convolution with system transmission curve were used in the test. We find that under similar sampling conditions (evenly and frequently sampled), the key factor determining whether the broadband PRM code can yield lags consistent with spectroscopic projects is the flux ratio of line to the reference continuum, which is in line with the findings in Zu et al. (2016). We further find a crucial line-to-continuum flux ratio, above which the mean of the ratios between the lags from PRM and SRM becomes closer to unity, and the scatter is pronouncedly reduced. Based on this flux ratio criteria, we selected some of the quasars from Hernitschek et al. (2015) and carry out broadband PRM on this subset. The performance of damped random walking (DRW) model and power-law (PL) structure function model on broadband PRM are compared using mock light curves with high, even cadences and low, uneven ones, respectively. We find that DRW model performs better in carrying out broadband PRM than PL model both for high and low cadence light curves with other data qualities similar to SDSS-RM quasars.

  17. Complete genomic sequences of Campylobacter jejuni strains RM3196 (233.94) and RM3197 (308.95) that were isolated from patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An infection with Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans and also the most prevalent infection preceding Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). This study describes the complete genomic sequences of Cjj HS:41 strains RM3196 (233.94) and RM3197 (308...

  18. Effect of Fatigue Upon Performance and Electromyographic Activity in 6-RM Bench Press

    PubMed Central

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Saeterbakken, Atle

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue during one set of 6-RM bench pressing upon the muscle patterning and performance. Fourteen resistance-trained males (age 22.5±2.0 years, stature 1.82±0.07 m, body mass 82.0±7.8 kg) conducted a 6-RM bench press protocol. Barbell kinematics and EMG activity of pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus abdominis, oblique external and erector spinae were measured in each repetition during the 6-RM bench press. Total lifting time increased and the velocity in the ascending movement decreased (p≤0.001). However, the kinematics in the descending phase deferred: the time decreased and velocity increased during the 6-RM (p≤0.001). Generally, muscles increased their EMG amplitude during the six repetitions in the ascending movement, while only three of the seven measured muscles showed an increase over the six repetitions in the descending part in 6-RM bench pressing. It was concluded that the bench pressing performance decreased (lower barbell velocities and longer lifting times) with increasing fatigue in the 6-RM execution. Furthermore EMG increased in the prime movers and the trunk stabilizers (abdominal and spine), while the antagonist muscle (biceps) activity was not affected by fatigue during the lifting phase in a single set of 6-RM bench pressing PMID:25031673

  19. Effect of Fatigue Upon Performance and Electromyographic Activity in 6-RM Bench Press.

    PubMed

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Saeterbakken, Atle

    2014-03-27

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue during one set of 6-RM bench pressing upon the muscle patterning and performance. Fourteen resistance-trained males (age 22.5±2.0 years, stature 1.82±0.07 m, body mass 82.0±7.8 kg) conducted a 6-RM bench press protocol. Barbell kinematics and EMG activity of pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus abdominis, oblique external and erector spinae were measured in each repetition during the 6-RM bench press. Total lifting time increased and the velocity in the ascending movement decreased (p≤0.001). However, the kinematics in the descending phase deferred: the time decreased and velocity increased during the 6-RM (p≤0.001). Generally, muscles increased their EMG amplitude during the six repetitions in the ascending movement, while only three of the seven measured muscles showed an increase over the six repetitions in the descending part in 6-RM bench pressing. It was concluded that the bench pressing performance decreased (lower barbell velocities and longer lifting times) with increasing fatigue in the 6-RM execution. Furthermore EMG increased in the prime movers and the trunk stabilizers (abdominal and spine), while the antagonist muscle (biceps) activity was not affected by fatigue during the lifting phase in a single set of 6-RM bench pressing.

  20. Bioremediation of heavy metals using an endophytic bacterium Paenibacillus sp. RM isolated from the roots of Tridax procumbens.

    PubMed

    Govarthanan, M; Mythili, R; Selvankumar, T; Kamala-Kannan, S; Rajasekar, A; Chang, Young-Cheol

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the bioremediation potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from roots of Tridax procumbens plant. Five bacterial endophytes were isolated and subsequently tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against different heavy metals. Amongst the five isolates, strain RM exhibited the highest resistance to copper (750 mg/l), followed by zinc (500 mg/l), lead (450 mg/l), and arsenic (400 mg/l). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence suggested that strain RM was a member of genus Paneibacillus. Strain RM also had the capacity to produce secondary metabolites, indole acetic acid, siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, and biosurfactant and solubilize phosphate. The growth kinetics of strain RM was altered slightly in the presence of metal stress. Temperature and pH influenced the metal removal rate. The results suggest that strain RM can survive under the high concentration of heavy metals and has been identified as a potential candidate for application in bioremediation of heavy metals in contaminated environments.

  1. From Decent Work to Decent Lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to empirically test the theoretical model, Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM), for a sample of 184 Italian university students. The PS&RM model specifies the development of individuals' strengths, potentials, and talents across the lifespan and with regard to the dialect of self in relationship. PS&RM is defined theoretically by three constructs: Positive Lifelong Life Management, Positive Lifelong Self-Management, Positive Lifelong Relational Management. The three constructs are operationalized as follows: Positive Lifelong Life Management is measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM), and the Authenticity Scale (AS); Positive Lifelong Self-Management is measured by the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISC), the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS), and the Life Project Reflexivity Scale (LPRS); and Positive Lifelong Relational Management is measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PS&RM model was completed using structural equation modeling. The theoretical PS&RM model was empirically tested as defined by the three hypothesized constructs. Empirical support for this model offers a framework for further research and the design of preventive interventions to promote decent work and decent lives in the twenty-first century. PMID:27047406

  2. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Bone Fracture - Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Licata, Angelo; Myers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the concepts, development, and application of NASA's Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM). The overview includes an assessmnet of strenghts and limitations of the BFxRM and proposes a numebr of discussion questions to the panel regarding future development avenues for this simulation system.

  3. Chemical Composition of RM_1-390 - Large Magellanic Cloud Red Supergiant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushchenko, Alexander V.; Jeong, Yeuncheol; Gopka, Vira F.; Vasil`eva, Svetlana V.; Andrievsky, Sergey M.; Yushchenko, Volodymyr O.

    2017-09-01

    A high resolution spectroscopic observation of the red supergiant star RM_1-390 in the Large Magellanic Cloud was made from a 3.6 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory. Spectral resolving power was R=20,000, with a signal-to-noise ratio S/N > 100. We found the atmospheric parameters of RM_1-390 to be as follows: the effective temperature Teff = 4,250 ± 50 K, the surface gravity log g = 0.16 ± 0.1, the microturbulent velocity vmicro = 2.5 km/s, the macroturbulence velocity vmacro = 9 km/s and the iron abundance [Fe/H] = -0.73 ± 0.11. The abundances of 18 chemical elements from silicon to thorium in the atmosphere of RM_1-390 were found using the spectrum synthesis method. The relative deficiencies of all elements are close to that of iron. The fit of abundance pattern by the solar system distribution of r- and s-element isotopes shows the importance of the s-process. The plot of relative abundances as a function of second ionization potentials of corresponding chemical elements allows us to find a possibility of convective energy transport in the photosphere of RM_1-390.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni RM1246-ERRC that exhibits resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni strain RM1246-ERRC is a clinical isolate. In laboratory experiments RM1246-ERRC exhibited resistance to the antimicrobial effects of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) when compared to other C. jejuni strains. The chromosome of RM1246-ERRC was determined to be 1,659,694 bp w...

  5. 76 FR 37682 - Airworthiness Directives; Teledyne Continental Motors (TCM) and Rolls-Royce Motors Ltd. (R-RM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Continental Motors (TCM) and Rolls-Royce Motors Ltd. (R-RM) Series Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal... supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain TCM and R-RM series reciprocating... range of magneto S/ Ns affected, and of the need to include certain engines made by R-RM, under license...

  6. 76 FR 78808 - Airworthiness Directives; Teledyne Continental Motors (TCM) and Rolls-Royce Motors Ltd. (R-RM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Teledyne Continental Motors (TCM) and Rolls-Royce Motors Ltd. (R-RM) Series... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain TCM and R-RM series reciprocating engines... adds R-RM C-125, C- 145, O-300, IO-360, TSIO-360, and LTSIO-520-AE series reciprocating engines to the...

  7. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in d+Au and p+p collisions at {\\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = \\rm {200 \\;GeV} }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, Rachid; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyslouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    The measured pseudorapidity distributions of primary charged particles are presented for d+Au and p+p collisions at {\\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = \\rm {200\\;GeV} } over a wide pseudorapidity range of |eegr|les 5.4. The results for d+Au collisions are presented for minimum-bias events and as a function of collision centrality. The measurements for p+p collisions are shown for minimum-bias events. The ratio of the charged particle multiplicity in d+Au and p+A collisions relative to that for inelastic p+p collisions is found to depend only on langNpartrang, and it is remarkably independent of collision energy and system mass. The deuteron and gold fragmentation regions in d+Au collisions are in good agreement with proton nucleus data at lower energies.

  8. Complete genome sequence of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Thompson Strain RM6836

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson (S. Thompson) strain RM6836 was isolated from lettuce in 2002. We report the complete sequence and annotation of the genome of S. Thompson strain RM6836. This is the first reported complete genome sequence for S. Thompson and will provide a point ...

  9. First Measurement of the Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in $Δ$ Resonance Production by $$Q_{\\rm weak}$$

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nuruzzaman, nfn

    The beam normal single spin asymmetry (more » $$B_{\\rm n}$$) is generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nuclei. The asymmetry arises from the interference of the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange with the one-photon exchange amplitude. The $$Q_{\\rm weak}$$ experiment has made the first measurement of $$B_{\\rm n}$$ in the production of the $$\\Delta$$(1232) resonance, using the $$Q_{\\rm weak}$$ apparatus in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, is $$B_{\\rm n}$$ = 43 $$\\pm$$ 16 ppm at beam energy 1.16 GeV at an average scattering angle of about 8.3 degrees, and invariant mass of 1.2 GeV. The measured preliminary $$B_{\\rm n}$$ agrees with a preliminary theoretical calculation. $$B_{\\rm n}$$ for the $$\\Delta$$ is the only known observable that is sensitive to the $$\\Delta$$ elastic form-factors ($$\\gamma$$*$$\\Delta\\Delta$$) in addition to the generally studied transition form-factors ($$\\gamma$$*N$$\\Delta$$), but extracting this information will require significant theoretical input.« less

  10. von Kármán swirling flow between a rotating and a stationary smooth disk: Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Aryesh; Steinberg, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Precise measurements of the torque in a von Kármán swirling flow between a rotating and a stationary smooth disk in three Newtonian fluids with different dynamic viscosities are reported. From these measurements the dependence of the normalized torque, called the friction coefficient, on Re is found to be of the form Cf=1.17 (±0.03 ) Re-0.46±0.003 where the scaling exponent and coefficient are close to that predicted theoretically for an infinite, unshrouded, and smooth rotating disk which follows from an exact similarity solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, obtained by von Kármán. An error analysis shows that deviations from the theory can be partially caused by background errors. Measurements of the azimuthal Vθ and axial velocity profiles along radial and axial directions reveal that the flow core rotates at Vθ/r Ω ≃0.22 (up to z ≈4 cm from the rotating disk and up to r0/R ≃0.25 in the radial direction) in spite of the small aspect ratio of the vessel. Thus the friction coefficient shows scaling close to that obtained from the von Kármán exact similarity solution, but the observed rotating core provides evidence of the Batchelor-like solution [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 4, 29 (1951), 10.1093/qjmam/4.1.29] different from the von Kármán [Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 1, 233 (1921), 10.1002/zamm.19210010401] or Stewartson [Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 49, 333 (1953), 10.1017/S0305004100028437] one.

  11. Explorative study on the anticancer activity, selectivity and metabolic stability of related analogs of aminosteroid RM-133.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Martin; Maltais, René; Dutour, Raphaël; Poirier, Donald

    2016-11-01

    RM-133 is a key representative of a new family of aminosteroids reported as potent anticancer agents. Although RM-133 produced interesting results in 4 mouse xenograft cancer models when injected subcutaneously, it needs to be improved to increase its in vivo potency. Thus, to obtain an analog of RM-133 with a better drug potential, a structure-activity relationship study was conducted by synthesizing eleven RM-133-related compounds and addressing their antiproliferative activity on 3 human cancer cells (HL-60, OVCAR-3 and PANC-1) and 3 human normal cell lines (primary ovary, pancreas and renal proximal tubule) as well as their metabolic stability in human liver microsomes. When the 2β-tertiary amine of RM-133 was transformed into a salt or moved to position 3β, the anticancer activity was lost. Modifying the orientation of the side chain of RM-133 increased anticancer activity and selectivity, but led to a drastic loss of stability. The protection of the 3α-hydroxyl of RM-133 by the formation of an ester or a carbamate stabilized the molecule against the phase I metabolic enzymes without affecting its anticancer activity. In comparison to RM-133, the 3-dimethylcarbamate derivative 3 is more selective for cancer cells over normal cells and is much more stable in liver microsomes. Those results support the use of a pro-drug strategy targeting the 3α-hydroxyl of RM-133 as an approach to improve its drug properties. The work presented will enable the development of an optimized anticancer drug of the aminosteroid family that is suitable for a future phase I clinical trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An effective XML based name mapping mechanism within StoRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corso, E.; Forti, A.; Ghiselli, A.; Magnoni, L.; Zappi, R.

    2008-07-01

    In a Grid environment the naming capability allows users to refer to specific data resources in a physical storage system using a high level logical identifier. This logical identifier is typically organized in a file system like structure, a hierarchical tree of names. Storage Resource Manager (SRM) services map the logical identifier to the physical location of data evaluating a set of parameters as the desired quality of services and the VOMS attributes specified in the requests. StoRM is a SRM service developed by INFN and ICTP-EGRID to manage file and space on standard POSIX and high performing parallel and cluster file systems. An upcoming requirement in the Grid data scenario is the orthogonality of the logical name and the physical location of data, in order to refer, with the same identifier, to different copies of data archived in various storage areas with different quality of service. The mapping mechanism proposed in StoRM is based on a XML document that represents the different storage components managed by the service, the storage areas defined by the site administrator, the quality of service they provide and the Virtual Organization that want to use the storage area. An appropriate directory tree is realized in each storage component reflecting the XML schema. In this scenario StoRM is able to identify the physical location of a requested data evaluating the logical identifier and the specified attributes following the XML schema, without querying any database service. This paper presents the namespace schema defined, the different entities represented and the technical details of the StoRM implementation.

  13. Validity of a Commercial Linear Encoder to Estimate Bench Press 1 RM from the Force-Velocity Relationship.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Porta-Benache, Jeremy; Blais, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and accuracy of a commercial linear encoder (Musclelab, Ergotest, Norway) to estimate Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) from the force - velocity relationship. Twenty seven physical education students and teachers (5 women and 22 men) with a heterogeneous history of strength training participated in this study. They performed a 1 RM test and a force - velocity test using a Bench press lifting task in a random order. Mean 1 RM was 61.8 ± 15.3 kg (range: 34 to 100 kg), while 1 RM estimated by the Musclelab's software from the force-velocity relationship was 56.4 ± 14.0 kg (range: 33 to 91 kg). Actual and estimated 1 RM were very highly correlated (r = 0.93, p<0.001) but largely different (Bias: 5.4 ± 5.7 kg, p < 0.001, ES = 1.37). The 95% limits of agreement were ±11.2 kg, which represented ±18% of actual 1 RM. It was concluded that 1 RM estimated from the force-velocity relationship was a good measure for monitoring training induced adaptations, but also that it was not accurate enough to prescribe training intensities. Additional studies are required to determine whether accuracy is affected by age, sex or initial level. Key pointsSome commercial devices allow to estimate 1 RM from the force-velocity relationship.These estimations are valid. However, their accuracy is not high enough to be of practical help for training intensity prescription.Day-to-day reliability of force and velocity measured by the linear encoder has been shown to be very high, but the specific reliability of 1 RM estimated from the force-velocity relationship has to be determined before concluding to the usefulness of this approach in the monitoring of training induced adaptations.

  14. Validity of a Commercial Linear Encoder to Estimate Bench Press 1 RM from the Force-Velocity Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Bosquet, Laurent; Porta-Benache, Jeremy; Blais, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and accuracy of a commercial linear encoder (Musclelab, Ergotest, Norway) to estimate Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) from the force - velocity relationship. Twenty seven physical education students and teachers (5 women and 22 men) with a heterogeneous history of strength training participated in this study. They performed a 1 RM test and a force - velocity test using a Bench press lifting task in a random order. Mean 1 RM was 61.8 ± 15.3 kg (range: 34 to 100 kg), while 1 RM estimated by the Musclelab’s software from the force-velocity relationship was 56.4 ± 14.0 kg (range: 33 to 91 kg). Actual and estimated 1 RM were very highly correlated (r = 0.93, p<0.001) but largely different (Bias: 5.4 ± 5.7 kg, p < 0.001, ES = 1.37). The 95% limits of agreement were ±11.2 kg, which represented ±18% of actual 1 RM. It was concluded that 1 RM estimated from the force-velocity relationship was a good measure for monitoring training induced adaptations, but also that it was not accurate enough to prescribe training intensities. Additional studies are required to determine whether accuracy is affected by age, sex or initial level. Key points Some commercial devices allow to estimate 1 RM from the force-velocity relationship. These estimations are valid. However, their accuracy is not high enough to be of practical help for training intensity prescription. Day-to-day reliability of force and velocity measured by the linear encoder has been shown to be very high, but the specific reliability of 1 RM estimated from the force-velocity relationship has to be determined before concluding to the usefulness of this approach in the monitoring of training induced adaptations. PMID:24149641

  15. PET Using a GRPR Antagonist 68Ga-RM26 in Healthy Volunteers and Prostate Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Niu, Gang; Fan, Xinrong; Lang, Lixin; Hou, Guozhu; Chen, Libo; Wu, Huanwen; Zhu, Zhaohui; Li, Fang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-06-01

    This study was designed to analyze the safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry of a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist PET tracer, 68 Ga-RM26; to assess its clinical diagnostic value in prostate cancer patients; and to perform a direct comparison between GRPR antagonist 68 Ga-RM26 and agonist 68 Ga-BBN. Methods: Five healthy volunteers were enrolled to validate the safety of 68 Ga-RM26 and calculate dosimetry. A total of 28 patients with prostate cancer (17 newly diagnosed and 11 posttherapy) were recruited and provided written informed consent. All the cancer patients underwent PET/CT at 15-30 min after intravenous injection of 1.85 MBq (0.05 mCi) per kilogram of body weight of 68 Ga-RM26. Among them, 22 patients (11 newly diagnosed and 11 posttherapy) underwent 68 Ga-BBN PET/CT for comparison within 1 wk. 99m Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) bone scans were obtained within 2 wk for comparison. GRPR immunohistochemical staining of tumor samples was performed. Results: The administration of 68 Ga-M26 was well tolerated by all subjects, with no adverse symptoms being noticed or reported during the procedure and at 2-wk follow-up. The total effective dose equivalent and effective dose were 0.0912 ± 0.0140 and 0.0657 ± 0.0124 mSv/MBq, respectively. In the 17 patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer, 68 Ga-RM26 PET/CT showed positive prostate-confined findings in 15 tumors with an SUV max of 6.49 ± 2.37. In the 11 patients who underwent prostatectomy or brachytherapy with or without androgen deprivation therapy, 68 Ga-RM26 PET/CT detected 8 metastatic lymph nodes in 3 patients with an SUV max of 4.28 ± 1.25 and 21 bone lesions in 8 patients with an SUV max of 3.90 ± 3.07. Compared with 68 Ga-RM26 PET/CT, GRPR agonist 68 Ga-BBN PET/CT detected fewer primary lesions and lymph node metastases as well as demonstrated lower tracer accumulation. There was a significant positive correlation between SUV derived from 68 Ga-RM26 PET and the

  16. Development of an Italian RM Y-STR haplotype database: Results of the 2013 GEFI collaborative exercise.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Ralf, A; Pasino, S; De Marchi, M R; Ballantyne, K N; Barbaro, A; Bini, C; Carnevali, E; Casarino, L; Di Gaetano, C; Fabbri, M; Ferri, G; Giardina, E; Gonzalez, A; Matullo, G; Nutini, A L; Onofri, V; Piccinini, A; Piglionica, M; Ponzano, E; Previderè, C; Resta, N; Scarnicci, F; Seidita, G; Sorçaburu-Cigliero, S; Turrina, S; Verzeletti, A; Kayser, M

    2015-03-01

    Recently introduced rapidly mutating Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (RM Y-STR) loci, displaying a multiple-fold higher mutation rate relative to any other Y-STRs, including those conventionally used in forensic casework, have been demonstrated to improve the resolution of male lineage differentiation and to allow male relative separation usually impossible with standard Y-STRs. However, large and geographically-detailed frequency haplotype databases are required to estimate the statistical weight of RM Y-STR haplotype matches if observed in forensic casework. With this in mind, the Italian Working Group (GEFI) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics launched a collaborative exercise aimed at generating an Italian quality controlled forensic RM Y-STR haplotype database. Overall 1509 male individuals from 13 regional populations covering northern, central and southern areas of the Italian peninsula plus Sicily were collected, including both "rural" and "urban" samples classified according to population density in the sampling area. A subset of individuals was additionally genotyped for Y-STR loci included in the Yfiler and PowerPlex Y23 (PPY23) systems (75% and 62%, respectively), allowing the comparison of RM and conventional Y-STRs. Considering the whole set of 13 RM Y-STRs, 1501 unique haplotypes were observed among the 1509 sampled Italian men with a haplotype diversity of 0.999996, largely superior to Yfiler and PPY23 with 0.999914 and 0.999950, respectively. AMOVA indicated that 99.996% of the haplotype variation was within populations, confirming that genetic-geographic structure is almost undetected by RM Y-STRs. Haplotype sharing among regional Italian populations was not observed at all with the complete set of 13 RM Y-STRs. Haplotype sharing within Italian populations was very rare (0.27% non-unique haplotypes), and lower in urban (0.22%) than rural (0.29%) areas. Additionally, 422 father-son pairs were investigated, and 20.1% of them could

  17. Improving empirical evidence on differentiating closely related men with RM Y-STRs: A comprehensive pedigree study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Atif; Ralf, Arwin; Rakha, Allah; Kousouri, Nefeli; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-11-01

    Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) markers are commonly used in forensic genetics. Male-specific haplotypes provided by commercial Y-STR kits allow discriminating between many - but not all - unrelated men, while they mostly fail to separate related ones. Aiming to improve male relative and paternal lineage differentiation, a set of 13 rapidly-mutating (RM) Y-STRs was previously identified and introduced to forensic Y-chromosome analysis. Recently, their value was highlighted by separating 99% of over 12,200 unrelated men from 111 global populations, as well as 29% of over 2500 male relative pairs, the vast majority were father-sons. Here, we provide improved empirical evidence on differentiating closely related men with RM Y-STRs, most notably beyond father-sons, where previous data were limited. After careful quality control including genetic relationship testing, we used 572 Pakistani men belonging to 99 2-4 generation pedigrees covering 1568 pairs of men related by 1-6 meioses. Of those, 45% were differentiated by one or more of the 13 RM Y-STR markers. In contrast, only 14.7% of a subset of 1484 pairs from 94 pedigrees were separated by the commercial AmpFlSTR Y-filer kit. Combining previously published and new data, an overall differentiation rate of 35.3% was revealed for the RM Y-STR set based on 4096 pairs of men related by 1-20 meioses, compared to 9.6% with Y-filer based on 3645 pairs. Using father-son pair data from the present and previous studies, we provide updated RM Y-STR mutation rates. Locus-specific mutation rates ranged from 2.0×10 -3 (7.0×10 -4 -4.3×10 -3 ) to 6.9×10 -2 (6.1×10 -2 -7.9×10 -2 ) based on 2741-3143 meioses, with an average rate across all 13 RM Y-STR markers of 1.8×10 -2 (1.7×10 -2 -1.9×10 -2 ) based on 800 mutations from 44,922 meioses. The high haplotype diversity (h=0.9996) we observed among the unrelated men (N=105) underlines the value of this RM Y-STR set to differentiate paternal lineages even from

  18. PhreeqcRM: A reaction module for transport simulators based on the geochemical model PHREEQC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, David L.; Wissmeier, Laurin

    2015-01-01

    PhreeqcRM is a geochemical reaction module designed specifically to perform equilibrium and kinetic reaction calculations for reactive transport simulators that use an operator-splitting approach. The basic function of the reaction module is to take component concentrations from the model cells of the transport simulator, run geochemical reactions, and return updated component concentrations to the transport simulator. If multicomponent diffusion is modeled (e.g., Nernst–Planck equation), then aqueous species concentrations can be used instead of component concentrations. The reaction capabilities are a complete implementation of the reaction capabilities of PHREEQC. In each cell, the reaction module maintains the composition of all of the reactants, which may include minerals, exchangers, surface complexers, gas phases, solid solutions, and user-defined kinetic reactants.PhreeqcRM assigns initial and boundary conditions for model cells based on standard PHREEQC input definitions (files or strings) of chemical compositions of solutions and reactants. Additional PhreeqcRM capabilities include methods to eliminate reaction calculations for inactive parts of a model domain, transfer concentrations and other model properties, and retrieve selected results. The module demonstrates good scalability for parallel processing by using multiprocessing with MPI (message passing interface) on distributed memory systems, and limited scalability using multithreading with OpenMP on shared memory systems. PhreeqcRM is written in C++, but interfaces allow methods to be called from C or Fortran. By using the PhreeqcRM reaction module, an existing multicomponent transport simulator can be extended to simulate a wide range of geochemical reactions. Results of the implementation of PhreeqcRM as the reaction engine for transport simulators PHAST and FEFLOW are shown by using an analytical solution and the reactive transport benchmark of MoMaS.

  19. Evaluation of a novel GRPR antagonist for prostate cancer PET imaging: [64Cu]-DOTHA2-PEG-RM26.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Nematallah; Paquette, Michel; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Guérin, Brigitte

    2018-01-01

    Gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) are significantly over-expressed on a large proportion of prostate cancers making them prime candidates for receptor-mediated nuclear imaging by PET. Recently, we synthesized a novel bifunctional chelator (BFC) bearing hydroxamic acid arms (DOTHA 2 ). Here we investigated the potential of a novel DOTHA 2 -conjugated, 64 Cu-radiolabeled GRPR peptide antagonist, [D-Phe 6 -Sta 13 -Leu 14 -NH 2 ]bombesin(6-14) (DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26) to visualize prostate tumors by PET imaging. DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 was conveniently and efficiently assembled on solid support. The compound was radiolabeled with 64 Cu and its affinity, stability, cellular uptake on PC3 prostate cancer cells were evaluated. The in vitro and in vivo behavior of [ 64 Cu]DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 was examined by PET imaging using human PC3 prostate cancer xenografts and its behavior was compared to that of the analogous [ 64 Cu]NOTA-PEG-RM26. The inhibition constant of nat Cu-DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 was in the low nanomolar range (0.68±0.19 nM). The [ 64 Cu]DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 conjugate was prepared with a labeling yield >95% and molar activity of 56±3 GBq/μmol after a 5-min room temperature labeling. [ 64 Cu]-DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 demonstrated rapid blood and renal clearance as well as a high tumor uptake. Small animal PET images confirmed high and specific uptake in PC3 tumor. Both [ 64 Cu]-DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 and [ 64 Cu]-NOTA-PEG-RM26 displayed similar tumor and normal tissue uptakes at early time point post injection. [ 64 Cu]-DOTHA 2 -PEG-RM26 allows visualization of prostate tumors by PET imaging. DOTHA 2 enables fast 64 Cu chelation under mild condition, and as such could be used advantageously for the development of other 64 Cu-labeled peptide-derived PET tracers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lactococcus lactis LMG2081 Produces Two Bacteriocins, a Nonlantibiotic and a Novel Lantibiotic.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Nemanja; Polovic, Natalija; Vukotic, Goran; Jovcic, Branko; Miljkovic, Marija; Radulovic, Zorica; Diep, Dzung B; Kojic, Milan

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriocin producers normally possess dedicated immunity systems to protect themselves from their own bacteriocins.Lactococcus lactis strains LMG2081 and BGBM50 are known as lactococcin G producers. However, BGBM50 was sensitive to LMG2081, which indicated that LMG2081 might produce additional bacteriocins that are not present in BGBM50. Therefore, whole-genome sequencing of the two strains was performed, and a lantibiotic operon (called lctLMG) was identified in LMG2081 but not in BGBM50. The lctLMG operon contains six open reading frames; the first three genes,lmgA ,lmgM, and lmgT, are involved in the biosynthesis and export of bacteriocin, while the other three genes,lmgF,lmgE, and lmgG, are involved in lantibiotic immunity. Mutational analysis confirmed that the lctLMG operon is responsible for the additional antimicrobial activity. Specifically, site-directed mutation within this operon rendered LMG2081 inactive toward BGBM50. Subsequent purification and electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometric analysis confirmed that the lantibiotic bacteriocin called lacticin LMG is exported as a 25-amino-acid peptide. Lacticin LMG is highly similar to the lacticin 481 group. It is interesting that a bacteriocin producer produces two different classes of bacteriocins, whose operons are located in the chromosome and a plasmid. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Lactococcus lactis LMG2081 Produces Two Bacteriocins, a Nonlantibiotic and a Novel Lantibiotic

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Nemanja; Polovic, Natalija; Vukotic, Goran; Jovcic, Branko; Miljkovic, Marija; Radulovic, Zorica; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocin producers normally possess dedicated immunity systems to protect themselves from their own bacteriocins. Lactococcus lactis strains LMG2081 and BGBM50 are known as lactococcin G producers. However, BGBM50 was sensitive to LMG2081, which indicated that LMG2081 might produce additional bacteriocins that are not present in BGBM50. Therefore, whole-genome sequencing of the two strains was performed, and a lantibiotic operon (called lctLMG) was identified in LMG2081 but not in BGBM50. The lctLMG operon contains six open reading frames; the first three genes, lmgA, lmgM, and lmgT, are involved in the biosynthesis and export of bacteriocin, while the other three genes, lmgF, lmgE, and lmgG, are involved in lantibiotic immunity. Mutational analysis confirmed that the lctLMG operon is responsible for the additional antimicrobial activity. Specifically, site-directed mutation within this operon rendered LMG2081 inactive toward BGBM50. Subsequent purification and electrospray ionization–time of flight mass spectrometric analysis confirmed that the lantibiotic bacteriocin called lacticin LMG is exported as a 25-amino-acid peptide. Lacticin LMG is highly similar to the lacticin 481 group. It is interesting that a bacteriocin producer produces two different classes of bacteriocins, whose operons are located in the chromosome and a plasmid. PMID:26896142

  2. RM-10A robotic manipulator system

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    White, J.R.; Coughlan, J.B.; Harvey, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The REMOTE RM-10A is a man-replacement manipulator system that has been developed specifically for use in radioactive and other hazardous environments. It can be teleoperated, with man-in-the-loop, for unstructured tasks or programmed to perform routine tasks automatically much like robots in the automated manufacturing industry. The RM-10A is a servomanipulator utilizing a closed-loop, microprocessor-based control system. The system consists of a slave assembly, master control station, and interconnecting cabling. The slave assembly is the part of the system that enters the hostile environment. It is man-like is size and configuration with two identical arms attached to a torso structure. Eachmore » arm attaches to the torso using two captive screws and two guide pins. The guide pins position and stabilize an arm during removal and reinstallation and also align the two electrical connectors located in the arm support plate and torso. These features allow easy remote replacement of an arm, and commonality of the arms allow interchangeability. The water-resistant slave assembly is equipped with gaskets and O-ring seals in the torso and arm and camera assemblies. In addition, each slave arm's elbow, wrist, and tong are protected by replaceable polyurethane boots. An upper camera assembly, consisting of a color television (TV) camera, 6:1 zoom lens, and a pan/tilt unit, mount to the torso to provide remote viewing capability.« less

  3. High Contrast PET Imaging of GRPR Expression in Prostate Cancer Using Cobalt-Labeled Bombesin Antagonist RM26

    PubMed Central

    Thisgaard, Helge; Rosenström, Ulrika; Dam, Johan Hygum; Larhed, Mats

    2017-01-01

    High gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression is associated with numerous cancers including prostate and breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to develop a 55Co-labeled PET agent based on GRPR antagonist RM26 for visualization of GRPR-expressing tumors. Labeling with 57Co and 55Co, stability, binding specificity, and in vitro and in vivo characteristics of 57Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 were studied. NOTA-PEG2-RM26 was successfully radiolabeled with 57Co and 55Co with high yields and demonstrated high stability. The radiopeptide showed retained binding specificity to GRPR in vitro and in vivo. 57Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 biodistribution in mice was characterized by rapid clearance of radioactivity from blood and normal non-GRPR-expressing organs and low hepatic uptake. The clearance was predominantly renal with a low degree of radioactivity reabsorption. Tumor-to-blood ratios were approximately 200 (3 h pi) and 1000 (24 h pi). The favorable biodistribution of cobalt-labeled NOTA-PEG2-RM26 translated into high contrast preclinical PET/CT (using 55Co) and SPECT/CT (using 57Co) images of PC-3 xenografts. The initial biological results suggest that 55Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 is a promising tracer for PET visualization of GRPR-expressing tumors. PMID:29097932

  4. SToRM: A Model for 2D environmental hydraulics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simões, Francisco J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A two-dimensional (depth-averaged) finite volume Godunov-type shallow water model developed for flow over complex topography is presented. The model, SToRM, is based on an unstructured cell-centered finite volume formulation and on nonlinear strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta time stepping schemes. The numerical discretization is founded on the classical and well established shallow water equations in hyperbolic conservative form, but the convective fluxes are calculated using auto-switching Riemann and diffusive numerical fluxes. Computational efficiency is achieved through a parallel implementation based on the OpenMP standard and the Fortran programming language. SToRM’s implementation within a graphical user interface is discussed. Field application of SToRM is illustrated by utilizing it to estimate peak flow discharges in a flooding event of the St. Vrain Creek in Colorado, U.S.A., in 2013, which reached 850 m3/s (~30,000 f3 /s) at the location of this study.

  5. Growth performance, blood health, antioxidant status and immune response in red sea bream (Pagrus major) fed Aspergillus oryzae fermented rapeseed meal (RM-Koji).

    PubMed

    Dossou, Serge; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Dawood, Mahmoud A O; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Olivier, Adissin; Zaineldin, Amr I

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary substitution of fishmeal by graded levels of a blend composed of Aspergillus oryzae fermented rapeseed meal [0% (RM0), 25% (RM25), 50% (RM50), 75% (RM75) and 100% (RM100)] on growth performance, haemato-immunological responses and antioxidative status of Pagrus major (average weight 5.5 ± 0.02 g). After 56 days, growth performances were significantly improved in fish fed RM25 diet compared to control (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, up to 50% replacement of fishmeal did not affect growth performance, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, protein apparent digestibility, protease activity, fish somatic indices and survival compared to control. While blood hematocrit and plasma protein were significantly enhanced in groups fed RM0 and RM25 diets, most of the hematological parameters did not change through the trial except glutamic pyruvate transaminase which was significantly increased in RM75 and RM100 groups and blood cholesterol which was gradually decreased with the increasing level of the blend. Interestingly, feeding fish with RM25 and RM50 diets significantly showed enhanced lysozyme, bactericidal and peroxidase activities and fish fed the same diets showed high resistance against oxidative stress (biological antioxidant potential and reactive oxygen metabolites). Additionally, catalase activity and tolerance against low salinity seawater were higher in fish fed RM25 diet. These findings suggested that, at a moderate level (25% and 50%), substitution of fishmeal by the fermented rapeseed meal promoted growth, nutrient utilization, and exerted immune responses and anti-oxidative effects in red sea bream. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heavy Resistance Training in Hypoxia Enhances 1RM Squat Performance

    PubMed Central

    Inness, Mathew W. H.; Billaut, François; Walker, Emily J.; Petersen, Aaron C.; Sweeting, Alice J.; Aughey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if heavy resistance training in hypoxia (IHRT) is more effective at improving strength, power, and increasing lean mass than the same training in normoxia. Methods: A pair-matched, placebo-controlled study design included 20 resistance-trained participants assigned to IHRT (FIO2 0.143) or placebo (FIO2 0.20), (n = 10 per group). Participants were matched for strength and training. Both groups performed 20 sessions over 7 weeks either with IHRT or placebo. All participants were tested for 1RM, 20-m sprint, body composition, and countermovement jump pre-, mid-, and post-training and compared via magnitude-based inferences. Presentation of Results: Groups were not clearly different for any test at baseline. Training improved both absolute (IHRT: 13.1 ± 3.9%, effect size (ES) 0.60, placebo 9.8 ± 4.7%, ES 0.31) and relative 1RM (IHRT: 13.4 ± 5.1%, ES 0.76, placebo 9.7 ± 5.3%, ES 0.48) at mid. Similarly, at post both groups increased absolute (IHRT: 20.7 ± 7.6%, ES 0.74, placebo 14.1 ± 6.0%, ES 0.58) and relative 1RM (IHRT: 21.6 ± 8.5%, ES 1.08, placebo 13.2 ± 6.4%, ES 0.78). Importantly, the change in IHRT was greater than placebo at mid for both absolute [4.4% greater change, 90% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.0:8.0%, ES 0.21, and relative strength (5.6% greater change, 90% CI 1.0:9.4%, ES 0.31 (relative)]. There was also a greater change for IHRT at post for both absolute (7.0% greater change, 90% CI 1.3:13%, ES 0.33), and relative 1RM (9.2% greater change, 90% CI 1.6:14.9%, ES 0.49). Only IHRT increased countermovement jump peak power at Post (4.9%, ES 0.35), however the difference between IHRT and placebo was unclear (2.7, 90% CI –2.0:7.6%, ES 0.20) with no clear differences in speed or body composition throughout. Conclusion: Heavy resistance training in hypoxia is more effective than placebo for improving absolute and relative strength. PMID:27857693

  7. Superfluid high REynolds von Kármán experiment.

    PubMed

    Rousset, B; Bonnay, P; Diribarne, P; Girard, A; Poncet, J M; Herbert, E; Salort, J; Baudet, C; Castaing, B; Chevillard, L; Daviaud, F; Dubrulle, B; Gagne, Y; Gibert, M; Hébral, B; Lehner, Th; Roche, P-E; Saint-Michel, B; Bon Mardion, M

    2014-10-01

    The Superfluid High REynolds von Kármán experiment facility exploits the capacities of a high cooling power refrigerator (400 W at 1.8 K) for a large dimension von Kármán flow (inner diameter 0.78 m), which can work with gaseous or subcooled liquid (He-I or He-II) from room temperature down to 1.6 K. The flow is produced between two counter-rotating or co-rotating disks. The large size of the experiment allows exploration of ultra high Reynolds numbers based on Taylor microscale and rms velocity [S. B. Pope, Turbulent Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2000)] (Rλ > 10000) or resolution of the dissipative scale for lower Re. This article presents the design and first performance of this apparatus. Measurements carried out in the first runs of the facility address the global flow behavior: calorimetric measurement of the dissipation, torque and velocity measurements on the two turbines. Moreover first local measurements (micro-Pitot, hot wire,…) have been installed and are presented.

  8. Superfluid high REynolds von Kármán experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Diribarne, P.; Girard, A.; Poncet, J. M.; Herbert, E.; Salort, J.; Baudet, C.; Castaing, B.; Chevillard, L.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Gagne, Y.; Gibert, M.; Hébral, B.; Lehner, Th.; Roche, P.-E.; Saint-Michel, B.; Bon Mardion, M.

    2014-10-01

    The Superfluid High REynolds von Kármán experiment facility exploits the capacities of a high cooling power refrigerator (400 W at 1.8 K) for a large dimension von Kármán flow (inner diameter 0.78 m), which can work with gaseous or subcooled liquid (He-I or He-II) from room temperature down to 1.6 K. The flow is produced between two counter-rotating or co-rotating disks. The large size of the experiment allows exploration of ultra high Reynolds numbers based on Taylor microscale and rms velocity [S. B. Pope, Turbulent Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2000)] (Rλ > 10000) or resolution of the dissipative scale for lower Re. This article presents the design and first performance of this apparatus. Measurements carried out in the first runs of the facility address the global flow behavior: calorimetric measurement of the dissipation, torque and velocity measurements on the two turbines. Moreover first local measurements (micro-Pitot, hot wire,…) have been installed and are presented.

  9. Improvement of FK506 Production in the High-Yielding Strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011 by Engineering the Supply of Allylmalonyl-CoA Through a Combination of Genetic and Chemical Approach.

    PubMed

    Mo, SangJoon; Lee, Sung-Kwon; Jin, Ying-Yu; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-02-01

    FK506, a widely used immunosuppressant, is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide that is produced by several Streptomyces species. FK506 high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011 was developed from the discovered Streptomyces sp. KCCM 11116P by random mutagenesis in our previous study. The results of transcript expression analysis showed that the transcription levels of tcsA, B, C, and D were increased in Streptomyces sp. RM7011 by 2.1-, 3.1-, 3.3-, and 4.1- fold, respectively, compared with Streptomyces sp. KCCM 11116P. The overexpression of tcsABCD genes in Streptomyces sp. RM7011 gave rise to approximately 2.5-fold (238.1 μg/ml) increase in the level of FK506 production compared with that of Streptomyces sp. RM7011. When vinyl pentanoate was added into the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. RM7011, the level of FK506 production was approximately 2.2-fold (207.7 μg/ml) higher than that of the unsupplemented fermentation. Furthermore, supplementing the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. RM7011 expressing tcsABCD genes with vinyl pentanoate resulted in an additional 1.7-fold improvement in the FK506 titer (498.1 μg/ml) compared with that observed under nonsupplemented condition. Overall, the level of FK506 production was increased approximately 5.2-fold by engineering the supply of allylmalonyl-CoA in the high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011, using a combination of overexpressing tcsABCD genes and adding vinyl pentanoate, as compared with Streptomyces sp. RM7011 (95.3 μg/ml). Moreover, among the three precursors analyzed, pentanoate was the most effective precursor, supporting the highest titer of FK506 in the FK506 high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011.

  10. Implication of STARD5 and cholesterol homeostasis disturbance in the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related response induced by pro-apoptotic aminosteroid RM-133.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Martin; Maltais, René; Kenmogne, Lucie Carolle; Létourneau, Danny; LeHoux, Jean-Guy; Gobeil, Stéphane; Poirier, Donald

    2018-02-01

    The aminosteroid derivative RM-133 is an effective anticancer molecule for which proof of concept has been achieved in several mouse xenograph models (HL-60, MCF-7, PANC-1 and OVCAR-3). To promote this new family of molecules toward a clinical phase 1 trial, the mechanism of action governing the anticancer properties of the representative candidate RM-133 needs to be characterized. In vitro experiments were first used to determine that RM-133 causes apoptosis in cancer cells. Then, using proteomic and transcriptomic experiments, RM-133 cytotoxicity was proven to be achieved via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related apoptosis, which characterizes RM-133 as an endoplasmic reticulum stress aggravator (ERSA) anticancer drug. Furthermore, an shRNA-genome-wide screening has permitted to identify the steroidogenic acute regulator-related lipid transfer protein 5 (STARD5) as a major player in the RM-133 ER-related apoptosis mechanism, which was validated by an in vitro binding experiment. Altogether, the results presented herein suggest that RM-133 provokes a disturbance of cholesterol homeostasis via the implication of STARD5, which delivers an ERSA molecule to the ER. These results will be a springboard for RM-133 in its path toward clinical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Aminosteroid Derivative RM-133 Shows In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Activity in Human Ovarian and Pancreatic Cancers.

    PubMed

    Kenmogne, Lucie Carolle; Ayan, Diana; Roy, Jenny; Maltais, René; Poirier, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian and pancreatic cancers are two of the most aggressive and lethal cancers, whose management faces only limited therapeutic options. Typically, these tumors spread insidiously accompanied first with atypical symptoms, and usually shift to a drug resistance phenotype with the current pharmaceutical armamentarium. Thus, the development of new drugs acting via a different mechanism of action represents a clear priority. Herein, we are reporting for the first time that the aminosteroid derivative RM-133, developed in our laboratory, displays promising activity on two models of aggressive cancers, namely ovarian (OVCAR-3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) cancers. The IC50 value of RM-133 was 0.8 μM and 0.3 μM for OVCAR-3 and PANC-1 cell lines in culture, respectively. Based on pharmacokinetic studies on RM-133 using 11 different vehicles, we selected two main vehicles: aqueous 0.4% methylcellulose:ethanol (92:8) and sunflower oil:ethanol (92:8) for in vivo studies. Using subcutaneous injection of RM-133 with the methylcellulose-based vehicle, growth of PANC-1 tumors xenografted to nude mice was inhibited by 63%. Quite interestingly, RM-133 injected subcutaneously with the methylcellulose-based or sunflower-based vehicles reduced OVCAR-3 xenograft growth by 122% and 100%, respectively. After the end of RM-133 treatment using the methylcellulose-based vehicle, OVCAR-3 tumor growth inhibition was maintained for ≥ 1 week. RM-133 was also well tolerated in the whole animal, no apparent sign of toxicity having been detected in the xenograft studies.

  12. The Aminosteroid Derivative RM-133 Shows In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Activity in Human Ovarian and Pancreatic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kenmogne, Lucie Carolle; Ayan, Diana; Roy, Jenny; Maltais, René; Poirier, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian and pancreatic cancers are two of the most aggressive and lethal cancers, whose management faces only limited therapeutic options. Typically, these tumors spread insidiously accompanied first with atypical symptoms, and usually shift to a drug resistance phenotype with the current pharmaceutical armamentarium. Thus, the development of new drugs acting via a different mechanism of action represents a clear priority. Herein, we are reporting for the first time that the aminosteroid derivative RM-133, developed in our laboratory, displays promising activity on two models of aggressive cancers, namely ovarian (OVCAR-3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) cancers. The IC50 value of RM-133 was 0.8 μM and 0.3 μM for OVCAR-3 and PANC-1 cell lines in culture, respectively. Based on pharmacokinetic studies on RM-133 using 11 different vehicles, we selected two main vehicles: aqueous 0.4% methylcellulose:ethanol (92:8) and sunflower oil:ethanol (92:8) for in vivo studies. Using subcutaneous injection of RM-133 with the methylcellulose-based vehicle, growth of PANC-1 tumors xenografted to nude mice was inhibited by 63%. Quite interestingly, RM-133 injected subcutaneously with the methylcellulose-based or sunflower-based vehicles reduced OVCAR-3 xenograft growth by 122% and 100%, respectively. After the end of RM-133 treatment using the methylcellulose-based vehicle, OVCAR-3 tumor growth inhibition was maintained for ≥ 1 week. RM-133 was also well tolerated in the whole animal, no apparent sign of toxicity having been detected in the xenograft studies. PMID:26660672

  13. Production enhancement and characterization of the polyhydroxyalkanoate produced by Natrinema ajinwuensis (as synonym) ≡ Natrinema altunense strain RM-G10.

    PubMed

    Mahansaria, Riddhi; Dhara, Anusua; Saha, Amit; Haldar, Saubhik; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2018-02-01

    Application of halophiles can decrease the cost of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production or bioplastic which are an alternative to the petroleum-derived plastic. Extremely halophilic archaeon, Natrinema ajinwuensis RM-G10 accumulated 61.02±0.68% PHA of its cell dry mass at 72h in repeated batch cultures yielding 0.210±0.001gL -1 h -1 volumetric productivity after selection of the best cultivation conditions. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of PHA granules inside the archaeal cells. Characterization by gas chromatographic analysis, gas chromatographic- mass spectrophotometric analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the polymer to be poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) with 13.93mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate content and having 35.45% crystallinity, -12.3°C glass transition temperature, 143°C and 157.5°C melting temperatures and 284°C degradation temperature. This is the first report on production enhancement (on a small scale) and characterization of the polyhydroxyalkanoate produced by Natrinema ajinwuensis (as synonym) ≡ Natrinema altunense strain RM-G10 and the Natrinema genus in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix K: Unprocessed multispectral scanner high density tape (HDT-RM/HDT-GM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    Unprocessed MSS data which is recorded on HDT-RM (a 28 track, high density tape) and on HDT-GM (a 14 track, nonbias recorded, high density tape) are inputs for the LANDSAT 4 data management system. All MSS data initially recorded on HDT-GM are copied to HDT-RM prior to processing. This specification establishes the requirements for the format of the LANDSAT D HDT-RM/HDT-GM.

  15. RM-493, a melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist, increases resting energy expenditure in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kong Y; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Abel, Brent S; Mullins, Katherine P; Staker, Pamela; Brychta, Robert J; Zhao, Xiongce; Ring, Michael; Psota, Tricia L; Cone, Roger D; Panaro, Brandon L; Gottesdiener, Keith M; Van der Ploeg, Lex H T; Reitman, Marc L; Skarulis, Monica C

    2015-04-01

    Activation of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) with the synthetic agonist RM-493 decreases body weight and increases energy expenditure (EE) in nonhuman primates. The effects of MC4R agonists on EE in humans have not been examined to date. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we examined the effects of the MC4R agonist RM-493 on resting energy expenditure (REE) in obese subjects in an inpatient setting. Twelve healthy adults (6 men and 6 women) with body mass index of 35.7 ± 2.9 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD) received RM-493 (1 mg/24 h) or placebo by continuous subcutaneous infusion over 72 hours, followed immediately by crossover to the alternate treatment. All subjects received a weight-maintenance diet (50% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 20% protein) and performed 30 minutes of standardized exercise daily. Continuous EE was measured on the third treatment day in a room calorimeter, and REE in the fasting state was defined as the mean of 2 30-minute resting periods. RM-493 increased REE vs placebo by 6.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.68-13.02%), on average by 111 kcal/24 h (95% confidence interval, 15-207 kcal, P = .03). Total daily EE trended higher, whereas the thermic effect of a test meal and exercise EE did not differ significantly. The 23-hour nonexercise respiratory quotient was lower during RM-493 treatment (0.833 ± 0.021 vs 0.848 ± 0.022, P = .02). No adverse effect on heart rate or blood pressure was observed. Short-term administration of the MC4R agonist RM-493 increases REE and shifts substrate oxidation to fat in obese individuals.

  16. Inter-Investigator Reliability of Anthropometric Prediction of 1RM Bench Press in College Football Players

    PubMed Central

    SCHUMACHER, RICHARD M.; ARABAS, JANA L.; MAYHEW, JERRY L.; BRECHUE, WILLIAM F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inter-investigator differences in anthropometric assessments on the prediction of one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press in college football players. Division-II players (n = 34, age = 20.4 ± 1.2 y, 182.3 ± 6.6 cm, 99.1 ± 18.4 kg) were measured for selected anthropometric variables and 1RM bench press at the conclusion of a heavy resistance training program. Triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfolds were measured in triplicate by three investigators and used to estimate %fat. Arm circumference was measured around a flexed biceps muscle and was corrected for triceps skinfold to estimate muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Chest circumference was measured at mid-expiration. Significant differences among the testers were evident in six of the nine anthropometric variables, with the least experienced tester being significantly different from the other testers on seven variables, although average differences among investigators ranged from 1–2% for circumferences to 4–9% for skinfolds. The two more experienced testers were significantly different on only one variable. Overall agreement among testers was high (ICC>0.895) for each variable, with low coefficients of variation (CV<10.7%). Predicted 1RMs for testers (126.9 ± 20.6, 123.4 ± 22.0, and 132.1 ± 28.4 kg, respectively) were not significantly different from actual 1RM (129.2 ± 20.6 kg). Individuals with varying levels of experience appear to have an acceptable level of ability to estimate 1RM bench press using a non-performance anthropometric equation. Minimal experience in anthropometry may not impede strength and conditioning specialists from accurately estimating 1RM bench press. PMID:27766130

  17. Inter-Investigator Reliability of Anthropometric Prediction of 1RM Bench Press in College Football Players.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Richard M; Arabas, Jana L; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inter-investigator differences in anthropometric assessments on the prediction of one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press in college football players. Division-II players (n = 34, age = 20.4 ± 1.2 y, 182.3 ± 6.6 cm, 99.1 ± 18.4 kg) were measured for selected anthropometric variables and 1RM bench press at the conclusion of a heavy resistance training program. Triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfolds were measured in triplicate by three investigators and used to estimate %fat. Arm circumference was measured around a flexed biceps muscle and was corrected for triceps skinfold to estimate muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Chest circumference was measured at mid-expiration. Significant differences among the testers were evident in six of the nine anthropometric variables, with the least experienced tester being significantly different from the other testers on seven variables, although average differences among investigators ranged from 1-2% for circumferences to 4-9% for skinfolds. The two more experienced testers were significantly different on only one variable. Overall agreement among testers was high (ICC>0.895) for each variable, with low coefficients of variation (CV<10.7%). Predicted 1RMs for testers (126.9 ± 20.6, 123.4 ± 22.0, and 132.1 ± 28.4 kg, respectively) were not significantly different from actual 1RM (129.2 ± 20.6 kg). Individuals with varying levels of experience appear to have an acceptable level of ability to estimate 1RM bench press using a non-performance anthropometric equation. Minimal experience in anthropometry may not impede strength and conditioning specialists from accurately estimating 1RM bench press.

  18. Functional and real-time requirements of a multisensor data fusion (MSDF) situation and threat assessment (STA) resource management (RM) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duquet, Jean Remi; Bergeron, Pierre; Blodgett, Dale E.; Couture, Jean; Macieszczak, Maciej; Mayrand, Michel; Chalmers, Bruce A.; Paradis, Stephane

    1998-03-01

    The Research and Development group at Lockheed Martin Canada, in collaboration with the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, has undertaken a research project in order to capture and analyze the real-time and functional requirements of a next generation Command and Control System (CCS) for the Canadian Patrol Frigates, integrating Multi- Sensor Data Fusion (MSDF), Situation and Threat Assessment (STA) and Resource Management (RM). One important aspect of the project is to define how the use of Artificial Intelligence may optimize the performance of an integrated, real-time MSDF/STA/RM system. A closed-loop simulation environment is being developed to facilitate the evaluation of MSDF/STA/RM concepts, algorithms and architectures. This environment comprises (1) a scenario generator, (2) complex sensor, hardkill and softkill weapon models, (3) a real-time monitoring tool, (4) a distributed Knowledge-Base System (KBS) shell. The latter is being completely redesigned and implemented in-house since no commercial KBS shell could adequately satisfy all the project requirements. The closed- loop capability of the simulation environment, together with its `simulated real-time' capability, allows the interaction between the MSDF/STA/RM system and the environment targets during the execution of a scenario. This capability is essential to measure the performance of many STA and RM functionalities. Some benchmark scenarios have been selected to demonstrate quantitatively the capabilities of the selected MSDF/STA/RM algorithms. The paper describes the simulation environment and discusses the MSDF/STA/RM functionalities currently implemented and their performance as an automatic CCS.

  19. RANS Simulation (Virtual Blade Model [VBM]) of Single Lab Scaled DOE RM1 MHK Turbine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Stelzenmuller, Nick; Aliseda, Alberto; Seydel, Joseph

    2014-04-15

    Attached are the .cas and .dat files for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of a single lab-scaled DOE RM1 turbine implemented in ANSYS FLUENT CFD-package. The lab-scaled DOE RM1 is a re-design geometry, based of the full scale DOE RM1 design, producing same power output as the full scale model, while operating at matched Tip Speed Ratio values at reachable laboratory Reynolds number (see attached paper). In this case study the flow field around and in the wake of the lab-scaled DOE RM1 turbine is simulated using Blade Element Model (a.k.a Virtual Blade Model) by solving RANS equations coupled with k-\\omega turbulence closure model. It should be highlighted that in this simulation the actual geometry of the rotor blade is not modeled. The effect of turbine rotating blades are modeled using the Blade Element Theory. This simulation provides an accurate estimate for the performance of device and structure of it's turbulent far wake. Due to the simplifications implemented for modeling the rotating blades in this model, VBM is limited to capture details of the flow field in near wake region of the device. The required User Defined Functions (UDFs) and look-up table of lift and drag coefficients are included along with the .cas and .dat files.

  20. Dispersion of the RmInt1 group II intron in the Sinorhizobium meliloti genome upon acquisition by conjugative transfer.

    PubMed

    Nisa-Martínez, Rafael; Jiménez-Zurdo, José I; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Muñoz-Adelantado, Estefanía; Toro, Nicolás

    2007-01-01

    RmInt1 is a self-splicing and mobile group II intron initially identified in the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, which encodes a reverse transcriptase-maturase (Intron Encoded Protein, IEP) lacking the C-terminal DNA binding (D) and DNA endonuclease domains (En). RmInt1 invades cognate intronless homing sites (ISRm2011-2) by a mechanism known as retrohoming. This work describes how the RmInt1 intron spreads in the S.meliloti genome upon acquisition by conjugation. This process was revealed by using the wild-type intron RmInt1 and engineered intron-donor constructs based on ribozyme coding sequence (DeltaORF)-derivatives with higher homing efficiency than the wild-type intron. The data demonstrate that RmInt1 propagates into the S.meliloti genome primarily by retrohoming with a strand bias related to replication of the chromosome and symbiotic megaplasmids. Moreover, we show that when expressed in trans from a separate plasmid, the IEP is able to mobilize genomic DeltaORF ribozymes that afterward displayed wild-type levels of retrohoming. Our results contribute to get further understanding of how group II introns spread into bacterial genomes in nature.

  1. Dispersion of the RmInt1 group II intron in the Sinorhizobium meliloti genome upon acquisition by conjugative transfer

    PubMed Central

    Nisa-Martínez, Rafael; Jiménez-Zurdo, José I.; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Muñoz-Adelantado, Estefanía; Toro, Nicolás

    2007-01-01

    RmInt1 is a self-splicing and mobile group II intron initially identified in the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, which encodes a reverse transcriptase–maturase (Intron Encoded Protein, IEP) lacking the C-terminal DNA binding (D) and DNA endonuclease domains (En). RmInt1 invades cognate intronless homing sites (ISRm2011-2) by a mechanism known as retrohoming. This work describes how the RmInt1 intron spreads in the S.meliloti genome upon acquisition by conjugation. This process was revealed by using the wild-type intron RmInt1 and engineered intron-donor constructs based on ribozyme coding sequence (ΔORF)-derivatives with higher homing efficiency than the wild-type intron. The data demonstrate that RmInt1 propagates into the S.meliloti genome primarily by retrohoming with a strand bias related to replication of the chromosome and symbiotic megaplasmids. Moreover, we show that when expressed in trans from a separate plasmid, the IEP is able to mobilize genomic ΔORF ribozymes that afterward displayed wild-type levels of retrohoming. Our results contribute to get further understanding of how group II introns spread into bacterial genomes in nature. PMID:17158161

  2. Kinematic α tensors and dynamo mechanisms in a von Kármán swirling flow.

    PubMed

    Ravelet, F; Dubrulle, B; Daviaud, F; Ratié, P-A

    2012-07-13

    We provide experimental and numerical evidence of in-blades vortices in the von Kármán swirling flow. We estimate the associated kinematic α-effect tensor and show that it is compatible with recent models of the von Kármán sodium (VKS) dynamo. We further show that depending on the relative frequency of the two impellers, the dominant dynamo mechanism may switch from α2 to α - Ω dynamo. We discuss some implications of these results for VKS experiments.

  3. Spontaneous bacteriocin resistance in Listeria monocytogenes as a susceptibility screen for identifying different mechanisms of resistance and modes of action by bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Macwana, Sunita; Muriana, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    A practical system was devised for grouping bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) based on mode of action as determined by changes in inhibitory activity to spontaneously-acquired bacteriocin resistance (Bac(R)). Wild type Listeria monocytogenes 39-2 was sensitive to five bacteriocins produced by 3 genera of LAB: pediocin PA-1 and pediocin Bac3 (Pediococcus), lacticin FS97 and lacticin FS56 (Lactococcus), and curvaticin FS47 (Lactobacillus). A spontaneous Bac(R) derivative of L. monocytogenes 39-2 obtained by selective recovery against lacticin FS56 provided complete resistance to the bacteriocin made by Lactococcus lactis FS56. The lacticin FS56-resistant strain of L. monocyotgenes 39-2 was also cross-resistant to curvaticin FS47 and pediocin PA-1, but not to lacticin FS97 or pediocin Bac3. The same pattern of cross-resistance was also observed with Bac(R) isolates obtained with L. monocytogenes Scott A-2. A spontaneous mutation that renders a strain cross-resistant to different bacteriocins indicates that they share a common mechanism of resistance due to similar modes of action of the bacteriocins. Spontaneous resistance was acquired to other bacteriocins (in aggregate) by following the same procedure against which the Bac(R) strain was still sensitive. In subsequent challenge assays, mixtures of bacteriocins of different modes of action provided greater inhibition than mixtures of bacteriocins of the same mode of action (as determined by our screening method). This study identifies a methodical approach to classify bacteriocins into functional groups based on mechanism of resistance (i.e., mode of action) that could be used for identifying the best mixture of bacteriocins for use as biopreservatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Herbimycins D-F, ansamycin analogues from Streptomyces sp. RM-7-15.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Khaled A; Wang, Xiachang; Elshahawi, Sherif I; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Sunkara, Manjula; Copley, Gregory C; Hower, James C; Morris, Andrew J; Kharel, Madan K; Thorson, Jon S

    2013-09-27

    Bacterial strains belonging to the class actinomycetes were isolated from the soil near a thermal vent of the Ruth Mullins coal fire (Appalachian Mountains of eastern Kentucky). High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and ultraviolet absorption profiles of metabolites from one of the isolates (Streptomyces sp. RM-7-15) revealed the presence of a unique set of metabolites ultimately determined to be herbimycins D-F (1-3). In addition, herbimycin A (4), dihydroherbimycin A (TAN 420E) (7), and the structurally distinct antibiotic bicycylomycin were isolated from the crude extract of Streptomyces sp. RM-7-15. Herbimycins A and D-F (1-3) displayed comparable binding affinities to the Hsp90α. While the new analogues were found to be inactive in cancer cell cytotoxicity and antimicrobial assays, they may offer new insights in the context of nontoxic ansamycin-based Hsp90 inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model Program RM2: Experimental Results

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hill, Craig; Neary, Vincent Sinclair; Gunawan, Budi

    2014-08-01

    The Reference Model Project (RMP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), aims at expediting industry growth and efficiency by providing non-proprietary Reference Models (RM) of MHK technology designs as study objects for open-source research and development (Neary et al. 2014a,b). As part of this program, MHK turbine models were tested in a large open channel facility at the University of Minnesota’s St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (UMN - SAFL) . Reference Model 2 (RM2) is a 1:15 geometric scale dual - rotor crossmore » flow vertical axis device with counter - rotating rotors, each with a rotor diameter d T = 0.43m and rotor height, h T = 0.323 m. RM2 is a river turbine designed for a site modeled after a reach in the lower Mississippi River near Baton Rouge, Louisiana (Barone et al. 2014) . Precise blade angular position and torque measurements were synchronized with three acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) aligned with each rotor and the midpoint for RM2 . Flow conditions for each case were controlled such that depth, h = 1m, and volumetric flow rate, Q w = 2. 35m 3s -1 , resulting in a hub height velocity of approximately U hub = 1. 2 ms -1 and blade chord length Reynolds numbers of Re c = 6 .1x10 4. Vertical velocity profiles collected in the wake of each device from 1 to 10 rotor diameters are used to estimate the velocity recovery and turbulent characteristics in the wake, as well as the interaction of the counter-rotating rotor wakes. The development of this high resolution laboratory investigation provides a robust dataset that enables assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and their ability to accurately simulate turbulent inflow environments, device performance metrics, and to reproduce wake velocity deficit, recovery and higher order turbulent statistics.« less

  6. Analytic approximations of Von Kármán plate under arbitrary uniform pressure—equations in integral form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, XiaoXu; Liao, ShiJun

    2018-01-01

    Analytic approximations of the Von Kármán's plate equations in integral form for a circular plate under external uniform pressure to arbitrary magnitude are successfully obtained by means of the homotopy analysis method (HAM), an analytic approximation technique for highly nonlinear problems. Two HAM-based approaches are proposed for either a given external uniform pressure Q or a given central deflection, respectively. Both of them are valid for uniform pressure to arbitrary magnitude by choosing proper values of the so-called convergence-control parameters c 1 and c 2 in the frame of the HAM. Besides, it is found that the HAM-based iteration approaches generally converge much faster than the interpolation iterative method. Furthermore, we prove that the interpolation iterative method is a special case of the first-order HAM iteration approach for a given external uniform pressure Q when c 1 = - θ and c 2 = -1, where θ denotes the interpolation iterative parameter. Therefore, according to the convergence theorem of Zheng and Zhou about the interpolation iterative method, the HAM-based approaches are valid for uniform pressure to arbitrary magnitude at least in the special case c 1 = - θ and c 2 = -1. In addition, we prove that the HAM approach for the Von Kármán's plate equations in differential form is just a special case of the HAM for the Von Kármán's plate equations in integral form mentioned in this paper. All of these illustrate the validity and great potential of the HAM for highly nonlinear problems, and its superiority over perturbation techniques.

  7. RANS Simulation (Rotating Reference Frame Model [RRF]) of Single Lab-Scaled DOE RM1 MHK Turbine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Stelzenmuller, Nick; Aliseda, Alberto; Seydel, Joseph

    2014-04-15

    Attached are the .cas and .dat files for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of a single lab-scaled DOE RM1 turbine implemented in ANSYS FLUENT CFD-package. The lab-scaled DOE RM1 is a re-design geometry, based of the full scale DOE RM1 design, producing same power output as the full scale model, while operating at matched Tip Speed Ratio values at reachable laboratory Reynolds number (see attached paper). In this case study taking advantage of the symmetry of lab-scaled DOE RM1 geometry, only half of the geometry is models using (Single) Rotating Reference Frame model [RRF]. In this model RANS equations, coupled with k-\\omega turbulence closure model, are solved in the rotating reference frame. The actual geometry of the turbine blade is included and the turbulent boundary layer along the blade span is simulated using wall-function approach. The rotation of the blade is modeled by applying periodic boundary condition to sets of plane of symmetry. This case study simulates the performance and flow field in the near and far wake of the device at the desired operating conditions. The results of these simulations were validated against in-house experimental data. Please see the attached paper.

  8. Model-based observer and feedback control design for a rigid Joukowski foil in a Kármán vortex street.

    PubMed

    Free, Brian A; Paley, Derek A

    2018-03-14

    Obstacles and swimming fish in flow create a wake with an alternating left/right vortex pattern known as a Kármán vortex street and reverse Kármán vortex street, respectively. An energy-efficient fish behavior resembling slaloming through the vortex street is called Kármán gaiting. This paper describes the use of a bioinspired array of pressure sensors on a Joukowski foil to estimate and control flow-relative position in a Kármán vortex street using potential flow theory, recursive Bayesian filtering, and trajectory-tracking feedback control. The Joukowski foil is fixed in downstream position in a flowing water channel and free to move on air bearings in the cross-stream direction by controlling its angle of attack to generate lift. Inspired by the lateral-line neuromasts found in fish, the sensing and control scheme is validated using off-the-shelf pressure sensors in an experimental testbed that includes a flapping device to create vortices. We derive a potential flow model that describes the flow over a Joukowski foil in a Kármán vortex street and identify an optimal path through a Kármán vortex street using empirical observability. The optimally observable trajectory is one that passes through each vortex in the street. The estimated vorticity and location of the Kármán vortex street are used in a closed-loop control to track either the optimally observable path or the energetically efficient gait exhibited by fish. Results from the closed-loop control experiments in the flow tank show that the artificial lateral line in conjunction with a potential flow model and Bayesian estimator allow the robot to perform fish-like slaloming behavior in a Kármán vortex street. This work is a precursor to an autonomous robotic fish sensing the wake of another fish and/or performing pursuit and schooling behavior.

  9. [Therapeutic effect of rmIL-12 combined with G-CSF on acute radiation sickness produced by γ-ray irradiation in mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhai, Rui-Ren; Pang, Zhao-Xia; Zhang, Chao; Yu, Chang-Lin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the therapeutic effect of recombinant murine interleukin 12 (rmIL-12) combining with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on mice irradiated by γ-rays. 56 BALB/c mice were totally irradiated by 6.0 Gy of (60)Co γ-ray and randomly divided into irradiation control group, rmIL-12 treatment group, G-CSF treatment group and combination therapy (rmIL-12 plus G-CSF) group. rmIL-12 20 µg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally at 1 h following irradiation, and was administrated every 3 days after irradiation for 4 times in rmIL-12 treatment group. G-CSF 100 µg/kg was administrated subcutaneously the 2 h following irradiation for 14 d in G-CSF treatment group. The dose and method of rmIL-12 and G-CSF in combination therapy group were same as in rmIL-12 group and G-CSF group. The general status of mice were observed twice a day, the changes in body weight, peripheral blood cell (WBC and Plt) counts were examined once every three days, bone marrow cells were collected to perform colony cultivation on day 14 and 28 after irradiation. The results showed that WBC count recovery time in combination therapy group was significantly earlier than that of the control group (7 d vs 11 d), WBC count recovery velocity in the combination therapy group was no significant different from that of the G-CSF treatment group. Combined therapy significantly promoted Plt count recovery, resulting in less profound nadirs (16.5% vs 8.1%, P < 0.01) and rapid recovery to normal levels (11 d vs 14 d), Plt count recovery velocity in the combination therapy group was no significant different from that of the rmIL-12 treatment group. Culture of bone marrow cells in semi-solid medium also demonstrated that combination of rmIL-12 and G-CSF could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU-GM and CFU-Mix than those of the irradiation control group in vitro on day 14 and 28 after irradiation (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the combination of rmIL-12 and G

  10. Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.

    PubMed

    Yang, J X; Guo, Q J; Yang, J; Zhou, X Y; Ren, H Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, R X; Wang, X D; Peters, M; Zhu, G X; Wei, R F; Tian, L Y; Han, X K

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals.

  11. Meta-Cresol Purple Reference Material® (RM) for Seawater pH Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easley, R. A.; Waters, J. F.; Place, B. J.; Pratt, K. W.

    2016-02-01

    The pH of seawater is a fundamental quantity that governs the carbon dioxide - carbonate system in the world's oceans. High quality pH measurements for long-term monitoring, shipboard studies, and shorter-term biological studies (mesocosm and field experiments) can be ensured through a reference material (RM) that is compatible with existing procedures and which is traceable to primary pH measurement metrology. High-precision spectrophotometric measurements of seawater pH using an indicator dye such as meta-cresol purple (mCP) are well established. However, traceability of these measurements to the International System of Units (SI) additionally requires characterizing the spectrophotometric pH response of the dye in multiple artificial seawater buffers that themselves are benchmarked via primary pH (Harned cell) measurements at a range of pH, salinity, and temperature. NIST is currently developing such a mCP pH RM using this approach. This material will also incorporate new procedures developed at NIST for assessing the purity and homogeneity of the mCP reagent itself. The resulting mCP will provide long-term (years) stability and ease of shipment compared to artificial seawater pH buffers. These efforts will provide the oceanographic user community with a NIST issued mCP (RM), characterized as to its molar absorptivity values and acid dissociation constants (pKa), with uncertainties that comply with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM).

  12. Extended Mixed-Efects Item Response Models with the MH-RM Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, R. Philip

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-effects item response theory (IRT) model is presented as a logical extension of the generalized linear mixed-effects modeling approach to formulating explanatory IRT models. Fixed and random coefficients in the extended model are estimated using a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) stochastic imputation algorithm to accommodate for…

  13. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-15rm as a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Halevi, G.; Shivvers, I.; Yuk, H.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    We report that inspection of a CCD spectrum (range 350-1050 nm) of ASASSN-15rm (ATel #8192), obtained on Oct. 20.50 UT with the Shane 3-m reflector (+ Kast spectrograph) at Lick Observatory, shows that the object is a normal Type Ia supernova roughly 1 week past maximum brightness.

  14. Y-chromosome R-M343 African Lineages and Sickle Cell Disease reveal structured assimilation in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E; Khoury, Simon; Badro, Danielle A; Abboud, Miguel; Smith, Chris Tyler; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2012-01-01

    We have sought to identify signals of assimilation of African male lines in Lebanon by exploring the association of sickle cell disease in Lebanon with Y-chromosome haplogroups that are informative of the disease origin and its exclusivity to the Muslim community. A total of 732 samples were analyzed including 33 sickle cell disease patients from Lebanon genotyped for 28 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y chromosome. Genetic organization was identified using populations known to have influenced the genetic structure of the Lebanese population, in addition to African populations with high incidence of sickle cell disease. Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M343 sub-lineages distinguish between sub-Saharan African and Lebanese Y chromosomes. We detected a limited penetration of sickle cell disease into Lebanese R-M343 carriers, restricted to Lebanese Muslims. We suggest that this penetration brought the sickle cell gene along with the African R-M343, probably with the Saharan caravan slave trade. PMID:20981037

  15. A search for an excited muon decaying to a muon and two jets in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}\\;=\\;8\\;{\\rm{TeV}}$$ with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2016-07-11

    In this study, a new search signature for excited leptons is explored. Excited muons are sought in the channelmore » $${pp}\\to \\mu {\\mu }^{* }\\to \\mu \\mu \\ {\\rm{jet}}\\;{\\rm{jet}}$$, assuming both the production and decay occur via a contact interaction. The analysis is based on 20.3 fb –1 of pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of $$\\sqrt{s}\\;=\\;8\\;{\\rm{TeV}}$$ taken with the ATLAS detector at the large hadron collider. No evidence of excited muons is found, and limits are set at the 95% confidence level on the cross section times branching ratio as a function of the excited-muon mass $${m}_{{\\mu }^{* }}$$. For $${m}_{{\\mu }^{* }}$$ between 1.3 and 3.0 TeV, the upper limit on $$\\sigma B({\\mu }^{* }\\to \\mu q\\bar{q}$$) is between 0.6 and 1 fb. Limits on $$\\sigma B$$ are converted to lower bounds on the compositeness scale Λ. In the limiting case $${\\rm{\\Lambda }}={m}_{{\\mu }^{* }}$$, excited muons with a mass below 2.8 TeV are excluded. With the same model assumptions, these limits at larger $${\\mu }^{* }$$ masses improve upon previous limits from traditional searches based on the gauge-mediated decay $${\\mu }^{* }\\to \\mu \\gamma $$.« less

  16. Functionality of In vitro Reconstituted Group II Intron RmInt1-Derived Ribonucleoprotein Particles.

    PubMed

    Molina-Sánchez, Maria D; García-Rodríguez, Fernando M; Toro, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    The functional unit of mobile group II introns is a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) consisting of the intron-encoded protein (IEP) and the excised intron RNA. The IEP has reverse transcriptase activity but also promotes RNA splicing, and the RNA-protein complex triggers site-specific DNA insertion by reverse splicing, in a process called retrohoming. In vitro reconstituted ribonucleoprotein complexes from the Lactococcus lactis group II intron Ll.LtrB, which produce a double strand break, have recently been studied as a means of developing group II intron-based gene targeting methods for higher organisms. The Sinorhizobium meliloti group II intron RmInt1 is an efficient mobile retroelement, the dispersal of which appears to be linked to transient single-stranded DNA during replication. The RmInt1IEP lacks the endonuclease domain (En) and cannot cut the bottom strand to generate the 3' end to initiate reverse transcription. We used an Escherichia coli expression system to produce soluble and active RmInt1 IEP and reconstituted RNPs with purified components in vitro . The RNPs generated were functional and reverse-spliced into a single-stranded DNA target. This work constitutes the starting point for the use of group II introns lacking DNA endonuclease domain-derived RNPs for highly specific gene targeting methods.

  17. Functionality of In vitro Reconstituted Group II Intron RmInt1-Derived Ribonucleoprotein Particles

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Sánchez, Maria D.; García-Rodríguez, Fernando M.; Toro, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    The functional unit of mobile group II introns is a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) consisting of the intron-encoded protein (IEP) and the excised intron RNA. The IEP has reverse transcriptase activity but also promotes RNA splicing, and the RNA-protein complex triggers site-specific DNA insertion by reverse splicing, in a process called retrohoming. In vitro reconstituted ribonucleoprotein complexes from the Lactococcus lactis group II intron Ll.LtrB, which produce a double strand break, have recently been studied as a means of developing group II intron-based gene targeting methods for higher organisms. The Sinorhizobium meliloti group II intron RmInt1 is an efficient mobile retroelement, the dispersal of which appears to be linked to transient single-stranded DNA during replication. The RmInt1IEP lacks the endonuclease domain (En) and cannot cut the bottom strand to generate the 3′ end to initiate reverse transcription. We used an Escherichia coli expression system to produce soluble and active RmInt1 IEP and reconstituted RNPs with purified components in vitro. The RNPs generated were functional and reverse-spliced into a single-stranded DNA target. This work constitutes the starting point for the use of group II introns lacking DNA endonuclease domain-derived RNPs for highly specific gene targeting methods. PMID:27730127

  18. Behavioral and pathophysiological outcomes associated with caffeine consumption and repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI) in adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Glenn R.; Lengkeek, Connor; Salberg, Sabrina; Spanswick, Simon C.; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2017-01-01

    Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI), we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury induction, behavioral outcomes were measured with a test battery designed to examine symptoms consistent with clinical manifestation of PCS (balance and motor coordination, anxiety, short-term working memory, and depressive-like behaviours). In addition, pathophysiological outcomes were examined with histological measures of volume and cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus, as well as microglia activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Finally, modifications to expression of 12 genes (Adora2a, App, Aqp4, Bdnf, Bmal1, Clock, Cry, Gfap, Orx1, Orx2, Per, Tau), in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and/or the hypothalamus were assessed. We found that chronic caffeine consumption in adolescence altered normal developmental trajectories, as well as recovery from RmTBI. Of particular importance, many of the outcomes exhibited sex-dependent responses whereby the sex of the animal modified response to caffeine, RmTBI, and the combination of the two. These results suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents at high risk for RmTBI should be monitored. PMID:29108016

  19. Behavioral and pathophysiological outcomes associated with caffeine consumption and repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI) in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Glenn R; Lengkeek, Connor; Salberg, Sabrina; Spanswick, Simon C; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2017-01-01

    Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI), we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury induction, behavioral outcomes were measured with a test battery designed to examine symptoms consistent with clinical manifestation of PCS (balance and motor coordination, anxiety, short-term working memory, and depressive-like behaviours). In addition, pathophysiological outcomes were examined with histological measures of volume and cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus, as well as microglia activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Finally, modifications to expression of 12 genes (Adora2a, App, Aqp4, Bdnf, Bmal1, Clock, Cry, Gfap, Orx1, Orx2, Per, Tau), in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and/or the hypothalamus were assessed. We found that chronic caffeine consumption in adolescence altered normal developmental trajectories, as well as recovery from RmTBI. Of particular importance, many of the outcomes exhibited sex-dependent responses whereby the sex of the animal modified response to caffeine, RmTBI, and the combination of the two. These results suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents at high risk for RmTBI should be monitored.

  20. The ghrelin agonist RM-131 accelerates gastric emptying of solids and reduces symptoms in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Andrea; Camilleri, Michael; Busciglio, Irene; Burton, Duane; Smith, Steven A; Vella, Adrian; Ryks, Michael; Rhoten, Deborah; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2013-11-01

    RM-131, a synthetic ghrelin agonist, greatly accelerates gastric emptying of solids in patients with type 2 diabetes and delayed gastric emptying (DGE). We investigated the safety and effects of a single dose of RM-131 on gastric emptying and upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with type 1 diabetes and previously documented DGE. In a double-blind cross-over study, 10 patients with type 1 diabetes (age, 45.7 ± 4.4 y; body mass index, 24.1 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) and previously documented DGE were assigned in random order to receive a single dose of RM-131 (100 μg, subcutaneously) or placebo. Thirty minutes later, they ate a radiolabeled solid-liquid meal containing EggBeaters (ConAgra Foods, Omaha, NE), and then underwent 4 hours of gastric emptying and 6 hours of colonic filling analyses by scintigraphy. Upper GI symptoms were assessed using a daily diary, gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (total GCSI-DD) and a combination of nausea, vomiting, fullness, and pain (NVFP) scores (each rated on a 0-5 scale). At screening, participants' mean level of hemoglobin A1c was 9.1% ± 0.5%; their total GCSI-DD score was 1.66 ± 0.38 (median, 1.71), and their total NVFP score was 1.73 ± 0.39 (median, 1.9). The t1/2 of solid gastric emptying was 84.9 ± 31.6 minutes when subjects were given RM-131 and 118.7 ± 26.7 when they were given a placebo. The median difference (Δ)was 33.9 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] -12, -49), or -54.7% (IQR, -21%,-110%). RM-131 decreased gastric retention of solids at 1 hour (P = .005) and 2 hours (P = .019). Numeric differences in t1/2 for gastric emptying of liquids, solid gastric emptying lag time, and colonic filling at 6 hours were not significant. Total GCSI-DD scores were 0.79 on placebo (IQR, 0.75, 2.08) and 0.17 on RM-131 (IQR, 0.00, 0.67; P = .026); NVFP scores were lower on RM-131 (P = .041). There were no significant adverse effects. RM-131 significantly accelerates gastric emptying of solids and reduces upper GI symptoms

  1. Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bull, Diana L; Smith, Chris; Jenne, Dale Scott

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. In this report, a conceptual design for an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (WEC) device appropriate for the modeled reference resource site was identified, and a detailed backward bent duct buoy (BBDB) device design was developed using a combination of numerical modeling tools and scaled physical models. Our team used the methodology in SAND2013-9040more » for the economic analysis that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays, up to 100 devices. The methodology was applied to identify key cost drivers and to estimate levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for this RM6 Oscillating Water Column device in dollars per kilowatt-hour ($/kWh). Although many costs were difficult to estimate at this time due to the lack of operational experience, the main contribution of this work was to disseminate a detailed set of methodologies and models that allow for an initial cost analysis of this emerging technology. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program Office (WWPTO), within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). Sandia National Laboratories, the lead in this effort, collaborated with partners from National Laboratories, industry, and universities to design and test this reference model.« less

  2. Enhancing Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Product Commercialization: The Role of Science in Regulatory Decision-Making for the TE/RM Product Development.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Timothy A; Johnson, Peter C; Tawil, Bill J; Van Dyke, Mark; Hellman, Kiki B

    2015-10-01

    TERMIS-AM Industry Committee (TERMIS-AM/IC), in collaboration with the TERMIS-Europe (EU)/IC, conducted a symposium involving the European Medicines Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) toward building an understanding of the rational basis for regulatory decision-making and providing a framework for decisions made during the evaluation of safety and efficacy of TE/RM technologies. This symposium was held in August 2012 during the TERMIS-WC in Vienna, Austria. Emerging from this international initiative by the European Union and the United States, representatives from the respective agencies demonstrated that there are ongoing interagency efforts for developing common national practices toward harmonization of regulatory requirements for the TE/RM products. To extend a broad-based understanding of the role of science in regulatory decision-making, TERMIS-AM/IC, in cooperation with the FDA, organized a symposium at the 2014 TERMIS-AM Annual Meeting, which was held in Washington, DC. This event provided insights from leaders in the FDA and TERMIS on the current status of regulatory approaches for the approved TE/RM products, the use of science in making regulatory decisions, and TE/RM technologies that are in the development pipeline to address unmet medical needs. A far-ranging discussion with FDA representatives, industrialists, physicians, regenerative medicine biologists, and tissue engineers considered the gaps in today's scientific and regulatory understanding of TE/RM technologies. The identified gaps represent significant opportunities to advance TE/RM technologies toward commercialization.

  3. Electromyographic activity and 6RM strength in bench press on stable and unstable surfaces.

    PubMed

    Saeterbakken, Atle H; Fimland, Marius S

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 6-repetition maximum (6RM) loads and muscle activity in bench press on 3 surfaces, namely, stable bench, balance cushion, and Swiss ball. Sixteen healthy, resistance-trained men (age 22.5 ± 2.0 years, stature 1.82 ± 6.6 m, and body mass 82.0 ± 7.8 kg) volunteered for 3 habituation/strength testing sessions and 1 experimental session. In randomized order on the 3 surfaces, 6RM strength and electromyographic activity of pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus abdominis, oblique external and erector spinae were assessed. Relative to stable bench, the 6RM strength was approximately 93% for balance cushion (p ≤ 0.001) and approximately 92% for Swiss ball (p = 0.008); the pectoralis major electromyographic (EMG) activity was approximately 90% using the balance cushion (p = 0.080) and approximately 81% using Swiss ball (p = 0.006); the triceps EMG was approximately 79% using the balance cushion (p = 0.028) and approximately 69% using the Swiss ball (p = 0.002). Relative to balance cushion, the EMG activity in pectoralis, triceps, and erector spinae using Swiss ball was approximately 89% (p = 0.016), approximately 88% (p = 0.014) and approximately 80% (p = 0.020), respectively. In rectus abdominis, the EMG activity relative to Swiss ball was approximately 69% using stable bench (p = 0.042) and approximately 65% using the balance cushion (p = 0.046). Similar EMG activities between stable and unstable surfaces were observed for deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, and oblique external. In conclusion, stable bench press had greater 6RM strength and triceps and pectoralis EMG activity compared with the unstable surfaces. These findings have implications for athletic training and rehabilitation, because they demonstrate an inferior effect of unstable surfaces on muscle activation of prime movers and strength in bench press. If an unstable surface in bench press is desirable, a balance cushion should

  4. RPE vs. Percentage 1RM Loading in Periodized Programs Matched for Sets and Repetitions

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Eric R.; Byrnes, Ryan K.; Cooke, Daniel M.; Haischer, Michael H.; Carzoli, Joseph P.; Johnson, Trevor K.; Cross, Matthew R.; Cronin, John B.; Storey, Adam G.; Zourdos, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate differences between rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and percentage one-repetition maximum (1RM) load assignment in resistance-trained males (19–35 years) performing protocols with matched sets and repetitions differentiated by load-assignment. Methods: Participants performed squats then bench press 3x/weeks in a daily undulating format over 8-weeks. Participants were counterbalanced by pre-test 1RM then assigned to percentage 1RM (1RMG, n = 11); load-assignment via percentage 1RMs, or RPE groups (RPEG, n = 10); participant-selected loads to reach target RPE ranges. Ultrasonography determined pre and post-test pectoralis (PMT), and vastus lateralis muscle thickness at 50 (VLMT50) and 70% (VLMT70) femur-length. Results: Bench press (1RMG +9.64 ± 5.36; RPEG + 10.70 ± 3.30 kg), squat (1RMG + 13.91 ± 5.89; RPEG + 17.05 ± 5.44 kg) and their combined-total 1RMs (1RMG + 23.55 ± 10.38; RPEG + 27.75 ± 7.94 kg) increased (p < 0.05) in both groups as did PMT (1RMG + 1.59 ± 1.33; RPEG +1.90 ± 1.91 mm), VLMT50 (1RMG +2.13 ± 1.95; RPEG + 1.85 ± 1.97 mm) and VLMT70 (1RMG + 2.40 ± 2.22; RPEG + 2.31 ± 2.27 mm). Between-group differences were non-significant (p > 0.05). Magnitude-based inferences revealed 79, 57, and 72% chances of mean small effect size (ES) advantages for squat; ES 90% confidence limits (CL) = 0.50 ± 0.63, bench press; ES 90% CL = 0.28 ± 0.73, and combined-total; ES 90% CL = 0.48 ± 0.68 respectively, in RPEG. There were 4, 14, and 6% chances 1RMG had a strength advantage of the same magnitude, and 18, 29, and 22% chances, respectively of trivial differences between groups. Conclusions: Both loading-types are effective. However, RPE-based loading may provide a small 1RM strength advantage in a majority of individuals. PMID:29628895

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS-RM project: peak velocities of QSOs (Shen+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Brandt, W. N.; Richards, G. T.; Denney, K. D.; Greene, J. E.; Grier, C. J.; Ho, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.; Petitjean, P.; Schneider, D. P.; Tao, C.; Trump, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    The SDSS-RM quasar sample includes 849 broad-line quasars at 0.1RM project within the SDSS-III (Eisenstein+ 2011AJ....142...72E) Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS, Dawson+ 2013AJ....145...10D), using the BOSS spectrograph on the 2.5m SDSS telescope. The wavelength coverage of BOSS spectroscopy is ~3650-10400Å, with a spectral resolution of R~2000. (1 data file).

  6. Expression and characterization of hyperthermostable exo-polygalacturonase RmGH28 from Rhodothermus marinus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gene RmGH28 from the organism Rhodothermus marinus putatively encoding a glycosyl hydrolase family 28 polygalacturonase was expressed in E. coli, and the enzyme purified and biochemically characterized. The gene was found to encode an exo- polygalacturonase, with galacturonic acid monomer and th...

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model Program RM1: Experimental Results.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hill, Craig; Neary, Vincent Sinclair; Gunawan, Budi

    The Reference Model Project (RMP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), aims at expediting industry growth and efficiency by providing nonproprietary Reference Models (RM) of MHK technology designs as study objects for opensource research and development (Neary et al. 2014a,b). As part of this program, MHK turbine models were tested in a large open channel facility at the University of Minnesota’s St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (UMN-SAFL). Reference Model 1 (RM1) is a 1:40 geometric scale dual-rotor axial flow horizontal axis device withmore » counter-rotating rotors, each with a rotor diameter dT = 0.5m. Precise blade angular position and torque measurements were synchronized with three acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) aligned with each rotor and the midpoint for RM1. Flow conditions for each case were controlled such that depth, h = 1m, and volumetric flow rate, Qw = 2.425m3s-1, resulting in a hub height velocity of approximately Uhub = 1.05ms-1 and blade chord length Reynolds numbers of Rec ≈ 3.0x105. Vertical velocity profiles collected in the wake of each device from 1 to 10 rotor diameters are used to estimate the velocity recovery and turbulent characteristics in the wake, as well as the interaction of the counter-rotating rotor wakes. The development of this high resolution laboratory investigation provides a robust dataset that enables assessing turbulence performance models and their ability to accurately predict device performance metrics, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that can be used to predict turbulent inflow environments, reproduce wake velocity deficit, recovery and higher order turbulent statistics, as well as device performance metrics.« less

  8. Novel conjugative plasmids from the natural isolate Lactococcus lactis subspecies cremoris DPC3758: a repository of genes for the potential improvement of dairy starters.

    PubMed

    Fallico, V; Ross, R P; Fitzgerald, G F; McAuliffe, O

    2012-07-01

    A collection of 17 natural lactococcal isolates from raw milk cheeses were studied in terms of their plasmid distribution, content, and diversity. All strains in the collection harbored an abundance of plasmids, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris DPC3758, whose 8-plasmid complement was selected for sequencing. The complete sequences of pAF22 (22,388 kb), pAF14 (14,419 kb), pAF12 (12,067 kb), pAF07 (7,435 kb), and pAF04 (3,801 kb) were obtained, whereas gene functions of technological interest were mapped to pAF65 (65 kb) and pAF45 (45 kb) by PCR. The plasmids of L. lactis DPC3758 were found to encode many genes with the potential to improve the technological properties of dairy starters. These included 3 anti-phage restriction/modification (R/M) systems (1 of type I and 2 of type II) and genes for immunity/resistance to nisin, lacticin 481, cadmium, and copper. Regions encoding conjugative/mobilization functions were present in 6 of the 8 plasmids, including those containing the R/M systems, thus enabling the food-grade transfer of these mechanisms to industrial strains. Using cadmium selection, the sequential stacking of the R/M plasmids into a plasmid-free host provided the recipient with increased protection against 936- and c2-type phages. The association of food-grade selectable markers and mobilization functions on L. lactis DPC3758 plasmids will facilitate their exploitation to obtain industrial strains with enhanced phage protection and robustness. These natural plasmids also provide another example of the major role of plasmids in contributing to host fitness and preservation within its ecological niche. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A pilot mixed-methods evaluation of MS INFoRm: a self-directed fatigue management resource for individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Nadine; Turpin, Karen; Petrin, Julie; Smyth, Penny; Finlayson, Marcia

    2018-06-01

    Fatigue management interventions for individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often feature structured programmes requiring repeated, in-person attendance that is not possible for all individuals. We sought to determine whether MS INFoRm, a self-directed fatigue management resource for individuals with MS, was worth further, more rigorous evaluation. Our indicators of worthiness were actual use of the resource by participants over 3 months, reductions in fatigue impact and increases in self-efficacy, and participant reports of changes in fatigue management knowledge and behaviours. This was a single-group, mixed-methods, before-after pilot study in individuals with MS reporting mild to moderate fatigue. Thirty-five participants were provided with MS INFoRm by a USB flash drive to use at home for 3 months, on their own volition. Twenty-three participants completed all standardized questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and study process measures. Participants reported actively using MS INFoRm over the 3-month study period (median total time spent using MS INFoRm=315 min) as well as significantly lower overall fatigue impact (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale: t=2.6, P=0.01), increased knowledge of MS fatigue (z=-2.8, P=0.01) and greater confidence in managing MS fatigue (z=-3.3, P=0.001). Individuals with significant reductions in fatigue impact also reported behavioural changes including tracking fatigue, better communication with others, greater awareness, improved quality of life and being more proactive. This study provides evidence that further rigorous evaluation of MS INFoRm, a self-directed resource for managing fatigue, is worth pursuing.

  10. The Impact of Ebooks on the Reading Motivation and Reading Skills of Children and Young People: A Study of Schools Using RM Books. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picton, Irene; Clark, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The National Literacy Trust is a national charity dedicated to raising literacy levels in the UK. Their research and analysis make them the leading authority on literacy. They run projects in the poorest communities, campaign to make literacy a priority for politicians and parents, and support schools. RM Books is a market-leading ebooks platform…

  11. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Sunoco Incorporated - R&M Eagle Point Refinery in Westville, New Jersey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sunoco, Inc. - R&M Eagle Point Refinery is located on Route 295 & 130 in Westville, West Deptford Township, New Jersey. The site is a 1,000-acre oil refinery on the Delaware River, 550 acres of which is an active production area.

  12. A multiplex PCR system for 13 RM Y-STRs with separate amplification of two different repeat motif structures in DYF403S1a.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Hwan Young; Kwon, So Yeun; Oh, Yu Na; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    In forensic science and human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) have been used as very useful markers. Recently, more Y-STR markers have been analyzed to enhance the resolution power in haplotype analysis, and 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs have been suggested as revolutionary tools that can widen Y-chromosomal application from paternal lineage differentiation to male individualization. We have constructed two multiplex PCR sets for the amplification of 13 RM Y-STRs, which yield small-sized amplicons (<400bp) and a more balanced PCR efficiency with minimum PCR cycling. In particular, with the developed multiplex PCR system, we could separate three copies of DYF403S1a into two copies of DYF403S1a and one of DYF403S1b1. This is because DYF403S1b1 possesses distinguishable sequences from DYF403S1a at both the front and rear flanking regions of the repeat motif; therefore, the locus could be separately amplified using sequence-specific primers. In addition, the other copy, defined as DYF403S1b by Ballantyne et al., was renamed DYF403S1b2 because of its similar flanking region sequence to DYF403S1b1. By redefining DYF403S1 with the developed multiplex system, all genotypes of four copies could be successfully typed and more diverse haplotypes were obtained. We analyzed haplotype distributions in 705 Korean males based on four different Y-STR subsets: Yfiler, PowerPlex Y23, Yfiler Plus, and RM Y-STRs. All haplotypes obtained from RM Y-STRs were the most diverse and showed strong discriminatory power in Korean population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamo threshold detection in the von Kármán sodium experiment.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Sophie; Bonnefoy, Nicolas; Bourgoin, Mickael; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier; Boisson, Jean; Daviaud, François; Dubrulle, Bérengère

    2013-07-01

    Predicting dynamo self-generation in liquid metal experiments has been an ongoing question for many years. In contrast to simple dynamical systems for which reliable techniques have been developed, the ability to predict the dynamo capacity of a flow and the estimate of the corresponding critical value of the magnetic Reynolds number (the control parameter of the instability) has been elusive, partly due to the high level of turbulent fluctuations of flows in such experiments (with kinetic Reynolds numbers in excess of 10(6)). We address these issues here, using the von Kármán sodium experiment and studying its response to an externally applied magnetic field. We first show that a dynamo threshold can be estimated from analysis related to critical slowing down and susceptibility divergence, in configurations for which dynamo action is indeed observed. These approaches are then applied to flow configurations that have failed to self-generate magnetic fields within operational limits, and we quantify the dynamo capacity of these configurations.

  14. Frenolicins C-G, pyranonaphthoquinones from Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiachang; Shaaban, Khaled A; Elshahawi, Sherif I; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Sunkara, Manjula; Zhang, Yinan; Copley, Gregory C; Hower, James C; Morris, Andrew J; Kharel, Madan K; Thorson, Jon S

    2013-08-23

    Appalachian active coal fire sites were selected for the isolation of bacterial strains belonging to the class actinobacteria. A comparison of high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and ultraviolet (UV) absorption profiles from isolate extracts to natural product databases suggested Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15 to produce unique metabolites. Four new pyranonaphthoquinones, frenolicins C-F (1-4), along with three known analogues, frenolicin (6), frenolicin B (7), and UCF76-A (8), were isolated from the fermentation of this strain. An additional new analogue, frenolicin G (5), along with two known compounds, deoxyfrenolicin (9) and UCF 13 (10), were isolated from the fermentation supplied with 18 mg/L of scandium chloride, the first example, to the best of our knowledge, wherein scandium chloride supplementation led to the confirmed production of new bacterial secondary metabolites. Structures 1-5 were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical modification. While frenolicins are best known for their anticoccidial activity, the current study revealed compounds 6-9 to exhibit moderate cytotoxicity against the human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) and thereby extends the anticancer SAR for this privileged scaffold.

  15. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  16. Pilot Comparison of ⁶⁸Ga-RM2 PET and ⁶⁸Ga-PSMA-11 PET in Patients with Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Hancock, Steven; Schneider, Bernadette; Chin, Frederick T; Jamali, Mehran; Loening, Andreas; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Iagaru, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[(68)Ga(HBED-CC)] ((68)Ga-PSMA-11) is a PET tracer that can detect prostate cancer relapses and metastases by binding to the extracellular domain of PSMA. (68)Ga-labeled DOTA-4-amino-1-carboxymethyl-piperidine-D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2 ((68)Ga-RM2) is a synthetic bombesin receptor antagonist that targets gastrin-releasing peptide receptors. We present pilot data on the biodistribution of these PET tracers in a small cohort of patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. Seven men (mean age ± SD, 74.3 ± 5.9 y) with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer underwent both (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and (68)Ga-RM2 PET/MRI scans. SUVmax and SUVmean were recorded for normal tissues and areas of uptake outside the expected physiologic biodistribution. All patients had a rising level of prostate-specific antigen (mean ± SD, 13.5 ± 11.5) and noncontributory results on conventional imaging. (68)Ga-PSMA-11 had the highest physiologic uptake in the salivary glands and small bowel, with hepatobiliary and renal clearance noted, whereas (68)Ga-RM2 had the highest physiologic uptake in the pancreas, with renal clearance noted. Uptake outside the expected physiologic biodistribution did not significantly differ between (68)Ga-PSMA-11 and (68)Ga-RM2; however, (68)Ga-PSMA-11 localized in a lymph node and seminal vesicle in a patient with no abnormal (68)Ga-RM2 uptake. Abdominal periaortic lymph nodes were more easily visualized by(68)Ga-RM2 in two patients because of lack of interference by radioactivity in the small intestine. (68)Ga-PSMA-11 and (68)Ga-RM2 had distinct biodistributions in this small cohort of patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. Additional work is needed to understand the expression of PSMA and gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in different types of prostate cancer. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  17. SToRM: A numerical model for environmental surface flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    SToRM (System for Transport and River Modeling) is a numerical model developed to simulate free surface flows in complex environmental domains. It is based on the depth-averaged St. Venant equations, which are discretized using unstructured upwind finite volume methods, and contains both steady and unsteady solution techniques. This article provides a brief description of the numerical approach selected to discretize the governing equations in space and time, including important aspects of solving natural environmental flows, such as the wetting and drying algorithm. The presentation is illustrated with several application examples, covering both laboratory and natural river flow cases, which show the model’s ability to solve complex flow phenomena.

  18. Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Systems biology approach to developing S(2)RM-based "systems therapeutics" and naturally induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Greg; Friedman, Peter

    2015-05-26

    The degree to, and the mechanisms through, which stem cells are able to build, maintain, and heal the body have only recently begun to be understood. Much of the stem cell's power resides in the release of a multitude of molecules, called stem cell released molecules (SRM). A fundamentally new type of therapeutic, namely "systems therapeutic", can be realized by reverse engineering the mechanisms of the SRM processes. Recent data demonstrates that the composition of the SRM is different for each type of stem cell, as well as for different states of each cell type. Although systems biology has been successfully used to analyze multiple pathways, the approach is often used to develop a small molecule interacting at only one pathway in the system. A new model is emerging in biology where systems biology is used to develop a new technology acting at multiple pathways called "systems therapeutics". A natural set of healing pathways in the human that uses SRM is instructive and of practical use in developing systems therapeutics. Endogenous SRM processes in the human body use a combination of SRM from two or more stem cell types, designated as S(2)RM, doing so under various state dependent conditions for each cell type. Here we describe our approach in using state-dependent SRM from two or more stem cell types, S(2)RM technology, to develop a new class of therapeutics called "systems therapeutics." Given the ubiquitous and powerful nature of innate S(2)RM-based healing in the human body, this "systems therapeutic" approach using S(2)RM technology will be important for the development of anti-cancer therapeutics, antimicrobials, wound care products and procedures, and a number of other therapeutics for many indications.

  20. Prospective Evaluation of 68Ga-RM2 PET/MRI in Patients with Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer and Negative Findings on Conventional Imaging.

    PubMed

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Sonni, Ida; Hancock, Steven; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Loening, Andreas; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Iagaru, Andrei

    2018-05-01

    68 Ga-labeled DOTA-4-amino-1-carboxymethyl-piperidine-d-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH 2 ( 68 Ga-RM2) is a synthetic bombesin receptor antagonist that targets gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr). GRPr proteins are highly overexpressed in several human tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa). We present data from the use of 68 Ga-RM2 in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of PCa and negative findings on conventional imaging. Methods: We enrolled 32 men with BCR of PCa, who were 59-83 y old (mean ± SD, 68.7 ± 6.4 y). Imaging started at 40-69 min (mean, 50.5 ± 6.8 min) after injection of 133.2-151.7 MBq (mean, 140.6 ± 7.4 MBq) of 68 Ga-RM2 using a time-of-flight-enabled simultaneous PET/MRI scanner. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and diffusion-weighted images were acquired. Results: All patients had a rising level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (range, 0.3-119.0 ng/mL; mean, 10.1 ± 21.3 ng/mL) and negative findings on conventional imaging (CT or MRI, and a 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan) before enrollment. The observed 68 Ga-RM2 PET detection rate was 71.8%. 68 Ga-RM2 PET identified recurrent PCa in 23 of the 32 participants, whereas the simultaneous MRI scan identified findings compatible with recurrent PCa in 11 of the 32 patients. PSA velocity was 0.32 ± 0.59 ng/mL/y (range, 0.04-1.9 ng/mL/y) in patients with negative PET findings and 2.51 ± 2.16 ng/mL/y (range, 0.13-8.68 ng/mL/y) in patients with positive PET findings ( P = 0.006). Conclusion: 68 Ga-RM2 PET can be used for assessment of GRPr expression in patients with BCR of PCa. High uptake in multiple areas compatible with cancer lesions suggests that 68 Ga-RM2 is a promising PET radiopharmaceutical for localization of disease in patients with BCR of PCa and negative findings on conventional imaging. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  1. Semiempirical Quantum Chemistry Model for the Lanthanides: RM1 (Recife Model 1) Parameters for Dysprosium, Holmium and Erbium

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Manoel A. M.; Dutra, José Diogo L.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.; Freire, Ricardo O.

    2014-01-01

    Complexes of dysprosium, holmium, and erbium find many applications as single-molecule magnets, as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, as anti-cancer agents, in optical telecommunications, etc. Therefore, the development of tools that can be proven helpful to complex design is presently an active area of research. In this article, we advance a major improvement to the semiempirical description of lanthanide complexes: the Recife Model 1, RM1, model for the lanthanides, parameterized for the trications of Dy, Ho, and Er. By representing such lanthanide in the RM1 calculation as a three-electron atom with a set of 5 d, 6 s, and 6 p semiempirical orbitals, the accuracy of the previous sparkle models, mainly concentrated on lanthanide-oxygen and lanthanide-nitrogen distances, is extended to other types of bonds in the trication complexes’ coordination polyhedra, such as lanthanide-carbon, lanthanide-chlorine, etc. This is even more important as, for example, lanthanide-carbon atom distances in the coordination polyhedra of the complexes comprise about 30% of all distances for all complexes of Dy, Ho, and Er considered. Our results indicate that the average unsigned mean error for the lanthanide-carbon distances dropped from an average of 0.30 Å, for the sparkle models, to 0.04 Å for the RM1 model for the lanthanides; for a total of 509 such distances for the set of all Dy, Ho, and Er complexes considered. A similar behavior took place for the other distances as well, such as lanthanide-chlorine, lanthanide-bromine, lanthanide, phosphorus and lanthanide-sulfur. Thus, the RM1 model for the lanthanides, being advanced in this article, broadens the range of application of semiempirical models to lanthanide complexes by including comprehensively many other types of bonds not adequately described by the previous models. PMID:24497945

  2. RANS Simulation (Virtual Blade Model [VBM]) of Array of Three Coaxial Lab Scaled DOE RM1 MHK Turbine with 5D Spacing

    DOE Data Explorer

    Javaherchi, Teymour

    2016-06-08

    Attached are the .cas and .dat files along with the required User Defined Functions (UDFs) and look-up table of lift and drag coefficients for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of three coaxially located lab-scaled DOE RM1 turbine implemented in ANSYS FLUENT CFD-package. The lab-scaled DOE RM1 is a re-design geometry, based of the full scale DOE RM1 design, producing same power output as the full scale model, while operating at matched Tip Speed Ratio values at reachable laboratory Reynolds number (see attached paper). In this case study the flow field around and in the wake of the lab-scaled DOE RM1 turbines in a coaxial array is simulated using Blade Element Model (a.k.a Virtual Blade Model) by solving RANS equations coupled with k-\\omega turbulence closure model. It should be highlighted that in this simulation the actual geometry of the rotor blade is not modeled. The effect of turbine rotating blades are modeled using the Blade Element Theory. This simulation provides an accurate estimate for the performance of each device and structure of their turbulent far wake. The results of these simulations were validated against the developed in-house experimental data. Simulations for other turbine configurations are available upon request.

  3. High-throughput sequence-based analysis of the bacterial composition of kefir and an associated kefir grain.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Alleson; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, Paul; Hill, Colin

    2011-07-01

    Lacticin 3147 is a two-peptide broad spectrum lantibiotic produced by Lactococcus lactis DPC3147 shown to inhibit a number of clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens. Initially isolated from an Irish kefir grain, lacticin 3147 is one of the most extensively studied lantibiotics to date. In this study, the bacterial diversity of the Irish kefir grain from which L. lactis DPC3147 was originally isolated was for the first time investigated using a high-throughput parallel sequencing strategy. A total of 17 416 unique V4 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were analysed from both the kefir starter grain and its derivative kefir-fermented milk. Firmicutes (which includes the lactic acid bacteria) was the dominant phylum accounting for > 92% of sequences. Within the Firmicutes, dramatic differences in abundance were observed when the starter grain and kefir milk fermentate were compared. The kefir grain-associated bacterial community was largely composed of the Lactobacillaceae family while Streptococcaceae (primarily Lactococcus spp.) was the dominant family within the kefir milk fermentate. Sequencing data confirmed previous findings that the microbiota of kefir milk and the starter grain are quite different while at the same time, establishing that the microbial diversity of the starter grain is not uniform with a greater level of diversity associated with the interior kefir starter grain compared with the exterior. © 2011 Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark. FEMS Microbiology Letters © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. RANS Simulation (Virtual Blade Model [VBM]) of Single Full Scale DOE RM1 MHK Turbine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-04-10

    Attached are the .cas and .dat files along with the required User Defined Functions (UDFs) and look-up table of lift and drag coefficients for Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of a single full scale DOE RM1 turbine implemented in ANSYS FLUENT CFD-package. In this case study the flow field around and in the wake of the full scale DOE RM1 turbine is simulated using Blade Element Model (a.k.a Virtual Blade Model) by solving RANS equations coupled with k-\\omega turbulence closure model. It should be highlighted that in this simulation the actual geometry of the rotor blade is not modeled. The effect of turbine rotating blades are modeled using the Blade Element Theory. This simulation provides an accurate estimate for the performance of device and structure of it's turbulent far wake. Due to the simplifications implemented for modeling the rotating blades in this model, VBM is limited to capture details of the flow field in near wake region of the device.

  5. Interference removals on Pd, Ru and Au with ICP-QQQ-MS in PGE RM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem Hussain Bokhari, Syed; Meisel, Thomas; Walkner, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Gold and platinum group elements (PGE) are essential industrial precious metals with high world demand due to their unique properties. Struggle for natural exploration of PGE is on great pace and recycling from industrial wastes, electronics and catalytic convertor is on the rise for PGE supply chain. Along with these developments it is becoming more challenging for analytical chemists to determine gold and PGE out of complex matrix which causes severe interferences. The current state of art is online analysis coupled with chromatographic separation of interferences. The ICP-QQQ-MS Agilent 8800 has the capability of using multi tunes and mass shifts. We aim to remove interferences on Pd+ (for direct and isotope dilution analysis) Au+ and Ru+ in lieu of chemical separations. YO+, SrOH+, ZnAr+, NiAr+, ZrO+, CuAr+, MoO+ , Ru+and Cd+ are expected interferences on Pd+ while Au+ is interfered by TaO+, HfOH+, GdAr+ and 102Ru+ ,104Ru+ by 102Pd+ ,104Pd+ etc. Initial test were performed on pure solutions of 1mg/l (interfering elements): 1 ng/l (Pd, Ru & Au) respectively. The outcomes of initial tests were applied on PGE reference material (RM) WMG-1 and SARM-7 (digested with Na2O2 sintering). The results obtained show that YO+, SrOH+ interfere (104Pd,105Pd), 104 Ru+ on (104Pd), ZnAr+ has slight interference on (104Pd and106Pd), ZrO+, NiAr+, CuAr+ interferences are negligible, MoO+ has severe interference on (108Pd, 110Pd) and that Cd+ has severe isobaric interference on (106Pd,108Pd, 110Pd). These interference have been removed by formation of Pd(NH3)3+complex. The TaO+, HfOH+ and GdAr+ interferences on Au+ are best removed by formation of Au(NH3)+ and Au(NH3)2+ complexes. 102Pd+,104Pd+interference on 102Ru+ ,104Ru+ can be removed by formation of Ru(NH3)4+ and RuO+ compounds. The results obtained comply with certified values of RM. The developed method is being tested on low concentration PGE reference materials. References: Sugiyama, N. " Removal of complex spectral

  6. Simplified and refined structural modeling for economical flutter analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricketts, R. H.; Sobieszczanski, J.

    1977-01-01

    A coordinated use of two finite-element models of different levels of refinement is presented to reduce the computer cost of the repetitive flutter analysis commonly encountered in structural resizing to meet flutter requirements. One model, termed a refined model (RM), represents a high degree of detail needed for strength-sizing and flutter analysis of an airframe. The other model, called a simplified model (SM), has a relatively much smaller number of elements and degrees-of-freedom. A systematic method of deriving an SM from a given RM is described. The method consists of judgmental and numerical operations to make the stiffness and mass of the SM elements equivalent to the corresponding substructures of RM. The structural data are automatically transferred between the two models. The bulk of analysis is performed on the SM with periodical verifications carried out by analysis of the RM. In a numerical example of a supersonic cruise aircraft with an arrow wing, this approach permitted substantial savings in computer costs and acceleration of the job turn-around.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the RmInt1 Group II Intronless Sinorhizobium meliloti Strain RMO17

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Nisa-Martínez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of the RmInt1 group II intronless Sinorhizobium meliloti strain RMO17 isolated from Medicago orbicularis nodules from Spanish soil. The genome consists of 6.73 Mb distributed between a single chromosome and two megaplasmids (the chromid pSymB and pSymA). PMID:25301650

  8. RANS Simulation (Rotating Reference Frame Model [RRF]) of Single Full Scale DOE RM1 MHK Turbine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Stelzenmuller, Nick; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-04-10

    Attached are the .cas and .dat files for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of a single full scale DOE RM1 turbine implemented in ANSYS FLUENT CFD-package. In this case study taking advantage of the symmetry of the DOE RM1 geometry, only half of the geometry is modeled using (Single) Rotating Reference Frame model [RRF]. In this model RANS equations, coupled with k-\\omega turbulence closure model, are solved in the rotating reference frame. The actual geometry of the turbine blade is included and the turbulent boundary layer along the blade span is simulated using wall-function approach. The rotation of the blade is modeled by applying periodic boundary condition to sets of plane of symmetry. This case study simulates the performance and flow field in both the near and far wake of the device at the desired operating conditions. The results of these simulations showed good agreement to the only publicly available numerical simulation of the device done in the NREL. Please see the attached paper.

  9. A heterodimeric [RGD-Glu-[(64)Cu-NO2A]-6-Ahx-RM2] αvβ3/GRPr-targeting antagonist radiotracer for PET imaging of prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Durkan, Kubra; Jiang, Zongrun; Rold, Tammy L; Sieckman, Gary L; Hoffman, Timothy J; Bandari, Rajendra Prasad; Szczodroski, Ashley F; Liu, Liqin; Miao, Yubin; Reynolds, Tamila Stott; Smith, Charles J

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we describe a (64)Cu-radiolabeled heterodimeric peptide conjugate for dual αvβ3/GRPr (αvβ3 integrin/gastrin releasing peptide receptor) targeting of the form [RGD-Glu-[(64)Cu-NO2A]-6-Ahx-RM2] (RGD: the amino acid sequence [Arg-Gly-Asp], a nonregulatory peptide used for αvβ3 integrin receptor targeting; Glu: glutamic acid; NO2A: 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetic acid; 6-Ahx: 6-amino hexanoic acid; and RM2: (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2), an antagonist analogue of bombesin (BBN) peptide used for GRPr targeting). RGD-Glu-6Ahx-RM2] was conjugated to a NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) complexing agent to produce [RGD-Glu-[NO2A]-6-Ahx-RM2], which was purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Radiolabeling of the conjugate with (64)Cu produced [RGD-Glu-[(64)Cu-NO2A]-6-Ahx-RM2 in high radiochemical yield (≥95%). In vivo behavior of the radiolabeled peptide conjugate was investigated in normal CF-1 mice and in the PC-3 human prostate cancer experimental model. A competitive displacement receptor binding assay in human prostate PC-3 cells using (125)I-[Tyr(4)]BBN as the radioligand showed high binding affinity of [RGD-Glu-[(nat)Cu-NO2A]-6-Ahx-RM2] conjugate for the GRPr (3.09±0.34 nM). A similar assay in human, glioblastoma U87-MG cells using (125)I-Echistatin as the radioligand indicated a moderate receptor-binding affinity for the αvβ3 integrin (518±37.5 nM). In vivo studies of [RGD-Glu-[(64)Cu-NO2A]-6-Ahx-RM2] showed high accumulation (4.86±1.01 %ID/g, 1h post-intravenous injection (p.i.)) and prolonged retention (4.26±1.23 %ID/g, 24h p.i.) of tracer in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice. Micro-positron emission tomography (microPET) molecular imaging studies produced high-quality, high contrast images in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice at 4h p.i. The favorable pharmacokinetics and enhanced tumor uptake of (64)Cu

  10. Application of a combined approach involving classical random mutagenesis and metabolic engineering to enhance FK506 production in Streptomyces sp. RM7011.

    PubMed

    Mo, SangJoon; Lee, Sung-Kwon; Jin, Ying-Yu; Oh, Chung-Hun; Suh, Joo-Won

    2013-04-01

    FK506 production by a mutant strain (Streptomyces sp. RM7011) induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and ultraviolet mutagenesis was improved by 11.63-fold (94.24 mg/l) compared to that of the wild-type strain. Among three different metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of methylmalonyl-CoA, only expression of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) pathway led to a 1.75-fold and 2.5-fold increase in FK506 production and the methylmalonyl-CoA pool, respectively, compared to those of the RM7011 strain. Lipase activity of the high FK506 producer mutant increased in direct proportion to the increase in FK506 yield, from low detection level up to 43.1 U/ml (12.6-fold). The level of specific FK506 production and lipase activity was improved by enhancing the supply of lipase inducers. This improvement was approximately 1.88-fold (71.5 mg/g) with the supplementation of 5 mM Tween 80, which is the probable effective stimulator in lipase production, to the R2YE medium. When 5 mM vinyl propionate was added as a precursor for PCC pathway to R2YE medium, the specific production of FK506 increased approximately 1.9-fold (71.61 mg/g) compared to that under the non-supplemented condition. Moreover, in the presence of 5 mM Tween 80, the specific FK506 production was approximately 2.2-fold (157.44 mg/g) higher than that when only vinyl propionate was added to the R2YE medium. In particular, PCC expression in Streptomyces sp. RM7011 (RM7011/pSJ1003) together with vinyl propionate feeding resulted in an increase in the FK506 titer to as much as 1.6-fold (251.9 mg/g) compared with that in RM7011/pSE34 in R2YE medium with 5 mM Tween 80 supplementation, indicating that the vinyl propionate is more catabolized to propionate by stimulated lipase activity on Tween 80, that propionyl-CoA yielded from propionate generates methylmalonyl-CoA, and that the PCC pathway plays a key role in increasing the methylmalonyl-CoA pool for FK506 biosynthesis in RM7011 strain. Overall

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of the RmInt1 Group II Intronless Sinorhizobium meliloti Strain RMO17.

    PubMed

    Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Nisa-Martínez, Rafael

    2014-10-09

    We report the complete genome sequence of the RmInt1 group II intronless Sinorhizobium meliloti strain RMO17 isolated from Medicago orbicularis nodules from Spanish soil. The genome consists of 6.73 Mb distributed between a single chromosome and two megaplasmids (the chromid pSymB and pSymA). Copyright © 2014 Toro et al.

  12. Exact nonlinear model reduction for a von Kármán beam: Slow-fast decomposition and spectral submanifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Shobhit; Tiso, Paolo; Haller, George

    2018-06-01

    We apply two recently formulated mathematical techniques, Slow-Fast Decomposition (SFD) and Spectral Submanifold (SSM) reduction, to a von Kármán beam with geometric nonlinearities and viscoelastic damping. SFD identifies a global slow manifold in the full system which attracts solutions at rates faster than typical rates within the manifold. An SSM, the smoothest nonlinear continuation of a linear modal subspace, is then used to further reduce the beam equations within the slow manifold. This two-stage, mathematically exact procedure results in a drastic reduction of the finite-element beam model to a one-degree-of freedom nonlinear oscillator. We also introduce the technique of spectral quotient analysis, which gives the number of modes relevant for reduction as output rather than input to the reduction process.

  13. Economic impact of remote monitoring after implantable defibrillators implantation in heart failure patients: an analysis from the EFFECT study.

    PubMed

    Capucci, Alessandro; De Simone, Antonio; Luzi, Mario; Calvi, Valeria; Stabile, Giuseppe; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Maffei, Simone; Leoni, Loira; Morani, Giovanni; Sangiuolo, Raffaele; Amellone, Claudia; Checchinato, Catia; Ammendola, Ernesto; Buja, Gianfranco

    2017-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) require admissions for disease management and out-patient visits for disease management and assessment of device performance. These admissions place a significant burden on the National Health Service. Remote monitoring (RM) is an effective alternative to frequent hospital visits. The EFFECT study was a multicentre observational investigation aiming to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of RM compared with in-office visits standard management (SM). The present analysis is an economic evaluation of the results of the EFFECT trial. The present analysis considered the direct consumption of healthcare resources over 12-month follow-up. Standard tariffs were applied to hospitalizations, in-office visits and remote device interrogations. Economic comparisons were also carried out by means of propensity score (PS) analysis to take into account the lack of randomization in the study design. The analysis involved 858 patients with ICD or CRT-D. Of these, 401 (47%) were followed up via an SM approach, while 457 (53%) were assigned to RM. The rate of hospitalizations was 0.27/year in the SM group and 0.16/year in the RM group (risk reduction =0.59; P = 0.0004). In the non-adjusted analysis, the annual cost for each patient was €817 in the SM group and €604 in the RM group (P = 0.014). Propensity score analysis, in which 292 RM patients were matched with 292 SM patients, confirmed the results of the non-adjusted analysis (€872 in the SM group vs. €757 in the RM group; P < 0.0001). There is a reduction in direct healthcare costs of RM for HF patients with ICDs, particularly CRT-D, compared with standard monitoring. http://clinicaltrials.gov/Identifier, NCT01723865. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Is the von Kármán constant affected by sediment suspension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; GiráLdez, Juan V.; Mateos, Luciano; Dey, Subhasish

    2012-12-01

    Is the von Kármán constant affected by sediment suspension? The presence of suspended sediment in channels and fluvial streams has been known for decades to affect turbulence transfer mechanism in sediment-laden flows, and, therefore, the transport and fate of sediments that determine the bathymetry of natural water courses. This study explores the density stratification effects on the turbulent velocity profile and its impact on the transport of sediment. There is as yet no consensus in the scientific community on the effect of sediment suspension on the von Kármán parameter,κ. Two different theories based on the empirical log-wake velocity profile are currently under debate: One supports a universal value ofκ = 0.41 and a strength of the wake, Π, that is affected by suspended sediment. The other suggests that both κ and Π could vary with suspended sediment. These different theories result in a conceptual problem regarding the effect of suspended sediment on κ, which has divided the research area. In this study, a new mixing length theory is proposed to describe theoretically the turbulent velocity profile. The analytical approach provides added insight defining κas a turbulent parameter which varies with the distance to the bed in sediment-laden flows. The theory is compared with previous experimental data and simulations using ak-ɛturbulence closure to the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equations model. The mixing length model indicates that the two contradictory theories incorporate the stratified flow effect into a different component of the log-wake law. The results of this work show that the log-wake fit with a reducedκ is the physically coherent approximation.

  15. Electronic self-organization in the single-layer manganite $$\\rm Pr_{1-x}Ca_{1+x}MnO4$$

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ye, Feng; Chi, Songxue; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A

    We use neutron scattering to investigate the doping evolution of the magnetic correlations in the single-layer manganitemore » $$\\rm Pr_{\\it 1-x}Ca_{\\it 1+x}MnO_4$$, away from the $x=0.5$ composition where the CE-type commensurate antiferromagnetic (AF) structure is stable. We find that short-range incommensurate spin correlations develop as the system is electron doped ($x<0.5$), which coexist with the CE-type AF order. This suggests that electron doping in this system induces an inhomogeneous electronic self-organization, where commensurate AF patches with $x=0.5$ are separated by electron-rich domain walls with short range magnetic correlations. This behavior is strikingly different than for the three-dimensional $$\\rm Pr_{\\it 1-x}Ca_{\\it x}MnO_3$$, where the long-range CE-type commensurate AF structure is stable over a wide range of electron or hole doping around $x=0.5$.« less

  16. von Kármán-Howarth equation for three-dimensional two-fluid plasmas.

    PubMed

    Andrés, N; Mininni, P D; Dmitruk, P; Gómez, D O

    2016-06-01

    We derive the von Kármán-Howarth equation for a full three-dimensional incompressible two-fluid plasma. In the long-time limit and for very large Reynolds numbers we obtain the equivalent of the hydrodynamic "four-fifths" law. This exact law predicts the scaling of the third-order two-point correlation functions, and puts a strong constraint on the plasma turbulent dynamics. Finally, we derive a simple expression for the 4/5 law in terms of third-order structure functions, which is appropriate for comparison with in situ measurements in the solar wind at different spatial ranges.

  17. The peopling of Europe and the cautionary tale of Y chromosome lineage R-M269

    PubMed Central

    Busby, George B. J.; Brisighelli, Francesca; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Ramos-Luis, Eva; Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Thomas, Mark G.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Gusmão, Leonor; Winney, Bruce; Bodmer, Walter; Vennemann, Marielle; Coia, Valentina; Scarnicci, Francesca; Tofanelli, Sergio; Vona, Giuseppe; Ploski, Rafal; Vecchiotti, Carla; Zemunik, Tatijana; Rudan, Igor; Karachanak, Sena; Toncheva, Draga; Anagnostou, Paolo; Ferri, Gianmarco; Rapone, Cesare; Hervig, Tor; Moen, Torolf; Wilson, James F.; Capelli, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the debate on the origins of the major European Y chromosome haplogroup R1b1b2-M269 has reignited, and opinion has moved away from Palaeolithic origins to the notion of a younger Neolithic spread of these chromosomes from the Near East. Here, we address this debate by investigating frequency patterns and diversity in the largest collection of R1b1b2-M269 chromosomes yet assembled. Our analysis reveals no geographical trends in diversity, in contradiction to expectation under the Neolithic hypothesis, and suggests an alternative explanation for the apparent cline in diversity recently described. We further investigate the young, STR-based time to the most recent common ancestor estimates proposed so far for R-M269-related lineages and find evidence for an appreciable effect of microsatellite choice on age estimates. As a consequence, the existing data and tools are insufficient to make credible estimates for the age of this haplogroup, and conclusions about the timing of its origin and dispersal should be viewed with a large degree of caution. PMID:21865258

  18. A cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of eHealth-supported patient recruitment in primary care research: the TRANSFoRm study protocol.

    PubMed

    Mastellos, Nikolaos; Andreasson, Anna; Huckvale, Kit; Larsen, Mark; Curcin, Vasa; Car, Josip; Agreus, Lars; Delaney, Brendan

    2015-02-03

    Opportunistic recruitment is a highly laborious and time-consuming process that is currently performed manually, increasing the workload of already busy practitioners and resulting in many studies failing to achieve their recruitment targets. The Translational Medicine and Patient Safety in Europe (TRANSFoRm) platform enables automated recruitment, data collection and follow-up of patients, potentially improving the efficiency, time and costs of clinical research. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of TRANSFoRm in improving patient recruitment and follow-up in primary care trials. This multi-centre, parallel-arm cluster randomised controlled trial will compare TRANSFoRm-supported with standard opportunistic recruitment. Participants will be general practitioners and patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease from 40 primary care centres in five European countries. Randomisation will take place at the care centre level. The intervention arm will use the TRANSFoRm tools for recruitment, baseline data collection and follow-up. The control arm will use web-based case report forms and paper self-completed questionnaires. The primary outcome will be the proportion of eligible patients successfully recruited at the end of the 16-week recruitment period. Secondary outcomes will include the proportion of recruited patients with complete baseline and follow-up data and the proportion of participants withdrawn or lost to follow-up. The study will also include an economic evaluation and measures of technology acceptance and user experience. The study should shed light on the use of eHealth to improve the effectiveness of recruitment and follow-up in primary care research and provide an evidence base for future eHealth-supported recruitment initiatives. Reporting of results is expected in October 2015. EudraCT: 2014-001314-25.

  19. Artificial Intelligence Applications to Maintenance Technology Working Group Report (IDA/OSD R&M (Institute for Defense Analyses/Office of the Secretary of Defense Reliability and Maintainability) Study).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Research and Engineering and Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Mw Reserve Affairs and Logistics) 1WTITR#OR DEFENSE ANALYSES ~~’AND... TITLE (and Subdlee) S.TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Final Artificial Intelligence Applications to Main- July 1982 - August 1983 tenance Technology...of DoD (Short Title : R&M Study). This task order was structured to address the improvement of R&M and readiness through innovative program structuring

  20. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity and Molecular Marker-Trait Association Analysis for High Temperature Stress Tolerance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Barik, Saumya Ranjan; Sahoo, Ambika; Mohapatra, Sudipti; Nayak, Deepak Kumar; Mahender, Anumalla; Meher, Jitandriya; Anandan, Annamalai; Pandit, Elssa

    2016-01-01

    Rice exhibits enormous genetic diversity, population structure and molecular marker-traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance to high temperature stress. A set of breeding lines and landraces representing 240 germplasm lines were studied. Based on spikelet fertility percent under high temperature, tolerant genotypes were broadly classified into four classes. Genetic diversity indicated a moderate level of genetic base of the population for the trait studied. Wright's F statistic estimates showed a deviation of Hardy-Weinberg expectation in the population. The analysis of molecular variance revealed 25 percent variation between population, 61 percent among individuals and 14 percent within individuals in the set. The STRUCTURE analysis categorized the entire population into three sub-populations and suggested that most of the landraces in each sub-population had a common primary ancestor with few admix individuals. The composition of materials in the panel showed the presence of many QTLs representing the entire genome for the expression of tolerance. The strongly associated marker RM547 tagged with spikelet fertility under stress and the markers like RM228, RM205, RM247, RM242, INDEL3 and RM314 indirectly controlling the high temperature stress tolerance were detected through both mixed linear model and general linear model TASSEL analysis. These markers can be deployed as a resource for marker-assisted breeding program of high temperature stress tolerance.

  1. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity and Molecular Marker-Trait Association Analysis for High Temperature Stress Tolerance in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Saumya Ranjan; Sahoo, Ambika; Mohapatra, Sudipti; Nayak, Deepak Kumar; Mahender, Anumalla; Meher, Jitandriya; Anandan, Annamalai

    2016-01-01

    Rice exhibits enormous genetic diversity, population structure and molecular marker-traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance to high temperature stress. A set of breeding lines and landraces representing 240 germplasm lines were studied. Based on spikelet fertility percent under high temperature, tolerant genotypes were broadly classified into four classes. Genetic diversity indicated a moderate level of genetic base of the population for the trait studied. Wright’s F statistic estimates showed a deviation of Hardy-Weinberg expectation in the population. The analysis of molecular variance revealed 25 percent variation between population, 61 percent among individuals and 14 percent within individuals in the set. The STRUCTURE analysis categorized the entire population into three sub-populations and suggested that most of the landraces in each sub-population had a common primary ancestor with few admix individuals. The composition of materials in the panel showed the presence of many QTLs representing the entire genome for the expression of tolerance. The strongly associated marker RM547 tagged with spikelet fertility under stress and the markers like RM228, RM205, RM247, RM242, INDEL3 and RM314 indirectly controlling the high temperature stress tolerance were detected through both mixed linear model and general linear model TASSEL analysis. These markers can be deployed as a resource for marker-assisted breeding program of high temperature stress tolerance. PMID:27494320

  2. Thermostable proteins bioprocesses: The activity of restriction endonuclease-methyltransferase from Thermus thermophilus (RM.TthHB27I) cloned in Escherichia coli is critically affected by the codon composition of the synthetic gene.

    PubMed

    Krefft, Daria; Papkov, Aliaksei; Zylicz-Stachula, Agnieszka; Skowron, Piotr M

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining thermostable enzymes (thermozymes) is an important aspect of biotechnology. As thermophiles have adapted their genomes to high temperatures, their cloned genes' expression in mesophiles is problematic. This is mainly due to their high GC content, which leads to the formation of unfavorable secondary mRNA structures and codon usage in Escherichia coli (E. coli). RM.TthHB27I is a member of a family of bifunctional thermozymes, containing a restriction endonuclease (REase) and a methyltransferase (MTase) in a single polypeptide. Thermus thermophilus HB27 (T. thermophilus) produces low amounts of RM.TthHB27I with a unique DNA cleavage specificity. We have previously cloned the wild type (wt) gene into E. coli, which increased the production of RM.TthHB27I over 100-fold. However, its enzymatic activities were extremely low for an ORF expressed under a T7 promoter. We have designed and cloned a fully synthetic tthHB27IRM gene, using a modified 'codon randomization' strategy. Codons with a high GC content and of low occurrence in E. coli were eliminated. We incorporated a stem-loop circuit, devised to negatively control the expression of this highly toxic gene by partially hiding the ribosome-binding site (RBS) and START codon in mRNA secondary structures. Despite having optimized 59% of codons, the amount of produced RM.TthHB27I protein was similar for both recombinant tthHB27IRM gene variants. Moreover, the recombinant wt RM.TthHB27I is very unstable, while the RM.TthHB27I resulting from the expression of the synthetic gene exhibited enzymatic activities and stability equal to the native thermozyme isolated from T. thermophilus. Thus, we have developed an efficient purification protocol using the synthetic tthHB27IRM gene variant only. This suggests the effect of co-translational folding kinetics, possibly affected by the frequency of translational errors. The availability of active RM.TthHB27I is of practical importance in molecular biotechnology, extending

  3. von Kármán–Howarth and Corrsin equations closure based on Lagrangian description of the fluid motion

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Divitiis, Nicola de, E-mail: n.dedivitiis@gmail.com

    A new approach to obtain the closure formulas for the von Kármán–Howarth and Corrsin equations is presented, which is based on the Lagrangian representation of the fluid motion, and on the Liouville theorem associated to the kinematics of a pair of fluid particles. This kinematics is characterized by the finite scale separation vector which is assumed to be statistically independent from the velocity field. Such assumption is justified by the hypothesis of fully developed turbulence and by the property that this vector varies much more rapidly than the velocity field. This formulation leads to the closure formulas of von Kármán–Howarthmore » and Corrsin equations in terms of longitudinal velocity and temperature correlations following a demonstration completely different with respect to the previous works. Some of the properties and the limitations of the closed equations are discussed. In particular, we show that the times of evolution of the developed kinetic energy and temperature spectra are finite quantities which depend on the initial conditions.« less

  4. Complete genomic sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 strain RM1285 that was isolated from packaged chicken

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry products serve as the main source of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) infections in humans. Cjj infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and are a prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). This study describes the genome of Cjj HS:19 strain RM1285 isol...

  5. The Native Production of the Sesquiterpene Isopterocarpolone by Streptomyces sp. RM-14-6

    PubMed Central

    Shaaban, Khaled A.; Singh, Shanteri; Elshahawi, Sherif I.; Wang, Xiachang; Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Sunkara, Manjula; Copley, Gregory C.; Hower, James C.; Morris, Andrew J.; Kharel, Madan K.; Thorson, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report the production, isolation and structure elucidation of the sesquiterpene isopterocarpolone from an Appalachian isolate Streptomyces species RM-14-6. While isopterocarpolone was previously put forth as a putative plant metabolite, the current study highlights the first native bacterial production of isopterocarpolone and the first full characterization of isopterocarpolone using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI mass spectrometry. Considering the biosynthesis of closely related metabolites (geosmin or 5-epiaristolochene), the structure of isopterocarpolone also suggests the potential participation of one or more unique enzymatic transformations. In this context, this work also sets the stage for the elucidation of potentially novel bacterial biosynthetic machinery. PMID:24237421

  6. Analysis of factors that influence the maximum number of repetitions in two upper-body resistance exercises: curl biceps and bench press.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Eliseo; Boullosa, Daniel A; Dopico, Xurxo; Carballeira, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of exercise type, set configuration, and relative intensity load on relationship between 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximum number of repetitions (MNR). Thirteen male subjects, experienced in resistance training, were tested in bench press and biceps curl for 1RM, MNR at 90% of 1RM with cluster set configuration (rest of 30s between repetitions) and MNR at 70% of 1RM with traditional set configuration (no rest between repetitions). A lineal encoder was used for measuring displacement of load. Analysis of variance analysis revealed a significant effect of load (p<0.01) and a tendency in exercise factor (p=0.096), whereas the interaction effect was not significant. MNR at 70% of 1RM was lower for biceps curl (16.31+/-2.59 vs. 8.77+/-3 in bench press and biceps curl, respectively; p<0.05) and at 90% of 1RM (21.85+/-11.06 vs. 18.54+/-12.84 in bench press and biceps curl, respectively; p>0.05). Correlation between 1RM and MNR was significant for medium-intensity in biceps curl (r=-0.574; p<0.05) and between MNR and 1RM/body mass (r=-0.574; p<0.05). Neither 1RM nor 1RM/body mass correlated with velocity along set, so velocity seems to be similar at a same relative intensity for subjects with differences in maximum strength levels. From our results, we suggest the employment of MNR rather than % of 1RM for training monitoring. Furthermore, we suggest the introduction of cluster set configuration for upper-body assessment of MNR and for upper-body muscular endurance training at high-intensity loads, as it seems an efficient approach in looking for sessions with greater training volumes. This could be an interesting approach for such sports as wrestling or weightlifting.

  7. High-Dimensional Exploratory Item Factor Analysis by a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    A Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm for high-dimensional maximum marginal likelihood exploratory item factor analysis is proposed. The sequence of estimates from the MH-RM algorithm converges with probability one to the maximum likelihood solution. Details on the computer implementation of this algorithm are provided. The…

  8. Cartoon Analysis of Peace Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Mary, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A cartoon for analysis and other learning activities is provided to help students study about peace propaganda, the nuclear freeze, and disarmament. A cartoon analysis worksheet, designed to help students analyze almost any political cartoon, is included. (RM)

  9. 77 FR 46125 - Sunoco, Inc., R&M, Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco, Inc., 10 Industrial Hwy., MS4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,145; TA-W-81,145A] Sunoco, Inc., R&M, Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco, Inc., 10 Industrial Hwy., MS4 Building G, Lester, PA; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration On April 30, 2012, the Department of Labor issued an Affirmative Determination Regarding...

  10. 77 FR 29362 - Sunoco, Inc., R&M Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco, Inc., 10 Industrial Hwy, MS4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,145; TA-W-81,145A] Sunoco, Inc., R&M Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco, Inc., 10 Industrial Hwy, MS4 Building G, Lester, PA; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated March 26, 2012, the United Steel Workers Union...

  11. Spoxazomicin D and Oxachelin C, Potent Neuroprotective Carboxamides from the Appalachian Coal Fire-Associated Isolate Streptomyces sp. RM-14-6.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Khaled A; Saunders, Meredith A; Zhang, Yinan; Tran, Tuan; Elshahawi, Sherif I; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Wang, Xiachang; Zhang, Jianjun; Copley, Gregory C; Sunkara, Manjula; Kharel, Madan K; Morris, Andrew J; Hower, James C; Tremblay, Matthew S; Prendergast, Mark A; Thorson, Jon S

    2017-01-27

    The isolation and structure elucidation of six new bacterial metabolites [spoxazomicin D (2), oxachelins B and C (4, 5), and carboxamides 6-8] and 11 previously reported bacterial metabolites (1, 3, 9-12a, and 14-18) from Streptomyces sp. RM-14-6 is reported. Structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry data analysis, along with direct comparison to synthetic standards for 2, 11, and 12a,b. Complete 2D NMR assignments for the known metabolites lenoremycin (9) and lenoremycin sodium salt (10) were also provided for the first time. Comparative analysis also provided the basis for structural revision of several previously reported putative aziridine-containing compounds [exemplified by madurastatins A1, B1, C1 (also known as MBJ-0034), and MBJ-0035] as phenol-dihydrooxazoles. Bioactivity analysis [including antibacterial, antifungal, cancer cell line cytotoxicity, unfolded protein response (UPR) modulation, and EtOH damage neuroprotection] revealed 2 and 5 as potent neuroprotectives and lenoremycin (9) and its sodium salt (10) as potent UPR modulators, highlighting new functions for phenol-oxazolines/salicylates and polyether pharmacophores.

  12. Selfish restriction modification genes: resistance of a resident R/M plasmid to displacement by an incompatible plasmid mediated by host killing.

    PubMed

    Naito, Y; Naito, T; Kobayashi, I

    1998-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that plasmids carrying a type II restriction-modification gene complex are not easily lost from their bacterial host because plasmid-free segregant cells are killed through chromosome cleavage. Here, we have followed the course of events that takes place when an Escherichia coli rec BC sbcA strain carrying a plasmid coding for the PaeR7I restriction-modification (R/M) gene complex is transformed by a plasmid with an identical origin of replication. The number of transformants that appeared was far fewer than with the restriction-minus (r-) control. Most of the transformants were very small. After prolonged incubation, the number and the size of the colonies increased, but this increase never attained the level of the r- control. Most of the transformed colonies retained the drug-resistance of the resident, r+ m+ plasmid. These results indicate that post-segregational host killing occurs when a plasmid bearing an R/M gene complex is displaced by an incompatible plasmid. Such cell killing eliminates the competitor plasmid along with the host and, thus, would allow persistence of the R/M plasmid in the neighboring, clonal host cells in nature. This phenomenon is reminiscent of mammalian apoptosis and other forms of altruistic cell death strategy against infection. This type of resistance to displacement was also studied in a wild type Escherichia coli strain that was normal for homologous recombination (rec+). A number of differences between the recBC sbcA strain and the rec+ strain were observed and these will be discussed.

  13. A unified structural/terminological interoperability framework based on LexEVS: application to TRANSFoRm.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Jean-François; Dameron, Olivier; Curcin, Vasa; McGilchrist, Mark M; Verheij, Robert A; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Taweel, Adel; Delaney, Brendan C; Burgun, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical research increasingly relies on the integration of information from multiple heterogeneous data sources. Despite the fact that structural and terminological aspects of interoperability are interdependent and rely on a common set of requirements, current efforts typically address them in isolation. We propose a unified ontology-based knowledge framework to facilitate interoperability between heterogeneous sources, and investigate if using the LexEVS terminology server is a viable implementation method. We developed a framework based on an ontology, the general information model (GIM), to unify structural models and terminologies, together with relevant mapping sets. This allowed a uniform access to these resources within LexEVS to facilitate interoperability by various components and data sources from implementing architectures. Our unified framework has been tested in the context of the EU Framework Program 7 TRANSFoRm project, where it was used to achieve data integration in a retrospective diabetes cohort study. The GIM was successfully instantiated in TRANSFoRm as the clinical data integration model, and necessary mappings were created to support effective information retrieval for software tools in the project. We present a novel, unifying approach to address interoperability challenges in heterogeneous data sources, by representing structural and semantic models in one framework. Systems using this architecture can rely solely on the GIM that abstracts over both the structure and coding. Information models, terminologies and mappings are all stored in LexEVS and can be accessed in a uniform manner (implementing the HL7 CTS2 service functional model). The system is flexible and should reduce the effort needed from data sources personnel for implementing and managing the integration.

  14. A unified structural/terminological interoperability framework based on LexEVS: application to TRANSFoRm

    PubMed Central

    Ethier, Jean-François; Dameron, Olivier; Curcin, Vasa; McGilchrist, Mark M; Verheij, Robert A; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Taweel, Adel; Delaney, Brendan C; Burgun, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Objective Biomedical research increasingly relies on the integration of information from multiple heterogeneous data sources. Despite the fact that structural and terminological aspects of interoperability are interdependent and rely on a common set of requirements, current efforts typically address them in isolation. We propose a unified ontology-based knowledge framework to facilitate interoperability between heterogeneous sources, and investigate if using the LexEVS terminology server is a viable implementation method. Materials and methods We developed a framework based on an ontology, the general information model (GIM), to unify structural models and terminologies, together with relevant mapping sets. This allowed a uniform access to these resources within LexEVS to facilitate interoperability by various components and data sources from implementing architectures. Results Our unified framework has been tested in the context of the EU Framework Program 7 TRANSFoRm project, where it was used to achieve data integration in a retrospective diabetes cohort study. The GIM was successfully instantiated in TRANSFoRm as the clinical data integration model, and necessary mappings were created to support effective information retrieval for software tools in the project. Conclusions We present a novel, unifying approach to address interoperability challenges in heterogeneous data sources, by representing structural and semantic models in one framework. Systems using this architecture can rely solely on the GIM that abstracts over both the structure and coding. Information models, terminologies and mappings are all stored in LexEVS and can be accessed in a uniform manner (implementing the HL7 CTS2 service functional model). The system is flexible and should reduce the effort needed from data sources personnel for implementing and managing the integration. PMID:23571850

  15. Single-wave-number representation of nonlinear energy spectrum in elastic-wave turbulence of the Föppl-von Kármán equation: energy decomposition analysis and energy budget.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    A single-wave-number representation of a nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., a stretching-energy spectrum, is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wave-number space and analytical expressions of detailed energy budgets in the nonlinear interactions. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic energy and bending energy are comparable with each other at large wave numbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wave numbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode a(k) and its companion mode a(-k) is observed at the small wave numbers. The energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wave numbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wave numbers. Total-energy flux consistent with energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.

  16. The International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM): The United States' Contribution to UNESCO IHP's Global Network of Water Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a "category 2 center"—i.e., one that is closely affiliated with UNESCO, but not legally part of UNESCO—dates back many decades. However, only in the last decade has the concept been fully developed. Within UNESCO, the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) has led the way in creating a network of regional and global water-related centers.ICIWaRM—the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management—is one member of this network. Approved by UNESCO's General Conference, the center has been operating since 2009. It was designed to fill a niche in the system for a center that was backed by an institution with on-the-ground water management experience, but that also had strong connections to academia, NGOs and other governmental agencies. Thus, ICIWaRM is hosted by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Institute for Water Resources (IWR), but established with an internal network of partner institutions. Three main factors have contributed to any success that ICIWaRM has achieved in its global work: A focus on practical science and technology which can be readily transferred. This includes the Corps' own methodologies and models for planning and water management, and those of our university and government partners. Collaboration with other UNESCO Centers on joint applied research, capacity-building and training. A network of centers needs to function as a network, and ICIWaRM has worked together with UNESCO-affiliated centers in Chile, Brazil, Paraguay, the Dominican Republic, Japan, China, and elsewhere. Partnering with and supporting existing UNESCO-IHP programs. ICIWaRM serves as the Global Technical Secretariat for IHP's Global Network on Water and Development Information in Arid Lands (G-WADI). In addition to directly supporting IHP, work through G-WADI helps the center to frame, prioritize and integrate its activities. With the recent release of the United Nation's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it is clear that

  17. Investigation of the In Vitro and In Vivo efficiency of RM-532-105, a 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 inhibitor, in LAPC-4 prostate cancer cell and tumor models

    PubMed Central

    Kenmogne, Lucie Carolle; Roy, Jenny; Maltais, René; Rouleau, Mélanie; Neveu, Bertrand; Pouliot, Frédéric; Poirier, Donald

    2017-01-01

    In the fight against androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD3) is an attractive therapeutic target considering its key role in the formation of androgenic steroids. In this study, we attempted to assess the in vivo efficacy of the compound RM-532-105, an androsterone derivative developed as an inhibitor of 17β-HSD3, in the prostate cancer model of androgen-sensitive LAPC-4 cells xenografted in nude mice. RM-532-105 did not inhibit the tumor growth induced by 4-androstene-3,17-dione (4-dione); rather, the levels of the androgens testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) increased within the tumors. In plasma, however, DHT levels increased but T levels did not. In troubleshooting experiments, the non-androgenic potential of RM-532-105 was confirmed by two different assays (LAPC-4 proliferation and androgen receptor transcriptional activity assays). The enzyme 5α-reductase was also revealed to be the predominant enzyme metabolizing 4-dione in LAPC-4 cells, yielding 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and not T. Other 17β-HSDs than 17β-HSD3 seem responsible in the androgen synthesis. From experiments with LAPC-4 cells, we fortuitously came across the interesting finding that 17β-HSD3 inhibitor RM-532-105 is concentrated inside tumors. PMID:28182747

  18. Inter-Comparison of WRF Model Simulated Winds and MISR Stereoscopic Winds Embedded within Mesoscale von Kármán Wake Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, A.; Nunalee, C. G.; Mueller, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Several distinct wake regimes are possible when considering atmospheric flow past a steep mountainous island. Of these regimes, coherent vortex shedding in low-Froude number flow is particularly interesting because it can produce laterally focused paths of counter rotating eddies capable of extending downstream for hundreds of kilometers (i.e., a von Kármán vortex street). Given the spatial scales of atmospheric von Kármán vortices, which typically lies on the interface of the meso-scale and the micro-scale, they are uniquely challenging to model using conventional numerical weather prediction platforms. In this presentation, we present high resolution (1-km horizontally) numerical modeling results using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, of multiple real-world von Kármán vortex shedding events associated with steep islands (e.g., Madeira island, Gran Canaria island, etc.). In parallel, we also present corresponding cloud-motion wind and cloud-top height measurements from the satellite-based Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument. The MISR stereo algorithm enables experimental retrieval of the horizontal wind vector (both along-track and cross-track components) at 4.4-km resolution, in addition to the operational 1.1-km resolution cross-track wind and cloud-top height products. These products offer the fidelity appropriate for inter-comparison with the numerically simulated vortex streets. In general, we find an agreement between the instantaneous simulated cloud level winds and the MISR stereoscopic winds; however, discrepancies in the vortex street length and localized horizontal wind shear were documented. In addition, the simulated fields demonstrate sensitivity to turbulence closure and input terrain height data.

  19. Do service users with intellectual disabilities want to be involved in the risk management process? A thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kilcommons, Aoiffe M; Withers, Paul; Moreno-Lopez, Águeda

    2012-09-01

    Involving ID service users in risk decision making necessitates consideration of an individual's ability to assess the implications and associated risks and thus make an informed choice. This calls for research on service users' awareness and understanding of risk management (RM). Thirteen people in a residential ID service who were reviewed under the risk management process (RMP) participated in the research. Thematic analysis explored participants' knowledge and understanding of risk management to establish ability to make informed choice. Two main meta-themes (lack of awareness about RM and awareness about RM) and four meta-themes (extent of RM awareness, locus of control, compliance and empowerment) emerged. Nine of 13 participants demonstrated some knowledge and awareness of RM and wanted to contribute to the RMP, despite not being consulted about or given the opportunity to be involved in RM. The majority of service users in this sample had some awareness of the purpose of RM and could make partially informed decisions about whether they would like to be involved in the RMP. The findings highlight the need for professionals to actively attempt to involve ID service users in the management of their own risk. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. IDA/OSD R&M (Institute for Defense Analyses/Office of the Secretary of Defense Reliability and Maintainability) Study Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    30 -IOLW. c • o:,,tas z ".9’ IM moOm X-272 IDA... 30 -2 • . ,, ... .L.. . .i W . . .’ I".• : V.*.’’. ;, .. . ... ," ... ,. . - 4..; ,,, .,, R&M STUDY,. DOCUMENTS LIST ( by Subject )-.:,’.i AS OF: 22...DE60. Maintainability Standardization Document Program Plan, Revision 1, Draft, DoD, 30 April 1982. DE82. Acquisition and Management of

  1. Proteomics and bioinformatics analysis of altered protein expression in the placental villous tissue from early recurrent miscarriage patients.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hai-Tao; Ding, Hai-Gang; Fang, Min; Yu, Bin; Cheng, Yi; Tan, Ya-Jing; Fu, Qi-Qin; Lu, Bo; Cai, Hong-Guang; Jin, Xin; Xia, Xian-Qing; Zhang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriage (RM) affects 5% of women, it has an adverse emotional impact on women. Because of the complexities of early development, the mechanism of recurrent miscarriage is still unclear. We hypothesized that abnormal placenta leads to early recurrent miscarriage (ERM). The aim of this study was to identify ERM associated factors in human placenta villous tissue using proteomics. Investigation of these differences in protein expression in parallel profiling is essential to understand the comprehensive pathophysiological mechanism underlying recurrent miscarriage (RM). To gain more insight into mechanisms of recurrent miscarriage (RM), a comparative proteome profile of the human placenta villous tissue in normal and RM pregnancies was analyzed using iTRAQ technology and bioinformatics analysis used by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. In this study, we employed an iTRAQ based proteomics analysis of four placental villous tissues from patients with early recurrent miscarriage (ERM) and four from normal pregnant women. Finally, we identified 2805 proteins and 79,998 peptides between patients with RM and normal matched group. Further analysis identified 314 differentially expressed proteins in placental villous tissue (≥1.3-fold, Student's t-test, p < 0.05); 209 proteins showed the increased expression while 105 proteins showed decreased expression. These 314 proteins were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and were found to play important roles in the growth of embryo. Furthermore, network analysis show that Angiotensinogen (AGT), MAPK14 and Prothrombin (F2) are core factors in early embryonic development. We used another 8 independent samples (4 cases and 4 controls) to cross validation of the proteomic data. This study has identified several proteins that are associated with early development, these results may supply new insight into mechanisms behind recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. a Combined Molecular Dynamics and NMR Spectroscopic Protocol for the Conformational Analysis of Oligosaccharides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Vikram

    A combined experimental and theoretical protocol for the conformational analysis of oligosaccharides is presented. Three disaccharides, methyl alpha - scD-mannopyranosyl-(1 to 3)-alpha- scD-mannopyranoside, methyl beta- scD-galactopyranosyl-(1 to 4)-beta- scD-glucopyranoside, and propyl beta- scD-2-acetamido -2-deoxy glucopyranosyl-(1 to 3)- alpha- scL-rhamnopyranoside, are used to evaluate a protocol for conformational analysis that makes use of molecular dynamics calculations with the CHARMM force field. Dynamics trajectories computed in vacuo and in water are used to calculate time-averaged NMR parameters such as spin-lattice relaxation times (T_1 ), Nuclear Overhauser Enhancements (NOE), and heteronuclear spin-spin coupling constants (^3J _{rm CH}). The calculated NMR parameters are then compared to experimental values and used to evaluate the computational procedure. The energetically accessible conformations are effectively sampled by the simulations. The method has been extended to the conformational analysis of higher-order oligosaccharides corresponding to the cell-wall polysaccharide of the Streptococcus Group A, and the Shigella flexneri Y O-antigen. The Streptococcus Group A cell-wall polysaccharide is comprised of a backbone of rhamnopyranosyl units connected by alternating alpha- scL-(1 to 3) and alpha- scL -(1 to 2) linkages, to which are attached N-acetyl-beta- scD-glucosamine ( beta- scD-GlcpNAc) residues at the 3 positions of the rhamnose backbone.rm A&rm B^'qquad A^'& rm Bqquad Acr[{-alpha}{-}L{-}Rha {it p}{-}(1to2){-alpha }{-}L{-}Rha{it p} {-}(1to3){-alpha}{ -}L{-}Rha{it p}-(1to2) -alpha-L-Rha{it p}{-}(1 to3){-alpha}{-}L{- }Rha{it p}{-}cr&uparrow(1 to3)&uparrow(1to3)crbeta {-}D{-}&rm Glc{it p }NAcqquadbeta{-}D{-}& rm Glc{it p}NAccr&rm C ^'&rm C] A branched trisaccharide (A^' -(C)B), a tetrasaccharide (A^' -(C)B-A), a pentasaccharide (C^' -B^'-A ^'-(C)B), and two hexasaccharides (C^'-B^ '-A^' -(C)B-A) and (A-(C^')B ^'-A^' -(C)B), have been chosen

  3. Deconstructing the power resistance relationship for squats: A joint-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Farris, D J; Lichtwark, G A; Brown, N A T; Cresswell, A G

    2016-07-01

    Generating high leg power outputs is important for executing rapid movements. Squats are commonly used to increase leg strength and power. Therefore, it is useful to understand factors affecting power output in squatting. We aimed to deconstruct the mechanisms behind why power is maximized at certain resistances in squatting. Ten male rowers (age = 20 ± 2.2 years; height = 1.82 ± 0.03 m; mass = 86 ± 11 kg) performed maximal power squats with resistances ranging from body weight to 80% of their one repetition maximum (1RM). Three-dimensional kinematics was combined with ground reaction force (GRF) data in an inverse dynamics analysis to calculate leg joint moments and powers. System center of mass (COM) velocity and power were computed from GRF data. COM power was maximized across a range of resistances from 40% to 60% 1RM. This range was identified because a trade-off in hip and knee joint powers existed across this range, with maximal knee joint power occurring at 40% 1RM and maximal hip joint power at 60% 1RM. A non-linear system force-velocity relationship was observed that dictated large reductions in COM power below 20% 1RM and above 60% 1RM. These reductions were due to constraints on the control of the movement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Teaching Vietnam: A Critical Military Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Harry G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    So that the same mistakes would never again be repeated, the Army War College prepared a clear and understandable analysis of America's strategic failure in Vietnam. One of the most positive aspects of the analysis was the rediscovery of the importance of traditional military history and classical military theory. (RM)

  5. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift analysis of singly ionized titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, Safa

    2013-04-01

    The even-parity low configuration system of Ti II has been considered on the basis of the experimental data found in the literature, and its fine structure has been reanalyzed by simultaneous parameterization of one- and two-body interactions for the model space (3d + 4s)3. Furthermore, the main one-electron hyperfine structure parameters for these configurations have been evaluated. For instance, for 3d24s1, a_{3{\\rm{d}}}^{01} = - {\\rm{63}}.{\\rm{2}}\\left( {{\\rm{3}}.{\\rm{1}}} \\right)\\,{\\rm{MHz}} and a_{4{\\rm{s}}}^{10} = - {\\rm{984}}.{\\rm{1}}\\left( {{\\rm{7}}.{\\rm{1}}} \\right)\\,{\\rm{MHz}} . Field shifts (FS) and specific mass shifts (SMS) of the main Ti II configurations are deduced by means of ab initio estimates combined with a small quantity of experimental isotope shift data available in the literature: FS(3d3) = -63.3 MHz, FS(3d24p1) = -49.7 MHz, FS(3d14s2) = 98.2 MHz, FS(4s24P1) = 163.4 MHz and SMS(3d3) = 1453.3 MHz, SMS(3d14s2) = -2179.7 MHz, …, referred to 3d24s1 for the pair Ti46-Ti48.

  6. Using conjoint analysis to measure the acceptability of rectal microbicides among men who have sex with men in four South American cities.

    PubMed

    Kinsler, Janni J; Cunningham, William E; Nureña, César R; Nadjat-Haiem, Carsten; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Casapia, Martin; Montoya-Herrera, Orlando; Sánchez, Jorge; Galea, Jerome T

    2012-08-01

    Conjoint Analysis (CJA), a statistical market-based technique that assesses the value consumers place on product characteristics, may be used to predict acceptability of hypothetical products. Rectal Microbicides (RM)-substances that would prevent HIV infection during receptive anal intercourse-will require acceptability data from potential users in multiple settings to inform the development process by providing valuable information on desirable product characteristics and issues surrounding potential barriers to product use. This study applied CJA to explore the acceptability of eight different hypothetical RM among 128 MSM in Lima and Iquitos, Peru; Guayaquil, Ecuador; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Overall RM acceptability was highest in Guayaquil and lowest in Rio. Product effectiveness had the greatest impact on acceptability in all four cities, but the impact of other product characteristics varied by city. This study demonstrates that MSM from the same region but from different cities place different values on RM characteristics that could impact uptake of an actual RM. Understanding specific consumer preferences is crucial during RM product development, clinical trials and eventual product dissemination.

  7. Operations and Modeling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) provides NASA the capability to estimate reliability and maintainability (R&M) parameters and operational support requirements for proposed space vehicles based upon relationships established from both aircraft and Shuttle R&M data. RMAT has matured both in its underlying database and in its level of sophistication in extrapolating this historical data to satisfy proposed mission requirements, maintenance concepts and policies, and type of vehicle (i.e. ranging from aircraft like to shuttle like). However, a companion analyses tool, the Logistics Cost Model (LCM) has not reached the same level of maturity as RMAT due, in large part, to nonexistent or outdated cost estimating relationships and underlying cost databases, and it's almost exclusive dependence on Shuttle operations and logistics cost input parameters. As a result, the full capability of the RMAT/LCM suite of analysis tools to take a conceptual vehicle and derive its operations and support requirements along with the resulting operating and support costs has not been realized.

  8. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three novel autophagy-related genes from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Flores Fernández, José Miguel; Barragán Álvarez, Carla Patricia; Sánchez Hernández, Carla Vanessa; Padilla Camberos, Eduardo; González Castillo, Celia; Ortuño Sahagún, Daniel; Martínez Velázquez, Moisés

    2016-11-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of major importance for the livestock industry. It shows a remarkable ability to survive over long periods without feeding. However, the mechanisms used to endure long-term starvation are poorly understood. It is believed that autophagy, a process of intracellular protein degradation, may play a significant role to confront adverse environmental conditions. To advance our understanding of autophagy in R. microplus, in the present study we report the molecular characterization of three autophagy-related (ATG) genes, namely, RmATG3, RmATG4 and RmATG6, as well as their expression profiles in different developmental stages and organs of the parasite. The deduced amino acid sequences derived from the characterized gene sequences were subjected to Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis. The testing produced significant alignments with respective ATG proteins from Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes scapularis ticks. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that RmATG4 and RmATG6 transcripts were elevated in egg and ovary tissue, when compared with larva and midgut samples, while RmATG3 expression in midgut was 2-fold higher than in egg, larva and ovary samples.

  9. Analysis of Coastal Dunes: A Remote Sensing and Statistical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, J. Richard

    1985-01-01

    Remote sensing analysis and statistical methods were used to analyze the coastal dunes of Plum Island, Massachusetts. The research methodology used provides an example of a student project for remote sensing, geomorphology, or spatial analysis courses at the university level. (RM)

  10. Comparison of the efficacy of Neethling lumpy skin disease virus and x10RM65 sheep-pox live attenuated vaccines for the prevention of lumpy skin disease - The results of a randomized controlled field study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Gera, J; Klement, E; Khinich, E; Stram, Y; Shpigel, N Y

    2015-09-11

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral disease of cattle and buffalo, caused by a Capripox virus. A field study was performed during an LSD epidemic which occurred in 2012-2013 in Israel, in order to assess the efficacy of two commercial vaccines for protection against LSD. Fifteen dairy herds, vaccinated 2-5 months prior to study onset with a single dose of 10(2.5) TCID50 of RM65 attenuated sheep-pox vaccine, and not affected previously, were enrolled in the study. 4694 cows were randomized to be either vaccinated with a 10(3.5) TCID50/dose of RM65 vaccine (x10RM65) or with a same dose of an attenuated Neethling LSD virus vaccine. A case of LSD was defined as the appearance of at least 5 lesions typical to LSD and a severe case was defined if this sign was accompanied by either fever (>39.5°C) or/and a 20% reduction in milk production. Deep lesion biopsies and blood samples were collected from 64.5% of the cases in an attempt to detect DNA of LSD virus by PCR and to differentiate between the wild strain and the vaccine Neethling strain. Seventy-six cows were affected by LSD in 8 herds with an incidence of 0.3-5.7%. Mantel-Haenszel relative risk (RRMH) for LSD morbidity at least 15 days after vaccination in x10RM65 vs. Neethling was 2.635 (CI95%=1.44-4.82) and 11.2 (2.3-54.7) for severe morbidity. RRMH for laboratory confirmed cases was 4.28 (1.59-11.53). An incidence of 0.38% (9/2356) of Neethling associated disease was observed among Neethling vaccinated cows while no such disease occurred in x10RM65 vaccinated cows. We conclude that the Neethling vaccine is significantly more effective than x10RM65 in preventing LSD morbidity, though it might cause a low incidence of Neethling associated disease. No transmission of the Neethling strain to non-Neethling vaccinated cows was observed in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Validity and reliability of a novel iPhone app for the measurement of barbell velocity and 1RM on the bench-press exercise.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Marchante, David; Muñoz-López, Mario; Jiménez, Sergio L

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the validity and reliability of a novel iPhone app (named: PowerLift) for the measurement of mean velocity on the bench-press exercise. Additionally, the accuracy of the estimation of the 1-Repetition maximum (1RM) using the load-velocity relationship was tested. To do this, 10 powerlifters (Mean (SD): age = 26.5 ± 6.5 years; bench press 1RM · kg -1  = 1.34 ± 0.25) completed an incremental test on the bench-press exercise with 5 different loads (75-100% 1RM), while the mean velocity of the barbell was registered using a linear transducer (LT) and Powerlift. Results showed a very high correlation between the LT and the app (r = 0.94, SEE = 0.028 m · s -1 ) for the measurement of mean velocity. Bland-Altman plots (R 2  = 0.011) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.965) revealed a very high agreement between both devices. A systematic bias by which the app registered slightly higher values than the LT (P < 0.05; mean difference (SD) between instruments = 0.008 ± 0.03 m · s -1 ). Finally, actual and estimated 1RM using the app were highly correlated (r = 0.98, mean difference (SD) = 5.5 ± 9.6 kg, P < 0.05). The app was found to be highly valid and reliable in comparison with a LT. These findings could have valuable practical applications for strength and conditioning coaches who wish to measure barbell velocity in the bench-press exercise.

  12. Parametric study and optimization trends for the Von-Kármán-sodium dynamo experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, J.

    2018-05-01

    We present magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of liquid sodium flow performed with the PLUTO compressible MHD code. We investigated the influence of the remanent magnetic field orientation and intensity, the impinging velocity field due to Ekman pumping as well as the impeller dimensions on the magnetic field collimation by helical flows in-between the impeller blades. For a simplified Cartesian geometry, we model the flow dynamics of a multi-blade impeller inspired by the Von-Kármán-Sodium experiment. This study shows that a remanent magnetic field oriented in the toroidal direction is the less efficient configuration to collimate the magnetic field, although if the radial or vertical components are not negligible, the collimation is significantly improved. As the intensity of the remanent magnetic field increases, the system magnetic energy becomes larger, but the magnetic field collimation efficiency remains the same, so the gain of magnetic energy is smaller as the remanent magnetic field intensity increases. The magnetic field collimation is modified if the impinging velocity field changes: the collimation is weaker if the impinging velocity increases from Γ = 0.8 to 0.9 and slightly larger if the impinging velocity decreases from Γ = 0.8 to 0.7. The analysis of the impeller dimensions points out that the most efficient configuration to collimate the magnetic field requires a ratio between the impeller blade height and the base longitude between 0.375 and 0.5. The largest enhancement of the hypothetical α2 dynamo loop, compared to the hypothetical Ω-α dynamo loop, is observed for the model that mimics the TM 73 impeller configuration rotating in the unscooping direction with a remanent magnetic field of 10-3 T orientated in the radial or vertical direction. The optimization trends obtained in the parametric analysis are also confirmed by simulations with a higher resolution and turbulence degree.

  13. The Role of the Y-Chromosome in the Establishment of Murine Hybrid Dysgenesis and in the Analysis of the Nucleotide Sequence Organization, Genetic Transmission and Evolution of Repeated Sequences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallaseth, Ferez Soli

    The Y-chromosome presents a unique cytogenetic framework for the evolution of nucleotide sequences. Alignment of nine Y-chromosomal fragments in their increasing Y-specific/non Y-specific (male/female) sequence divergence ratios was directly and inversely related to their interspersion on these two respective genomic fractions. Sequence analysis confirmed a direct relationship between divergence ratios and the Alu, LINE-1, Satellite and their derivative oligonucleotide contents. Thus their relocation on the Y-chromosome is followed by sequence divergence rather than the well documented concerted evolution of these non-coding progenitor repeated sequences. Five of the nine Y-chromosomal fragments are non-pseudoautosomal and transcribed into heterogeneous PolyA^+ RNA and thus can be retrotransposed. Evolutionary and computer analysis identified homologous oligonucleotide tracts in several human loci suggesting common and random mechanistic origins. Dysgenic genomes represent the accelerated evolution driving sequence divergence (McClintock, 1984). Sex reversal and sterility characterizing dysgenesis occurs in C57BL/6JY ^{rm Pos} but not in 129/SvY^{rm Pos} derivative strains. High frequency, random, multi-locus deletion products of the feral Y^{ rm Pos}-chromosome are generated in the germlines of F1(C57BL/6J X 129/SvY^{ rm Pos})(male) and C57BL/6JY ^{rm Pos}(male) but not in 129/SvY^{rm Pos}(male). Equal, 10^{-1}, 10^ {-2}, and 0 copies (relative to males) of Y^{rm Pos}-specific deletion products respectively characterize C57BL/6JY ^{rm Pos} (HC), (LC), (T) and (F) females. The testes determining loci of inactive Y^{rm Pos}-chromosomes in C57BL/6JY^{rm Pos} HC females are the preferentially deleted/rearranged Y ^{rm Pos}-sequences. Disruption of regulation of plasma testosterone and hepatic MUP-A mRNA levels, TRD of a 4.7 Kbp EcoR1 fragment suggest disruption of autosomal/X-chromosomal sequences. These data and the highly repeated progenitor (Alu, GATA, LINE-1

  14. Comparative genome and methylome analysis reveals restriction/modification system diversity in the gut commensal Bifidobacterium breve

    PubMed Central

    Bottacini, Francesca; Morrissey, Ruth; Roberts, Richard John; James, Kieran; van Breen, Justin; Egan, Muireann; Lambert, Jolanda; van Limpt, Kees; Knol, Jan; Motherway, Mary O’Connell; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Bifidobacterium breve represents one of the most abundant bifidobacterial species in the gastro-intestinal tract of breast-fed infants, where their presence is believed to exert beneficial effects. In the present study whole genome sequencing, employing the PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing platform, combined with comparative genome analysis allowed the most extensive genetic investigation of this taxon. Our findings demonstrate that genes encoding Restriction/Modification (R/M) systems constitute a substantial part of the B. breve variable gene content (or variome). Using the methylome data generated by SMRT sequencing, combined with targeted Illumina bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) and comparative genome analysis, we were able to detect methylation recognition motifs and assign these to identified B. breve R/M systems, where in several cases such assignments were confirmed by restriction analysis. Furthermore, we show that R/M systems typically impose a very significant barrier to genetic accessibility of B. breve strains, and that cloning of a methyltransferase-encoding gene may overcome such a barrier, thus allowing future functional investigations of members of this species. PMID:29294107

  15. Molecular characterization of the recombinant protein RmLTI-BmCG-LTB: Protective immunity against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is found in several tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This parasite transmits pathogens that cause disease, such as babesiosis (Babesia bovis and B. bigemina) and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale). Tick infestations cause enormous livestock losses, and controlling tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remains a challenge for the livestock industry. Because the currently available commercial vaccines offer only partial protection against R. (B.) microplus, there is a need for more efficient vaccines. Several recombinant antigens have been evaluated using different immunization strategies, and they show great promise. This work describes the construction and immunological characterization of a multi-antigen chimera composed of two R. (B.) microplus antigens (RmLTI and BmCG) and one Escherichia coli antigen (B subunit, LTB). The immunogenic regions of each antigen were selected and combined to encode a single polypeptide. The gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli. For all of the experiments, two groups (treated and control) of four Angus heifers (3–6 months old) were used. The inoculation was performed via intramuscular injection with 200 μg of purified recombinant chimeric protein and adjuvated. The chimeric protein was recognized by specific antibodies against each subunit and by sera from cattle inoculated with the chimera. Immunization of RmLTI-BmCG-LTB cattle reduced the number of adult female ticks by 6.29% and vaccination of cattle with the chimeric antigen provided 55.6% efficacy against R. (B.) microplus infestation. The results of this study indicate that the novel chimeric protein is a potential candidate for the future development of a more effective vaccine against R. (B.) microplus. PMID:29415034

  16. Molecular characterization of the recombinant protein RmLTI-BmCG-LTB: Protective immunity against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Garcia, Marcos Valério; da Silva, Sérgio Silva; Leite, Fábio Leivas; Andreotti, Renato

    2018-01-01

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is found in several tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This parasite transmits pathogens that cause disease, such as babesiosis (Babesia bovis and B. bigemina) and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale). Tick infestations cause enormous livestock losses, and controlling tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remains a challenge for the livestock industry. Because the currently available commercial vaccines offer only partial protection against R. (B.) microplus, there is a need for more efficient vaccines. Several recombinant antigens have been evaluated using different immunization strategies, and they show great promise. This work describes the construction and immunological characterization of a multi-antigen chimera composed of two R. (B.) microplus antigens (RmLTI and BmCG) and one Escherichia coli antigen (B subunit, LTB). The immunogenic regions of each antigen were selected and combined to encode a single polypeptide. The gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli. For all of the experiments, two groups (treated and control) of four Angus heifers (3-6 months old) were used. The inoculation was performed via intramuscular injection with 200 μg of purified recombinant chimeric protein and adjuvated. The chimeric protein was recognized by specific antibodies against each subunit and by sera from cattle inoculated with the chimera. Immunization of RmLTI-BmCG-LTB cattle reduced the number of adult female ticks by 6.29% and vaccination of cattle with the chimeric antigen provided 55.6% efficacy against R. (B.) microplus infestation. The results of this study indicate that the novel chimeric protein is a potential candidate for the future development of a more effective vaccine against R. (B.) microplus.

  17. Structure and stability of the finite-area von Kármán street

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo; Williamson, Charles H. K.

    2012-06-01

    By using a recently developed numerical method, we explore in detail the possible inviscid equilibrium flows for a Kármán street comprising uniform, large-area vortices. In order to determine stability, we make use of an energy-based stability argument (originally proposed by Lord Kelvin), whose previous implementation had been unsuccessful in determining stability for the Kármán street [P. G. Saffman and J. C. Schatzman, "Stability of a vortex street of finite vortices," J. Fluid Mech. 117, 171-186 (1982), 10.1017/S0022112082001578]. We discuss in detail the issues affecting this interpretation of Kelvin's ideas, and show that this energy-based argument cannot detect subharmonic instabilities. To find superharmonic instabilities, we employ a recently introduced approach, which constitutes a reliable implementation of Kelvin's stability ideas [P. Luzzatto-Fegiz and C. H. K. Williamson, "Stability of conservative flows and new steady fluid solutions from bifurcation diagrams exploiting a variational argument," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 044504 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.044504]. For periodic flows, this leads us to organize solutions into families with fixed impulse I, and to construct diagrams involving the flow energy E and horizontal spacing (i.e., wavelength) L. Families of large-I vortex streets exhibit a turning point in L, and terminate with "cat's eyes" vortices (as also suggested by previous investigators). However, for low-I streets, the solution families display a multitude of turning points (leading to multiple possible streets, for given L), and terminate with teardrop-shaped vortices. This is radically different from previous suggestions in the literature. These two qualitatively different limiting states are connected by a special street, whereby vortices from opposite rows touch, such that each vortex boundary exhibits three corners. Furthermore, by following the family of I = 0 streets to small L, we gain access to a large, hitherto unexplored

  18. Parameters for the RM1 Quantum Chemical Calculation of Complexes of the Trications of Thulium, Ytterbium and Lutetium

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Manoel A. M.; Dutra, José Diogo L.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.

    2016-01-01

    The RM1 quantum chemical model for the calculation of complexes of Tm(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) is advanced. Subsequently, we tested the models by fully optimizing the geometries of 126 complexes. We then compared the optimized structures with known crystallographic ones from the Cambridge Structural Database. Results indicate that, for thulium complexes, the accuracy in terms of the distances between the lanthanide ion and its directly coordinated atoms is about 2%. Corresponding results for ytterbium and lutetium are both 3%, levels of accuracy useful for the design of lanthanide complexes, targeting their countless applications. PMID:27223475

  19. Average Skin-Friction Drag Coefficients from Tank Tests of a Parabolic Body of Revolution (NACA RM-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J; Loposer, J Dan

    1954-01-01

    Average skin-friction drag coefficients were obtained from boundary-layer total-pressure measurements on a parabolic body of revolution (NACA rm-10, basic fineness ratio 15) in water at Reynolds numbers from 4.4 x 10(6) to 70 x 10(6). The tests were made in the Langley tank no. 1 with the body sting-mounted at a depth of two maximum body diameters. The arithmetic mean of three drag measurements taken around the body was in good agreement with flat-plate results, but, apparently because of the slight surface wave caused by the body, the distribution of the boundary layer around the body was not uniform over part of the Reynolds number range.

  20. Effect of soft-iron impellers on the von Kármán-sodium dynamo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingtian

    2014-01-01

    The explanation for the observed axisymmetric magnetic field in the von Kármán-sodium (VKS) dynamo experiment is still an unresolved question. In this paper, the integral equation approach is extended to investigate the VKS dynamo action by taking into account the discontinuity of the magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity in the conducting region. When the relative magnetic permeability of the soft-iron impellers is set to 65, a steady toroidal field that is apparently axisymmetric is excited at the critical magnetic Reynolds number, Rmc≈27.23, which is close to the experimental result, Rmc≈30. Our results show that the critical magnetic Reynolds number declines as the relative magnetic permeability of the impellers increases. Furthermore, when the relative magnetic permeability is not greater than 37, an equatorial magnetic field with an azimuthal wave number m=1 is the dominant mode, otherwise a steady toroidal field with an azimuthal wave number m=0 predominates the magnetic field generated by the VKS dynamo action.

  1. Analysis of R&M Technology Improvement Rationale for Maintainability Index Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Pon" I . 2-57404/OR-52553 NONOI CIITSAALGUSE 4. T171;9 rid Sie) S. Type or REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Analysis of R &M Technology...77/02/04 Single Element Structure Systems o.. 58 iv [ I .. . . ., -... ,. - . .. .111l . ... . . ... . ... r . .... ,-.. . .... .. I . TABLE OF CONTENTS...reasonable and whether the Reliability and Maintainability ( R &M) design ’features stated in a contractor’s proposal could result in a 34% reduction i

  2. Analysis of arrhythmic events is useful to detect lead failure earlier in patients followed by remote monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Nobuhiro; Miyoshi, Akihito; Kubo, Motoki; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Morimoto, Yoshimasa; Kawada, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Watanabe, Atsuyuki; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Morita, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Remote monitoring (RM) has been advocated as the new standard of care for patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). RM has allowed the early detection of adverse clinical events, such as arrhythmia, lead failure, and battery depletion. However, lead failure was often identified only by arrhythmic events, but not impedance abnormalities. To compare the usefulness of arrhythmic events with conventional impedance abnormalities for identifying lead failure in CIED patients followed by RM. CIED patients in 12 hospitals have been followed by the RM center in Okayama University Hospital. All transmitted data have been analyzed and summarized. From April 2009 to March 2016, 1,873 patients have been followed by the RM center. During the mean follow-up period of 775 days, 42 lead failure events (atrial lead 22, right ventricular pacemaker lead 5, implantable cardioverter defibrillator [ICD] lead 15) were detected. The proportion of lead failures detected only by arrhythmic events, which were not detected by conventional impedance abnormalities, was significantly higher than that detected by impedance abnormalities (arrhythmic event 76.2%, 95% CI: 60.5-87.9%; impedance abnormalities 23.8%, 95% CI: 12.1-39.5%). Twenty-seven events (64.7%) were detected without any alert. Of 15 patients with ICD lead failure, none has experienced inappropriate therapy. RM can detect lead failure earlier, before clinical adverse events. However, CIEDs often diagnose lead failure as just arrhythmic events without any warning. Thus, to detect lead failure earlier, careful human analysis of arrhythmic events is useful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Description of European Space Agency (ESA) Remote Manipulator (RM) System Breadboard Currently Under Development for Demonstration of Critical Technology Foreseen to be Used in the Mars Sample Receiving Facility (MSRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrublevskis, J.; Duncan, S.; Berthoud, L.; Bowman, P.; Hills, R.; McCulloch, Y.; Pisla, D.; Vaida, C.; Gherman, B.; Hofbaur, M.; Dieber, B.; Neythalath, N.; Smith, C.; van Winnendael, M.; Duvet, L.

    2018-04-01

    In order to avoid the use of 'double walled' gloves, a haptic feedback Remote Manipulation (RM) system rather than a gloved isolator is needed inside a Double Walled Isolator (DWI) to handle a sample returned from Mars.

  4. Analysis and application of a velocity command motor as a reaction mass actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulla, Jeffrey L.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Horta, Lucas G.

    1990-01-01

    A commercially available linear stepper motor is applied as a reaction mass (RM) actuator. With the actuator operating in the (RM) relative-velocity command mode, open-loop and closed-loop testing is performed to determine operational limits. With the actuator mounted on a simple beam structure, root strain, RM acceleration, or beam acceleration is used in the feedback loop to augment the structural damping. The RM relative position is also used as feedback to ensure that the RM remains centered.

  5. Clinical Evaluation of 68Ga-PSMA-II and 68Ga-RM2 PET Images Reconstructed With an Improved Scatter Correction Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wangerin, Kristen A; Baratto, Lucia; Khalighi, Mohammad Mehdi; Hope, Thomas A; Gulaka, Praveen K; Deller, Timothy W; Iagaru, Andrei H

    2018-06-06

    Gallium-68-labeled radiopharmaceuticals pose a challenge for scatter estimation because their targeted nature can produce high contrast in these regions of the kidneys and bladder. Even small errors in the scatter estimate can result in washout artifacts. Administration of diuretics can reduce these artifacts, but they may result in adverse events. Here, we investigated the ability of algorithmic modifications to mitigate washout artifacts and eliminate the need for diuretics or other interventions. The model-based scatter algorithm was modified to account for PET/MRI scanner geometry and challenges of non-FDG tracers. Fifty-three clinical 68 Ga-RM2 and 68 Ga-PSMA-11 whole-body images were reconstructed using the baseline scatter algorithm. For comparison, reconstruction was also processed with modified sampling in the single-scatter estimation and with an offset in the scatter tail-scaling process. None of the patients received furosemide to attempt to decrease the accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals in the bladder. The images were scored independently by three blinded reviewers using the 5-point Likert scale. The scatter algorithm improvements significantly decreased or completely eliminated the washout artifacts. When comparing the baseline and most improved algorithm, the image quality increased and image artifacts were reduced for both 68 Ga-RM2 and for 68 Ga-PSMA-11 in the kidneys and bladder regions. Image reconstruction with the improved scatter correction algorithm mitigated washout artifacts and recovered diagnostic image quality in 68 Ga PET, indicating that the use of diuretics may be avoided.

  6. Fine mapping QTL for drought resistance traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using bulk segregant analysis.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Arvindkumar Shivaji; Poornima, R; Prince, K Silvas Jebakumar; Kanagaraj, P; Sheeba, J Annie; Amudha, K; Suji, K K; Senthil, A; Babu, R Chandra

    2011-09-01

    Drought stress is a major limitation to rice (Oryza sativa L.) yields and its stability, especially in rainfed conditions. Developing rice cultivars with inherent capacity to withstand drought stress would improve rainfed rice production. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to drought resistance traits will help to develop rice cultivars suitable for water-limited environments through molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy. However, QTL mapping is usually carried out by genotyping large number of progenies, which is labour-intensive, time-consuming and cost-ineffective. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) serves as an affordable strategy for mapping large effect QTLs by genotyping only the extreme phenotypes instead of the entire mapping population. We have previously mapped a QTL linked to leaf rolling and leaf drying in recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from two locally adapted indica rice ecotypes viz., IR20/Nootripathu using BSA. Fine mapping the QTL will facilitate its application in MAS. BSA was done by bulking DNA of 10 drought-resistant and 12 drought-sensitive RI lines. Out of 343 rice microsatellites markers genotyped, RM8085 co-segregated among the RI lines constituting the respective bulks. RM8085 was mapped in the middle of the QTL region on chromosome 1 previously identified in these RI lines thus reducing the QTL interval from 7.9 to 3.8 cM. Further, the study showed that the region, RM212-RM302-RM8085-RM3825 on chromosome 1, harbours large effect QTLs for drought-resistance traits across several genetic backgrounds in rice. Thus, the QTL may be useful for drought resistance improvement in rice through MAS and map-based cloning.

  7. Role of soft-iron impellers on the mode selection in the von kármán-sodium dynamo experiment.

    PubMed

    Giesecke, André; Stefani, Frank; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2010-01-29

    A crucial point for the understanding of the von Kármán-sodium (VKS) dynamo experiment is the influence of soft-iron impellers. We present numerical simulations of a VKS-like dynamo with a localized permeability distribution that resembles the shape of the flow driving impellers. It is shown that the presence of soft-iron material essentially determines the dynamo process in the VKS experiment. An axisymmetric magnetic field mode can be explained by the combined action of the soft-iron disk and a rather small alpha effect parametrizing the induction effects of unresolved small scale flow fluctuations.

  8. A better way to evaluate remote monitoring programs in chronic disease care: receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown Connolly, Nancy E

    2014-12-01

    This foundational study applies the process of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate utility and predictive value of a disease management (DM) model that uses RM devices for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The literature identifies a need for a more rigorous method to validate and quantify evidence-based value for remote monitoring (RM) systems being used to monitor persons with a chronic disease. ROC analysis is an engineering approach widely applied in medical testing, but that has not been evaluated for its utility in RM. Classifiers (saturated peripheral oxygen [SPO2], blood pressure [BP], and pulse), optimum threshold, and predictive accuracy are evaluated based on patient outcomes. Parametric and nonparametric methods were used. Event-based patient outcomes included inpatient hospitalization, accident and emergency, and home health visits. Statistical analysis tools included Microsoft (Redmond, WA) Excel(®) and MedCalc(®) (MedCalc Software, Ostend, Belgium) version 12 © 1993-2013 to generate ROC curves and statistics. Persons with COPD were monitored a minimum of 183 days, with at least one inpatient hospitalization within 12 months prior to monitoring. Retrospective, de-identified patient data from a United Kingdom National Health System COPD program were used. Datasets included biometric readings, alerts, and resource utilization. SPO2 was identified as a predictive classifier, with an optimal average threshold setting of 85-86%. BP and pulse were failed classifiers, and areas of design were identified that may improve utility and predictive capacity. Cost avoidance methodology was developed. RESULTS can be applied to health services planning decisions. Methods can be applied to system design and evaluation based on patient outcomes. This study validated the use of ROC in RM program evaluation.

  9. RM-DEMATEL: a new methodology to identify the key factors in PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yafeng; Liu, Jie; Li, Yunpeng; Sadiq, Rehan; Deng, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Weather system is a relative complex dynamic system, the factors of the system are mutually influenced PM2.5 concentration. In this paper, a new method is proposed to quantify the influence on PM2.5 by other factors in the weather system and identify the most important factors for PM2.5 with limited resources. The relation map (RM) is used to figure out the direct relation matrix of 14 factors in PM2.5. The decision making trial and evaluation laboratory(DEMATEL) is applied to calculate the causal relationship and extent to a mutual influence of 14 factors in PM2.5. According to the ranking results of our proposed method, the most important key factors is sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(X)). In addition, the other factors, the ambient maximum temperature (T(max)), concentration of PM10, and wind direction (W(dir)), are important factors for PM2.5. The proposed method can also be applied to other environment management systems to identify key factors.

  10. Using conjoint analysis to determine the impact of product and user characteristics on acceptability of rectal microbicides for HIV prevention among Peruvian men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Tang, Eric C; Galea, Jerome T; Kinsler, Janni J; Gonzales, Pedro; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2016-05-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are in need of novel and acceptable HIV prevention interventions. In Peru, a Phase II clinical trial was recently completed evaluating rectally applied tenofovir gel among Peruvian MSM and transgender women. If deemed safe and acceptable, the product could move into efficacy testing, but acceptability data for similar products are needed now in order to prepare for future implementation. Peru is in need of expanded, national acceptability data among likely users. Using conjoint analysis of an online cross-sectional survey taken by 1008 Peruvian MSM and transgender women, we tested the acceptability of eight hypothetical rectal microbicide (RM) products comprising six, dual-value attributes. We also assessed the relationship of select product attributes with sample characteristics. Highest acceptability was found for a RM that was 90% effective, used before and after sex, without side effects, costing approximately $0.30, had no prescription requirement and had a single-use applicator. Product effectiveness and presence of side effects were the factors most likely to drive RM acceptance and use. Education, sexual orientation, sexual role and concern for HIV infection were also related to aspects of RM acceptability. RM acceptability was high, confirming the results of earlier, smaller studies and placing confidence in the acceptability of RMs. Analysis of the relationships with product attributes and sample characteristics underscore the need to consider the impact of factors such as sexual orientation, sexual role, level of education and concern for HIV acquisition on RM acceptability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm for Confirmatory Item Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    Item factor analysis (IFA), already well established in educational measurement, is increasingly applied to psychological measurement in research settings. However, high-dimensional confirmatory IFA remains a numerical challenge. The current research extends the Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm, initially proposed for…

  12. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at $$\\overline{\\rm P}$$ANDA at FAIR

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Singh, B.; Erni, W.; Krusche, B.

    Simulation results for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors atmore » $$\\overline{\\rm P}$$ANDA (FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision with which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel p¯p → e +e – is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. p¯p → π +π –, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistical and systematical uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. Furthermore, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam conditions and detector performance.« less

  13. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at $$\\overline{\\rm P}$$ANDA at FAIR

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, B.; Erni, W.; Krusche, B.; ...

    2016-10-28

    Simulation results for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors atmore » $$\\overline{\\rm P}$$ANDA (FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision with which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel p¯p → e +e – is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. p¯p → π +π –, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistical and systematical uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. Furthermore, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam conditions and detector performance.« less

  14. Orogenic remagnetizations and paleomagnetic analysis of fault propagation folds in Lower Carboniferous carbonates, Northern Rockies, NW Montana and SW Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechmeister, M. S.; O'Brien, V. J.; Elmore, R. D.; Evans, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Results from paleomagnetic analysis of Lower Carboniferous carbonates in the Sawtooth Range, northwestern Montana and the Livingstone range in Southwestern Alberta are presented. Paleomagnetic cores were collected from both limbs of four fault propagation folds, one at Swift Dam in MT as well as one along Green Creek and two along Oldman River in Alberta. The Swift Dam Fold is in the Madison Group and contains a widespread characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) that resides in magnetite with southerly declinations and moderately steep up inclinations. A tilt test reveals a synfolding ChRM, and the paleopole suggests remanence acquisition in the Cretaceous to Early Tertiary. This result contrasts with results from another fold in MT, the Teton anticline, which is a buckle fold where a similar ChRM is pretilting. The reason for the differences in the fold test results are under investigation. The ChRM is not thermoviscous in origin based on a comparison of unblocking temperature with the low burial temperatures and is interpreted as a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM). Preliminary data from the folds in Livingstone Range suggest a similar ChRM in the organic rich lithologies of the Livingstone, Banff and Mount Head formations. Tilt test results for the fault propagation folds in Alberta will be presented as well as a discussion on the origin of orogenic remagnetizations.

  15. H2RM: A Hybrid Rough Set Reasoning Model for Prediction and Management of Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rahman; Hussain, Jamil; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Hussain, Maqbool; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-07-03

    Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high blood glucose level that results either from a deficiency of insulin produced by the body, or the body's resistance to the effects of insulin. Accurate and precise reasoning and prediction models greatly help physicians to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment procedures of different diseases. Though numerous models have been proposed to solve issues of diagnosis and management of diabetes, they have the following drawbacks: (1) restricted one type of diabetes; (2) lack understandability and explanatory power of the techniques and decision; (3) limited either to prediction purpose or management over the structured contents; and (4) lack competence for dimensionality and vagueness of patient's data. To overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel hybrid rough set reasoning model (H2RM) that resolves problems of inaccurate prediction and management of type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). For verification of the proposed model, experimental data from fifty patients, acquired from a local hospital in semi-structured format, is used. First, the data is transformed into structured format and then used for mining prediction rules. Rough set theory (RST) based techniques and algorithms are used to mine the prediction rules. During the online execution phase of the model, these rules are used to predict T1DM and T2DM for new patients. Furthermore, the proposed model assists physicians to manage diabetes using knowledge extracted from online diabetes guidelines. Correlation-based trend analysis techniques are used to manage diabetic observations. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the existing methods with 95.9% average and balanced accuracies.

  16. H2RM: A Hybrid Rough Set Reasoning Model for Prediction and Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rahman; Hussain, Jamil; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Hussain, Maqbool; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high blood glucose level that results either from a deficiency of insulin produced by the body, or the body’s resistance to the effects of insulin. Accurate and precise reasoning and prediction models greatly help physicians to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment procedures of different diseases. Though numerous models have been proposed to solve issues of diagnosis and management of diabetes, they have the following drawbacks: (1) restricted one type of diabetes; (2) lack understandability and explanatory power of the techniques and decision; (3) limited either to prediction purpose or management over the structured contents; and (4) lack competence for dimensionality and vagueness of patient’s data. To overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel hybrid rough set reasoning model (H2RM) that resolves problems of inaccurate prediction and management of type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). For verification of the proposed model, experimental data from fifty patients, acquired from a local hospital in semi-structured format, is used. First, the data is transformed into structured format and then used for mining prediction rules. Rough set theory (RST) based techniques and algorithms are used to mine the prediction rules. During the online execution phase of the model, these rules are used to predict T1DM and T2DM for new patients. Furthermore, the proposed model assists physicians to manage diabetes using knowledge extracted from online diabetes guidelines. Correlation-based trend analysis techniques are used to manage diabetic observations. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the existing methods with 95.9% average and balanced accuracies. PMID:26151207

  17. Identification, Characterization, and Recombinant Expression of Epidermicin NI01, a Novel Unmodified Bacteriocin Produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis That Displays Potent Activity against Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    We describe the discovery, purification, characterization, and expression of an antimicrobial peptide, epidermicin NI01, which is an unmodified bacteriocin produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 224. It is a highly cationic, hydrophobic, plasmid-encoded peptide that exhibits potent antimicrobial activity toward a wide range of pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), enterococci, and biofilm-forming S. epidermidis strains. Purification of the peptide was achieved using a combination of hydrophobic interaction, cation exchange, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis yielded a molecular mass of 6,074 Da, and partial sequence data of the peptide were elucidated using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and de novo sequencing. The draft genome sequence of the producing strain was obtained using 454 pyrosequencing technology, thus enabling the identification of the structural gene using the de novo peptide sequence data previously obtained. Epidermicin NI01 contains 51 residues with four tryptophan and nine lysine residues, and the sequence showed approximately 50% identity to peptides lacticin Z, lacticin Q, and aureocin A53, all of which belong to a new family of unmodified type II-like bacteriocins. The peptide is active in the nanomolar range against S. epidermidis, MRSA isolates, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Other unique features displayed by epidermicin include a high degree of protease stability and the ability to retain antimicrobial activity over a pH range of 2 to 10, and exposure to the peptide does not result in development of resistance in susceptible isolates. In this study we also show the structural gene alone can be cloned into Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), and expression yields active peptide. PMID:22155816

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA RM-10 missile in 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel at Mach numbers from 1.49 to 1.98 I : presentation and analysis of pressure measurements (stabilizing fins removed)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luidens, Roger W; Simon, Paul C

    1950-01-01

    Experimental investigation of flow about a slender body of revolution (NACA RM-10 missile) aligned and inclined to a supersonic stream was conducted at Mach numbers from 1.49 to 1.98 at a Reynolds number of approximately 30,000,000. Boundary-layer measurements at zero angle of attack are correlated with subsonic formulations for predicting boundary-layer thickness and profile. Comparison of pressure coefficients predicted by theory with experimental values showed close agreement at zero angle of attack and angle of attack except over the aft leeward side of body. At angle of attack, pitot pressure measurements in plane of model base indicated a pair of symmetrically disposed vortices on leeward side of body.

  19. Analyzing Large Gene Expression and Methylation Data Profiles Using StatBicRM: Statistical Biclustering-Based Rule Mining

    PubMed Central

    Maulik, Ujjwal; Mallik, Saurav; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2015-01-01

    Microarray and beadchip are two most efficient techniques for measuring gene expression and methylation data in bioinformatics. Biclustering deals with the simultaneous clustering of genes and samples. In this article, we propose a computational rule mining framework, StatBicRM (i.e., statistical biclustering-based rule mining) to identify special type of rules and potential biomarkers using integrated approaches of statistical and binary inclusion-maximal biclustering techniques from the biological datasets. At first, a novel statistical strategy has been utilized to eliminate the insignificant/low-significant/redundant genes in such way that significance level must satisfy the data distribution property (viz., either normal distribution or non-normal distribution). The data is then discretized and post-discretized, consecutively. Thereafter, the biclustering technique is applied to identify maximal frequent closed homogeneous itemsets. Corresponding special type of rules are then extracted from the selected itemsets. Our proposed rule mining method performs better than the other rule mining algorithms as it generates maximal frequent closed homogeneous itemsets instead of frequent itemsets. Thus, it saves elapsed time, and can work on big dataset. Pathway and Gene Ontology analyses are conducted on the genes of the evolved rules using David database. Frequency analysis of the genes appearing in the evolved rules is performed to determine potential biomarkers. Furthermore, we also classify the data to know how much the evolved rules are able to describe accurately the remaining test (unknown) data. Subsequently, we also compare the average classification accuracy, and other related factors with other rule-based classifiers. Statistical significance tests are also performed for verifying the statistical relevance of the comparative results. Here, each of the other rule mining methods or rule-based classifiers is also starting with the same post-discretized data

  20. Analyzing large gene expression and methylation data profiles using StatBicRM: statistical biclustering-based rule mining.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Ujjwal; Mallik, Saurav; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2015-01-01

    Microarray and beadchip are two most efficient techniques for measuring gene expression and methylation data in bioinformatics. Biclustering deals with the simultaneous clustering of genes and samples. In this article, we propose a computational rule mining framework, StatBicRM (i.e., statistical biclustering-based rule mining) to identify special type of rules and potential biomarkers using integrated approaches of statistical and binary inclusion-maximal biclustering techniques from the biological datasets. At first, a novel statistical strategy has been utilized to eliminate the insignificant/low-significant/redundant genes in such way that significance level must satisfy the data distribution property (viz., either normal distribution or non-normal distribution). The data is then discretized and post-discretized, consecutively. Thereafter, the biclustering technique is applied to identify maximal frequent closed homogeneous itemsets. Corresponding special type of rules are then extracted from the selected itemsets. Our proposed rule mining method performs better than the other rule mining algorithms as it generates maximal frequent closed homogeneous itemsets instead of frequent itemsets. Thus, it saves elapsed time, and can work on big dataset. Pathway and Gene Ontology analyses are conducted on the genes of the evolved rules using David database. Frequency analysis of the genes appearing in the evolved rules is performed to determine potential biomarkers. Furthermore, we also classify the data to know how much the evolved rules are able to describe accurately the remaining test (unknown) data. Subsequently, we also compare the average classification accuracy, and other related factors with other rule-based classifiers. Statistical significance tests are also performed for verifying the statistical relevance of the comparative results. Here, each of the other rule mining methods or rule-based classifiers is also starting with the same post-discretized data

  1. Signal-independent timescale analysis (SITA) and its application for neural coding during reaching and walking.

    PubMed

    Zacksenhouse, Miriam; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2014-01-01

    What are the relevant timescales of neural encoding in the brain? This question is commonly investigated with respect to well-defined stimuli or actions. However, neurons often encode multiple signals, including hidden or internal, which are not experimentally controlled, and thus excluded from such analysis. Here we consider all rate modulations as the signal, and define the rate-modulations signal-to-noise ratio (RM-SNR) as the ratio between the variance of the rate and the variance of the neuronal noise. As the bin-width increases, RM-SNR increases while the update rate decreases. This tradeoff is captured by the ratio of RM-SNR to bin-width, and its variations with the bin-width reveal the timescales of neural activity. Theoretical analysis and simulations elucidate how the interactions between the recovery properties of the unit and the spectral content of the encoded signals shape this ratio and determine the timescales of neural coding. The resulting signal-independent timescale analysis (SITA) is applied to investigate timescales of neural activity recorded from the motor cortex of monkeys during: (i) reaching experiments with Brain-Machine Interface (BMI), and (ii) locomotion experiments at different speeds. Interestingly, the timescales during BMI experiments did not change significantly with the control mode or training. During locomotion, the analysis identified units whose timescale varied consistently with the experimentally controlled speed of walking, though the specific timescale reflected also the recovery properties of the unit. Thus, the proposed method, SITA, characterizes the timescales of neural encoding and how they are affected by the motor task, while accounting for all rate modulations.

  2. State-to-state dynamics of {\\rm{F}}({}^{2}{\\rm{P}})+{\\rm{HO}}({}^{2}{\\rm{\\Pi }})\\to {\\rm{O}}({}^{3}{\\rm{P}})+{\\rm{HF}}({}^{1}{\\rm{\\Sigma }}^{+}) reaction on {1}^{3}{{\\rm{A}}}^{\\prime\\prime} potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Juan; Wu, Hui; Sun, Hai-Bo; Wang, Li-Fei

    2018-02-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11504206 and 11404049), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF) (Grant No. 2014M561259), and the Ph. D. Research Start-up Fund of Shandong Jiaotong University.

  3. Effects of bacteriocins on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Ken-ichi; Zendo, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Shinya; Iwase, Tadayuki; Tajima, Akiko; Yamada, Satomi; Sonomoto, Kenji; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2013-11-01

    Control of biofilms formed by microbial pathogens is an important subject for medical researchers, since the development of biofilms on foreign-body surfaces often causes biofilm-associated infections in patients with indwelling medical devices. The present study examined the effects of different kinds of bacteriocins, which are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by certain bacteria, on biofilms formed by a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The activities and modes of action of three bacteriocins with different structures (nisin A, lacticin Q, and nukacin ISK-1) were evaluated. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the treatment of MRSA infections, showed bactericidal activity against planktonic cells but not against biofilm cells. Among the tested bacteriocins, nisin A showed the highest bactericidal activity against both planktonic cells and biofilm cells. Lacticin Q also showed bactericidal activity against both planktonic cells and biofilm cells, but its activity against biofilm cells was significantly lower than that of nisin A. Nukacin ISK-1 showed bacteriostatic activity against planktonic cells and did not show bactericidal activity against biofilm cells. Mode-of-action studies indicated that pore formation leading to ATP efflux is important for the bactericidal activity against biofilm cells. Our results suggest that bacteriocins that form stable pores on biofilm cells are highly potent for the treatment of MRSA biofilm infections.

  4. Effects of Bacteriocins on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Zendo, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Shinya; Iwase, Tadayuki; Tajima, Akiko; Yamada, Satomi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Control of biofilms formed by microbial pathogens is an important subject for medical researchers, since the development of biofilms on foreign-body surfaces often causes biofilm-associated infections in patients with indwelling medical devices. The present study examined the effects of different kinds of bacteriocins, which are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by certain bacteria, on biofilms formed by a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The activities and modes of action of three bacteriocins with different structures (nisin A, lacticin Q, and nukacin ISK-1) were evaluated. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the treatment of MRSA infections, showed bactericidal activity against planktonic cells but not against biofilm cells. Among the tested bacteriocins, nisin A showed the highest bactericidal activity against both planktonic cells and biofilm cells. Lacticin Q also showed bactericidal activity against both planktonic cells and biofilm cells, but its activity against biofilm cells was significantly lower than that of nisin A. Nukacin ISK-1 showed bacteriostatic activity against planktonic cells and did not show bactericidal activity against biofilm cells. Mode-of-action studies indicated that pore formation leading to ATP efflux is important for the bactericidal activity against biofilm cells. Our results suggest that bacteriocins that form stable pores on biofilm cells are highly potent for the treatment of MRSA biofilm infections. PMID:23979748

  5. Probing quantum and classical turbulence analogy in von Kármán liquid helium, nitrogen, and water experiments

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Saint-Michel, B.; Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, IRPHE UMR 7342, 13384 Marseille; Herbert, E.

    2014-12-15

    We report measurements of the dissipation in the Superfluid helium high REynold number von Kármán flow experiment for different forcing conditions. Statistically steady flows are reached; they display a hysteretic behavior similar to what has been observed in a 1:4 scale water experiment. Our macroscopical measurements indicate no noticeable difference between classical and superfluid flows, thereby providing evidence of the same dissipation scaling laws in the two phases. A detailed study of the evolution of the hysteresis cycle with the Reynolds number supports the idea that the stability of the steady states of classical turbulence in this closed flow ismore » partly governed by the dissipative scales. It also supports the idea that the normal and the superfluid components at these temperatures (1.6 K) are locked down to the dissipative length scale.« less

  6. Mean-field model of the von Kármán sodium dynamo experiment using soft iron impellers.

    PubMed

    Nore, C; Léorat, J; Guermond, J-L; Giesecke, A

    2015-01-01

    It has been observed that dynamo action occurs in the von-Kármán-Sodium (VKS) experiment only when the rotating disks and the blades are made of soft iron. The purpose of this paper is to numerically investigate the role of soft iron in the VKS dynamo scenario. This is done by using a mean-field model based on an axisymmetric mean flow, a localized permeability distribution, and a localized α effect modeling the action of the small velocity scales between the blades. The action of the rotating blades is modeled by an axisymmetric effective permeability field. Key properties of the flow giving to the numerical magnetic field a geometric structure similar to that observed experimentally are identified. Depending on the permeability of the disks and the effective permeability of the blades, the dynamo that is obtained is either oscillatory or stationary. Our numerical results confirm the leading role played by the ferromagnetic impellers. A scenario for the VKS dynamo is proposed.

  7. Mullinamides A and B, New Cyclopeptides Produced by the Ruth Mullins Coal Mine Fire Isolate Streptomyces sp. RM-27-46

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiachang; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Elshahawi, Sherif I.; Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Sunkara, Manjula; Copley, Gregory C.; Hower, James C.; Morris, Andrew J.; Kharel, Madan K.; Thorson, Jon S.

    2014-01-01

    Two new cyclopeptides, mullinamides A [cyclo-(-l-Gly-l-Glu-l-Val-l-Ile-l-Pro-)] and B [cyclo-(-l-Glu-l-Met-l-Pro-)] were isolated from the crude extract of terrestrial Streptomyces sp. RM-27-46 along with the three known cyclopeptides surugamide A [cyclo-(-l-Ile-d-Ile-l-Lys-l-Ile-d-Phe-d-Leu-l-Ile-d-Ala-)], cyclo-(-l-Pro-l-Phe-) and cyclo-(-l-Pro-l-Leu-). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by the cumulative analyses of NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. While mullinamides A and B displayed no appreciable antimicrobial/fungal activity or cytotoxicity, this study highlights the first reported antibacterial activity of surugamide A. PMID:24713874

  8. A Software Tool for the Rapid Analysis of the Sintering Behavior of Particulate Bodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-01

    bounded by a region that the user selects via cross hairs . Future plot analysis features, such as more complicated curve fitting and modeling functions...German RM. Grain growth behavior of tungsten heavy alloys based on the master sintering curve concept. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

  9. Strength and Hypertrophy Adaptations Between Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Grgic, Jozo; Ogborn, Dan; Krieger, James W

    2017-12-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Grgic, J, Ogborn, D, and Krieger, JW. Strength and hypertrophy adaptations between low- vs. high-load resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3508-3523, 2017-The purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the current body of literature and a meta-analysis to compare changes in strength and hypertrophy between low- vs. high-load resistance training protocols. Searches of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were conducted for studies that met the following criteria: (a) an experimental trial involving both low-load training [≤60% 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and high-load training (>60% 1RM); (b) with all sets in the training protocols being performed to momentary muscular failure; (c) at least one method of estimating changes in muscle mass or dynamic, isometric, or isokinetic strength was used; (d) the training protocol lasted for a minimum of 6 weeks; (e) the study involved participants with no known medical conditions or injuries impairing training capacity. A total of 21 studies were ultimately included for analysis. Gains in 1RM strength were significantly greater in favor of high- vs. low-load training, whereas no significant differences were found for isometric strength between conditions. Changes in measures of muscle hypertrophy were similar between conditions. The findings indicate that maximal strength benefits are obtained from the use of heavy loads while muscle hypertrophy can be equally achieved across a spectrum of loading ranges.

  10. Wavelets analysis for differentiating solid, non-macroscopic fat containing, enhancing renal masses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Bino; Hwang, Darryl; Mohamed, Passant; Cen, Steven; Deng, Christopher; Chang, Michael; Duddalwar, Vinay

    2017-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate potential use of wavelets analysis in discriminating benign and malignant renal masses (RM) Materials and Methods: Regions of interest of the whole lesion were manually segmented and co-registered from multiphase CT acquisitions of 144 patients (98 malignant RM: renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and 46 benign RM: oncocytoma, lipid-poor angiomyolipoma). Here, the Haar wavelet was used to analyze the grayscale images of the largest segmented tumor in the axial direction. Six metrics (energy, entropy, homogeneity, contrast, standard deviation (SD) and variance) derived from 3-levels of image decomposition in 3 directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal) respectively, were used to quantify tumor texture. Independent t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test depending on data normality were used as exploratory univariate analysis. Stepwise logistic regression and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis were used to select predictors and assess prediction accuracy, respectively. Results: Consistently, 5 out of 6 wavelet-based texture measures (except homogeneity) were higher for malignant tumors compared to benign, when accounting for individual texture direction. Homogeneity was consistently lower in malignant than benign tumors irrespective of direction. SD and variance measured in the diagonal direction on the corticomedullary phase showed significant (p<0.05) difference between benign versus malignant tumors. The multivariate model with variance (3 directions) and SD (vertical direction) extracted from the excretory and pre-contrast phase, respectively showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.78 (p < 0.05) in discriminating malignant from benign. Conclusion: Wavelet analysis is a valuable texture evaluation tool to add to a radiomics platforms geared at reliably characterizing and stratifying renal masses.

  11. Association Analysis of Arsenic-Induced Straighthead in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Based on the Selected Population with a Modified Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobai; Hu, Biaolin; Pan, Xuhao; Zhang, Ning; Wu, Dianxing

    2017-01-01

    A rice physiological disorder makes mature panicle keep erect with empty grains termed as "straighthead." Straighthead causes yield losses and is a serious threat to rice production worldwide. Here, a new study of association mapping was conducted to identify QTL involved in straighthead. A subset of 380 accessions was selected from the USDA rice core collection and genotyped with 72 genome-wide SSR markers. An optimal model implemented with principle components (PCs) was used in this association mapping. As a result, five markers were identified to be significantly associated with straighthead. Three of them, RM263, RM169, and RM224, were consistent with a previous study. Three markers, RM475, RM263, and RM19, had a resistant allele associated with a decrease in straighthead rating (straighthead rating ≤ 4.8). In contrast, the two other marker loci RM169 and RM224 had a few susceptible alleles associated with an increase in straighthead rating (straighthead rating ≥ 8.7). Interestingly, RM475 is close to QTL " qSH-2 " and " AsS " with straighthead resistance, which was reported in two studies on linkage mapping of straighthead. This finding adds to previous work and is useful for further genetic study of straighthead.

  12. Comparison of Periodized and Non-Periodized Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tyler D; Tolusso, Danilo V; Fedewa, Michael V; Esco, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength. All studies included in the meta-analysis met the following inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed publication; (2) published in English; (3) comparison of a periodized resistance training group to a non-periodized resistance training group; (4) maximal strength measured by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press, or leg press. Data were extracted and independently coded by two authors. Random-effects models were used to aggregate a mean effect size (ES), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and potential moderators. The cumulative results of 81 effects gathered from 18 studies published between 1988 and 2015 indicated that the magnitude of improvement in 1RM following periodized resistance training was greater than non-periodized resistance training (ES = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.58; P < 0.001). Periodization model (β = 0.51; P = 0.0010), training status (β = -0.59; P = 0.0305), study length (β = 0.03; P = 0.0067), and training frequency (β = 0.46; P = 0.0123) were associated with a change in 1RM. These results indicate that undulating programs were more favorable for strength gains. Improvements in 1RM were greater among untrained participants. Additionally, higher training frequency and longer study length were associated with larger improvements in 1RM. These results suggest that periodized resistance training plans have a moderate effect on 1RM compared to non

  13. Multivariate analysis for the estimation of target localization errors in fiducial marker-based radiotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Takamiya, Masanori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: m-nkmr@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Akimoto, Mami

    Purpose: To assess the target localization error (TLE) in terms of the distance between the target and the localization point estimated from the surrogates (|TMD|), the average of respiratory motion for the surrogates and the target (|aRM|), and the number of fiducial markers used for estimating the target (n). Methods: This study enrolled 17 lung cancer patients who subsequently underwent four fractions of real-time tumor tracking irradiation. Four or five fiducial markers were implanted around the lung tumor. The three-dimensional (3D) distance between the tumor and markers was at maximum 58.7 mm. One of the markers was used as themore » target (P{sub t}), and those markers with a 3D |TMD{sub n}| ≤ 58.7 mm at end-exhalation were then selected. The estimated target position (P{sub e}) was calculated from a localization point consisting of one to three markers except P{sub t}. Respiratory motion for P{sub t} and P{sub e} was defined as the root mean square of each displacement, and |aRM| was calculated from the mean value. TLE was defined as the root mean square of each difference between P{sub t} and P{sub e} during the monitoring of each fraction. These procedures were performed repeatedly using the remaining markers. To provide the best guidance on the answer with n and |TMD|, fiducial markers with a 3D |aRM ≥ 10 mm were selected. Finally, a total of 205, 282, and 76 TLEs that fulfilled the 3D |TMD| and 3D |aRM| criteria were obtained for n = 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) was used to evaluate TLE as a function of |TMD| and |aRM| in each n. Results: |TMD| for n = 1 was larger than that for n = 3. Moreover, |aRM| was almost constant for all n, indicating a similar scale for the marker’s motion near the lung tumor. MRA showed that |aRM| in the left–right direction was the major cause of TLE; however, the contribution made little difference to the 3D TLE because of the small amount of motion in the left–right direction

  14. CALS Database Usage and Analysis Tool Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    inference aggregation and cardinality aggregation as two distinct aspects of the aggregation problem. The paper develops the concept of a semantic...aggregation, cardinality aggregation I " CALS Database Usage Analysis Tool Study * Bibliography * Page 7 i NIDX - An Expert System for Real-Time...1989 IEEE Symposium on Research in Security and Privacy, Oakland, CA, May 1989. [21 Baur, D.S.; Eichelman, F.R. 1I; Herrera , R.M.; Irgon, A.E

  15. Selective ethanolysis of sunflower oil with Lipozyme RM IM, an immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase, to obtain a biodiesel-like biofuel, which avoids glycerol production through the monoglyceride formation.

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan; Verdugo, Cristóbal; Luna, Diego; Sancho, Enrique D; Luna, Carlos; Posadillo, Alejandro; Bautista, Felipa M; Romero, Antonio A

    2014-12-25

    The obtaining of Ecodiesel, a biofuel applicable to diesel engines which keeps the glycerin as monoglyceride (MG), was achieved through a selective ethanolysis process of sunflower oil, by application of Lipozyme RM IM, a Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilized on macroporous anion exchange resins. This biocatalyst that was already described in the synthesis of conventional biodiesel has also shown its efficiency in the present selective enzymatic process, after optimization of the influence of various reaction parameters. Thus, an adequate activity is obtained that is maintained throughout five successive reuses. Quantitative conversions of triglycerides (TG) with high yields to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were obtained under mild reaction conditions that correspond to the transformation of TG in a mixture of two moles of FAEE and a mole of MG, thus avoiding the glycerol production. Thus, the selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with absolute ethanol can be carried out under standard conditions with oil/ethanol volume ratio 12/3.5 (mL), at constant pH obtained by the addition of 50 μl of aqueous solution of 10 N NaOH, reaction temperature of 40 °C and 40 mg of Lipozyme RM IM. Under these experimental conditions six successive reactions can be efficiently carried out. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. PET textural features stability and pattern discrimination power for radiomics analysis: An "ad-hoc" phantoms study.

    PubMed

    Presotto, L; Bettinardi, V; De Bernardi, E; Belli, M L; Cattaneo, G M; Broggi, S; Fiorino, C

    2018-06-01

    The analysis of PET images by textural features, also known as radiomics, shows promising results in tumor characterization. However, radiomic metrics (RMs) analysis is currently not standardized and the impact of the whole processing chain still needs deep investigation. We characterized the impact on RM values of: i) two discretization methods, ii) acquisition statistics, and iii) reconstruction algorithm. The influence of tumor volume and standardized-uptake-value (SUV) on RM was also investigated. The Chang-Gung-Image-Texture-Analysis (CGITA) software was used to calculate 39 RMs using phantom data. Thirty noise realizations were acquired to measure statistical effect size indicators for each RM. The parameter η 2 (fraction of variance explained by the nuisance factor) was used to assess the effect of categorical variables, considering η 2  < 20% and 20% < η 2  < 40% as representative of a "negligible" and a "small" dependence respectively. The Cohen's d was used as discriminatory power to quantify the separation of two distributions. We found the discretization method based on fixed-bin-number (FBN) to outperform the one based on fixed-bin-size in units of SUV (FBS), as the latter shows a higher SUV dependence, with 30 RMs showing η 2  > 20%. FBN was also less influenced by the acquisition and reconstruction setup:with FBN 37 RMs had η 2  < 40%, only 20 with FBS. Most RMs showed a good discriminatory power among heterogeneous PET signals (for FBN: 29 out of 39 RMs with d > 3). For RMs analysis, FBN should be preferred. A group of 21 RMs was suggested for PET radiomics analysis. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of LH1 and LH2, a set of complementary genes controlling late heading in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Feng; Gao, Li Jun; Li, Jin Hua; Li, Rong Bai; Gao, Han Liang; Deng, Guo Fu; Yang, Jin Shui; Luo, Xiao Jin

    2012-01-01

    Heading date in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a critical agronomic trait with a complex inheritance. To investigate the genetic basis and mechanism of gene interaction in heading date, we conducted genetic analysis on segregation populations derived from crosses among the indica cultivars Bo B, Yuefeng B and Baoxuan 2. A set of dominant complementary genes controlling late heading, designated LH1 and LH2, were detected by molecular marker mapping. Genetic analysis revealed that Baoxuan 2 contains both dominant genes, while Bo B and Yuefeng B each possess either LH1 or LH2. Using larger populations with segregant ratios of 3 : 1, we fine-mapped LH1 to a 63-kb region near the centromere of chromosome 7 flanked by markers RM5436 and RM8034, and LH2 to a 177-kb region on the short arm of chromosome 8 between flanking markers Indel22468-3 and RM25. Some candidate genes were identified through sequencing of Bo B and Yuefeng B in these target regions. Our work provides a solid foundation for further study on gene interaction in heading date and has application in marker-assisted breeding of photosensitive hybrid rice in China. PMID:23341744

  18. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of LH1 and LH2, a set of complementary genes controlling late heading in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Feng; Gao, Li Jun; Li, Jin Hua; Li, Rong Bai; Gao, Han Liang; Deng, Guo Fu; Yang, Jin Shui; Luo, Xiao Jin

    2012-12-01

    Heading date in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a critical agronomic trait with a complex inheritance. To investigate the genetic basis and mechanism of gene interaction in heading date, we conducted genetic analysis on segregation populations derived from crosses among the indica cultivars Bo B, Yuefeng B and Baoxuan 2. A set of dominant complementary genes controlling late heading, designated LH1 and LH2, were detected by molecular marker mapping. Genetic analysis revealed that Baoxuan 2 contains both dominant genes, while Bo B and Yuefeng B each possess either LH1 or LH2. Using larger populations with segregant ratios of 3 : 1, we fine-mapped LH1 to a 63-kb region near the centromere of chromosome 7 flanked by markers RM5436 and RM8034, and LH2 to a 177-kb region on the short arm of chromosome 8 between flanking markers Indel22468-3 and RM25. Some candidate genes were identified through sequencing of Bo B and Yuefeng B in these target regions. Our work provides a solid foundation for further study on gene interaction in heading date and has application in marker-assisted breeding of photosensitive hybrid rice in China.

  19. Effects of turbulence, resistivity and boundary conditions on helicoidal flow collimation: Consequences for the Von-Kármán-Sodium dynamo experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, J.; Brun, S.; Dubrulle, B.; Nore, C.

    2017-05-01

    We present hydrodynamic and magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of a liquid sodium flow using the compressible MHD code PLUTO to investigate the magnetic field regeneration in the Von-Kármán-Sodium dynamo experiment. The aim of the study is to analyze the influence of the fluid resistivity and turbulence level on the collimation by helicoidal motions of a remnant magnetic field. We use a simplified Cartesian geometry to represent the flow dynamics in the vicinity of one cavity of a multi-blades impeller inspired by those used in the Von-Kármán-Sodium (VKS) experiment. We perform numerical simulations with kinetic Reynolds numbers up to 1000 for magnetic Prandtl numbers between 30 and 0.1. Our study shows that perfect ferromagnetic walls favour enhanced collimation of flow and magnetic fields even if the turbulence degree of the model increases. More specifically, the location of the helicoidal coherent vortex in between the blades changes with the impinging velocity. It becomes closer to the upstream blade and the impeller base if the flow incident angle is analogous to the TM73 impeller configuration rotating in the unscooping direction. This result is also obtained at higher kinetic Reynolds numbers when the helicoidal vortex undergoes a precessing motion, leading to a reinforced effect in the vortex evolution and in the magnetic field collimation when using again perfect ferromagnetic boundary conditions. Configurations with different materials used for the impeller blades and the impeller base confirm a larger enhancement of the magnetic field when perfect ferromagnetic boundary conditions are used compared with the perfect conductor case, although smaller compared to a perfect ferromagnetic impeller, as it was observed in the VKS experiment. We further estimate the efficiency of a hypothetical dynamo loop occurring in the vicinity of the impeller and discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of mean field dynamo theory.

  20. [Cost-consequence analysis of respiratory preventive intervention among institutionalized older people: randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Cebrià I Iranzo, Maria Dels Àngels; Tortosa-Chuliá, M Ángeles; Igual-Camacho, Celedonia; Sancho, Patricia; Galiana, Laura; Tomás, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The institutionalized elderly with functional impairment show a greater decline in respiratory muscle (RM) function. The aims of the study are to evaluate outcomes and costs of RM training using Pranayama in institutionalized elderly people with functional impairment. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on institutionalized elderly people with walking limitation (n=54). The intervention consisted of 6 weeks of Pranayama RM training (5 times/week). The outcomes were measured at 4 time points, and were related to RM function: the maximum respiratory pressures and the maximum voluntary ventilation. Perceived satisfaction in the experimental group (EG) was assessed by means of an ad hoc questionnaire. Direct and indirect costs were estimated from the social perspective. The GE showed a significant improvement related with strength (maximum respiratory pressures) and endurance (maximum voluntary ventilation) of RM. Moreover, 92% of the EG reported a high satisfaction. The total social costs, direct and indirect, amounted to Euro 21,678. This evaluation reveals that RM function improvement is significant, that intervention is well tolerated and appreciated by patients, and the intervention costs are moderate. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Muscular adaptations in low- versus high-load resistance training: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Krieger, James W

    2016-01-01

    There has been much debate as to optimal loading strategies for maximising the adaptive response to resistance exercise. The purpose of this paper therefore was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to compare the effects of low-load (≤60% 1 repetition maximum [RM]) versus high-load (≥65% 1 RM) training in enhancing post-exercise muscular adaptations. The strength analysis comprised 251 subjects and 32 effect sizes (ESs), nested within 20 treatment groups and 9 studies. The hypertrophy analysis comprised 191 subjects and 34 ESs, nested with 17 treatment groups and 8 studies. There was a trend for strength outcomes to be greater with high loads compared to low loads (difference = 1.07 ± 0.60; CI: -0.18, 2.32; p = 0.09). The mean ES for low loads was 1.23 ± 0.43 (CI: 0.32, 2.13). The mean ES for high loads was 2.30 ± 0.43 (CI: 1.41, 3.19). There was a trend for hypertrophy outcomes to be greater with high loads compared to low loads (difference = 0.43 ± 0.24; CI: -0.05, 0.92; p = 0.076). The mean ES for low loads was 0.39 ± 0.17 (CI: 0.05, 0.73). The mean ES for high loads was 0.82 ± 0.17 (CI: 0.49, 1.16). In conclusion, training with loads ≤50% 1 RM was found to promote substantial increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in untrained individuals, but a trend was noted for superiority of heavy loading with respect to these outcome measures with null findings likely attributed to a relatively small number of studies on the topic.

  2. Optimization of 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production using lipozyme RM IM as catalyst in a solvent-free system.

    PubMed

    Richetti, Aline; Leite, Selma G F; Antunes, Octávio A C; de Souza, Andrea L F; Lerin, Lindomar A; Dallago, Rogério M; Paroul, Natalia; Di Luccio, Marco; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Treichel, Helen; de Oliveira, Débora

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the application of a lipase in the 2-ethylhexyl palmitate esterification in a solvent-free system with an immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RM IM). A sequential strategy was used applying two experimental designs to optimize the 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production. An empirical model was then built so as to assess the effects of process variables on the reaction conversion. Afterwards, the operating conditions that optimized 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production were established as being acid/alcohol molar ratio 1:3, temperature of 70 degrees C, stirring rate of 150 rpm, 10 wt.% of enzyme, leading to a reaction conversion as high as 95%. From this point, a kinetic study was carried out evaluating the effect of acid:alcohol molar ratio, the enzyme concentration and the temperature on product conversion. The results obtained in this step permit to verify that an excess of alcohol (acid to alcohol molar ratio of 1:6), relatively low enzyme concentration (10 wt.%) and temperature of 70 degrees C, led to conversions next to 100%.

  3. Pigment analysis by Raman microscopy and portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) of thirteenth to fourteenth century illuminations and cuttings from Bologna

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Robin J. H.; Jones, Richard; Gibbs, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive pigment analysis by Raman microscopy (RM) and portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) has been carried out on some Bolognese illuminations and cuttings chosen to represent the beginnings, evolution and height of Bolognese illuminated manuscript production. Dating to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and held in a private collection, the study provides evidence for the pigments generally used in this period. The results, which are compared with those obtained for other north Italian artwork, show the developments in usage of artistic materials and technique. Also addressed in this study is an examination of the respective roles of RM and pXRF analysis in this area of technical art history. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology’. PMID:27799427

  4. Economic analysis of remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices: Results of the Health Economics Evaluation Registry for Remote Follow-up (TARIFF) study.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Renato Pietro; Vicentini, Alfredo; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Sagone, Antonio; Rovaris, Giovanni; Padeletti, Luigi; Morichelli, Loredana; Fusco, Antonio; De Vivo, Stefano; Lombardi, Leonida; Denaro, Alessandra; Pollastrelli, Annalisa; Colangelo, Irene; Santini, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Remote monitoring (RM) of cardiac implantable electronic devices has been demonstrated to improve outpatient clinic workflow and patient management. However, few data are available on the socioeconomic impact of RM. The aim of this study was to assess the costs and benefits of RM compared with standard care (SC). We used 12-month patient data from the Health Economics Evaluation Registry for Remote Follow-up (TARIFF) study (N = 209; RM: n = 102 (48.81%); SC: n = 107 (51.19%)). Cost comparison was made from 2 perspectives: the health care system (HCS) and patients. The use of health care resources was defined on the basis of hospital clinical folders. Out-of-pocket expenses were reported directly by patients. HCS perspective: The overall mean annual cost per patient in the SC group (€1044.89 ± €1990.47) was significantly higher than in the RM group (€482.87 ± €2488.10) (P < .0001), with a reduction of 53.87% being achieved in the RM group. The primary driver of cost reduction was the cost of cardiovascular hospitalizations (SC: €`886.67 ± €1979.13 vs RM: €432.34 ± €2488.10; P = .0030). Patient and caregiver perspective: The annual cost incurred by patients was significantly higher in the SC group than in the RM group (SC: €169.49 ± €189.50 vs RM: €56.87 ± €80.22; P < .0001). Patients' quality-adjusted life-years were not significantly different between the groups. Provider perspective: The total number of inhospital device follow-up visits was reduced by 58.78% in the RM group. RM of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is cost saving from the perspectives of the HCS, patients, and caregivers. Introducing appropriate reimbursements will make RM sustainable even for the provider, i.e. the hospitals which provide the service and encourage widespread adoption of RM. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular mapping and genetic analysis of a rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiyuan; Ren, Xiang; Weng, Qingmei; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2002-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is a serious insect pest of rice (Oryza saliva L.). We have determined the chromosomal location of a BPH resistance gene in rice using SSR and RFLP techniques. A rice line 'B14', derived from the wild rice Oryza latifolia, showed high resistance to BPH. For tagging the resistance gene in 'B14X', an F2 population and a recombinant inbred (RI) population from a cross between Taichung Native 1 and 'B14' were developed and evaluated for BPH resistance. The results showed that a single dominant gene controlled the resistance of 'B14' to BPH. Bulked segregant SSR analysis was employed for identification of DNA markers linked to the resistance gene. From the survey of 302 SSR primer pairs, three SSR (RM335, RM261, RM185) markers linked to the resistance gene were identified. The closest SSR marker RM261 was linked to the resistance gene at a distance of 1.8 cM. Regions surrounding the resistance gene and the SSR markers were examined with additional RFLP markers on chromosome 4 to define the location of the resistance gene. Linkage of RFLP markers C820, R288, C946 with the resistance gene further confirmed its location on the short arm of chromosome 4. Closely linked DNA markers will facilitate selection for resistant lines in breeding programs and provide the basis for map-based cloning of this resistance gene.

  6. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of a rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) resistance gene bph19(t).

    PubMed

    Chen, J W; Wang, L; Pang, X F; Pan, Q H

    2006-04-01

    Genetic analysis and fine mapping of a resistance gene against brown planthopper (BPH) biotype 2 in rice was performed using two F(2) populations derived from two crosses between a resistant indica cultivar (cv.), AS20-1, and two susceptible japonica cvs., Aichi Asahi and Lijiangxintuanheigu. Insect resistance was evaluated using F(1) plants and the two F(2) populations. The results showed that a single recessive gene, tentatively designated as bph19(t), conditioned the resistance in AS20-1. A linkage analysis, mainly employing microsatellite markers, was carried out in the two F(2) populations through bulked segregant analysis and recessive class analysis (RCA), in combination with bioinformatics analysis (BIA). The resistance gene locus bph19(t) was finely mapped to a region of about 1.0 cM on the short arm of chromosome 3, flanked by markers RM6308 and RM3134, where one known marker RM1022, and four new markers, b1, b2, b3 and b4, developed in the present study were co-segregating with the locus. To physically map this locus, the bph19(t)-linked markers were landed on bacterial artificial chromosome or P1 artificial chromosome clones of the reference cv., Nipponbare, released by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project. Sequence information of these clones was used to construct a physical map of the bph19(t) locus, in silico, by BIA. The bph19(t) locus was physically defined to an interval of about 60 kb. The detailed genetic and physical maps of the bph19(t) locus will facilitate marker-assisted gene pyramiding and cloning.

  7. Impact of time-dependent nonaxisymmetric velocity perturbations on dynamo action of von Kármán-like flows.

    PubMed

    Giesecke, André; Stefani, Frank; Burguete, Javier

    2012-12-01

    We present numerical simulations of the kinematic induction equation in order to examine the dynamo efficiency of an axisymmetric von Kármán-like flow subject to time-dependent nonaxisymmetric velocity perturbations. The numerical model is based on the setup of the French von Kármán-sodium dynamo (VKS) and on the flow measurements from a water experiment conducted at the University of Navarra in Pamplona, Spain. The principal experimental observations that are modeled in our simulations are nonaxisymmetric vortexlike structures which perform an azimuthal drift motion in the equatorial plane. Our simulations show that the interactions of these periodic flow perturbations with the fundamental drift of the magnetic eigenmode (including the special case of nondrifting fields) essentially determine the temporal behavior of the dynamo state. We find two distinct regimes of dynamo action that depend on the (prescribed) drift frequency of an (m=2) vortexlike flow perturbation. For comparatively slowly drifting vortices we observe a narrow window with enhanced growth rates and a drift of the magnetic eigenmode that is synchronized with the perturbation drift. The resonance-like enhancement of the growth rates takes place when the vortex drift frequency roughly equals the drift frequency of the magnetic eigenmode in the unperturbed system. Outside of this small window, the field generation is hampered compared to the unperturbed case, and the field amplitude of the magnetic eigenmode is modulated with approximately twice the vortex drift frequency. The abrupt transition between the resonant regime and the modulated regime is identified as a spectral exceptional point where eigenvalues (growth rates and frequencies) and eigenfunctions of two previously independent modes collapse. In the actual configuration the drift frequencies of the velocity perturbations that are observed in the water experiment are much larger than the fundamental drift frequency of the magnetic

  8. Spectroscopic Analysis of 10MAG/LDAO Reverse Micelles to Determine Characteristic Properties and Behavioral Extrema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Joshua; Mawson, Cara; Norris, Zach; Nucci, Nathaniel

    Reverse micelles are spontaneously organizing complexes of surfactant that encapsulate a nanoscale pool of water in a bulk non-polar solvent. Reverse micelle (RM) mixtures have a wide range of applications, including biophysical investigation of protein systems. A new RM mixture composed of decyl-1-monoglycerol (10MAG) and lauryldimethylammonium-N-oxide (LDAO) was recently described. This mixture has the potential to prove more widely applicable for use of RMs in applications that involve encapsulation of macromolecules, yet little is known about the phase behavior or size of reverse micelles created by this mixture. Data describing such behaviors for this mixture are presented here. We have used dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate the size and partitioning behavior of RMs in varying mixtures of 10MAG, LDAO, water, pentane, and hexanol. These data demonstrate that the 10MAG/LDAO RM mixture exhibits markedly different phase and RM size behavior than that of commonly used RM surfactant mixtures. The implications of these findings for use of the 10MAG/LDAO mix for RM applications will also be addressed. Funding provided by Rowan University.

  9. Demand analysis of tobacco consumption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Al-Sadat, Nabilla A M

    2007-11-01

    We estimated the price and income elasticity of cigarette demand and the impact of cigarette taxes on cigarette demand and cigarette tax revenue in Malaysia. The data on cigarette consumption, cigarette prices, and public policies between 1990 and 2004 were subjected to a time-series regression analysis applying the error-correction model. The preferred cigarette demand model specification resulted in long-run and short-run price elasticities estimates of -0.57 and -0.08, respectively. Income was positively related to cigarette consumption: A 1% increase in real income increased cigarette consumption by 1.46%. The model predicted that an increase in cigarette excise tax from Malaysian ringgit (RM) 1.60 to RM2.00 per pack would reduce cigarette consumption in Malaysia by 3.37%, or by 806,468,873 cigarettes. This reduction would translate to almost 165 fewer tobacco-related lung cancer deaths per year and a 20.8% increase in the government excise tax revenue. We conclude that taxation is an effective method of reducing cigarette consumption and tobacco-related deaths while increasing revenue for the government of Malaysia.

  10. Sinorhizobium meliloti strains TII7 and A5 by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) have chromsomes identical with Rm1021 and form an effective and ineffective symbiosis with Medicago truncatula line Jemalong A17, respectively

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The strains TII7 and A5 formed an effective and ineffective symbiosis with Medicago truncatula Jemalong A17, respectively. Both were shown to have identical chromsomes with strains Rm1021 and RCR2011 using a Multilocus Sequence Typing method. The 2260 bp segments of DNA stretching from the 3’ end ...

  11. Role of boundary conditions in helicoidal flow collimation: Consequences for the von Kármán sodium dynamo experiment.

    PubMed

    Varela, J; Brun, S; Dubrulle, B; Nore, C

    2015-12-01

    We present hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of liquid sodium flow with the PLUTO compressible MHD code to investigate influence of magnetic boundary conditions on the collimation of helicoidal motions. We use a simplified cartesian geometry to represent the flow dynamics in the vicinity of one cavity of a multiblades impeller inspired by those used in the Von-Kármán-sodium (VKS) experiment. We show that the impinging of the large-scale flow upon the impeller generates a coherent helicoidal vortex inside the blades, located at a distance from the upstream blade piloted by the incident angle of the flow. This vortex collimates any existing magnetic field lines leading to an enhancement of the radial magnetic field that is stronger for ferromagnetic than for conducting blades. The induced magnetic field modifies locally the velocity fluctuations, resulting in an enhanced helicity. This process possibly explains why dynamo action is more easily triggered in the VKS experiment when using soft iron impellers.

  12. Biophysical characterization and structure of the Fab fragment from the NIST reference antibody, RM 8671.

    PubMed

    Karageorgos, Ioannis; Gallagher, Elyssia S; Galvin, Connor; Gallagher, D Travis; Hudgens, Jeffrey W

    2017-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody pharmaceuticals are the fastest-growing class of therapeutics, with a wide range of clinical applications. To assure their safety, these protein drugs must demonstrate highly consistent purity and stability. Key to these objectives is higher order structure measurements validated by calibration to reference materials. We describe preparation, characterization, and crystal structure of the Fab fragment prepared from the NIST Reference Antibody RM 8671 (NISTmAb). NISTmAb is a humanized IgG1κ antibody, produced in murine cell culture and purified by standard biopharmaceutical production methods, developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to serve as a reference material. The Fab fragment was derived from NISTmAb through papain cleavage followed by protein A based purification. The purified Fab fragment was characterized by SDS-PAGE, capillary gel electrophoresis, multi-angle light scattering, size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry, and x-ray crystallography. The crystal structure at 0.2 nm resolution includes four independent Fab molecules with complete light chains and heavy chains through Cys 223, enabling assessment of conformational variability and providing a well-characterized reference structure for research and engineering applications. This nonproprietary, publically available reference material of known higher-order structure can support metrology in biopharmaceutical applications, and it is a suitable platform for validation of molecular modeling studies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. CheckMate 141: 1-Year Update and Subgroup Analysis of Nivolumab as First-Line Therapy in Patients with Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gillison, Maura L; Blumenschein, George; Fayette, Jerome; Guigay, Joel; Colevas, A Dimitrios; Licitra, Lisa; Harrington, Kevin J; Kasper, Stefan; Vokes, Everett E; Even, Caroline; Worden, Francis; Saba, Nabil F; Iglesias Docampo, Lara Carmen; Haddad, Robert; Rordorf, Tamara; Kiyota, Naomi; Tahara, Makoto; Monga, Manish; Lynch, Mark; Li, Li; Ferris, Robert L

    2018-06-04

    Nivolumab significantly improved overall survival (OS) vs investigator's choice (IC) of chemotherapy at the primary analysis of randomized, open-label, phase 3 CheckMate 141 in patients with recurrent or metastatic (R/M) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Here, we report that OS benefit with nivolumab was maintained at a minimum follow-up of 11.4 months. Further, OS benefit with nivolumab vs IC was also noted among patients who received first-line treatment for R/M SCCHN after progressing on platinum therapy for locally advanced disease in the adjuvant or primary (i.e., with radiation) setting. The Oncologist 2018. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  14. Economic burden of managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Analysis from a Teaching Hospital in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Aniza; Suddin, Leny Suzana; Sulong, Saperi; Ahmed, Zafar; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Sukor, Norlela

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease that consumes a large amount of health-care resources. It is essential to estimate the cost of managing T2DM to the society, especially in developing countries. Economic studies of T2DM as a primary diagnosis would assist efficient health-care resource allocation for disease management. This study aims to measure the economic burden of T2DM as the primary diagnosis for hospitalization from provider's perspective. A retrospective prevalence-based costing study was conducted in a teaching hospital. Financial administrative data and inpatient medical records of patients with primary diagnosis (International Classification Disease-10 coding) E11 in the year 2013 were included in costing analysis. Average cost per episode of care and average cost per outpatient visit were calculated using gross direct costing allocation approach. Total admissions for T2DM as primary diagnosis in 2013 were 217 with total outpatient visits of 3214. Average cost per episode of care was RM 901.51 (US$ 286.20) and the average cost per outpatient visit was RM 641.02 (US$ 203.50) from provider's perspective. The annual economic burden of T2DM for hospitalized patients was RM 195,627.67 (US$ 62,104) and RM 2,061,520.32 (US$ 654,450) for those being treated in the outpatient setting. Economic burden to provide T2DM care was higher in the outpatient setting due to the higher utilization of the health-care service in this setting. Thus, more focus toward improving T2DM outpatient service could mitigate further increase in health-care cost from this chronic disease.

  15. Triangle singularity enhancing isospin violation in {\\bar{{\\rm{B}}}}_{{\\rm{s}}}^{0}\\to {\\rm{J}}/{\\rm{\\psi }}{\\pi }^{0}{{\\rm{f}}}_{0}(980)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wei-Hong; Sakai, S.; Xie, Ju-Jun; Oset, E.

    2018-04-01

    We perform calculations for the {\\bar{{{B}}}}{{s}}0\\to {{J}}/{{\\psi }}{π }0{{{f}}}0(980) and {\\bar{{{B}}}}{{s}}0\\to {{J}}/{{\\psi }}{π }0{{{a}}}0(980) reactions, showing that the first is isospin-suppressed while the second is isospin-allowed. The reaction proceeds via a triangle mechanism, with {\\bar{{{B}}}}{{s}}0\\to {{J}}/{{\\psi }}{{{K}}}{{* }}\\bar{{{K}}}+{{c}}.{{c}}., followed by the decay K* → Kπ and a further fusion of {{K}}\\bar{{{K}}} into the {{{f}}}0(980) or a0(980). We show that the mechanism develops a singularity around the π0 f0(980) or π0 a0(980) invariant mass of 1420 MeV, where the π0 f0 and π0 a0 decay modes are magnified and also the ratio of π0 f0 to π0 a0 production. Using experimental information for the {\\bar{{{B}}}}{{s}}0\\to {{J}}/{{\\psi }}{{{K}}}{{* }}\\bar{{{K}}}+{{c}}.{{c}}. decay, we are able to obtain absolute values for the reactions studied which fall into the experimentally accessible range. The reactions proposed and the observables evaluated, when contrasted with actual experiments, should be very valuable to obtain information on the nature of the low lying scalar mesons. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11565007, 11747307, 11647309, 11735003, 11475227), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (2016367). This work is also partly supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Com- petitividad and European FEDER funds (FIS2011-28853-C02-01, FIS2011-28853-C02-02, FIS2014-57026-REDT, FIS2014-51948-C2-1-P, FIS2014-51948-C2-2-P) and the Generalitat Valenciana in the program Prometeo (II-2014/068)

  16. Impact of Measurement Uncertainties on Receptor Modeling of Speciated Atmospheric Mercury.

    PubMed

    Cheng, I; Zhang, L; Xu, X

    2016-02-09

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) measurement uncertainties could potentially affect the analysis and modeling of atmospheric mercury. This study investigated the impact of GOM measurement uncertainties on Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Absolute Principal Component Scores (APCS), and Concentration-Weighted Trajectory (CWT) receptor modeling results. The atmospheric mercury data input into these receptor models were modified by combining GOM and PBM into a single reactive mercury (RM) parameter and excluding low GOM measurements to improve the data quality. PCA and APCS results derived from RM or excluding low GOM measurements were similar to those in previous studies, except for a non-unique component and an additional component extracted from the RM dataset. The percent variance explained by the major components from a previous study differed slightly compared to RM and excluding low GOM measurements. CWT results were more sensitive to the input of RM than GOM excluding low measurements. Larger discrepancies were found between RM and GOM source regions than those between RM and PBM. Depending on the season, CWT source regions of RM differed by 40-61% compared to GOM from a previous study. No improvement in correlations between CWT results and anthropogenic mercury emissions were found.

  17. Impact of Measurement Uncertainties on Receptor Modeling of Speciated Atmospheric Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, I.; Zhang, L.; Xu, X.

    2016-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) measurement uncertainties could potentially affect the analysis and modeling of atmospheric mercury. This study investigated the impact of GOM measurement uncertainties on Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Absolute Principal Component Scores (APCS), and Concentration-Weighted Trajectory (CWT) receptor modeling results. The atmospheric mercury data input into these receptor models were modified by combining GOM and PBM into a single reactive mercury (RM) parameter and excluding low GOM measurements to improve the data quality. PCA and APCS results derived from RM or excluding low GOM measurements were similar to those in previous studies, except for a non-unique component and an additional component extracted from the RM dataset. The percent variance explained by the major components from a previous study differed slightly compared to RM and excluding low GOM measurements. CWT results were more sensitive to the input of RM than GOM excluding low measurements. Larger discrepancies were found between RM and GOM source regions than those between RM and PBM. Depending on the season, CWT source regions of RM differed by 40–61% compared to GOM from a previous study. No improvement in correlations between CWT results and anthropogenic mercury emissions were found. PMID:26857835

  18. Determination of $${{\\rm{\\Lambda }}}_{\\overline{{\\rm{MS}}}}$$ at five loops from holographic QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2017-08-25

    Here, the recent determination of themore » $$\\beta$$--function of the QCD running coupling $$\\alpha_{\\overline{MS}}(Q^2)$$ to five-loops, provides a verification of the convergence of a novel method for determining the fundamental QCD parameter $$\\Lambda_s$$ based on the Light-Front Holographic approach to nonperturbative QCD. The new 5-loop analysis, together with improvements in determining the holographic QCD nonperturbative scale parameter $$\\kappa$$ from hadronic spectroscopy, leads to an improved precision of the value of $$\\Lambda_s$$ in the $${\\overline{MS}}$$ scheme close to a factor of two; we find $$\\Lambda^{(3)}_{\\overline{MS}}=0.339\\pm0.019$$ GeV for $$n_{f}=3$$, in excellent agreement with the world average, $$\\Lambda_{\\overline{MS}}^{(3)}=0.332\\pm0.017$$ GeV. Lastly, we also discuss the constraints imposed on the scale dependence of the strong coupling in the nonperturbative domain by superconformal quantum mechanics and its holographic embedding in anti-de Sitter space.« less

  19. Genetic evaluation of recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) for grain zinc concentrations, yield related traits and identification of associated SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Berhanu D; Naveen, G K; Rakhi, S; Shashidhar, H E

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate genetic variability parameters, correlations that exist for grain Zn concentration and yield related traits and identification of SSR markers linked to these traits in rice. One hundred seventy six Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) of Azucena X Moromutant were grown at University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore in augmented experimental design during wet seasons of 2010 and 2011. The study revealed significant genetic variability for all the traits. Grain yield per plant and grain zinc concentration showed higher phenotypic and genotypic co-efficient of variation. Significant positive correlation was observed for grain yield per plant with number of productive tillers per plant (r = 0.5) and number of tillers per plant (r = 0.4). Grain zinc concentration showed negative correlation with grain yield per plant (r = - 0.27). The path-coefficient analysis indicated the positive direct effect of number of productive tillers per plant on grain yield per plant (0.514). Grain zinc concentration showed negative direct effect on grain yield per plant (-0.186). Single-marker analysis using 26 SSR markers on RILs mapping population showed that RM212, RM263, RM6832, RM152, RM21, RM234 and RM3331 had association with grain zinc concentration and other yield related traits. But validation of these markers on fifty two rice genotypes showed that only three markers RM263, RM152 and RM21 had association with grain zinc concentration. Therefore, the genetic information generated and molecular markers identified from this study could be used for zinc biofortification programmes in rice.

  20. The radiative decay {{\\rm{D}}}^{{\\rm{0}}}\\to {\\bar{{\\rm{K}}}}^{{\\rm{* 0}}}\\gamma with vector meson dominance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, J. M.; Debastiani, V. R.; Xie, Ju-Jun; Oset, E.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by the experimental measurements of D0 radiative decay modes, we have proposed a model to study the {{{D}}}{{0}}\\to {\\bar{{{K}}}}{{* 0}}γ decay, by establishing a link with {{{D}}}{{0}}\\to {\\bar{{{K}}}}{{* 0}}{{V}} (V=ρ0, ω) decays through the vector meson dominance hypothesis. In order to do this properly, we have used the Lagrangians from the local hidden gauge symmetry approach to account for Vγ conversion. As a result, we have found the branching ratio {\\mathcal B} [{{{D}}}{{0}}\\to { \\bar{{{K}}}}{{* 0}}γ ]{{=}}({{1}}.{{55-3}}.{{44}})× {{{10}}}{{-4}}, which is in fair agreement with the experimental values reported by the Belle and BaBar collaborations. J. M. Dias would like to thank the Brazilian funding agency FAPESP for the financial support (2016/22561-2), V. R. Debastiani wishes to acknowledge the support from the Programa Santiago Grisolia of Generalitat Valenciana (Exp. GRISOLIA/2015/005). This work is also partly supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad and European FEDER funds (FIS2014-57026- REDT, FIS2014-51948-C2-1-P, FIS2014-51948-C2-2-P), and the Generalitat Valenciana in the program Prometeo II-2014/068. This work is partly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475227, 11735003) and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (2016367)

  1. Approximation Model Building for Reliability & Maintainability Characteristics of Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Morris, W. Douglas; White, Nancy H.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Brown, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of parametric models for estimating operational reliability and maintainability (R&M) characteristics for reusable vehicle concepts, based on vehicle size and technology support level. A R&M analysis tool (RMAT) and response surface methods are utilized to build parametric approximation models for rapidly estimating operational R&M characteristics such as mission completion reliability. These models that approximate RMAT, can then be utilized for fast analysis of operational requirements, for lifecycle cost estimating and for multidisciplinary sign optimization.

  2. Identification of Lactococcus-Specific Bacteriocins Produced by Lactococcal Isolates, and the Discovery of a Novel Bacteriocin, Lactococcin Z.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Naoki; Seto, Hiromi; Koga, Shoko; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria that produce Lactococcus-specific bacteriocins were isolated and identified as Lactococcus lactis from fresh corn or lettuce. Among them, four isolates were identified as lactococcin Q producers. Seven isolates showed antimicrobial activity against a lactococcin Q producer, L. lactis QU 4, as well as against nisin Z and lacticin Q producers belonging to L. lactis. Strain QU 7 was selected as a standard strain and showed no cross-immunity to lactococcin Q or other lactococcal bacteriocins. The bacteriocin produced by strain QU 7 was purified in three chromatographic steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5041.35 Da. The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that it is a novel class IId bacteriocin, referred to as lactococcin Z. It consisted of 45 amino acid residues. The lczA gene encoding the prepeptide of lactococcin Z showed homology to lactococcins A, B, and M. Thus, this report demonstrates a new example of Lactococcus-specific bacteriocins.

  3. Towards a nondestructive chemical characterization of biofilm matrix by Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Wagner, Michael; Horn, Harald; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the applicability of Raman microscopy (RM) for nondestructive chemical analysis of biofilm matrix, including microbial constituents and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), has been assessed. The examination of a wide range of reference samples such as biofilm-specific polysaccharides, proteins, microorganisms, and encapsulated bacteria revealed characteristic frequency regions and specific marker bands for different biofilm constituents. Based on received data, the assignment of Raman bands in spectra of multispecies biofilms was performed. The study of different multispecies biofilms showed that RM can correlate various structural appearances within the biofilm to variations in their chemical composition and provide chemical information about a complex biofilm matrix. The results of RM analysis of biofilms are in good agreement with data obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Thus, RM is a promising tool for a label-free chemical characterization of different biofilm constituents. Moreover, the combination of RM with CLSM analysis for the study of biofilms grown under different environmental conditions can provide new insights into the complex structure/function correlations in biofilms.

  4. Uncertainty Analysis in the Creation of a Fine-Resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI) Reference Map for Validation of Moderate Resolution LAI Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The validation process for a moderate resolution leaf area index (LAI) product (i.e., MODIS) involves the creation of a high spatial resolution LAI reference map (Lai-RM), which when scaled to the moderate LAI resolution (i.e., >1 km) allows for comparison and analysis with this ...

  5. Spectral Analysis of Breast Cancer on Tissue Microarrays: Seeing Beyond Morphology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Harvey N., Szymanski J.J., Bloch J.J., Mitchell M. investigation of image feature extraction by a genetic algorithm. Proc. SPIE 1999;3812:24-31. 11...automated feature extraction using multiple data sources. Proc. SPIE 2003;5099:190-200. 15 4 Spectral-Spatial Analysis of Urine Cytology Angeletti et al...Appendix Contents: 1. Harvey, N.R., Levenson, R.M., Rimm, D.L. (2003) Investigation of Automated Feature Extraction Techniques for Applications in

  6. The Effects of Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages: A Systematic Review of Randomised Trials with Meta-Analyses and Trial Sequential Analyses Including Individual Patient Data

    PubMed Central

    Egerup, Pia; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunological disturbances are hypothesised to play a role in recurrent miscarriage (RM) and therefore intravenous immunoglubulins (IVIg) have been tested in RM patients. Objectives The objectives were to investigate the benefits and harms of IVIg versus placebo, no intervention, or treatment as usual in women with RM. Search Strategy We searched the published literature in all relevant databases. Selection Criteria Randomised trials investigating IVIg versus placebo, no intervention, or treatment as usual in women with RM. Data Collection and Analysis We undertook meta-analyses of aggregated data and individual patient data using a two-step approach, and we conducted bias domain assessments and trial sequential analyses to assess the risks of systematic and random errors. Main Results We identified 11 randomised clinical trials. No significant difference in the frequency of no live birth was found when IVIg was compared with placebo or treatment as usual (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.75–1.12, p = 0.42). Trial sequential analysis showed that the required information size of 1,008 participants was not obtained. IVIg compared with placebo seems to increase the risk of adverse events. Subgroup analysis suggests that women with RM after a birth (secondary RM) seemed most likely to obtain a potential beneficial effect of IVIg (RR for no live birth 0.77, 95%CI 0.58–1.02, p = 0.06), however, trial sequential analysis showed that insufficient information is presently accrued. Conclusion We cannot recommend or refute IVIg in women with RM. IVIg should therefore be assessed in further randomised clinical trials with positive outcomes before any clinical use is considered. PMID:26517123

  7. Structural and functional analysis of rare missense mutations in human chorionic gonadotrophin β-subunit

    PubMed Central

    Nagirnaja, Liina; Venclovas, Česlovas; Rull, Kristiina; Jonas, Kim C.; Peltoketo, Hellevi; Christiansen, Ole B.; Kairys, Visvaldas; Kivi, Gaily; Steffensen, Rudi; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Laan, Maris

    2012-01-01

    Heterodimeric hCG is one of the key hormones determining early pregnancy success. We have previously identified rare missense mutations in hCGβ genes with potential pathophysiological importance. The present study assessed the impact of these mutations on the structure and function of hCG by applying a combination of in silico (sequence and structure analysis, molecular dynamics) and in vitro (co-immunoprecipitation, immuno- and bioassays) approaches. The carrier status of each mutation was determined for 1086 North-Europeans [655 patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM)/431 healthy controls from Estonia, Finland and Denmark] using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The mutation CGB5 p.Val56Leu (rs72556325) was identified in a single heterozygous RM patient and caused a structural hindrance in the formation of the hCGα/β dimer. Although the amount of the mutant hCGβ assembled into secreted intact hCG was only 10% compared with the wild-type, a stronger signaling response was triggered upon binding to its receptor, thus compensating the effect of poor dimerization. The mutation CGB8 p.Pro73Arg (rs72556345) was found in five heterozygotes (three RM cases and two control individuals) and was inherited by two of seven studied live born children. The mutation caused ∼50% of secreted β-subunits to acquire an alternative conformation, but did not affect its biological activity. For the CGB8 p.Arg8Trp (rs72556341) substitution, the applied in vitro methods revealed no alterations in the assembly of intact hCG as also supported by an in silico analysis. In summary, the accumulated data indicate that only mutations with neutral or mild functional consequences might be tolerated in the major hCGβ genes CGB5 and CGB8. PMID:22554618

  8. Ships Passing in the Night: Spectroscopic Analysis of Two Ultra-faint Satellites in the Constellation Carina

    DOE PAGES

    Li, T. S.; Simon, J. D.; Pace, A. B.; ...

    2018-04-25

    Here, we present Magellan/IMACS, Anglo-Australian Telescope/AAOmega+2dF, and Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE+FLAMES spectroscopy of the Carina II (Car II) and Carina III (Car III) dwarf galaxy candidates, recently discovered in the Magellanic Satellites Survey (MagLiteS). We identify 18 member stars in Car II, including two binaries with variable radial velocities and two RR Lyrae stars. The other 14 members have a mean heliocentric velocitymore » $${v}_{\\mathrm{hel}}=477.2\\pm 1.2$$ $$\\mathrm{km}\\,{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$ and a velocity dispersion of $${\\sigma }_{v}={3.4}_{-0.8}^{+1.2}$$ $$\\mathrm{km}\\,{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$. Assuming Car II is in dynamical equilibrium, we derive a total mass within the half-light radius of $${1.0}_{-0.4}^{+0.8}\\times {10}^{6}$$ $${M}_{\\odot }$$, indicating a mass-to-light ratio of $${369}_{-161}^{+309}$$ $${M}_{\\odot }$$/$${L}_{\\odot }$$. From equivalent width measurements of the calcium triplet lines of nine red giant branch (RGB) stars, we derive a mean metallicity of $${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}=-2.44\\pm 0.09$$ with dispersion $${\\sigma }_{{\\rm{[Fe/H]}}}={0.22}_{-0.07}^{+0.10}$$. Considering both the kinematic and chemical properties, we conclude that Car II is a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy. For Car III, we identify four member stars, from which we calculate a systemic velocity of $${v}_{\\mathrm{hel}}={284.6}_{-3.1}^{+3.4}$$ $$\\mathrm{km}\\,{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$. The brightest RGB member of Car III has a metallicity of $${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}\\,=-1.97\\pm 0.12$$. Due to the small size of the Car III spectroscopic sample, we cannot conclusively determine its nature. Although these two systems have the smallest known physical separation ($${\\rm{\\Delta }}d\\sim 10\\,\\mathrm{kpc}$$) among Local Group satellites, the large difference in their systemic velocities, $$\\sim 200\\,\\mathrm{km}\\,{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$, indicates that they are unlikely to be a bound pair. One or both systems are likely associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud

  9. Ships Passing in the Night: Spectroscopic Analysis of Two Ultra-faint Satellites in the Constellation Carina

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li, T. S.; Simon, J. D.; Pace, A. B.

    Here, we present Magellan/IMACS, Anglo-Australian Telescope/AAOmega+2dF, and Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE+FLAMES spectroscopy of the Carina II (Car II) and Carina III (Car III) dwarf galaxy candidates, recently discovered in the Magellanic Satellites Survey (MagLiteS). We identify 18 member stars in Car II, including two binaries with variable radial velocities and two RR Lyrae stars. The other 14 members have a mean heliocentric velocitymore » $${v}_{\\mathrm{hel}}=477.2\\pm 1.2$$ $$\\mathrm{km}\\,{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$ and a velocity dispersion of $${\\sigma }_{v}={3.4}_{-0.8}^{+1.2}$$ $$\\mathrm{km}\\,{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$. Assuming Car II is in dynamical equilibrium, we derive a total mass within the half-light radius of $${1.0}_{-0.4}^{+0.8}\\times {10}^{6}$$ $${M}_{\\odot }$$, indicating a mass-to-light ratio of $${369}_{-161}^{+309}$$ $${M}_{\\odot }$$/$${L}_{\\odot }$$. From equivalent width measurements of the calcium triplet lines of nine red giant branch (RGB) stars, we derive a mean metallicity of $${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}=-2.44\\pm 0.09$$ with dispersion $${\\sigma }_{{\\rm{[Fe/H]}}}={0.22}_{-0.07}^{+0.10}$$. Considering both the kinematic and chemical properties, we conclude that Car II is a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy. For Car III, we identify four member stars, from which we calculate a systemic velocity of $${v}_{\\mathrm{hel}}={284.6}_{-3.1}^{+3.4}$$ $$\\mathrm{km}\\,{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$. The brightest RGB member of Car III has a metallicity of $${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}\\,=-1.97\\pm 0.12$$. Due to the small size of the Car III spectroscopic sample, we cannot conclusively determine its nature. Although these two systems have the smallest known physical separation ($${\\rm{\\Delta }}d\\sim 10\\,\\mathrm{kpc}$$) among Local Group satellites, the large difference in their systemic velocities, $$\\sim 200\\,\\mathrm{km}\\,{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$, indicates that they are unlikely to be a bound pair. One or both systems are likely associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud

  10. Regenerative medicine in Brazil: small but innovative.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Dominique S; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla

    2010-11-01

    Although Brazil has received attention for conducting one of the world's largest stem cell clinical trials for heart disease, little has been published regarding Brazil's regenerative medicine (RM) sector. Here we present a comprehensive case study of RM in Brazil, including analysis of the current activity, the main motivations for engaging in RM and the remaining challenges to development in this field. Our case study is primarily based on semi-structured interviews with experts on RM in Brazil, including researchers, policymakers, clinicians, representatives of firms and regulators. Driven by domestic health needs and strategic government support, Brazil is producing innovative RM research, particularly for clinical research in cardiology, orthopedics, diabetes and neurology. We describe the main RM research currently taking place in Brazil, as well as some of the economic, regulatory and policy events that have created a favorable environment for RM development. Brazilian RM researchers need to overcome several formidable challenges to research: research funding is inconsistent, importation of materials is costly and slow, and weak linkages between universities, hospitals and industry impede translational research. Although Brazil's contribution to the RM sector is small, its niche emphasis on clinical applications may become of global importance, particularly if Brazil manages to address the challenges currently impinging on RM innovation.

  11. Accounting strategy of tritium inventory in the heavy water detritiation pilot plant from ICIT Rm. Valcea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bidica, N.; Stefanescu, I.; Cristescu, I.

    2008-07-15

    In this paper we present a methodology for determination of tritium inventory in a tritium removal facility. The method proposed is based on the developing of computing models for accountancy of the mobile tritium inventory in the separation processes, of the stored tritium and of the trapped tritium inventory in the structure of the process system components. The configuration of the detritiation process is a combination of isotope catalytic exchange between water and hydrogen (LPCE) and the cryogenic distillation of hydrogen isotopes (CD). The computing model for tritium inventory in the LPCE process and the CD process will be developedmore » basing on mass transfer coefficients in catalytic isotope exchange reactions and in dual-phase system (liquid-vapour) of hydrogen isotopes distillation process. Accounting of tritium inventory stored in metallic hydride will be based on in-bed calorimetry. Estimation of the trapped tritium inventory can be made by subtraction of the mobile and stored tritium inventories from the global tritium inventory of the plant area. Determinations of the global tritium inventory of the plant area will be made on a regular basis by measuring any tritium quantity entering or leaving the plant area. This methodology is intended to be applied to the Heavy Water Detritiation Pilot Plant from ICIT Rm. Valcea (Romania) and to the Cernavoda Tritium Removal Facility (which will be built in the next 5-7 years). (authors)« less

  12. Progress in the Long $${\\rm Nb}_{3}{\\rm Sn}$$ Quadrupole R&D by LARP

    DOE PAGES

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; ...

    2011-11-14

    After the successful test of the first long Nb 3Sn quadrupole (LQS01) the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP, a collaboration of BNL, FNAL, LBNL and SLAC) is assessing training memory, reproducibility, and other accelerator quality features of long Nb 3Sn quadrupole magnets. LQS01b (a reassembly of LQS01 with more uniform and higher pre-stress) was subjected to a full thermal cycle and reached the previous plateau of 222 T/m at 4.5 K in two quenches. A new set of four coils, made of the same type of conductor used in LQS01 (RRP 54/61 by Oxford Superconducting Technology), was assembled inmore » the LQS01 structure and tested at 4.5 K and lower temperatures. The new magnet (LQS02) reached the target gradient (200 T/m) only at 2.6 K and lower temperatures, at intermediate ramp rates. The preliminary test analysis, here reported, showed a higher instability in the limiting coil than in the other coils of LQS01 and LQS02.« less

  13. The Effects of Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages: A Systematic Review of Randomised Trials with Meta-Analyses and Trial Sequential Analyses Including Individual Patient Data.

    PubMed

    Egerup, Pia; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Immunological disturbances are hypothesised to play a role in recurrent miscarriage (RM) and therefore intravenous immunoglubulins (IVIg) have been tested in RM patients. The objectives were to investigate the benefits and harms of IVIg versus placebo, no intervention, or treatment as usual in women with RM. We searched the published literature in all relevant databases. Randomised trials investigating IVIg versus placebo, no intervention, or treatment as usual in women with RM. We undertook meta-analyses of aggregated data and individual patient data using a two-step approach, and we conducted bias domain assessments and trial sequential analyses to assess the risks of systematic and random errors. We identified 11 randomised clinical trials. No significant difference in the frequency of no live birth was found when IVIg was compared with placebo or treatment as usual (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.75-1.12, p = 0.42). Trial sequential analysis showed that the required information size of 1,008 participants was not obtained. IVIg compared with placebo seems to increase the risk of adverse events. Subgroup analysis suggests that women with RM after a birth (secondary RM) seemed most likely to obtain a potential beneficial effect of IVIg (RR for no live birth 0.77, 95%CI 0.58-1.02, p = 0.06), however, trial sequential analysis showed that insufficient information is presently accrued. We cannot recommend or refute IVIg in women with RM. IVIg should therefore be assessed in further randomised clinical trials with positive outcomes before any clinical use is considered.

  14. MC 2: Subaru and Hubble Space Telescope Weak-lensing Analysis of the Double Radio Relic Galaxy Cluster PLCK G287.0+32.9

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Finner, Kyle; Jee, M. James; Golovich, Nathan

    The second most significant detection of the Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich survey, PLCK G287.0+32.9 (z = 0.385), boasts two similarly bright radio relics and a radio halo. One radio relic is locatedmore » $$\\sim 400\\,\\mathrm{kpc}$$ NW of the X-ray peak and the other $$\\sim 2.8$$ Mpc to the SE. This large difference suggests that a complex merging scenario is required. A key missing puzzle for the merging scenario reconstruction is the underlying dark matter distribution in high resolution. Here, we present a joint Subaru Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope weak-lensing analysis of the cluster. Our analysis shows that the mass distribution features four significant substructures. Of the substructures, a primary cluster of mass $${M}_{200{\\rm{c}}}={1.59}_{-0.22}^{+0.25}\\times {10}^{15}\\ {h}_{70}^{-1}\\ {M}_{\\odot }$$ dominates the weak-lensing signal. This cluster is likely to be undergoing a merger with one (or more) subcluster whose mass is approximately a factor of 10 lower. One candidate is the subcluster of mass $${M}_{200{\\rm{c}}}={1.16}_{-0.13}^{+0.15}\\times {10}^{14}\\ {h}_{70}^{-1}\\ {M}_{\\odot }$$ located $$\\sim 400\\,\\mathrm{kpc}$$ to the SE. The location of this subcluster suggests that its interaction with the primary cluster could be the source of the NW radio relic. Another subcluster is detected $$\\sim 2$$ Mpc to the SE of the X-ray peak with mass $${M}_{200{\\rm{c}}}={1.68}_{-0.20}^{+0.22}\\times {10}^{14}\\ {h}_{70}^{-1}\\ {M}_{\\odot }$$. This SE subcluster is in the vicinity of the SE radio relic and may have created the SE radio relic during a past merger with the primary cluster. The fourth subcluster, $${M}_{200{\\rm{c}}}={1.87}_{-0.22}^{+0.24}\\times {10}^{14}\\ {h}_{70}^{-1}\\ {M}_{\\odot }$$, is NW of the X-ray peak and beyond the NW radio relic.« less

  15. MC 2: Subaru and Hubble Space Telescope Weak-lensing Analysis of the Double Radio Relic Galaxy Cluster PLCK G287.0+32.9

    DOE PAGES

    Finner, Kyle; Jee, M. James; Golovich, Nathan; ...

    2017-12-11

    The second most significant detection of the Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich survey, PLCK G287.0+32.9 (z = 0.385), boasts two similarly bright radio relics and a radio halo. One radio relic is locatedmore » $$\\sim 400\\,\\mathrm{kpc}$$ NW of the X-ray peak and the other $$\\sim 2.8$$ Mpc to the SE. This large difference suggests that a complex merging scenario is required. A key missing puzzle for the merging scenario reconstruction is the underlying dark matter distribution in high resolution. Here, we present a joint Subaru Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope weak-lensing analysis of the cluster. Our analysis shows that the mass distribution features four significant substructures. Of the substructures, a primary cluster of mass $${M}_{200{\\rm{c}}}={1.59}_{-0.22}^{+0.25}\\times {10}^{15}\\ {h}_{70}^{-1}\\ {M}_{\\odot }$$ dominates the weak-lensing signal. This cluster is likely to be undergoing a merger with one (or more) subcluster whose mass is approximately a factor of 10 lower. One candidate is the subcluster of mass $${M}_{200{\\rm{c}}}={1.16}_{-0.13}^{+0.15}\\times {10}^{14}\\ {h}_{70}^{-1}\\ {M}_{\\odot }$$ located $$\\sim 400\\,\\mathrm{kpc}$$ to the SE. The location of this subcluster suggests that its interaction with the primary cluster could be the source of the NW radio relic. Another subcluster is detected $$\\sim 2$$ Mpc to the SE of the X-ray peak with mass $${M}_{200{\\rm{c}}}={1.68}_{-0.20}^{+0.22}\\times {10}^{14}\\ {h}_{70}^{-1}\\ {M}_{\\odot }$$. This SE subcluster is in the vicinity of the SE radio relic and may have created the SE radio relic during a past merger with the primary cluster. The fourth subcluster, $${M}_{200{\\rm{c}}}={1.87}_{-0.22}^{+0.24}\\times {10}^{14}\\ {h}_{70}^{-1}\\ {M}_{\\odot }$$, is NW of the X-ray peak and beyond the NW radio relic.« less

  16. Possible Correlation Between Bile Salt Hydrolysis and AHL Deamidation: Staphylococcus epidermidis RM1, a Potent Quorum Quencher and Bile Salt Hydrolase Producer.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Ruchira; Prabhune, Asmita

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to isolate a bile salt hydrolase (BSH) producer from fermented soy curd and explore the ability of the BSH produced to cleave bacterial quorum sensing signals. Bacterial isolates with possible ability to deconjugate bile salts were enriched and isolated on De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium containing 0.2% bile salts. BSH-producing positive isolate with orange-pink-pigmented colonies was isolated and was identified as a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis using biochemical and phylogenetic tools. S. epidermidis RM1 was shown to possess both potent BSH and N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) cleavage activity. Genetic basis of this dual-enzyme activity was explored by means of specific primers designed using S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 genome as template. It was observed that a single enzyme was not responsible for both the activity. Two different genetic elements corresponding to each of the enzymatic activity were successfully amplified from the genomic DNA of the isolate.

  17. Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis of Cinnamomum camphora seed oil with oleic acid to produce human milk fat substitutes enriched in medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xian-Guo; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhao, Man-Li; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Rong; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2014-10-29

    In the present study, a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) enriched in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction from Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) with oleic acid in a solvent-free system. A commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, from Rhizomucor miehei, was facilitated as a biocatalyst. Effects of different reaction conditions, including substrate molar ratio, enzyme concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the optimal oleic acid incorporation. After optimization, results showed that the maximal incorporation of oleic acid into HMFS was 59.68%. Compared with CCSO, medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-2 position of HMFS accounted for >70%, whereas oleic acid was occupied predominantly at the sn-1,3 position (78.69%). Meanwhile, triacylglycerol (TAG) components of OCO (23.93%), CCO (14.94%), LaCO (13.58%), OLaO (12.66%), and OOO (11.13%) were determined as the major TAG species in HMFS. The final optimal reaction conditions were carried out as follows: substrate molar ratio (oleic acid/CCSO), 5:1; enzyme concentration, 12.5% (w/w total reactants); reaction temperature, 60 °C; and reaction time, 28 h. The reusability of Lipozyme RM IM in the acidolysis reaction was also evaluated, and it was found that it could be reused up to 9 times without significant loss of activities. Urea inclusion method was used to separate and purify the synthetic product. As the ratio of HMFS/urea increased to 1:2, the acid value lowered to the minimum. In a scale-up experiment, the contents of TAG and total tocopherols in HMFS (modified CCSO) were 77.28% and 12.27 mg/100 g, respectively. All of the physicochemical indices of purified product were within food standards. Therefore, such a MCFA-enriched HMFS produced by using the acidolysis method might have potential application in the infant formula industry.

  18. Analysis of all-optical light modulation in proteorhodopsin protein molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sukhdev; Sharma, Parag

    2008-03-01

    We present a detailed steady-state and time-dependent theoretical analysis of all-optical light modulation in the recently discovered, wild-type proteorhodopsin (WTpR) protein molecules based on excited-state absorption. Amplitude modulation of cw probe laser beam transmissions at 520, 405, 555 and 560 nm, corresponding to the peak absorption of pR, pRM, pRK and pRN intermediate states of pR photocycle, respectively, by cw and pulsed modulating pump laser beam at 520 nm have been analyzed. The effect of various spectral and kinetic parameters on modulation characteristics has been studied. There is an optimum value of concentration for a given pump intensity value for which maximum modulation of the probe beam can be achieved. The switching characteristics of probe beam at 405 and 520 nm exhibit dip and peak, respectively, which can be removed by decreasing the absorption of pRM state at 520 nm. The modulation in WTpR is at lower pump powers with smaller contrast in comparison to WT bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and WT pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR). The modulation characteristics exhibit unique features compared to bR and ppR.

  19. The Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee: a case study of meeting frequency, content, and outcomes before and after FDAAA.

    PubMed

    Morrato, Elaine H; Ling, Sarah B

    2012-11-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (FDAAA) of 2007 granted FDA-expanded drug safety authority. We hypothesized that meetings involving the FDA Drug Safety and Risk Management (DSaRM) Advisory Committee might serve as a barometer for the impact of FDAAA on drug safety regulatory decision making. We conducted a case study analysis of 42 DSaRM advisory committee meetings held between 2002 and 2011. Publicly available sources (FDA meeting minutes and materials, safety alerts, and drug manufacturer Web sites) were reviewed to describe and compare DSaRM meeting frequency, content and outcomes between the pre-FDAAA (2002-2007) and post-FDAAA (2008-2011) periods. DSaRM meeting frequency increased after FDAAA (from 2.7 to 6.5 meetings per year). DSaRM meetings were more likely to be held jointly with other drug advisory committees after FDAAA (from 68% to 92% of meetings). DSaRM members were invited participants in 35 additional meetings of other drug advisory committees (2007-2011). DSaRM meetings were more likely to review issues of approvability (eg, new drugs, new indications, and new product formulations) after FDAAA. FDA questions to the committee were more likely to request an explicit drug safety assessment after FDAAA (from 31% to 76% of meetings). Content analysis of meeting outcomes and subsequent FDA regulatory decisions did not suggest a more or less risk aversive climate after FDAAA. Increased DSaRM advisory committee activity indicates its advice was being sought more broadly for drug regulatory decision making and at earlier stages of drug development after FDAAA was enacted.

  20. Bifurcation induced by the aspect ratio in a turbulent von Kármán swirling flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liot, Olivier; Burguete, Javier

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of the aspect ratio, i.e., the distance between the propellers H divided by the diameter D , on the slow dynamics of a von Kármán swirling flow driven by two propellers in a closed cylinder. We use a cell with a fixed diameter D but where the distance between the propellers can be turned continuously and where the inertia from the propellers can also be changed using different gears. No change on the dynamics is observed when the momentum of inertia is modified. Some dramatic changes of the shear layer position are observed modifying the aspect ratio Γ =H /D . A bifurcation of the shear layer position appears. Whereas for low Γ the shear layer position has a smooth evolution when turning the asymmetry between the rotation frequency of the propellers, for high Γ the transition becomes abrupt and a symmetry breaking appears. Secondly we observe that the spontaneous reversals with large residence times already observed in this experiment for Γ =1 [de la Torre and Burguete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 054101 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.054101] exist only in a narrow window of aspect ratio. We show using an experimental study of the mean flow structure and a numerical approach based on a Langevin equation with colored noise that the shear layer position seems to be decided by the mean flow structure, whereas the reversals are linked to the spatial distribution of the turbulent fluctuations in the cell.

  1. Identifying the location of the OMP separatrix in DIII-D using power accounting

    DOE PAGES

    Stangeby, Peter C.; Canik, John M.; Elder, J. D.; ...

    2015-08-07

    In order to identify reliable scalings for the scrape-off layer (SOL) power width it is necessary to know the location of the separatrix in divertor tokamaks as accurately as possible, specifically its location at the outside midplane (OMP) the standard reference location. Two methods are described which use power accounting to improve the accuracy of identifying the location of the OMP separatrix. The first uses the infrared-measured deposited power profile at the outer target as the primary input, the 'more » $$P_{{\\rm SOL}}^{{\\rm exhaust}}$$ method'. The second uses the measured power input to the SOL, obtained by subtracting the power radiated from inside the separatrix from the total heating power, the ' $$P_{{\\rm SOL}}^{{\\rm input}}$$ method'. Furthermore, these two power accounting methods are illustrated with the examples of 21 H-mode DIII-D discharges. High spatial resolution Thomson scattering measured profiles of ne and Te for the main SOL near the OMP are also used as primary input to the analysis; only between-edge localized mode data are used here. The Thomson profiles are used to calculate the electron parallel conducted heat flux profiles which are then matched to the measured $$P_{{\\rm SOL}}^{{\\rm exhaust}}$$ and $$P_{{\\rm SOL}}^{{\\rm input}}$$ by adjusting the location of the OMP separatrix relative to that of the Thomson data. For these attached discharges, it is found that the values of $$R_{{\\rm sep}}^{{\\rm omp}}$$ given by the two power accounting methods agree to within ~1 mm of each other and also to within ~1 mm of the values given by the 'standard DIII-D method' described by Porter et al (1998 Phys. Plasmas 5 1410). Lastly, the shifted $$R_{{\\rm sep}}^{{\\rm omp}}$$ results in only modest changes to the values of ne and Te at the OMP separatrix relative to the 'standard' values, increasing $$n_{{\\rm e}}^{{\\rm sep}}$$ by 8% and $$T_{{\\rm e}}^{{\\rm sep}}$$ by 20%.« less

  2. Nonlinear Analysis of an Unstable Bench Press Bar Path and Muscle Activation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Michael A; Leib, Daniel J; Ostrowski, Stephanie J; Carlson, Lara A

    2017-05-01

    Lawrence, MA, Leib, DJ, Ostrowski, SJ, and Carlson, LA. Nonlinear analysis of an unstable bench press bar path and muscle activation. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1206-1211, 2017-Unstable resistance exercises are typically performed to improve the ability of stabilizing muscles to maintain joint integrity under a load. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an unstable load (as provided by a flexible barbell and a load suspended by elastic bands) on the bar path, the primary musculature, and stabilizing musculature while bench pressing using nonlinear analyses. Fifteen resistance-trained men (age 24.2 ± 2.7 years, mass 84.1 ± 12.0 kg, height 1.77 ± 0.05 m, 9.9 ± 3.4 years of lifting experience, and bench press 1 repetition maximum (RM) 107.5 ± 25.9 kg) volunteered for this study. Subjects pressed 2 sets of 5 repetitions in both stable (total load 75% 1RM) and unstable (total load 60% 1RM) conditions using a standard barbell and a flexible Earthquake bar, respectively. Surface electromyography was used to detect muscle activity of primary movers (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps) and bar stabilizing musculature (latissimus dorsi, middle and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and upper trapezius). During the unstable condition, the bar moved in more ways and was less predictable in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions. However, the muscle activation patterns of all muscles were more constrained with the unstable barbell. These findings suggest that the unstable condition was more challenging to control, but subjects controlled the instability by contracting their muscles in a more stable pattern or "staying tight" throughout the exercise.

  3. Effects of ΛΛ ‑ ΞN mixing in the decay of {}_{{\\rm{\\Lambda }}{\\rm{\\Lambda }}}{}^{6}{\\rm{H}}{\\rm{e}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneu, J.; Parreño, A.; Ramos, A.

    2018-05-01

    A one-meson exchange model including the ground state of the pseudoscalar octet is used to describe the weak two-body interactions responsible for the decay of {}{{Λ }{{Λ }}}{}6{{H}}{{e}}. Strong interaction effects are taken into account by a microscopic study based on the solution of G-matrix and T-matrix equations for the initial and final interacting pairs respectively. Results for the decay induced by {{Λ }}{{Λ }}\\to {{Λ }}N({{Σ }}N) transitions are given.

  4. Architectural assessment of rhesus macaque pelvic floor muscles: comparison for use as a human model.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Amanda M; Cook, Mark S; Esparza, Mary C; Slayden, Ov D; Alperin, Marianna

    2017-10-01

    Animal models are essential to further our understanding of the independent and combined function of human pelvic floor muscles (PFMs), as direct studies in women are limited. To assure suitability of the rhesus macaque (RM), we compared RM and human PFM architecture, the strongest predictor of muscle function. We hypothesized that relative to other models, RM best resembles human PFM. Major architectural parameters of cadaveric human coccygeus, iliococcygeus, and pubovisceralis (pubococcygeus + puborectalis) and corresponding RM coccygeus, iliocaudalis, and pubovisceralis (pubovaginalis + pubocaudalis) were compared using 1- and 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc testing. Architectural difference index (ADI), a combined measure of functionally relevant structural parameters predictive of length-tension, force-generation, and excursional muscle properties was used to compare PFMs across RM, rabbit, rat, and mouse. RM and human PFMs were similar with respect to architecture. However, the magnitude of similarity varied between individual muscles, with the architecture of the most distinct RM PFM, iliocaudalis, being well suited for quadrupedal locomotion. Except for the pubovaginalis, RM PFMs inserted onto caudal vertebrae, analogous to all tailed animals. Comparison of the PFM complex architecture across species revealed the lowest, thus closest to human, ADI for RM (1.9), followed by rat (2.0), mouse (2.6), and rabbit (4.7). Overall, RM provides the closest architectural representation of human PFM complex among species examined; however, differences between individual PFMs should be taken into consideration. As RM is closely followed by rat with respect to PFM similarity with humans, this less-sentient and substantially cheaper model is a good alternative for PFM studies.

  5. Risk Management Interventions to Reduce Injuries and Maximize Economic Benefits in U.S. Mining.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Stephanie C; Bui, David P; Gowrisankaran, Gautam; Lutz, Eric A; He, Charles; Hu, Chengcheng; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2018-03-01

    Risk management (RM) is a cyclical process of identifying and ranking risks, implementing controls, and evaluating their effectiveness. This study aims to identify effective RM interventions in the U.S. mining industry. RM interventions were identified in four companies representing metal, aggregate, and coal mining sectors. Injury rates were determined using Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) data and changes in injury rates identified through change point analysis. Program implementation costs and associated changes in injury costs were evaluated for select interventions. Six of 20 RM interventions were associated with a decline in all injuries and one with a reduction in lost-time injuries, all with a positive return on investment. Reductions in injuries and associated costs were observed following implementation of a limited number of specific RM interventions.

  6. A Novel Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiming; Wang, Maocai; Dai, Guangming; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    As is known, the Pareto set of a continuous multiobjective optimization problem with m objective functions is a piecewise continuous (m − 1)-dimensional manifold in the decision space under some mild conditions. However, how to utilize the regularity to design multiobjective optimization algorithms has become the research focus. In this paper, based on this regularity, a model-based multiobjective evolutionary algorithm with regression analysis (MMEA-RA) is put forward to solve continuous multiobjective optimization problems with variable linkages. In the algorithm, the optimization problem is modelled as a promising area in the decision space by a probability distribution, and the centroid of the probability distribution is (m − 1)-dimensional piecewise continuous manifold. The least squares method is used to construct such a model. A selection strategy based on the nondominated sorting is used to choose the individuals to the next generation. The new algorithm is tested and compared with NSGA-II and RM-MEDA. The result shows that MMEA-RA outperforms RM-MEDA and NSGA-II on the test instances with variable linkages. At the same time, MMEA-RA has higher efficiency than the other two algorithms. A few shortcomings of MMEA-RA have also been identified and discussed in this paper. PMID:25874246

  7. "We as Human Beings Get Farther and Farther Apart": the experiences of patients with remote monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Ottenberg, Abigale L; Swetz, Keith M; Mueller, Luke A; Gerhardson, Samantha; Mueller, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    To explore the experiences of patients living with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) who had received remote monitoring (RM). Anecdotal evidence suggests that not all patients with RM use the technology. Focus groups of patients with an ICD who received an RM system. Transcripts reviewed using thematic analysis. Nine patients (3 women and 6 men; median [range] age, 73 [58-91] years) received an RM system. Patients were assigned to a group in regard to RM system use (nonusers, n = 5; users, n = 4). Few nonusers recalled having prior conversations about the system. Users described it as "simple" and "easy" to use. Nonusers often were unsure whether their system was correctly transmitting information. System benefits perceived by users included convenience and security. Nonusers expressed mistrust. Recommendations included early education and help lines. Patient adherence to RM systems can be improved by explaining perceived benefits and addressing barriers to use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of CTT and Rasch-based approaches for the analysis of longitudinal Patient Reported Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blanchin, Myriam; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Le Neel, Tanguy; Kubis, Gildas; Blanchard, Claire; Mirallié, Eric; Sébille, Véronique

    2011-04-15

    Health sciences frequently deal with Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO) data for the evaluation of concepts, in particular health-related quality of life, which cannot be directly measured and are often called latent variables. Two approaches are commonly used for the analysis of such data: Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT). Longitudinal data are often collected to analyze the evolution of an outcome over time. The most adequate strategy to analyze longitudinal latent variables, which can be either based on CTT or IRT models, remains to be identified. This strategy must take into account the latent characteristic of what PROs are intended to measure as well as the specificity of longitudinal designs. A simple and widely used IRT model is the Rasch model. The purpose of our study was to compare CTT and Rasch-based approaches to analyze longitudinal PRO data regarding type I error, power, and time effect estimation bias. Four methods were compared: the Score and Mixed models (SM) method based on the CTT approach, the Rasch and Mixed models (RM), the Plausible Values (PV), and the Longitudinal Rasch model (LRM) methods all based on the Rasch model. All methods have shown comparable results in terms of type I error, all close to 5 per cent. LRM and SM methods presented comparable power and unbiased time effect estimations, whereas RM and PV methods showed low power and biased time effect estimations. This suggests that RM and PV methods should be avoided to analyze longitudinal latent variables. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Remote Monitoring of Hypertension Diseases in Pregnancy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberk, Thijs; Smeets, Christophe JP; De Cannière, Hélène; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Moerbeke, Anne; van den Hoogen, Anne; Robijns, Tiziana; Vonck, Sharona; Staelens, Anneleen; Storms, Valerie; Thijs, Inge M; Grieten, Lars; Gyselaers, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    Background Although remote monitoring (RM) has proven its added value in various health care domains, little is known about the remote follow-up of pregnant women diagnosed with a gestational hypertensive disorders (GHD). Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the added value of a remote follow-up program for pregnant women diagnosed with GHD. Methods A 1-year retrospective study was performed in the outpatient clinic of a 2nd level prenatal center where pregnant women with GHD received RM or conventional care (CC). Primary study endpoints include number of prenatal visits and admissions to the prenatal observation ward. Secondary outcomes include gestational outcome, mode of delivery, neonatal outcome, and admission to neonatal intensive care (NIC). Differences in continuous and categorical variables in maternal demographics and characteristics were tested using Unpaired Student’s two sampled t test or Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test. Both a univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for analyzing prenatal follow-up and gestational outcomes. All statistical analyses were done at nominal level, Cronbach alpha=.05. Results Of the 166 patients diagnosed with GHD, 53 received RM and 113 CC. After excluding 5 patients in the RM group and 15 in the CC group because of the missing data, 48 patients in RM group and 98 in CC group were taken into final analysis. The RM group had more women diagnosed with gestational hypertension, but less with preeclampsia when compared with CC (81.25% vs 42.86% and 14.58% vs 43.87%). Compared with CC, univariate analysis in RM showed less induction, more spontaneous labors, and less maternal and neonatal hospitalizations (48.98% vs 25.00%; 31.63% vs 60.42%; 74.49% vs 56.25%; and 27.55% vs 10.42%). This was also true in multivariate analysis, except for hospitalizations. Conclusions An RM follow-up of women with GHD is a promising tool in the prenatal care. It opens the perspectives to reverse the current

  10. O/S analysis of conceptual space vehicles. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    The application of recently developed computer models in determining operational capabilities and support requirements during the conceptual design of proposed space systems is discussed. The models used are the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model, the maintenance simulation model, and the operations and support (O&S) cost model. In the process of applying these models, the R&M and O&S cost models were updated. The more significant enhancements include (1) improved R&M equations for the tank subsystems, (2) the ability to allocate schedule maintenance by subsystem, (3) redefined spares calculations, (4) computing a weighted average of the working days and mission days per month, (5) the use of a position manning factor, and (6) the incorporation into the O&S model of new formulas for computing depot and organizational recurring and nonrecurring training costs and documentation costs, and depot support equipment costs. The case study used is based upon a winged, single-stage, vertical-takeoff vehicle (SSV) designed to deliver to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) a 25,000 lb payload including passengers without a crew.

  11. Comparative evaluation of thermal oxidative decomposition for oil-plant residues via thermogravimetric analysis: Thermal conversion characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbiao; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Ren, Xiu'e; Fan, Shuanshi

    2017-11-01

    Thermal oxidative decomposition characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of rape straw (RS), rapeseed meal (RM), camellia seed shell (CS), and camellia seed meal (CM) were evaluated via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TG-DTG-DSC curves demonstrated that the combustion of oil-plant residues proceeded in three stages, including dehydration, release and combustion of organic volatiles, and chars oxidation. As revealed by combustion characteristic parameters, the ignition, burnout, and comprehensive combustion performance of residues were quite distinct from each other, and were improved by increasing heating rate. The kinetic parameters were determined by Coats-Redfern approach. The results showed that the most possible combustion mechanisms were order reaction models. The existence of kinetic compensation effect was clearly observed. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, ΔS) at peak temperatures were calculated through the activated complex theory. With the combustion proceeding, the variation trends of ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS for RS (RM) similar to those for CS (CM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential Renoprotective Effects of Rosemary and Thyme Against Gentamicin Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Azeem, Amal S; Hegazy, Amany M; Zeidan, Hala M; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; El-Sayed, Eman M

    2017-07-04

    Gentamicin (GM) is a drug used commonly against gram-negative bacteria. Its therapeutic use is mainly limited by its nephrotoxicity. This investigation was aimed at evaluating the nephroprotective effects of rosemary (RM; Rosmarinus officinalis) and thyme (TV; Thymus vulgaris) against GM toxicity. Rats were divided into four groups. Normal control group was treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with saline; positive control group was administered GM 60 mg/kg/day i.p.; RM group was co-administered 8% RM aqueous extract, 10 mL/kg/day, orally with GM; and TV group was co-administered 8% TV aqueous extract orally, 10 mL/kg/day with GM. Both RM and TV groups extracted significantly ameliorated plasma kidney function biomarkers, and reduced malondialdhyde and glucose levels. Meanwhile, RM extract significantly modulated the electrolyte concentration and increased plasma insulin levels as compared with the GM group. However, the aqueous extract of RM showed more pronounced effects than TV extract. Our data were confirmed by histopathological examination and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation analysis. Deleterious histopathological changes and increased DNA fragmentation induced by GM treatment were markedly controlled by the co-administration of RM and TV. Such renoprotective influence of RM and TV suggests their concurrent supplementation with GM therapy to limit GM toxicity.

  13. INTERPRETATION OF THE STRUCTURE FUNCTION OF ROTATION MEASURE IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xu, Siyao; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: syxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2016-06-20

    The observed structure function (SF) of rotation measure (RM) varies as a broken power-law function of angular scales. The systematic shallowness of its spectral slope is inconsistent with the standard Kolmogorov scaling. This motivates us to examine the statistical analysis on RM fluctuations. The correlations of RM constructed by Lazarian and Pogosyan are demonstrated to be adequate in explaining the observed features of RM SFs through a direct comparison between the theoretically obtained and observationally measured SF results. By segregating the density and magnetic field fluctuations and adopting arbitrary indices for their respective power spectra, we find that when themore » SFs of RM and emission measure have a similar form over the same range of angular scales, the statistics of the RM fluctuations reflect the properties of density fluctuations. RM SFs can be used to evaluate the mean magnetic field along the line of sight, but cannot serve as an informative source on the properties of turbulent magnetic field in the interstellar medium. We identify the spectral break of RM SFs as the inner scale of a shallow spectrum of electron density fluctuations, which characterizes the typical size of discrete electron density structures in the observed region.« less

  14. Measurement of the cross-section of high transverse momentum vector bosons reconstructed as single jets and studies of jet substructure in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Aad, G.

    2014-11-04

    This article presents a measurement of the cross-section for high transverse momentum W and Z bosons produced in pp collisions and decaying to all-hadronic final states. The data used in the analysis were recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy ofmore » $$\\sqrt{s}=7\\;{\\rm Te}{\\rm V}$$ and correspond to an integrated luminosity of $$4.6\\;{\\rm f}{{{\\rm b}}^{-1}}$$. The measurement is performed by reconstructing the boosted W or Z bosons in single jets. The reconstructed jet mass is used to identify the W and Z bosons, and a jet substructure method based on energy cluster information in the jet centre-of-mass frame is used to suppress the large multi-jet background. The cross-section for events with a hadronically decaying W or Z boson, with transverse momentum $${{p}_{{\\rm T}}}\\gt 320\\;{\\rm Ge}{\\rm V}$$ and pseudorapidity $$|\\eta |\\lt 1.9$$, is measured to be $${{\\sigma }_{W+Z}}=8.5\\pm 1.7$$ pb and is compared to next-to-leading-order calculations. The selected events are further used to study jet grooming techniques.« less

  15. Antagonistic effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Gasco, M; Malheiros-Pereira, A; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2008-06-01

    The plants from the Lepidium gender have demonstrated to have effect on the size of the prostate. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian plant that grows exclusively over 4000 m above sea level. The present study was designed to determine the effect of red maca (RM) in the prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone enanthate (TE) in adult mice. Prostate hyperplasia was induced by administering TE, and then these animals (n = 6, each group) were treated with RM or Finasteride (positive control) for 21 days. There was an additional group without prostate hyperplasia (vehicle). Mice were killed on days 7, 14 and 21 after treatment with RM. Testosterone and oestradiol levels were measured on the last day of treatment. Prostatic stroma, epithelium and acini were measured histologically. RM reduced prostate weight at 21 days of treatment. Weights of seminal vesicles, testis and epididymis were not affected by RM treatment. The reduction in prostate size by RM was 1.59 times. Histological analysis showed that TE increased 2-fold the acinar area, effect prevented in the groups receiving TE + RM for 14 (P < 0.05) and 21 (P < 0.05) days and the group receiving TE + Finasteride for 21 days (P < 0.05). TE increased prostatic stroma area and this effect was prevented by treatment with RM since 7 days of treatment or Finasteride. The reduction in prostatic stroma area by RM was 1.42 times. RM has an anti-hyperplastic effect on the prostate of adult mice when hyperplasia was induced with TE acting first at prostatic stromal level.

  16. Biosynthesis of the Polycyclic Antimicrobial Peptides Lacticin 481, Haloduracin, and Cinnamycin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Lisa E.

    2009-01-01

    Lantibiotics are bacterial-derived polycyclic antimicrobial peptides. They are genetically encoded and ribosomally synthesized as precursor peptides containing a structural region that undergoes post-translational modification and a leader sequence that is not modified. Specific serine and threonine residues in the pre-lantibiotic structural…

  17. The effects of combined elastic- and free-weight tension vs. free-weight tension on one-repetition maximum strength in the bench press.

    PubMed

    Bellar, David M; Muller, Matthew D; Barkley, Jacob E; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ida, Keisuke; Ryan, Edward J; Bliss, Mathew V; Glickman, Ellen L

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training combining elastic tension, free weights, and the bench press. Eleven college-aged men (untrained) in the bench press participated in the 13-week study. The participants were first given instructions and then practiced the bench press, followed by a one-repetition maximum (1RM) test of baseline strength. Subjects were then trained in the bench press for 3 weeks to allow for the beginning of neural adaptation. After another 1RM test, participants were assigned to 1 of 2 conditions for the next 3 weeks of training: 85% Free-Weight Tension, 15% Elastic Tension (BAND), or 100% Free-Weight Tension (STAND). After 3 weeks of training and a third 1RM max test, participants switched treatments, under which they completed the final 3 weeks of training and the fourth 1RM test. Analysis via analysis of covariance revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) main effect for time and interaction effect for Treatment (BAND vs. STAND). Subsequent analysis via paired-samples t-test revealed the BAND condition was significantly better (p = 0.05) at producing raw gains in 1RM strength. (BAND 9.95 ± 3.7 kg vs. STAND 7.56 ± 2.8 kg). These results suggest that the addition of elastic tension to the bench press may be an effective method of increasing strength.

  18. Can the new RCP R0/R1 classification predict the clinical outcome in ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head?

    PubMed

    Janot, M S; Kersting, S; Belyaev, O; Matuschek, A; Chromik, A M; Suelberg, D; Uhl, W; Tannapfel, A; Bergmann, U

    2012-08-01

    According to the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), R1 is defined as the microscopic presence of tumor cells at the surface of the resection margin (RM). In contrast, the Royal College of Pathologists (RCP) suggested to declare R1 already when tumor cells are found within 1 mm of the RM. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of the RM concerning the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). From 2007 to 2009, 62 patients underwent a curative operation for PDAC of the pancreatic head. The relevance of R status on cumulative overall survival (OS) was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis for both the classic R classification (UICC) and the suggestion of the RCP. Following the UICC criteria, a positive RM was detected in 8 %. Along with grading and lymph node ratio, R status revealed a significant impact on OS on univariate and multivariate analysis. Applying the suggestion of the RCP, R1 rate rose to 26 % resulting in no significant impact on OS in univariate analysis. Our study has shown that the RCP suggestion for R status has no impact on the prognosis of PDAC. In contrast, our data confirmed the UICC R classification of RM as well as N category, grading, and lymph node ratio as significant prognostic factors.

  19. Comparative cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in the prevention of cervical cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ezat, Sharifa W P; Aljunid, Syed

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) had the second highest incidence of female cancers in Malaysia in 2003-2006. Prevention is possible by both Pap smear screening and HPV vaccination with either the bivalent vaccine (BV) or the quadrivalent vaccine (QV). In the present study, cost effectiveness options were compared for three programs i.e. screening via Pap smear; modeling of HPV vaccination (QV and BV) and combined strategy (screening plus vaccination). A scenario based sensitivity analysis was conducted using screening population coverages (40-80%) and costs of vaccines (RM 100-200/dose) were calculated. This was an economic burden, cross sectional study in 2006-2009 of respondents interviewed from six public Gynecology-Oncology hospitals. Methods included expert panel discussions to estimate treatment costs of CC, genital warts and vulva/vagina cancers by severity and direct interviews with respondents using costing and SF-36 quality of life questionnaires. A total of 502 cervical cancer patients participated with a mean age at 53.3±11.2 years and a mean marriage length of 27.7±12.1 years, Malays accounting for 44.2%. Cost/quality adjusted life year (QALY) for Pap smear in the base case was RM 1,215 and RM 1,100 at increased screening coverage. With QV only, in base case it was RM 15,662 and RM 24,203 when the vaccination price was increased. With BV only, the respective figures were RM 1,359,057 and RM 2,530,018. For QV combined strategy cost/QALY in the base case it was RM 4,937, reducing to RM 3,395 in the best case and rising to RM 7,992 in the worst case scenario. With the BV combined strategy, these three cost/QALYs were RM 6,624, RM 4,033 and RM 10,543. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) showed that screening at 70% coverage or higher was highly cost effective at RM 946.74 per QALYs saved but this was preceded by best case combined strategy with QV at RM 515.29 per QALYs saved. QV is more cost effective than BV. The QV combined strategy had a higher CE than

  20. STRUCTURE IN THE ROTATION MEASURE SKY

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stil, J. M.; Taylor, A. R.; Sunstrum, C.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of structure in rotation measure (RM) across the sky based on the RM catalog of Taylor et al. is presented. Several resolved RM structures are identified with structure in the local interstellar medium, including radio loops I, II, and III, the Gum nebula, and the Orion-Eridanus superbubble. Structure functions (SFs) of RM are presented for selected areas, and maps of SF amplitude and slope across the sky are compared with H{alpha} intensity and diffuse polarized intensity. RM variance on an angular scale of 1{sup 0} is correlated with length of the line of sight through the Galaxy, withmore » a contribution from local structures. The slope of the SFs is less concentrated to the Galactic plane and less correlated with length of the line of sight through the Galaxy, suggesting a more local origin for RM structure on angular scales {approx}10{sup 0}. The RM variance is a factor of {approx}2 higher toward the South Galactic Pole than toward the North Galactic Pole, reflecting a more wide-spread asymmetry between the northern and southern Galactic hemispheres. Depolarization of diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission at latitudes <30{sup 0} can be explained largely by Faraday dispersion related to small-scale variance in RM, but the errors allow a significant contribution from differential Faraday rotation along the line of sight.« less

  1. Testing Multiple Outcomes in Repeated Measures Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates procedures for controlling the familywise error rate (FWR) when testing hypotheses about multiple, correlated outcome variables in repeated measures (RM) designs. A content analysis of RM research articles published in 4 psychology journals revealed that 3 quarters of studies tested hypotheses about 2 or more outcome…

  2. Validity of one-repetition maximum predictive equations in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Neto, F; Guanais, P; Dornelas, E; Coutinho, A C B; Costa, R R G

    2017-10-01

    Cross-sectional study. The study aimed (a) to test the cross-validation of current one-repetition maximum (1RM) predictive equations in men with spinal cord injury (SCI); (b) to compare the current 1RM predictive equations to a newly developed equation based on the 4- to 12-repetition maximum test (4-12RM). SARAH Rehabilitation Hospital Network, Brasilia, Brazil. Forty-five men aged 28.0 years with SCI between C6 and L2 causing complete motor impairment were enrolled in the study. Volunteers were tested, in a random order, in 1RM test or 4-12RM with 2-3 interval days. Multiple regression analysis was used to generate an equation for predicting 1RM. There were no significant differences between 1RM test and the current predictive equations. ICC values were significant and were classified as excellent for all current predictive equations. The predictive equation of Lombardi presented the best Bland-Altman results (0.5 kg and 12.8 kg for mean difference and interval range around the differences, respectively). The two created equation models for 1RM demonstrated the same and a high adjusted R 2 (0.971, P<0.01), but different SEE of measured 1RM (2.88 kg or 5.4% and 2.90 kg or 5.5%). All 1RM predictive equations are accurate to assess individuals with SCI at the bench press exercise. However, the predictive equation of Lombardi presented the best associated cross-validity results. A specific 1RM prediction equation was also elaborated for individuals with SCI. The created equation should be tested in order to verify whether it presents better accuracy than the current ones.

  3. Physiologic effects of rhythmical massage: a prospective exploratory cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wälchli, Chantal; Saltzwedel, Georg; Krüerke, Daniel; Kaufmann, Christoph; Schnorr, Bettina; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Jutta; Decker, Michael; Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula

    2014-06-01

    This study was performed to characterize the physiologic effects of rhythmical massage (RM), an anthroposophic therapy whose effectiveness is supported by empirical observations and a prospective observational study. Patients referred to RM at the Paracelsus Hospital Richterswil for any indication were continuously enrolled. They received an average of 10 RM sessions, which included not only the massage but also therapeutic rest in the supine position immediately thereafter. Effects of RM on surface temperature and on heart rate variability (HRV) were determined with infrared imaging (IRI) and electrocardiography (ECG), respectively. IRI of the patients' dorsal region was performed without clothes, in standing position, at the start and at the end of two waiting periods before and after RM. ECG was performed from the beginning of the first waiting period until the end of the second one. Results on IRI from 9 and ECG from 11 patients could be analyzed. RM led to an immediate increase in dorsal temperature. Furthermore, comparison of the IRI images for consecutive RM sessions showed a tendency toward improved warmth distribution as a progressive therapy effect. Analysis of the EGC results recorded during the waiting periods-in the sitting position--showed a significant increase of HRV after RM, as detected by the standard deviation of the beat-to-beat periods and a relative increase of low-frequency power. During the course of the RM sessions, the change in HRV during the therapeutic rest period depended on the initial value: Low initial values were enhanced, whereas high ones were reduced. RM led to an immediate increase in the patient's dorsal surface temperature, as well as increased HRV and sympathetic stimulation. In the long term, RM resulted in a progressive improvement of warmth distribution and regulation of the resting HRV.

  4. Remote Monitoring of Hypertension Diseases in Pregnancy: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lanssens, Dorien; Vandenberk, Thijs; Smeets, Christophe Jp; De Cannière, Hélène; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Moerbeke, Anne; van den Hoogen, Anne; Robijns, Tiziana; Vonck, Sharona; Staelens, Anneleen; Storms, Valerie; Thijs, Inge M; Grieten, Lars; Gyselaers, Wilfried

    2017-03-09

    Although remote monitoring (RM) has proven its added value in various health care domains, little is known about the remote follow-up of pregnant women diagnosed with a gestational hypertensive disorders (GHD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the added value of a remote follow-up program for pregnant women diagnosed with GHD. A 1-year retrospective study was performed in the outpatient clinic of a 2nd level prenatal center where pregnant women with GHD received RM or conventional care (CC). Primary study endpoints include number of prenatal visits and admissions to the prenatal observation ward. Secondary outcomes include gestational outcome, mode of delivery, neonatal outcome, and admission to neonatal intensive care (NIC). Differences in continuous and categorical variables in maternal demographics and characteristics were tested using Unpaired Student's two sampled t test or Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test. Both a univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for analyzing prenatal follow-up and gestational outcomes. All statistical analyses were done at nominal level, Cronbach alpha=.05. Of the 166 patients diagnosed with GHD, 53 received RM and 113 CC. After excluding 5 patients in the RM group and 15 in the CC group because of the missing data, 48 patients in RM group and 98 in CC group were taken into final analysis. The RM group had more women diagnosed with gestational hypertension, but less with preeclampsia when compared with CC (81.25% vs 42.86% and 14.58% vs 43.87%). Compared with CC, univariate analysis in RM showed less induction, more spontaneous labors, and less maternal and neonatal hospitalizations (48.98% vs 25.00%; 31.63% vs 60.42%; 74.49% vs 56.25%; and 27.55% vs 10.42%). This was also true in multivariate analysis, except for hospitalizations. An RM follow-up of women with GHD is a promising tool in the prenatal care. It opens the perspectives to reverse the current evolution of antenatal interventions leading to more

  5. Impact of Remote Monitoring on Long-Term Prognosis in Heart Failure Patients in a Real-World Cohort: Results From All-Comers COMMIT-HF Trial.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Anna; Tajstra, Mateusz; Gadula-Gacek, Elzbieta; Buchta, Piotr; Skrzypek, Michal; Pyka, Lukasz; Wasiak, Michal; Swietlinska, Malgorzata; Hawranek, Michal; Polonski, Lech; Gasior, Mariusz; Kosiuk, Jedrzej

    2017-04-01

    Randomized controlled trials demonstrate that remote monitoring (RM) of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices (CRT-Ds) may improve quality of care and prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the impact of RM on long-term mortality in a real-world cohort is still not well examined. This study was designed as a matched cohort study based on the COMMIT-HF trial--a single-center, ongoing prospective observational registry (NCT02536443). Complete patient demographics, medical history, in-hospital results, hospitalizations, and mortality data were collected based on institutional registries and healthcare providers' records. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on RM presence and matched by means of propensity scores according to clinical characteristics. The primary endpoint of this study was the long-term all-cause mortality. Out of 1,429 consecutive patients, 822 patients with a first implantation of an ICD/CRT-D were included in the analysis. The final matched study population contained 574 patients in RM and in a control group. Although demographic and echocardiographic parameters as well as pharmacological treatments were similar in both groups, a significantly lower 1-year mortality was detected in the RM group (2.1% vs. 11.5%, P < 0.0001). This was also maintained during a 3-year follow-up (4.9% vs. 22.3%, P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that RM was associated with an improved prognosis (hazard ratio 0.187, 95% confidence interval 0.075-0.467, P = 0.0003). RM of HF patients with ICDs/CRT-Ds significantly reduced long-term mortality in a real-world clinical condition. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Association between QTLs and morphological traits toward sheath blight resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md Kamal; Jena, Kshirod Kumar; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2016-01-01

    Sheath blight is considered the most significant disease of rice and causes enormous yield losses over the world. Breeding for resistant varieties is the only viable option to combat the disease efficiently. Seventeen diverged rice genotypes along with 17 QTL-linked SSR markers were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Pearson’s correlation showed only the flag leaf angle had a significant correlation with sheath blight resistance under greenhouse screening. Multivariate analysis based on UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the flag leaf angle, flag leaf length, and plant compactness were significantly associated with the following SSR marker alleles: RM209 (116,130), RM202 (176), RM224 (126), RM257 (156), RM426 (175), and RM6971 (196), which are linked to the SB QTLs: QRlh11, qSBR11-3, qSBR11-1, qSBR9-1, qShB3-2, and qSB-9. A Mantel test suggested a weak relationship between the observed phenotypes and allelic variation patterns, implying the independent nature of morphological and molecular variations. Teqing and Tetep were found to be the most resistant cultivars. IR65482-4-136-2-2, MR219-4, and MR264 showed improved resistance potentials. These results suggest that the morphological traits and QTLs which have been found to associate with sheath blight resistance are a good choice to enhance resistance through pyramiding either 2 QTLs or QTLs and traits in susceptible rice cultivars. PMID:27795687

  7. Maturing Weapon Systems for Improved Availability at Lower Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    development of new measures of R&M performance and improved data collection and analysis capabilities . Innovations in automated data collection, including the...45 Capabilities Required to Implement Maturation Development ...... 45 Assess R&M Performance Accurately ....................... 46 Identify...Requirements Determination ...................................... 49 Capabilities of the Best Existing Databases ..................... 49 Data Elements Needed

  8. Genetic Dissection of Root Morphological Traits Related to Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Brassica napus L. under Two Contrasting Nitrogen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Dun, Xiaoling; Shi, Jiaqin; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-01-01

    As the major determinant for nutrient uptake, root system architecture (RSA) has a massive impact on nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, little is known the molecular control of RSA as related to NUE in rapeseed. Here, a rapeseed recombinant inbred line population (BnaZNRIL) was used to investigate root morphology (RM, an important component for RSA) and NUE-related traits under high-nitrogen (HN) and low-nitrogen (LN) conditions by hydroponics. Data analysis suggested that RM-related traits, particularly root size had significantly phenotypic correlations with plant dry biomass and N uptake irrespective of N levels, but no or little correlation with N utilization efficiency (NUtE), providing the potential to identify QTLs with pleiotropy or specificity for RM- and NUE-related traits. A total of 129 QTLs (including 23 stable QTLs, which were repeatedly detected at least two environments or different N levels) were identified and 83 of them were integrated into 22 pleiotropic QTL clusters. Five RM-NUE, ten RM-specific and three NUE-specific QTL clusters with same directions of additive-effect implied two NUE-improving approaches (RM-based and N utilization-based directly) and provided valuable genomic regions for NUE improvement in rapeseed. Importantly, all of four major QTLs and most of stable QTLs (20 out of 23) detected here were related to RM traits under HN and/or LN levels, suggested that regulating RM to improve NUE would be more feasible than regulating N efficiency directly. These results provided the promising genomic regions for marker-assisted selection on RM-based NUE improvement in rapeseed. PMID:29033971

  9. Open lung approach versus standard protective strategies: Effects on driving pressure and ventilatory efficiency during anesthesia - A pilot, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Carlos; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Tusman, Gerardo; León, Irene; Romero, Esther; Gracia, Estefania; Mugarra, Ana; Arocas, Blanca; Pozo, Natividad; Soro, Marina; Belda, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Low tidal volume (VT) during anesthesia minimizes lung injury but may be associated to a decrease in functional lung volume impairing lung mechanics and efficiency. Lung recruitment (RM) can restore lung volume but this may critically depend on the post-RM selected PEEP. This study was a randomized, two parallel arm, open study whose primary outcome was to compare the effects on driving pressure of adding a RM to low-VT ventilation, with or without an individualized post-RM PEEP in patients without known previous lung disease during anesthesia. Consecutive patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery were submitted to low-VT ventilation (6 ml·kg-1) and standard PEEP of 5 cmH2O (pre-RM, n = 36). After 30 min estabilization all patients received a RM and were randomly allocated to either continue with the same PEEP (RM-5 group, n = 18) or to an individualized open-lung PEEP (OL-PEEP) (Open Lung Approach, OLA group, n = 18) defined as the level resulting in maximal Cdyn during a decremental PEEP trial. We compared the effects on driving pressure and lung efficiency measured by volumetric capnography. OL-PEEP was found at 8±2 cmH2O. 36 patients were included in the final analysis. When compared with pre-RM, OLA resulted in a 22% increase in compliance and a 28% decrease in driving pressure when compared to pre-RM. These parameters did not improve in the RM-5. The trend of the DP was significantly different between the OLA and RM-5 groups (p = 0.002). VDalv/VTalv was significantly lower in the OLA group after the RM (p = 0.035). Lung recruitment applied during low-VT ventilation improves driving pressure and lung efficiency only when applied as an open-lung strategy with an individualized PEEP in patients without lung diseases undergoing major abdominal surgery. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02798133.

  10. Effects of the combination of P3-based GKT and reality monitoring on deceptive classification

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ki-Won; Kim, Deok-Yong; Cho, Sungkun; Lee, Jang-Han

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether a combination of the P3-based Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) and reality monitoring (RM) distinguished between individuals who are guilty, witnesses, or informed, and using both tests provided more accurate information than did the use of either measure alone. Participants consisted of 45 males that were randomly and evenly assigned to three groups (i.e., guilty, witness, and informed). The guilty group conducted a mock crime where they intentionally crashed their vehicle into another vehicle in a virtual environment (VE). As those in the witness group drove their own vehicles, they observed the guilty groups' vehicle crash into another vehicle. The informed group read an account and saw screenshots of the accident. All participants were instructed to insist that they were innocent. Subsequently, they performed the P3-based GKT and wrote an account of the accident for the RM analysis. A higher P3 amplitude corresponded to how well the participants recognized the presented stimulus, and a higher RM score corresponded to how well the participants reported vivid sensory information and how much less they reported uncertain information. Findings for the P3-based GKT indicated that the informed group showed lower P3 amplitude when presented with the probe stimulus than did the guilty and witness groups. Regarding the RM analysis, the informed group obtained higher RM scores on visual, temporal, and spatial details and lower scores on cognitive operations than the guilty and witness groups. Finally, discriminant analysis revealed that the combination of the P3-based GKT and RM more accurately distinguished between the three groups than the use of either measure alone. The findings suggest that RM may build upon a weakness of the P3-based GKT's. More specifically, it may build upon its susceptibility to the leakage of information about the crime, therefore helping protect innocent individuals who have information about a crime from

  11. On the generation of a reverse von Kármán street for the controlled cylinder wake in the laminar regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Michel; Cordier, Laurent; Brancher, Jean-Pierre

    2006-02-01

    In this Brief Communication we are interested in the maximum mean drag reduction that can be achieved under rotary sinusoidal control for the circular cylinder wake in the laminar regime. For a Reynolds number equal to 200, we give numerical evidence that partial control restricted to an upstream part of the cylinder surface may considerably increase the effectiveness of the control. Indeed, a maximum value of relative mean drag reduction equal to 30% is obtained when applying a specific sinusoidal control to the whole cylinder, where up to 75% of reduction can be obtained when the same control law is applied only to a well-selected upstream part of the cylinder. This result suggests that a mean flow correction field with negative drag is observable for this controlled flow configuration. The significant thrust force that is locally generated in the near wake corresponds to a reverse von Kármán vortex street as commonly observed in fish-like locomotion or flapping wing flight. Finally, the energetic efficiency of the control is quantified by examining the power saving ratio: it is shown that our approach is energetically inefficient. However, it is also demonstrated that for this control scheme the improvement of the effectiveness generally occurs along with an improvement of the efficiency.

  12. RESOLVING THE ROTATION MEASURE OF THE M87 JET ON KILOPARSEC SCALES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Algaba, J. C.; Asada, K.; Nakamura, M., E-mail: algaba@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the distribution of Faraday rotation measure (RM) in the M87 jet at arcsecond scales by using archival polarimetric Very Large Array data at 8, 15, 22 and 43 GHz. We resolve the structure of the RM in several knots along the jet for the first time. We derive the power spectrum in the arcsecond-scale jet and find indications that the RM cannot be associated with a turbulent magnetic field with a 3D Kolmogorov spectrum. Our analysis indicates that the RM probed on jet scales has a significant contribution of a Faraday screen associated with the vicinity of themore » jet, in contrast with that on kiloparsec scales, typically assumed to be disconnected from the jet. Comparison with previous RM analyses suggests that the magnetic fields giving rise to the RMs observed in jet scales have different properties and are well less turbulent than those observed in the lobes.« less

  13. On the Kelvin-Helmholtz and von Kármán vortices in the near-wake of semicircular cylinders with flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boshen; Hamed, Ali M.; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2018-01-01

    The signatures of the Kelvin-Helmoltz (K-H) and von Kármán (VK) vortices shed from a semicircular cylinder with flaps of length L/d = 0, 1/3, 1, 2, and 3 were investigated using hotwire anemometry. Here, L and d denote the flap length and diameter of the semi-circular cylinder, respectively. Experiments were performed at Reynolds numbers spanning one order of magnitude, Re ∈ [8.4 × 103, 6.7 × 104]. The results highlight the impact of the flow modulation through rigid flaps on the wake characteristics and dominant vortex shedding. The increase of flap length resulted in reduced mean shear in the near-wake, which influenced the onset and coherence of the K-H instability. Indeed, these motions are less likely to be present in the wake of the L/d = 3 case. The flaps also impacted the frequency of the VK shedding; the associated Strouhal number increased from 0.2 to 0.3 for flaps L/d ≳ 1. Only the cases without with the shortest flaps (L/d = 1/3) followed St = 0.2. There is a distinctive dependence of the fK - H/fVK on Reynolds number and flap length. This ratio followed the well-known power-law relationship of circular cylinders in the case without flaps. However, the Reynolds number exponent decreased with increased flap length.

  14. The Association between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength among Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Benjamin H.; Brown, Justin C.; Gater, David R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective One-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength is considered the gold standard to quantify upper-body muscular strength. Isometric handgrip strength is frequently used as a surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer (BrCa) survivors. The relationship between 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength, however, has not been characterized among BrCa survivors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling BrCa survivors. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer with three maximal contractions of left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Results Among 295 BrCa survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1 kg (range: 2.2-43.0) and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8 kg (range: 9.0-43.0). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=0.399; P<0.0001). Mean-difference analysis suggested that the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7 kg (95% limits of agreement: −8.2 to 17.6). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=0.31; P<0.0001) and age (β=−0.20; P<0.0001) were positively correlated with 1-RM bench press strength (R2=0.23). Conclusions Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among BrCa survivors. 1-RM bench press and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. PMID:27543047

  15. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  16. Downregulation of ILT4+ dendritic cells in recurrent miscarriage and recurrent implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Wei, Hongxia; Li, Yuye; Huang, Chunyu; Lian, Ruochun; Xu, Jian; Chen, Lanna; Zeng, Yong

    2018-06-14

    The role of ILT4 + DCs in healthy fertile controls and patients with recurrent miscarriages (RM) and recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is unclear. We studied the expression of ILT4 from peripheral blood and endometrial samples from healthy controls and patients with RM and RIF by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. Endometrial Foxp3 expression was also investigated using immunohistochemistry. In peripheral blood, there was a significant increase in the percentage of ILT4 + DCs in healthy fertile controls compared with patients with RM and RIF. The presence of ILT4 + DC is even more prominent in the endometrium of healthy fertile controls compared with patients with RM and RIF. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between the number of ILT4 + cells and Foxp3 + Tregs in healthy fertile controls, but not in patients with RM and RIF. Our data indicate that ILT4 + DCs play an important role in the maintenance of immune tolerance during pregnancy, probably through the induction of Foxp3 + Treg cells, a process which is impaired in RM and RIF. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Antithrombotic Treatment for Recurrent Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianyi; Ye, Xiaofei; Zhu, Tiantian; XIAO, Xiang; Liu, Yuzhou; Wei, Xin; Liu, Yu; Wu, Cheng; Guan, Rui; Li, Xiao; Guo, Xiaojing; Hu, Huili; He, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Combined use of heparin and aspirin is frequently prescribed for treatment of recurrent miscarriage (RM) in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), or in those without apparent cause of RM other than thrombophilia; however, this strategy is largely based on expert opinion and has not been well studied. The option for the use of different antithrombotic therapies to improve live birth remains unclear. In this network meta-analysis, we incorporated direct and indirect evidence to evaluate effects of different antithrombotic treatments on prevention of pregnancy losses. We searched PubMed and Embase for randomized clinical trials comparing effects of at least 2 antithrombotic treatments on live birth in RM patients published from 1965 through the early of May 2015. Potential risk bias of eligible trials was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to estimate relative effects on live birth. A total of 19 trials involving 2391 RM patients with or without thrombophilia and 543 with APS were included. No beneficial effect of antithrombotic treatment was observed either in RM patients with or without thrombophilia or in patients with APS; however, for patients with or without thrombophilia, low molecular weight heparin therapy had the greatest probability (61.48%) of being the best option in terms of live birth; for patients with APS, unfractionated heparin plus aspirin was the superior treatment for RM with the highest possibility (75.15%) of being top 2 places for reducing pregnancy losses. Aspirin was inferior in both groups. Our results do not support the use of combined low molecular weight heparin and aspirin for RM treatment, and suggested aspirin may have negative effects for lowering the risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:26559249

  18. Prevalence and correlates of willingness to participate in a rectal microbicide trial among men who have sex with men in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Thienkrua, Warunee; Todd, Catherine S; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Sukwicha, Wichuda; Yafant, Somsak; Tippanont, Narongritt; Varangrat, Anchalee; Khlaimanee, Pechpailin; Holtz, Timothy H

    2014-01-01

    Rectal microbicides (RMs) hold promise as a HIV prevention method to reduce transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). To assess RM trial feasibility in Bangkok, we measured prevalence and correlates of willingness to participate among Thai MSM observational cohort participants. Between April 2006 and December 2010, 1744 MSM enrolled in the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study; at 12 months, RM trial participation willingness was measured. We evaluated correlates of RM trial participation willingness using logistic regression analysis. Participants completing the 12-month visit (81.4%, n = 1419) had a mean age of 27.3 years (SD = 6.1), and 65.5% and 86.1% reported having a steady partner or anal intercourse (AI) in the past four months, respectively. Most (79.1%, n = 1123) participants reported willingness to participate in an RM trial, which, in multivariable analysis, was independently associated with insertive only (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.82-5.81) or receptive/versatile role AI (AOR = 3.07, 95% CI: 1.88-5.01), and being paid for sex (AOR = 12.15, 95% CI: 1.67-88.21) in the past four months, and believing that people with AIDS look sick (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.23-2.98). Of hypothetical RM trial features to increase enrollment likelihood, the most (91.1%) compelling was that the study be approved by the Thai ethics committee, followed by the study site offering evening hours (88.9%). Reasons not to participate were not wanting a rectal examination (29.5%) or fluid collected from the penis or anus (24.6%) and not wanting the placebo (23.0%). RM trial participation willingness was high, particularly for those with greater HIV acquisition risk, within this Thai MSM cohort, suggesting feasibility of an RM trial. Addressing potential barriers to trial entry may be useful in educational materials to optimize recruitment.

  19. Scaling uncertainties in estimating canopy foliar maintenance respiration for black spruce ecosystems in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, X.; McGuire, A.D.; Ruess, Roger W.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge confronting the scientific community is to understand both patterns of and controls over spatial and temporal variability of carbon exchange between boreal forest ecosystems and the atmosphere. An understanding of the sources of variability of carbon processes at fine scales and how these contribute to uncertainties in estimating carbon fluxes is relevant to representing these processes at coarse scales. To explore some of the challenges and uncertainties in estimating carbon fluxes at fine to coarse scales, we conducted a modeling analysis of canopy foliar maintenance respiration for black spruce ecosystems of Alaska by scaling empirical hourly models of foliar maintenance respiration (Rm) to estimate canopy foliar Rm for individual stands. We used variation in foliar N concentration among stands to develop hourly stand-specific models and then developed an hourly pooled model. An uncertainty analysis identified that the most important parameter affecting estimates of canopy foliar Rm was one that describes R m at 0??C per g N, which explained more than 55% of variance in annual estimates of canopy foliar Rm. The comparison of simulated annual canopy foliar Rm identified significant differences between stand-specific and pooled models for each stand. This result indicates that control over foliar N concentration should be considered in models that estimate canopy foliar Rm of black spruce stands across the landscape. In this study, we also temporally scaled the hourly stand-level models to estimate canopy foliar Rm of black spruce stands using mean monthly temperature data. Comparisons of monthly Rm between the hourly and monthly versions of the models indicated that there was very little difference between the estimates of hourly and monthly models, suggesting that hourly models can be aggregated to use monthly input data with little loss of precision. We conclude that uncertainties in the use of a coarse-scale model for estimating canopy foliar

  20. Crystal Growth and Scintillation Properties of $${\\rm Cs}_{2}{\\rm NaGdBr}_{6}{:}{\\rm Ce}^{3+}$$

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yang, Pin; Zhou, Xiaowang; Deng, Haoran

    2013-04-02

    Single crystals of Cs 2NaGdBr 6 with different Ce +3 activator concentrations were grown by a two-zone Bridgman method. This new compound belongs to a large elpasolite halide (A 2BLnX 6) family. Many of these elpasolite compounds have shown high luminosity, good energy resolution and excellent proportionality in comparison to traditional scintillators such as CsI and NaI; therefore, they are particularly attractive for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. This study investigated the scintillator properties of Cs 2NaGdBr 6:Ce +3 crystals as a new material for radiation detection. Special focus has been placed on the effects of activator concentration (0 to 50 mol.%)more » on the photoluminescence responses. Results of structural refinement, photoluminescence, radioluminescence, lifetime and proportionality measurements for this new compound are reported.« less

  1. Respiratory morbidity among welders in the shipbuilding industry, Goa

    PubMed Central

    Bhumika, Nateshan; Prabhu, Ganapati Vasant; Ferreira, Agnelo Menino; Kulkarni, Manoj Kumar; Vaz, Frederick Satiro; Singh, Zile

    2012-01-01

    Context: Welding is pivotal in shipbuilding. The fumes and gases involved in welding may cause respiratory morbidity. Aim: To study the prevalence of respiratory morbidity (RM) among welders vis à vis among nonwelders and its association with certain relevant factors. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study of 276 welders and 276 nonwelders was conducted in the shipbuilding industry. Materials and Methods: An interviewer-administered questionnaire was followed by spirometric examination. Statistical Analysis: Odds ratio and its 95% CI and two-way ANOVA. Results: Prevalence of RM was found to be significantly higher among welders compared to nonwelders (who were comparable in age, duration of employment (DOE) and smoking habits,) with odds ratio (OR) of 1.78 (95% confidence interval (CI):1.20-2.63). Obstructive type of RM was predominant in both welders (26% (n = 73)) and nonwelders (17% (n = 49)) with welders being at a significantly higher risk (OR = 1.66 (95%: 1.10-2.49)). RM was commoner after the 40 years of age or after 20 years of employment in both groups. Smoking was associated with RM among welders (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.24-1.75) as well as nonwelders (OR = 2.83, 95% CI: 2.26-3.54). Work-related respiratory symptoms (WRRS) was not found to be related to RM (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.00-2.84). Consistent use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was protective against RM in welders (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.28-0.37). Conclusion: Welders had a greater burden of RM and this was related to increasing age, DOE, smoking and inconsistent use of PPE. WRRS were not indicative of RM. PMID:23580835

  2. Estimations of One Repetition Maximum and Isometric Peak Torque in Knee Extension Based on the Relationship Between Force and Velocity.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yoshito; Hatanaka, Yasuhiko; Arai, Tomoaki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to investigate whether a linear regression formula based on the relationship between joint torque and angular velocity measured using a high-speed video camera and image measurement software is effective for estimating 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and isometric peak torque in knee extension. Subjects comprised 20 healthy men (mean ± SD; age, 27.4 ± 4.9 years; height, 170.3 ± 4.4 cm; and body weight, 66.1 ± 10.9 kg). The exercise load ranged from 40% to 150% 1RM. Peak angular velocity (PAV) and peak torque were used to estimate 1RM and isometric peak torque. To elucidate the relationship between force and velocity in knee extension, the relationship between the relative proportion of 1RM (% 1RM) and PAV was examined using simple regression analysis. The concordance rate between the estimated value and actual measurement of 1RM and isometric peak torque was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Reliability of the regression line of PAV and % 1RM was 0.95. The concordance rate between the actual measurement and estimated value of 1RM resulted in an ICC(2,1) of 0.93 and that of isometric peak torque had an ICC(2,1) of 0.87 and 0.86 for 6 and 3 levels of load, respectively. Our method for estimating 1RM was effective for decreasing the measurement time and reducing patients' burden. Additionally, isometric peak torque can be estimated using 3 levels of load, as we obtained the same results as those reported previously. We plan to expand the range of subjects and examine the generalizability of our results.

  3. Development of Respiratory Sampling to Assess Stress Responses in North Atlantic Right Whales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    blow: It is possible. Marine Mammal Science 25(3):605-618. Hunt KE, Rolland RM, Kraus SD, Wasser SK. 2006. Analysis of fecal glucocorticoids in the...5 November 2009. Rolland RM, Hunt KE, Kraus SD, Wasser SK. 2005. Assessing reproductive status of right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) using fecal hormone metabolites. General and Comparative Endocrinology 142:308-317.

  4. Analysis of renal anomalies in VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Bridget K; Khromykh, Alina; Martinez, Ariel F; Carney, Tyler; Hadley, Donald W; Solomon, Benjamin D

    2014-10-01

    VACTERL association refers to a combination of congenital anomalies that can include: vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheo-esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, renal anomalies (typically structural renal anomalies), and limb anomalies. We conducted a description of a case series to characterize renal findings in a cohort of patients with VACTERL association. Out of the overall cohort, 48 patients (with at least three component features of VACTERL and who had abdominal ultrasound performed) met criteria for analysis. Four other patients were additionally analyzed separately, with the hypothesis that subtle renal system anomalies may occur in patients who would not otherwise meet criteria for VACTERL association. Thirty-three (69%) of the 48 patients had a clinical manifestation affecting the renal system. The most common renal manifestation (RM) was vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in addition to a structural defect (present in 27%), followed by unilateral renal agenesis (24%), and then dysplastic/multicystic kidneys or duplicated collected system (18% for each). Twenty-two (88%) of the 25 patients with a structural RM had an associated anorectal malformation. Individuals with either isolated lower anatomic anomalies, or both upper and lower anatomic anomalies were not statistically more likely to have a structural renal defect than those with isolated upper anatomic anomalies (p = 0.22, p = 0.284, respectively). Given the high prevalence of isolated VUR in our cohort, we recommend a screening VCUG or other imaging modality be obtained to evaluate for VUR if initial renal ultrasound shows evidence of obstruction or renal scarring, as well as ongoing evaluation of renal health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The implementation and data analysis of an interferometer for intense short pulse laser experiments

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Park, Jaebum; Baldis, Hector A.; Chen, Hui

    We present an interferometry setup and the detailed fringe analysis method for intense short pulse (SP) laser experiments. The interferometry scheme was refined through multiple campaigns to investigate the effects of pre-plasmas on energetic electrons at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The interferometer used a frequency doubled (more » $${\\it\\lambda}=0.527~{\\rm\\mu}\\text{m}$$) 0.5 ps long optical probe beam to measure the pre-plasma density, an invaluable parameter to better understand how varying pre-plasma conditions affect the characteristics of the energetic electrons. The hardware of the diagnostic, data analysis and example data are presented. Here, the diagnostic setup and the analysis procedure can be employed for any other SP laser experiments and interferograms, respectively.« less

  6. The implementation and data analysis of an interferometer for intense short pulse laser experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Jaebum; Baldis, Hector A.; Chen, Hui

    2016-08-03

    We present an interferometry setup and the detailed fringe analysis method for intense short pulse (SP) laser experiments. The interferometry scheme was refined through multiple campaigns to investigate the effects of pre-plasmas on energetic electrons at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The interferometer used a frequency doubled (more » $${\\it\\lambda}=0.527~{\\rm\\mu}\\text{m}$$) 0.5 ps long optical probe beam to measure the pre-plasma density, an invaluable parameter to better understand how varying pre-plasma conditions affect the characteristics of the energetic electrons. The hardware of the diagnostic, data analysis and example data are presented. Here, the diagnostic setup and the analysis procedure can be employed for any other SP laser experiments and interferograms, respectively.« less

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Attitudes on Communication Toward Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine Between the Public and the Scientific Community.

    PubMed

    Shineha, Ryuma; Inoue, Yusuke; Ikka, Tsunakuni; Kishimoto, Atsuo; Yashiro, Yoshimi

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the rapid progress in stem cell research (SCR) and regenerative medicine (RM), society's expectation and interest in these fields are increasing. For effective communication on issues concerning SCR and RM, surveys for understanding the interests of stakeholders is essential. For this purpose, we conducted a large-scale survey with 2,160 public responses and 1,115 responses from the member of the Japanese Society for Regenerative Medicine. Results showed that the public is more interested in the post-realization aspects of RM, such as cost of care, countermeasures for risks and accidents, and clarification of responsibility and liability, than in the scientific aspects; the latter is of greater interest only to scientists. Our data indicate that an increased awareness about RM-associated social responsibility and regulatory framework is required among scientists, such as those regarding its benefits, potential accidents, abuse, and other social consequences. Awareness regarding the importance of communication and education for scientists are critical to bridge the gaps in the interests of the public and scientists. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:251-257. © 2018 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  8. Influence of the pH on the accumulation of phosphate by red mud (a bauxite ore processing waste).

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Garau, Giovanni; Deiana, Salvatore

    2010-10-15

    In the present work we investigated the interactions established between red mud (RM) and phosphate anions (P) at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 10.0. The amount of P sorbed by RM (P-RM) increased as the pH decreased being equal to 4.871 mmol g(-1) at pH 4.0, 0.924 mmol g(-1) at pH 7.0, and 0.266 mmol g(-1) at pH 10.0. Sequential extractions' data of P-RM equilibrated at pH 4.0 and 7.0, suggested that the phosphate sorption at these pH values was mainly regulated by two different mechanisms that gave rise to a chemical adsorption on RM phases, and to the formation of metal phosphate precipitates. By contrast, at pH 10.0 the P-sorption was regulated by a chemisorption mechanism on Fe-Al phases of RM. These findings were supported by FT-IR analysis, which showed a broad band at 1114 and 1105 cm(-1) in P-RM spectra at pH 4.0 and 7.0 respectively, attributable to P-O(H) stretching nu(3)-modes associated to inner-sphere complexes of phosphate on Fe-Al phases, or alternatively to stretching vibrations of PO(4)(3-) tetrahedra, arising from a precipitate of aluminium phosphate. Importantly, the FT-IR spectroscopy showed a phosphate-promoted dissolution of tectosilicates, notably cancrinite and sodalite, in RM exchanged with phosphate at pH 4.0 and 7.0. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Association Between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Benjamin H; Brown, Justin C; Gater, David R; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Community-dwelling breast cancer survivors (N=295). Not applicable. 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer, with 3 maximal contractions of the left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Among 295 breast cancer survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1kg (range, 2.2-43.0kg), and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8kg (range, 9.0-43.0kg). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=.399; P<.0001). Mean difference analysis suggested that the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7kg (95% limits of agreement, -8.2 to 17.6kg). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=.31; P<.0001) and age (β=-.20; P<.0001) were positively correlated with 1-RM bench press strength (R 2 =.23). Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer survivors. 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glycan characterization of the NIST RM monoclonal antibody using a total analytical solution: From sample preparation to data analysis.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Mark; Alley, William R; McManus, Ciara A; Yu, Ying Qing; Hallinan, Sinead; Gebler, John; Rudd, Pauline M

    Glycosylation is an important attribute of biopharmaceutical products to monitor from development through production. However, glycosylation analysis has traditionally been a time-consuming process with long sample preparation protocols and manual interpretation of the data. To address the challenges associated with glycan analysis, we developed a streamlined analytical solution that covers the entire process from sample preparation to data analysis. In this communication, we describe the complete analytical solution that begins with a simplified and fast N-linked glycan sample preparation protocol that can be completed in less than 1 hr. The sample preparation includes labelling with RapiFluor-MS tag to improve both fluorescence (FLR) and mass spectral (MS) sensitivities. Following HILIC-UPLC/FLR/MS analyses, the data are processed and a library search based on glucose units has been included to expedite the task of structural assignment. We then applied this total analytical solution to characterize the glycosylation of the NIST Reference Material mAb 8761. For this glycoprotein, we confidently identified 35 N-linked glycans and all three major classes, high mannose, complex, and hybrid, were present. The majority of the glycans were neutral and fucosylated; glycans featuring N-glycolylneuraminic acid and those with two galactoses connected via an α1,3-linkage were also identified.

  11. CLASH: Joint analysis of strong-lensing, weak-lensing shear, and magnification data for 20 galaxy clusters*

    DOE PAGES

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Gruen, Daniel; ...

    2016-04-20

    Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of strong-lensing, weak-lensing shear and magnification data for a sample of 16 X-ray-regular and 4 high-magnification galaxy clusters atmore » $$0.19\\lesssim z\\lesssim 0.69$$ selected from Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Our analysis combines constraints from 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations and wide-field multi-color imaging taken primarily with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope, spanning a wide range of cluster radii (10''–16'). We reconstruct surface mass density profiles of individual clusters from a joint analysis of the full lensing constraints, and determine masses and concentrations for all of the clusters. We find the internal consistency of the ensemble mass calibration to be ≤5% ± 6% in the one-halo regime (200–2000 kpc h –1) compared to the CLASH weak-lensing-only measurements of Umetsu et al. For the X-ray-selected subsample of 16 clusters, we examine the concentration–mass (c–M) relation and its intrinsic scatter using a Bayesian regression approach. Our model yields a mean concentration of $$c{| }_{z=0.34}=3.95\\pm 0.35$$ at M200c sime 14 × 1014 M⊙ and an intrinsic scatter of $$\\sigma (\\mathrm{ln}{c}_{200{\\rm{c}}})=0.13\\pm 0.06$$, which is in excellent agreement with Λ cold dark matter predictions when the CLASH selection function based on X-ray morphological regularity and the projection effects are taken into account. We also derive an ensemble-averaged surface mass density profile for the X-ray-selected subsample by stacking their individual profiles. The stacked lensing signal is detected at 33σ significance over the entire radial range ≤4000 kpc h –1, accounting for the effects of intrinsic profile variations and uncorrelated large-scale structure along the line of sight. The stacked mass profile is well described by a family of density profiles predicted for cuspy dark-matter-dominated halos in gravitational equilibrium, namely, the

  12. Investigation of the Enzymes Involved in Lantibiotic Biosynthesis: Lacticin 481 and Haloduracin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihnken, Leigh Anne Furgerson

    2009-01-01

    Lantibiotics are cyclic peptides that exhibit a range of biological properties, including antimicrobial activity. They are ribosomally-synthesized as linear precursor peptides that consist of two regions, an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal propeptide (or structural) region. The structural region undergoes extensive enzyme-catalyzed…

  13. The development of a repetition-load scheme for the eccentric-only bench press exercise.

    PubMed

    Moir, Gavin L; Erny, Kyle F; Davis, Shala E; Guers, John J; Witmer, Chad A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a repetition-load scheme for the eccentric-only bench press exercise. Nine resistance trained men (age: 21.6 ± 1.0 years; 1-repetition maximum [RM] bench press: 137.7 ± 30.4 kg) attended four testing sessions during a four week period. During the first session each subject's 1-RM bench press load utilizing the stretch-shortening cycle was determined. During the remaining sessions they performed eccentric-only repetitions to failure using supra-maximal loads equivalent to 110%, 120% and 130% of their 1-RM value with a constant cadence (30 reps·min(-1)). Force plates and a three dimensional motion analysis system were used during these final three sessions in order to evaluate kinematic and kinetic variables. More repetitions were completed during the 110% 1-RM condition compared to the 130% 1-RM condition (p=0.01). Mean total work (p=0.046) as well as vertical force (p=0.049), vertical work (p=0.017), and vertical power output (p=0.05) were significantly greater during the 130% 1-RM condition compared to the 110% 1-RM condition. A linear function was fitted to the number of repetitions completed under each load condition that allowed the determination of the maximum number of repetitions that could be completed under other supra-maximal loads. This linear function predicted an eccentric-only 1-RM in the bench press with a load equivalent to 164.8% 1-RM, producing a load of 227.0 ± 50.0 kg. The repetition-load scheme presented here should provide a starting point for researchers to investigate the kinematic, kinetic and metabolic responses to eccentric-only bench press workouts.

  14. The Development of a Repetition-Load Scheme for the Eccentric-Only Bench Press Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Moir, Gavin L.; Erny, Kyle F.; Davis, Shala E.; Guers, John J.; Witmer, Chad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a repetition-load scheme for the eccentric-only bench press exercise. Nine resistance trained men (age: 21.6 ± 1.0 years; 1-repetition maximum [RM] bench press: 137.7 ± 30.4 kg) attended four testing sessions during a four week period. During the first session each subject’s 1-RM bench press load utilizing the stretch-shortening cycle was determined. During the remaining sessions they performed eccentric-only repetitions to failure using supra-maximal loads equivalent to 110%, 120% and 130% of their 1-RM value with a constant cadence (30 reps·min−1). Force plates and a three dimensional motion analysis system were used during these final three sessions in order to evaluate kinematic and kinetic variables. More repetitions were completed during the 110% 1-RM condition compared to the 130% 1-RM condition (p=0.01). Mean total work (p=0.046) as well as vertical force (p=0.049), vertical work (p=0.017), and vertical power output (p=0.05) were significantly greater during the 130% 1-RM condition compared to the 110% 1-RM condition. A linear function was fitted to the number of repetitions completed under each load condition that allowed the determination of the maximum number of repetitions that could be completed under other supra-maximal loads. This linear function predicted an eccentric-only 1-RM in the bench press with a load equivalent to 164.8% 1-RM, producing a load of 227.0 ± 50.0 kg. The repetition-load scheme presented here should provide a starting point for researchers to investigate the kinematic, kinetic and metabolic responses to eccentric-only bench press workouts. PMID:24235981

  15. The suitability of EIT to estimate EELV in a clinical trial compared to oxygen wash-in/wash-out technique.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Jan; Meier, Torsten; Iblher, Peter; Schindler, Angela; Paarmann, Hauke; Heinze, Hermann

    2014-02-01

    Open endotracheal suctioning procedure (OSP) and recruitment manoeuvre (RM) are known to induce severe alterations of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV). We hypothesised that EIT lung volumes lack clinical validity. We studied the suitability of EIT to estimate EELV compared to oxygen wash-in/wash-out technique. Fifty-four postoperative cardiac surgery patients were enrolled and received standardized ventilation and OSP. Patients were randomized into two groups receiving either RM after suctioning (group RM) or no RM (group NRM). Measurements were conducted at the following time points: Baseline (T1), after suctioning (T2), after RM or NRM (T3), and 15 and 30 min after T3 (T4 and T5). We measured EELV using the oxygen wash-in/wash-out technique (EELVO2) and computed EELV from EIT (EELVEIT) by the following formula: EELVEITTx,y…=EELVO2+ΔEELI×VT/ΔZ. EELVEIT values were compared with EELVO2 using Bland-Altman analysis and Pearson correlation. Limits of agreement ranged from -0.83 to 1.31 l. Pearson correlation revealed significant results. There was no significant impact of RM or NRM on EELVO2-EELVEIT relationship (p=0.21; p=0.23). During typical routine respiratory manoeuvres like endotracheal suctioning or alveolar recruitment, EELV cannot be estimated by EIT with reasonable accuracy.

  16. The effects of ageing on respiratory muscle function and performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Watsford, Mark L; Murphy, Aron J; Pine, Matthew J

    2007-02-01

    The reduced physiological capacity evident with ageing may affect the ability to perform many tasks, potentially affecting quality of life. Previous research has clearly demonstrated the reduced capacity of the respiratory system with ageing and described the effect that habitual physical activity has upon this decline. This research aimed to examine the influence of age on respiratory muscle (RM) function and the relationship between RM function and physical performance within the Australian population. Seventy-two healthy older adults (50-79 years) were divided into males (n=36) and females (n=36) and examined for pulmonary function, RM strength, inspiratory muscle endurance (IME) and 1.6 km walking performance. There were no significant age by gender effects for any variables; however, ageing was significantly related to reduced RM function and walking capacity within each gender. Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the RM strength could be predicted from age. Partial correlations controlling for age indicated that expiratory muscle strength was significantly related to walking performance in males (p=0.04), whilst IME contributed significantly to walking performance in all participants. These within-gender effects and relationships indicate that RM strength is an important physiological variable to maintain in the older population, as it may be related to functional ability.

  17. The {{\\rm{D}}\\bar{{\\rm{D}}}}^{{\\rm{* }}} interaction with isospin zero in an extended hidden gauge symmetry approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bao-Xi; Wan, Da-Ming; Zhao, Si-Yu

    2018-05-01

    The {{{D}}\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} interaction via a ρ or ω exchange is constructed within an extended hidden gauge symmetry approach, where the strange quark is replaced by the charm quark in the SU(3) flavor space. With this {{{D}}\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} interaction, a bound state slightly lower than the {{{D}}\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} threshold is generated dynamically in the isospin zero sector by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the coupled-channel approximation, which might correspond to the X(3872) particle announced by many collaborations. This formulism is also used to study the {{{B}}\\bar{{{B}}}}{{* }} interaction, and a {{{B}}\\bar{{{B}}}}{{* }} bound state with isospin zero is generated dynamically, which has no counterpart listed in the review of the Particle Data Group. Furthermore, the one-pion exchange between the D meson and the {\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} is analyzed precisely, and we do not think the one-pion exchange potential need be considered when the Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved.

  18. Transient growth analysis of the flow past a circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdessemed, N.; Sharma, A. S.; Sherwin, S. J.; Theofilis, V.

    2009-04-01

    We apply direct transient growth analysis in complex geometries to investigate its role in the primary and secondary bifurcation/transition process of the flow past a circular cylinder. The methodology is based on the singular value decomposition of the Navier-Stokes evolution operator linearized about a two-dimensional steady or periodic state which leads to the optimal growth modes. Linearly stable and unstable steady flow at Re=45 and 50 is considered first, where the analysis demonstrates that strong two-dimensional transient growth is observed with energy amplifications of order of 103 at U∞τ/D≈30. Transient growth at Re=50 promotes the linear instability which ultimately saturates into the well known von-Kármán street. Subsequently we consider the transient growth upon the time-periodic base state corresponding to the von-Kármán street at Re=200 and 300. Depending upon the spanwise wavenumber the flow at these Reynolds numbers are linearly unstable due to the so-called mode A and B instabilities. Once again energy amplifications of order of 103 are observed over a time interval of τ /T=2, where T is the time period of the base flow shedding. In all cases the maximum energy of the optimal initial conditions are located within a diameter of the cylinder in contrast to the spatial distribution of the unstable eigenmodes which extend far into the downstream wake. It is therefore reasonable to consider the analysis as presenting an accelerator to the existing modal mechanism. The rapid amplification of the optimal growth modes highlights their importance in the transition process for flow past circular cylinder, particularly when comparing with experimental results where these types of convective instability mechanisms are likely to be activated. The spatial localization, close to the cylinder, of the optimal initial condition may be significant when considering strategies to promote or control shedding.

  19. Effects on postoperative salivary cortisol of relaxation/music and patient teaching about pain management.

    PubMed

    Good, Marion; Albert, Jeffrey M; Arafah, Baha; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Wotman, Stephen; Cong, Xiaomei; Lane, Deforia; Ahn, Sukhee

    2013-07-01

    The physiological and psychological stress of surgery and postoperative pain can leave patients more susceptible to infection and complications. The present study was designed to determine whether two interventions, patient teaching (PT) for pain management and relaxation/music (RM), reduced cortisol levels, an indicator of stress, following abdominal surgery. Patients (18-75 years) were randomly assigned to receive PT, RM, a combination of the two, or usual care; the 205 patients with both pre- and posttest cortisol values were analyzed. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to compare groups for PT effects and RM effects. Stress was measured by salivary cortisol before and after 20-min tests of the interventions in the morning and afternoon of postoperative Day 2. Saliva was stimulated with lemon juice and analyzed with high-sensitivity salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay. Comparisons using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for baseline levels, showed no PT effect or RM effect on cortisol in the morning or afternoon. Post hoc ANCOVA showed no significant effects when intervention groups were compared to the control group. Although in previous studies, RM reduced pain and music reduced cortisol on Day 1, in the present study the cortisol response to surgery was not attenuated by PT or RM on Day 2. The RM intervention can be used for pain but needs to be further tested for effects on plasma cortisol in abdominal surgery patients on their first postoperative day.

  20. Aerobic biodegradation of 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid produced from dibenzothiophene metabolites

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Young, R.F.; Cheng, S.M.; Fedorak, P.M.

    Dibenzothiophene is a sulfur heterocycle found in crude oils and coal. The biodegradation of dibenzothiophene through the Kodama pathway by Pseudomonas sp. strain BT1d leads to the formation of three disulfides: 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid disulfide, 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid-2-benzoic acid disulfide, and 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid. When provided as the carbon and sulfur source in liquid medium, 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid was degraded by soil enrichment cultures. Two bacterial isolates, designated strains RM1 and RM6, degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid when combined in the medium. Isolate RM6 was found to have an absolute requirement for vitamin B{sub 12}, and it degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid in pure culture when the mediummore » was supplemented with this vitamin. Isolate RM6 also degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid in medium containing sterilized supernatants from cultures of isolate RM1 grown on glucose or benzoate. Isolate RM6 was identified as a member of the genus Variovorax using the Biolog system and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Although the mechanism of disulfide metabolism could not be determined, benzoic acid was detected as a transient metabolite of 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid biodegradation by Variovorax sp. strain RM6. In pure culture, this isolate mineralized 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid, releasing 59% of the carbon as carbon dioxide and 88% of the sulfur as sulfate.« less

  1. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in the prevention of cervical cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ezat, Wan Puteh Sharifa; Aljunid, Syed

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancers (CC) demonstrate the second highest incidence of female cancers in Malaysia. The costs of chronic management have a high impact on nation's health cost and patient's quality of life that can be avoided by better screening and HPV vaccination. Respondents were interviewed from six public Gynecology-Oncology hospitals. Methods include experts' panel discussions to estimate treatment costs by severity and direct interviews with respondents using costing and SF-36 quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Three options were compared i.e. screening via Pap smear; quadrivalent HPV Vaccination and combined strategy (screening plus vaccination). Scenario based sensitivity analysis using screening population coverage (40-80%) and costs of vaccine (RM 300-400/dose) were calculated. 502 cervical pre invasive and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) patients participated in the study. Mean age was 53.3 +/- 11.2 years, educated till secondary level (39.4%), Malays (44.2%) and married for 27.73 +/- 12.1 years. Life expectancy gained from vaccination is 13.04 years and average Quality Adjusted Life Years saved (QALYs) is 24.4 in vaccinated vs 6.29 in unvaccinated. Cost/QALYs for Pap smear at base case is RM 1,214.96/QALYs and RM 1,100.01 at increased screening coverage; for HPV Vaccination base case is at RM 35,346.79 and RM 46,530.08 when vaccination price is higher. In combined strategy, base case is RM 11,289.58; RM 7,712.74 at best case and RM 14,590.37 at worst case scenario. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) showed that screening at 70% coverage or higher is highly cost effective at RM 946.74 per QALYs saved and this is followed by combined strategy at RM 35,346.67 per QALYs saved. Vaccination increase life expectancy with better QOL of women when cancer can be avoided. Cost effective strategies will include increasing the Pap smear coverage to 70% or higher. Since feasibility and long term screening adherence is doubtful among Malaysian women, vaccination

  2. Laboratory Gas-phase Infrared Spectra of Two Astronomically Relevant PAH Cations: Diindenoperylene, {{\\rm{C}}}_{32}{{\\rm{H}}}_{16}^{+} and Dicoronylene, {{\\rm{C}}}_{48}{{\\rm{H}}}_{20}^{+}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Junfeng; Candian, Alessandra; Castellanos, Pablo; Bouwman, Jordy; Linnartz, Harold; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2018-02-01

    The first gas-phase infrared spectra of two isolated astronomically relevant and large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cations—diindenoperylene (DIP) and dicoronylene (DC)—in the 530–1800 cm‑1 (18.9‑5.6 μm) range—are presented. Vibrational band positions are determined for comparison to the aromatic infrared bands. The spectra are obtained via infrared multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy of ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap using the intense and tunable radiation of the free electron laser for infrared experiments (FELIX). DIP+ shows its main absorption peaks at 737 (13.57), 800 (12.50), 1001 (9.99), 1070 (9.35), 1115 (8.97), 1152 (8.68), 1278 (7.83), 1420 (7.04), and 1550 (6.45) cm‑1(μm), in good agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations that are uniformly scaled to take anharmonicities into account. DC+ has its main absorption peaks at 853 (11.72), 876 (11.42), 1032 (9.69), 1168 (8.56), 1300 (7.69), 1427 (7.01), and 1566 (6.39) cm‑1(μm), which also agree well with the scaled DFT results presented here. The DIP+ and DC+ spectra are compared with the prominent infrared features observed toward NGC 7023. This results both in matches and clear deviations. Moreover, in the 11.0–14.0 μm region, specific bands can be linked to CH out-of-plane (oop) bending modes of different CH edge structures in large PAHs. The molecular origin of these findings and their astronomical relevance are discussed.

  3. Active surveillance of renal masses: an analysis of growth kinetics and clinical outcomes stratified by radiological characteristics at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dorin, Ryan; Jackson, Max; Cusano, Antonio; Haddock, Peter; Kiziloz, Halil; Meraney, Anoop; Shichman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    To determine the growth rate of renal masses (RMs) under active surveillance (AS), and to describe the clinical outcome of AS patients. We conducted a retrospective review of an AS database to obtain demographics, radiological and pathologic characteristics and RM size of patients. RMs were followed at 6-12 month intervals for ≥1 year with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or renal ultrasound. Kaplan-Meier analysis determined the annual likelihood of intervention. RMs were divided into 3 radiographic subcategories (solid, cystic, and angiomyolipoma). A linear regression model determined RM growth rates. 131 RMs in 114 patients were included. Median age, Charlson Comorbidity Index score and mean follow-up were 69.1 years, 4.0 and 4.2±2.6 years, respectively. Maximal tumor diameter (MTD) at diagnosis was 2.1 ± 1.3 cm. 49 RMs exhibited negative or zero net growth. Mean MTD growth rate for all RMs was 0.72±3.2 (95% CI: 0.16-1.28) mm/year. When stratified by MTD at diagnosis, mean RM growth rates were 0.84, 0.84, 0.44, 0.74 and 0.71 mm/year for RMs ≤1 cm, 1-≤2cm, 2-≤ 3cm, 3-≤ 4cm and ≥4cm, respectively (p≤0.01). The 5 and 10-year freedom from intervention rates were 93.1% and 88.5%, respectively. There was a single case of suspected metastases, but no deaths related to kidney cancer. RMs under AS grew slowly, and had a low incidence of requiring surgical intervention and progression. Solid enhancing masses grew slowly, and were more likely to trigger intervention. AS should be considered for selected patients with small RMs.

  4. Impact of 10-Minute Interval Roller Massage on Performance and Active Range of Motion.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, D D; Quigley, P J; Whitten, J H D; Reid, J C; Behm, David G

    2017-11-16

    Hodgson, DD, Quigley, PJ, Whitten, JHD, Reid, JC, and Behm, DG. Impact of 10-minute interval roller massage on performance and active range of motion. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Roller massage (RM) has been shown to increase range of motion (ROM) without subsequent performance deficits. However, prolonged static stretching (SS) can induce performance impairments. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of combining SS and RM with and without subsequent RM on ROM and neuromuscular performance. Subjects (n = 12) participated in 5 sessions: (a) SS only (SS_rest), (b) SS + RM (SS + RM_rest), (c) SS with RM at 10 and 20 minutes after stretch (SS_RM), (d) SS + RM with RM at 10 and 20 minutes after stretch (SS + RM_RM), and (e) control. For the SS conditions, the quadriceps and hamstrings received passive SS for 2 × 30 seconds each. For the SS + RM conditions, SS was applied to the quadriceps and hamstrings for 30 seconds each, and RM was performed for 30 seconds per muscle. SS_RM and SS + RM_RM conditions received an additional 30-second RM at 10 and 20 minutes after warm-up, whereas sessions without additional RM rested for the same duration. Testing measures included hip flexion (HF) and knee flexion (KF) active and passive ROM, hurdle jump height and contact time, countermovement jump height, and maximal voluntary isometric contraction force. Initial KF and HF ROM improvements provided by SS_RM and SS + RM_RM were sustained up to 30 minutes after intervention. Furthermore, SS_RM exhibited greater ROM compared with sessions lacking additional RM in active and passive HF as well as active and passive KF. Similarly, SS + RM_RM elicited greater KF and HF ROM improvements than SS_rest. In conclusion, active KF and HF ROM improvements were prolonged by additional RM, whereas neuromuscular performance remained relatively unaffected.

  5. Integrating O/S models during conceptual design, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    The University of Dayton is pleased to submit this report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center, which integrates a set of models for determining operational capabilities and support requirements during the conceptual design of proposed space systems. This research provides for the integration of the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model, both new and existing simulation models, and existing operations and support (O&S) costing equations in arriving at a complete analysis methodology. Details concerning the R&M model and the O&S costing model may be found in previous reports accomplished under this grant (NASA Research Grant NAG1-1327). In the process of developing this comprehensive analysis approach, significant enhancements were made to the R&M model, updates to the O&S costing model were accomplished, and a new simulation model developed. This is the 1st part of a 3 part technical report.

  6. An Analysis of the Folk Artist in Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congdon, Kristin G.

    1986-01-01

    Discussed are (1) the goals and practices of the Folk Artist in Education (FAIE) program, (2) the FAIE in relationship to the Artist in Education program criticisms, (3) improving FAIE programs, and (4) reasons for its support. (RM)

  7. Probing the Plasma Structure of HII Regions with Faraday Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Allison; Spangler, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    We are involved in study concerning the modification of magnetic fields in the shells of HII regions. We report Faraday Rotation results of lines on sight through or near HII regions associated with OB associations. In the our studies of the Rosette Nebula (l = 206°, b = -1.2°), we measure positive rotation measure (RM) values in excess of +40 to +1200 rad m-2 due to the shell of the nebula and a background RM of +147 rad m-2 due to the general interstellar medium (Savage et al. 2013, ApJ, 765, 42; Costa et al. 2016, ApJ, 821, 92). We are currently completing an analysis of observations probing an addition HII region, IC 1805 (l = 135°, b = +0.9°), associated with the W4 Superbubble. We measure negative RM values across the region between -68 and -961 rad m-2. We find the highest RM values for lines of sight which intersect the ionized shell of the HII region for the Rosette Nebula, but in the case of IC 1805, the highest RM values are outside the bright shell of the HII region. However, we find that the magnitude of the RM between the two regions is similar. The sign of the RM across each HII region is consistent with the expected polarity of a Galactic magnetic field that follows the Perseus spiral arm in the clockwise direction, as suggested by Han et al. (2006, ApJ, 642, 868) and Van Eck et al. (2011, ApJ, 728, 14).

  8. A data-driven approach to {{\\rm{\\pi }}}^{0},{\\rm{\\eta }} and {{\\rm{\\eta }}}^{\\prime} single and double Dalitz decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Rafel; Gonzàlez-Solís, Sergi

    2018-01-01

    The dilepton invariant mass spectra and integrated branching ratios of the single and double Dalitz decays {\\mathscr{P}}\\to {{{l}}}+{{{l}}}-{{γ }} and {\\mathscr{P}}\\to {{{l}}}+{{{l}}}-{{{l}}}+{{{l}}}- ({\\mathscr{P}}={{{π }}}0,{{η }},{{{η }}}\\prime; {{l}}={{e}} or {{μ }}) are predicted by means of a data-driven approach based on the use of rational approximants applied to {{{π }}}0,{{η }} and {{{η }}}\\prime transition form factor experimental data in the space-like region. Supported by the FPI scholarship BES-2012-055371 (S.G-S), the Secretaria d’Universitats i Recerca del Departament d’Economia i Coneixement de la Generalitat de Catalunya under grant 2014 SGR 1450, the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación under grant FPA2011-25948, the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad under grants CICYT-FEDER-FPA 2014-55613-P and SEV-2012-0234, the Spanish Consolider-Ingenio 2010 Program CPAN (CSD2007-00042), and the European Commission under program FP7-INFRASTRUCTURES-2011-1 (283286) S.G-S also Received Support from the CAS President’s International Fellowship Initiative for Young International Scientist (2017PM0031)

  9. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Weak Lensing Mass Calibration of redMaPPer Galaxy Clusters

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McClintock, T.; et al.

    We constrain the mass--richness scaling relation of redMaPPer galaxy clusters identified in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 data using weak gravitational lensing. We split clusters intomore » $$4\\times3$$ bins of richness $$\\lambda$$ and redshift $z$ for $$\\lambda\\geq20$$ and $$0.2 \\leq z \\leq 0.65$$ and measure the mean masses of these bins using their stacked weak lensing signal. By modeling the scaling relation as $$\\langle M_{\\rm 200m}|\\lambda,z\\rangle = M_0 (\\lambda/40)^F ((1+z)/1.35)^G$$, we constrain the normalization of the scaling relation at the 5.0 per cent level as $$M_0 = [3.081 \\pm 0.075 ({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.133 ({\\rm sys})] \\cdot 10^{14}\\ {\\rm M}_\\odot$$ at $$\\lambda=40$$ and $z=0.35$. The richness scaling index is constrained to be $$F=1.356 \\pm 0.051\\ ({\\rm stat})\\pm 0.008\\ ({\\rm sys})$$ and the redshift scaling index $$G=-0.30\\pm 0.30\\ ({\\rm stat})\\pm 0.06\\ ({\\rm sys})$$. These are the tightest measurements of the normalization and richness scaling index made to date. We use a semi-analytic covariance matrix to characterize the statistical errors in the recovered weak lensing profiles. Our analysis accounts for the following sources of systematic error: shear and photometric redshift errors, cluster miscentering, cluster member dilution of the source sample, systematic uncertainties in the modeling of the halo--mass correlation function, halo triaxiality, and projection effects. We discuss prospects for reducing this systematic error budget, which dominates the uncertainty on $$M_0$$. Our result is in excellent agreement with, but has significantly smaller uncertainties than, previous measurements in the literature, and augurs well for the power of the DES cluster survey as a tool for precision cosmology and upcoming galaxy surveys such as LSST, Euclid and WFIRST.« less

  10. The influence of somatotype on anaerobic performance

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, James; Jobson, Simon

    2018-01-01

    The link between athlete physique and performance in sports is well established. However, a direct link between somatotype three-numeral rating and anaerobic performance has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between somatotype and anaerobic performance using both singular and multivariate analyses. Thirty-six physically active males (mean ± standard deviation age 26.0 ± 9.8 years; body mass 79.5 ± 12.9 kg; height 1.82 ± 0.07 m) were somatotype-rated using the Heath-Carter method. Subjects were assessed for 3 repetition maximum (3 RM) bench press and back squat, and completed a 30-second maximal sprint cycle test. Positive correlations were observed between mesomorphy and 3 RM bench press (r = 0.560, p < 0.001), mesomorphy and 3 RM back squat (r = 0.550, p = 0.001) and between mesomorphy and minimum power output (r = 0.357, p = 0.033). Negative correlations were observed between ectomorphy and 3 RM bench press (r = -0.381, p = 0.022), and ectomorphy and 3 RM back squat (r = -0.336, p = 0.045). Individual regression analysis indicated that mesomorphy was the best predictor of 3 RM bench press performance, with 31.4% of variance in 3 RM bench press performance accounted for by the mesomorphy rating (p < 0.001). A combination of mesomorphy and ectomorphy best predicted 3 RM back squat performance (R2 = 0.388, p < 0.04). Around one third of strength performance is predicted by somatotype-assessed physique in physically active males. This could have important implications for the identification of those predisposed to perform well in sports containing strength-based movements and prescription of training programmes. PMID:29787610

  11. The influence of somatotype on anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Ryan-Stewart, Helen; Faulkner, James; Jobson, Simon

    2018-01-01

    The link between athlete physique and performance in sports is well established. However, a direct link between somatotype three-numeral rating and anaerobic performance has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between somatotype and anaerobic performance using both singular and multivariate analyses. Thirty-six physically active males (mean ± standard deviation age 26.0 ± 9.8 years; body mass 79.5 ± 12.9 kg; height 1.82 ± 0.07 m) were somatotype-rated using the Heath-Carter method. Subjects were assessed for 3 repetition maximum (3 RM) bench press and back squat, and completed a 30-second maximal sprint cycle test. Positive correlations were observed between mesomorphy and 3 RM bench press (r = 0.560, p < 0.001), mesomorphy and 3 RM back squat (r = 0.550, p = 0.001) and between mesomorphy and minimum power output (r = 0.357, p = 0.033). Negative correlations were observed between ectomorphy and 3 RM bench press (r = -0.381, p = 0.022), and ectomorphy and 3 RM back squat (r = -0.336, p = 0.045). Individual regression analysis indicated that mesomorphy was the best predictor of 3 RM bench press performance, with 31.4% of variance in 3 RM bench press performance accounted for by the mesomorphy rating (p < 0.001). A combination of mesomorphy and ectomorphy best predicted 3 RM back squat performance (R2 = 0.388, p < 0.04). Around one third of strength performance is predicted by somatotype-assessed physique in physically active males. This could have important implications for the identification of those predisposed to perform well in sports containing strength-based movements and prescription of training programmes.

  12. Using the Richtmyer-Meshkov flow to infer the strength of LY-12 aluminum at extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jianwei; Pan, Hao; Peng, Jiangxiang; Wu, Zihui; Yu, Yuying; Hu, Xiaomian

    2017-06-01

    An improved analytical model of the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) flow in the elastoplastic materials is presented in this paper. This model describes the stabilization by yield strength (Y) effect on the RM flow in solids and linear relationships between initial configurations of perturbation and the growth. Then we make use of the model to analysis the explosion driven RM flow experiments with solid LY12 and test our model by comparing the predicted Y of existing strength models. Finally, we perform a plate impact experiment with solid LY12 aluminium alloy to validate our model and infer Y is about 1.23 GPa for a 28 GPa shock and a strain rate of 7.5 ×106 .

  13. A Proposal of Operational Risk Management Method Using FMEA for Drug Manufacturing Computerized System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masakazu; Nanba, Reiji; Fukue, Yoshinori

    This paper proposes operational Risk Management (RM) method using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for drug manufacturing computerlized system (DMCS). The quality of drug must not be influenced by failures and operational mistakes of DMCS. To avoid such situation, DMCS has to be conducted enough risk assessment and taken precautions. We propose operational RM method using FMEA for DMCS. To propose the method, we gathered and compared the FMEA results of DMCS, and develop a list that contains failure modes, failures and countermeasures. To apply this list, we can conduct RM in design phase, find failures, and conduct countermeasures efficiently. Additionally, we can find some failures that have not been found yet.

  14. Bus current analysis of high power cryocooler's controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhanlei; Sun, Qiyang; Dai, Liqun; Dong, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Current analysis was an important research content for reducing power of cryocooler's controller. Simulation was done among load current, H bridge current and power current refer to 42V bus power voltage. Then relationship among IL1, IC1, ρ and IM1 was established. Simulation results indicate that IL1-max, IL1-ave, IL1-rms, IC1-min and IC1-ave were linearly increasing to ρ and IM1, especially IL1-rms ≈ 0.612ρ IM1-max . IC1-rms increase firstly then decrease with the increasing of ρ. IC1-rms reaches maximum when ρ=0.8, then ICL-rms =(12.32/RM1 + 0.98) exp -((ρ-0.78)/0.57)2. The results were useful for miniaturizing cryocooler's controller.

  15. Microstructural Characterization of Red Mud as Affected by Inorganic and Organic Chemicals Permeation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinos, David A.; Valcárcel, Víctor; Spagnoli, Giovanni; Barral, María Teresa

    2017-09-01

    The microstructural characteristics of red mud (RM), especially specific surface area (SSA) and mesoporosity, and the effects of various representative fluids, namely methanol (80% v/v), trichloroethylene (TCE) (1100 mg/L), acetic acid (pH 2), and CaCl2 (5% w/v) aqueous solutions, were studied using N2-gas adsorption. The effect of compaction was also assessed. RM powder exhibited a moderate Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET)-SSA and is mostly a mesoporous (large mesopores, 200-500 Å) and a macroporous material. Compaction affected the macro and large, but not the fine, mesopores. Among the fluids, CaCl2 and acetic acid induced notable and opposing changes in RM microstructural characteristics. CaCl2 decreased SSA and suppressed fine mesoporosity, whereas acetic acid greatly enhanced them. Fractal analysis further indicated increasing surface roughness and heterogeneity of pore structure during acid exposure, altogether envisaging an improvement of adsorption capacity and a decrease of permeability of the RM.

  16. "Like Holding an Umbrella Before It Rains": Acceptability of Future Rectal Microbicides Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India-A Modified Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Mengle, Shruta; Nelson, Ruban; Rubincam, Clara; Kumar, Pushpesh

    2017-07-01

    Topical rectal microbicides (RMs) are a new prevention technology in development that aims to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition from anal sex. We examined RM acceptability among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. We conducted a qualitative exploratory study guided by a modified Technology Acceptance Model, with 10 focus groups ( n = 61) of MSM and 10 key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis. RM acceptability was influenced by technological contexts: perceived usefulness of RMs, perceived ease of use of RM and applicator, and habits around condom and lubricant use; individual and interpersonal contexts: perceived relevance and preferences for product formulation and dosing frequency; and MSM community/social contexts: perceived social approval, RM-related stigma, social support. Implementation of RMs for MSM in India may be supported by multi-level interventions that engage community-based organizations in destigmatizing and distributing RMs, ideally gel-based products that enable on-demand use before sex.

  17. Transmission electron microscopy study of microstructural properties and dislocation characterization in the GaN film grown on the cone-shaped patterned Al2O3 substrate.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Sik; Yang, Jun-Mo; Park, Kyung Jin; Park, Yun Chang; Yoo, Jung Ho; Jeong, Chil Seong; Park, Jucheol; He, Yinsheng; Shin, Keesam

    2014-02-01

    Growing a GaN film on a patterned Al2O3 substrate is one of the methods of reducing threading dislocations (TDs), which can significantly deteriorate the performance of GaN-based LEDs. In this study, the microstructural details of the GaN film grown on a cone-shaped patterned Al2O3 substrate were investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and weak-beam dark-field techniques. Various defects such as misfit dislocations (MDs), recrystallized GaN (R-GaN) islands and nano-voids were observed on the patterned Al2O3 surfaces, i.e. the flat surface (FS), the inclined surface (IS) and the top surface (TS), respectively. Especially, the crystallographic orientation of R-GaN between the GaN film and the inclined Al2O3 substrate was identified as $[\\overline 1 2\\overline 1 0]_{{\\rm GaN}} \\hbox{//}[\\overline 1 101]_{{\\rm R - GaN} \\,{\\rm on}\\,{\\rm IS}} \\hbox{//}[\\overline 1 100]_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $, $(\\overline 1 012)_{{\\rm GaN}} \\hbox{//}(1\\overline 1 02)_{{\\rm R - Ga}\\,{\\rm Non}\\,{\\rm IS}} \\hbox{//}(\\overline {11} 26)_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $. In addition, a rotation by 9° between $(10\\overline 1 1)_{{\\rm R - GaN}} $ and $(0002)_{{\\rm GaN}} $ and between $(10\\overline 1 1)_{{\\rm R - GaN}} $ and $(0006)_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $ was found to reduce the lattice mismatch between the GaN film and the Al2O3 substrate. Many TDs in the GaN film were observed on the FS and TS of Al2O3. However, few TDs were observed on the IS. Most of the TDs generated from the FS of Al2O3 were bent to the inclined facet rather than propagating to the GaN surface, resulting in a reduction in the dislocation density. Most of the TDs generated from the TS of Al2O3 were characterized as edge dislocations.

  18. Self-consistent simulations of a von Kármán type dynamo in a spherical domain with metallic walls.

    PubMed

    Guervilly, Céline; Brummell, Nicholas H

    2012-10-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of boundary-driven dynamos using a three-dimensional nonlinear magnetohydrodynamical model in a spherical shell geometry. A conducting fluid of magnetic Prandtl number Pm=0.01 is driven into motion by the counter-rotation of the two hemispheric walls. The resulting flow is of von Kármán type, consisting of a layer of zonal velocity close to the outer wall and a secondary meridional circulation. Above a certain forcing threshold, the mean flow is unstable to non-axisymmetric motions within an equatorial belt. For fixed forcing above this threshold, we have studied the dynamo properties of this flow. The presence of a conducting outer wall is essential to the existence of a dynamo at these parameters. We have therefore studied the effect of changing the material parameters of the wall (magnetic permeability, electrical conductivity, and thickness) on the dynamo. In common with previous studies, we find that dynamos are obtained only when either the conductivity or the permeability is sufficiently large. However, we find that the effect of these two parameters on the dynamo process are different and can even compete to the detriment of the dynamo. Our self-consistent approach allow us to analyze in detail the dynamo feedback loop. The dynamos we obtain are typically dominated by an axisymmetric toroidal magnetic field and an axial dipole component. We show that the ability of the outer shear layer to produce a strong toroidal field depends critically on the presence of a conducting outer wall, which shields the fluid from the vacuum outside. The generation of the axisymmetric poloidal field, on the other hand, occurs in the equatorial belt and does not depend on the wall properties.

  19. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yu, Y. H.; Jenne, D. S.; Thresher, R.

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversionmore » chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.« less

  20. The Effect of Atmospheric Diabatic Heating on Low-Frequency Oscillations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Ming-Cheng

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic scheme is devised to illustrate a chain relationship between diabatic heating and planetary -scale divergent and rotational circulations. The scheme consists of the velocity-potential (chi) maintenance equation, which relates diabatic heating and velocity potential, and the streamfunction (psi ) budget equation, which depicts the streamfunction tendency caused by the imbalance between streamfunction tendencies induced by vorticity advection and source. The proposed scheme is employed to examine the effect of tropical diabatic heating on the annual variation of subtropical jet streams. Furthermore, the chi -maintenance analysis is used to examine how the 30-60 day oscillation of planetary-scale divergent circulation is maintained; and the psi-budget analysis is performed to illustrate how the 30-60 day velocity potential (~{chi}) mode interacts with the upper-level monsoon flow to induce the 30-60 day oscillation of the tropical easterly jet. It was found that annual variations of both tropical diabatic heating and planetary-scale divergent circulation exhibit an annual in-phase seesaw oscillation between the winter and summer hemispheres. The annual variation of subtropical jet streams is caused by the adjustment of atmospheric rotational flow through planetary-scale divergent circulation in response to the annual cycle of tropical diabatic heating. The chi-maintenance equation is expressed as chi = chi _sp{rm Q}{.} - chi_{rm HA} , where chi_sp{rm Q}{.} and chi_ {rm HA} are the effects of vertical differential diabatic and adiabatic heating, respectively. The 30-60 day chi oscillation is shown to be primarily maintained by the differential diabatic heating effect, which can be inferred from the H _{rm VD} anomalies, the Laplician of the filtered chi_sp{rm Q}{.} anomalies. The resemblance of the H_{rm VD} and OLR anomalies in terms of the geographic distributions indicates that the differential diabatic heating effect maintaining the 30-60 day chi

  1. The jets of AGN as giant coaxial cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabuzda, Denise C.; Nagle, Matt; Roche, Naomi

    2018-04-01

    Context. The currents carried by the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be probed using maps of the Faraday rotation measure (RM), since a jet current will be accompanied by a toroidal magnetic field, which will give rise to a systematic change in the RM across the jet. Aims: The aim of this study is to identify new AGNs displaying statistically significant transverse RM gradients across their parsec-scale jets, in order to determine how often helical magnetic fields occur in AGN jets, and to look for overall patterns in the implied directions for the toroidal field components and jet currents. Methods: We have carried out new analyses of Faraday RM maps derived from previously published 8.1, 8.4, 12.1 and 15.3 GHz data obtained in 2006 on the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). In a number of key ways, our procedures were identical to those of the original authors, but the new imaging and analysis differs from the original methods in several ways: the technique used to match the resolutions at the different frequencies, limits on the widths spanned by the RM gradients analyzed, treatment of core-region RM gradients, approach to estimation of the significances of the gradients analyzed, and inclusion of a supplementary analysis using circular beams with areas equal to those of the corresponding elliptical naturally weighted beams. Results: This new analysis has substantially increased the number of AGNs known to display transverse RM gradients that may reflect the presence of a toroidal magnetic-field component. The collected data on parsec and kiloparsec scales indicate that the current typically flows inward along the jet axis and outward in a more extended region surrounding the jet, typical to the current structure of a co-axial cable, accompanied by a self-consistent system of nested helical magnetic fields, whose toroidal components give rise to the observed transverse Faraday rotation gradients. Conclusions: The new results presented here make it

  2. Large Magneto-ionic Variations toward the Galactic Center Magnetar, PSR J1745-2900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desvignes, G.; Eatough, R. P.; Pen, U. L.; Lee, K. J.; Mao, S. A.; Karuppusamy, R.; Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Falcke, H.; Kramer, M.; Wucknitz, O.; Spitler, L. G.; Torne, P.; Liu, K.; Bower, G. C.; Cognard, I.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.

    2018-01-01

    Polarized radio emission from PSR J1745‑2900 has already been used to investigate the strength of the magnetic field in the Galactic center (GC), close to Sagittarius A*. Here we report how persistent radio emission from this magnetar, for over four years since its discovery, has revealed large changes in the observed Faraday rotation measure (RM), by up to 3500 rad m‑2 (a 5% fractional change). From simultaneous analysis of the dispersion measure, we determine that these fluctuations are dominated by variations in either the projected magnetic field or the free electron content within the GC, along the changing line of sight to the rapidly moving magnetar. From a structure function analysis of RM variations, and a recent epoch of rapid change of RM, we determine a minimum scale of magneto-ionic fluctuations of size ∼2 au at the GC distance, inferring PSR J1745‑2900 is just ∼0.1 pc behind an additional scattering screen.

  3. Genetic Basis of Variation in Rice Seed Storage Protein (Albumin, Globulin, Prolamin, and Glutelin) Content Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pingli; Shen, Zhikang; Ming, Luchang; Li, Yibo; Dan, Wenhan; Lou, Guangming; Peng, Bo; Wu, Bian; Li, Yanhua; Zhao, Da; Gao, Guanjun; Zhang, Qinglu; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Gongwei; He, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    Rice seed storage protein (SSP) is an important source of nutrition and energy. Understanding the genetic basis of SSP content and mining favorable alleles that control it will be helpful for breeding new improved cultivars. An association analysis for SSP content was performed to identify underlying genes using 527 diverse Oryza sativa accessions grown in two environments. We identified more than 107 associations for five different traits, including the contents of albumin (Alb), globulin (Glo), prolamin (Pro), glutelin (Glu), and total SSP (Total). A total of 28 associations were located at previously reported QTLs or intervals. A lead SNP sf0709447538, associated for Glu content in the indica subpopulation in 2015, was further validated in near isogenic lines NIL(Zhenshan97) and NIL(Delong208), and the Glu phenotype had significantly difference between two NILs. The association region could be target for map-based cloning of the candidate genes. There were 13 associations in regions close to grain-quality-related genes; five lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were located less than 20 kb upstream from grain-quality-related genes ( PG5a , Wx , AGPS2a , RP6 , and, RM1 ). Several starch-metabolism-related genes ( AGPS2a , OsACS6 , PUL , GBSSII , and ISA2 ) were also associated with SSP content. We identified favorable alleles of functional candidate genes, such as RP6 , RM1 , Wx , and other four candidate genes by haplotype analysis and expression pattern. Genotypes of RP6 and RM1 with higher Pro were not identified in japonica and exhibited much higher expression levels in indica group. The lead SNP sf0601764762, repeatedly detected for Alb content in 2 years in the whole association population, was located in the Wx locus that controls the synthesis of amylose. And Alb content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and the level of 2.3 kb Wx pre-mRNA examined in this study. The associations or candidate genes identified would

  4. Reliability of Maximal Strength Testing in Novice Weightlifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehr, James A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2009-01-01

    The one repetition maximum (1RM) is a criterion measure of muscle strength. However, the reliability of 1RM testing in novice subjects has received little attention. Understanding this information is crucial to accurately interpret changes in muscle strength. To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) 1RM in novice subjects. Twenty healthy males (31 plus or minus 5 y, 179.1 plus or minus 6.1 cm, 81.4 plus or minus 10.6 kg) with no weight training experience in the previous six months participated in four 1RM testing sessions, with each session separated by 5-7 days. SQ and HR 1RM were conducted using a smith machine; DL 1RM was assessed using free weights. Session 1 was considered a familiarization and was not included in the statistical analyses. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Tukey fs post-hoc tests were used to detect between-session differences in 1RM (p.0.05). Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). During Session 2, the SQ and DL 1RM (SQ: 90.2 }4.3, DL: 75.9 }3.3 kg) were less than Session 3 (SQ: 95.3 }4.1, DL: 81.5 plus or minus 3.5 kg) and Session 4 (SQ: 96.6 }4.0, DL: 82.4 }3.9 kg), but there were no differences between Session 3 and Session 4. HR 1RM measured during Session 2 (150.1 }3.7 kg) and Session 3 (152.5 }3.9 kg) were not different from one another, but both were less than Session 4 (157.5 }3.8 kg). The reliability (ICC) of 1RM measures for Sessions 2-4 were 0.88, 0.83, and 0.87, for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. When considering only Sessions 3 and 4, the reliability was 0.93, 0.91, and 0.86 for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. One familiarization session and 2 test sessions (for SQ and DL) were required to obtain excellent reliability (ICC greater than or equal to 0.90) in 1RM values with novice subjects. We were unable to attain this level of reliability following 3 HR testing sessions therefore additional sessions may be required to obtain an

  5. Assessment of environmental risk for red mud storage facility in China: a case study in Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi-Chao; Ma, Shu-Hua; Zheng, Shi-Li; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Red mud storage facility (RM-SF) pollution remains a serious problem in China mainly due to the RM's huge quantity, little recyclability, and high alkalinity. And, there is also a risk of dam failure because almost all RM-SFs are processed by damming. In order to address this challenge and improve the level of risk management, it is necessary to evaluate the environmental risk of RM-SFs systematically. So, this paper firstly designs a comprehensive evaluation index system with a three-level evaluation index in the terms of RM characteristics, RM-SF characteristics, ambient environment of RM-SF, the management of RM-SF, and the application aspect of RM by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Then, a case of RM-SF from a typical alumina production enterprise is studied according to this system, as is assisted by several experts from different fields when determining the weights of all indicators. The results show that the risk of selected RM-SF primarily depends on the former factors, that is, RM and RM-SF characteristics, while the contributions of the other factors are quite smaller.

  6. Lung recruitment maneuver effects on respiratory mechanics and extravascular lung water index in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Fen; Zeng, Zhen-Guo; Qian, Ke-Jian

    2011-01-01

    Animal experiments showed that recruitment maneuver (RM) and protective ventilation strategy of the lung could improve oxygenation and reduce extravascular lung water. This study was to investigate the effects of RM on respiratory mechanics and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thirty patients with ARDS were randomized into a RM group and a non-RM group. In the RM group, after basic mechanical ventilation stabilized for 30 minutes, RM was performed and repeated once every 12 hours for 3 days. In the non-RM group, lung protective strategy was conducted without RM. Oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), Plateau pressure (Pplat), static pulmonary compliance (Cst) and EVLWI of patients before treatment and at 12, 24, 48, 72 hours after the treatment were measured and compared between the groups. Hemodynamic changes were observed before and after RM. One-way ANOVA, Student's t test and Fisher's exact test were used to process the data. The levels of PaO2/FiO2 and Cst increased after treatment in the two groups, but they were higher in the RM group than in the non-RM group (P<0.05). The PIP and Pplat decreased after treatment in the two groups, but they were lower in the RM group than in the non-RM group (P<0.05). The EVLWI in the two groups showed downward trend after treatment (P<0.05), and the differences were signifcant at all time points (P<0.01); the EVLWI in the RM group was lower than that in the non-RM group at 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with pre-RM, hemodynamics changes during RM were significantly different (P<0.01); compared with pre-RM, the changes were not significantly different at 120 seconds after the end of RM (P>0.05). RM could reduce EVLWI, increase oxygenation and lung compliance. The effect of RM on hemodynamics was transient.

  7. Nutrients, Antioxidant Capacity and Safety of Hot Water Extract from Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum M.) and Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Bark.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Sagar; Ratti, Cristina; Poubelle, Patrice E; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2018-03-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum M.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) barks were treated with hot water to extract nutrients in order to explore, for the first time, its potential as safe dietary antioxidants. The organic and inorganic nutrients of these extracts, as well as their safety on human PLB-985 cells differentiated into neutrophils-like cells, were determined. Proximate analysis showed that both bark extracts were low in moisture and fat. Sugar maple bark extract (SM-BX) showed crude protein and ash content higher than those found in red maple bark extract (RM-BX). In addition, SM-BX had total sugars higher than those evaluated in RM-BX, while complex sugars (oligo- and/or poly-saccharides) were similarly abundant in both bark extracts. Furthermore, SM-BX demonstrated a wide array of vital minerals (K, Ca, Mg, P, Na, Fe and Cu) in quantity larger than that evaluated in RM-BX, whereas RM-BX have Zn and Mn levels higher than those found in SM-BX. Phytochemical analyses showed that RM-BX exhibited total phenolic and flavonoid contents higher than those measured in SM-BX. Consequently, RM-BX presented an antioxidant activity higher than that of SM-BX: 2.85-fold ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity and 1.9-fold oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Finally, RM-BX and SM-BX were greatly safe since, at concentration up to 100 μg/ml, they did not modify the viability of neutrophils as determined by flow-cytometry assay using Annexin V-FITC/Propidum Iodide as markers. In conclusion, our in vitro studies indicate that both red and sugar maple bark extracts have a real potential as food additives.

  8. Fine mapping of a grain weight quantitative trait locus on rice chromosome 8 using near-isogenic lines derived from a cross between Oryza sativa and Oryza rufipogon.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaobo; Song, Mi-Hee; Jin, Fengxue; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Suh, Jung-Pil; Hwang, Hung-Goo; McCouch, S R

    2006-09-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for grain weight (GW) was detected near SSR marker RM210 on chromosome 8 in backcross populations derived from a cross between the Korean japonica cultivar Hwaseongbyeo and Oryza rufipogon (IRGC 105491). The O. rufipogon allele increased GW in the Hwaseongbyeo background despite the fact that O. rufipogon was the small-seeded parent. Using sister BC(3)F(3) near-isogenic lines (NILs), gw8.1 was validated and mapped to a 6.1 cM region in the interval between RM42 and RM210 (P < or = 0.0001). Substitution mapping with eight BC(3)F(4) sub-NILs further narrowed the interval containing gw8.1 to about 306.4 kb between markers RM23201.CNR151 and RM30000.CNR99. A yield trial using homozygous BC(3)F(4) sister sub-NILs and the Hwaseongbyeo recurrent parent indicated that the NIL carrying an O. rufipogon chromosome segment across the entire gw8.1 target region out-yielded its sister NIL (containing Hwaseongbyeo chromosome in the RM42-RM210 interval) by 9% (P=0.029). The higher-yielding NIL produced 19.3% more grain than the Hwaseongbyeo recurrent parent (P=0.018). Analysis of a BC(3)F(4) NIL indicated that the variation for GW is associated with variation in grain shape, specifically grain length. The locus, gw8.1 is of particular interest because of its independence from undesirable height and grain quality traits. SSR markers tightly linked to the GW QTL will facilitate cloning of the gene underlying this QTL as well as marker-assisted selection for variation in GW in an applied breeding program.

  9. Cost utility, budget impact, and scenario analysis of racecadotril in addition to oral rehydration for acute diarrhea in children in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rautenberg, Tamlyn Anne; Zerwes, Ute; Lee, Way Seah

    2018-01-01

    Objective To perform cost utility (CU) and budget impact (BI) analyses augmented by scenario analyses of critical model structure components to evaluate racecadotril as adjuvant to oral rehydration solution (ORS) for children under 5 years with acute diarrhea in Malaysia. Methods A CU model was adapted to evaluate racecadotril plus ORS vs ORS alone for acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years from a Malaysian public payer’s perspective. A bespoke BI analysis was undertaken in addition to detailed scenario analyses with respect to critical model structure components. Results According to the CU model, the intervention is less costly and more effective than comparator for the base case with a dominant incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of −RM 1,272,833/quality-adjusted life year (USD −312,726/quality-adjusted life year) in favor of the intervention. According to the BI analysis (assuming an increase of 5% market share per year for racecadotril+ORS for 5 years), the total cumulative incremental percentage reduction in health care expenditure for diarrhea in children is 0.136578%, resulting in a total potential cumulative cost savings of −RM 73,193,603 (USD −17,983,595) over a 5-year period. Results hold true across a range of plausible scenarios focused on critical model components. Conclusion Adjuvant racecadotril vs ORS alone is potentially cost-effective from a Malaysian public payer perspective subject to the assumptions and limitations of the model. BI analysis shows that this translates into potential cost savings for the Malaysian public health care system. Results hold true at evidence-based base case values and over a range of alternate scenarios. PMID:29588606

  10. Remineralization of human natural caries and artificial caries-like lesions with an experimental whisker-reinforced ART-composite

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Flaim, Glenn; Dickens, Sabine H.

    2011-01-01

    To compare the remineralization of human natural caries and artificial caries-like dentin lesions from a novel whisker-reinforced experimental composite resin to a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC) as control. Ten molars with moderate natural dentin caries were prepared (N). Artificial caries-like dentin lesions were prepared in occlusal dentin of ten caries-free molars and demineralized at pH=4.3 for 48 h (A). The cavities were restored with ART-composite or RM-GIC. All restored teeth were sliced into 120-μm sections. Transverse microradiography combined with digital image analysis was performed to analyze the change in mineral density at the same position of the specimens before, after 4 weeks and 8 weeks remineralization/demineralization treatment. The mean percent remineralization ± standard deviation after 4 weeks and 8 weeks are: N: ART-composite: 27±9, 46±14; RM-GIC: 18±6, 36±11; A: ART-composite: 48±9, 66±11; RM-GIC: 50±13, 62±11. For the remineralization of natural caries, there was a significant difference between ART-composite and RM-GIC (p<0.05). For both restoratives there were significant differences between remineralization of natural and artificial caries (p<0.001). ART-composite and RM-GIC remineralized natural and artificial caries differently most likely due to differences in microstructure and composition of caries dentin. PMID:21232637

  11. Microbial diversity in raw milk and traditional fermented dairy products (Hurood cheese and Jueke) from Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, M L; Hou, H M; Teng, X X; Zhu, Y L; Hao, H S; Zhang, G L

    2017-03-08

    Hurood cheese (HC) and Jueke (Jk) are 2 traditional fermented dairy products produced from raw milk (RM) in the Inner Mongolia region of China. They have a long history of production and consumption. The microbial compositions of RM, HC, and Jk vary greatly, and are influenced by their geographical origins and unique processing methods. In this study, 2 batches of RM, HC, and Jk samples were collected (April and August 2015) from the Zhenglan Banner, a region located in the southern part of Inner Mongolian belonging to the Xilingol league prefecture. The bacterial and fungal diversities of the samples were determined by 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, respectively. A total of 112 bacterial and 30 fungal sequences were identified, with Firmicutes and Ascomycota being the predominant phyla for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Lactococcus and Lactobacillus were identified as the main bacterial genera, whereas Kluyveromyces was the predominant fungus identified in the 3 dairy products. Different bacterial and fungal compositions were observed in RM, HC, and Jk samples collected at different times. These results suggested that time of production may be an important factor influencing the microbial diversity present in RM, HC, and Jk.

  12. Relationships among peak power output, peak bar velocity, and mechanomyographic amplitude during the free-weight bench press exercise.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M; Dillon, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude, power output, and bar velocity during the free-weight bench press exercise. Twenty-one resistance-trained men [one-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press = 125.4+18.4 kg] performed bench press muscle actions as explosively as possible from 10% to 90% of the 1-RM while peak power output and peak bar velocity were assessed with a TENDO Weightlifting Analyzer. During each muscle action, surface MMG signals were detected from the right and left pectoralis major and triceps brachii, and the concentric portion of the range of motion was selected for analysis. Results indicated that power output increased from 10% to 50% 1-RM, followed by decreases from 50% to 90% 1-RM, but MMG amplitude for each of the muscles increased from 10 to 80% 1-RM. The results of this study indicate that during the free-weight bench press exercise, MMG amplitude was not related to power output, but was inversely related to bar velocity and directly related to the external load being lifted. In future research, coaches and sport scientists may be able to estimate force/torque production from individual muscles during multi-joint, dynamic constant external resistance muscle actions.

  13. Characterization of orogenic remagnetizations within various fold geometries in Carboniferous carbonates from thin skinned fold and thrust belts, SW Alberta and NW Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechmeister, M. S.; Elmore, R. D.; Ferre, E. C.; Pannalal, S. J.; Hamilton, E. M.

    2007-12-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analysis was conducted on a complex fault propagation fold train in Kananaskis Country, Alberta to compliment an ongoing study of orogenic remagnetiztions in the thin-skinned, fold and thrust belt (NW Montana and SW Alberta). The complex structure is composed of an asymmetrical anticline to the west and chevron syncline to the east, with both folds plunging ~15° to the south. The fold train contains a magnetization with two stable ancient components. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) with northerly declinations and steep down inclinations is removed between ~350°C and the maximum unblocking temperature of 540°C. Tilt tests on the preliminary data reveal that the ChRM is early syntilting in the anticline and syntilting in the syncline. These results from this fold train are similar to a previous study in the Sawtooths (NW MT) which reported that fault propagation folds have a syntilting ChRM whereas fault bend folds contain a pretilting ChRM. An intermediate temperature reversed component is unblocked by 340°C and is late syntilting to post-tilting. Preliminary high-field rock magnetic data from folds in Montana and Alberta show that saturation is reached before 0.3T and the majority of the samples have wasp-waisted hysteresis loops. On a log plot of Mrs/Ms versus Hcr/Hc, the data has a power law distribution that is similar to trends reported by other authors. Interestingly though, samples from a fault bend fold have higher Mrs/Ms ratios than those measured in fault propagation folds, suggesting that strain induced by the various folding styles may influence the rock magnetic properties. Additional studies are underway to test these preliminary results and determine if the differences in the hysteresis ratios are significant. Petrographic analysis shows magnetite replacing pyrite in some samples suggesting an authigenic origin for the ChRM. The intensity of the ChRM as well as the strongest rock magnetic signal is

  14. The Growth and Characterization of the Bismuth Strontium-Calcium 2212 Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Linda Vidale

    of the 2212 crystals grown from them. The CaO and CuO segregation coefficients, on the other hand, were observed to be near unity. As one would expect for an incongruently -melting compound, segregation at the solidification front generally decreased with increasing crystallization temperature, but all the segregation coefficients were not observed to simultaneously approach unity. The superconducting transition temperatures (T _{rm C}'s) of six as-crystallized samples having homogeneous crystal compositions were also measured. Sample T_{rm C} was observed to increase with increasing growth temperature and, therefore, change with crystal composition. The results of this study suggested that it is desirable to grow crystals at the highest possible crystallization temperature since they will: (1) have the highest as-grown T_{rm C} 's, and (2) solidify with the least component segregation at the growth interface. In addition, the analysis presented here suggests that such growth is not recommended at higher growth rates, since crystals with mid-range solidus compositions (and consequently, moderate growth temperatures) should crystallize most reliably as single-phase samples at higher growth rates.

  15. A behavioral economic analysis of the effect of next-day responsibilities on drinking.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lindsey J; Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 37% of college students report heavy episodic drinking (5 or more drinks in an occasion for men and 4 or more for women) in the past month. This pattern of drinking is often associated with high blood alcohol levels, accidents, injuries, and negative social and academic outcomes. There is a need for novel theoretical approaches to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral economics emphasizes the role of contextual determinants, such as drink price and the presence and amount of alternative reinforcement as determinants of drinking levels and has received strong empirical support in basic laboratory research. This translational research study used a hypothetical behavioral economic measure to investigate the impact of a variety of next-day responsibilities on night-before drinking intentions in a sample of first-year college students (N = 80; 50% female) who reported recent heavy episodic drinking. Drinking estimates were significantly lower in all of the responsibility conditions relative to the no-responsibility condition; internships were associated with the greatest reduction (d(rm) = 1.72), and earlier class times were associated with greater reductions in drinking intentions (d(rm) range = 1.22-1.35) than later class times (d(rm) range = 0.83-1.00). These results suggest that increasing morning responsibilities should be further investigated as a potential strategy to reduce drinking in college students.

  16. Learning Objectives and Testing: An Analysis of Six Principles of Economics Textbooks, Using Bloom's Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, James M. L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Significant differences were found between the stated objectives of most college level economics textbooks and the instruments included in the instructor's manuals to measure student achievement. (Author/RM)

  17. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yoon, Boram; Gupta, Rajan; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    We present a detailed analysis of methods to reduce statistical errors and excited-state contamination in the calculation of matrix elements of quark bilinear operators in nucleon states. All the calculations were done on a 2+1 flavor ensemble with lattices of sizemore » $$32^3 \\times 64$$ generated using the rational hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm at $a=0.081$~fm and with $$M_\\pi=312$$~MeV. The statistical precision of the data is improved using the all-mode-averaging method. We compare two methods for reducing excited-state contamination: a variational analysis and a two-state fit to data at multiple values of the source-sink separation $$t_{\\rm sep}$$. We show that both methods can be tuned to significantly reduce excited-state contamination and discuss their relative advantages and cost-effectiveness. A detailed analysis of the size of source smearing used in the calculation of quark propagators and the range of values of $$t_{\\rm sep}$$ needed to demonstrate convergence of the isovector charges of the nucleon to the $$t_{\\rm sep} \\to \\infty $$ estimates is presented.« less

  18. Techno-economıc Analysıs of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater usıng F-chart Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayaz, H.; Rahim, N. A.; Saidur, R.; Hasanuzzaman, M.

    2018-05-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in recent decades. Solar water heating systems based on thermal collector alone or connected with photovoltaic called as photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) are practical applications to replace the use of electrical water heaters but weather dependent performance of these systems is not linear. Therefore on the basis of short term or average weather conditions, accurate analysis of performance is quite difficult. The objective of this paper is to show thermal and economic analysis of evacuated tube collector solar water heaters. Analysis done by F-Chart shows that evacuated tube solar water heater achieves fraction value of 1 to fulfil hot water demand of 150liters and above per day for a family without any auxiliary energy usage. Evacuated tube solar water heater show life cycle savings of RM 5200. At water set temperature of 100°C, RM 12000 is achieved and highest life cycle savings of RM 6100 at the environmental temperature of 18°C are achieved. Best thermal and economic performance is obtained which results in reduction of household greenhouse gas emissions, reduction of energy consumption and saves money on energy bills.

  19. Genetic analysis and identification of SSR markers associated with rice blast disease in a BC2F1 backcross population.

    PubMed

    Hasan, N; Rafii, M Y; Abdul Rahim, H; Nusaibah, S A; Mazlan, N; Abdullah, S

    2017-01-23

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) blast disease is one of the most destructive rice diseases in the world. The fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, is the causal agent of rice blast disease. Development of resistant cultivars is the most preferred method to achieve sustainable rice production. However, the effectiveness of resistant cultivars is hindered by the genetic plasticity of the pathogen genome. Therefore, information on genetic resistance and virulence stability are vital to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of blast disease resistance. The present study set out to elucidate the resistance pattern and identify potential simple sequence repeat markers linked with rice blast disease. A backcross population (BC 2 F 1 ), derived from crossing MR264 and Pongsu Seribu 2 (PS2), was developed using marker-assisted backcross breeding. Twelve microsatellite markers carrying the blast resistance gene clearly demonstrated a polymorphic pattern between both parental lines. Among these, two markers, RM206 and RM5961, located on chromosome 11 exhibited the expected 1:1 testcross ratio in the BC 2 F 1 population. The 195 BC 2 F 1 plants inoculated against M. oryzae pathotype P7.2 showed a significantly different distribution in the backcrossed generation and followed Mendelian segregation based on a single-gene model. This indicates that blast resistance in PS2 is governed by a single dominant gene, which is linked to RM206 and RM5961 on chromosome 11. The findings presented in this study could be useful for future blast resistance studies in rice breeding programs.

  20. Immune clearance of highly pathogenic SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Scott G.; Piatak, Michael; Ventura, Abigail B.; Hughes, Colette M.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Ford, Julia C.; Oswald, Kelli; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Li, Yuan; Lewis, Matthew S.; Gilliam, Awbrey N.; Xu, Guangwu; Whizin, Nathan; Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Planer, Shannon L.; Turner, John M.; Legasse, Alfred W.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Nelson, Jay A.; Früh, Klaus; Sacha, Jonah B.; Estes, Jacob D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Edlefsen, Paul T.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Picker, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    Established infections with the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV, SIV) are thought to be permanent with even the most effective immune responses and anti-retroviral therapies (ART) only able to control, but not clear, these infections1–4. Whether the residual virus that maintains these infections is vulnerable to clearance is a question of central importance to the future management of millions of HIV-infected individuals. We recently reported that ~50% of rhesus macaques (RM) vaccinated with SIV protein-expressing Rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV/SIV) vectors manifest durable, aviremic control of infection with highly pathogenic SIVmac2395. Here, we demonstrate that regardless of route of challenge, RhCMV/SIV vector-elicited immune responses control SIVmac239 after demonstrable lymphatic and hematogenous viral dissemination, and that replication-competent SIV persists in multiple sites for weeks to months. However, over time, protected RM lost signs of SIV infection, showing a consistent lack of measurable plasma or tissue-associated virus using ultrasensitive assays, and loss of T cell reactivity to SIV determinants not in the vaccine. Extensive ultrasensitive RT-PCR and PCR analysis of tissues from RhCMV/SIV vector-protected RM necropsied 69–172 weeks after challenge did not detect SIV RNA or DNA over background, and replication-competent SIV was not detected in these RM by extensive co-culture analysis of tissues or by adoptive transfer of 60 million hematolymphoid cells to naïve RM. These data provide compelling evidence for progressive clearance of a pathogenic lentiviral infection, and suggest that some lentiviral reservoirs may be susceptible to the continuous effector memory T cell-mediated immune surveillance elicited and maintained by CMV vectors. PMID:24025770

  1. A compiled catalog of rotation measures of radio point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Han, Jin-Lin

    2014-08-01

    We compiled a catalog of Faraday rotation measures (RMs) for 4553 extragalactic radio point sources published in literature. These RMs were derived from multi-frequency polarization observations. The RM data are compared to those in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) RM catalog. We reveal a systematic uncertainty of about 10.0 ± 1.5 rad m-2 in the NVSS RM catalog. The Galactic foreground RM is calculated through a weighted averaging method by using the compiled RM catalog together with the NVSS RM catalog, with careful consideration of uncertainties in the RM data. The data from the catalog and the interface for the Galactic foreground RM calculations are publicly available on the webpage: http://zmtt.bao.ac.cn/RM/.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Rotation measures of radio point sources (Xu+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Han, J.-L.

    2015-04-01

    We compiled a catalog of Faraday rotation measures (RMs) for 4553 extragalactic radio point sources published in literature. These RMs were derived from multi-frequency polarization observations. The RM data are compared to those in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) RM catalog. We reveal a systematic uncertainty of about 10.0+/-1.5rad/m2 in the NVSS RM catalog. The Galactic foreground RM is calculated through a weighted averaging method by using the compiled RM catalog together with the NVSS RM catalog, with careful consideration of uncertainties in the RM data. The data from the catalog and the interface for the Galactic foreground RM calculations are publicly available on the webpage: http://zmtt.bao.ac.cn/RM/ . (2 data files).

  3. UV TREATMENT FOR CONTROL OF AEROMONAS (RM.C.M.6)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data and related interpretations that will be developed in this research will form the scientific basis for analysis, design, and regulation of polychromatic UV disinfection systems. At present, only minimal data regarding the wavelength-specific nature of microbial dose-resp...

  4. A unique GCN5-related glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region exist in the fungal multi-domain glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhen; Xiao, Yibei; Yang, Xinbin; Mesters, Jeroen R; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2015-12-16

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidases widely exist in the filamentous fungi, which may play a key role in chitin metabolism of fungi. A multi-domain GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Rhizomucor miehei (RmNag), exhibiting a potential N-acetyltransferase region, has been recently reported to show great potential in industrial applications. In this study, the crystal structure of RmNag was determined at 2.80 Å resolution. The three-dimensional structure of RmNag showed four distinctive domains, which belong to two distinguishable functional regions--a GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase region (N-terminal) and a N-acetyltransferase region (C-terminal). From structural and functional analysis, the C-terminal region of RmNag was identified as a unique tandem array linking general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), which displayed glucosamine N-acetyltransferase activity. Structural analysis of this glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region revealed that a unique glucosamine binding pocket is located in the pantetheine arm binding terminal region of the conserved CoA binding pocket, which is different from all known GNAT members. This is the first structural report of a glucosamine N-acetyltransferase, which provides novel structural information about substrate specificity of GNATs. The structural and functional features of this multi-domain β-N-acetylglucosaminidase could be useful in studying the catalytic mechanism of GH family 3 proteins.

  5. Mapping and marker-assisted selection of a brown planthopper resistance gene bph2 in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Hong; Wang, Chun-Ming; Su, Chang-Chao; Liu, Yu-Qiang; Zhai, Hu-Qu; Wan, Jian-Min

    2006-08-01

    Nilaparvata lugens Stål (brown planthopper, BPH), is one of the major insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the temperate rice-growing region. In this study, ASD7 harboring a BPH resistance gene bph2 was crossed to a susceptible cultivar C418, a japonica restorer line. BPH resistance was evaluated using 134 F2:3 lines derived from the cross between "ASD7" and "C418". SSR assay and linkage analysis were carried out to detect bph2. As a result, the resistant gene bph2 in ASD7 was successfully mapped between RM7102 and RM463 on the long arm of chromosome 12, with distances of 7.6 cM and 7.2 cM, respectively. Meanwhile, both phenotypic selection and marker-assisted selection (MAS) were conducted in the BC1F1 and BC2F1 populations. Selection efficiencies of RM7102 and RM463 were determined to be 89.9% and 91.2%, respectively. It would be very beneficial for BPH resistance improvement by using MAS of this gene.

  6. Directed evolution of a β-mannanase from Rhizomucor miehei to improve catalytic activity in acidic and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Xiao; Yi, Ping; Yan, Qiao-Juan; Qin, Zhen; Liu, Xue-Qiang; Jiang, Zheng-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    β-Mannanase randomly cleaves the β-1,4-linked mannan backbone of hemicellulose, which plays the most important role in the enzymatic degradation of mannan. Although the industrial applications of β-mannanase have tremendously expanded in recent years, the wild-type β-mannanases are still defective for some industries. The glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 β-mannanase ( Rm Man5A) from Rhizomucor miehei shows many outstanding properties, such as high specific activity and hydrolysis property. However, owing to the low catalytic activity in acidic and thermophilic conditions, the application of Rm Man5A to the biorefinery of mannan biomasses is severely limited. To overcome the limitation, Rm Man5A was successfully engineered by directed evolution. Through two rounds of screening, a mutated β-mannanase (m Rm Man5A) with high catalytic activity in acidic and thermophilic conditions was obtained, and then characterized. The mutant displayed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and 65 °C, corresponding to acidic shift of 2.5 units in optimal pH and increase by 10 °C in optimal temperature. The catalytic efficiencies ( k cat / K m ) of m Rm Man5A towards many mannan substrates were enhanced more than threefold in acidic and thermophilic conditions. Meanwhile, the high specific activity and excellent hydrolysis property of Rm Man5A were inherited by the mutant m Rm Man5A after directed evolution. According to the result of sequence analysis, three amino acid residues were substituted in m Rm Man5A, namely Tyr233His, Lys264Met, and Asn343Ser. To identify the function of each substitution, four site-directed mutations (Tyr233His, Lys264Met, Asn343Ser, and Tyr233His/Lys264Met) were subsequently generated, and the substitutions at Tyr233 and Lys264 were found to be the main reason for the changes of m Rm Man5A. Through directed evolution of Rm Man5A, two key amino acid residues that controlled its catalytic efficiency under acidic and thermophilic conditions were identified

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Attitudes on Communication Toward Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine Between the Public and the Scientific Community

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yusuke; Ikka, Tsunakuni; Kishimoto, Atsuo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Owing to the rapid progress in stem cell research (SCR) and regenerative medicine (RM), society's expectation and interest in these fields are increasing. For effective communication on issues concerning SCR and RM, surveys for understanding the interests of stakeholders is essential. For this purpose, we conducted a large‐scale survey with 2,160 public responses and 1,115 responses from the member of the Japanese Society for Regenerative Medicine. Results showed that the public is more interested in the post‐realization aspects of RM, such as cost of care, countermeasures for risks and accidents, and clarification of responsibility and liability, than in the scientific aspects; the latter is of greater interest only to scientists. Our data indicate that an increased awareness about RM‐associated social responsibility and regulatory framework is required among scientists, such as those regarding its benefits, potential accidents, abuse, and other social consequences. Awareness regarding the importance of communication and education for scientists are critical to bridge the gaps in the interests of the public and scientists. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:251–257 PMID:29372590

  8. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in five standard reference materials and six reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Gill, L M

    2000-01-01

    A number of food-matrix reference materials (RMs) are available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from Agriculture Canada through NIST. Most of these materials were originally value-assigned for their elemental composition (major, minor, and trace elements), but no additional nutritional information was provided. Two of the materials were certified for selected organic constituents. Ten of these materials (Standard Reference Material [SRM] 1,563 Cholesterol and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Coconut Oil [Natural and Fortified], SRM 1,566b Oyster Tissue, SRM 1,570a Spinach Leaves, SRM 1,974a Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis), RM 8,415 Whole Egg Powder, RM 8,418 Wheat Gluten, RM 8,432 Corn Starch, RM 8,433 Corn Bran, RM 8,435 Whole Milk Powder, and RM 8,436 Durum Wheat Flour) were recently distributed by NIST to 4 laboratories with expertise in food analysis for the measurement of proximates (solids, fat, protein, etc.), calories, and total dietary fiber, as appropriate. SRM 1846 Infant Formula was distributed as a quality control sample for the proximates and for analysis for individual fatty acids. Two of the materials (Whole Egg Powder and Whole Milk Powder) were distributed in an earlier interlaboratory comparison exercise in which they were analyzed for several vitamins. Value assignment of analyte concentrations in these 11 SRMs and RMs, based on analyses by the collaborating laboratories, is described in this paper. These materials are intended primarily for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of nutrients in foods of similar composition (based on AOAC INTERNATIONAL's fat-protein-carbohydrate triangle). They may also be used as "primary control materials" in the value assignment of in-house control materials of similar composition. The addition of proximate information for 10 existing reference materials means that RMs are now available from NIST with assigned values for proximates in 6 of the 9 sectors of

  9. Revealing W51C as a Cosmic-Ray source using Fermi-LAT data

    DOE PAGES

    Jogler, T.; Funk, S.

    2016-01-10

    Here, supernova remnants (SNRs) are commonly believed to be the primary sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Despite intensive study of the non-thermal emission of many SNRs the identification of the accelerated particle type relies heavily on assumptions of ambient-medium parameters that are only loosely constrained. Compelling evidence of hadronic acceleration can be provided by detecting a strong roll-off in the secondary γ-ray spectrum below themore » $${\\pi }^{0}$$ production threshold energy of about 135 MeV, the so called "pion bump." Here we use five years of Fermi-Large Area Telescope data to study the spectrum above 60 MeV of the middle-aged SNR W51C. A clear break in the power-law γ-ray spectrum at $${E}_{{\\rm{break}}}=290\\pm 20\\;{\\rm{MeV}}$$ is detected with $$9\\sigma $$ significance and we show that this break is most likely associated with the energy production threshold of $${\\pi }^{0}$$mesons. A high-energy break in the γ-ray spectrum at about 2.7 GeV is found with $$7.5\\sigma $$ significance. The spectral index at energies beyond this second break is $${{\\rm{\\Gamma }}}_{2}={2.52}_{-0.07}^{+0.06}$$ and closely matches the spectral index derived by the MAGIC Collaboration above 75 GeV. Therefore our analysis provides strong evidence to explain the γ-ray spectrum of W51C by a single particle population of protons with a momentum spectrum best described by a broken power law with break momentum $${p}_{{\\rm{break}}}\\sim 80\\;{\\rm{G}}{\\rm{e}}{\\rm{V}}/c.$$ W51C is the third middle-aged SNR that displays compelling evidence for cosmic-ray acceleration and thus strengthens the case of SNRs as the main source of Galactic cosmic rays.« less

  10. A decision support tool to prioritize risk management options for contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Seppälä, Jyri

    2010-03-15

    The decisions on risk management (RM) of contaminated sites in Finland have typically been driven by practical factors such as time and money. However, RM is a multifaceted task that generally involves several additional determinants, e.g. performance and environmental effects of remediation methods, psychological and social factors. Therefore, we adopted a multi-criteria decision analysis approach and developed a decision support tool (DST) that is viable in decision-making in such a complex situation. The basic components of the DST are based on the Dutch REC system. However, our DST is more case-specific and allows the consideration of the type, magnitude and scale of contamination, land use, environmental conditions and socio-cultural aspects (e.g. loss of cultural heritage, image aspects). The construction of the DST was started by structuring the decision problem using a value tree. Based on this work we adopted the Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) for data aggregation. The final DST was demonstrated by two model sites for which the RM alternatives and site-specific data were created on the basis of factual remediation projects and by interviewing experts. The demonstration of the DST was carried out in a workshop where representatives of different stakeholders were requested to rank and weight the decision criteria involved. To get information on the consistency of the ranking of the RM alternatives, we used different weighting techniques (ratio estimation and pair-wise weighting) and alternative ways to treat individual respondents' weights in calculating the preference scores for each RM alternative. These dissimilar approaches resulted in some differences in the preference order of the RM alternatives. The demonstration showed that attention has to be paid to the proper description of the site, the principles of the procedure and the decision criteria. Nevertheless, the procedure proved to enable efficient communication between different stakeholders

  11. Efficient clearance of Aβ protofibrils in AβPP-transgenic mice treated with a brain-penetrating bifunctional antibody.

    PubMed

    Syvänen, Stina; Hultqvist, Greta; Gustavsson, Tobias; Gumucio, Astrid; Laudon, Hanna; Söderberg, Linda; Ingelsson, Martin; Lannfelt, Lars; Sehlin, Dag

    2018-05-24

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy is one of the most promising disease-modifying strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite recent progress targeting aggregated forms of Aβ, low antibody brain penetrance remains a challenge. In the present study, we used transferrin receptor (TfR)-mediated transcytosis to facilitate brain uptake of our previously developed Aβ protofibril-selective mAb158, with the aim of increasing the efficacy of immunotherapy directed toward soluble Aβ protofibrils. Aβ protein precursor (AβPP)-transgenic mice (tg-ArcSwe) were given a single dose of mAb158, modified for TfR-mediated transcytosis (RmAb158-scFv8D3), in comparison with an equimolar dose or a tenfold higher dose of unmodified recombinant mAb158 (RmAb158). Soluble Aβ protofibrils and total Aβ in the brain were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Brain distribution of radiolabeled antibodies was visualized by positron emission tomography (PET) and ex vivo autoradiography. ELISA analysis of Tris-buffered saline brain extracts demonstrated a 40% reduction of soluble Aβ protofibrils in both RmAb158-scFv8D3- and high-dose RmAb158-treated mice, whereas there was no Aβ protofibril reduction in mice treated with a low dose of RmAb158. Further, ex vivo autoradiography and PET imaging revealed different brain distribution patterns of RmAb158-scFv8D3 and RmAb158, suggesting that these antibodies may affect Aβ levels by different mechanisms. With a combination of biochemical and imaging analyses, this study demonstrates that antibodies engineered to be transported across the blood-brain barrier can be used to increase the efficacy of Aβ immunotherapy. This strategy may allow for decreased antibody doses and thereby reduced side effects and treatment costs.

  12. Process simulation and techno economic analysis of renewable diesel production via catalytic decarboxylation of rubber seed oil - A case study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Kin Wai; Yusup, Suzana; Gurdeep Singh, Haswin Kaur; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Lam, Hon Loong

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the economic feasibility of hydroprocessed diesel fuel production via catalytic decarboxylation of rubber seed oil in Malaysia. A comprehensive techno-economic assessment is developed using Aspen HYSYS V8.0 software for process modelling and economic cost estimates. The profitability profile and minimum fuels selling price of this synthetic fuels production using rubber seed oil as biomass feedstock are assessed under a set of assumptions for what can be plausibly be achieved in 10-years framework. In this study, renewable diesel processing facility is modelled to be capable of processing 65,000 L of inedible oil per day and producing a total of 20 million litre of renewable diesel product per annual with assumed annual operational days of 347. With the forecasted renewable diesel retail price of 3.64 RM per kg, the pioneering renewable diesel project investment offers an assuring return of investment of 12.1% and net return as high as 1.35 million RM. Sensitivity analysis conducted showed that renewable diesel production cost is most sensitive to rubber seed oil price and hydrogen gas price, reflecting on the relative importance of feedstock prices in the overall profitability profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Whistler turbulence heating of electrons and ions: Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simuations

    DOE PAGES

    Gary, S. Peter; Hughes, R. Scott; Wang, Joseph

    2016-01-14

    In this study, the decay of whistler turbulence in a collisionless, homogeneous, magnetized plasma is studied using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations are initialized with a narrowband, relatively isotropic distribution of long wavelength whistler modes. A first ensemble of simulations at electron betamore » $${\\beta }_{{\\rm{e}}}$$ = 0.25 and ion-to-electron mass ratio $${m}_{{\\rm{i}}}$$/$${m}_{{\\rm{e}}}$$ = 400 is carried out on a domain cube of dimension $$L{\\omega }_{\\mathrm{pi}}$$/c = 5.12 where $${\\omega }_{\\mathrm{pi}}$$ is the ion plasma frequency. The simulations begin with a range of dimensionless fluctuating field energy densities, $${\\epsilon }_{{\\rm{o}}}$$, and follow the fluctuations as they cascade to broadband, anisotropic turbulence which dissipates at shorter wavelengths, heating both electrons and ions. The electron heating is stronger and preferentially parallel/antiparallel to the background magnetic field $${{\\boldsymbol{B}}}_{{\\rm{o}}};$$ the ion energy gain is weaker and is preferentially in directions perpendicular to $${{\\boldsymbol{B}}}_{{\\rm{o}}}$$. The important new results here are that, over 0.01 < $${\\epsilon }_{{\\rm{o}}}$$ < 0.25, the maximum rate of electron heating scales approximately as $${\\epsilon }_{{\\rm{o}}}$$, and the maximum rate of ion heating scales approximately as $${\\epsilon }_{{\\rm{o}}}^{1.5}$$. A second ensemble of simulations at $${\\epsilon }_{{\\rm{o}}}$$ = 0.10 and $${\\beta }_{{\\rm{e}}}$$ = 0.25 shows that, over 25 < $${m}_{{\\rm{i}}}$$/$${m}_{{\\rm{e}}}\\;$$< 1836, the ratio of the maximum ion heating rate to the maximum electron heating rate scales approximately as $${m}_{{\\rm{e}}}$$/$${m}_{{\\rm{i}}}$$.« less

  14. Correction of Hysteretic Respiratory Motion in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Simulation and Patient Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Paul K. R.; Könik, Arda; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Johnson, Karen L.; Segars, William P.; Shazeeb, Mohammed. S.; King, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Amplitude based respiratory gating is known to capture the extent of respiratory motion (RM) accurately but results in residual motion in the presence of respiratory hysteresis. In our previous study, we proposed and developed a novel approach to account for respiratory hysteresis by applying the Bouc-Wen (BW) model of hysteresis to external surrogate signals of anterior / posterior motion of the abdomen and chest with respiration. In this work using simulated and clinical SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies, we investigate the effects of respiratory hysteresis and evaluate the benefit of correcting it using the proposed BW model in comparison with the abdomen signal typically employed clinically. Methods The MRI navigator data acquired in free breathing human volunteers were used in the specially modified 4-D NCAT phantoms to allow simulating three types of respiratory patterns: monotonic, mild-hysteresis, and strong-hysteresis with normal myocardial uptake, and perfusion defects in the anterior, lateral, inferior, and septal locations of the mid-ventricular wall. Clinical scans were performed using a 99mTc-Sestamibi MPI protocol while recording respiratory signals from thoracic and abdomen regions using a Visual Tracking System (VTS). The performance of the correction using the respiratory signals was assessed through polar map analysis in phantom and ten clinical studies selected on the basis of having substantial RM. Results In phantom studies, simulations illustrating normal myocardial uptake showed significant differences (p<0.001) in the uniformity of the polar maps between the RM uncorrected and corrected. No significant differences were seen in the polar map uniformity across the RM corrections. Studies simulating perfusion defects showed significantly decreased errors (p<0.001) in defect severity and extent for the RM corrected compared to the uncorrected. Only for the strong-hysteretic pattern was there a significant difference (p<0

  15. Protective immunity against tick infestation in cattle vaccinated with recombinant trypsin inhibitor of Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Renato; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Soares, Mariana Aparecida; Guerrero, Felix D; Leite, Fábio P Leivas; de León, Adalberto A Pérez

    2012-10-19

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is regarded as the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock globally. Control is achieved primarily through the use of acaricides. This approach is hampered by the development of resistance to commercial acaricides among cattle tick populations. Vaccination against R. microplus infestation is another technology that can be integrated for effective cattle tick control. Proteins belonging to the Kunitz-BPTI family are abundant in cattle tick salivary glands, midgut, and ovaries. These organs are attractive targets for the development of a novel cattle tick vaccine. Efficacy assessment against cattle tick infestation in bovines using a vaccine containing the recombinant form of a member of the Kunitz family from R. microplus produced in a yeast expression system is reported for the first time here. The yeast Pichia pastoris was bioengineered to produce the recombinant version of a trypsin inhibitor that is expressed in cattle tick larvae (rRmLTI). Immunization with rRmLTI afforded 32% efficacy against R. microplus. The estimated molecular weight of rRmLTI was 46 kDa. Structural homology to the native form of the larval trypsin inhibitor was documented by recognition of rRmLTI in Western-blots using polyclonal antibodies from mice immunized with cattle tick larval extract or rRmLTI. Bioinformatics analysis of the partial nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences indicated that the rRmLTI closely resembles BmTI-6, which is a three-headed Kunitz protein present in cattle tick ovary and fat tissue. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Environmental Planning in Jonah's Basin: A Simulation Game and Experimental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, Doyne

    1982-01-01

    Described is a successfully field tested simulation which will help high school or college level students become familiar with flood hazards. Students assume the roles of members of the Jonah's Basin planning commission and plan solutions to the area's flood problems. (RM)

  17. Anomalous scaling of Δ C versus T c in the Fe-based superconductors: the $${S}_{\\pm }$$-wave pairing state model

    DOE PAGES

    Bang, Yunkyu; Stewart, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The strong power law behavior of the specific heat jumpmore » $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c $$({\\rm{\\Delta }}C/{T}_{{\\rm{c}}}\\sim {T}_{{\\rm{c}}}^{\\alpha },\\alpha \\approx 2)$$, first observed by Bud'ko et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 220516), has been confirmed with several families of the Fe-based superconducting compounds with various dopings. We tested a minimal two band BCS model to understand this anomalous behavior and showed that this non-BCS relation between $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c is a generic property of the multiband superconducting state paired by a dominant interband interaction ($${V}_{\\mathrm{inter}}\\gt {V}_{\\mathrm{intra}}$$) reflecting the relation $$\\frac{{{\\rm{\\Delta }}}_{{\\rm{h}}}}{{{\\rm{\\Delta }}}_{{\\rm{e}}}}\\sim \\sqrt{\\frac{{N}_{{\\rm{e}}}}{{N}_{{\\rm{h}}}}}$$ near T c, as in the $${S}_{\\pm }$$-wave pairing state. We also found that this $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c power law can continuously change from the ideal BNC scaling to a considerable deviation by a moderate variation of the impurity scattering rate $${{\\rm{\\Gamma }}}_{0}$$ (non-pair-breaking). Finally, as a result, our model provides a consistent explanation why the electron-doped Fe-based superconductors follow the ideal BNC scaling very well while the hole-doped systems often show varying degree of deviations.« less

  18. Identification and mapping of stable QTL with main and epistasis effect on rice grain yield under upland drought stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses that cause drastic reduction in rice grain yield (GY) in rainfed environments. The identification and introgression of QTL leading to high GY under drought have been advocated to be the preferred breeding strategy to improve drought tolerance of popular rice varieties. Genetic control of GY under reproductive-stage drought stress (RS) was studied in two BC1F4 mapping populations derived from crosses of Kali Aus, a drought-tolerant aus cultivar, with high-yielding popular varieties MTU1010 and IR64. The aim was to identify QTL for GY under RS that show a large and consistent effect for the trait. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) was used to identify significant markers putatively linked with high GY under drought. Results QTL analysis revealed major-effect GY QTL: qDTY 1.2 , qDTY 2.2 and qDTY 1.3 , qDTY 2.3 (DTY; Drought grain yield) under drought consistently over two seasons in Kali Aus/2*MTU1010 and Kali Aus/2*IR64 populations, respectively. qDTY 1.2 and qDTY 2.2 explained an additive effect of 288 kg ha−1 and 567 kg ha−1 in Kali Aus/2*MTU1010, whereas qDTY 1.3 and qDTY 2.3 explained an additive effect of 198 kg ha−1 and 147 kg ha−1 in Kali Aus/2*IR64 populations, respectively. Epistatic interaction was observed for DTF (days to flowering) between regions on chromosome 2 flanked by markers RM154–RM324 and RM263–RM573 and major epistatic QTL for GY showing interaction between genomic locations on chromosome 1 at marker interval RM488–RM315 and chromosome 2 at RM324–RM263 in 2012 DS and 2013 DS RS in Kali Aus/2*IR64 mapping populations. Conclusion The QTL, qDTY 1.2 , qDTY 1.3 , qDTY 2.2 , and qDTY 2.3, identified in this study can be used to improve GY of mega varieties MTU1010 and IR64 under different degrees of severity of drought stress through marker-aided backcrossing and provide farmers with improved varieties that effectively combine high yield potential with good yield

  19. Comparative studies of high performance swimming in sharks I. Red muscle morphometrics, vascularization and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Bernal, D; Sepulveda, C; Mathieu-Costello, O; Graham, J B

    2003-08-01

    Tunas (family Scombridae) and sharks in the family Lamnidae are highly convergent for features commonly related to efficient and high-performance (i.e. sustained, aerobic) swimming. High-performance swimming by fishes requires adaptations augmenting the delivery, transfer and utilization of O(2) by the red myotomal muscle (RM), which powers continuous swimming. Tuna swimming performance is enhanced by a unique anterior and centrally positioned RM (i.e. closer to the vertebral column) and by structural features (relatively small fiber diameter, high capillary density and greater myoglobin concentration) increasing O(2) flux from RM capillaries to the mitochondria. A study of the structural and biochemical features of the mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) RM was undertaken to enable performance-capacity comparisons of tuna and lamnid RM. Similar to tunas, mako RM is positioned centrally and more anterior in the body. Another lamnid, the salmon shark (Lamna ditropis), also has this RM distribution, as does the closely related common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus; family Alopiidae). However, in both the leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) and the blue shark (Prionace glauca), RM occupies the position where it is typically found in most fishes; more posterior and along the lateral edge of the body. Comparisons among sharks in this study revealed no differences in the total RM quantity (approximately 2-3% of body mass) and, irrespective of position within the body, RM scaling is isometric in all species. Sharks thus have less RM than do tunas (4-13% of body mass). Relative to published data on other shark species, mako RM appears to have a higher capillary density, a greater capillary-to-fiber ratio and a higher myoglobin concentration. However, mako RM fiber size does not differ from that reported for other shark species and the total volume of mitochondria in mako RM is similar to that reported for other sharks and for tunas. Lamnid RM properties thus suggest a higher

  20. Effects of Sildenafil Citrate and Heparin Treatments on Placental Cell Morphology in a Murine Model of Pregnancy Loss.

    PubMed

    Luna, Rayana Leal; Vasconcelos, Anne Gabrielle; Nunes, Ana Karolina Santana; de Oliveira, Wilma Helena; Barbosa, Karla Patricia de Sousa; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections during pregnancy are well established as models for pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction (FGR), thrombophilia, preterm labor and abortion. Indeed, inflammation, as induced by LPS injection has been described as a pivotal factor in cases of miscarriage related to placental tissue damage. The phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil (Viagra®) is currently used to treat FGR cases in women, while low-molecular weight heparin (Fragmin®) is a standard treatment for recurrent miscarriage (RM). However, the pathways and cellular dynamics involved in RM are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of sildenafil and dalteparin in a mouse model of LPS-induced abortion. Histopathology, ultrastructural analysis and immunofluorescence for P-selectin were studied in two different placental cell types: trophoblast cells and labyrinth endothelial cells. Treatment with sildenafil either alone or in combination with heparin showed the best response against LPS-induced injury during pregnancy. In conclusion, our results support the use of these drugs as future therapeutic agents that may protect the placenta against inflammatory injury in RM events. Analyses of the ultrastructure and placental immunophysiology are important to understand the mechanism underlying RM. These findings may spark future studies and aid in the development of new therapies in cases of RM. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Determination of rheogenic ion transport in rat proximal colon in vivo.

    PubMed

    Haag, K; Lübcke, R; Knauf, H; Berger, E; Gerok, W

    1985-01-01

    A direct clamping technique is demonstrated, which allows monitoring of rapid changes of the short-circuit current (Isc) and the specific transepithelial resistance (Rm) as well as measurement of ion fluxes under short-circuit conditions in vivo. Due to the cylindrical symmetry of the colon the intraluminal electrode was devised as a centrally fixed silver rod, by which radial current injection was achieved. The geometrical arrangement of the electrodes guaranteed zero potential difference (PD) along the whole axis of the colon segment. The Isc was determined to 3.3 +/- 0.7 mueq h-1 cm-2 and Rm equal to 121 +/- 5 omega cm2. These data obtained by direct short-circuiting agree well with our earlier Rm and Isc data based on cable analysis, where the Isc was calculated from the open-circuit PD and Rm. This is considered as evidence for the reliability of the two independent in vivo techniques. Their validity was confirmed by the expected effects of drugs acting on rheogenic ion transport. Both the indirect (via Rm) as well as the direct Isc determination may be used alternatively as required; one may serve to match the other. For larger tubular structures like the rat colon the direct clamping should be preferred as the standard procedure for the Isc determination in vivo.

  2. Effect of Resistance Training Frequency on Gains in Muscular Strength: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Grgic, Jozo; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Davies, Timothy B; Lazinica, Bruno; Krieger, James W; Pedisic, Zeljko

    2018-05-01

    Current recommendations on resistance training (RT) frequency for gains in muscular strength are based on extrapolations from limited evidence on the topic, and thus their practical applicability remains questionable. To elucidate this issue, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies that compared muscular strength outcomes with different RT frequencies. To carry out this review, English-language literature searches of the PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases were conducted. The meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. The meta-analysis models were generated with RT frequencies classified as a categorical variable as either 1, 2, 3, or 4+ times/week, or, if there were insufficient data in subgroup analyses, the training frequencies were categorized as 1, 2, or 3 times/week. Subgroup analyses were performed for potential moderators, including (1) training volume; (2) exercise selection for the 1 repetition maximum (RM) test (for both multi-joint and single-joint exercises); (3) upper and lower body strength gains; (4) training to muscular failure (for studies involving and not involving training to muscular failure); (5) age (for both middle-aged/older adults and young adults); and (6) sex (for men and for women). The methodological quality of studies was appraised using the modified Downs and Black checklist. A total of 22 studies were found to meet the inclusion criteria. The average score on the Downs and Black checklist was 18 (range 13-22 points). Four studies were classified as being of good methodological quality, while the rest were classified as being of moderate methodological quality. Results of the meta-analysis showed a significant effect (p = 0.003) of RT frequency on muscular strength gains. Effect sizes increased in magnitude from 0.74, 0.82, 0.93, and 1.08 for training 1, 2, 3, and 4+ times per week, respectively. A subgroup analysis of volume-equated studies showed no significant effect (p

  3. Reference Management Software: A Comparative Analysis of Four Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmour, Ron; Cobus-Kuo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Reference management (RM) software is widely used by researchers in the health and natural sciences. Librarians are often called upon to provide support for these products. The present study compares four prominent RMs: CiteULike, RefWorks, Mendeley, and Zotero, in terms of features offered and the accuracy of the bibliographies that they…

  4. Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zendo, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are expected to be safe antimicrobial agents. While the best studied LAB bacteriocin, nisin A, is widely utilized as a food preservative, various novel ones are required to control undesirable bacteria more effectively. To discover novel bacteriocins at the early step of the screening process, we developed a rapid screening system that evaluates bacteriocins produced by newly isolated LAB based on their antibacterial spectra and molecular masses. By means of this system, various novel bacteriocins were identified, including a nisin variant, nisin Q, a two-peptide bacteriocin, lactococcin Q, a leaderless bacteriocin, lacticin Q, and a circular bacteriocin, lactocyclicin Q. Moreover, some LAB isolates were found to produce multiple bacteriocins. They were characterized as to their structures, mechanisms of action, and biosynthetic mechanisms. Novel LAB bacteriocins and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected for applications such as food preservation and peptide engineering.

  5. The Astronomical Almanac Online - Glossary

    Science.gov Websites

    Astronomical Almanac. Δ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z $\\boldmath{\\Delta {\\rm T}}$: the difference between Terrestrial Time (TT) and Universal Time (UT): $\\Delta {\\rm T} = {\\rm TT} - {\\rm UT}1 $. $\\boldmath{\\Delta {\\rm UT1}}$ (or $\\boldmath{\\Delta {\\rm UT}}$): the value of the difference between

  6. An External Stakeholder Analysis of a United States Army Directorate of Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Bass Inc., 1996. Burton, R.M. and Obel, B., Strategic Organizational Diagnosis and Design: Developing Theory for Application, 2nd ed., Kluwer...Harrison, M.I. and Shirom, A., Organizational Diagnosis and Assessment: Bridging Theory and Practice, SAGE Publications, Inc., 1999. Kotter, J.P

  7. Tropospheric GOM at the Pic du Midi Observatory-Correcting Bias in Denuder Based Observations.

    PubMed

    Marusczak, Nicolas; Sonke, Jeroen E; Fu, Xuewu; Jiskra, Martin

    2017-01-17

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, Hg) emissions are transformed to divalent reactive Hg (RM) forms throughout the troposphere and stratosphere. RM is often operationally quantified as the sum of particle bound Hg (PBM) and gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM). The measurement of GOM and PBM is challenging and under mounting criticism. Here we intercompare six months of automated GOM and PBM measurements using a Tekran (TK) KCl-coated denuder and quartz regenerable particulate filter method (GOM TK , PBM TK , and RM TK ) with RM CEM collected on cation exchange membranes (CEMs) at the high altitude Pic du Midi Observatory. We find that RM TK is systematically lower by a factor of 1.3 than RM CEM . We observe a significant relationship between GOM TK (but not PBM TK ) and Tekran flush TK blanks suggesting significant loss (36%) of labile GOM TK from the denuder or inlet. Adding the flush TK blank to RM TK results in good agreement with RM CEM (slope = 1.01, r 2 = 0.90) suggesting we can correct bias in RM TK and GOM TK . We provide a bias corrected (*) Pic du Midi data set for 2012-2014 that shows GOM* and RM* levels in dry free tropospheric air of 198 ± 57 and 229 ± 58 pg m -3 which agree well with in-flight observed RM and with model based GOM and RM estimates.

  8. NBSGSC - a FORTRAN program for quantitative x-ray fluorescence analysis. Technical note (final)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tao, G.Y.; Pella, P.A.; Rousseau, R.M.

    1985-04-01

    A FORTRAN program (NBSGSC) was developed for performing quantitative analysis of bulk specimens by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. This program corrects for x-ray absorption/enhancement phenomena using the comprehensive alpha coefficient algorithm proposed by Lachance (COLA). NBSGSC is a revision of the program ALPHA and CARECAL originally developed by R.M. Rousseau of the Geological Survey of Canada. Part one of the program (CALCO) performs the calculation of theoretical alpha coefficients, and part two (CALCOMP) computes the composition of the analyte specimens. The analysis of alloys, pressed minerals, and fused specimens can currently be treated by the program. In addition to using measuredmore » x-ray tube spectral distributions, spectra from seven commonly used x-ray tube targets could also be calculated with an NBS algorithm included in the program. NBSGSC is written in FORTRAN IV for a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC PDP-11/23) minicomputer using RLO2 firm disks and an RSX 11M operating system.« less

  9. Comparison of muscle force production using the Smith machine and free weights for bench press and squat exercises.

    PubMed

    Cotterman, Michael L; Darby, Lynn A; Skelly, William A

    2005-02-01

    The Smith machine (SM) (vertical motion of bar on fixed path; fixed-form exercise) and free weights (FWs) (free-form path) are commonly used strength training modes. Exercisers may need to alternate between types of equipment, depending on testing, training, rehabilitation, and/or the exercisers' goals. The purposes of this study were to compare muscle force production for SM and FWs using a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for the parallel back squat and supine bench press exercises and to predict the 1RM for one mode from 1RM on the other mode. Men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) alternately completed 1RM testing for squat and bench press using SM and FWs. Analyses of variance (type of equipment x sex) and linear regression models were calculated. A significant difference was found between bench press and squat 1RMs for each mode of equipment for all participants. The squat 1RM was greater for the SM than the FWs; conversely, the bench 1RM was greater for FWs than the SM. When sex was considered, bench 1RM for FWs was greater than SM for men and women. The squat 1RM was greater for SM than FWs for women only. The 1RM on one mode of equipment was the best predictor of 1RM for the other mode. For both sexes, the equation SM bench 1RM (in kilograms) = -6.76 + 0.95 (FW bench 1RM) can be used. For women only, SM squat 1RM (in kilograms) = 28.3 + 0.73 (FW squat 1RM). These findings provide equations for converting between SM and FW equipment for training.

  10. Life-Cycle Analysis of Aircraft Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    actual experience. Mixed but promisng results were obtained in modeling ownership costs for military engines. Depot maintenance costs were more...Acquisition Experience, The Rand Corporation, RM-6072-PR, November 1969. System Acquisition Stategies , The Rand Corporation, R-733-PR/ARPA, June 1971. 98...Paris, 1971I. Phillips. Almarin, Technology and Market Structure, IA•xington Books, D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, Mass.. 1971. A Position Paper on

  11. A unique GCN5-related glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region exist in the fungal multi-domain glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhen; Xiao, Yibei; Yang, Xinbin; Mesters, Jeroen R.; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidases widely exist in the filamentous fungi, which may play a key role in chitin metabolism of fungi. A multi-domain GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Rhizomucor miehei (RmNag), exhibiting a potential N-acetyltransferase region, has been recently reported to show great potential in industrial applications. In this study, the crystal structure of RmNag was determined at 2.80 Å resolution. The three-dimensional structure of RmNag showed four distinctive domains, which belong to two distinguishable functional regions — a GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase region (N-terminal) and a N-acetyltransferase region (C-terminal). From structural and functional analysis, the C-terminal region of RmNag was identified as a unique tandem array linking general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), which displayed glucosamine N-acetyltransferase activity. Structural analysis of this glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region revealed that a unique glucosamine binding pocket is located in the pantetheine arm binding terminal region of the conserved CoA binding pocket, which is different from all known GNAT members. This is the first structural report of a glucosamine N-acetyltransferase, which provides novel structural information about substrate specificity of GNATs. The structural and functional features of this multi-domain β-N-acetylglucosaminidase could be useful in studying the catalytic mechanism of GH family 3 proteins. PMID:26669854

  12. Six Sigma methods applied to cryogenic coolers assembly line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventre, Jean-Marc; Germain-Lacour, Michel; Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Griot, René

    2009-05-01

    Six Sigma method have been applied to manufacturing process of a rotary Stirling cooler: RM2. Name of the project is NoVa as main goal of the Six Sigma approach is to reduce variability (No Variability). Project has been based on the DMAIC guideline following five stages: Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control. Objective has been set on the rate of coolers succeeding performance at first attempt with a goal value of 95%. A team has been gathered involving people and skills acting on the RM2 manufacturing line. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) has been applied to test bench and results after R&R gage show that measurement is one of the root cause for variability in RM2 process. Two more root causes have been identified by the team after process mapping analysis: regenerator filling factor and cleaning procedure. Causes for measurement variability have been identified and eradicated as shown by new results from R&R gage. Experimental results show that regenerator filling factor impacts process variability and affects yield. Improved process haven been set after new calibration process for test bench, new filling procedure for regenerator and an additional cleaning stage have been implemented. The objective for 95% coolers succeeding performance test at first attempt has been reached and kept for a significant period. RM2 manufacturing process is now managed according to Statistical Process Control based on control charts. Improvement in process capability have enabled introduction of sample testing procedure before delivery.

  13. Observations by Juno's Radiation Monitoring Investigation During the First Year at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, H. N.; Adumitroaie, V.; Alexander, J. W.; Daubar, I.; Joergensen, J. L.; Denver, T.; Benn, M.; Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Cicchetti, A.; Noschese, R.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Gladstone, R.; Hue, V.; Versteeg, M.; Santos-Costa, D.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.; Thorne, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Juno's Radiation Monitoring (RM) Investigation measures MeV electron fluxes at Jupiter by utilizing the noise signatures of penetrating high-energy particles which are visible in images collected by Juno's heavily shielded star cameras and science instruments. Image processing is used to identify and extract the characteristic signatures of penetrating high-energy electrons and ions and derive count rates which are used to infer external integral electron flux levels [Becker, H.N., et al. (2017), Space Sci Rev, doi: 10.1007/s11214-017-0345-9; Becker H.N. et al. (2017), Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, doi:10.1002/2017GL073091]. The count rate data from each RM instrument represents detection of electrons from within a broad energy channel (e.g. > 5 MeV or > 10 MeV electron sensitivity, determined using Geant4 shielding analysis). Simultaneous observations by the instruments therefore allow study of the external spectra where coordinated measurements are achieved. The spacecraft Stellar Reference Unit (SRU), the Magnetic Field Investigation's Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) camera head D, and the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) infrared imager are the primary instruments used in RM's collaborative observation campaigns. Penetrating particle signatures and trends across a broader range of Juno instruments and spacecraft housekeeping data also contribute to the analysis. This paper presents an overview of RM measurements of the Jovian high energy particle environment observed during the first eight science orbits of Juno's prime mission.

  14. Investigation of extended Y chromosome STR haplotypes in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Lacerenza, D; Aneli, S; Di Gaetano, C; Critelli, R; Piazza, A; Matullo, G; Culigioni, C; Robledo, R; Robino, C; Calò, C

    2017-03-01

    Y-chromosomal variation of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 32 short tandem repeat (STR) loci was evaluated in Sardinia in three open population groups (Northern Sardinia, n=40; Central Sardinia, n=56; Southern Sardinia, n=91) and three isolates (Desulo, n=34; Benetutti, n=45, Carloforte, n=42). The tested Y-STRs consisted of Yfiler ® Plus markers and the seven rapidly mutating (RM) loci not included in the YFiler ® Plus kit (DYF399S1, DYF403S1ab, DYF404S1, DYS526ab, DYS547, DYS612, and DYS626). As expected, inclusion of additional Y-STR loci increased haplotype diversity (h), though complete differentiation of male lineages was impossible even by means of RM Y-STRs (h=0.99997). Analysis of molecular variance indicated that the three open populations were fairly homogeneous, whereas signs of genetic heterogeneity could be detected when the three isolates were also included in the analysis. Multidimensional scaling analysis showed that, even for extended haplotypes including RM Y-STR markers, Sardinians were clearly differentiated from populations of the Italian peninsula and Sicily. The only exception was represented by the Carloforte sample that, in accordance with its peculiar population history, clustered with Northern/Central Italian populations. The introduction of extended forensic Y-STR panels, including highly variable RM Y-STR markers, is expected to reduce the impact of population structure on haplotype frequency estimations. However, our results show that the availability of geographically detailed reference databases is still important for the assessment of the evidential value of a Y-haplotype match. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring the Spin Correlation of Nuclear Muon Capture in HELIUM-3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, Dorothy Jill

    1996-06-01

    We have completed the first measurement of the spin correlation of nuclear muon capture in ^3 He: mu^- + ^3He to nu _{mu} + ^3 H. From this spin correlation, we can extract the induced pseudoscalar form factor, F_{ rm p}, of the weak charged nuclear current. This form factor is not well known experimentally. If nuclear muon capture were a purely leptonic weak interaction, the current would have no pseudoscalar coupling, and therefore F_{rm p} arises from QCD contributions. Since ^3He is a fairly well understood system, a precise measurement of F_{rm p} could provide a direct test of the theories which describe QCD at low energies. This experiment was performed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, BC, using a muon beam. We stopped unpolarized muons in a laser polarized target filled with ^3 He and Rb vapor. The muons were captured into atomic orbitals, forming muonic ^3He which was then polarized via collisions with the optically pumped Rb vapor. When polarized muons undergo nuclear capture in ^3He, the total capture rate is proportional to (1 + {rm A_ {v}P_{v}cos} theta) where theta is the angle between the muon polarization and the triton recoil direction, P_{rm v} is the muon vector polarization and A_ {rm v} is the vector analyzing power. The partially conserved axial current hypothesis (PCAC) predicts that A_{rm v} = 0.524 +/- 0.006 Our measurement of A_{rm v} is in agreement with this prediction: A_{rm v } = 0.604 +/- 0.093 (stat.) _sp{-.142}{+.112}(syst.). This thesis will describe the design, construction, and operation of the device which simultaneously served as a polarized target and a gridded ion chamber. The ion chamber apparatus enabled us to identify recoil tritons as well as determine their direction of motion. The directional information was obtained by fitting the shapes of the pulses generated by the tritons. In addition, this thesis will describe in detail the analysis of these pulses which resulted in a measurement of the raw forward/backward asymmetry of

  16. Silver syndrome variant of hereditary spastic paraplegia: A locus to 4p and allelism with SPG4.

    PubMed

    Orlacchio, A; Patrono, C; Gaudiello, F; Rocchi, C; Moschella, V; Floris, R; Bernardi, G; Kawarai, T

    2008-05-20

    To perform a clinical and genetic study of two large Italian families (RM-36 and RM-51) showing the cardinal clinical features of Silver syndrome (SS), a rare dominantly inherited form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) complicated by amyotrophy of the small hand muscles. Clinical assessment including neurophysiologic, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evaluations. Genetic studies included linkage and sequence analyses. Using a genome-wide survey in the RM-36 family, a novel locus (SPG38) has been identified and mapped within the 13.1-cM region on chromosome 4p16-p15 between markers D4S432 and D4S1599. The RM-51 family was linked to the SPG4 locus at 2p21-p24 and sequence analysis of SPG4 showed a novel frameshift mutation p.Asp321GlyfsX6. Clinical examination of the affected members carrying the mutation showed high frequency of additional clinical features including decreased vibration sense, pes cavus, temporal lobe epilepsy, and cognitive impairment. This study demonstrates evidence of a novel locus SPG38 for Silver syndrome (SS) and suggests that genetic defects in SPG4 might lead to broad clinical features overlapped with those of SS.

  17. A proteomics performance standard to support measurement quality in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Beasley-Green, Ashley; Bunk, David; Rudnick, Paul; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Phinney, Karen

    2012-04-01

    The emergence of MS-based proteomic platforms as a prominent technology utilized in biochemical and biomedical research has increased the need for high-quality MS measurements. To address this need, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference material (RM) 8323 yeast protein extract is introduced as a proteomics quality control material for benchmarking the preanalytical and analytical performance of proteomics-based experimental workflows. RM 8323 yeast protein extract is based upon the well-characterized eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae and can be utilized in the design and optimization of proteomics-based methodologies from sample preparation to data analysis. To demonstrate its utility as a proteomics quality control material, we coupled LC-MS/MS measurements of RM 8323 with the NIST MS Quality Control (MSQC) performance metrics to quantitatively assess the LC-MS/MS instrumentation parameters that influence measurement accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility. Due to the complexity of the yeast proteome, we also demonstrate how NIST RM 8323, along with the NIST MSQC performance metrics, can be used in the evaluation and optimization of proteomics-based sample preparation methods. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Friedman, B.; DuCharme, G.

    We present a semi-empirical scaling law for non-resonant ion–atom single charge exchange cross sections for collisions with velocities frommore » $${10}^{7}\\,{\\rm{t}}{\\rm{o}}\\,{10}^{9}\\,\\mathrm{cm}\\,{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$ and ions with positive charge $$q\\lt 8$$. Non-resonant cross sections tend to have a velocity peak at collision velocities $$v\\lesssim 1\\ {\\rm{a}}{\\rm{u}}$$ with exponential decay around this peak. We construct a scaling formula for the location of this peak then choose a functional form for the cross section curve and scale it. The velocity at which the cross section peaks, v m, is proportional to the energy defect of the collision, $${\\rm{\\Delta }}E$$, which we predict with the decay approximation. The value of the cross section maximum is proportional to the charge state q, inversely proportional to the target ionization energy I T, and inversely proportional to v m. For the shape of the cross section curve, we use a function that decays exponentially asymptotically at high and low velocities. We scale this function with parameters $${v}_{{\\rm{m}}},{I}_{{\\rm{T}}},{Z}_{{\\rm{T}}},\\mathrm{and}\\ {Z}_{{\\rm{P}}}$$, where the $${Z}_{{\\rm{T}},{\\rm{P}}}$$ are the target and projectile atomic numbers. In conclusion, for the more than 100 cross section curves that we use to find the scaling rules, the scaling law predicts cross sections within a little over a factor of 2 on average.« less

  19. Semi-empirical scaling for ion–atom single charge exchange cross sections in the intermediate velocity regime

    DOE PAGES

    Friedman, B.; DuCharme, G.

    2017-05-11

    We present a semi-empirical scaling law for non-resonant ion–atom single charge exchange cross sections for collisions with velocities frommore » $${10}^{7}\\,{\\rm{t}}{\\rm{o}}\\,{10}^{9}\\,\\mathrm{cm}\\,{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$ and ions with positive charge $$q\\lt 8$$. Non-resonant cross sections tend to have a velocity peak at collision velocities $$v\\lesssim 1\\ {\\rm{a}}{\\rm{u}}$$ with exponential decay around this peak. We construct a scaling formula for the location of this peak then choose a functional form for the cross section curve and scale it. The velocity at which the cross section peaks, v m, is proportional to the energy defect of the collision, $${\\rm{\\Delta }}E$$, which we predict with the decay approximation. The value of the cross section maximum is proportional to the charge state q, inversely proportional to the target ionization energy I T, and inversely proportional to v m. For the shape of the cross section curve, we use a function that decays exponentially asymptotically at high and low velocities. We scale this function with parameters $${v}_{{\\rm{m}}},{I}_{{\\rm{T}}},{Z}_{{\\rm{T}}},\\mathrm{and}\\ {Z}_{{\\rm{P}}}$$, where the $${Z}_{{\\rm{T}},{\\rm{P}}}$$ are the target and projectile atomic numbers. In conclusion, for the more than 100 cross section curves that we use to find the scaling rules, the scaling law predicts cross sections within a little over a factor of 2 on average.« less

  20. Defining the Transfer Functions of the PCAD Model in North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) - Retrospective Analyses of Existing Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    potentially providing information on nutritional state and chronic stress ( Wasser et al., 2010). We tested both T3 and T4 assays for parallelism.The...EconPapers.RePEc.org/RePEc:inn:wpaper:2011-20 Hunt K.E., Rolland R.M., Kraus S.D., Wasser S.K. 2006. Analysis of fecal glucocorticoids in the North Atlantic right...version 1.2.5. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=doMC Rolland R.M., Hunt K.E., Kraus S.D., Wasser S.K. 2005. Assessing reproductive status of right

  1. Effect of 1 Repetition Maximum, 80% Repetition Maximum, and 50% Repetition Maximum Strength Exercise in Trained Individuals on Variations in Plasma Redox Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Polotow, Tatiana G; Souza-Junior, Tácito P; Sampaio, Ricardo C; Okuyama, Alexandre R; Ganini, Douglas; Vardaris, Cristina V; Alves, Ragami C; McAnulty, Steven R; Barros, Marcelo P

    2017-09-01

    Polotow, TG, Souza-Junior, TP, Sampaio, RC, Okuyama, AR, Ganini, D, Vardaris, CV, Alves, RC, McAnulty, SR, and Barros, MP. Effect of 1RM, 80%RM, and 50%RM strength exercise in trained individuals on variations in plasma redox biomarkers. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2489-2497, 2017-For decades, scientists have examined the participation of oxygen/nitrogen species in anaerobic-like exercises, especially weightlifting and resistance exercises. The balance between the production of oxyradicals and antioxidant responses during anaerobic-like exercises is essential to assure adaptation to the physiological benefits of strength training and to prevent chronic harmful effects. The aim of this study is to examine the hypothesis that different weight loads (1 repetition maximum (RM), 80%RM, and 50%RM) lifted until exhaustion could impose distinct oxidative insults and elicit diverse antioxidant responses in plasma of young trained subjects. Glucose (+10%), lactate (+65%), urea (+30%), free iron (+65%), reduced/oxidized glutathione (+14 and +23%, respectively), and xanthine oxidase activity (2.2-fold) significantly increased after the 1RM test, whereas plasma antioxidant capacity dropped by 37%. When lower weight loads were applied (80%RM and 50%RM tests), heme-iron (+15 and +20%, respectively) became the prevalent pro-oxidant, although glutathione responses were only detected after 80%RM (+14%). Lactate concentration in plasma continuously increased, by 2.9-fold (80%RM) and 3.6-fold higher (50%RM test). We demonstrated that 1RM tests significantly diminish the antioxidant capacity of plasma because of iron overload, whereas 80%RM tests require higher involvement of glutathione molecules to counteract heme-iron oxidative insult. Mild redox imbalances promoted by heme-iron were found in plasma after 50%RM. Although we did not observe overall changes in muscle damage in young trained subjects, we cannot exclude the need for specific antioxidant supplementation depending on the

  2. Effects of temperature on power output and contraction kinetics in the locomotor muscle of the regionally endothermic common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus).

    PubMed

    Donley, Jeanine M; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Aalbers, Scott A; McGillivray, David G; Syme, Douglas A; Bernal, Diego

    2012-10-01

    The common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) is a pelagic species with medially positioned red aerobic swimming musculature (RM) and regional RM endothermy. This study tested whether the contractile characteristics of the RM are functionally similar along the length of the body and assessed how the contractile properties of the common thresher shark compare with those of other sharks. Contractile properties of the RM were examined at 8, 16 and 24 °C from anterior and posterior axial positions (0.4 and 0.6 fork length, respectively) using the work loop technique. Experiments were performed to determine whether the contractile properties of the RM are similar along the body of the common thresher shark and to document the effects of temperature on muscle power. Axial differences in contractile properties of RM were found to be small or absent. Isometric twitch kinetics of RM were ~fivefold slower than those of white muscle, with RM twitch durations of about 1 s at 24 °C and exceeding 5 s at 8 °C, a Q(10) of nearly 2.5. Power increased approximately tenfold with the 16 °C increase in temperature, while the cycle frequency for maximal power only increased from about 0.5-1.0 Hz over this temperature range. These data support the hypothesis that the RM is functionally similar along the body of the common thresher shark and corroborate previous findings from shark species both with and without medial RM. While twitch kinetics suggest the endothermic RM is not unusually temperature sensitive, measures of power suggest that the RM is not well suited to function at cool temperatures. The cycle frequency at which power is maximized appeared relatively insensitive to temperature in RM, which may reflect the relatively cooler temperature of the thresher RM compared to that observed in lamnid sharks as well as the relatively slow RM phenotype in these large fish.

  3. Greater Neural Adaptations following High- vs. Low-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D. M.; Miramonti, Amelia A.; Hill, Ethan C.; Smith, Cory M.; Cochrane-Snyman, Kristen C.; Housh, Terry J.; Cramer, Joel T.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the neuromuscular adaptations following 3 and 6 weeks of 80 vs. 30% one repetition maximum (1RM) resistance training to failure in the leg extensors. Twenty-six men (age = 23.1 ± 4.7 years) were randomly assigned to a high- (80% 1RM; n = 13) or low-load (30% 1RM; n = 13) resistance training group and completed leg extension resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Testing was completed at baseline, 3, and 6 weeks of training. During each testing session, ultrasound muscle thickness and echo intensity, 1RM strength, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, and contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris were measured. Percent voluntary activation (VA) and electromyographic (EMG) amplitude were measured during MVIC, and during randomly ordered isometric step muscle actions at 10–100% of baseline MVIC. There were similar increases in muscle thickness from Baseline to Week 3 and 6 in the 80 and 30% 1RM groups. However, both 1RM and MVIC strength increased from Baseline to Week 3 and 6 to a greater degree in the 80% than 30% 1RM group. VA during MVIC was also greater in the 80 vs. 30% 1RM group at Week 6, and only training at 80% 1RM elicited a significant increase in EMG amplitude during MVIC. The peak twitch torque to MVIC ratio was also significantly reduced in the 80%, but not 30% 1RM group, at Week 3 and 6. Finally, VA and EMG amplitude were reduced during submaximal torque production as a result of training at 80% 1RM, but not 30% 1RM. Despite eliciting similar hypertrophy, 80% 1RM improved muscle strength more than 30% 1RM, and was accompanied by increases in VA and EMG amplitude during maximal force production. Furthermore, training at 80% 1RM resulted in a decreased neural cost to produce the same relative submaximal torques after training, whereas training at 30% 1RM did not. Therefore, our data suggest that high-load training results in greater neural adaptations that may explain the disparate increases

  4. Vortex Flux Pinning in Type-Ii Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammad-Khair A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Rotational magnetization vector measurements on polycrystalline samples of rm YBa_2Cu _3O_7 (YBCO) and (Ba, K)BiO _3 at various fixed fields (H) and temperatures (T) reveal that the vortex flux density (B) in a rotational state consists of a component B_{rm R}, which rotates rigidly with sample rotation, and a B_{rm F} component, which stays at a fixed frictional angle (theta _{rm F}) relative to H. Also, B_{rm R} decreases and ultimately vanishes with increasing H, while B _{rm F} grows monotonically, implying that the vortex pinning strength have a broad distribution. This has been confirmed by the measurements on YBCO of the remanent flux density B^ {rm rm} which can be decomposed analogously into B_{R} ^{} and B_ {F}^{} at angle theta_{F}^{} relative to H. The quantity Hsin theta_{rm F},, which at equilibrium equals tau_{rm p}/mu (the average pinning torque per vortex of moment mu) decreases with increasing high H. This result and the distribution in the strength of the pinning are shown to be consistent with the collective pinning process of vortex bundling. At fixed H, tau_{rm p} decreases rapidly with increasing T, varying approximately as T^{-0.8} for both samples. For polycrystalline YBCO at 4.2 K, B_ {rm R} and B_{ rm F} are found to relax differently with time. The negative creep sign of B_ {rm R} indicates that the number of rotational vortices decreases with time, whereas B _{rm F} shows a positive creep with a negative change in theta_ {rm F}, which indicates that more frictional vortices enter the sample with a tendency of alignment in the direction of H. For grain-oriented YBCO at 4.2 K, the vortex creep measurements of B along the c-axis at different fields showed that: whenever the hysteretic changes of H are reversed in sign, the vortex flux creep (dB/dlogt) decreases very rapidly to zero, where it lingers before changing sign. At the same turning values of H, (dB/dH) also goes to zero. These properties are attributable to the reversals of the

  5. Remote Monitoring of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED)

    PubMed Central

    Zeitler, Emily P.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing indications and access to cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) worldwide, the number of patients needing CIED follow up continues to rise. In parallel, the technology available for managing these devices has advanced considerably. In this setting, remote monitoring (RM) has emerged as a complement to routine in-office care. Rigorous studies, randomized and otherwise, have demonstrated advantages to CIED patient management systems which incorporates RM resulting in authoritative guidelines from relevant professional societies recommending RM for all eligible patients. In addition to clinical benefits, CIED management programs that include RM have been shown to be cost effective and associated with high patient satisfaction. Finally, RM programs hold promise for the future of CIED research in light of the massive data collected through RM databases converging with unprecedented computational capability. This review outlines the available data associated with clinical outcomes in patients managed with RM with an emphasis on randomized trials; the impact of RM on patient satisfaction, cost-effectiveness and healthcare utilization; and possible future directions for the use of RM in clinical practice and research. PMID:27134007

  6. Studies of High Critical Transition Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xue Zhi

    1990-01-01

    In early 1987 the high-T_{ rm c} superconductor, YBa_2 Cu_3O_{7 -delta}, with T_{ rm c} ~eq 90K was successfully made in our laboratory by a standard ceramic technique. Later Tl_2Ca _2Ba_2Cu_3 O_{10} with T _{rm c} ~eq 120K was produced by a special procedure. Structural analysis by x-ray diffraction showed that YBa_2 Cu_3O_{7 -delta} was responsible for the high -T_{rm c}, the so called 123 phase. It is an oxygen deficient perovskite with the orthorhombic structure, space group Pmmm, lattice constant a = 3.8243, b = 3.8862 and c = 11.667 A. Oxygen vacancies are very important to the superconducting properties. An impurity, Y_2BaCuO_5 , with a green colour, was identified as a semiconducting phase. A technique to grow single crystals of YBa _2Cu_3O_ {7-delta} is described. The crystals are rectangular up to 2 x 2 x 0.2 mm^3 in size. Two phases, Tl_2CaBa _2Cu_2O_8 (the 2122 phase) and Tl_2Ca _2Ba_2Cu _3O_{10} (the 2223 phase), are responsible for the high-T _{rm c} in the Tl-system; they have a tetragonal or pseudotetragonal structure with space group I4/mmm. Resistivity and magnetic ac susceptibility results show that high-T_{rm c} materials have a sharp superconducting transition and many properties in common with conventional superconductors. The shielding effect is closely related to the properties of grain boundaries. Magnetic ordering at low temperature (below 10K) of high-T_{rm c} materials was discovered by Mossbauer experiments with ^{57}Fe doped samples. Substitution of Fe for Cu reduced the superconducting transition temperature and the shielding effect. Theories of superconductivity for conventional and the new superconductors are reviewed and related to the experimental results.

  7. New restriction enzymes discovered from Escherichia coli clinical strains using a plasmid transformation method

    PubMed Central

    Kasarjian, Julie K. A.; Iida, Masatake; Ryu, Junichi

    2003-01-01

    The presence of restriction enzymes in bacterial cells has been predicted by either classical phage restriction-modification (R-M) tests, direct in vitro enzyme assays or more recently from bacterial genome sequence analysis. We have applied phage R-M test principles to the transformation of plasmid DNA and established a plasmid R-M test. To validate this test, six plasmids that contain BamHI fragments of phage lambda DNA were constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli strains containing known R-M systems including: type I (EcoBI, EcoAI, Eco124I), type II (HindIII) and type III (EcoP1I). Plasmid DNA with a single recognition site showed a reduction of relative efficiency of transformation (EOT = 10–1–10–2). When multiple recognition sites were present, greater reductions in EOT values were observed. Once established in the cell, the plasmids were subjected to modification (EOT = 1.0). We applied this test to screen E.coli clinical strains and detected the presence of restriction enzymes in 93% (14/15) of cells. Using additional subclones and the computer program, RM Search, we identified four new restriction enzymes, Eco377I, Eco585I, Eco646I and Eco777I, along with their recognition sequences, GGA(8N)ATGC, GCC(6N)TGCG, CCA(7N)CTTC, and GGA(6N)TATC, respectively. Eco1158I, an isoschizomer of EcoBI, was also found in this study. PMID:12595571

  8. Postactivation potentiation: effect of various recovery intervals on bench press power performance.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sandra Lívia de Assis; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Miarka, Bianca; Franchini, Emerson

    2012-03-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a strategy used to improve performance in power activities. The aim of this study was to determine if power during bench press exercise was increased when preceded by 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the same exercise and to determine which time interval could optimize PAP response. For this, 11 healthy male subjects (age, 25 ± 4 years; height, 178 ± 6 cm; body mass, 74 ± 8 kg; bench press 1RM, 76 ± 19 kg) underwent 6 sessions. Two control sessions were conducted to determine both bench press 1RM and power (6 repetitions at 50% 1RM). The 4 experimental sessions were composed of a 1RM exercise followed by power sets with different recovery intervals (1, 3, 5, and 7 minutes), performed on different days, and determined randomly. Power values were measured via Peak Power equipment (Cefise, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil). The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey test. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. There was a significant increase in PAP in concentric contractions after 7 minutes of recovery compared with the control and 1-minute recovery conditions (p < 0.05). Our results indicated that 7 minutes of recovery has generated an increase in PAP in bench press and that such a strategy could be applied as an interesting alternative to enhance the performance in tasks aimed at increasing upper-body power performance.

  9. Discrete Event Simulation-Based Resource Modelling in Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Syed; Thokala, Praveen; Brennan, Alan; Hughes, Ruby; Dixon, Simon

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this article was to conduct a systematic review of published research on the use of discrete event simulation (DES) for resource modelling (RM) in health technology assessment (HTA). RM is broadly defined as incorporating and measuring effects of constraints on physical resources (e.g. beds, doctors, nurses) in HTA models. Systematic literature searches were conducted in academic databases (JSTOR, SAGE, SPRINGER, SCOPUS, IEEE, Science Direct, PubMed, EMBASE) and grey literature (Google Scholar, NHS journal library), enhanced by manual searchers (i.e. reference list checking, citation searching and hand-searching techniques). The search strategy yielded 4117 potentially relevant citations. Following the screening and manual searches, ten articles were included. Reviewing these articles provided insights into the applications of RM: firstly, different types of economic analyses, model settings, RM and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) outcomes were identified. Secondly, variation in the characteristics of the constraints such as types and nature of constraints and sources of data for the constraints were identified. Thirdly, it was found that including the effects of constraints caused the CEA results to change in these articles. The review found that DES proved to be an effective technique for RM but there were only a small number of studies applied in HTA. However, these studies showed the important consequences of modelling physical constraints and point to the need for a framework to be developed to guide future applications of this approach.

  10. 77 FR 2242 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First Mesa, Kachina Village, Wickenburg, and Williams, AZ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 08-85; RM-11427, RM-11517, RM-11518, RM-11519; DA 11- 2059] Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First Mesa, Kachina Village, Wickenburg, and Williams, AZ, and Needles, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed...

  11. Scaling Laws of Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov Instabilities in Two and Three Dimensions (IFSA 1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvarts, D.; Oron, D.; Kartoon, D.; Rikanati, A.; Sadot, O.; Srebro, Y.; Yedvab, Y.; Ofer, D.; Levin, A.; Sarid, E.; Ben-Dor, G.; Erez, L.; Erez, G.; Yosef-Hai, A.; Alon, U.; Arazi, L.

    2016-10-01

    The late-time nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities for random initial perturbations is investigated using a statistical mechanics model based on single-mode and bubble-competition physics at all Atwood numbers (A) and full numerical simulations in two and three dimensions. It is shown that the RT mixing zone bubble and spike fronts evolve as h ~ α · A · gt2 with different values of a for the bubble and spike fronts. The RM mixing zone fronts evolve as h ~ tθ with different values of θ for bubbles and spikes. Similar analysis yields a linear growth with time of the Kelvin-Helmholtz mixing zone. The dependence of the RT and RM scaling parameters on A and the dimensionality will be discussed. The 3D predictions are found to be in good agreement with recent Linear Electric Motor (LEM) experiments.

  12. A New Soluble Gelatin Sponge for Transcatheter Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Takasaka, Isao; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio, E-mail: morisato@mail.wakayama-med.ac.jp

    2010-12-15

    To prepare a soluble gelatin sponge (GS) and to explore the GS particles (GSPs) that inhibit development of collateral pathways when transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization is performed. The approval of the Institutional Committee on Research Animal Care of our institution was obtained. By means of 50 and 100 kDa of regenerative medicine-gelatin (RM-G), RM-G sponges were prepared by freeze-drying and heating to temperatures of 110-150{sup o}C for cross-linkage. The soluble times of RM-GSPs were measured in vitro. Eight swine for transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization were assigned into two groups: six received 135{sup o}C/50RM-GSPs, 125{sup o}C/100RM-GSPs, and 138{sup o}C/50RM-GSPs, with solublemore » time of 48 h or more in vitro; two swine received Gelpart GSPs (G-GSPs) with insoluble time of 14 days as a control. Transarterial chemoembolization was performed on two branches of the hepatic artery per swine. RM-GSPs heated at temperatures of 110-138{sup o}C were soluble. Mean soluble times of the RM-GSPs increased with higher temperature. Hepatic branches embolized with G-GSP remained occluded after 6 days, and development of collateral pathways was observed after 3 days. Hepatic branches embolized with 135{sup o}C/50RM-GSP and 125{sup o}C/100RM-GSP remained occluded for 4 h, and recanalization was observed after 1 day. Hepatic branches embolized with 138{sup o}C/50RM-GS remained occluded for 1 day, and recanalization was observed after 2 days with no development of collateral pathways. In RM-GSs with various soluble times that were prepared by modulating the heating temperature, 138{sup o}C/50RM-GSP was the soluble GSP with the longest occlusion time without inducing development of collateral pathways.« less

  13. Selective effects of different fatigue protocols on the function of upper body muscles assessed through the force-velocity relationship.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Torrejón, Alejandro; Feriche, Belén; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Padial, Paulino; Jaric, Slobodan

    2018-02-01

    This study explored the feasibility of the force-velocity relationship (F-V) to detect the acute effects of different fatigue protocols on the selective changes of the maximal capacities of upper body muscles to produce force, velocity, and power. After determining the bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM), participants' F-V relationships were assessed during the bench press throw exercise on five separate sessions after performing one of the following fatiguing protocols: 60%1RM failure, 60%1RM non-failure, 80%1RM failure, 80%1RM non-failure, and no-fatigue. In the non-failure protocols, participants performed half the maximum number of repetitions than in their respective failure protocols. The main findings revealed that (1) all F-V relationships were highly linear (median r = 0.997 and r = 0.982 for averaged across participants and individual data, respectively), (2) the fatiguing protocols were ranked based on the magnitude of power loss as follows: 60%1RM failure > 80%1RM failure > 60%1RM non-failure > 80%1RM non-failure, while (3) the assessed maximum force and velocity outputs showed a particularly prominent reduction in the protocols based on the lowest and highest levels of fatigue (i.e., 80%1RM non-failure and 60%1RM failure), respectively. The results support the use of F-V to assess the effects of fatigue on the distinctive capacities of the muscles to produce force, velocity, and power output while performing multi-joint tasks, while the assessed maximum force and velocity capacities showed a particularly prominent reduction in the protocols based on the lowest and highest levels of fatigue (i.e., 80%1RM non-failure and 60%1RM failure), respectively.

  14. Reliability Analysis of Traditional and Ballistic Bench Press Exercises at Different Loads.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; García-Ramos, Miguel; Conde-Pipó, Javier; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; Štirn, Igor; Feriche, Belén

    2015-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine test-retest reliability for peak barbell velocity (Vpeak) during the bench press (BP) and bench press throw (BPT) exercises for loads corresponding to 20-70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). Thirty physically active collegiate men conducted four evaluations after a preliminary BP 1RM determination (1RM·bw-1 = 1.02 ± 0.16 kg·kg-1). In counterbalanced order, participants performed two sessions of the BP in one week and two sessions of the BPT in another week. Recovery time between sessions within the same week was 48 hours and recovery time between sessions of different weeks was 120 hours. On each day of evaluation the individual load-velocity relationship at each tenth percentile (20-70% of 1RM) in a Smith machine for the BP or BPT was determined. Participants performed three attempts per load, but only the best repetition (highest Vpeak), registered by a linear position transducer, was analysed. The BPT resulted in a significantly lower coefficient of variation (CV) for the whole load-velocity relationship, compared to the BP (2.48% vs. 3.22%; p = 0.040). Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from r = 0.94-0.85 for the BPT and r = 0.91-0.71 for the BP (p < 0.001). The reduction in the biological within-subject variation in BPT exercise could be promoted by the braking phase that obligatorily occurs during a BP executed with light or moderate loads. Therefore, we recommend the BPT exercise for a most accurate assessment of upper-body velocity.

  15. Reliability Analysis of Traditional and Ballistic Bench Press Exercises at Different Loads

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; García-Ramos, Miguel; Conde-Pipó, Javier; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; Štirn, Igor; Feriche, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine test–retest reliability for peak barbell velocity (Vpeak) during the bench press (BP) and bench press throw (BPT) exercises for loads corresponding to 20–70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). Thirty physically active collegiate men conducted four evaluations after a preliminary BP 1RM determination (1RM·bw-1 = 1.02 ± 0.16 kg·kg-1). In counterbalanced order, participants performed two sessions of the BP in one week and two sessions of the BPT in another week. Recovery time between sessions within the same week was 48 hours and recovery time between sessions of different weeks was 120 hours. On each day of evaluation the individual load-velocity relationship at each tenth percentile (20–70% of 1RM) in a Smith machine for the BP or BPT was determined. Participants performed three attempts per load, but only the best repetition (highest Vpeak), registered by a linear position transducer, was analysed. The BPT resulted in a significantly lower coefficient of variation (CV) for the whole load–velocity relationship, compared to the BP (2.48% vs. 3.22%; p = 0.040). Test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from r = 0.94–0.85 for the BPT and r = 0.91–0.71 for the BP (p < 0.001). The reduction in the biological within-subject variation in BPT exercise could be promoted by the braking phase that obligatorily occurs during a BP executed with light or moderate loads. Therefore, we recommend the BPT exercise for a most accurate assessment of upper-body velocity. PMID:26557190

  16. Non-visualized pregnancy losses are prognostically important for unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Kolte, A M; van Oppenraaij, R H; Quenby, S; Farquharson, R G; Stephenson, M; Goddijn, M; Christiansen, O B

    2014-05-01

    Are non-visualized pregnancy losses (biochemical pregnancy loss and failed pregnancy of unknown location combined) in the reproductive history of women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) negatively associated with the chance of live birth in a subsequent pregnancy? Non-visualized pregnancy losses contribute negatively to the chance for live birth: each non-visualized pregnancy loss confers a relative risk (RR) for live birth of 0.90 (95% CI 0.83; 0.97), equivalent to the RR conferred by each additional clinical miscarriage. The number of clinical miscarriages prior to referral is an important determinant for live birth in women with RM, whereas the significance of non-visualized pregnancy losses is unknown. A retrospective cohort study comprising 587 women with RM seen in a tertiary RM unit 2000-2010. Data on the outcome of the first pregnancy after referral were analysed for 499 women. The study was conducted in the RM Unit at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. We included all women with unexplained RM, defined as ≥3 consecutive clinical miscarriages or non-visualized pregnancy losses following spontaneous conception or homologous insemination. The category 'non-visualized pregnancy losses' combines biochemical pregnancy loss (positive hCG, no ultrasound performed) and failed PUL (pregnancy of unknown location, positive hCG, but on ultrasound, no pregnancy location established). Demographics were collected, including BMI, age at first pregnancy after referral and outcome of pregnancies prior to referral. Using our own records and records from other Danish hospitals, we verified the outcome of the first pregnancy after referral. For each non-visualized pregnancy loss and miscarriage in the women's reproductive history, the RR for live birth in the first pregnancy after referral was determined by robust Poisson regression analysis, adjusting for risk factors for negative pregnancy outcome. Non-visualized pregnancy losses constituted 37% of reported

  17. Strength tests for elite rowers: low- or high-repetition?

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the utility of low- and high-repetition maximum (RM) strength tests used to assess rowers. Twenty elite heavyweight males (age 23.7 ± 4.0 years) performed four tests (5 RM, 30 RM, 60 RM and 120 RM) using leg press and seated arm pulling exercise on a dynamometer. Each test was repeated on two further occasions; 3 and 7 days from the initial trial. Per cent typical error (within-participant variation) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated using log-transformed repeated-measures data. High-repetition tests (30 RM, 60 RM and 120 RM), involving seated arm pulling exercise are not recommended to be included in an assessment battery, as they had unsatisfactory measurement precision (per cent typical error > 5% or ICC < 0.9). Conversely, low-repetition tests (5 RM) involving leg press and seated arm pulling exercises could be used to assess elite rowers (per cent typical error ≤ 5% and ICC ≥ 0.9); however, only 5 RM leg pressing met criteria (per cent typical error = 2.7%, ICC = 0.98) for research involving small samples (n = 20). In summary, low-repetition 5 RM strength testing offers greater utility as assessments of rowers, as they can be used to measure upper- and lower-body strength; however, only the leg press exercise is recommended for research involving small squads of elite rowers.

  18. Inhibition of seedling survival under Rhododendron maximum (Ericaceae): could allelopathy be a cause?

    PubMed

    Nilsen, E T; Walker, J F; Miller, O K; Semones, S W; Lei, T T; Clinton, B D

    1999-11-01

    In the southern Appalachian mountains a subcanopy species, Rhododendron maximum, inhibits the establishment and survival of canopy tree seedlings. One of the mechanisms by which seedlings could be inhibited is an allelopathic effect of decomposing litter or leachate from the canopy of R. maximum (R.m.) on seed germination, root elongation, or mycorrhizal colonization. The potential for allelopathy by R.m. was tested with two bioassay species (lettuce and cress), with seeds from four native tree species, and with three ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inhibitory influences of throughfall, fresh litter, and decomposed litter (organic layer) from forest with R.m. (+R.m. sites) were compared to similar extractions made from forest without R.m. (-R.m. sites). Throughfall and leachates of the organic layer from both +R.m. and -R.m. sites stimulated germination of the bioassay species above that of the distilled water control, to a similar extent. There was an inhibitory effect of leachates of litter from +R.m. sites on seed germination and root elongation rate of both bioassay species compared with that of litter from -R.m. sites. Native tree seed stratified in forest floor material from both forest types had a slightly higher seed germination rate compared with the control. A 2-yr study of seed germination and seedling mortality of two tree species, Quercus rubra and Prunus serotina, in field plots showed no significant influence of litter or organic layer from either forest type. Incorporating R.m. leaf material into the growth medium in vitro depressed growth of one ectomycorrhizal species but did not affect two other species. Leaf material from other deciduous tree species depressed ectomycorrhizal growth to a similar or greater extent as leaf material from R.m. In conclusion, R.m. litter can have an allelopathic effect on seed germination and root elongation of bioassay species as well as some ectomycorrhizal species. However, this allelopathic affect is not manifest in field

  19. Metabolism of waste engine oil by Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Salam, Lateef B

    2016-06-01

    Two bacterial strains phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains RM1 and SK1 displayed extensive degradation ability on waste engine oil (SAE 40W) in batch cultures. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed the presence of various heavy metals such as lead, chromium and nickel in the waste engine oil. The rate of degradation of waste engine oil by the isolates, for the first 12 days and the last 9 days were 66.3, 31.6 mg l -1  day -1   and 69.6, 40.0 mg l -1  day -1 for strains RM1 and SK1, respectively. Gas chromatographic (GC) analyses of residual waste engine oil, revealed that 66.58, 89.06 % and 63.40, 90.75 % of the initial concentration of the waste engine oil were degraded by strains RM1 and SK1 within 12 and 21 days. GC fingerprints of the waste engine oil after 12 days of incubation of strains RM1 and SK1 showed total disappearance of C 15 , C 23 , C 24 , C 25 and C 26 hydrocarbon fractions as well as drastic reductions of C 13 , C 14 , C 16 and PAHs fractions such as C 19 -anthracene and C 22 -pyrene. At the end of 21 days incubation, total disappearance of C 17 -pristane, C 22 -pyrene, one of the C 19 -anthracene and significant reduction of C 18 -phytane (97.2 %, strain RM1; 95.1 %, strain SK1) fractions were observed. In addition, <10 % of Day 0 values of medium fraction ranges C 13 , and C 16 were discernible after 21 days. This study has established the potentials of P. aeruginosa strains RM1 and SK1 in the degradation of aliphatic, aromatic and branched alkane components of waste engine oils.

  20. Weak-lensing mass calibration of redMaPPer galaxy clusters in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Melchior, P.; Gruen, D.; McClintock, T.

    We use weak-lensing shear measurements to determine the mean mass of optically selected galaxy clusters in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data. In a blinded analysis, we split the sample of more than 8,000 redMaPPer clusters into 15 subsets, spanning ranges in the richness parametermore » $$5 \\leq \\lambda \\leq 180$$ and redshift $$0.2 \\leq z \\leq 0.8$$, and fit the averaged mass density contrast profiles with a model that accounts for seven distinct sources of systematic uncertainty: shear measurement and photometric redshift errors; cluster-member contamination; miscentering; deviations from the NFW halo profile; halo triaxiality; and line-of-sight projections. We combine the inferred cluster masses to estimate the joint scaling relation between mass, richness and redshift, $$\\mathcal{M}(\\lambda,z) \\varpropto M_0 \\lambda^{F} (1+z)^{G}$$. We find $$M_0 \\equiv \\langle M_{200\\mathrm{m}}\\,|\\,\\lambda=30,z=0.5\\rangle=\\left[ 2.35 \\pm 0.22\\ \\rm{(stat)} \\pm 0.12\\ \\rm{(sys)} \\right] \\cdot 10^{14}\\ M_\\odot$$, with $$F = 1.12\\,\\pm\\,0.20\\ \\rm{(stat)}\\, \\pm\\, 0.06\\ \\rm{(sys)}$$ and $$G = 0.18\\,\\pm\\, 0.75\\ \\rm{(stat)}\\, \\pm\\, 0.24\\ \\rm{(sys)}$$. The amplitude of the mass-richness relation is in excellent agreement with the weak-lensing calibration of redMaPPer clusters in SDSS by Simet et al. (2016) and with the Saro et al. (2015) calibration based on abundance matching of SPT-detected clusters. Our results extend the redshift range over which the mass-richness relation of redMaPPer clusters has been calibrated with weak lensing from $$z\\leq 0.3$$ to $$z\\leq0.8$$. Calibration uncertainties of shear measurements and photometric redshift estimates dominate our systematic error budget and require substantial improvements for forthcoming studies.« less

  1. Improving Conference Skills Through the CCS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilen, William W.; Kindsvatter, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Presents a Conference Category System (CCS) which will help social studies supervisors develop the skills necessary to conduct a conference effectively. The CCS can be applied using either a shared-analysis or self-analysis approach in conjunction with a video or audio-tape recorder. (RM)

  2. Turbulent Flow Enhancement by Polyelectrolyte Additives: Mechanistic Implications for Drag Reduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagger, David Leonard

    1992-01-01

    The drag reduction phenomenon was experimentally studied in two pipes, of diameters 1.46 and 1.02 cm, using seven polyelectrolytic HPAM additives, with molecular weights from 1 to 20 times 10^6 g/mole and degree of backbone hydrolysis from 8 to 60%, at concentrations from 1 to 1000 wppm, in saline solutions containing from 0.3 to 0.00001 N NaCl. Both laminar and turbulent flow behavior were greatly influenced by salinity-induced changes in the initial conformation of the HPAM additives. Initially collapsed, random-coiling conformations exhibited Newtonian laminar flow and Type-A turbulent drag reduction, while initially extended conformations exhibited shear-thinning in laminar flow and Type-B turbulent drag reduction. The gross-flow physics of Type-B drag reduction were delineated. A characteristic "ladder" structure prevailed, with polymeric regime segments that were roughly parallel to, but shifted upward from, the Prandtl-Karman line. In the polymeric regime, both Type-A fan and Type -B ladder structures were essentially independent of pipe diameter, and were scaled by the wall shear stress. The wall shear stress also scaled degradation during drag reduction. New onset and slope increment correlations were presented for Type-A drag reduction by HPAM additives. In Type-B drag reduction, flow enhancement was found proportional to additive concentration, and the intrinsic slip, Sigma = S^'/(c/M _{rm w}), varied roughly as the third power of backbone chain links N_ {rm bb}. New intrinsic slip and retro-onset correlations were presented for Type-B drag reduction by HPAM additives. Analysis of Type-B literature revealed a wide range of additive efficacies, with specific slips S^'/c from 0.0001 to 4. For the most effective additives, HPAM and asbestos fibers, the additive-pervaded volume fraction per unit flow enhancement, X_{rm v} /S^' ~ 3000, implied that these additives align during drag reduction. The slip ratio R_{rm sc}, which is the relative flow enhancement

  3. The influence of isometric preload on power expressed during bench press in strength-trained men.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Merni, Franco

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the power expressed during the bench press exercise in resistance-trained men following different pre-activation conditions. Twenty-two trained men (age 24.1 ± 1.7 years, height 178.6 ± 6.1 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 10.6 kg) completed a maximal effort bench press (1-RM) test (100.0 kg ± 8.1 kg). In a subsequent assessment, each participant performed concentric bench press movements with loads of 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of their 1-RM preceded by either a concentric contraction (CC), a low isometric preload (LIP; 70% 1-RM) or a high isometric preload (HIP; 100% 1-RM) conditions. All movements were performed in a Smith machine with a settable quick-release device. Participants performed all three conditions in randomized fashion. Results indicated that power outputs during the bench press exercise following HIP were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CC at 20% 1-RM (+9%), 30% 1-RM (+16%) and 40% 1-RM (+14%), and LIP at 20% 1-RM (+4%), 30% 1-RM (+20%) and 40% 1-RM (+15%). No differences were found between conditions at 50% 1-RM. Area under the force-power curve with HIP was greater (p < 0.05) than with CC and LIP. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that the use of a HIP (100% 1-RM) in trained participants results in significantly greater power output during the concentric phase of a multi-joint exercise when compared to standard concentric movement.

  4. A Profile and Analysis of Major Departments of Slavic Languages and Literatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Gera A.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is reported investigating the outlook of teachers and administrators on the growth potential of the field of Slavic languages and literature and providing a body of data on major programs in the United States. A questionnaire was mailed to the heads of 26 departments in spring 1975. (RM)

  5. Picosecond Optical Studies of Solids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomfield, Seth Emlyn

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Hot carrier relaxation is studied in the alloy semiconductor Ga_{rm 1-x} Al_{rm x}As by analysis of time-resolved luminescence at 4K. Photoexcited carrier densities in the range 10^{16 } to 10^{18}cm ^{-3} were created by 5ps laser pulses in alloys with x values ranging from 0 to 0.36. Carrier temperature cooling curves are discussed in terms of emission and absorption of non-equilibrium phonons by carriers, intervalley scattering of electrons and alloy disorder effects. Energy relaxation within a band of localised exciton states is studied in Ga_{rm 1 -x}Al_{rm x} As by analysis of time-resolved photoluminescence at 4K with a photoexcited carrier density of 10 ^{14}cm^{-3 }. It is found that the width of the band of localised states increases with the degree of alloy disorder as x ranges from 0 to 0.36. A form for the density of localised states is obtained. The intersite exciton overlap is estimated. Photoluminescence of the semiconductor gallium selenide is measured for carrier densities below 3 times 10^{18}cm ^{-3} at 2K. Biexcitons are identified by analysis of the photoluminescence at high densities. This is confirmed by induced optical absorption experiments. It is shown that biexciton dissociation by interaction with low-energy optical phonons occurs as the lattice temperature is increased. The group velocity of excitonic polaritons is obtained from measurements of the time-of-flight of 5ps optical pulses across a 1mum thick layer of gallium arsenide at 4K. The group velocity has a minimum value of 4 times 10 ^5ms^{-1} at the transverse exciton energy, and has a dependence on photon energy which agrees well with a model describing spatial dispersion of polaritons.

  6. Persistent oscillations and backward bifurcation in a malaria model with varying human and mosquito populations: implications for control.

    PubMed

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Teboh-Ewungkem, Miranda I; Ngwa, Gideon A

    2015-06-01

    We derive and study a deterministic compartmental model for malaria transmission with varying human and mosquito populations. Our model considers disease-related deaths, asymptomatic immune humans who are also infectious, as well as mosquito demography, reproduction and feeding habits. Analysis of the model reveals the existence of a backward bifurcation and persistent limit cycles whose period and size is determined by two threshold parameters: the vectorial basic reproduction number Rm, and the disease basic reproduction number R0, whose size can be reduced by reducing Rm. We conclude that malaria dynamics are indeed oscillatory when the methodology of explicitly incorporating the mosquito's demography, feeding and reproductive patterns is considered in modeling the mosquito population dynamics. A sensitivity analysis reveals important control parameters that can affect the magnitudes of Rm and R0, threshold quantities to be taken into consideration when designing control strategies. Both Rm and the intrinsic period of oscillation are shown to be highly sensitive to the mosquito's birth constant λm and the mosquito's feeding success probability pw. Control of λm can be achieved by spraying, eliminating breeding sites or moving them away from human habitats, while pw can be controlled via the use of mosquito repellant and insecticide-treated bed-nets. The disease threshold parameter R0 is shown to be highly sensitive to pw, and the intrinsic period of oscillation is also sensitive to the rate at which reproducing mosquitoes return to breeding sites. A global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveals that the ability of the mosquito to reproduce and uncertainties in the estimations of the rates at which exposed humans become infectious and infectious humans recover from malaria are critical in generating uncertainties in the disease classes.

  7. Ectopic pregnancy in women with recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Ticconi, Carlo; Capogna, Maria V; Martelli, Federica; Borelli, Barbara; Bruno, Valentina; Ergasti, Raffaella; Sorge, Roberto; Piccione, Emilio; Pietropolli, Adalgisa

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between recurrent miscarriage (RM) and ectopic pregnancy (EP). In this case-control retrospective study, the clinical cards of women followed as outpatients in the RM and low-risk pregnancy offices of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit at the Policlinico Tor Vergata University Hospital were carefully reviewed for the occurrence of EP. Overall, 598 women with RM and 2043 normal women without RM (controls) were included in the study. Among these women, 4974 pregnancies were analyzed, in which 2028 miscarriages occurred. The EP rate (3.51%) was significantly higher in RM than in control women (1.51%) [odds ratio = 2.31 (95% confidence interval: 2.3-2.4)]; it was particularly high in women with primary RM (5.11%). However, when EP rates were calculated not by women but by overall pregnancies, no differences could be found between RM and control women. In control women, the absence of a miscarriage in the reproductive history was associated with a lower rate of EP. Women with RM, particularly primary RM, are at increased risk of EP. This increased risk seems to be dependent on the high number of pregnancies occurring in women with RM rather than to specific characteristics of these women. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Trigger-happy resident memory CD4+ T cells inhabit the human lungs.

    PubMed

    Oja, A E; Piet, B; Helbig, C; Stark, R; van der Zwan, D; Blaauwgeers, H; Remmerswaal, E B M; Amsen, D; Jonkers, R E; Moerland, P D; Nolte, M A; van Lier, R A W; Hombrink, P

    2018-05-01

    Resident memory T cells (T RM ) reside in the lung epithelium and mediate protective immunity against respiratory pathogens. Although lung CD8 + T RM have been extensively characterized, the properties of CD4 + T RM remain unclear. Here we determined the transcriptional signature of CD4 + T RM , identified by the expression of CD103, retrieved from human lung resection material. Various tissue homing molecules were specifically upregulated on CD4 + T RM , whereas expression of tissue egress and lymph node homing molecules were low. CD103 + T RM expressed low levels of T-bet, only a small portion expressed Eomesodermin (Eomes), and although the mRNA levels for Hobit were increased, protein expression was absent. On the other hand, the CD103 + T RM showed a Notch signature. CD4 + CD103 + T RM constitutively expressed high transcript levels of numerous cytotoxic mediators that was functionally reflected by a fast recall response, magnitude of cytokine production, and a high degree of polyfunctionality. Interestingly, the superior cytokine production appears to be because of an accessible interferon-γ (IFNγ) locus and was partially because of rapid translation of preformed mRNA. Our studies provide a molecular understanding of the maintenance and potential function of CD4 + T RM in the human lung. Understanding the specific properties of CD4 + T RM is required to rationally improve vaccine design.

  9. Ethical implications of regenerative medicine in orthopedics: an empirical study with surgeons and scientists in the field.

    PubMed

    Niemansburg, Sophie L; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A; Bredenoord, Annelien L

    2014-06-01

    Regenerative medicine (RM) interventions, such as (stem) cell transplantation, scaffolds, gene transfer, and tissue engineering, are likely to change the field of orthopedics considerably. These strategies will significantly differ from treatments in current orthopedic practice, as they treat the underlying cause of disease and intervene at a biological level, preferably in an earlier stage. Whereas most of the RM interventions for orthopedics are still in the preclinical phase of research, the number of clinical studies is expected to increase rapidly in the future. The debate about the challenging scientific and ethical issues of translating these innovative interventions into (early) clinical studies is developing. However, no empirical studies that have systematically described the attitudes, opinions, and experiences of experts in the field of orthopedic RM concerning these challenges exist. The aim of this study was to identify ethical issues that experts in the area of RM for musculoskeletal disorders consider to be relevant to address so as to properly translate RM interventions into (early) clinical studies. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 36 experts in the field, mainly spine surgeons and musculoskeletal scientists from The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A topic list of open questions, based on existing literature and pilot interviews, was used to guide the interviews. Data analysis was based on the constant comparative method, which means going back and forth from the data to develop codes, concepts, and themes. Four ethical themes emerged from the interview data. First, the risks to study participants. Second, the appropriate selection of study participants. Third, setting relevant goal(s) for measuring outcome, varying from regenerating tissue to improving well-being of patients. Finally, the need for evidence-based medicine and scientific integrity, which is considered challenging in orthopedics. The overall attitude toward

  10. Behavior of restriction–modification systems as selfish mobile elements and their impact on genome evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2001-01-01

    Restriction–modification (RM) systems are composed of genes that encode a restriction enzyme and a modification methylase. RM systems sometimes behave as discrete units of life, like viruses and transposons. RM complexes attack invading DNA that has not been properly modified and thus may serve as a tool of defense for bacterial cells. However, any threat to their maintenance, such as a challenge by a competing genetic element (an incompatible plasmid or an allelic homologous stretch of DNA, for example) can lead to cell death through restriction breakage in the genome. This post-segregational or post-disturbance cell killing may provide the RM complexes (and any DNA linked with them) with a competitive advantage. There is evidence that they have undergone extensive horizontal transfer between genomes, as inferred from their sequence homology, codon usage bias and GC content difference. They are often linked with mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, viruses, transposons and integrons. The comparison of closely related bacterial genomes also suggests that, at times, RM genes themselves behave as mobile elements and cause genome rearrangements. Indeed some bacterial genomes that survived post-disturbance attack by an RM gene complex in the laboratory have experienced genome rearrangements. The avoidance of some restriction sites by bacterial genomes may result from selection by past restriction attacks. Both bacteriophages and bacteria also appear to use homologous recombination to cope with the selfish behavior of RM systems. RM systems compete with each other in several ways. One is competition for recognition sequences in post-segregational killing. Another is super-infection exclusion, that is, the killing of the cell carrying an RM system when it is infected with another RM system of the same regulatory specificity but of a different sequence specificity. The capacity of RM systems to act as selfish, mobile genetic elements may underlie the structure and

  11. Behavior of restriction-modification systems as selfish mobile elements and their impact on genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, I

    2001-09-15

    Restriction-modification (RM) systems are composed of genes that encode a restriction enzyme and a modification methylase. RM systems sometimes behave as discrete units of life, like viruses and transposons. RM complexes attack invading DNA that has not been properly modified and thus may serve as a tool of defense for bacterial cells. However, any threat to their maintenance, such as a challenge by a competing genetic element (an incompatible plasmid or an allelic homologous stretch of DNA, for example) can lead to cell death through restriction breakage in the genome. This post-segregational or post-disturbance cell killing may provide the RM complexes (and any DNA linked with them) with a competitive advantage. There is evidence that they have undergone extensive horizontal transfer between genomes, as inferred from their sequence homology, codon usage bias and GC content difference. They are often linked with mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, viruses, transposons and integrons. The comparison of closely related bacterial genomes also suggests that, at times, RM genes themselves behave as mobile elements and cause genome rearrangements. Indeed some bacterial genomes that survived post-disturbance attack by an RM gene complex in the laboratory have experienced genome rearrangements. The avoidance of some restriction sites by bacterial genomes may result from selection by past restriction attacks. Both bacteriophages and bacteria also appear to use homologous recombination to cope with the selfish behavior of RM systems. RM systems compete with each other in several ways. One is competition for recognition sequences in post-segregational killing. Another is super-infection exclusion, that is, the killing of the cell carrying an RM system when it is infected with another RM system of the same regulatory specificity but of a different sequence specificity. The capacity of RM systems to act as selfish, mobile genetic elements may underlie the structure and

  12. Structural and biochemical insights into the substrate-binding mechanism of a novel glycoside hydrolase family 134 β-mannanase.

    PubMed

    You, Xin; Qin, Zhen; Li, Yan-Xiao; Yan, Qiao-Juan; Li, Bin; Jiang, Zheng-Qiang

    2018-06-01

    Mannan is one of the major constituent groups of hemicellulose, which is a renewable resource from higher plants. β-Mannanases are enzymes capable of degrading lignocellulosic biomass. Here, an endo-β-mannanase from Rhizopus microsporus (RmMan134A) was cloned and expressed. The recombinant RmMan134A showed maximal activity at pH 5.0 and 50 °C, and exhibited high specific activity towards locust bean gum (2337 U/mg). To gain insight into the substrate-binding mechanism of RmMan134A, four complex structures (RmMan134A-M3, RmMan134A-M4, RmMan134A-M5 and RmMan134A-M6) were further solved. These structures showed that there were at least seven subsites (-3 to +4) in the catalytic groove of RmMan134A. Mannose in the -1 subsite hydrogen bonded with His113 and Tyr131, revealing a unique conformation. Lys48 and Val159 formed steric hindrance, which impedes to bond with galactose branches. In addition, the various binding modes of RmMan134A-M5 indicated that subsites -2 to +2 are indispensable during the hydrolytic process. The structure of RmMan134A-M4 showed that mannotetrose only binds at subsites +1 to +4, and RmMan134A could therefore not hydrolyze mannan oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization ≤4. Through rational design, the specific activity and optimal conditions of RmMan134A were significantly improved. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structure and function of fungal GH family 134 β-1,4-mannanases, and substrate-binding mechanism of GH family 134 members. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strength, power, and muscular endurance exercise and elite rowing ergometer performance.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the relationship between weight room exercises and various rowing performance measures is limited; this information would prove useful for sport-specific assessment of individual needs and exercise prescription. The purpose of this study was to establish strength, power, and muscular endurance exercises for weight room training, which are strong determinants of success in specific performance measures used to assess elite rowers. Nineteen heavyweight elite males determined their repetition maximum (RM) loads for exercises using a Concept 2 DYNO [5, 30, 60 and 120RM leg pressing and seated arm pulling (in Joules)] and free weights [1RM power clean (in kilograms) and 6RM bench pull (in kilograms and watts)]. Rowing performance measures included a 7-stage blood lactate response ergometer test (aerobic condition), time trials (500, 2000, and 5000 m), a peak stroke power test, and a 60-minute distance trial. Pearson correlation moments (r ≥ 0.7) and stepwise multiple linear regression calculations (R ≥ 50%) were used to establish strong common variances between weight room exercises and rowing ergometer performance (p ≤ 0.05). Weight room exercises were strong predictors of 2000-m, 500-m time (in seconds), and peak stroke power performance measures only. Bench pull power (in watts) and 1RM power clean (in kilograms) were the best 2-factor predictors of peak stroke power (R = 73%; standard error of the estimates [SEE] = 59.6 W) and 500 m (R = 70%; SEE = 1.75 seconds); while 5RM leg pressing (in Joules) and either 6RM bench pull (kg) or 60RM seated arm pulling (in Joules) the best predictors of 2000 m (R = 59%; SEE = 6.3 seconds and R = 57%; SEE = 6.4 seconds, respectively). Recommended exercises for weight room training include a 1RM power clean, 6RM bench pull, 5RM leg press, and 60RM seated arm pulling.

  14. Stabilization of Cd-, Pb-, Cu- and Zn-contaminated calcareous agricultural soil using red mud: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangyang; Li, Fangfang; Song, Jian; Xiao, Ruiyang; Luo, Lin; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan

    2018-04-12

    Red mud (RM) was used to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils. Experiments with two different dosages of RM added to soils were carried out in this study. It was found that soil pH increased 0.3 and 0.5 unit with the dosage of 3 and 5% (wt%), respectively. At the dosage of 5%, the highest stabilization efficiencies for Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn reached 67.95, 64.21, 43.73 and 63.73%, respectively. The addition of RM obviously transferred Cd from the exchangeable fraction to the residual fraction. Meanwhile, in comparison with the control (no RM added), it reduced 24.38, 49.20, 19.42 and 8.89% of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in wheat grains at the RM addition dosage of 5%, respectively. At the same time, the yield of wheat grains increased 17.81 and 24.66% at the RM addition dosage of 3 and 5%, respectively. Finally, the addition of RM did not change the soil bacterial community. These results indicate that RM has a great potential in stabilizing heavy metals in calcareous agricultural soils.

  15. Using Bar Velocity to Predict the Maximum Dynamic Strength in the Half-Squat Exercise.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Gil, Saulo; Kitamura, Katia; Kobal, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether athletes from different sport disciplines present similar mean propulsive velocity (MPV) in the half-squat (HS) during submaximal and maximal tests, enabling prediction of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) from MPV at any given submaximal load. Sixty-four male athletes, comprising American football, rugby, and soccer players; sprinters and jumpers; and combat-sport strikers attended 2 testing sessions separated by 2-4 wk. On the first visit, a standardized 1-RM test was performed. On the second, athletes performed HSs on Smith-machine equipment, using relative percentages of 1-RM to determine the respective MPV of submaximal and maximal loads. Linear regression established the relationship between MPV and percentage of 1-RM. A very strong linear relationship (R2 ≈ .96) was observed between the MPV and the percentages of HS 1-RM, resulting in the following equation: %HS 1-RM = -105.05 × MPV + 131.75. The MPV at HS 1-RM was ~0.3 m/s. This equation can be used to predict HS 1-RM on a Smith machine with a high degree of accuracy.

  16. The Correlated Variations of {\\rm{C}}\\,{\\rm{IV}} Narrow Absorption Lines and Quasar Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Pang, Ting-Ting; He, Bing; Huang, Yong

    2018-06-01

    We assemble 207 variable quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, all with at least 3 observations, to analyze C IV narrow absorption doublets, and obtain 328 C IV narrow absorption line systems. We find that 19 out of 328 C IV narrow absorption line systems were changed by | {{Δ }}{W}rλ 1548| ≥slant 3{σ }{{Δ }{W}rλ 1548} on timescales from 15.9 to 1477 days at rest-frame. Among the 19 obviously variable C IV systems, we find that (1) 14 systems have relative velocities {\\upsilon }r> 0.01c and 4 systems have {\\upsilon }r> 0.1c, where c is the speed of light; (2) 13 systems are accompanied by other variable C IV systems; (3) 9 systems were changed continuously during multiple observations; and (4) 1 system with {\\upsilon }r = 16,862 km s‑1 was enhanced by {{Δ }}{W}rλ 1548=2.7{σ }{{Δ }{W}rλ 1548} in 0.67 day at rest-frame. The variations of absorption lines are inversely correlated with the changes in the ionizing continuum. We also find that large variations of C IV narrow absorption lines are form differently over a short timescale.

  17. Optically dark excitonic states mediated exciton and biexciton valley dynamics in monolayer WSe2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghua; Fu, Jiyong; Dias, A C; Qu, Fanyao

    2018-05-18

    We present a theory to address the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and valley polarization (VP) dynamics in monolayer WSe$_2$, under the impact of excitonic dark states of both excitons and biexcitons. We find that the PL intensity of all excitonic channels including intravalley exciton (X$_{\\rm b}$), intravalley biexciton (XX$_{\\rm k,k}$) and intervalley biexciton (XX$_{\\rm k,k^\\prime}$) in particular for the {XX$_{\\rm k,k}$} PL is enhanced by laser excitation fluence. In addition, our results indicate the anomalous temperature dependence of PL, i.e., increasing with temperature, as a result of favored phonon assisted dark-to-bright scatterings at high temperatures. Moreover, we observe that the PL is almost immune to intervalley scatterings, which trigger the exchange of excitonic states between the two valleys. As far as the valley polarization is concerned, we find that the VP of X$_{\\rm b}$ shrinks as temperature increases, exhibiting opposite temperature response to PL, while the intravalley XX$_{\\rm k,k}$ VP is found almost independent of temperature. In contrast to both X$_{\\rm b}$ and XX$_{\\rm k,k}$, the intervalley XX$_{\\rm k,k^\\prime}$ VP identically vanishes, because of equal populations of excitons in the $K$ and $K^\\prime$ valleys bounded to form intervalley biexcitons. Notably, it is found that the X$_{\\rm b}$ VP much more strongly depends on bright-dark scattering than that of {XX$_{\\rm k,k}$}, making dark state act as a robust reservoir for valley polarization against intervalley scatterings for X$_{\\rm b}$ at strong bright-dark scatterings, but not for XX$_{\\rm k,k}$. Dark excitonic states enabled enhancement of VP benefits quantum technology for information processing based on the valley degree of freedom in valleytronic devices. Furthermore, the VP has strong dependence on intervalley scattering but maintains essentially constant with excitation fluence. Finally, the time evolution of PL and VP, depending on temperature and

  18. Lectin histochemistry of the rat lymph node: visualisation of stroma, blood vessels, sinuses, and macrophages. A contribution to the concept of an immune accessory role of sinus-lining endothelia.

    PubMed

    Düllmann, Jochen; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Ziesenitz, Maike; Schumacher, Udo

    2002-01-01

    The lectin Chelidonium majus agglutinin (CMA) was previously shown to visualise endothelia of all blood vessels and those lining sinuses of red pulp, stromal reticular meshwok (RM) and dendritic cells of lymphatic follicles in white pulp of the spleen in rats. The aim of the present study was the analysis of CMA and some other lectins in labelling RM, vascular structures and macrophages in lymph nodes of rats. It appeared that CMA stained the entire RM, dendritic cells, lining cells of sinuses and all types of blood vessels. Sinus-lining cells of lymph nodes were labelled with CMA and mannose-, GalNac-, and sialic acid-specific lectins. Moreover, lymph node macrophages were labelled above all by mannose specific lectins. The broad lectin-binding pattern of sinuses--not observed in rat spleen- and CMA-reactivity of both sinus-lining and dendritic cells corroborates the hypothesis that lymph node sinus-lining endothelia are precursors or a special type of immune accessory cells.

  19. Acceptability of potential rectal microbicide delivery systems for HIV prevention: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Pines, Heather A; Gorbach, Pamina M; Weiss, Robert E; Hess, Kristen; Murphy, Ryan; Saunders, Terry; Brown, Joelle; Anton, Peter A; Cranston, Ross D

    2013-03-01

    We assessed the acceptability of three of over-the-counter products representative of potential rectal microbicide (RM) delivery systems. From 2009 to 2010, 117 HIV-uninfected males (79 %) and females (21 %) who engage in receptive anal intercourse participated in a 6-week randomized crossover acceptability trial. Participants received each of three products (enema, lubricant-filled applicator, suppository) every 2 weeks in a randomized sequence. CASI and T-ACASI scales assessed product acceptability via Likert responses. Factor analysis was used to identify underlying factors measured by each scale. Random effects models were fit to examine age and gender effects on product acceptability. Three underlying factors were identified: Satisfaction with Product Use, Sexual Pleasure, and Ease of Product Use. For acceptability, the applicator ranked highest; however, differences between product acceptability scores were greatest among females and younger participants. These findings indicate that RM delivery systems impact their acceptability and should be considered early in RM development to enhance potential use.

  20. Acceptability of Potential Rectal Microbicide Delivery Systems for HIV Prevention: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Pamina M.; Weiss, Robert E.; Hess, Kristen; Murphy, Ryan; Saunders, Terry; Brown, Joelle; Anton, Peter A.; Cranston, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the acceptability of three of over-the-counter products representative of potential rectal microbicide (RM) delivery systems. From 2009 to 2010, 117 HIV-uninfected males (79 %) and females (21 %) who engage in receptive anal intercourse participated in a 6-week randomized crossover acceptability trial. Participants received each of three products (enema, lubricant-filled applicator, suppository) every 2 weeks in a randomized sequence. CASI and T-ACASI scales assessed product acceptability via Likert responses. Factor analysis was used to identify underlying factors measured by each scale. Random effects models were fit to examine age and gender effects on product acceptability. Three underlying factors were identified: Satisfaction with Product Use, Sexual Pleasure, and Ease of Product Use. For acceptability, the applicator ranked highest; however, differences between product acceptability scores were greatest among females and younger participants. These findings indicate that RM delivery systems impact their acceptability and should be considered early in RM development to enhance potential use. PMID:23114512

  1. X-ray Diffraction and Rietveld Refinement in Deferrified Clays for Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Prandel, Luis V; Melo, Vander de F; Brinatti, André M; Saab, Sérgio da C; Salvador, Fábio A S

    2018-01-01

    Soil vestiges might provide information about a crime scene. The Rietveld method with X-ray diffraction data (RM-XRD) is a nondestructive technique that makes it possible to characterize minerals present in the soils. Soil clays from the metropolitan region of Curitiba (Brazil) were submitted to DCB treatment and analyzed using XRD with CuK α radiation in the step-scan mode (0.02° 2θ/5 s). The GSAS+EXPGUI software was used for RM refinement. The RM-XRD results, together with the principal component analysis (PCA) (52.6% total variance), showed the kaolinite predominance in most analyzed samples and the highest quartz contents in "site 1." Higher anatase, and gibbsite and muscovite contents influenced discrimination, mainly in "site 3" and "site 1," respectively. These results were enough to discriminate clays of four sites and two horizons using a reduced amount of sample showing that the technique can be applied to the investigation into soil vestiges. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Modification and simulation of Rhizomucor miehei lipase: the influence of surficial electrostatic interaction on enantioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Meng, Xiao; Xu, Lin-Jie; Guo, Li; Wu, Jian-Ping; Yang, Li-Rong

    2015-04-01

    Surface residues have a significant impact on the enantioselectivity of lipases. But the molecular basis of this has never been explained. In this work, transition state complexes of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RmL) and (R)- or (S)-n-butyl 2-phenxypropinate were studied using molecular dynamics. According to comparison between B-factor of the two simulated complexes, the β 1-β 2 loop and α 2 helix were considered the enantioselectivity-determining domains of RmL. Interaction analysis of these domains suggested an Asp(61)-Arg(86) electrostatic interaction linking the loop and helix strongly impacting enantioselectivity of RmL. Modification of Arg(86) by 1, 2-cyclohexanedione weakening this interaction decreased the E ratio from 6 to 1, modification by 1-iodo-2, 3-butanedione covalently bonding Asp(61) and Arg(86) strengthening the interaction increased the E ratio to 45. Dynamics simulation and energy calculation of the modified lipases also displayed corresponding decreases or increases of enantioselectivity.

  3. REmote SUpervision to Decrease HospitaLization RaTe. Unified and integrated platform for data collected from devices manufactured by different companies: Design and rationale of the RESULT study.

    PubMed

    Tajstra, Mateusz; Sokal, Adam; Gwóźdź, Arkadiusz; Wilczek, Marcin; Gacek, Adam; Wojciechowski, Konrad; Gadula-Gacek, Elżbieta; Adamowicz-Czoch, Elżbieta; Chłosta-Niepiekło, Katarzyna; Milewski, Krzysztof; Rozentryt, Piotr; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Gąsior, Mariusz; Poloński, Lech

    2017-07-01

    The number of patients with heart failure implantable cardiac electronic devices (CIEDs) is growing. Hospitalization rate in this group is very high and generates enormous costs. To avoid the need for hospital treatment, optimized monitoring and follow-up is crucial. Remote monitoring (RM) has been widely put into practice in the management of CIEDs but it may be difficult due to the presence of differences in systems provided by device manufacturers and loss of gathered data in case of device reimplantation. Additionally, conclusions derived from studies about usefulness of RM in clinical practice apply to devices coming only from a single company. An integrated monitoring platform allows for more comprehensive data analysis and interpretation. Therefore, the primary objective of Remote Supervision to Decrease Hospitalization Rate (RESULT) study is to evaluate the impact of RM on the clinical status of patients with ICDs or CRT-Ds using an integrated platform. Six hundred consecutive patients with ICDs or CRT-Ds implanted will be prospectively randomized to either a traditional or RM-based follow-up model. The primary clinical endpoint will be a composite of all-cause mortality or hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons within 12 months after randomization. The primary technical endpoint will be to construct and evaluate a unified and integrated platform for the data collected from RM devices manufactured by different companies. This manuscript describes the design and methodology of the prospective, randomized trial designed to determine whether remote monitoring using an integrated platform for different companies is safe, feasible, and efficacious (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02409225). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Broad-band, radio spectro-polarimetric study of 100 radiative-mode and jet-mode AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, S. P.; Purcell, C. R.; Anderson, C. S.; Farnes, J. S.; Sun, X. H.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2017-08-01

    We present the results from a broad-band (1 to 3 GHz), spectro-polarimetry study of the integrated emission from 100 extragalactic radio sources with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, selected to be highly linearly polarized at 1.4 GHz. We use a general-purpose, polarization model-fitting procedure that describes the Faraday rotation measure (RM) and intrinsic polarization structure of up to three distinct polarized emission regions or `RM components' of a source. Overall, 37 per cent/52 per cent/11 per cent of sources are best fitted by one/two/three RM components. However, these fractions are dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in polarization (more RM components more likely at higher S/N). In general, our analysis shows that sources with high integrated degrees of polarization at 1.4 GHz have low Faraday depolarization, are typically dominated by a single RM component, have a steep spectral index and have a high intrinsic degree of polarization. After classifying our sample into radiative-mode and jet-mode AGN, we find no significant difference between the Faraday rotation or Faraday depolarization properties of jet-mode and radiative-mode AGN. However, there is a statistically significant difference in the intrinsic degree of polarization between the two types, with the jet-mode sources having more intrinsically ordered magnetic field structures than the radiative-mode sources. We also find a preferred perpendicular orientation of the intrinsic magnetic field structure of jet-mode AGN with respect to the jet direction, while no clear preference is found for the radiative-mode sources.

  5. The effects of training volume and competition on the salivary cortisol concentrations of Olympic weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Heke, Taati; Keogh, Justin W L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of training volume and competition on the salivary cortisol (Sal-C) concentrations of Olympic weightlifters. Male (n = 5) and female (n = 4) Olympic weightlifters provided saliva samples across a 5-week experimental = period. The first aim was to assess the weekly effects of high (≥ 200 sets) and low (≤ 100 sets) training volume on Sal-C. The second aim was to compare Sal-C concentrations and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) performance during 2 simulated and 2 actual competitions. Performance was assessed using the snatch, clean and jerk, and the Olympic total lift. Data from each competition setting were pooled before analysis. There were no significant weekly changes in Sal-C levels (p > 0.05). The actual competitions produced higher (128-130%) Sal-C concentrations (p < 0.001) and superior 1RM lifts (1.9-2.6%) for the clean and jerk, and the Olympic total, than the simulated competitions (p < 0.05). Individual Sal-C concentrations before the simulated competitions were positively correlated to all of the 1RM lifts (r = 0.48-0.49, p < 0.05). In conclusion, actual competitions produced greater Sal-C responses than simulated competitions, and this appeared to benefit the 1RM performance of Olympic weightlifters. Individuals with higher Sal-C concentrations also tended to exhibit superior 1RM lifts during the simulated competitions. Given these findings, greater emphasis should be placed upon the monitoring of C to establish normative values, training standards and to assist with performance prediction.

  6. Parsec-scale Faraday rotation and polarization of 20 active galactic nuclei jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, E. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.

    2017-05-01

    We perform polarimetry analysis of 20 active galactic nuclei jets using the very long baseline array at 1.4, 1.6, 2.2, 2.4, 4.6, 5.0, 8.1, 8.4 and 15.4 GHz. The study allowed us to investigate linearly polarized properties of the jets at parsec scales: distribution of the Faraday rotation measure (RM) and fractional polarization along the jets, Faraday effects and structure of Faraday-corrected polarization images. Wavelength dependence of the fractional polarization and polarization angle is consistent with external Faraday rotation, while some sources show internal rotation. The RM changes along the jets, systematically increasing its value towards synchrotron self-absorbed cores at shorter wavelengths. The highest core RM reaches 16 900 rad m-2 in the source rest frame for the quasar 0952+179, suggesting the presence of highly magnetized, dense media in these regions. The typical RM of transparent jet regions has values of an order of a hundred rad m-2. Significant transverse RM gradients are observed in seven sources. The magnetic field in the Faraday screen has no preferred orientation, and is observed to be random or regular from source to source. Half of the sources show evidence for the helical magnetic fields in their rotating magneto-ionic media. At the same time jets themselves contain large-scale, ordered magnetic fields and tend to align its direction with the jet flow. The observed variety of polarized signatures can be explained by a model of spine-sheath jet structure.

  7. Do the flash-lag effect and representational momentum involve similar extrapolations?

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    In the flash-lag effect (FLE) and in representational momentum (RM), the represented position of a moving target is displaced in the direction of motion. Effects of numerous variables on the FLE and on RM are briefly considered. In many cases, variables appear to have the same effect on the FLE and on RM, and this is consistent with a hypothesis that displacements in the FLE and in RM result from overlapping or similar mechanisms. In other cases, variables initially appear to have different effects on the FLE and on RM, but accounts reconciling those apparent differences with a hypothesis of overlapping or similar mechanisms are suggested. Given that RM is simpler and accounts for a wider range of findings (i.e., RM involves a single stimulus rather than the relationship between two stimuli, RM accounts for displacement in absolute position of a single stimulus and for differences in relative position of two stimuli), it is suggested that (at least some cases of) the FLE might be a special case of RM in which the position of the target is assessed relative to the position of another stimulus (i.e., the flashed object) rather than relative to the actual position of the target. PMID:23734140

  8. Characterization and Potential Environmental Risks of Leachate from Shredded Rubber Mulches

    PubMed Central

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Hayashi, Ai; Denison, Michael S.; Young, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine whether shredded rubber mulches (RM) posed water quality risks when used in stormwater best management practices (BMPs) such as bioretention basins, batch leaching tests were conducted to identify and quantify constituents in leachates from RM such as metal ions, nutrients, total organic carbon (TOC), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity (determined by the chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) bioassay) at varied temperature and initial pH values. The results indicate that aqueous extracts of RM contain high concentrations of zinc (Zn) compared with wood mulches (WM), and its concentration increased at lower pH and higher temperature. Although methanol extracts of RM displayed high AhR activity, none of the aqueous extracts of RM had significant activity. Hence, while unknown constituents that have significant AhR activity are present in RM, they appear to be not measurably extracted by water under environmental conditions relevant for stormwater (5 < pH < 9, 10 < T < 40°C). Our results suggests that organic constituents in water extracts of RM which have AhR activity may not be of significant concern while leaching of Zn from RM appears to be a potentially larger water quality issue for RM. PMID:19450864

  9. The Effects of Ultrasound on Biological Systems: Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Karmi, Anan M.

    Earlier studies (Dinno et al., Ultrasound Med. Biol. 15:461 -470; 1989) demonstrated that ultrasound at therapeutic intensities causes large increases in total conductance (G_{rm t}) of frog skin. These changes were attributed to non-thermal mechanisms, primarily, cavitation. In this study, the site(s) and mechanism(s) of action of ultrasound for the increase in G_{rm t} were examined. The reversible changes in G_{rm t } and sodium current were monitored in real time as a function of ultrasound exposure. Amiloride, a sodium channel blocker, was used to differentiate between cellular (G_{rm c}) and paracellular (G_{rm s}) pathways in the presence and absence of ultrasound. No significant changes were detected in G_ {rm c}. However, changes in G _{rm s} were significant. These results demonstrate that most of the increase in G _{rm t} due to ultrasound is taking place in the paracellular pathways. Sodium channels were not significantly affected by ultrasound. Thus, the changes in G_{rm c} are not specific. The effects of ultrasound were examined in the presence of radical scavengers and antioxidants. The increase in G_{rm t} due to ultrasound was significantly minimized in the presence of cystamine, cysteamine, and sodium ascorbate. This demonstrates that free radicals and other reactive species generated by cavitation are causing the increase in G_ {rm t}, possibly by acting from inside the cells. Radical scavengers and antioxidants are providing protection from oxidative damage but are not involved in the recovery of G_{ rm t} towards steady state values after sonication. The role of Ca^{2+} in the effects of ultrasound was examined since many of the cellular reactions involved in tissue recovery are dependent on the intracellular availability of free Ca^{2+}. The percentage increase in G_{rm t} in the presence of Ca^{2+} was larger than in its absence (140% vs. 27%). The time constant for G_{rm t} to return to steady state was longer in calcium-free solutions (122

  10. a New Value for the Rydberg Constant by Precision Measurement of the Hydrogen Balmer-Beta Transition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping

    The Rydberg constant {rm R }_infty is determined to a very high accuracy of 3 parts in 10^{10 } by a direct comparison of the four hydrogen and deuterium Balmer-beta transitions with a standard laser from the National Bureau of Standards. This experiment is now the most precise measurement for {rm R}_infty and approaches the limits of accuracy for wavelength or frequency measurements in the visible region. The result is {rm R}_infty = 109 737.315 73 (3) {rm cm}^{-1} with the definition of the meter: c = 299 792 458 m/sec. The experiment also yields the following results: The fine structure splittings 4{rm P}_ {1/2} rightarrow {rm 4P}_{3/2} in H: 1370.9 (3) MHz and in D: 1371.8 (3) MHz. The isotope shifts between H and D in the transitions {rm 2S}_{1/2} rightarrow {rm 4P}_{1/2}: 167 752.4 (3) MHz and {rm 2S}_{1/2 } rightarrow {rm 4P}_{3/2}: 167 753.3 (3) MHz. The experiment utilizes atomic beam laser spectroscopy. A beam of atomic hydrogen (or deuterium) is excited by electron bombardment to the metastable {rm 2S }_{1/2} state and is detected by a secondary electron emission detector. A chopped cw dye laser beam crosses the atomic beam at an angle of 90^circ to eliminate Doppler broadening. The metastables are quenched by laser excitation to {rm 4P}_{1/2} or {rm 4P}_{3/2 } states. The signal is monitored by a lock -in amplifier with the chopper as reference. An iodine (^{127}{ rm I}_2) stabilized helium-neon (He-Ne) laser is the primary standard with an accuracy of 1.6 times 10^{ -10}. Another He-Ne laser is locked to the standard laser with a variable offset frequency controlled by an oscillator. A frequency chain is established by locking together a dye laser, a piezoelectrically controlled measuring etalon and the offset laser. This chain allows the dye laser to scan across the Balmer-beta line in a precisely controllable manner. The lineshape and offset frequency are recorded simultaneously. Possible sources of systematic shifts and errors are carefully

  11. Induction of taxol metabolism in the rat by dexamethasone

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Anderson, C.D.; Gondi, K.N.; Walle, T.

    1994-12-31

    The antitumor drug taxol was metabolized to two major metabolites (RM1 and RM2) in adult male and female rat liver microsomes. The male rats produced RM1 2.6 fold faster than the females, and they produced RM2 3 fold faster than the females. This correlated well with the sex differences noticed in liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A content (4.4 fold greater in male) and 6{beta}-hydroxylation of testosterone (2.4 fold greater in male). Taxol was metabolized to three major metabolites (RM1, RM2, and RM3) in adult male and female rat liver microsomes from rats pretreated with dexamethasone. Production of RM1 andmore » RM2 was increased in these rats (2.3 and 3.3 fold respectively in males; 6.5 and 8.7 fold respectively in females) as compared to the untreated rats. These results compared well with the induction of CYP 3A proteins (3.5 fold in male, 10 fold in female) and induction of 6{beta}-hydroxylation (1.9 fold in males, 3.8 fold in females). RM3, which was produced only by the rats pretreated with dexamethasone, had a retention time of 0.58 relative to taxol which corresponds to 6{alpha}- hydroxytaxol, the major human metabolite of taxol. This study indicates that taxol metabolism in the rat is likely due to CYP 3A enzymes. Although the evidence points toward CYP 3A1 as the major isoform involved, it does not rule out others. The findings also suggest that CYP 3A1 is responsible for the induced metabolite, RM3.« less

  12. Fatty and lean red meat consumption in China: differential association with Chinese abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, B.; Zhai, F.; Wang, H.; Zhang, J.; Du, W.; Su, C.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, H.; Popkin, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim We examined the longitudinal association between red meat (RM) consumption and the risk of abdominal obesity in Chinese adults. Methods and results Our data are from 16,822 adults aged 18 to 75 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1993 to 2011. We assessed RM intake with three 24-hour dietary recalls. We defined abdominal obesity as a waist circumference (WC) ≥ 85 centimeters (cm) for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Multilevel mixed-effect regression models showed that men experienced WC increases of 0.74 cm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39–1.09) from a higher total intake of fresh RM and 0.59 cm (95% CI: 0.24–0. 95) from a higher intake of fatty fresh RM but 0.14 cm (95% CI: −0.39–0.66) from a higher intake of lean fresh RM in the top versus the bottom quartile when adjusted for potential confounders. In contrast, after additional adjustment for baseline WC, the odds ratios of abdominal obesity in men were attenuated for total fresh RM (1.25 [95% CI: 1.06–1.47]) and fatty fresh RM (1.22 [95% CI: 1.03–1.44]) but were still not affected by lean fresh RM (0.95 [95% CI: 0.75–1.22]). Women also showed a positive association of fatty fresh RM intake with abdominal obesity. Conclusion Greater intake of fatty fresh RM was significantly associated with higher WC (men only) and abdominal obesity risk in Chinese adults. The gender-specific differential association of fatty versus lean fresh RM warrants further study. PMID:24795160

  13. Fatty and lean red meat consumption in China: differential association with Chinese abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Zhang, B; Zhai, F; Wang, H; Zhang, J; Du, W; Su, C; Zhang, J; Jiang, H; Popkin, B M

    2014-08-01

    We examined the longitudinal association between red meat (RM) consumption and the risk of abdominal obesity in Chinese adults. Our data are from 16,822 adults aged 18-75 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1993 to 2011. We assessed RM intake with three 24-h dietary recalls. We defined abdominal obesity as a waist circumference (WC) ≥85 centimeters (cm) for men and ≥80 cm for women. Multilevel mixed-effect regression models showed that men experienced WC increases of 0.74 cm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-1.09) from a higher total intake of fresh RM and 0.59 cm (95% CI: 0.24-0. 95) from a higher intake of fatty fresh RM but 0.14 cm (95% CI: -0.39 to 0.66) from a higher intake of lean fresh RM in the top quartile versus non-consumers when adjusted for potential confounders. In contrast, after additional adjustment for baseline WC, the odds ratios of abdominal obesity in men were attenuated for total fresh RM (1.25 [95% CI: 1.06-1.47]) and fatty fresh RM (1.22 [95% CI: 1.03-1.44]) but were still not affected by lean fresh RM (0.95 [95% CI: 0.75-1.22]). Women also showed a positive association of fatty fresh RM intake with abdominal obesity. Greater intake of fatty fresh RM was significantly associated with higher WC (men only) and abdominal obesity risk in Chinese adults. The gender-specific differential association of fatty versus lean fresh RM warrants further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative proteomics analysis of early recurrence/metastasis of huge hepatocellular carcinoma following radical resection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic resection is the preferred treatment for huge hepatocellular carcinoma (>10 cm in diameter; H-HCC). However, the patients with H-HCC suffer from poor prognosis due to the early recurrence/metastasis. The underlying mechanism of H-HCC’s early recurrence/metastasis is currently not well understood. Results Here, we describe an Isobaric Tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics approach to analyze the early recurrence/metastasis related proteins of H-HCC after radical resection through multidimensional chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (2DLC-MS/MS). The different protein expression profiles between the early recurrence/metastasis within 6 months(R/M≤6months) and late recurrence/metastasis within 6–12 months after surgery (R/M6-12months) were confirmed and might reveal different underlying molecular mechanisms. We identified 44 and 49 significantly differentially expressed proteins in the R/M≤6months group and the R/M6-12months group compared to the group who had no recurrence within 2 years post surgery (the NR/M group), respectively. Moreover, among those proteins, S100A12 and AMACR were down regulated in the R/M≤6months group but up-regulated in the R/M6-12months group; and this regulation was further confirmed in mRNA and protein level by Q-PCR, Western-Blot and Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Conclusions This current study presents the first proteomic profile of the early recurrence/metastasis of H-HCC. The results suggest that S100A12 and AMACR might be potential prognostic markers for predicting the early recurrence/metastasis of H-HCC after hepatectomy. PMID:24839399

  15. sin 2 θ eff lept and M W(indirect) extracted from 9 fb -1 μ +μ - event sample at CDF

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bodek, A.

    2016-05-31

    Here, we report on the extraction ofmore » $$\\sin^2\\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff}$$ and indirect measurement of the mass of the W boson from the forward-backward asymmetry of $$\\mu^+\\mu^-$$ events in the $Z$ boson mass region. The data sample collected by the CDF detector corresponds to the full 9 fb$$^{-1}$$ run II sample. We measure $$\\sin^2 \\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff} = 0.2315 \\pm 0.0010$$, $$ \\sin^2 \\theta_W = 0.2233 \\pm 0.0009$$ and $$M_W ({\\rm indirect}) = 80.365 \\pm 0.047 \\;{\\rm GeV}/c^2$$, where each uncertainty includes both statistical and systematic contributions. Comparison with the results of the D0 collaboration are presented.« less

  16. The impact of aerosol composition on the particle to gas partitioning of reactive mercury.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Andrew P; Schauer, James J

    2007-06-01

    A laboratory system was developed to study the gas-particle partitioning of reactive mercury (RM) as a function of aerosol composition in synthetic atmospheric particulate matter. The collection of RM was achieved by filter- and sorbent-based methods. Analyses of the RM collected on the filters and sorbents were performed using thermal extraction combined with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS), allowing direct measurement of the RM load on the substrates. Laboratory measurements of the gas-particle partitioning coefficients of RM to atmospheric aerosol particles revealed a strong dependence on aerosol composition, with partitioning coefficients that varied by orders of magnitude depending on the composition of the particles. Particles of sodium nitrate and the chlorides of potassium and sodium had high partitioning coefficients, shifting the RM partitioning toward the particle phase, while ammonium sulfate, levoglucosan, and adipic acid caused the RM to partition toward the gas phase and, therefore, had partitioning coefficients that were lower by orders of magnitude.

  17. The effects of respiratory-muscle training on exercise in older women.

    PubMed

    Watsford, Mark; Murphy, Arona

    2008-07-01

    This research examined the effects of respiratory-muscle (RM) training on RM function and exercise performance in older women. Twenty-six women (60-69 yr of age) were assessed for spirometry, RM strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure), inspiratory-muscle endurance, and walking performance to a perceived exertion rating of "hard." They were randomly allocated to a threshold RM training group (RMT) or a nonexercising control group (CON) for 8 wk.After training, the 22% (inspiratory) and 30% (expiratory) improvements in RM strength in the RMT group were significantly higher than in the CON group (p < .05). The RMT group also displayed several significant performance improvements, including improved within-group treadmill performance time (12%) and reductions in submaximal heart rate (5%), percentage of maximum voluntary ventilation (16%), and perceived exertion for breathing (8%). RM training appears to improve RM function in older women. Furthermore, these improvements appear to be related to improved submaximal exercise performance.

  18. Risk management of emergency service vehicle crashes in the United States fire service: process, outputs, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bui, David P; Pollack Porter, Keshia; Griffin, Stephanie; French, Dustin D; Jung, Alesia M; Crothers, Stephen; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2017-11-17

    visibility while backing, and increased training frequency and enhanced training. The RM process was generally acceptable to department participants and considered useful. All departments reported that the focused and systematic analysis of crashes was particularly helpful. Implementation of controls was a commonly cited challenge. Proactive RM of ESVCs in three US fire departments was positively received and supported the establishment of interventions tailored to each department's needs and priorities.

  19. A longitudinal assessment of the aquatic macroinvertebrate community in the channelized lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulton, Barry C.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Charbonneau, Collette S.; Fairchild, James F.; Mueller, Brad G.; Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01