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Sample records for lactoferrin

  1. Lactoferrin and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michael P

    2013-03-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein and a member of the transferrin family. LF and lysozyme in breast milk kill bacteria. In the stomach, pepsin digests and releases a potent peptide antibiotic called lactoferricin from native LF. The antimicrobial characteristics of LF may facilitate a healthy intestinal microbiome. LF is the major whey in human milk; its highest concentration is in colostrum. This fact highlights early feeding of colostrum and also fresh mature milk as a way to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.

  3. Lactoferrin – A Novel Bone Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Naot, Dorit; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Cornish, Jillian

    2005-01-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein that belongs to the transferrin family. It is present in breast milk, in epithelial secretions, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. In healthy subjects lactoferrin circulates at concentrations of 2–7 x 10−6 g/ml. Lactoferrin is a pleiotropic factor with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Recently, we have shown that lactoferrin can also promote bone growth. At physiological concentrations, lactoferrin potently stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts and also acts as a survival factor inhibiting apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. Lactoferrin also affects osteoclast formation and, in murine bone marrow culture, lactoferrin potently inhibits osteoclastogenesis. In vivo, local injection of lactoferrin above the hemicalvaria of adult mice results in substantial increases in the dynamic histomorphometric indices of bone formation and bone area. The mitogenic effect of lactoferrin in osteoblast-like cells is mediated mainly through LRP1, a member of the family of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins that are primarily known as endocytic receptors. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, we demonstrated that fluorescently labeled lactoferrin is endocytosed and can be visualized in the cytoplasm of primary osteoblastic cells. Lactoferrin also induces activation of p42/44 MAPK signaling in primary osteoblasts, but the two pathways seem to operate independently as activation of MAPK signaling, but not endocytosis, is necessary for the mitogenic effect of lactoferrin. We conclude that lactoferrin may have a physiological role in bone growth and healing, and a potential therapeutic role as an anabolic factor in osteoporosis. PMID:16012127

  4. Quality control of commercial bovine lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2018-06-01

    Herein we review commercial bovine lactoferrin quality issues by describing an example of industrial production, the current status of global quality standardization, and quality-activity concerns for further discussion. Morinaga Milk Industry has been industrially producing bovine lactoferrin in Milei GmbH, Germany, since 1989. We delineate its production and quality as an example of safe and high-quality manufacturing. Currently, global standardization in the quality of bovine lactoferrin is progressing through Novel Food and GRAS in the EU and USA, respectively. Novel Food was applied or notified to seven lactoferrin manufacturers and GRAS was notified to three manufacturers, two of which are for infant use and one is for adult use, by the end of 2017. The specifications of these regulations are relatively high, including more than 95% lactoferrin purity in protein, which means that such companies can supply relatively high-grade lactoferrin. There appear to be several concerns regarding lactoferrin quality affecting activities, including contamination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and angiogenin, purity, and degradation of lactoferrin sample. Although LPS is immunologically toxic when invading the body, it is distributed normally in foods and the gut. However, an industrial lactoferrin sample may contain LPS at a maximum LPS/lactoferrin molecule ratio = 1/1724, which means 99.9% of the lactoferrin molecule is LPS-free. It is difficult to speculate that LPS contained in a lactoferrin sample affects its activities. Finally in order to achieve good and reproducible results, we make proposals to researchers a use of high-grade lactoferrin, careful storage, and indication the manufacturers' names and specifications in the paper.

  5. Lactoferrin from Milk: Nutraceutical and Pharmacological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Giansanti, Francesco; Panella, Gloria; Leboffe, Loris; Antonini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein present in large quantities in colostrum and in breast milk, in external secretions and in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Lactoferrin’s main function is non-immune protection. Among several protective activities shown by lactoferrin, those displayed by orally administered lactoferrin are: (i) antimicrobial activity, which has been presumed due to iron deprivation, but more recently attributed also to a specific interaction with the bacterial cell wall and extended to viruses and parasites; (ii) immunomodulatory activity, with a direct effect on the development of the immune system in the newborn, together with a specific antinflammatory effects; (iii) a more recently discovered anticancer activity. It is worth noting that most of the protective activities of lactoferrin have been found, sometimes to a greater extent, also in peptides derived from limited proteolysis of lactoferrin that could be generated after lactoferrin ingestion. Lactoferrin could therefore be considered an ideal nutraceutic product because of its relatively cheap production from bovine milk and of its widely recognized tolerance after ingestion, along with its well demonstrated protective activities. The most important protective activities shown by orally administered bovine lactoferrin are reviewed in this article. PMID:27690059

  6. Lactoferrin for prevention of common viral infections.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Hirotsugu; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2014-11-01

    Although lactoferrin has many biological functions, the host-protective effects against pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses are regarded as one of the most important. Here, we review research on the protective role of lactoferrin administration against common viral infections. Many studies have shown the in vitro antiviral activity of lactoferrin against viral pathogens that cause common infections such as the common cold, influenza, gastroenteritis, summer cold, and herpes, where lactoferrin inhibits mainly viral attachment to the target cells. Recently, studies indicating the in vivo protective effects of lactoferrin by oral administration against common viral infections have been increasing. For instance, norovirus is an extremely important emerging human pathogen that causes a majority of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide that may be a target candidate for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin consumption reduced the incidence of noroviral gastroenteritis in children and a similar effect was observed in a wide range of ages in a preliminary survey. A recent in vitro study reported that lactoferrin inhibits both cellular attachment of the murine norovirus, a virus closely-related to the human norovirus, and viral replication in the cells by inducing antiviral cytokines interferon (IFN)-α/β. Lactoferrin administration also enhances NK cell activity and Th1 cytokine responses, which lead to protection against viral infections. In conclusion, lactoferrin consumption may protect the host from viral infections through inhibiting the attachment of a virus to the cells, replication of the virus in the cells, and enhancement of systemic immune functions. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 21 CFR 866.5570 - Lactoferrin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the lactoferrin (an iron... fluids, and tissues. Measurement of lactoferrin may aid in the diagnosis of an inherited deficiency of...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5570 - Lactoferrin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the lactoferrin (an iron... fluids, and tissues. Measurement of lactoferrin may aid in the diagnosis of an inherited deficiency of...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5570 - Lactoferrin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the lactoferrin (an iron... fluids, and tissues. Measurement of lactoferrin may aid in the diagnosis of an inherited deficiency of...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5570 - Lactoferrin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the lactoferrin (an iron... fluids, and tissues. Measurement of lactoferrin may aid in the diagnosis of an inherited deficiency of...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5570 - Lactoferrin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5570 Lactoferrin immunological test system. (a) Identification. A lactoferrin immunological test system is a device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactoferrin immunological test system. 866.5570...

  12. Lactoferrin: A bioinspired, anti-biofilm therapeutic

    PubMed Central

    Ammons, M.C.; Copié, V.

    2013-01-01

    Medically relevant biofilms have gained a significant level of interest, in part because of the epidemic rise in obesity and an aging population in the developed world. The associated comorbidities of chronic wounds such as pressure ulcers, venous leg ulcers, and diabetic foot wounds remain recalcitrant to the therapies available currently. Development of chronicity in the wound is due primarily to an inability to complete the wound healing process owing to the presence of a bioburden, specifically bacterial biofilms. New therapies are clearly needed which specifically target biofilms. Lactoferrin is a multifaceted molecule of the innate immune system found primarily in milk. While further investigation is warranted to elucidate mechanisms of action, in vitro analyses of lactoferrin and its derivatives have demonstrated that these complex molecules are structurally and functionally well suited to address the heterogeneity of bacterial biofilms. In addition, use of lactoferrin and its derivatives has proven promising in the clinic. PMID:23574002

  13. Lactoferrin expression and secretion in the stallion epididymis.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Christopher A; Roser, Janet F

    2014-04-01

    Lactoferrin is one of the most abundant proteins secreted by the stallion epididymis, but its cellular localization and regulation remain unknown. This study was designed to address the following objectives: (1) identify the epididymal cell types producing lactoferrin in pre-pubertal, peri-pubertal and post-pubertal animals; (2) demonstrate that lactoferrin binds to stallion sperm; and (3) determine if testosterone and estradiol regulate lactoferrin secretion in vitro. Using an immunohistochemical method, lactoferrin was localized in the cytoplasm of principal cells in the corpus and cauda of peri- and post-pubertal animals. The epididymis of pre-pubertal animals did not express lactoferrin. Immunolabeling of lactoferrin was also observed on the mid-piece and tail of the sperm. The role of estradiol and testosterone in regulating secretion of lactoferrin in the post-pubertal epididymis was investigated using tissue culture methods. Lactoferrin concentration in the culture media was determined by validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Testosterone did not increase the concentration of lactoferrin in the media in any epididymal region. In contrast, estradiol-17β significantly increased the concentration of lactoferrin in the media containing tissue from the cauda. In conclusion, the expression of lactoferrin was found in the cytoplasm of principal cells in the corpus and cauda of the epididymis in peri- and post-pubertal stallions but not pre-pubertal stallions. Furthermore, lactoferrin binds to sperm, suggesting a biological role for protection or regulation of sperm in the corpus and cauda. In addition, estrogen appears to regulate lactoferrin secretion in the cauda of the epididymis in post-pubertal stallions. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of immobilized lactoferrin and lactoferricin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renxun; Cole, Nerida; Dutta, Debarun; Kumar, Naresh; Willcox, Mark D P

    2017-11-01

    Lactoferrin and lactoferricin were immobilized on glass surfaces via two linkers, 4-azidobenzoic acid (ABA) or 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl azide (FNA). The resulting surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The antimicrobial activity of the surfaces was determined using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains by fluorescence microscopy. Lactoferrin and lactoferricin immobilization was confirmed by XPS showing significant increases (p < 0.05) in nitrogen on the glass surface. The immobilization of both proteins slightly increased the overall hydrophobicity of the glass. Both lactoferrin and lactoferricin immobilized on glass significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the numbers of viable bacterial cells adherent to the glass. For P. aeruginosa, the immobilized proteins consistently increased the percentage of dead cells compared to the total cells adherent to the glass surfaces (p < 0.03). Lactoferrin and lactoferricin were successfully immobilized on glass surfaces and showed promising antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2612-2617, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human lactoferrin induces asthmatic symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Ito, Tatsuo; Ogino, Keiki; Eguchi, Eri; Fujikura, Yoshihisa

    2017-08-01

    Lactoferrin in commercial supplements is known to exert anti-viral and anti-allergic effects. However, this is the first study to evaluate the induction of allergic airway inflammation in NC/Nga mice. Human lactoferrin was administered intraperitoneally with aluminum oxide for sensitization. Five days later, lactoferrin was inoculated intranasally for 5 days, and then on the 12th day, the single inoculation of lactoferrin intranasally was performed as a challenge. On the 13th day, airway hypersensitivity was assessed (AHR), a bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) cell analysis was conducted, serum IgE and serum lactoferrin-specific IgG and IgE levels as well as the mRNA expression levels of cytokines and chemokines in the lung were measured, and a histopathological analysis of the lung was performed. Human lactoferrin increased AHR, the number of eosinophils in BALF, serum lactoferrin-specific IgG levels, and the mRNA levels of IL-13, eotaxin 1, and eotaxin 2. Moreover, the accumulation of inflammatory cells around the bronchus and the immunohistochemical localization of arginase I and human lactoferrin were detected. Collectively, these results indicate that human lactoferrin induced allergic airway inflammation in mice. Therefore, the commercial use of human lactoferrin in supplements warrants more intensive study. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. Lactoferrin derived resistance against plant pathogen in transgenic plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a ubiquitous cationic iron-binding milk glycoprotein and it is known to exert a broad-spectrum primary defense activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses in mammals. The Bovine lactoferrin gene was introduced to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Xanthi), Arabidopsis (A. ...

  17. Role of Lactoferrin in Neonates and Infants: An Update.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Paolo; Dall'Agnola, Alberto; Tomé, Daniel; Kaufman, David A; Tavella, Elena; Pieretto, Marta; Messina, Alessandro; De Luca, Daniele; Bellaiche, Marc; Mosca, Alexis; Piloquet, Hugues; Simeoni, Umberto; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Del Vecchio, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Lactoferrin is one of the most represented and important bioactive proteins in human and mammal milk. In humans, lactoferrin is responsible for several actions targeting anti-infective, immunological, and gastrointestinal domains in neonates, infants, and young children. Evidence-based data vouch for the ability of supplemented lactoferrin to prevent sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and to reduce the burden of morbidity related to gastrointestinal and respiratory pathogens in young children. However, several issues remain pending regarding answers and clarification related to quality control, correct intakes, optimal schedules and schemes of supplementations, interactions with probiotics, and different types of milk and formulas. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding lactoferrin and discusses the areas in need of further guidance prior to the adoption of strategies that include a routine use of lactoferrin in neonates and young children. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Bactericidal effect of lactoferrin and lactoferrin chimera against halophilic Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; de la Garza, Mireya; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Zazueta-Beltran, Jorge; Nazmi, Kamran; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Bolscher, Jan G

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an halophilic member of the genus Vibrio, have increased globally in the last 5 years. Diarrhea caused by V. parahaemolyticus results from eating raw or undercooked seafood. The aim of this work was to investigate whether lactoferrin and some lactoferrin-peptides have bactericidal activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802, the pandemic strain O3:K6, and the multidrug resistant isolate 727, as well as against Vibrio cholerae strains O1 and non-O1. Whereas both peptides lactoferricin (17-30) and lactoferrampin (265-284) did not have bactericidal activity, 40 microM of lactoferrin chimera (a fusion of the two peptides) inhibited the growth of all Vibrio tested to the same extent as the antibiotic gentamicin. The cidal effect of LFchimera showed a clear concentration response in contrast to bovine lactoferrin which showed higher inhibition at 10 microM than at 40 microM. FITC-labeled LFchimera bound to the bacterial membranes. Moreover LFchimera permeabilized bacterial cells and membranes were seriously damaged. Finally, in experiments with the multidrug resistant isolate 727, sub-lethal doses of LFchimera strongly reduced the concentrations of ampicillin, gentamicin or kanamicin needed to reach more than 95% growth inhibition, suggesting synergistic effects. These data indicate that LFchimera is a potential candidate to combat the multidrug resistant pathogenic Vibrio species.

  19. Protective effect of human lactoferrin in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Valterlinda Alves de O; Assis, Ana Marlúcia O; R Júnior, Hugo da Costa

    2013-01-01

    To describe mechanisms of action of human lactoferrin to protect gastrointestinal morbidities. Nonsystematic literature review using the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs and Medline from 1990 to 2011. The key-words used were lactoferrin, human milk/breastfeeding, gastrointestinal, and immunity, in Portuguese and English. Lactoferrin is the second predominant protein in the human milk, with higher concentrations in the colostrum (5.0 to 6.7mg/mL) if compared to mature milk (0.2 to 2.6mg/mL.) In contrast, cow's milk has lower levels, with 0.83mg/mL in the colostrum and 0.09mg/mL in the mature milk. Lactoferrin has several physiological functions to protect the gastrointestinal tract. The antimicrobial activity is related to the ability to sequester iron from biological fluids and/or to destruct the membrane of microorganisms. Lactoferrin also has the ability to stimulate cell proliferation. The anti-inflammatory action exercised by lactoferrin is associated with its ability to penetrate the core of the leukocyte and to block the Kappa B nuclear factor transcription. Given the importance of lactoferrin to prevent infectious diseases for breastfed children, the industry is using genetic engineering techniques to develop the expression of recombinant human lactoferrin in animals and plants, attempting to adjust the composition of infant formulas to that of human milk. Human lactoferrin is a peptide with great potential for preventing morbidity, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. Scientific evidence of the protective effects of human lactoferrin strengthens even more the recommendation for breastfeeding.

  20. Lactoferrin and prematurity: a promising milk protein?

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Sizonenko, Stéphane V

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is the major whey protein in milk, with multiple beneficial health effects including direct antimicrobial activities, anti-inflammatory effects, and iron homeostasis. Oral Lf supplementation in human preterm infants has been shown to reduce the incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. In preclinical models of antenatal stress and perinatal brain injury, bovine Lf protected the developing brain from neuronal loss, improved connectivity, increased neurotrophic factors, and decreased inflammation. It also supported brain development and cognition. Further, Lf can prevent preterm delivery by reducing proinflammatory factors and inhibiting premature cervix maturation. We review here the latest research on Lf in the field of neonatology.

  1. Molecular evidence of stereo-specific lactoferrin dimers in solution.

    PubMed

    Persson, Björn A; Lund, Mikael; Forsman, Jan; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Akesson, Torbjörn

    2010-10-01

    Gathering experimental evidence suggests that bovine as well as human lactoferrin self-associate in aqueous solution. Still, a molecular level explanation is unavailable. Using force field based molecular modeling of the protein-protein interaction free energy we demonstrate (1) that lactoferrin forms highly stereo-specific dimers at neutral pH and (2) that the self-association is driven by a high charge complementarity across the contact surface of the proteins. Our theoretical predictions of dimer formation are verified by electrophoretic mobility and N-terminal sequence analysis on bovine lactoferrin. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lactoferrin modulation of BCG-infected dendritic cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Shen-An

    2009-01-01

    Lactoferrin, an 80-kDa iron-binding protein with immune modulating properties, is a unique adjuvant component able to enhance efficacy of the existing Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine to protect against murine model of tuberculosis. Although identified as having effects on macrophage presentation events, lactoferrin's capability to modulate dendritic cells (DCs) function when loaded with BCG antigens has not been previously recognized. In this study, the potential of lactoferrin to modulate surface expression of MHC II, CD80, CD86 and CD40 from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was examined. Generally, lactoferrin decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40] and chemokines [macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-2] and increased regulatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-β1 and a T-cell chemotatic factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, from uninfected or BCG-infected BMDCs. Culturing BCG-infected BMDCs with lactoferrin also enhanced their ability to respond to IFN-γ activation through up-regulation of maturation markers: MHC I, MHC II and the ratio of CD86:CD80 surface expression. Furthermore, lactoferrin-exposed BCG-infected DCs increased stimulation of BCG-specific CD3+CD4+ splenocytes, as defined by increasing IFN-γ production. Finally, BCG-/lactoferrin-vaccinated mice possessed an increased pool of BCG antigen-specific IFN-γ producing CD3+CD4+CD62L− splenocytes. These studies suggest a mechanism in which lactoferrin may exert adjuvant activity by enhancing DC function to promote generation of antigen-specific T cells. PMID:19692539

  3. Lactoferrin-binding proteins in Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed Central

    Tigyi, Z; Kishore, A R; Maeland, J A; Forsgren, A; Naidu, A S

    1992-01-01

    The ability of Shigella flexneri to interact with lactoferrin (Lf) was examined with a 125I-labeled protein-binding assay. The percent binding of human lactoferrin (HLf) and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) to 45 S. flexneri strains was 19 +/- 3 and 21 +/- 3 (mean +/- standard error of the mean), respectively. 125I-labeled HLf and BLf binding to strain M90T reached an equilibrium within 2 h. Unlabeled HLf and BLf displaced the 125I-HLf-bacteria interaction in a dose-dependent manner. The Lf-bacterium complex was uncoupled by KSCN or urea, but not by NaCl. The interaction was specific, and approximately 4,800 HLf binding sites (affinity constant [Ka], 690 nM) or approximately 5,700 BLf binding sites (Ka, 104 nM) per cell were estimated in strain M90T by a Scatchard plot analysis. The native cell envelope (CE) and outer membrane (OM) did not reveal Lf-binding components in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, after being boiled, the CE and OM preparations showed three distinct horseradish peroxidase-Lf reactive bands of about 39, 22, and 16 kDa. The 39-kDa component was also reactive to a monoclonal antibody specific for porin (PoI) proteins of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The Lf-binding protein pattern was similar with BLf or HLf, for Crb+ and Crb- strains. The protein-Lf complex was dissociable by KSCN or urea and was stable after treatment with NaCl. Variation (loss) in the O chain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) markedly enhanced the Lf-binding capacity in the isogenic rough strain SFL1070-15 compared with its smooth parent strain, SFL1070. These data establish that Lf binds to specific components in the bacterial OM; the heat-modifiable, anti-PoI-reactive, and LPS-associated properties suggested that the Lf-binding proteins are porins in S. flexneri. Images PMID:1319403

  4. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites. PMID:6088662

  5. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferricin, a Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferrin, Inhibit Tumor Metastasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shikiko; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Hata, Katsusuke; Shimazaki, Kei–ichi; Azuma, Ichiro

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a bovine milk protein, lactoferrin (LF–B), and a pepsin–generated peptide of LF–B, lactoferricin (Lfcin–B), on inhibition of tumor metastasis produced by highly metastatic murine tumor cells, B16–BL6 melanoma and L5178Y–ML25 lymphoma cells, using experimental and spontaneous metastasis models in syngeneic mice. The subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of bovine apo–lactoferrin (apo–LF–B, 1 mg/mouse) and Lfcin–B (0.5 mg/monse) 1 day after tumor inoculation significantly inhibited liver and lung metastasis of L5178Y–ML25 cells. However, human apo–lactoferrin (apo–LF–H) and bovine holo–lactoferrin (holo–LF–B) at the dose of 1 mg/mouse failed to inhibit tumor metastasis of L5178Y–ML25 cells. Similarly, the s.c. administration of apo–LF–B as well as Lfcin–B, but not apo–LF–H and holo–LF–B, 1 day after tumor inoculation resulted in significant inhibition of lung metastasis of B16–BL6 cells in an experimental metastasis model. Furthermore, in in vivo analysis for tumor–induced angiogenesis, both apo–LF–B and Lfcin–B inhibited the number of tumor–induced blood vessels and suppressed tumor growth on day 8 after tumor inoculation. However, in a long–term analysis of tumor growth for up to 21 days after tumor inoculation, single administration of apo–LF–B significantly suppressed the growth of B16–BL6 cells throughout the examination period, whereas Lfcin–B showed inhibitory activity only during the early period (8 days). In spontaneous metastasis of B16–BL6 melanoma cells, multiple administration of both apo–LF–B and Lfcin–B into tumor–bearing mice significantly inhibited lung metastasis produced by B16–BL6 cells, though only apo–LF–B exhibited an inhibitory effect on tumor growth at the time of primary tumor amputation (on day 21) after tumor inoculation. These results suggest that apo–LF–B and Lfcin–B inhibit tumor metastasis through different

  6. Production of human lactoferrin in animal milk.

    PubMed

    Goldman, I L; Georgieva, S G; Gurskiy, Ya G; Krasnov, A N; Deykin, A V; Popov, A N; Ermolkevich, T G; Budzevich, A I; Chernousov, A D; Sadchikova, E R

    2012-06-01

    Genetic constructs containing the human lactoferrin (hLf) gene were created within a joint program of Russian and Belorussian scientists. Using these constructs, transgenic mice were bred (the maximum hLf concentration in their milk was 160 g/L), and transgenic goats were also generated (up to 10 g/L hLf in their milk). Experimental goatherds that produced hLf in their milk were also bred, and the recombinant hLf was found to be identical to the natural protein in its physical and chemical properties. These properties included electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point, recognition by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, circular dichroic spectra, interaction with natural ligands (DNA, lipopolysaccharides, and heparin), the binding of iron ions, the sequence of the 7 terminal amino acids, and its biological activity. The latter was assessed by the agglutination of Micrococcus luteus protoplasts, bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes , and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans . We also demonstrated a significant increase in the activity of antibiotics when used in combination with Lf.

  7. Isolation of lactoferrin from milk of different species: calorimetric and antimicrobial studies.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Celia; Sánchez, Lourdes; Rota, Carmen; Pérez, María-Dolores; Calvo, Miguel; Farnaud, Sebastien; Evans, Robert W

    2008-05-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein found in different biological fluids of mammals and in neutrophils. It has been proposed to be involved in many functions, including protection from pathogens. In this work, purification of lactoferrin using an ion-exchange chromatography (SP-Sepharose) was attempted for the milk of the following animals: sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), camel (Camelus bactrianus), alpaca (Lama pacos), elephant (Elephas maximus) and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), as well as human (Homo sapiens). Lactoferrin was identified in all the milks apart from that from grey seal. The thermal stability of the purified lactoferrins, in their native and iron-saturated forms, was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Maximum temperature, onset temperature and enthalpy change of denaturation were higher when lactoferrins were saturated with iron than in their native form, indicating an increase in the stability of the protein structure upon iron-binding. Human lactoferrin was found to be the most heat-resistant and the other lactoferrins presented different degrees of thermoresistance, that of elephant being the least resistant. The antimicrobial activity of the different isolated lactoferrins was investigated against Escherichia coli 0157:H7. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by measuring the absorbance at 620 nm. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were also measured and it was found that camel lactoferrin was the most active lactoferrin against E. coli 0157:H7, whereas alpaca and human lactoferrins were the least active.

  8. Heteroaggregation of lipid droplets coated with sodium caseinate and lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo Furtado, Guilherme; Michelon, Mariano; de Oliveira, Davi Rocha Bernardes; da Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

    2016-11-01

    Formation and characterization of droplet heteroaggregates were investigated by mixing two emulsions previously stabilized by proteins oppositely charged. Emulsions were composed of 5vol.% of sunflower oil and 95vol.% of sodium caseinate or lactoferrin aqueous dispersions. They were produced using ultrasound with fixed power (300W) and sonication time (6min). Different volume ratios (0-100%) of sodium caseinate-stabilized emulsion (droplet diameter around 1.75μm) to lactoferrin-stabilized emulsion (droplet diameter around 1.55μm) were mixed under conditions that both proteins showed opposite charges (pH7). Influence of ionic strength (0-400mM NaCl) on the heteroaggregates stability was also evaluated. Creaming stability, zeta potential, microstructure, mean particle diameter and rheological properties of the heteroaggregates were measured. These properties depended on the volume ratio (0-100%) of sodium caseinate to lactoferrin-stabilized emulsion (C:L) and the ionic strength. In the absence of salt, different zeta potential values were obtained, rheological properties (viscosity and elastic moduli) were improved and the largest heteroaggregates were formed at higher content of lactoferrin-stabilized emulsion (60-80%). The system containing 40 and 60vol.% of sodium caseinate and lactoferrin stabilized emulsion, respectively, presented good stability against phase separation besides showing enhanced rheological and size properties due to extensive droplets aggregation. Phase separation was observed only in the absence of sodium caseinate, demonstrating the higher susceptibility of lactoferrin to NaCl. The heteroaggregates produced may be useful functional agents for texture modification and controlled release since different rheological properties and sizes can be achieved depending on protein concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial Functions of Lactoferrin Promote Genetic Conflicts in Ancient Primates and Modern Humans.

    PubMed

    Barber, Matthew F; Kronenberg, Zev; Yandell, Mark; Elde, Nels C

    2016-05-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional mammalian immunity protein that limits microbial growth through sequestration of nutrient iron. Additionally, lactoferrin possesses cationic protein domains that directly bind and inhibit diverse microbes. The implications for these dual functions on lactoferrin evolution and genetic conflicts with microbes remain unclear. Here we show that lactoferrin has been subject to recurrent episodes of positive selection during primate divergence predominately at antimicrobial peptide surfaces consistent with long-term antagonism by bacteria. An abundant lactoferrin polymorphism in human populations and Neanderthals also exhibits signatures of positive selection across primates, linking ancient host-microbe conflicts to modern human genetic variation. Rapidly evolving sites in lactoferrin further correspond to molecular interfaces with opportunistic bacterial pathogens causing meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Because microbes actively target lactoferrin to acquire iron, we propose that the emergence of antimicrobial activity provided a pivotal mechanism of adaptation sparking evolutionary conflicts via acquisition of new protein functions.

  10. Studies on anticancer activities of lactoferrin and lactoferricin.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cui Ming; Wong, Jack Ho; Xia, Jiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-09-01

    This review mainly summarizes results of recent studies on the anticancer activity of the multifunctional protein lactoferrin (Lf) and its derived peptide lactoferricin (Lfcin). The basic information on Lf and Lfcin, such as their sources, structures, and biological properties which favor their antitumor activity is introduced. The major anticancer mechanisms of Lf and Lfcin including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis, antimetastasis, immune modulation and necrosis are discussed. Other information from in vivo studies employing a mouse model is also provided. In addition, the roles of talatoferrin and delta lactoferrin, as well as improvement in drug delivery will be covered.

  11. Lactobacilli-lactoferrin interplay in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Rosa; Di Pietro, Marisa; Filardo, Simone; Bressan, Alessia; Mastromarino, Paola; Biasucci, Alessandra Vittoria; Rosa, Luigi; Cutone, Antimo; Berlutti, Francesca; Paesano, Rosalba; Valenti, Piera

    2017-07-31

    In the cervicovaginal microenvironment, lactobacilli are known to protect against genital infections and, amongst the host defence compounds, lactoferrin has recently acquired importance for its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. An abnormal genital microenvironment facilitates the acquisition of pathogens like Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus brevis and bovine lactoferrin on chlamydial infection, in order to shed light on the complex interplay between host defence mechanisms and C. trachomatis. We have also evaluated the effect of these defence factors to modulate the chlamydia-mediated inflammatory state. To this purpose, we have determined the infectivity and progeny production of C. trachomatis as well as interleukin-8 and interleukin-6 synthesis. The main result of our study is that the combination of L. brevis and bovine lactoferrin is the most effective in inhibiting the early phases (adhesion and invasion) of C. trachomatis infection of cervical epithelial cells and in decreasing the levels of both cytokines. In conclusion, the interaction between L. brevis and lactoferrin seems to play a role in the protection against C. trachomatis, reducing the infection and regulating the immunomodulatory activity, thus decreasing the risk of severe complications. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Whey Protein Components - Lactalbumin and Lactoferrin - Improve Energy Balance and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Rizaldy C; Singh, Arashdeep; Pezeshki, Adel; Nibber, Traj; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2017-08-30

    Whey protein promotes weight loss and improves diabetic control, however, less is known of its bioactive components that produce such benefits. We compared the effects of normal protein (control) diet with high protein diets containing whey, or its fractions lactalbumin and lactoferrin, on energy balance and metabolism. Diet-induced obese rats were randomized to isocaloric diets: Control, Whey, Lactalbumin, Lactoferrin, or pair-fed to lactoferrin. Whey and lactalbumin produced transient hypophagia, whereas lactoferrin caused prolonged hypophagia; the hypophagia was likely due to decreased preference. Lactalbumin decreased weight and fat gain. Notably, lactoferrin produced sustained weight and fat loss, and attenuated the reduction in energy expenditure associated with calorie restriction. Lactalbumin and lactoferrin decreased plasma leptin and insulin, and lactalbumin increased peptide YY. Whey, lactalbumin and lactoferrin improved glucose clearance partly through differential upregulation of glucoregulatory transcripts in the liver and skeletal muscle. Interestingly, lactalbumin and lactoferrin decreased hepatic lipidosis partly through downregulation of lipogenic and/or upregulation of β-oxidation transcripts, and differentially modulated cecal bacterial populations. Our findings demonstrate that protein quantity and quality are important for improving energy balance. Dietary lactalbumin and lactoferrin improved energy balance and metabolism, and decreased adiposity, with the effects of lactoferrin being partly independent of caloric intake.

  13. Lactoferrin reduces mortality in preweaned calves with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Habing, G; Harris, K; Schuenemann, G M; Piñeiro, J M; Lakritz, J; Clavijo, X Alcaraz

    2017-05-01

    Calf diarrhea is the most common reason for mortality and antimicrobial therapy in preweaned calves on dairy farms in the United States. Conventional and organic livestock producers require alternative therapies for calf diarrhea to reduce the necessity of conventional antimicrobials. Alternatives administered for mild cases or early in the disease course may be useful to mitigate disease progression and reduce the likelihood of septicemia and negative sequelae. Lactoferrin is a bioactive protein naturally found in colostrum that has been shown to prevent septicemia in high-risk infants. Among organic producers, garlic extract is widely used for the treatment of disease and perceived to be efficacious. The objectives of the study were to determine the effectiveness of lactoferrin and garlic extract to reduce mortality and culling, improve weight gain, and reduce the duration of disease in preweaned calves with the first diagnosis of diarrhea. In total, 628 calves with diarrhea from a single commercial dairy were enrolled in a blinded, randomized field trial. Calves diagnosed with diarrhea (fecal score ≥3), were randomized to 3 consecutive days of oral garlic extract, lactoferrin, or water (control). Calves were clinically evaluated for up to 10 d. Body weight was measured at enrollment and 10 d later. For calves receiving garlic extract, the risk of death or culling was not significantly different than calves in the control group; however, calves that received lactoferrin had approximately half the risk of death or culling in the 120 d following diagnosis. Additionally, the relative risk of death or culling in the 60 d following diagnosis was significantly lower for the subset of calves with severe diarrhea at enrollment. Neither garlic nor lactoferrin had a significant effect on disease duration or average weight gain during the 10-d period. Lactoferrin significantly reduced mortality and culling when administered to preweaned calves with the first diagnosis of

  14. Oral lactoferrin protects against experimental candidiasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Velliyagounder, Kabilan; Alsaedi, Wijdan; Alabdulmohsen, Waad; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fine, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the role of lactoferrin in protecting the oral cavities of mice against Candida albicans infection in lactoferrin knockout (LFKO−/−) mice were compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We also determine the protective role of human lactoferrin in the LFKO−/− mice. Methods and Results Antibiotic treated immunosuppressed mice were inoculated with C. albicans (or sham infection) by oral swab and evaluated for the severity of infection after 7 days of infection. To determine the protective role of hLF, we added 0.3% solution of hLF to the drinking water given to some of the mice. CFU count, scoring of lesions and microscopic observations were carried out to determine the severity of infection. LFKO−/−I mice showed a 2 log (P=0.001) higher CFUs of C. albicans in the oral cavity compared to the WTI mice. LFKO−/−I mice given hLF had a 3 log (P=0.001) reduction in CFUs in the oral cavity compared to untreated LFKO−/−I mice. The severity of infection, observed by light microscopy revealed that the tongue of the LFKO−/−I mice showed more white patches compared to WTI and LFKO−/−I+hLF mice. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that more filiform papillae were destroyed in LFKO−/−I mice when compared to WTI or LFKO−/−I +hLF mice. Conclusions Human lactoferrin is important in protecting mice from oral C. albicans infection. Administered hLF may be used to prevent C. albicans infection. Significance and Impact of the Study Human lactoferrin, a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein can be used as a therapeutic active ingredient in oral health care products against C. albicans. PMID:25319508

  15. Lactoferrin Levels in Tears are Increased by the Topical Application of Diadenosine Tetraphosphate.

    PubMed

    Loma, Patricia; Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Perez de Lara, Maria J; Pintor, Jesus

    2016-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of the topical application of diadenosine tetraphosphate on lactoferrin levels in rabbit tears. Diadenosine tetraphosphate was topically instilled in a single-dose, tear samples were collected by micropipette and lactoferrin was measured by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The concentration of lactoferrin in rabbit tears was significantly increased 1 h after diadenosine tetraphosphate application, remaining elevated for 3 h more. This effect was blocked by P2 receptors antagonists. Topical application of diadenosine tetraphosphate stimulates the secretion of lactoferrin in rabbit tears through P2 receptor activation.

  16. Effect of technological treatments on bovine lactoferrin: An overview.

    PubMed

    Franco, Indira; Pérez, María Dolores; Conesa, Celia; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein that exerts important activities in the neonate through its presence in milk, and also in other external mucosas, acting as a defense protein of innate immunity. The addition of bovine LF to infant formula and also to other functional products and cosmetics has increased during the last decades. Consequently, it is essential to know the effect that the technological processes, necessary to elaborate those products, have on LF activity. In this study, we have revised the effect of classical treatments on lactoferrin structure and activity, such as heat treatment or drying, and also of emerging technologies, like high pressure or pulsed electric field. The results of the studies included in this review indicate that LF stability is dependent on its level of iron-saturation and on the characteristics of the treatment media. Furthermore, the studies revised here reveal that the non-thermal treatments are interesting alternatives to the traditional ones, as they protect better the structure and activity of lactoferrin. It is also clear the need for research on LF encapsulation by different ways, to protect its properties before it reaches the intestine. All this knowledge would allow designing processes less harmful for LF, thus maintaining all its functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral recombinant human or mouse lactoferrin reduces Mycobacterium tuberculosis TDM induced granulomatous lung pathology.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2017-02-01

    Trehalose 6'6-dimycolate (TDM) is the most abundant glycolipid on the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). TDM is capable of inducing granulomatous pathology in mouse models that resembles those induced by MTB infection. Using the acute TDM model, this work investigates the effect of recombinant human and mouse lactoferrin to reduce granulomatous pathology. C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with TDM at a dose of 25 μg·mouse -1 . At day 4 and 6, recombinant human or mouse lactoferrin (1 mg·(100 μL) -1 ·mouse -1 ) were delivered by gavage. At day 7 after TDM injection, mice were evaluated for lung pathology, cytokine production, and leukocyte populations. Mice given human or mouse lactoferrin had reduced production of IL-12p40 in their lungs. Mouse lactoferrin increased IL-6 and KC (CXCL1) in lung tissue. Increased numbers of macrophages were observed in TDM-injected mice given human or mouse lactoferrin. Granulomatous pathology, composed of mainly migrated leukocytes, was visually reduced in mice that received human or mouse lactoferrin. Quantitation of granulomatous pathology demonstrated a significant decrease in mice given human or mouse lactoferrin compared with TDM control mice. This report is the first to directly compare the immune modulatory effects of both heterologous recombinant human and homologous mouse lactoferrin on the development of TDM-induced granulomas.

  18. Oral lactoferrin for the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum, milk, tears, and saliva can enhance host defence and may be effective in the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. To assess the safety and effectiveness of oral lactoferrin in the prevention of sepsis and NE...

  19. Oral lactoferrin for the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolotis in preterm infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum, milk, tears and saliva can enhance host defence and may be effective in the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. To assess the safety and effectiveness of oral lactoferrin in the prevention of sepsis and NEC...

  20. Lactoferrin affects the adherence and invasion of Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Fiona; Beecher, Christine; Chaurin, Valerie; Sweeney, Torres; Giblin, Linda

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae is an important causative agent of bovine mastitis worldwide. Lactoferrin is an innate immune protein that is associated with many functions including immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, and antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to investigate the interactions between lactoferrin and a clinical bovine mastitis isolate, Strep. dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae DPC5345. Initially a deliberate in vivo bovine intramammary challenge was performed with Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345. Results demonstrated a significant difference in lactoferrin mRNA levels in milk cells between the control and infused quarters 7h postinfusion. Milk lactoferrin levels in the Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345 infused quarters were significantly increased compared with control quarters at 48h postinfusion. In vitro studies demonstrated that lactoferrin had a bacteriostatic effect on the growth of Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345 and significantly decreased the ability of the bacteria to internalize into HC-11 mammary epithelial cells. Confocal microscopy images of HC-11 cells exposed to Strep. dysgalactiae and lactoferrin further supported this effect by demonstrating reduced invasion of bacteria to HC-11 cells. The combined data suggest that a bovine immune response to Strep. dysgalactiae infection includes a significant increase in lactoferrin expression in vivo, and based on in vitro data, lactoferrin limits mammary cell invasion of this pathogen by binding to the bacteria and preventing its adherence. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lactoferrin and lactoferrin chimera inhibit damage caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; de la Garza, Mireya; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G M; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia

    2012-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important cause of infant diarrhea in developing countries. It produces a characteristic intestinal histopathological lesion on enterocytes known as 'attaching and effacing' (A/E), and these two steps are mediated by a type-III secretory system. In the present study, we evaluated the effect on the initial host cell attachment step produced by bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and three synthetic peptides: lactoferricin (LFcin), lactoferrampin (LFampin) and LFchimera. A special focus was given to the hemolytic activity and EPEC-induced actin polymerization in HEp-2 cells, as well as to the espA gene expression, which produces the protein responsible for primary contact with the host cells. Results show that EPEC attachment to HEp-2 cells was significantly suppressed by bLF and LFchimera at 125 and 40 μM, respectively. EPEC-mediated actin polymerization was blocked by bLF and LFchimera at 88 and 99%, respectively. LFchimera inhibited the attachment and A/E lesion caused by EPEC in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of 125 μM bLF, the expression level of the espA gene was decreased by 50% compared to the untreated control. LFchimera at concentrations of 20 μM and 40 μM diminished the level of espA gene expression 100 and 1000 fold, respectively (P < 0.001). Although bLF, LFchimera, LFcin, and LFampin all significantly blocked the hemolysis produced by EPEC (P < 0.001), the two former compounds produced this effect at lower concentrations. These two compounds, bLF and LFchimera, were able to inhibit the first steps of the mechanism of the damage used by EPEC. This data suggests that LFchimera could provide protection against enteropathogens that share this mechanism. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Presence of lactoferrin (LF) in lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis. Yeast-bound antimicrobial peptide].

    PubMed

    Palma-Ramos, Alejandro; Castrillón-Rivera, Laura E; Vega-Mémije, María Elisa; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Rangel-Gamboa, Lucía

    Sporotrichosis is a common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America, produced by dimorphic fungi belong to Sporothrix schenckii complex of cryptic species. Infection is acquired by traumatic inoculation with contaminated organic material. Host immune response includes polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis and release of granular components. Lactoferrin is a protein member of the transferrin family of iron-binding proteins, present inside polymorphonuclear granular structure, and has been reported to affect growth and development of infectious agents, including fungal organisms. Nevertheless, lactoferrin expression in sporotrichosis infections has not been reported yet. To determine the expression of lactoferrin using immunohistochemical staining in sporotrichosis human infection. The dermatology department's files during a period of five years were reviewed; cases with a diagnosis of sporotrichosis were selected and lactoferrin immunostaining was performed when enough biological material was available. Three cases with a diagnosis of sporotrichosis and adequate biological material on paraffin block were identified. In all cases, lactoferrin immunostaining was positive around yeast cell.

  3. Microbicidal effect of the lactoferrin peptides lactoferricin17-30, lactoferrampin265-284, and lactoferrin chimera on the parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    López-Soto, Fernando; León-Sicairos, Nidia; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G; de la Garza, Mireya

    2010-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic protozoan that produces amoebiasis, an intestinal disease characterized by ulcerative colitis and dysentery. In some cases, trophozoites can travel to the liver leading to hepatic abscesses and death. Recently, lactoferrin and lactoferricin B have been shown to be amoebicidal in axenic cultures. The aim of this work was to determine whether the lactoferrin-peptides lactoferricin amino acids 17-30, lactoferrampin amino acids 265-284, and lactoferrin chimera which is a fusion product of the two peptides, are capable of producing a microbicidal effect to trophozoites of E. histolytica. We evaluated the killing effect of these peptides in growth kinetics carried out in axenic culture medium to which different concentrations of peptides were added. At 50 muM of peptide concentration, lactoferricin and lactoferrampin had a moderate amoebicidal effect, since a 45-50% of trophozoites remained viable at 24 h culture. However, at 50 microM of the lactoferrin chimera 75% amoeba were killed whereas at 100 microM all cells died. These data indicate that of lactoferrin-peptides mainly the chimera have amoebicidal activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The lactoferrin-peptides might be useful as therapeutic agents against amoebiasis and thereby diminish the use of metronidazole, which is extremely toxic for the host.

  4. Protein composition of different sized casein micelles in milk after the binding of lactoferrin or lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Anema, Skelte G; de Kruif, C G Kees

    2013-07-24

    Casein micelles with bound lactoferrin or lysozyme were fractionated into sizes ranging in radius from ∼50 to 100 nm. The κ-casein content decreased markedly and the αS-casein/β-casein content increased slightly as micelle size increased. For lactoferrin, higher levels were bound to smaller micelles. The lactoferrin/κ-casein ratio was constant for all micelle sizes, whereas the lactoferrin/αS-casein and lactoferrin/β-casein ratio decreased with increasing micelle size. This indicates that the lactoferrin was binding to the surface of the casein micelles. For lysozyme, higher levels bound to larger casein micelles. The lysozyme/αS-casein and lysozyme/β-casein ratios were nearly constant, whereas the lysozyme/κ-casein ratio increased with increasing micelle size, indicating that lysozyme bound to αS-casein and β-casein in the micelle core. Lactoferrin is a large protein that cannot enter the casein protein mesh; therefore, it binds to the micelle surface. The smaller lysozyme can enter the protein mesh and therefore binds to the more charged αS-casein and β-casein.

  5. Bactericidal effect of bovine lactoferrin and synthetic peptide lactoferrin chimera in Streptococcus pneumoniae and the decrease in luxS gene expression by lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    León-Sicairos, Nidia; Angulo-Zamudio, Uriel A; Vidal, Jorge E; López-Torres, Cynthia A; Bolscher, Jan G M; Nazmi, Kamran; Reyes-Cortes, Ruth; Reyes-López, Magda; de la Garza, Mireya; Canizalez-Román, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for nearly one million child deaths annually. Pneumococcus causes infections such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, and sepsis. The human immune system includes antibacterial peptides and proteins such as lactoferrin (LF), but its activity against pneumococcus is not fully understood. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and the synthetic LF-peptides lactoferricin (LFcin17-30), lactoferrampin (LFampin265-284), and LFchimera against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells. The mechanism of damage was also investigated, as well as the impact of these peptides on the transcription levels of genes known to encode important virulence factors. S. pneumoniae planktonic cells were treated with bLF, LFcin17-30, LFampin265-284 and LFchimera at different time points. The viability of treated planktonic cells was assessed by dilution and plating (in CFU/ml). The interaction between LF and LF-peptides coupled to fluorescein was visualized using a confocal microscope and flow cytometry, whereas the damage at structural levels was observed by electron microscopy. Damage to bacterial membranes was further evaluated by membrane permeabilization by use of propidium iodide and flow cytometry, and finally, the expression of pneumococcal genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR. bLF and LFchimera were the best bactericidal agents. bLF and peptides interacted with bacteria causing changes in the shape and size of the cell and membrane permeabilization. Moreover, the luxS gene was down-regulated in bacteria treated with LF. In conclusion, LF and LFchimera have a bactericidal effect, and LF down-regulates genes involved in the pathogenicity of pneumococcus, thus demonstrating potential as new agents for the treatment of pneumococcal infections.

  6. Supplemental lactoferrin improves health and growth of Holstein calves during the preweaning phase.

    PubMed

    Robblee, E D; Erickson, P S; Whitehouse, N L; McLaughlin, A M; Schwab, C G; Rejman, J J; Rompala, R E

    2003-04-01

    Lactoferrin is a milk protein that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. Previous studies indicated that supplemental lactoferrin may alter the microbial populations in the gut of nonruminants and increase preweaning weight gains in calves. In the present study, 40 Holstein calves were used to examine the effects of supplemental lactoferrin (0, 1, 2, or 3 g/d) on health, growth, and feed intake from 3 d of age to 2 wk postweaning. Lactoferrin was mixed and fed with a nonmedicated milk replacer. Calves were housed in individual pens and offered a textured, nonmedicated starter and water for ad libitum consumption. Body weight and heart girth were measuredweekly. Intakes of milk replacer and starter were determined daily. Fecal consistency was monitored three times per week. Calves were weaned when they met certain criteria based on body weight gain and starter intake. Preweaning fecal score responded quadratically, with the group fed 1 g/d of lactoferrin having the lowest score. Overall and preweaning number of days medicated responded in the same manner as fecal score. Preweaning average daily gain and gain-to-feed ratio increased linearly with lactoferrin supplementation, whereas postweaning gain-to-feed ratio decreased linearly with lactoferrin. Overall average daily heart girth gain increased linearly with lactoferrin. Body weight, weaning age, and dry matter intake were not different among treatments. Based on the observed improved gain-to-feed ratios, increased average daily gains, improved fecal scores, and reduced morbidity in preweaned calves, it appears that lactoferrin may be a beneficial supplement in the diets of neonatal calves prior to weaning.

  7. Effect of human milk prostaglandins and lactoferrin on respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Grover, M; Giouzeppos, O; Schnagl, R D; May, J T

    1997-03-01

    The effect of lactoferrin and prostaglandins E and F2 alpha on the growth of rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus in cell culture was investigated. Lactoferrin inhibited the growth of respiratory syncytial virus at a concentration tenfold lower than that normally present in human milk. The prostaglandins had no effect on either virus growth, even at a concentration of 100-fold more than that found in human milk. Lactoferrin may have some antiviral properties in human milk in addition to its known antibacterial functions.

  8. Lactoferrin-derived resistance against plant pathogens in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Dilip K; Natarajan, Savithiry; Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a ubiquitous cationic iron-binding milk glycoprotein that contributes to nutrition and exerts a broad-spectrum primary defense against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses in mammals. These qualities make lactoferrin protein and its antimicrobial motifs highly desirable candidates to be incorporated in plants to impart broad-based resistance against plant pathogens or to economically produce them in bulk quantities for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. This study introduced bovine LF (BLF) gene into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi), Arabidopsis ( A. thaliana ) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) via Agrobacterium -mediated plant transformation. Transgenic plants or detached leaves exhibited high levels of resistance against the damping-off causing fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and the head blight causing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum . LF also imparted resistance to tomato plants against a bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum . Similarly, other researchers demonstrated expression of LF and LF-mediated high-quality resistance to several other aggressive fungal and bacterial plant pathogens in transgenic plants and against viral pathogens by foliar applications of LF or its derivatives. Taken together, these studies demonstrated the effectiveness of LF for improving crop quality and its biopharming potentials for pharmaceautical and nutritional applications.

  9. Nutritional composition analysis of meat from human lactoferrin transgenic bulls.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Jianxiang; Wang, Jianwu; Li, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic technology has many potential advantages in food production. However, the transgenic technology process may influence the composition of food products derived from genetically engineered (GE) animals, which may be adverse to human health. Therefore, it is very important to research the compositions of GE animal products. Here, we analyzed the compositions of meat from the offspring of human lactoferrin (hLF) transgenic cows, which can express human lactoferrin proteins in their mammary gland. Six hLF transgenic bulls and three wide-type (WT) bulls, 10 months of age, were slaughtered for meat composition analysis. To determine the comparative health of hLF bulls for meat analysis, hematological analyses, organ/body weight analyses and pathology analyses were conducted. Results of the meat analysis show that there were no significant differences in the hematological parameters, organ/body weight ratios of hLF and WT bulls (P>0.05), and histopathological examination of the main organs of hLF bulls revealed no abnormalities. Nutrient parameters of meat compositions of hLF and WT bulls did not show any significant differences (P>0.05). All of these results suggest that the hLF transgene did not have an impact on the meat nutrient compositions of hLF bulls.

  10. The dominant expression of functional human lactoferrin in transgenic cloned goats using a hybrid lactoferrin expression construct.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huiqing; Chen, Jianquan; Sun, Wei; Liu, Siguo; Zhang, Aimin; Xu, Xujun; Wang, Xuebin; He, Zhuzi; Liu, Guohui; Cheng, Guoxiang

    2012-10-31

    Human Lactoferrin (hLF) is an iron-binding protein with multiple physiological functions. As the availability of natural hLF is limited, alternative means of producing this biopharmaceutical protein have been extensively studied. Here we report on the dominant expression of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) in transgenic cloned goats using a novel optimised construct made by fusing a 3.3 kb hLF minigene to the regulatory elements of the β-casein gene. The transgenic goat produced more than 30 mg/ml rhLF in its milk, and rhLF expression was stable during the entire lactation cycle. The rhLF purification efficiency from whole goat milk is approximately 70%, and its purity is above 98%. Compared with natural hLF, the rhLF from transgenic goats has similar biological characteristics including molecular mass, N-terminal sequence, isoelectric point, immunoreactivity and digestive stability. More importantly, the purified rhLF showed specific anti-tumour activity in the mouse model of melanoma experimental metastasis. Therefore, our study shows that the large-scale production of functional rhLF in transgenic goat milk could be an economical and promising source of human therapeutic use in the future. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Lactoferrin-derived Peptides Active towards Influenza: Identification of Three Potent Tetrapeptide Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Scala, Maria Carmina; Sala, Marina; Pietrantoni, Agostina; Spensiero, Antonia; Di Micco, Simone; Agamennone, Mariangela; Bertamino, Alessia; Novellino, Ettore; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel M; Superti, Fabiana; Campiglia, Pietro

    2017-09-06

    Bovine lactoferrin is a biglobular multifunctional iron binding glycoprotein that plays an important role in innate immunity against infections. We have previously demonstrated that selected peptides from bovine lactoferrin C-lobe are able to prevent both Influenza virus hemagglutination and cell infection. To deeper investigate the ability of lactoferrin derived peptides to inhibit Influenza virus infection, in this study we identified new bovine lactoferrin C-lobe derived sequences and corresponding synthetic peptides were synthesized and assayed to check their ability to prevent viral hemagglutination and infection. We identified three tetrapeptides endowed with broad anti-Influenza activity and able to inhibit viral infection in a concentration range femto- to picomolar. Our data indicate that these peptides may constitute a non-toxic tool for potential applications as anti-Influenza therapeutics.

  12. Lactoferrin Adsorbed onto Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals Controlling - In Vivo - the Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fulgione, Andrea; Nocerino, Nunzia; Iannaccone, Marco; Roperto, Sante; Capuano, Federico; Roveri, Norberto; Lelli, Marco; Crasto, Antonio; Calogero, Armando; Pilloni, Argenia Paola; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Background The resistance of Helicobacter pylori to the antibiotic therapy poses the problem to discover new therapeutic approaches. Recently it has been stated that antibacterial, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant properties of lactoferrin are increased when this protein is surface-linked to biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Objective Based on these knowledge, the aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of lactoferrin delivered by biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with cell free supernatant from probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei as an alternative therapy against Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods Antibacterial and antinflammatory properties, humoral antibody induction, histopathological analysis and absence of side effects were evaluated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Results The tests carried out have been demonstrated better performance of lactoferrin delivered by biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles combined with cell free supernatant from probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei compared to both lactoferrin and probiotic alone or pooled. Conclusion These findings indicate the effectiveness and safety of our proposed therapy as alternative treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID:27384186

  13. Antimicrobial Lactoferrin Peptides: The Hidden Players in the Protective Function of a Multifunctional Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Mau; Kaushik, Sanket; Kaur, Punit; Singh, Tej P.

    2013-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein which displays a wide array of modes of action to execute its primary antimicrobial function. It contains various antimicrobial peptides which are released upon its hydrolysis by proteases. These peptides display a similarity with the antimicrobial cationic peptides found in nature. In the current scenario of increasing resistance to antibiotics, there is a need for the discovery of novel antimicrobial drugs. In this context, the structural and functional perspectives on some of the antimicrobial peptides found in N-lobe of lactoferrin have been reviewed. This paper provides the comparison of lactoferrin peptides with other antimicrobial peptides found in nature as well as interspecies comparison of the structural properties of these peptides within the native lactoferrin. PMID:23554820

  14. Lactoferrin Isolation Using Monolithic Column Coupled with Spectrometric or Micro-Amperometric Detector

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Vojtech; Zitka, Ondrej; Dolezal, Petr; Zeman, Ladislav; Horna, Ales; Hubalek, Jaromir; Sileny, Jan; Krizkova, Sona; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional protein with antimicrobial activity and others to health beneficial properties. The main aim of this work was to propose easy to use technique for lactoferrin isolation from cow colostrum samples. Primarily we utilized sodium dodecyl sulphate – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for isolation of lactoferrin from the real samples. Moreover we tested automated microfluidic Experion electrophoresis system to isolate lactoferrin from the collostrum sample. The well developed signal of lactoferrin was determined with detection limit (3 S/N) of 20 ng/ml. In spite of the fact that Experion is faster than SDS-PAGE both separation techniques cannot be used in routine analysis. Therefore we have tested third separation technique, ion exchange chromatography, using monolithic column coupled with UV-VIS detector (LC-UV-VIS). We optimized wave length (280 nm), ionic strength of the elution solution (1.5 M NaCl) and flow rate of the retention and elution solutions (0.25 ml/min and 0.75 ml/min. respectively). Under the optimal conditions the detection limit was estimated as 0.1 μg/ml of lactoferrin measured. Using LC-UV-VIS we determined that lactoferrin concentration varied from 0.5 g/l to 1.1 g/l in cow colostrums collected in the certain time interval up to 72 hours after birth. Further we focused on miniaturization of detection device. We tested amperometric detection at carbon electrode. The results encouraged us to attempt to miniaturise whole detection system and to test it on analysis of real samples of human faeces, because lactoferrin level in faeces is closely associated with the inflammations of intestine mucous membrane. For the purpose of miniaturization we employed the technology of printed electrodes. The detection limit of lactoferrin was estimated as 10 μg/ml measured by the screen-printed electrodes fabricated by us. The fabricated electrodes were compared with commercially available ones. It follows from the obtained

  15. Synergistic Fungistatic Effects of Lactoferrin in Combination with Antifungal Drugs against Clinical Candida Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, M. E.; de Vries, H. G.; Eikelboom, M. C.; Meijer, D. K. F.; Swart, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of failures in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidosis in the case of severely immunosuppressed patients (mostly human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-infected patients), there is need for the development of new, more effective agents and/or compounds that support the activity of the common antifungal agents. Since lactoferrin is one of the nonspecific host defense factors present in saliva that exhibit antifungal activity, we studied the antifungal effects of human, bovine, and iron-depleted lactoferrin in combination with fluconazole, amphotericin B, and 5-fluorocytosine in vitro against clinical isolates of Candida species. Distinct antifungal activities of lactoferrin were observed against clinical isolates of Candida. The MICs generally were determined to be in the range of 0.5 to 100 mg · ml−1. Interestingly, in the combination experiments we observed pronounced cooperative activity against the growth of Candida by using lactoferrin and the three antifungals tested. Only in a limited concentration range was minor antagonism detected. The use of lactoferrin and fluconazole appeared to be the most successful combination. Significant reductions in the minimal effective concentrations of fluconazole were found when it was combined with a relatively low lactoferrin concentration (1 mg/ml). Such combinations still resulted in complete growth inhibition, while synergy of up to 50% against several Candida species was observed. It is concluded that the combined use of lactoferrin and antifungals against severe infections with Candida is an attractive therapeutic option. Since fluconazole-resistant Candida species have frequently been reported, especially in HIV-infected patients, the addition of lactoferrin to the existing fluconazole therapy could postpone the occurrence of species resistance against fluconazole. Clinical studies to further elucidate the potential utility of this combination therapy have been initiated. PMID:10543740

  16. Synergistic fungistatic effects of lactoferrin in combination with antifungal drugs against clinical Candida isolates.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, M E; de Vries, H G; Eikelboom, M C; Meijer, D K; Swart, P J

    1999-11-01

    Because of the rising incidence of failures in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidosis in the case of severely immunosuppressed patients (mostly human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-infected patients), there is need for the development of new, more effective agents and/or compounds that support the activity of the common antifungal agents. Since lactoferrin is one of the nonspecific host defense factors present in saliva that exhibit antifungal activity, we studied the antifungal effects of human, bovine, and iron-depleted lactoferrin in combination with fluconazole, amphotericin B, and 5-fluorocytosine in vitro against clinical isolates of Candida species. Distinct antifungal activities of lactoferrin were observed against clinical isolates of Candida. The MICs generally were determined to be in the range of 0.5 to 100 mg. ml(-1). Interestingly, in the combination experiments we observed pronounced cooperative activity against the growth of Candida by using lactoferrin and the three antifungals tested. Only in a limited concentration range was minor antagonism detected. The use of lactoferrin and fluconazole appeared to be the most successful combination. Significant reductions in the minimal effective concentrations of fluconazole were found when it was combined with a relatively low lactoferrin concentration (1 mg/ml). Such combinations still resulted in complete growth inhibition, while synergy of up to 50% against several Candida species was observed. It is concluded that the combined use of lactoferrin and antifungals against severe infections with Candida is an attractive therapeutic option. Since fluconazole-resistant Candida species have frequently been reported, especially in HIV-infected patients, the addition of lactoferrin to the existing fluconazole therapy could postpone the occurrence of species resistance against fluconazole. Clinical studies to further elucidate the potential utility of this combination therapy have been initiated.

  17. [Nuclear transfer of goat somatic cells transgenic for human lactoferrin].

    PubMed

    Li, Lan; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Yu; Min, Ling-Jiang; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Fang, Yong-Wei; Deng, Ji-Xian; Pan, Qing-Jie

    2006-12-01

    Transgenic animal mammary gland bioreactors are being used to produce recombinant proteins with appropriate post-translational modifications, and nuclear transfer of transgenic somatic cells is a more powerful method to produce mammary gland bioreactor. Here we describe efficient gene transfer and nuclear transfer in goat somatic cells. Gene targeting vector pGBC2LF was constructed by cloning human lactoferrin (LF) gene cDNA into exon 2 of the milk goat beta-casein gene, and the endogenous start condon was replaced by that of human LF gene. Goat fetal fibroblasts were transfected with linearized pGBC2LF and 14 cell lines were positive according to PCR and Southern blot. The transgenic cells were used as donor cells of nuclear transfer, and some of reconstructed embryos could develop to blastocyst in vitro.

  18. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Nocerino, Nunzia; Fulgione, Andrea; Iannaccone, Marco; Tomasetta, Laura; Ianniello, Flora; Martora, Francesca; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Capuano, Federico; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA). We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. PMID:24623976

  19. Adsorption Analysis of Lactoferrin to Titanium, Stainless Steel, Zirconia, and Polymethyl Methacrylate Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Eiji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    It is postulated that biofilm formation in the oral cavity causes some oral diseases. Lactoferrin is an antibacterial protein in saliva and an important defense factor against biofilm development. We analyzed the adsorbed amount of lactoferrin and the dissociation constant (K d) of lactoferrin to the surface of different dental materials using an equilibrium analysis technique in a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement. Four different materials, titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SUS), zirconia (ZrO2) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were evaluated. These materials were coated onto QCM sensors and the surfaces characterized by atomic force microscopic observation, measurements of surface roughness, contact angles of water, and zeta potential. QCM measurements revealed that Ti and SUS showed a greater amount of lactoferrin adsorption than ZrO2 and PMMA. Surface roughness and zeta potential influenced the lactoferrin adsorption. On the contrary, the K d value analysis indicated that the adsorbed lactoferrin bound less tightly to the Ti and SUS surfaces than to the ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. The hydrophobic interaction between lactoferrin and ZrO2 and PMMA is presumed to participate in better binding of lactoferrin to ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. It was revealed that lactoferrin adsorption behavior was influenced by the characteristics of the material surface. PMID:26998486

  20. Lactoferrin and oral diseases: current status and perspective in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Berlutti, Francesca; Pilloni, Andrea; Pietropaoli, Miriam; Polimeni, Antonella; Valenti, Piera

    2012-01-01

    Summary Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding glycoprotein able to chelate two ferric ions per molecule, is a component of human secretions synthesized by exocrine glands and neutrophils in infection/inflammation sites. Lactoferrin in saliva represents an important defence factor against bacterial injuries including those related to Streptococcus mutans and periodontopathic bacteria through its ability to decrease bacterial growth, biofilm development, iron overload, reactive oxygen formation and inflammatory processes. A growing body of research suggests that inflammatory periodontal disease involves a failure of resolution pathways to restore tissue homeostasis. There is an important distinction between anti-inflammation and resolution; anti-inflammation is pharmacologic intervention in inflammatory pathways, whereas resolution involves biologic pathways restoring inflammatory homeostasis. An appropriate regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis might be useful in reducing periodontal tissue destruction. Recently, the multi-functional IL-6 is emerging as an important factor able to modulate bone, iron and inflammatory homeostasis. Here, we report an overview of Lf functions as well as for the first time Lf anti-inflammatory ability against periodontitis in in vitro model and observational clinical study. In in vitro model, represented by gingival fibroblasts infected with Prevotella intermedia, Lf exerted a potent anti-inflammatory activity. In the observational clinical trial performed through bovine Lf (bLf) topically administered to volunteers suffering from periodontitis, bLf decreased cytokines, including IL-6 in crevicular fluid, edema, bleeding, pocket depth, gingival and plaque index, thus improving clinical attachment levels. Even if other clinical trials are required, these results provide strong evidence for a instead of an therapeutic potential of this multifunctional natural protein. PMID:22545184

  1. Oral lactoferrin protects against experimental candidiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Velliyagounder, K; Alsaedi, W; Alabdulmohsen, W; Markowitz, K; Fine, D H

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of human lactoferrin (hLF) in protecting the oral cavities of mice against Candida albicans infection in lactoferrin knockout (LFKO(-/-)) mice was compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We also aim to determine the protective role of hLF in LFKO(-/-) mice. Antibiotic-treated immunosuppressed mice were inoculated with C. albicans (or sham infection) by oral swab and evaluated for the severity of infection after 7 days of infection. To determine the protective role of hLF, we added 0·3% solution of hLF to the drinking water given to some of the mice. CFU count, scoring of lesions and microscopic observations were carried out to determine the severity of infection. LFKO(-/-) I mice showed a 2 log (P = 0·001) higher CFUs of C. albicans in the oral cavity compared to the WT mice infected with C. albicans (WTI). LFKO(-/-) I mice given hLF had a 3 log (P = 0·001) reduction in CFUs in the oral cavity compared to untreated LFKO(-/-) I mice. The severity of infection, observed by light microscopy, revealed that the tongue of the LFKO(-/-) I mice showed more white patches compared to WTI and LFKO(-/-) I + hLF mice. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that more filiform papillae were destroyed in LFKO(-/-) I mice when compared to WTI or LFKO(-/-) I + hLF mice. Human LF is important in protecting mice from oral C. albicans infection. Administered hLF may be used to prevent C. albicans infection. Human LF, a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein can be used as a therapeutic active ingredient in oral healthcare products against C. albicans. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Influence of lactoferrin in preventing preterm delivery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Giunta, Giuliana; Giuffrida, Lorena; Mangano, Katia; Fagone, Paolo; Cianci, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is an approximately 80-kDa iron-binding glycoprotein, belonging to the transferrin family, with well-known bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties. It is produced and stored in specific (secondary) neutrophil granules and released during neutrophil activation and degranulation. Nowadays, Lf has a well-known therapeutic indication for combating iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnant women. Studies suggest that Lf plays an important role against cervicovaginal infections by decreasing cytokines levels, such as interleukin (IL)-6, in cervicovaginal fluid. The aim of this preliminary trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of Lf in preventing preterm delivery caused by cervical infections and ripening. From November 2009 to August 2010, 21 pregnant women (26-32 weeks pregnant), aged between 22 and 36 years, suffering from IDA, at risk of preterm delivery, were prospectively enrolled in the study. One group (N=14) received 100 mg of recombinant human lactoferrin (bLf) [corrected] (lattoferrina; AG-pharma) twice a day before meals, for one month. The other group (N=7) received 520 mg of ferrous sulfate (Ferro-Grad; Abbott Laboratories, USA) once a day. The patients underwent transvaginal ultrasound to evaluate cervical length and funneling, and vaginal swabs were used to detect infections and cervicovaginal fluid sample collection to determine IL-6 levels. The results showed a correlation between the oral administration of 200 mg of bLf [corrected] with both the normalization of vaginal flora (vaginal infection disappearance) and the decrease in IL-6 cervicovaginal fluid levels in women at risk of preterm delivery.

  3. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for thermal denaturation of ovine milk lactoferrin determined by its loss of immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, F; Harouna, S; Calvo, M; Pérez, M D; Sánchez, L

    2015-07-01

    Lactoferrin is a protein with important biological functions that can be obtained from milk and by-products derived from the dairy industry, such as whey. Although bovine lactoferrin has been extensively studied, ovine lactoferrin is not quite as well known. In the present study, the effect of several heat treatments in 3 different media, over a temperature range from 66 to 75°C, has been studied on lactoferrin isolated from sheep milk. Denaturation of lactoferrin was determined by measuring its immunoreactivity with specific polyclonal antibodies. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters obtained indicate that lactoferrin denatures by heat more rapidly in whey than in phosphate buffer or milk. The value of activation energy found for the denaturation process of lactoferrin when treated in whey is higher (390kJ/mol) than that obtained in milk (194kJ/mol) or phosphate buffer (179kJ/mol). This indicates that a great amount of energy is necessary to start denaturation of ovine lactoferrin, probably due to the interaction of this protein with other whey proteins. The changes in the hydrophobicity of lactoferrin after heat treatments were determined by fluorescence measurement using acrylamide. The decrease in the hydrophobicity constant was very small for the treatments from 66 to 75°C, up to 20min, which indicates that lactoferrin conformation did not experienced a great change. The results obtained in this study permit the prediction of behavior of ovine lactoferrin under several heat treatments and show that high-temperature, short-time pasteurization (72°C, 15 s) does not cause loss of its immunoreactivity and, consequently, would not affect its conformation and biological activity. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human milk lactoferrin inactivates two putative colonization factors expressed by Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Qiu, J; Hendrixson, D R; Baker, E N; Murphy, T F; St Geme, J W; Plaut, A G

    1998-10-13

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major cause of otitis media and other respiratory tract disease in children. The pathogenesis of disease begins with colonization of the upper respiratory mucosa, a process that involves evasion of local immune mechanisms and adherence to epithelial cells. Several studies have demonstrated that human milk is protective against H. influenzae colonization and disease. In the present study, we examined the effect of human milk on the H. influenzae IgA1 protease and Hap adhesin, two autotransported proteins that are presumed to facilitate colonization. Our results demonstrated that human milk lactoferrin efficiently extracted the IgA1 protease preprotein from the bacterial outer membrane. In addition, lactoferrin specifically degraded the Hap adhesin and abolished Hap-mediated adherence. Extraction of IgA1 protease and degradation of Hap were localized to the N-lobe of the bilobed lactoferrin molecule and were inhibited by serine protease inhibitors, suggesting that the lactoferrin N-lobe may contain serine protease activity. Additional experiments revealed no effect of lactoferrin on the H. influenzae P2, P5, and P6 outer-membrane proteins, which are distinguished from IgA1 protease and Hap by the lack of an N-terminal passenger domain or an extracellular linker region. These results suggest that human milk lactoferrin may attenuate the pathogenic potential of H. influenzae by selectively inactivating IgA1 protease and Hap, thereby interfering with colonization. Future studies should examine the therapeutic potential of lactoferrin, perhaps as a supplement in infant formulas.

  5. Effect of indomethacin and lactoferrin on human tenocyte proliferation and collagen formation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yaonan; Department of Orthopaedic, Beijing Hospital of Ministry of Public Health, Beijing, China 100730; Wang, Xiao

    Highlights: • Indomethacin, a classic NSAID, inhibited human tenocyte proliferation at high concentration (100 µM). • Lactoferrin at 50-100 µg/ml promoted human tenocyte survival, proliferation and collagen synthesis. • Lactoferrin is anabolic to human tenocytes in vitro and reverses potential inhibitory effects of NSAIDs on human tenocytes. - Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in patients with injuries and inflammation of tendon and ligament, and as post-surgical analgesics. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of indomethacin, a classic NSAID and its combinational effect with an anabolic agent of skeletal tissue, lactoferrin, on the proliferationmore » and collagen formation of human tenocytes in vitro. A factorial experimental design was employed to study the dose-dependent effect of the combination of indomethacin and lactoferrin. The results showed that indomethacin at high concentration (100 μM) inhibited human tenocyte proliferation in culture medium with 1–10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in vitro. Also, high dose of indomethacin inhibited the collagen formation of human tenocytes in 1% FBS culture medium. Lactoferrin at 50–100 μg/ml promoted human tenocyte survival in serum-free culture medium and enhanced proliferation and collagen synthesis of human tenocytes in 1% FBS culture medium. When 50–100 μg/ml lactoferrin was used in combination with 100–200 μM indomethacin, it partially rescued the inhibitory effects of indomethacin on human tenocyte proliferation, viability and collagen formation. To our knowledge, it is the first evidence that lactoferrin is anabolic to human tenocytes in vitro and reverses potential inhibitory effects of NSAIDs on human tenocytes.« less

  6. Lactoferricin but not lactoferrin inhibit herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Shestakov, Andrey; Jenssen, Håvard; Nordström, Inger; Eriksson, Kristina

    2012-03-01

    We have evaluated the potential of bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin for their ability to prevent and/or treat genital HSV-2 infection in mice. We confirm previous data showing that both lactoferrin and lactoferricin have antiviral properties in vitro and can inhibit HSV-2 infection of GMK cells in a dose-dependent manner. When tested in vivo, lactoferricin but not lactoferrin was also a potent inhibitor of HSV-2 infection. When admixed with virus prior to inoculation, lactoferricin inhibited disease development and significantly reduced the viral load in a genital model of HSV-2 infection in mice. Lactoferrin and lactoferricin were also tested for their ability to stimulate the production of chemokines. Neither of the compounds induced the production of CCL3, CCL5, CXCL1 or CXCL2 by mouse splenocytes in vitro. However, when tested in vivo, both lactoferrin and lactoferricin were able to induce local vaginal production of CCL5. Lactoferrin also induced CXCL2 production. The prophylactic and/or therapeutic effects of lactoferrin or lactoferricin were also tested. But none of the compounds were efficient in blocking HSV-2 infection when given 24h prior to HSV-2 infection. Lactoferricin however showed promising results as a therapeutic agent and delayed both disease onset by 3days as well as reducing the viral load almost 15-fold when given as a single dose 24h post-infection. These data show that lactoferricin can block genital herpes infection in mice, and perhaps also be used for post-infection treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of the aggregation of lactoferrin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in the presence of polyphenols, oligosaccharides, and collagen peptide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Liu, Fuguo; Xu, Chenqi; Sun, Cuixia; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-05-27

    The aggregation of lactoferrin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was inhibited by polyphenols, oligosaccharides, and collagen peptide in this study. Polyphenols, oligosaccharides, or collagen peptide can effectively prevent the formation of lactoferrin-EGCG aggregates, respectively. The addition sequence of lactoferrin, polyphenols (oligosaccharides or collagen peptide) and EGCG can affect the turbidity and particle size of the ternary complexes in the buffer solution; however, it hardly affected the ζ-potential and fluorescence characteristics. With either positive or negative charge, polyphenols and collagen peptide disrupted the formation of lactoferrin-EGCG aggregate mainly through the mechanism of its competition with EGCG molecules which surrounded the lactoferrin molecule surface with weaker binding affinities, forming polyphenols or a collagen peptide-lactoferrin-EGCG ternary complex; for neutral oligosaccharides, the ternary complex was generated mainly through steric effects, accompanied by a change in the lactoferrin secondary structure induced by gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and xylo-oligosaccharide. Polyphenols, oligosaccharides, or collagen peptide restraining the formation of lactoferrin-EGCG aggregate could be applied in the design of clear products in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  8. Effects of in vitro lactoferricin and lactoferrin on the head kidney cells of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.).

    PubMed

    Henry, Morgane A; Alexis, Maria N

    2009-08-15

    Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of lactoferrin have been demonstrated in mammals and in fish. However, in vivo, lactoferrin is digested by gastric pepsin treatment into the N-terminal derived peptide named lactoferricin. This has been so far overlooked in fish in vitro studies. The aim of the present study was to assess in vitro the effects of both lactoferricin and lactoferrin on the head kidney cells of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) in order to determine their potential as dietary additives and to get some insight into their mode of action. In vitro lactoferricin decreased significantly the chemiluminescent response of head kidney cells but did not affect the zymosan-triggered chemiluminescence activity. On the other hand, a high concentration of lactoferrin directly stimulated chemiluminescence but reduced the zymosan-triggered chemiluminescence. The bactericidal activity of head kidney cells was also significantly diminished by pre-incubation with lactoferrin in a dose-dependent manner. Although no significant effect of lactoferricin or lactoferrin was evidenced on head kidney cellular viability, absent or negative effect on the priming of respiratory burst activity suggested that care should be taken when using lactoferrin in the diet of sea bass and high doses should be avoided. Hypotheses about the mechanisms of action of lactoferricin and lactoferrin are presented.

  9. Transgenic expression of lactoferrin imparts enhanced resistance to head blight of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Han, Jigang; Lakshman, Dilip K; Galvez, Leny C; Mitra, Sharmila; Baenziger, Peter Stephen; Mitra, Amitava

    2012-03-09

    The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Using the tools of plant genetic engineering, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial gene was tested for resistance against head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that reduces both grain yield and quality. A construct containing a bovine lactoferrin cDNA was used to transform wheat using an Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer system to express this antimicrobial protein in transgenic wheat. Transformants were analyzed by Northern and Western blots to determine lactoferrin gene expression levels and were inoculated with the head blight disease fungus F. graminearum. Transgenic wheat showed a significant reduction of disease incidence caused by F. graminearum compared to control wheat plants. The level of resistance in the highly susceptible wheat cultivar Bobwhite was significantly higher in transgenic plants compared to control Bobwhite and two untransformed commercial wheat cultivars, susceptible Wheaton and tolerant ND 2710. Quantification of the expressed lactoferrin protein by ELISA in transgenic wheat indicated a positive correlation between the lactoferrin gene expression levels and the levels of disease resistance. Introgression of the lactoferrin gene into elite commercial wheat, barley and other susceptible cereals may enhance resistance to F. graminearum.

  10. Transgenic expression of lactoferrin imparts enhanced resistance to head blight of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Using the tools of plant genetic engineering, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial gene was tested for resistance against head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that reduces both grain yield and quality. Results A construct containing a bovine lactoferrin cDNA was used to transform wheat using an Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer system to express this antimicrobial protein in transgenic wheat. Transformants were analyzed by Northern and Western blots to determine lactoferrin gene expression levels and were inoculated with the head blight disease fungus F. graminearum. Transgenic wheat showed a significant reduction of disease incidence caused by F. graminearum compared to control wheat plants. The level of resistance in the highly susceptible wheat cultivar Bobwhite was significantly higher in transgenic plants compared to control Bobwhite and two untransformed commercial wheat cultivars, susceptible Wheaton and tolerant ND 2710. Quantification of the expressed lactoferrin protein by ELISA in transgenic wheat indicated a positive correlation between the lactoferrin gene expression levels and the levels of disease resistance. Conclusions Introgression of the lactoferrin gene into elite commercial wheat, barley and other susceptible cereals may enhance resistance to F. graminearum. PMID:22405032

  11. Angiogenin: a novel inhibitor of neutrophil lactoferrin release during extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Schmaldienst, Sabine; Oberpichler, André; Tschesche, Harald; Hörl, Walter H

    2003-01-01

    Degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) occurs during extracorporeal circulation. A degranulation-inhibiting protein identical to angiogenin was recently isolated from high-flux dialyzer ultrafiltrate. This protein inhibits the release of lactoferrin and metalloproteinases from PMNL in vitro. In the present study, we investigated end-stage renal disease patients undergoing regular hemodialysis treatment with either high-flux dialyzers (n = 51) or low-flux dialyzers (n = 44), and chronically uremic patients undergoing hemodiafiltration (n = 30). Hemodialysis therapy with low-flux polysulfone or cellulose triacetate membranes caused no or only minimal reduction (lactoferrin release from PMNL. Hemodialysis therapy with high-flux membranes (e.g. cellulose triacetate, polymethylmethacrylate) or hemodiafiltration resulted in a reduction of plasma angiogenin levels by 20-40% after 2 h associated with a nearly 4-fold PMNL lactoferrin release. The release of PMNL elastase was not affected by the different treatment modalities used. We conclude that high angiogenin plasma levels protect against lactoferrin release from PMNL during extracorporeal circulation in chronically uremic patients. A decrease of plasma angiogenin between 20 and 40% during extracorporeal circulation, however, results in marked PMNL lactoferrin release. This novel mechanism may explain, at least in part, PMNL degranulation also in non complement activating high-flux membranes. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Investigation of the enhanced antimicrobial activity of combination dry powder inhaler formulations of lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Lindsay J; Oguejiofor, Wilson; Price, Robert; Shur, Jagdeep

    2016-12-05

    The airways of most people with cystic fibrosis are colonized with biofilms of the Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Delivery of antibiotics directly to the lung in the form of dry powder aerosols offers the potential to achieve high local concentrations directly to the biofilms. Unfortunately, current aerosolised antibiotic regimes are unable to efficiently eradicate these biofilms from the airways. We investigated the ability of the innate antimicrobial, lactoferrin, to enhance the activity of two aminoglycoside antibiotics (tobramycin and gentamicin) against biofilms of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. Biofilms were prepared in 96 well polystyrene plates. Combinations of the antibiotics and various lactoferrin preparations were spray dried. The bacterial cell viability of the various spray dried combinations was determined. Iron-free lactoferrin (apo lactoferrin) induced a 3-log reduction in the killing of planktonic cell by the aminoglycoside antibiotics (p<0.01) and also reduced both the formation and persistence of P. aeruginosa biofilms (p<0.01). Combinations of lactoferrin and an aminoglycoside displays potential as an effective new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of P. aeruginosa biofilms infections such as those typical of the CF lungs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Lactoferrin Peptides with Stimulatory Effect on Osteoblast Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fengjiao; Tu, Maolin; Liu, Meng; Shi, Pujie; Wang, Yun; Wu, Di; Du, Ming

    2017-08-23

    Lactoferrin is reported to be a potential food protein with osteogenic activity. However, the activity of lactoferrin peptides is questionable. In the present study, we isolated and characterized peptides from lactoferrin with stimulatory effect on osteoblast proliferation. Peptides from the lactoferrin pepsin hydrolysate were purified using cation-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Effects of different hydrolysates and peptides on the proliferation of osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were compared by MTT assay. Results showed that fraction P5-a from Superdex Peptide 10/300 GL gel chromatography showed better activity. Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry confirmed that two peptides components of P5-a corresponded to fractions of 20-78 and 191-277 amino acids in Bos taurus lactoferrin molecule (GI: 221706349). These results will provide some theoretical and practical data for the preparation and application of osteogenic peptides in functional food industry.

  14. Lactoferrin: A Natural Glycoprotein Involved in Iron and Inflammatory Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cutone, Antimo; Lepanto, Maria Stefania; Paesano, Rosalba; Valenti, Piera

    2017-01-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLf), an iron-binding multifunctional cationic glycoprotein secreted by exocrine glands and by neutrophils, is a key element of host defenses. HLf and bovine Lf (bLf), possessing high sequence homology and identical functions, inhibit bacterial growth and biofilm dependently from iron binding ability while, independently, bacterial adhesion to and the entry into cells. In infected/inflamed host cells, bLf exerts an anti-inflammatory activity against interleukin-6 (IL-6), thus up-regulating ferroportin (Fpn) and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and down-regulating ferritin (Ftn), pivotal actors of iron and inflammatory homeostasis (IIH). Consequently, bLf inhibits intracellular iron overload, an unsafe condition enhancing in vivo susceptibility to infections, as well as anemia of inflammation (AI), re-establishing IIH. In pregnant women, affected by AI, bLf oral administration decreases IL-6 and increases hematological parameters. This surprising effect is unrelated to iron supplementation by bLf (80 μg instead of 1–2 mg/day), but to its role on IIH. AI is unrelated to the lack of iron, but to iron delocalization: cellular/tissue overload and blood deficiency. BLf cures AI by restoring iron from cells to blood through Fpn up-expression. Indeed, anti-inflammatory activity of oral and intravaginal bLf prevents preterm delivery. Promising bLf treatments can prevent/cure transitory inflammation/anemia/oral pathologies in athletes. PMID:28914813

  15. Comparison of the interaction between lactoferrin and isomeric drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ming; Lu, Xiaowang; Wang, Yan; Brodelius, Peter E.

    2017-02-01

    The binding properties of pentacyclic triterpenoid isomeric drugs, i.e. ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA), to bovine lactoferrin (BLF) have been studied by molecule modeling, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Molecular docking, performed to reveal the possible binding mode or mechanism, suggested that hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding play important roles to stabilize the complex. The results of spectroscopic measurements showed that the two isomeric drugs both strongly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BLF through a static quenching procedure although some differences between UA and OA binding strength and non-radiation energy transfer occurred within the molecules. The number of binding sites was 3.44 and 3.10 for UA and OA, respectively, and the efficiency of Förster energy transfer provided a distance of 0.77 and 1.21 nm for UA and OA, respectively. The conformation transformation of BLF affected by the drugs conformed to the ;all-or-none; pattern. In addition, the changes of the ratios of α-helices, β-sheets and β-turns of BLF during the process of the interaction were obtained. The results of the experiments in combination with the calculations showed that there are two modes of pentacyclic triterpenoid binding to BLF instead of one binding mode only governed by the principle of the lowest bonding energy.

  16. Plasma lactoferrin levels in newborn preterm infants with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Decembrino, Lidia; DeAmici, Mara; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Manzoni, Paolo; Paolillo, Piermichele; Stronati, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is one of the major proteins of all exocrine secretions with a role in the antinfective process. Our aim was to evaluate how plasma Fl levels may change in response to infection in newborn preterm infants. A total of 15 (8 females, 7 males) newborn preterm infants with a postnatal age >72 h of life, underwent to blood culture and others markers of infection, for suspected sepsis, were enrolled in the study. We found that Lf serum concentration was significantly lowest in four neonates (26.7%) with confirmed sepsis than in 11 (73.3%) with clinical sepsis. The AUC was 0.90 (95%CI: 0.63-0.99). The optimal cutoff for Lf was <1.2 μg/ml with a sensibility of 100% and a specificity of 81.8%. Lf serum concentration was positively correlated with WBC or neutrophil (Spearman rho = 0.69 and 0.49, respectively). Serum Lf could prove a promising, sensitive and specific marker in the diagnostic approach to infants with suspected sepsis, thanks to its role in defense mechanisms and physiological functions of the immune system. Low levels of Lf in sepsis may suggest an immature response due to suboptimal leukocites activity in newborn preterm infants.

  17. Lactoferrin delivery systems: approaches for its more effective use.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hiraku

    2011-11-01

    Recently, pharmacotherapy has advanced extensively, but there are still many refractory diseases which cannot be solved fully by existing therapeutic agents. Therefore, alternative medicine and health foods are now attracting much attention, for example, lactoferrin (LF): a multifunctional glycoprotein. As LF is non-toxic and low-cost, its application in healthcare and therapeutics is expected to be widespread. In this review, LF's general basic features are described. The interaction of LF with its receptors activates the immune system, including cytokine production and balance. In particular, the immune activation of orally administered LF is considered as a new strategy for the treatment of refractory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, virus infection and tumor metastasis. Also mentioned are the problems associated with the use of LF. As LF is degraded rapidly in the body due to enzymatic hydrolysis, high amounts or frequent dosing is required; an appropriate delivery system may improve these problems and increase its efficiency. Chemical modifications, such as PEGylation, can enhance the stability of LF in the body, resulting in increased efficacy. Also, liposomes and enteric or microparticulate formulations can promote the function of LF in oral administration due to target site delivery and protection of LF from enzymatic hydrolysis. These delivery systems are expected to improve the utility of LF.

  18. Interaction of lactoferrin and lysozyme with casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Anema, Skelte G; de Kruif, C G Kees

    2011-11-14

    On addition of lactoferrin (LF) to skim milk, the turbidity decreases. The basic protein binds to the caseins in the casein micelles, which is then followed by a (partial) disintegration of the casein micelles. The amount of LF initially binding to casein micelles follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The kinetics of the binding of LF could be described by first-order kinetics and similarly the disintegration kinetics. The disintegration was, however, about 10 times slower than the initial adsorption, which allowed investigating both phenomena. Kinetic data were also obtained from turbidity measurements, and all data could be described with one equation. The disintegration of the casein micelles was further characterized by an activation energy of 52 kJ/mol. The initial increase in hydrodynamic size of the casein micelles could be accounted for by assuming that it would go as the cube root of the mass using the adsorption and disintegration kinetics as determined from gel electrophoresis. The results show that LF binds to casein micelles and that subsequently the casein micelles partly disintegrate. All micelles behave in a similar manner as average particle size decreases. Lysozyme also bound to the casein micelles, and this binding followed a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. However, lysozyme did not cause the disintegration of the casein micelles.

  19. Adsorption and spectroscopic characterization of lactoferrin on hydroxyapatite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Iafisco, Michele; Di Foggia, Michele; Bonora, Sergio; Prat, Maria; Roveri, Norberto

    2011-01-28

    Lactoferrin (LF), a well-characterized protein of blood plasma and milk with antioxidant, cariostatic, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, has been adsorbed onto biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals at two different pH values (7.4 and 9.0). The interaction was herein investigated by spectroscopic, thermal and microscopic techniques. The positive electrostatic surface potential of LF at pH 7.4 allows a strong surface interaction with the slightly negative HA nanocrystals and avoids the protein-protein interaction, leading to the formation of a coating protein monolayer. In contrast, at pH 9.0 the surface potential of LF is a mix of negative and positive zones favouring the protein-protein interaction and reducing the interaction with HA nanocrystals; as a result a double layer of coating protein was formed. These experimental findings are supported by the good fittings of the adsorption isotherms by different theoretical models according to Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The nanosized HA does not appreciably affect the conformation of the adsorbed protein. In fact, using FT-Raman and FT-IR, we found that after adsorption the protein was only slightly unfolded with a small fraction of the α-helix structure being converted into turn, while the β-sheet content remained almost unchanged. The bioactive surface of HA functionalized with LF could be utilized to improve the material performance towards the biological environment for biomedical applications.

  20. Effect of bovine lactoferrin on Chlamydia trachomatis infection and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Rosa; Di Pietro, Marisa; Filardo, Simone; Bressan, Alessia; Rosa, Luigi; Cutone, Antimo; Frioni, Alessandra; Berlutti, Francesca; Paesano, Rosalba; Valenti, Piera

    2017-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular pathogen responsible for the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide, causing acute and chronic infections. The acute infection is susceptible to antibiotics, whereas the chronic one needs prolonged therapies, thus increasing the risk of developing antibiotic resistance. Novel alternative therapies are needed. The intracellular development of C. trachomatis requires essential nutrients, including iron. Iron-chelating drugs inhibit C. trachomatis developmental cycle. Lactoferrin (Lf), a pleiotropic iron binding glycoprotein, could be a promising candidate against C. trachomatis infection. Similarly to the efficacy against other intracellular pathogens, bovine Lf (bLf) could both interfere with C. trachomatis entry into epithelial cells and exert an anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro and in vivo effects of bLf against C. trachomatis infectious and inflammatory process has been investigated. BLf inhibits C. trachomatis entry into host cells when incubated with cell monolayers before or at the moment of the infection and down-regulates IL-6/IL-8 synthesized by infected cells. Six out of 7 pregnant women asymptomatically infected by C. trachomatis, after 30 days of bLf intravaginal administration, were negative for C. trachomatis and showed a decrease of cervical IL-6 levels. This is the first time that the bLf protective effect against C. trachomatis infection has been demonstrated.

  1. Hydroxyapatite nanorod and microsphere functionalized with bioactive lactoferrin as a new biomaterial for enhancement bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pujie; Wang, Qun; Yu, Cuiping; Fan, Fengjiao; Liu, Meng; Tu, Maolin; Lu, Weihong; Du, Ming

    2017-07-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) has been recently recognized as a promising new novel bone growth factor for the beneficial effects on bone cells and promotion of bone growth. Currently, it has been attracted wide attention in bone regeneration as functional food additives or a potential bioactive protein in bone tissue engineering. The present study investigated the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles, a widely used bone substitute material for high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, functionalized with lactoferrin as a composite material are applied to bone tissue engineering. Two kinds of hydroxyapatite samples with different sizes, including nanorods and microspheres particles, were functionalized with lactoferrin molecules, respectively. A detailed characterization of as-prepared HAP-LF complex is presented, combining thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Zeta potential and the analysis of electrostatic surface potential of lactoferrin were carried to reveal the mechanism of adsorption. The effects of HAP-LF complex on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast proliferation and morphology were systematically evaluated at different culture time. Interestingly, results showed that cell viability of HAP-LF group was significantly higher than HAP group indicating that the HAP-LF can improve the biocompatibility of HAP, which mainly originated from a combination of HAP-LF interaction. These results indicated that hydroxyapatite particles can work as a controlled releasing carrier of lactoferrin successfully, and lactoferrin showed better potentiality on using in the field of bone regeneration by coupling with hydroxyapatite. This study would provide a new biomaterial and might offer a new insight for enhancement of bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Faecal lactoferrin and calprotectin in patients with Clostridium difficile infection: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Barbut, F; Gouot, C; Lapidus, N; Suzon, L; Syed-Zaidi, R; Lalande, V; Eckert, C

    2017-12-01

    Calprotectin and lactoferrin are released by the gastrointestinal tract in response to infection and mucosal inflammation. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of quantifying faecal lactoferrin and calprotectin concentrations in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) patients with or without free toxins in the stools. We conducted a single-centre 22-month case-control study. Patients with a positive CDI diagnosis were compared to two control groups: group 1 = diarrhoeic patients negative for C. difficile and matched (1:1) to CDI cases on the ward location and age, and group 2 = diarrhoeic patients colonised with a non-toxigenic strain of C. difficile. Faecal lactoferrin and calprotectin concentrations in faeces were determined for patients with CDI and controls. Of 135 patients with CDI, 87 (64.4%) had a positive stool cytotoxicity assay (free toxin) and 48 (35.6%) had a positive toxigenic culture without detectable toxins in the stools. The median lactoferrin values were 26.8 μg/g, 8.0 μg/g and 15.8 μg/g in CDI patients and groups 1 and 2, respectively. The median calprotectin values were 218.0 μg/g, 111.5 μg/g and 111.3 μg/g, respectively. Among patients with CDI, faecal lactoferrin and calprotectin levels were higher in those with free toxins in their stools (39.2 vs. 10.2 μg/g, p = 0.003 and 274.0 vs. 166.0 μg/g, p = 0.051, respectively). Both faecal calprotectin and lactoferrin were higher in patients with CDI, especially in those with detectable toxin in faeces, suggesting a correlation between intestinal inflammation and toxins in stools.

  3. Nuclear and cytoplasmic delivery of lactoferrin in glioma using chitosan nanoparticles: Cellular location dependent-action of lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Salma N; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Lamprecht, Alf

    2018-08-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) exerts anti-cancer effects on glioma, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear. Despite possessing a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), Lf was found to allocate only in the cytoplasm of glioma 261. Lf was therefore loaded into nuclear and cytoplasmic targeted nanoparticles (NPs) to determine whether nuclear delivery of Lf would enhance its anti-cancer effect. Upon treatment with 300 and 800 µg/mL Lf loaded chitosan NPs, nuclear targeted Lf-NPs showed 1.3 and 2.7 folds increase in cell viability, whereas cytoplasmic targeted Lf-NPs at 300 µg/mL decreased cell viability by 0.8 folds in comparison to free Lf and controls. Results suggest that the cytotoxicity of Lf on glioma is attributable to its cytoplasmic allocation. Nuclear delivery of Lf induced cell proliferation rather than cytotoxicity, indicating that the mode of action of Lf in glioma is cell location dependent. This calls for caution about the general use of Lf as an anti-cancer protein. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A Novel Murine Anti-Lactoferrin Monoclonal Antibody Activates Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes through Membrane-Bound Lactoferrin and TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Xu, Yan-Rui; Yan, Ru; Sun, Shu-Liang; Dong, Hong-Liang; Wang, Jun; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soluble lactoferrin (LTF) is a versatile molecule that not only regulates the iron homeostasis, but also harbors direct microbicidal and immunomodulating abilities in mammalian body fluids. In contrast, little is known about the function of membrane-bound LTF (mbLTF), although its expression on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (huPMNs) has been reported for decades. Given that LTF/anti-LTF antibodies represent a potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in patients with immune disorders, we wished, in the present study, to generate a novel human LTF- (huLTF-) specific mAb suitable for detailed analyses on the expression and function of mbLTF as well as for deciphering the underlying mechanisms. By using the traditional hybridoma cell fusion technology, we obtained a murine IgG1 (kappa) mAb, M-860, against huLTF. M-860 recognizes a conformational epitope of huLTF as it binds to natural, but not denatured, huLTF in ELISA. Moreover, M-860 detects mbLTF by FACS and captures endogenous huLTF in total cell lysates of huPMNs. Functionally, M-860 induces the activation of huPMNs partially through TLR4 but independently of phagocytosis. M-860 is thus a powerful tool to analyze the expression and function of human mbLTF, which will further our understanding of the roles of LTF in health and disease. PMID:26649297

  5. Kinetics of Competitive Adsorption between Lysozyme and Lactoferrin on Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses and the Effect on Lysozyme Activity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brad; Jones, Lyndon; Forrest, James A

    2015-05-01

    To determine the effect of competitive adsorption between lysozyme and lactoferrin on silicone hydrogel contact lenses and the effect on lysozyme activity. Three commercially available silicone hydrogel contact lens materials (senofilcon A, lotrafilcon B and balafilcon A) were examined, for time points ranging from 10 s to 2 h. Total protein deposition was determined by I(125) radiolabeling of lysozyme and lactoferrin, while the activity of lysozyme was determined by a micrococcal activity assay. Senofilcon A and balafilcon A did not show any relevant competitive adsorption between lysozyme and lactoferrin. Lotrafilcon B showed reduced protein deposition due to competitive adsorption for lactoferrin at all time points and lysozyme after 7.5 min. Co-adsorption of lactoferrin and lysozyme decreased the activity of lysozyme in solution for senofilcon A and lotrafilcon B, but co-adsorption had no effect on the surface activity of lysozyme for all lens types investigated. Competition between lysozyme and lactoferrin is material specific. Co-adsorption of lysozyme and lactoferrin does not affect the activity of surface-bound lysozyme but can reduce the activity of subsequently desorbed lysozyme.

  6. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Lactoferrin Dampens High-Fructose Corn Syrup-Induced Hepatic Manifestations of the Metabolic Syndrome in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24816278

  8. A preliminary approach to creating an overview of lactoferrin multi-functionality utilizing a text mining method.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Kei-ichi; Kushida, Tatsuya

    2010-06-01

    Lactoferrin is a multi-functional metal-binding glycoprotein that exhibits many biological functions of interest to many researchers from the fields of clinical medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, nutrition and milk science. To date, a number of academic reports concerning the biological activities of lactoferrin have been published and are easily accessible through public data repositories. However, as the literature is expanding daily, this presents challenges in understanding the larger picture of lactoferrin function and mechanisms. In order to overcome the "analysis paralysis" associated with lactoferrin information, we attempted to apply a text mining method to the accumulated lactoferrin literature. To this end, we used the information extraction system GENPAC (provided by Nalapro Technologies Inc., Tokyo). This information extraction system uses natural language processing and text mining technology. This system analyzes the sentences and titles from abstracts stored in the PubMed database, and can automatically extract binary relations that consist of interactions between genes/proteins, chemicals and diseases/functions. We expect that such information visualization analysis will be useful in determining novel relationships among a multitude of lactoferrin functions and mechanisms. We have demonstrated the utilization of this method to find pathways of lactoferrin participation in neovascularization, Helicobacter pylori attack on gastric mucosa, atopic dermatitis and lipid metabolism.

  9. Intestinal lactoferrin receptor: presence and specificity during development

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, L.A.; Lonnerdal, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    As the major iron-binding protein in breast milk, lactoferrin (Lf) has been suggested to play a role in Fe absorption from milk. The authors previous work has validated the use of the Rhesus monkey as a model for studying this role of Lf. They have identified a specific Lf receptor on the brush border (BB) of juvenile Rhesus small intestine (s.i.) which may facilitate Fe uptake into the mucosal cell. In this study the authors examined the presence and specificity of the Lf receptor during development. BB membrane vesicles were prepared from fetal (113 d gestation), infant (3 m), andmore » adult (12 y) Rhesus s.i.; Binding assays were performed by incubating BB vesicles with 59-Fe-Lf and filtering through a 0.22 ..mu..m filter. The fetal and infant tissues were found to possess receptors with a high affinity for Lf. This early ontogeny indicates the importance of the receptor to the infant. Adult s.i. contained Lf receptors in all regions. Since the adult has no dietary intake of Lf, the receptor may play a role in Fe homeostasis via biliary Lf excretion or may simply continue to be expressed throughout life. The receptors were examined for their affinity for purified bovine Lf and human transferrin, both of which are similar in structure to Lf. No binding was found for either, demonstrating the specificity of the receptor for Lf. The presence of the Lf receptor in fetal tissue and its specificity for Lf implies it is essential for adequate Fe nutrition of the suckling infant.« less

  10. Prebiotic effects of bovine lactoferrin on specific probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Wen; Liu, Zhen-Shu; Kuo, Tai-Chen; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Li, Zhe-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a natural iron-binding protein and it has been suggested to be a prebiotic agent, but this finding remains inconclusive. This study explores the prebiotic potential of bLf in 14 probiotics. Initially, bLf (1-32 mg/mL) treatment showed occasional and slight prebiotic activity in several probiotics only during the late experimental period (48, 78 h) at 37 °C. We subsequently supposed that bLf exerts stronger prebiotic effects when probiotic growth has been temperately retarded. Therefore, we incubated the probiotics at different temperatures, namely 37 °C, 28 °C, room temperature (approximately 22-24 °C), and 22 °C, to retard or inhibit their growth. As expected, bLf showed more favorable prebiotic activity in several probiotics when their growth was partially retarded at room temperature. Furthermore, at 22 °C, the growth of Bifidobacterium breve, Lactobacillus coryniformis, L. delbrueckii, L. acidophilus, B. angulatum, B. catenulatum, and L. paraplantarum were completely blocked. Notably, these probiotics started regrowing in the presence of bLf (1-32 mg/mL) in a significant and dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, bLf significantly increased the growth of Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. rhamnosus, and L. paracasei (BCRC 17483; a locally isolated strain) when their growth was retarded by incubation at 22 °C. In conclusion, bLf showed inconsistent prebiotic activity in the 14 probiotics at 37 °C, but revealed strong prebiotic activity in 10 probiotic strains at 22 °C. Therefore, this study enables determining additional roles of Lf in probiotic strains, which can facilitate developing novel combinational approaches by simultaneously using Lf and specific probiotics.

  11. Lactoferrin Expression in Human and Murine Ocular Tissue.

    PubMed

    Rageh, Abrar A; Ferrington, Deborah A; Roehrich, Heidi; Yuan, Ching; Terluk, Marcia R; Nelson, Elizabeth F; Montezuma, Sandra R

    2016-07-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein known to provide innate defense due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. In the eye, LF has been identified in the tears and vitreous humor. Its presence in other ocular tissues has not been determined. Our aim is to assess the presence of LF in the cornea, iris, retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of humans and mice. To test for the endogenous production of LF, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed in cultured human cells from the cornea and RPE and in murine tissues. To confirm LF localization in specific ocular tissue, immunohistochemistry was performed on flat mounts of cornea, retina and RPE in human donor eyes. The presence of LF was assessed by western blotting in human and mouse ocular tissue and human culture cells (cornea and RPE). To verify antibody specificity, purified human LF and transferrin (TF) were used on 1D and 2D western blots. LF gene expression was confirmed in the cornea and RPE cell cultures from humans, suggesting that LF is an endogenously produced protein. PCR results from mouse ocular tissue showed LF expression in cornea, iris, RPE, but not in retina. These results were also consistent with immunohistochemical localization of LF in human donor tissue. Antibody reaction for human LF was specific and western blotting showed its presence in the cornea, iris and RPE tissues. A faint reaction for the retina was observed but was likely due to contamination from other ocular tissues. Multiple commercially available antibodies for murine LF cross-reacted with TF, so no reliable results were obtained for murine western blot. LF is expressed in multiple eye tissues of humans and mice. This widespread expression and multifunctional activity of LF suggests that it may play an important role in protecting eye tissues from inflammation-associated diseases.

  12. Lactoferrin increases sperm membrane functionality of frozen equine semen.

    PubMed

    Martins, H S; da Silva, G C; Cortes, S F; Paes, F O; Martins Filho, O A; Araujo, Mss; Stahlberg, R; Lagares, M A

    2018-06-01

    During cryopreservation, sperm was submitted to an increase in reactive oxygen species generation. This work aimed to improve the quality of frozen equine sperm after the addition of antioxidants lactoferrin (Lf) and catalase (Cat) to a freezing extender. Semen from six stallions was frozen with the extenders: F1) control, INRA 82 freezing extender, F2) F1 + 500 μg/ml Lf and F3) F1 + 200 IU/ml Cat. After thawing, sperm motility parameters, membrane functionality and integrity, and acrosome integrity and spontaneous acrosome-reacted sperm were evaluated with a computer-assisted sperm analysis, a hypoosmotic swelling test and epifluorescent microscopy, respectively. Nitrite, hydroperoxide and iron concentrations of frozen semen were measured with spectrophotometry. The percentage of functional membrane sperm treated with Lf was higher (50.7% ± 11.6%) compared to that of the control (37.6% ± 15.6%), while the iron (61.4 ± 11.6 vs 73.3 ± 13.8 mg/dl) and nitrite concentrations (16.3 ± 7.1 vs 25.9 ± 4.2 μM/μg protein) were lower, respectively (p < .05). Thus, it can be suggested that Lf protect stallion spermatozoon during freezing as it has increased the percentage of sperm with functional membrane and decreased the lipid oxidant agents. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Antibacterial activity in bovine lactoferrin-derived peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, K S; Milne, J M; Grieve, P A; Dionysius, D A; Smith, R

    1997-01-01

    Several peptides sharing high sequence homology with lactoferricin B (Lf-cin B) were generated from bovine lactoferrin (Lf) with recombinant chymosin. Two peptides were copurified, one identical to Lf-cin B and another differing from Lf-cin B by the inclusion of a C-terminal alanine (lactoferricin). Two other peptides were copurified from chymosin-hydrolyzed Lf, one differing from Lf-cin B by the inclusion of C-terminal alanyl-leucine and the other being a heterodimer linked by a disulfide bond. These peptides were isolated in a single step from chymosin-hydrolyzed Lf by membrane ion-exchange chromatography and were purified by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). They were characterized by N-terminal Edman sequencing, mass spectrometry, and antibacterial activity determination. Pure lactoferricin, prepared from pepsin-hydrolyzed Lf, was purified by standard chromatography techniques. This peptide was analyzed against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria before and after reduction of its disulfide bond or cleavage after its single methionine residue and was found to inhibit the growth of all the test bacteria at a concentration of 8 microM or less. Subfragments of lactoferricin were isolated from reduced and cleaved peptide by reverse-phase HPLC. Subfragment 1 (residues 1 to 10) was active against most of the test microorganisms at concentrations of 10 to 50 microM. Subfragment 2 (residues 11 to 26) was active against only a few microorganisms at concentrations up to 100 microM. These antibacterial studies indicate that the activity of lactoferricin is mainly, but not wholly, due to its N-terminal region. PMID:8980754

  14. Oral lactoferrin for the treatment of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) cause significant neonatal mortality and morbidity in spite of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Enhancing host defense and modulating inflammation by using lactoferrin as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of sepsis and/or NEC may improve cl...

  15. Oral lactoferrin for the treatment of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) cause significant neonatal mortality and morbidity in spite of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Enhancing host defence and modulating inflammation by using lactoferrin as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of sepsis and/or NEC may improve cl...

  16. Expression of lactoferrin receptors is increased in the mesencephalon of patients with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faucheux, B A; Nillesse, N; Damier, P; Spik, G; Mouatt-Prigent, A; Pierce, A; Leveugle, B; Kubis, N; Hauw, J J; Agid, Y

    1995-01-01

    The degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease is believed to be associated with oxidative stress. Since iron levels are increased in the substantia nigra of parkinsonian patients and this metal catalyzes the formation of free radicals, it may be involved in the mechanisms of nerve cell death. The cause of nigral iron increase is not understood. Iron acquisition by neurons may occur from iron-transferrin complexes with a direct interaction with specific membrane receptors, but recent results have shown a low density of transferrin receptors in the substantia nigra. To investigate whether neuronal death in Parkinson disease may be associated with changes in a pathway supplementary to that of transferrin, lactoferrin (lactotransferrin) receptor expression was studied in the mesencephalon. In this report we present evidence from immunohistochemical staining of postmortem human brain tissue that lactoferrin receptors are localized on neurons (perikarya, dendrites, axons), cerebral microvasculature, and, in some cases, glial cells. In parkinsonian patients, lactoferrin receptor immunoreactivity on neurons and microvessels was increased and more pronounced in those regions of the mesencephalon where the loss of dopaminergic neurons is severe. Moreover, in the substantia nigra, the intensity of immunoreactivity on neurons and microvessels was higher for patients with higher nigral dopaminergic loss. These data suggest that lactoferrin receptors on vulnerable neurons may increase intraneuronal iron levels and contribute to the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7568181

  17. Lactoferrin conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeting brain glioma cells in magnetic particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomitaka, Asahi; Arami, Hamed; Gandhi, Sonu; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new real-time imaging modality, which promises high tracer mass sensitivity and spatial resolution directly generated from iron oxide nanoparticles. In this study, monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles with median core diameters ranging from 14 to 26 nm were synthesized and their surface was conjugated with lactoferrin to convert them into brain glioma targeting agents. The conjugation was confirmed with the increase of the hydrodynamic diameters, change of zeta potential, and Bradford assay. Magnetic particle spectrometry (MPS), performed to evaluate the MPI performance of these nanoparticles, showed no change in signal after lactoferrin conjugation to nanoparticles for all core diameters, suggesting that the MPI signal is dominated by Néel relaxation and thus independent of hydrodynamic size difference or presence of coating molecules before and after conjugations. For this range of core sizes (14-26 nm), both MPS signal intensity and spatial resolution improved with increasing core diameter of nanoparticles. The lactoferrin conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles (Lf-IONPs) showed specific cellular internalization into C6 cells with a 5-fold increase in MPS signal compared to IONPs without lactoferrin, both after 24 h incubation. These results suggest that Lf-IONPs can be used as tracers for targeted brain glioma imaging using MPI.

  18. MUB40 Binds to Lactoferrin and Stands as a Specific Neutrophil Marker.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark C; Chaze, Thibault; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Injarabian, Louise; Jonsson, Friederike; Lombion, Naelle; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothée; Souphron, Judith; Ridley, Caroline; Vonaesch, Pascale; Baron, Bruno; Arena, Ellen T; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Nigro, Giulia; Nothelfer, Katharina; Solary, Eric; Lapierre, Valérie; Lazure, Thierry; Matondo, Mariette; Thornton, David; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Baleux, Françoise; Marteyn, Benoit S

    2018-04-19

    Neutrophils represent the most abundant immune cells recruited to inflamed tissues. A lack of dedicated tools has hampered their detection and study. We show that a synthesized peptide, MUB 40 , binds to lactoferrin, the most abundant protein stored in neutrophil-specific and tertiary granules. Lactoferrin is specifically produced by neutrophils among other leukocytes, making MUB 40 a specific neutrophil marker. Naive mammalian neutrophils (human, guinea pig, mouse, rabbit) were labeled by fluorescent MUB 40 conjugates (-Cy5, Dylight405). A peptidase-resistant retro-inverso MUB 40 (RI-MUB 40 ) was synthesized and its lactoferrin-binding property validated. Neutrophil lactoferrin secretion during in vitro Shigella infection was assessed with RI-MUB 40 -Cy5 using live cell microscopy. Systemically administered RI-MUB 40 -Cy5 accumulated at sites of inflammation in a mouse arthritis inflammation model in vivo and showed usefulness as a potential tool for inflammation detection using non-invasive imaging. Improving neutrophil detection with the universal and specific MUB 40 marker will aid the study of broad ranges of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Amoebicidal Activity of Milk, Apo-lactoferrin, sIgA and Lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    León-Sicairos, Nidia; López-Soto, Fernando; Reyes-López, Magda; Godínez-Vargas, Delfino; Ordaz-Pichardo, Cynthia; de la Garza, Mireya

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To identify amoebicidal components in human milk and the effect of iron on the amoebicidal activity. Design: Investigation in axenic cultures of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. Methods: Amoebas were treated with 5%–20% of human, bovine and swine milk, with 10% of human milk fractions (i.e., casein, proteins except casein and fat) or with 1 mg/ml of human milk apo-lactoferrin, human secretory immunoglobulin type A (sIgA) and chicken egg-white lysozyme (i.e., purified proteins). Milk proteins were detected using immunoblot. Confocal microscopy was used to define the interaction of milk proteins (100 μM each) and amoebas. Experiments were done at least three times in triplicate, and mean and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Human and bovine milk were amoebicidal showing a concentration-dependent effect. The amoebicidal effect was increased in the absence of iron. Milk protein fractions, with the exception of casein, were the components responsible for the amoebicidal activity found. Apo-lactoferrin, sIgA and lysozyme were identified in the amoebicidal milk protein fraction. Apo-lactoferrin showed the major amoebicidal effect. These proteins, either alone or in combination, showed a killing effect on the trophozoites. They bound to the amoebic membrane causing cell rounding, lipid disruption and damage. Conclusions: Milk proteins such as apo-lactoferrin, sIgA and lysozyme are able to kill Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. This study confirms the importance of feeding breast milk to newborns. PMID:16809402

  20. Bovine Lactoferrampin, Human Lactoferricin, and Lactoferrin 1-11 Inhibit Nuclear Translocation of HIV Integrase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Winston Yan; Wong, Jack Ho; Ip, Denis Tsz Ming; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Cheung, Randy Chifai; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate fragments derived from human and bovine lactoferrins for ability to inhibit nuclear translocation of HIV-1 integrase. It was shown that human lactoferricin, human lactoferrin 1-11, and bovine lactoferrampin reduced nuclear distribution of HIV-1 integrase. Bovine lactoferrampin could inhibit both the activity and nuclear translocation of HIV-1 integrase. Human lactoferrampin, bovine lactoferricin, and bovine lactoferrin 1-11 had no effect on HIV-1 integrase nuclear translocation. Human lactoferrampin which inhibited the activity of integrase did not prevent its nuclear translocation. Human lactoferricin and lactoferrin 1-11 did not inhibit HIV-1 integrase nuclear translocation despite their ability to attenuate the enzyme activity. The discrepancy between the findings on reduction of HIV-1 activity and inhibition of nuclear translocation of HIV-1 integrase was due to the different mechanisms involved. A similar reasoning can also be applied to the different inhibitory potencies of the milk peptides on different HIV enzymes, i.e., nuclear translocation.

  1. Tumor regression following intravenous administration of lactoferrin- and lactoferricin-bearing dendriplexes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Li Ying; Koh, Pei Yin; Somani, Sukrut; Al Robaian, Majed; Karim, Reatul; Yean, Yi Lyn; Mitchell, Jennifer; Tate, Rothwelle J.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Blatchford, David R.; Mullin, Margaret; Dufès, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of using gene therapy for the treatment of cancer is limited by the lack of safe, intravenously administered delivery systems able to selectively deliver therapeutic genes to tumors. In this study, we investigated if the conjugation of the polypropylenimine dendrimer to lactoferrin and lactoferricin, whose receptors are overexpressed on cancer cells, could result in a selective gene delivery to tumors and a subsequently enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The conjugation of lactoferrin and lactoferricin to the dendrimer significantly increased the gene expression in the tumor while decreasing the non-specific gene expression in the liver. Consequently, the intravenous administration of the targeted dendriplexes encoding TNFα led to the complete suppression of 60% of A431 tumors and up to 50% of B16-F10 tumors over one month. The treatment was well tolerated by the animals. These results suggest that these novel lactoferrin- and lactoferricin-bearing dendrimers are promising gene delivery systems for cancer therapy. From the Clinical Editor Specific targeting of cancer cells should enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. This is especially true for gene delivery. In this article, the authors utilized a dendrimer-based system and conjugated this with lactoferrin and lactoferricin to deliver anti-tumor genes. The positive findings in animal studies should provide the basis for further clinical studies. PMID:25933695

  2. Tumor regression following intravenous administration of lactoferrin- and lactoferricin-bearing dendriplexes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Li Ying; Koh, Pei Yin; Somani, Sukrut; Al Robaian, Majed; Karim, Reatul; Yean, Yi Lyn; Mitchell, Jennifer; Tate, Rothwelle J; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Blatchford, David R; Mullin, Margaret; Dufès, Christine

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of using gene therapy for the treatment of cancer is limited by the lack of safe, intravenously administered delivery systems able to selectively deliver therapeutic genes to tumors. In this study, we investigated if the conjugation of the polypropylenimine dendrimer to lactoferrin and lactoferricin, whose receptors are overexpressed on cancer cells, could result in a selective gene delivery to tumors and a subsequently enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The conjugation of lactoferrin and lactoferricin to the dendrimer significantly increased the gene expression in the tumor while decreasing the non-specific gene expression in the liver. Consequently, the intravenous administration of the targeted dendriplexes encoding TNFα led to the complete suppression of 60% of A431 tumors and up to 50% of B16-F10 tumors over one month. The treatment was well tolerated by the animals. These results suggest that these novel lactoferrin- and lactoferricin-bearing dendrimers are promising gene delivery systems for cancer therapy. Specific targeting of cancer cells should enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. This is especially true for gene delivery. In this article, the authors utilized a dendrimer-based system and conjugated this with lactoferrin and lactoferricin to deliver anti-tumor genes. The positive findings in animal studies should provide the basis for further clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial potential for the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with lactoferrin-resistant probiotics against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, P-W; Jheng, T T; Shyu, C-L; Mao, F C

    2013-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that several probiotic strains can resist the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, a portion of orally administered apo-bLf is digested in vivo by pepsin to yield bLf hydrolysate, which produces stronger antibacterial activity than that observed with apo-bLf. However, whether bLf hydrolysate affects the growth of probiotic strains is unclear. Therefore, various probiotic strains in Taiwan were collected and evaluated for activity against apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate in vitro. Thirteen probiotic strains were evaluated, and the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, and Bifidobacterium lactis BCRC 17394 were inhibited by both apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate. The growth of 8 strains were not affected by apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, including L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11739, Lactobacillus coryniformis ATCC 25602, L. acidophilus BCRC 14065, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8081. However, apo-bLf and its hydrolysate inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the supernatants produced by L. fermentum, B. lactis, and B. longum inhibited the growth of most pathogens. Importantly, a combination of apo-bLf or bLf hydrolysate with the supernatants of cultures of the organisms described above showed synergistic or partially synergistic effects against the growth of most of the selected pathogens. In conclusion, several probiotic strains are resistant to apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, warranting clinical studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential for the combination of apo-bLf or its hydrolysate with specific probiotics. Copyright

  4. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Smith, Erika; Viveros-Jiménez, Karina; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Nazmi, Kamran; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; de la Garza, Mireya; Martínez-Garcia, Jesús J.; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC) and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species. PMID:29375503

  5. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Smith, Erika; Viveros-Jiménez, Karina; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Bolscher, Jan G M; Nazmi, Kamran; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; de la Garza, Mireya; Martínez-Garcia, Jesús J; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC) and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species.

  6. [The role of lactoferrin in the proper development of newborns].

    PubMed

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum and milk contain, in addition to nutritional constituents, also proteins crucial for the normal development of the offspring. Lactoferrin (LF) belongs to the family of iron-binding proteins and exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial and immunotropic properties. LF is particularly resistant to proteolytic degradation in alimentary tract, in contrast to other milk proteins, e.g. casein. In any case, LF-derived peptides also possess potent antibacterial activities. LF is absorbed from the intestine by means of specific receptors located on brush border cells. Administered orally, LF stimulates both local and systemic immune response. LF plays a role in the absorption of nutrients. The protein can deliver such metal ions as iron, manganese, and zinc and facilitate the absorption of sugars. LF stimulates the proliferation of gut endothelial cells and the growth of gut-associated lymphatic follicles. This property suggests the possibility of applying LF in premature infants and patients with damaged intestinal mucus. LF controls the proper composition of the gut microflora. It suppresses the growth of pathogenic bacteria while promoting the multiplication of nonpathogenic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Newborns fed an artificial diet develop harmful microflora (Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, Escherichia). The non-pathogenic microflora ensures low pH, produces some vitamins, increases the activity of NK cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages, promotes the production of protective immunoglobulins, and lowers the risk of allergies. In studies on mice, LF was found to be protective in bacteremia and endotoxemia. The protein stimulates the activity of reticulo-endothelial system cells and elicits myelopoiesis, thus increasing the killing and clearance of bacteria. In the model of experimental endotoxemia, LF inhibits the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and reactive forms of oxygen. LF can also promote the differentiation of T

  7. Coadsorption of Human Milk Lactoferrin into the Dipalmitoylglycerolphosphatidylcholine Phospholipid Monolayer Spread at the Air/Water Interface

    PubMed Central

    Miano, Fausto; Zhao, Xiubo; Lu, Jian R.; Penfold, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The coadsorption of human milk lactoferrin into a spread monolayer of dipalmitoylglycerol phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) at the air/water interface has been studied by neutron reflection. The system is a good model of the preocular tear film outer interface, which was the motivation for the study. The association of the protein with the surface was indicated by an increase of the surface pressure exerted by the DPPC monolayer. The extent of lactoferrin coadsorption was found to decrease with increasing surface pressure in the lipid monolayer, a trend consistent with the observation reported for other proteins, such as lysozyme and β-lactoglobulin. The neutron reflectivity measurements were subsequently carried out at the three surface pressures of 8, 15, and 35 mN/m to examine the structure and composition of lactoferrin coadsorbed at the interface. Whereas the DPPC monolayer effectively prevented lactoferrin insertion at the high surface pressure, a measurable amount of lactoferrin was found at the air/water interface at the two lower surface pressures. At 15 mN/m it was difficult to identify the distribution of lactoferrin with respect to the DPPC monolayer, due to its relatively low adsorbed amount and much broader distribution. At the lowest surface pressure of 8 mN/m, the lactoferrin coadsorption was found to increase with time over the first few hours. After 5 h the distribution of the lactoferrin layer became similar to, though quantitatively lower than, that adsorbed in the absence of the DPPC monolayer. It is characterized by a top dense sublayer of 15 Å with a bottom diffuse sublayer of 60 Å, indicating structural unfolding induced by surface adsorption under these conditions. PMID:17114223

  8. Effect of Oral Lactoferrin on Cataract Surgery Induced Dry Eye: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Devendra, Jaya; Singh, Sneha

    2015-10-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the most frequently performed intra-ocular surgeries, of these manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) is a time tested technique of cataract removal. Any corneal incisional surgery, including cataract surgery, can induce dry eye postoperatively. Various factors have been implicated, of which oneis the inflammation induced by the surgery. Lactoferrin, a glycoprotein present in tears is said to have anti-inflammatory effects, and promotes cell growth. It has been used orally in patients of immune mediated dry eye to alleviate symptoms. This study was aimed to evaluate the dry eyes induced by manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery, and the effect if any, of oral lactoferrin on the dry eyes. A single centre, prospective randomised controlled trial with a concurrent parallel design. The study was carried out on patients presenting in the OPD of Rohilkhand Medical College hospital for cataract surgery. Sixty four patients of cataract surgery were included in the study. Patients with pre-existing dry eyes, ocular disease or systemic disease predisposing to dry eyes were excluded from the study. The selected patients were assigned into two groups by simple randomisation-Control Group A-32 patients that did not receive oral lactoferrin postoperatively. Group B-32 patients that received oral lactoferrin 350 gm postoperatively from day 1 after SICS. All patients were operated for cataract and their pre and postoperative (on days 7, 14, 30 and 60) dry eye status was assessed using the mean tear film break-up time (tBUT) and Schirmer test 1 (ST 1) as the evaluating parameters. Subjective evaluation of dry eye was done using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scoring. Data was analysed for 58 patients, as 6 did not complete the follow up. Unpaired t-test was used to calculate the p-values. There was a statistically significant difference between the tBUT values of the Control and Lactoferrin group from day 14 onwards. The tBUT of control group

  9. High-Level Expression of Recombinant Bovine Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris with Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Figueroa, Blanca; Valdiviezo-Godina, Norberto; Siqueiros-Cendón, Tania; Sinagawa-García, Sugey; Arévalo-Gallegos, Sigifredo; Rascón-Cruz, Quintín

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an iron-binding glycoprotein considered an important nutraceutical protein because of its several properties, was expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71-H under AOX1 promoter control, using pJ902 as the recombinant plasmid. Dot blotting analysis revealed the expression of recombinant bovine lactoferrin (rbLf) in Pichia pastoris. After Bach fermentation and purification by molecular exclusion, we obtained an expression yield of 3.5 g/L of rbLf. rbLf and predominantly pepsin-digested rbLf (rbLfcin) demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21DE3, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) FRI137, and, in a smaller percentage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. Aeruginosa) ATCC 27833. The successful expression and characterization of functional rbLf expressed in Pichia pastoris opens a prospect for the development of natural antimicrobial agents produced recombinantly. PMID:27294912

  10. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin-loaded lactoferrin nano particles against rotenone induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bollimpelli, V Satish; Kumar, Prashant; Kumari, Sonali; Kondapi, Anand K

    2016-05-01

    Curcumin is known to have neuroprotective role and possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities. Rotenone, a flavonoid induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic cells is being widely studied in Parkinson's Disease (PD) research. In the present study, curcumin loaded lactoferrin nano particles prepared by sol-oil chemistry were used to protect dopaminergic cell line SK-N-SH against rotenone induced neurotoxicity. These curcumin loaded nano particles were of 43-60 nm diameter size and around 100 nm hydrodynamic size as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis respectively. The encapsulation efficiency was 61.3% ± 2.4%. Cellular uptake of curcumin through these nano particles was confirmed by confocal imaging and spectrofluorimetric analysis. The curcumin loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles showed greater intracellular drug uptake, sustained retention and greater neuroprotection than soluble counterpart. Neuroprotective activity was characterized through viability assays and by estimating ROS levels. Furthermore rotenone induced PD like features were characterized by decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and increase in α-synuclein expression. Taken together curcumin loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery strategy against neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibacterial activity of recombinant human lactoferrin from rice: effect of heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Celia; Rota, Carmen; Castillo, Eduardo; Pérez, María-Dolores; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2009-06-01

    The antibacterial activity of recombinant human lactoferrin from rice (rhLF) compared with that of human milk lactoferrin (hLF) was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The hydrolysates of rhLF and hLF were found to be more active than native proteins against E. coli O157:H7, and their activity was independent of their iron saturation. The effect of different heat treatments on the antibacterial activity of apo-rhLF was studied and compared with hLF. We observed that an HTST pasteurization treatment did not affect the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin against the pathogens studied. Furthermore, the activity of apo-rhLF and hLF against E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes in UHT milk and whey was assayed, finding a decrease in the number of bacteria, although lower than that observed in a broth medium. This study shows the similar antibacterial activity of rhLF and hLF which is important in order to consider the addition of rhLF as a supplement in special products.

  12. Early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease based on salivary lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Carro, Eva; Bartolomé, Fernando; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; Villarejo-Galende, Alberto; Molina, José Antonio; Ortiz, Pablo; Calero, Miguel; Rabano, Alberto; Cantero, José Luis; Orive, Gorka

    2017-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) process is likely initiated many years before clinical onset. Biomarkers of preclinical disease are critical for the development of disease-modifying or even preventative therapies. Current biomarkers for early disease, including cerebrospinal fluid tau and amyloid β (Aβ) levels, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, and the use of brain amyloid imaging, are limited because they are very invasive or expensive. Noninvasive biomarkers may be a more accessible alternative, but none can currently detect preclinical AD with the required sensitivity and specificity. Here, we show a novel, straight-forward, and noninvasive approach for assessment of early stages of cognitive decline. Salivary samples from cases of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD, and neurology controls were analyzed. We have discovered and validated a new single saliva biomarker, lactoferrin, which in our cross-sectional investigation perfectly discriminates clinically diagnosed aMCI and AD patients from a cognitively healthy control group. The accuracy for AD diagnosis shown by salivary lactoferrin was greater than that obtained from core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, including total tau and CSF Aβ 42 . Furthermore, salivary lactoferrin can be used for population screening and for identifying those underdiagnosed subjects with very early stages of mild cognitive impairment and AD. This biomarker may offer new insights in the early diagnostics for AD.

  13. Benefits of Lactoferrin, Osteopontin and Milk Fat Globule Membranes for Infants.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, Hans; Prell, Christine; Timby, Niklas; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-07-28

    The provision of essential and non-essential amino acids for breast-fed infants is the major function of milk proteins. In addition, breast-fed infants might benefit from bioactivities of milk proteins, which are exhibited in the intestine during the digestive phase and by absorption of intact proteins or derived peptides. For lactoferrin, osteopontin and milk fat globule membrane proteins/lipids, which have not until recently been included in substantial amounts in infant formulas, in vitro experiments and animal models provide a convincing base of evidence for bioactivities, which contribute to the protection of the infant from pathogens, improve nutrient absorption, support the development of the immune system and provide components for optimal neurodevelopment. Technologies have become available to obtain these compounds from cow´s milk and the bovine compounds also exhibit bioactivities in humans. Randomized clinical trials with experimental infant formulas incorporating lactoferrin, osteopontin, or milk fat globule membranes have already provided some evidence for clinical benefits. This review aims to compare findings from laboratory and animal experiments with outcomes of clinical studies. There is good justification from basic science and there are promising results from clinical studies for beneficial effects of lactoferrin, osteopontin and the milk fat globule membrane complex of proteins and lipids. Further studies should ideally be adequately powered to investigate effects on clinically relevant endpoints in healthy term infants.

  14. Benefits of Lactoferrin, Osteopontin and Milk Fat Globule Membranes for Infants

    PubMed Central

    Prell, Christine; Timby, Niklas; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The provision of essential and non-essential amino acids for breast-fed infants is the major function of milk proteins. In addition, breast-fed infants might benefit from bioactivities of milk proteins, which are exhibited in the intestine during the digestive phase and by absorption of intact proteins or derived peptides. For lactoferrin, osteopontin and milk fat globule membrane proteins/lipids, which have not until recently been included in substantial amounts in infant formulas, in vitro experiments and animal models provide a convincing base of evidence for bioactivities, which contribute to the protection of the infant from pathogens, improve nutrient absorption, support the development of the immune system and provide components for optimal neurodevelopment. Technologies have become available to obtain these compounds from cow´s milk and the bovine compounds also exhibit bioactivities in humans. Randomized clinical trials with experimental infant formulas incorporating lactoferrin, osteopontin, or milk fat globule membranes have already provided some evidence for clinical benefits. This review aims to compare findings from laboratory and animal experiments with outcomes of clinical studies. There is good justification from basic science and there are promising results from clinical studies for beneficial effects of lactoferrin, osteopontin and the milk fat globule membrane complex of proteins and lipids. Further studies should ideally be adequately powered to investigate effects on clinically relevant endpoints in healthy term infants. PMID:28788066

  15. Apoptotic effects of bovine apo-lactoferrin on HeLa tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Luzi, Carla; Brisdelli, Fabrizia; Iorio, Roberto; Bozzi, Argante; Carnicelli, Veronica; Di Giulio, Antonio; Lizzi, Anna Rita

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf), a cationic iron-binding glycoprotein of 80 kDa present in body secretions, is known as a compound with marked antimicrobial activity. In the present study, the apoptotic effect of iron-free bovine lactoferrin (apo-bLf) on human epithelial cancer (HeLa) cells was examined in association with reactive oxygen species and glutathione (GSH) levels. Apoptotic effect of iron-free bovine lactoferrin inhibited the growth of HeLa cells after 48 hours of treatment while the diferric-bLf was ineffective in the concentration range tested (from 1 to 12.5 μM). Western blot analysis showed that key apoptotic regulators including Bax, Bcl-2, Sirt1, Mcl-1, and PARP-1 were modulated by 1.25 μM of apo-bLf. In the same cell line, apo-bLf induced apoptosis together with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, caspase activation, and a significant drop of NAD + . In addition, apo-bLf-treated HeLa cells showed a marked increase of reactive oxygen species level and a significant GSH depletion. On the whole, apo-bLf triggered apoptosis of HeLa cells upon oxygen radicals burst and GSH decrease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of bovine lactoferrin in surgically created bone defects on bone regeneration around implants.

    PubMed

    Görmez, Ulaş; Kürkcü, Mehmet; E Benlidayi, Mehmet; Ulubayram, Kezban; Sertdemir, Yaşar; Dağlioğlu, Kenan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLF)-loaded gelatin microspheres (GM) used in combination with anorganic bovine bone on bone regeneration in surgically created bone defects around tooth implants. Twenty-four uniform bone defects were created in the frontal bone via an extraoral approach in 12 domestic pigs. Twenty-four implants were placed at the center of the defects. In eight animals one of these defects was filled with 0.3 mL anorganic bovine bone while the other was left empty. In four animals, all defects were filled with 3 mg/defect bLF-loaded GM and anorganic bovine bone. All the defects were covered with collagen membranes. All animals were sacrificed after 10 weeks of healing, and the implants with the surrounding bone defects were removed en bloc. Undecalcified sections were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. The mean total area of hard tissue was 26.9 ± 6.0% in the empty defect group, 31.8 ± 8.4% in the graft group, and 47.6 ± 5.0% in the lactoferrin group (P < 0.001). The mean area of newly formed bone was 26.9 ± 6.0% in the empty defect group, 22.4 ± 8.2% in the graft group, and 46.1 ± 5.1% in the lactoferrin group (P < 0.001). The mean residual graft area was 9.4 ± 3.2% in the graft group and 1.5 ± 0.6% in the lactoferrin group (P < 0.001). The mean proportion of bone-implant contact in the defect region was 21.9 ± 8.4% in the empty defect group, 26.9 ± 10.1% in the graft group and 29.9 ± 10.3% in the lactoferrin group (P = 0.143). These data indicate that a combination of 3 mg bLF-loaded GM and bovine-derived HA promotes bone regeneration in defects around implants.

  17. Growth characteristics of calves fed an intensified milk replacer regimen with additional lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Cowles, K E; White, R A; Whitehouse, N L; Erickson, P S

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of lactoferrin addition to milk replacer varying in crude protein (CP) on dry matter intake, growth, and days medicated. Thirty-four Holstein heifer calves were assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were as follows: 562 g daily of a nonmedicated conventional milk replacer (20% CP:20% fat) feeding regimen with or without 1 g of supplemental bovine lactoferrin (n = 9 for both treatments) or a nonmedicated intensified milk replacer feeding regimen (28% CP:20% fat) fed on a metabolizable energy basis (0.2 Mcal/kg BW(0.75)) from d 2 to 9, and at 0.27 Mcal/kg BW(0.75) from d 10 to 42 with or without 1g supplemental bovine lactoferrin (n = 8 for both treatments). Calves were fed pelleted starter (25% CP) in 227.5-g increments beginning on d 2 and had free access to water. Calves remained on the study for 14 d postweaning. Dry matter intake was determined daily. Growth measurements were taken weekly. Blood samples were taken twice weekly for determination of blood urea N. On d 10 of life, calves were subjected to a xylose challenge. Calves on conventional treatments ate more starter preweaning, during weaning, and postweaning. Preweaning, intensively fed calves had higher dry matter intakes. Weights of intensified-fed calves were greater at weaning. Intensified milk replacer-fed calves had greater average daily gain preweaning and overall and higher gain:feed ratios preweaning, but conventionally fed calves had higher gain:feed ratios during weaning. Intensified milk replacer-fed calves had greater hip heights during weaning and postweaning and greater heart girths preweaning, weaning, and postweaning. Days medicated were greater preweaning and overall for intensified-fed calves. There were no differences among treatments for xylose absorption. Calves on conventional treatments had increased blood urea nitrogen concentrations preweaning

  18. Effects of mycobactin J and lactoferrin supplementation of drinking water on the in vivo multiplication of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, H L; Czuprynski, C J

    1992-01-01

    In this study the effect of supplementation of drinking water with mycobactin J or lactoferrin on the multiplication of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in gnotobiotic mice was investigated. The results indicated that neither mycobactin J nor lactoferrin, at the doses used, appeared to have any effect on fecal shedding or tissue burdens of M. paratuberculosis. PMID:1586898

  19. The structure of lactoferrin-binding protein B from Neisseria meningitidis suggests roles in iron acquisition and neutralization of host defences

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Cory L.; Arutyunova, Elena; Lemieux, M. Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved a range of mechanisms to acquire iron from the host during infection. Several Gram-negative pathogens including members of the genera Neisseria and Moraxella have evolved two-component systems that can extract iron from the host glycoproteins lactoferrin and transferrin. The homologous iron-transport systems consist of a membrane-bound transporter and an accessory lipoprotein. While the mechanism behind iron acquisition from transferrin is well understood, relatively little is known regarding how iron is extracted from lactoferrin. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (N-lobe) of the accessory lipoprotein lactoferrin-binding protein B (LbpB) from the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis is reported. The structure is highly homologous to the previously determined structures of the accessory lipoprotein transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB) and LbpB from the bovine pathogen Moraxella bovis. Docking the LbpB structure with lactoferrin reveals extensive binding interactions with the N1 subdomain of lactoferrin. The nature of the interaction precludes apolactoferrin from binding LbpB, ensuring the specificity of iron-loaded lactoferrin. The specificity of LbpB safeguards proper delivery of iron-bound lactoferrin to the transporter lactoferrin-binding protein A (LbpA). The structure also reveals a possible secondary role for LbpB in protecting the bacteria from host defences. Following proteolytic digestion of lactoferrin, a cationic peptide derived from the N-terminus is released. This peptide, called lactoferricin, exhibits potent antimicrobial effects. The docked model of LbpB with lactoferrin reveals that LbpB interacts extensively with the N-terminal lactoferricin region. This may provide a venue for preventing the production of the peptide by proteolysis, or directly sequestering the peptide, protecting the bacteria from the toxic effects of lactoferricin. PMID:25286931

  20. Titanium Surface Roughing Treatments contribute to Higher Interaction with Salivary Proteins MG2 and Lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Soare, Rodrigo Villamarim; Leite Assis, Marina Araújo; Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Girundi, Francisco Mauro da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Some surface treatments performed on titanium can alter the composition of salivary pellicle formed on this abiotic surface. Such treatments modify the titanium's surface properties and can promote higher adsorption of proteins, which allow better integration of titanium to the biotic system. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions between salivary proteins and titanium disks with different surface treatments. Machined titanium disks (n = 48) were divided into four experimental groups (n = 12), according to their surface treatments: surface polishing (SP); acid etching (A); spot-blasting plus acid etching (SB-A); spot-blasting followed by acid etching and nano-functionalization (SB-A-NF). Titanium surfaces were characterized by surface roughness and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specimens were incubated with human saliva extracted from submandibular and sublingual glands. Total salivary protein adsorbed to titanium was quantified and samples were submitted to western blotting for mucin glycoprotein 2 (MG2) and lactoferrin identification. Surface roughness was statistically higher for SB-A and SB-A-NF groups. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that titanium surface treatments increased surface roughness with higher number of porous and scratches for SB-A and SB-A-NF groups. Total protein adsorption was significantly higher for SB-A and SB-A-NF groups (p < 0.05), which also presented higher interactions with MG2 and lactoferrin proteins. The roughing of titanium surface by spot-blasting plus acid etching treatments contribute to higher interaction with salivary proteins, such as MG2 and lactoferrin. Titanium surface roughing increases the interactions of the substratum with salivary proteins, which can influence the integration of dental implants and their components to the oral environment. However, those treatments should be used carefully intraorally, avoiding increase biofilm formation.

  1. Uptake of ingested bovine lactoferrin and its accumulation in adult mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Romy; Debbabi, Hajer; Blais, Anne; Dubarry, Michel; Rautureau, Michèle; Boyaka, Prosper N; Tome, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with antimicrobial and immunoregulatory properties, which is found in milk, other external secretions, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. The present study examined the time course of uptake and the pattern of tissue accumulation of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) following intragastric intubation of a single dose to adult naïve mice or to mice daily fed bLf for 4 weeks. Following ingestion, bLf was transferred from the intestine into peripheral blood in a form with intact molecular weight (80 kDa) and localized within 10 to 20 min after oral administration in the liver, kidneys, gall bladder, spleen, and brain of both groups of mice. Immunoreactive bLf could also be detected in the luminal contents of the stomach, small intestine and colon 1 h after intragastric intubation. Interestingly, serum and tissue accumulation of bLf was approximately 50% lower in mice chronically fed this protein than in those given only the single oral dose. Furthermore, significant levels of bLf-specific IgA and IgG antibodies as well as bLf-containing IgA- and IgG immune complexes were detected in mice chronically fed bLf but not in those fed only once. Taken together, these results indicate that bLf resists major proteolytic degradation in the intestinal lumen and is readily absorbed in an antigenic form in blood and various mouse tissues. Chronic ingestion of lactoferrin reduces its uptake, probably through mechanisms such as immune exclusion, which minimize potential harmful reactions to food products.

  2. Influence of protein expression system on elicitation of IgE antibody responses: experience with lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Almond, Rachael J; Flanagan, Brian F; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2012-11-15

    With increased interest in genetically modified (GM) crop plants there is an important need to understand the properties that contribute to the ability of such novel proteins to provoke immune and/or allergic responses. One characteristic that may be relevant is glycosylation, particularly as novel expression systems (e.g. bacterial to plant) will impact on the protein glycoprofile. The allergenicity (IgE inducing) and immunogenicity (IgG inducing) properties of wild type native human lactoferrin (NLF) from human milk (hm) and neutrophil granules (n) and a recombinant molecule produced in rice (RLF) have been assessed. These forms of lactoferrin have identical amino acid sequences, but different glycosylation patterns: hmNLF and nNLF have complex glycoprofiles including Lewis (Le)(x) structures, with particularly high levels of Le(x) expressed by nNLF, whereas RLF is simpler and rich in mannose residues. Antibody responses induced in BALB/c strain mice by intraperitoneal exposure to the different forms of lactoferrin were characterised. Immunisation with both forms of NLF stimulated substantial IgG and IgE antibody responses. In contrast, the recombinant molecule was considerably less immunogenic and failed to stimulate detectable IgE, irrespective of endotoxin and iron content. The glycans did not contribute to epitope formation, with equivalent IgE and IgG binding recorded for high titre anti-NLF antisera regardless of whether the immunising NLF or the recombinant molecule were used substrates in the analyses. These data demonstrate that differential glycosylation profiles can have a profound impact on protein allergenicity and immunogenicity, with mannose and Le(x) exhibiting opposing effects. These results have clear relevance for characterising the allergenic hazards of novel proteins in GM crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Three-dimensional solution structure of lactoferricin B, an antimicrobial peptide derived from bovine lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Hwang, P M; Zhou, N; Shan, X; Arrowsmith, C H; Vogel, H J

    1998-03-24

    The solution structure of bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) has been determined using 2D 1H NMR spectroscopy. LfcinB is a 25-residue antimicrobial peptide released by pepsin cleavage of lactoferrin, an 80 kDa iron-binding glycoprotein with many immunologically important functions. The NMR structure of LfcinB reveals a somewhat distorted antiparallel beta-sheet. This contrasts with the X-ray structure of bovine lactoferrin, in which residues 1-13 (of LfcinB) form an alpha-helix. Hence, this region of lactoferricin B appears able to adopt a helical or sheetlike conformation, similar to what has been proposed for the amyloidogenic prion proteins and Alzheimer's beta-peptides. LfcinB has an extended hydrophobic surface comprised of residues Phe1, Cys3, Trp6, Trp8, Pro16, Ile18, and Cys20. The side chains of these residues are well-defined in the NMR structure. Many hydrophilic and positively charged residues surround the hydrophobic surface, giving LfcinB an amphipathic character. LfcinB bears numerous similarities to a vast number of cationic peptides which exert their antimicrobial activities through membrane disruption. The structures of many of these peptides have been well characterized, and models of their membrane-permeabilizing mechanisms have been proposed. The NMR solution structure of LfcinB may be more relevant to membrane interaction than that suggested by the X-ray structure of intact lactoferrin. Based on the solution structure, it is now possible to propose potential mechanisms for the antimicrobial action of LfcinB.

  4. Relationship between salivary immunoglobulin a, lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates and lifestyle factors in Japanese children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ide, Momo; Saruta, Juri; To, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yuko; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Fuchida, Shinya; Yokoyama, Mina; Kimoto, Shigenari; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2016-10-01

    The antimicrobial substances in saliva contribute to the maintenance of both oral health and overall health of the body. Therefore, the associations among immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates in the saliva of children, and their relationships with the physical attributes and lifestyle factors of children, were examined. Saliva was collected from 90 children who visited the Kanagawa Dental University Hospital Pediatric Dentistry, and questionnaires were completed by guardians. IgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme concentrations were measured in the saliva samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The IgA flow rate in saliva increased as age, height and weight increased. A correlation was found between lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates. When the antimicrobial substance flow rates in the saliva were divided into two groups of 22 children each based on the highest and lowest quartiles, children with either a low or high IgA flow rate also had a high or low lactoferrin flow rate, respectively. The same pattern was observed for lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates. There is a high probability that the IgA flow rate in the saliva of children reflects and corresponds to the developmental status of immune function as the child ages and increases in height and weight. The flow rates of lactoferrin and lysozyme were correlated in children. In addition, regarding lifestyle factors, the duration of sleep and lactoferrin flow rate were also related.

  5. The effect of bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin B on the ability of feline calicivirus (a norovirus surrogate) and poliovirus to infect cell cultures.

    PubMed

    McCann, K B; Lee, A; Wan, J; Roginski, H; Coventry, M J

    2003-01-01

    To characterize the effect of bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin B against feline calicivirus (FCV), a norovirus surrogate and poliovirus (PV), as models for enteric viruses. Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells were used for the propagation of FCV and monkey embryo kidney (MEK) cells for PV. The assays included visual assessment of cell lines for cytopathic effects and determination of the percentage cell death using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium] dye reduction assay. Incubation of bovine lactoferrin with CRFK cells either prior to or together with FCV inoculation substantially reduced FCV infection. In contrast, the interference of lactoferrin with the infection of cells with PV was demonstrated only when lactoferrin was present with cell lines and virus for the entire assay period. Using indirect immunofluorescence, lactoferrin was detected on the surface of both CRFK and MEK cells, suggesting that the interference of viral infection may be attributed to lactoferrin binding to the surfaces of susceptible cells, thereby preventing the attachment of the virus particles. Lactoferricin B, a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the N-terminal domain of bovine lactoferrin, reduced FCV but not PV infection. Lactoferrin was shown to interfere with the infection of cells for both FCV and PV. However, lactoferricin B showed no interference of infection with PV and interference with infection for FCV required the presence of lactoferricin B together with the cell line and virus. An in vitro basis is provided for the effects of bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin B in moderating food-borne infections of enteric viruses.

  6. Destruction of single-species biofilms of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae by dextranase, lactoferrin, and lysozyme

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The activity of dextranase, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and nisin against biofilms composed of either Klebsiella pneumonia or Escherichia coli was examined using the MBEC Assay™. Mature biofilms were treated and then sonicated to remove the adherent biofilm. This material was quantified using a lumines...

  7. Lactoferrin gene promoter variants and their association with clinical and subclinical mastitis in indigenous and crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Chopra, A; Gupta, I D; Verma, A; Chakravarty, A K; Vohra, V

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) gene promoter was screened for the presence of single nucleotide polymphism in indigenous and crossbred cattle from North India and to evaluate its association with Mastitis. Study revealed the presence of genetic variation in regulatory region of bovine Lactoferrin gene using PCR-RFLP technique. Three genotypes namely GG, GH and HH were identified. A single nucleotide change, from guanine to adenine at 25th position was found to be significantly associated (p<0.05) with clinical mastitis in indigenous Sahiwal and crossbred Karan Fries cattle maintained at organised herd of National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. A non-significant association was observed between subclinical mastitis, somatic cell score (SCS), and GG genotype in Karan Fries cattle, however, a lower SCS was observed in animals having GG genotype. Overall a lower incidence of clinical mastitis was recorded in those animals having GG genotype of Lf in Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) cattle. The SNP identified in the promoter region may effect expression lactoferrin protein, which may lead to different levels of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of Lf gene. Results from this study indicated the probable role played by Lactoferrin promoter to serve as candidate gene for mastitis susceptibility among indigenous and crossbred milch cattle.

  8. Activation of the classical pathway of complement by binding of bovine lactoferrin to unencapsulated Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed Central

    Rainard, P

    1993-01-01

    The ability of lactoferrin (Lf) bound to Streptococcus agalactiae to interfere with the deposition of complement components on the bacterial surface was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). By using a strain of S. agalactiae which activates the alternative pathway of complement in the absence of antibodies, it was found that pretreatment of bacteria with Lf shortened the lag phase preceding the deposition of C3 on bacteria. The kinetics of C3 deposition was comparable to that obtained by adding antibodies against S. agalactiae to agammaglobulinaemic precolostral calf serum (PCS) heated at 56 degrees for 3 min to inactivate the alternative pathway. Accelerated C3 deposition did not occur in the absence of Ca2+ ions. Deposition of C4 on bacteria occurred only when either antibodies or Lf were added to PCS. These results demonstrate that the interaction of lactoferrin with bacteria activated the classical pathway of complement in the absence of antibodies. The binding of purified C1q to bacteria was promoted in a dose-dependent manner by Lf, suggesting that recruitment of classical pathway of complement resulted from the interaction of C1q with Lf adsorbed to the bacterial surface. Phagocytosis of bacteria opsonized with heated PCS (at 56 degrees for 3 min) and Lf was comparable to that occurring in the presence of heated PCS and antibodies. In conclusion, Lf was able to substitute for antibodies in order to activate the classical pathway of complement and to opsonize unencapsulated S. agalactiae efficiently. PMID:8406591

  9. Formulation for Oral Delivery of Lactoferrin Based on Bovine Serum Albumin and Tannic Acid Multilayer Microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Ece; Novoselova, Marina V.; Lim, Su Hui; Pyataev, Nikolay A.; Pinyaev, Sergey I.; Kulikov, Oleg A.; Sindeeva, Olga A.; Mayorova, Oksana A.; Murney, Regan; Antipina, Maria N.; Haigh, Brendan; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Kiryukhin, Maxim V.

    2017-03-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) has considerable potential as a functional ingredient in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. However, the bioavailability of Lf is limited as it is susceptible to digestive enzymes in gastrointestinal tract. The shells comprising alternate layers of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tannic acid (TA) were tested as Lf encapsulation system for oral administration. Lf absorption by freshly prepared porous 3 μm CaCO3 particles followed by Layer-by-Layer assembly of the BSA-TA shells and dissolution of the CaCO3 cores was suggested as the most efficient and harmless Lf loading method. The microcapsules showed high stability in gastric conditions and effectively protected encapsulated proteins from digestion. Protective efficiency was found to be 76 ± 6% and 85 ± 2%, for (BSA-TA)4 and (BSA-TA)8 shells, respectively. The transit of Lf along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of mice was followed in vivo and ex vivo using NIR luminescence. We have demonstrated that microcapsules released Lf in small intestine allowing 6.5 times higher concentration than in control group dosed with the same amount of free Lf. Significant amounts of Lf released from microcapsules were then absorbed into bloodstream and accumulated in liver. Suggested encapsulation system has a great potential for functional foods providing lactoferrin.

  10. Study on the Therapeutic Benefit on Lactoferrin in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moastafa, Tarek M.; El-Sissy, Alaa El-Din Elsayed; El-Saeed, Gehan K.; Koura, Mai Salah El-Din

    2014-01-01

    A double-blinded parallel randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on two groups of colorectal cancer patients to study the therapeutic benefit of orally administered bovine lactoferrin (bLF) on colorectal cancer patients having age ranges from 20 to 71 years and who received 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium. Test group (15 patients) received oral bLF 250 mg/day beside chemotherapy for three months. Control group (15 patients) received chemotherapy only. Serum lactoferrin (LF), serum glutathione-s-transferase enzyme (GST), interferon gamma (INF-γ), tumor marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), renal function tests, hepatic function tests, and complete blood count were measured for both groups before and at the end of the trial. Although, there was a significant effect of oral bLF (250 mg/day) that indicated a significant improvement in mean percent of change of all parameters 3 months after treatment, there was no significant difference between results of patients in the test group and patients in the control group after treatment. This result suggests that oral bLF has significant therapeutic effect on colorectal cancer patients. Our study suggests that daily administration of bLF showed a clinically beneficial effect to colorectal cancer patients with better disease prognosis but that needs further looking into. PMID:27350986

  11. Study on the Therapeutic Benefit on Lactoferrin in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moastafa, Tarek M; El-Sissy, Alaa El-Din Elsayed; El-Saeed, Gehan K; Koura, Mai Salah El-Din

    2014-01-01

    A double-blinded parallel randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on two groups of colorectal cancer patients to study the therapeutic benefit of orally administered bovine lactoferrin (bLF) on colorectal cancer patients having age ranges from 20 to 71 years and who received 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium. Test group (15 patients) received oral bLF 250 mg/day beside chemotherapy for three months. Control group (15 patients) received chemotherapy only. Serum lactoferrin (LF), serum glutathione-s-transferase enzyme (GST), interferon gamma (INF-γ), tumor marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), renal function tests, hepatic function tests, and complete blood count were measured for both groups before and at the end of the trial. Although, there was a significant effect of oral bLF (250 mg/day) that indicated a significant improvement in mean percent of change of all parameters 3 months after treatment, there was no significant difference between results of patients in the test group and patients in the control group after treatment. This result suggests that oral bLF has significant therapeutic effect on colorectal cancer patients. Our study suggests that daily administration of bLF showed a clinically beneficial effect to colorectal cancer patients with better disease prognosis but that needs further looking into.

  12. Lactoferrin or ferrous salts for iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy: A meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Abu Hashim, Hatem; Foda, Osama; Ghayaty, Essam

    2017-12-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of daily oral bovine lactoferrin versus daily oral ferrous iron preparations for treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy. Searches were conducted on PubMed, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov and CENTRAL databases from inception to February 2017 and the bibliographies of retrieved articles were screened. The PRISMA Statement was followed. Published English language randomized trials comparing lactoferrin with oral ferrous iron preparations in pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia were included. Quasi-randomized, non- randomized or studies including other known cause of anemia, gestational or pre-existent maternal diseases were excluded. Accordingly, 4 eligible trials (600 women) were analyzed. Primary outcome was change in hemoglobin level at 4 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes were; change in serum ferritin and iron, rates of gastrointestinal side effects, preterm birth, low birthweight, neonatal death and mean birthweight. Quality assessment was performed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Odds ratio and mean difference were used to integrate dichotomous and continuous outcomes respectively. Pooled estimates for change in hemoglobin levels at four weeks favored daily oral lactoferrin over daily oral ferrous sulphate (mean difference 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-1.55; P=0.04, 4 trials, 600 women). However, after subgroup analysis (degree of anemia), no significant difference in hemoglobin levels were found between both groups in mild anemia (mean difference 0.80; 95% CI -0.21 to 1.82, 3 trials, 372 women), but a significant increase favoring lactoferrin was reported in moderate anemia (mean difference 0.68; 95% CI 0.53-0.83; P<0.00001, one trial, 228 women). Significantly less gastrointestinal side effects were reported with lactoferrin treatment. No significant differences existed with regard to other outcomes. In conclusion, for pregnant women with IDA

  13. Human Milk Secretory Immunoglobulin A and Lactoferrin N-Glycans Are Altered in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus123

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Totten, Sarah M.; Huang, Jincui; Grapov, Dmitry; Durham, Holiday A.; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J.; Lebrilla, Carlito; German, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on lactation and milk components. Recent reports suggested that hyperglycemia during pregnancy was associated with altered breast milk immune factors. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and N-glycans of milk immune-modulatory proteins are implicated in modulation of infant immunity. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of GDM on HMO and protein-conjugated glycan profiles in breast milk. Milk was collected at 2 wk postpartum from women diagnosed with (n = 8) or without (n = 16) GDM at week 24–28 in pregnancy. Milk was analyzed for HMO abundances, protein concentrations, and N-glycan abundances of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). HMOs and N-glycans were analyzed by mass spectrometry and milk lactoferrin and sIgA concentrations were analyzed by the Bradford assay. The data were analyzed using multivariate modeling confirmed with univariate statistics to determine differences between milk of women with compared with women without GDM. There were no differences in HMOs between milk from women with vs. without GDM. Milk from women with GDM compared with those without GDM was 63.6% lower in sIgA protein (P < 0.05), 45% higher in lactoferrin total N-glycans (P < 0.0001), 36–72% higher in lactoferrin fucose and sialic acid N-glycans (P < 0.01), and 32–43% lower in sIgA total, mannose, fucose, and sialic acid N-glycans (P < 0.05). GDM did not alter breast milk free oligosaccharide abundances but decreased total protein and glycosylation of sIgA and increased glycosylation of lactoferrin in transitional milk. The results suggest that maternal glucose dysregulation during pregnancy has lasting consequences that may influence the innate immune protective functions of breast milk. PMID:24047700

  14. Illness in breastfeeding infants relates to concentration of lactoferrin and secretory Immunoglobulin A in mother’s milk

    PubMed Central

    Breakey, Alicia A.; Hinde, Katie; Valeggia, Claudia R.; Sinofsky, Allison; Ellison, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: This study aims to better understand the relationship between immune compounds in human milk and infant health. We hypothesized that the concentration of immune compounds in milk would relate to infant illness symptoms according to two possible theoretical paradigms. In the ‘protective’ paradigm, high concentrations of immune compounds prevent infant illness. The converse, the ‘responsive’ framework, posits that concentrations of immune compounds are elevated in response to infection. Methodology: Milk samples (n = 110) and illness data were collected among the Toba of Argentina from 30 mother–infant dyads. Samples were assayed for two immune proteins, lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship between immune composition of milk and symptoms of illness in infants. Results: Lactoferrin was positively associated with symptoms of illness in infants (odds ratios >1), both in the month preceding the sample collection and the subsequent month. sIgA was negatively associated with symptoms (odds ratios <1) in the preceding and subsequent months, an association which was particularly strong for gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusions and implications: The two compounds investigated in our study had opposite relationships with symptoms of illness; the positive relationship between lactoferrin and illness lends support to our ‘responsive’ paradigm, and the negative relationship between sIgA and symptoms of illness was consistent with our ‘protective’ framework. That elevated lactoferrin is restricted to periods of illness suggests that there may be a cost to mother or infant associated with persistently elevated lactoferrin that is not incurred with elevated sIgA. PMID:25608691

  15. Detection of recombinant human lactoferrin and lysozyme produced in a bitransgenic cow.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Germán G; Mucci, Nicolás C; González, Vega; Sánchez, Lourdes; Parrón, José A; Pérez, María D; Calvo, Miguel; Aller, Juan F; Hozbor, Federico A; Mutto, Adrián A

    2017-03-01

    Lactoferrin and lysozyme are 2 glycoproteins with great antimicrobial activity, being part of the nonspecific defensive system of human milk, though their use in commercial products is difficult because human milk is a limited source. Therefore, many investigations have been carried out to produce those proteins in biological systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, or plants. Mammals seem to be more suitable as expression systems for human proteins, however, especially for those that are glycosylated. In the present study, we developed a bicistronic commercial vector containing a goat β-casein promoter and an internal ribosome entry site fragment between the human lactoferrin and human lysozyme genes to allow the introduction of both genes into bovine adult fibroblasts in a single transfection. Embryos were obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer, and, after 6 transferences to recipients, 3 pregnancies and 1 viable bitransgenic calf were obtained. The presence of the vector was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization of skin cells. At 13 mo of life and after artificial induction of lactation, both recombinant proteins were found in the colostrum and milk of the bitransgenic calf. Human lactoferrin concentration in the colostrum was 0.0098 mg/mL and that in milk was 0.011 mg/mL; human lysozyme concentration in the colostrum was 0.0022 mg/mL and that in milk was 0.0024 mg/mL. The molar concentration of both human proteins revealed no differences in protein production of the internal ribosome entry site upstream and downstream protein. The enzymatic activity of lysozyme in the transgenic milk was comparable to that of human milk, being 6 and 10 times higher than that of bovine lysozyme present in milk. This work represents an important step to obtain multiple proteins or enhance single protein production by using animal pharming and fewer regulatory and antibiotic-resistant foreign sequences, allowing the design of humanized milk with added biological value for

  16. The Negatively Charged Regions of Lactoferrin Binding Protein B, an Adaptation against Anti-Microbial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Morgenthau, Ari; Beddek, Amanda; Schryvers, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB) is a bi-lobed membrane bound lipoprotein that is part of the lactoferrin receptor complex in a variety of Gram-negative pathogens. Despite high sequence diversity among LbpBs from various strains and species, a cluster of negatively charged amino acids is invariably present in the protein’s C-terminal lobe in all species except Moraxella bovis. The function of LbpB in iron acquisition has yet to be experimentally demonstrated, whereas in vitro studies have shown that LbpB confers protection against lactoferricin, a short cationic antimicrobial peptide released from the N- terminus of lactoferrin. In this study we demonstrate that the negatively charged regions can be removed from the Neisseria meningitidis LbpB without compromising stability, and this results in the inability of LbpB to protect against the bactericidal effects of lactoferricin. The release of LbpB from the cell surface by the autotransporter NalP reduces the protection against lactoferricin in the in vitro killing assay, attributed to removal of LbpB during washing steps, but is unlikely to have a similar impact in vivo. The protective effect of the negatively charged polysaccharide capsule in the killing assay was less than the protection conferred by LbpB, suggesting that LbpB plays a major role in protection against cationic antimicrobial peptides in vivo. The selective release of LbpB by NalP has been proposed to be a mechanism for evading the adaptive immune response, by reducing the antibody binding to the cell surface, but may also provide insights into the primary function of LbpB in vivo. Although TbpB and LbpB have been shown to be major targets of the human immune response, the selective release of LbpB suggests that unlike TbpB, LbpB may not be essential for iron acquisition, but important for protection against cationic antimicrobial peptides. PMID:24465982

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Lactoferrin-Related Peptides and Applications in Human and Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Natascia; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Biasibetti, Elena; Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona; Giraudo, Leonardo; Corona, Antonio; Dosio, Franco

    2016-06-11

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a vast array of molecules produced by virtually all living organisms as natural barriers against infection. Among AMP sources, an interesting class regards the food-derived bioactive agents. The whey protein lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that plays a significant role in the innate immune system, and is considered as an important host defense molecule. In search for novel antimicrobial agents, Lf offers a new source with potential pharmaceutical applications. The Lf-derived peptides Lf(1-11), lactoferricin (Lfcin) and lactoferrampin exhibit interesting and more potent antimicrobial actions than intact protein. Particularly, Lfcin has demonstrated strong antibacterial, anti-fungal and antiparasitic activity with promising applications both in human and veterinary diseases (from ocular infections to osteo-articular, gastrointestinal and dermatological diseases).

  18. Inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin B on Enterobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Takase, Mitsunori

    2008-03-01

    The susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii, a food-borne pathogen, to several metal-bound forms of bovine lactoferrin (LF), pepsin-hydrolyzed LF (LF-hyd), and LF-derived peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B) was tested. MIC and MBC testing revealed that 4 strains of E. sakazakii show susceptibility to apo- and Cu-LF, LF-hyd, and LFcin B, but not to Fe-LF, similarly to Escherichia coli. A growth curve test indicated that E. sakazakii was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by apo-LF at 0.5 to 8 mg/ml. Even after being heated at 80 degrees C, LF at above 1 mg/ml inhibited the bacterial growth. These results suggest that bovine LF-related compounds may be useful for the inhibition of E. sakazakii in foods.

  19. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin interfere with intracellular trafficking of Herpes simplex virus-1.

    PubMed

    Marr, A K; Jenssen, H; Moniri, M Roshan; Hancock, R E W; Panté, N

    2009-01-01

    Although both lactoferrin (Lf), a component of the innate immune system of living organisms, and its N-terminal pepsin cleavage product lactoferricin (Lfcin) have anti-herpes activity, the precise mechanisms by which Lf and Lfcin bring about inhibition of herpes infections are not fully understood. In the present study, experiments were carried out to characterize the activity of bovine Lf and Lfcin (BLf and BLfcin) against the Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy. In comparison to the untreated infected control cells, both the BLf- and BLfcin-treated cells showed a significant reduction in HSV-1 cellular uptake. The few virus particles that were internalized appeared to have a delayed intracellular trafficking. Thus, in addition to their interference with the uptake of the virus into host cells, Lf and Lfcin also exert their antiviral effect intracellularly.

  20. Human lactoferrin binding to Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella melaninogenica.

    PubMed

    Kalfas, S; Andersson, M; Edwardsson, S; Forsgren, A; Naidu, A S

    1991-12-01

    Human isolates of Porphyromonas gingivalis (n = 16), Prevotella intermedia n = 82) and Prevotella melaninogenica (n = 18) from diseased periodontal pockets were examined for interaction with human lactoferrin (HLf) in a standardized 125I-labeled protein binding assay. The highest HLf binding was found in P. intermedia strains, followed by P. gingivalis and P. melaninogenica. Further characterization of the interaction was performed with 1 representative strain from each species. HLf binding to P. gingivalis reached a saturation instantly and was optimal at pH 5.0-6.5. The corresponding values for P. melaninogenica were 90 min and pH 3.0-5.5. The HLf binding to the 2 strains seem to be nonspecific. In contrast, P. intermedia demonstrated specific binding, and a time-saturability within 60 min with an optimal uptake at pH 6.0-7.5. Scatchard analysis implied 45,000 receptors per cell with an affinity constant of 5.5 x 10(-7) M on P. intermedia strain 4H. The binding capacity in all 3 strains was affected by the culture medium. HLf binding components in these strains were susceptible to heat or proteases. Binding was eliminated in P. gingivalis and was enhanced in P. intermedia and P. melaninogenica by periodate treatment. Unlabeled HLf or bovine lactoferrin effectively displaced labeled HLf binding. Various proteins and carbohydrates did not inhibit HLf binding. Our data suggest that HLf binds to these periodontitis-associated species and that this mechanism is distinct from the previously known ligand interactions in oral bacteria.

  1. Lactoferrin binding protein B – a bi-functional bacterial receptor protein

    PubMed Central

    Ostan, Nicholas K. H.; Yu, Rong-Hua; Ng, Dixon; Lai, Christine Chieh-Lin; Sarpe, Vladimir; Schriemer, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB) is a bi-lobed outer membrane-bound lipoprotein that comprises part of the lactoferrin (Lf) receptor complex in Neisseria meningitidis and other Gram-negative pathogens. Recent studies have demonstrated that LbpB plays a role in protecting the bacteria from cationic antimicrobial peptides due to large regions rich in anionic residues in the C-terminal lobe. Relative to its homolog, transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB), there currently is little evidence for its role in iron acquisition and relatively little structural and biophysical information on its interaction with Lf. In this study, a combination of crosslinking and deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry, information-driven computational docking, bio-layer interferometry, and site-directed mutagenesis was used to probe LbpB:hLf complexes. The formation of a 1:1 complex of iron-loaded Lf and LbpB involves an interaction between the Lf C-lobe and LbpB N-lobe, comparable to TbpB, consistent with a potential role in iron acquisition. The Lf N-lobe is also capable of binding to negatively charged regions of the LbpB C-lobe and possibly other sites such that a variety of higher order complexes are formed. Our results are consistent with LbpB serving dual roles focused primarily on iron acquisition when exposed to limited levels of iron-loaded Lf on the mucosal surface and effectively binding apo Lf when exposed to high levels at sites of inflammation. PMID:28257520

  2. Human lactoferrin stimulates skin keratinocyte function and wound re-epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Tang, L; Wu, J J; Ma, Q; Cui, T; Andreopoulos, F M; Gil, J; Valdes, J; Davis, S C; Li, J

    2010-07-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLF), a member of the transferrin family, is known for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies on various nonskin cell lines indicate that hLF may have a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation. To study the potential role of hLF in wound re-epithelialization. The effects of hLF on cell growth, migration, attachment and survival were assessed, with a rice-derived recombinant hLF (holo-rhLF), using proliferation analysis, scratch migration assay, calcein-AM/propidium iodide staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) method, respectively. The mechanisms of hLF on cell proliferation and migration were explored using specific pathway inhibitors. The involvement of lactoferrin receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was examined with RNA interference technique. An in vivo swine second-degree burn wound model was also used to assess wound re-epithelialization. Studies revealed that holo-rhLF significantly stimulated keratinocyte proliferation which could be blocked by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 1 inhibitor. Holo-rhLF also showed strong promoting effects on keratinocyte migration, which could be blocked by either inhibition of the MAPK, Src and Rho/ROCK pathways, or downregulation of the LRP1 receptor. With cells under starving or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate exposure, the addition of holo-rhLF was found greatly to increase cell viability and inhibit cell apoptosis. Additionally, holo-rhLF significantly increased the rate of wound re-epithelialization in swine second-degree burn wounds. Our studies demonstrate the direct effects of holo-rhLF on wound re-epithelialization including the enhancement of keratinocyte proliferation and migration as well as the protection of cells from apoptosis. The data strongly indicate its potential therapeutic applications in wound healing.

  3. Novel recombinant human lactoferrin: differential activation of oxidative stress related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K; Zimecki, Michał; Wise, Jasen; Płoszaj, Paulina; Mirza, Shaper; Kruzel, Mark; Hwang, Shen-An; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2013-12-01

    Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein found in high concentrations in mammalian exocrine secretions, is an important component of the host defense system. It is also a major protein of the secondary granules of neutrophils from which is released upon activation. Due to its potential clinical utility, recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) has been produced in various eukaryotic expression systems; however, none of these are fully compatible with humans. Most of the biopharmaceuticals approved by the FDA for use in humans are produced in mammalian expression systems. The Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) have become the system of choice for proteins that require post-translational modifications, such as glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to scale-up expression and purification of rhLF in a CHO expression system, verify its glycan primary structure, and assess its biological properties in cell culture models. A stable CHO cell line producing >200mg/L of rhLF was developed and established. rhLF was purified by a single-step cation-exchange chromatography procedure. The highly homogenous rhLF has a molecular weight of approximately 80 kDa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis revealed N-linked, partially sialylated glycans at two glycosylation sites, typical for human milk LF. This novel rhLF showed a protective effect against oxidative stress in a similar manner to its natural counterpart. In addition, rhLF revealed a modulatory effect on cellular redox via upregulation of key antioxidant enzymes. These data imply that the CHO-derived rhLF is fully compatible with the native molecule, thus it has promise for human therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of buttermilk and lactoferrin peptide extracts on poultry pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jean, Catherine; Boulianne, Martine; Britten, Michel; Robitaille, Gilles

    2016-11-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in poultry feed as growth promoters. This practice is questioned given the arising importance of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial peptides can be used as food additives for a potent alternative to synthetic or semi-synthetic antibiotics. The objective of this study was to develop a peptide production method based on membrane adsorption chromatography in order to produce extracts with antimicrobial activity against avian pathogens (Salmonella enterica var. Enteritidis, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium, and two Escherichia coli strains, O78:H80 and TK3 O1:K1) as well as Staphylococcus aureus. To achieve this, buttermilk powder and purified lactoferrin were digested with pepsin. The peptide extracts (<10 kDa) were fractionated depending on their charges through high-capacity cation-exchange and anion-exchange adsorptive membranes. The yields of cationic peptide extracts were 6·3 and 15·4% from buttermilk and lactoferrin total peptide extracts, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the microdilution technique on microplates. Our results indicate that the buttermilk cationic peptide extracts were bactericidal at less than 5 mg/ml against the selected avian strains, with losses of 1·7 log CFU/ml (Salm. Typhimurium) to 3 log CFU/ml (E. coli O78:H80); viability decreased by 1·5 log CFU/ml for Staph. aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium. Anionic and non-adsorbed peptide extracts were inactive at 5 mg/ml. These results demonstrate that membrane adsorption chromatography is an effective way to prepare a cationic peptide extract from buttermilk that is active against avian pathogens.

  5. Kinetic stability and membrane structure of liposomes during in vitro infant intestinal digestion: Effect of cholesterol and lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weilin; Wei, Fuqiang; Ye, Aiqian; Tian, Mengmeng; Han, Jianzhong

    2017-09-01

    The effects of cholesterol and lactoferrin on the kinetic stability and membrane structural integrity of negatively charged liposomes under in vitro infant intestinal digestion conditions were elucidated using dynamic light scattering, pH-stat titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and pyrene steady state fluorescence probes. The liposomes had a smaller particle diameter, a wider size distribution, and a greater negative charge after digestion. The incorporation of cholesterol into the phospholipid bilayers resulted in a more ordered conformation in the aliphatic tail region and reduced micropolarity, indicating that cholesterol can improve the structural stability of liposomal membranes against intestinal environmental stress. Lactoferrin coverage facilitated the release of free fatty acids and increased the microfluidity of the bilayers, reducing the structural integrity of the liposomes. This study provides useful information on the design of liposomes and other microcapsules with improved and controlled release properties during digestion for particular groups of people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Apoptotic death of Listeria monocytogenes-infected human macrophages induced by lactoferricin B, a bovine lactoferrin-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Longhi, C; Conte, M P; Ranaldi, S; Penta, M; Valenti, P; Tinari, A; Superti, F; Seganti, L

    2005-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular facultative food-borne pathogen, was reported to induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a variety of cell types with the exception of murine macrophages. These cells represent the predominant compartment of bacterial multiplication and die as a result of necrosis. In this study we showed that human non-activated and IFN-gamma-activated macrophagic-like (THP-1) cells infected with L. monocytogenes, mainly die by necrosis rather than by an apoptotic process. Two natural products derived from bovine milk, lactoferrin and its derivative peptide lactoferricin B, are capable of regulating the fate of infected human macrophages. Bovine lactoferrin treatment of macrophages protects them from L. monocytogenes-induced death whereas lactoferricin B, its derivative peptide, determines a shifting of the equilibrium from necrosis to apoptosis.

  7. Production of human lactoferrin and lysozyme in the milk of transgenic dairy animals: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2015-08-01

    Genetic engineering, which was first developed in the 1980s, allows for specific additions to animals' genomes that are not possible through conventional breeding. Using genetic engineering to improve agricultural animals was first suggested when the technology was in the early stages of development by Palmiter et al. (Nature 300:611-615, 1982). One of the first agricultural applications identified was generating transgenic dairy animals that could produce altered or novel proteins in their milk. Human milk contains high levels of antimicrobial proteins that are found in low concentrations in the milk of ruminants, including the antimicrobial proteins lactoferrin and lysozyme. Lactoferrin and lysozyme are both part of the innate immune system and are secreted in tears, mucus, and throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to their antimicrobial properties and abundance in human milk, multiple lines of transgenic dairy animals that produce either human lactoferrin or human lysozyme have been developed. The focus of this review is to catalogue the different lines of genetically engineered dairy animals that produce either recombinant lactoferrin or lysozyme that have been generated over the years as well as compare the wealth of research that has been done on the in vitro and in vivo effects of the milk they produce. While recent advances including the development of CRISPRs and TALENs have removed many of the technical barriers to predictable and efficient genetic engineering in agricultural species, there are still many political and regulatory hurdles before genetic engineering can be used in agriculture. It is important to consider the substantial amount of work that has been done thus far on well established lines of genetically engineered animals evaluating both the animals themselves and the products they yield to identify the most effective path forward for future research and acceptance of this technology.

  8. Serum albumin forms a lactoferrin-like soluble iron-binding complex in presence of hydrogen carbonate ions.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroshi M; Urazono, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2014-02-15

    The iron-lactoferrin complex is a common food ingredient because of its iron-solubilizing capability in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. However, it is unclear whether the formation of a stable iron-binding complex is limited to lactoferrin. In this study, we investigated the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on iron solubility and iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. BSA could solubilize >100-fold molar equivalents of iron at neutral pH, exceeding the specific metal-binding property of BSA. This iron-solubilizing capability of BSA was impaired by thermally denaturing BSA at ≥ 70 °C for 10 min at pH 8.5. The resulting iron-BSA complex inhibited iron-catalyzed oxidation of soybean oil in a water-in-oil emulsion measured using the Rancimat test. Our study is the first to show that BSA, like lactoferrin, forms a soluble iron-binding complex in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lactoferrin from Camelus dromedarius Inhibits Nuclear Transcription Factor-kappa B Activation, Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Prostaglandin E2 Production in Stimulated Human Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Naila; Alghasham, Abdullah; Rasheed, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disorder, which remains the leading cause of chronic disability in aged people. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF)-κB is a major cellular event in OA and its activation by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a critical role in cartilage breakdown in these patients. In this study, we examined the effect of lactoferrin on NF-κB activation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in stimulated human articular chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes were derived from OA articular cartilage and treated with camel lactoferrin and then stimulated with IL-1β. Gene expression was determined by TaqMan assays and protein expression was studied by Western immunoblotting. NF-κB activity and PGE2 levels were determined by ELISA based assays. NF-κB activity was also determined by treatment of chondrocytes with NF-κB specific inhibitor Bay 11-7082. Lactoferrin inhibited IL-1β-induced activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in human OA chondrocytes. Lactoferrin also inhibited mRNA/protein expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2. Moreover, Bay 11-7082 also inhibited IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2. The inhibitory effect of lactoferrin on the IL-1β induced expression of COX-2 or production of PGE2 was mediated at least in part via suppression of NF-κB activation. Our data determine camel lactoferrin as a novel inhibitor of IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB signaling events and production of cartilage-degrading molecule PGE2 via inhibition of COX-2 expressions. These results may have important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention/treatment of OA and other degenerative/inflammatory diseases. Lactoferrin shows anti-arthritic activity in IL-1β stimulated primary human chondrocytes.Lactoferrin inhibits IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation.Lactoferrin inhibits production of cartilage degrading PGE2 via inhibition of COX-2 expression

  10. Lactoferrin from Camelus dromedarius Inhibits Nuclear Transcription Factor-kappa B Activation, Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Prostaglandin E2 Production in Stimulated Human Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Naila; Alghasham, Abdullah; Rasheed, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disorder, which remains the leading cause of chronic disability in aged people. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF)-κB is a major cellular event in OA and its activation by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a critical role in cartilage breakdown in these patients. Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of lactoferrin on NF-κB activation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in stimulated human articular chondrocytes. Materials and Methods: Human chondrocytes were derived from OA articular cartilage and treated with camel lactoferrin and then stimulated with IL-1β. Gene expression was determined by TaqMan assays and protein expression was studied by Western immunoblotting. NF-κB activity and PGE2 levels were determined by ELISA based assays. NF-κB activity was also determined by treatment of chondrocytes with NF-κB specific inhibitor Bay 11–7082. Results: Lactoferrin inhibited IL-1β-induced activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in human OA chondrocytes. Lactoferrin also inhibited mRNA/protein expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2. Moreover, Bay 11–7082 also inhibited IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2. The inhibitory effect of lactoferrin on the IL-1β induced expression of COX-2 or production of PGE2 was mediated at least in part via suppression of NF-κB activation. Conclusions: Our data determine camel lactoferrin as a novel inhibitor of IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB signaling events and production of cartilage-degrading molecule PGE2 via inhibition of COX-2 expressions. These results may have important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention/treatment of OA and other degenerative/inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY Lactoferrin shows anti-arthritic activity in IL-1β stimulated primary human chondrocytes.Lactoferrin inhibits IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation.Lactoferrin inhibits

  11. A retinoic acid response element that overlaps an estrogen response element mediates multihormonal sensitivity in transcriptional activation of the lactoferrin gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, M O; Liu, Y; Zhang, X K

    1995-08-01

    The lactoferrin gene is highly expressed in many different tissues, and its expression is controlled by different regulators. In this report, we have defined a retinoic acid response element (RARE) in the 5'-flanking region of the lactoferrin gene promoter. The lactoferrin-RARE is composed of two AGGTCA-like motifs arranged as a direct repeat with 1-bp spacing (DR-1). A gel retardation assay demonstrated that it bound strongly with retinoid X receptor (RXR) homodimers and RXR-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) heterodimers as well as chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF) orphan receptor. In CV-1 cells, the lactoferrin-RARE linked with a heterologous thymidine kinase promoter was strongly activated by RXR homodimers in response to 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) but not to all-trans-RA. When the COUP-TF orphan receptor was cotransfected, the 9-cis-RA-induced RXR homodimer activity was strongly repressed. A unique feature of the lactoferrin-RARE is that it has an AGGTCA-like motif in common with an estrogen-responsive element (ERE). The composite RARE/ERE contributes to the functional interaction between retinoid receptors and the estrogen receptor (ER) and their ligands. In CV-1 cells, cotransfection of the retinoid and estrogen receptors led to mutual inhibition of the other's activity, while an RA-dependent inhibition of ER activity was observed in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the lactoferrin-RARE/ERE showed differential transactivation activity in different cell types. RAs could activate the lactoferrin-RARE/ERE in human leukemia HL-60 cells and U937 cells but not in human breast cancer cells. By gel retardation analyses, we demonstrated that strong binding of the endogenous COUP-TF in breast cancer cells to the composite element contributed to diminished RA response in these cells. Thus, the lactoferrin-RARE/ERE functions as a signaling switch module that mediates multihormonal responsiveness in the regulation of lactoferrin gene

  12. Lactoferrin-Immobilized Surfaces onto Functionalized PLA Assisted by the Gamma-Rays and Nitrogen Plasma to Create Materials with Multifunctional Properties.

    PubMed

    Stoleru, Elena; Zaharescu, Traian; Hitruc, Elena Gabriela; Vesel, Alenka; Ioanid, Emil G; Coroaba, Adina; Safrany, Agnes; Pricope, Gina; Lungu, Maria; Schick, Christoph; Vasile, Cornelia

    2016-11-23

    Both cold nitrogen radiofrequency plasma and gamma irradiation have been applied to activate and functionalize the polylactic acid (PLA) surface and the subsequent lactoferrin immobilization. Modified films were comparatively characterized with respect to the procedure of activation and also with unmodified sample by water contact angle measurements, mass loss, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and chemiluminescence measurements. All modified samples exhibit enhanced surface properties mainly those concerning biocompatibility, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and furthermore, they are biodegradable and environmentally friendly. Lactoferrin deposited layer by covalent coupling using carbodiimide chemistry showed a good stability. It was found that the lactoferrin-modified PLA materials present significantly increased oxidative stability. Gamma-irradiated samples and lactoferrin-functionalized samples show higher antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cell proliferation activity than plasma-activated and lactoferrin-functionalized ones. The multifunctional materials thus obtained could find application as biomaterials or as bioactive packaging films.

  13. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  14. Lactoferrin denaturation induced by anionic surfactants: The role of the ferric ion in the protein stabilization.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriel Max Dias; Ferreira, Guilherme Max Dias; Agudelo, Álvaro Javier Patiño; Hudson, Eliara Acipreste; Dos Santos Pires, Ana Clarissa; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes

    2018-05-11

    Here, investigation was made of the interaction between Lactoferrin (Lf) and the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), and sodium decyl sulfate (DSS), using isothermal titration calorimetry, Nano differential scanning calorimetry (NanoDSC), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The Lf-surfactant interaction was enthalpically favorable (the integral enthalpy change ranged from -5.99 kJ mol -1 , for SDS at pH 3.0, to -0.61 kJ mol -1 , for DSS at pH 12.0) and promoted denaturation of the protein. The Lf denaturation efficiency followed the order DSS < SDS < SDBS. The extent of binding of the surfactants to Lf strongly depended on pH and the surfactant structure, reaching a maximum value of 505 SDBS molecules per gram of Lf at pH 3.0. The different efficiencies of the surfactants in denaturing Lf were attributed to the balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, which also depended on pH and the surfactant structure, highlighting the SDBS-tryptophan residue specific interaction, where SDBS acted as a quencher of fluorescence. Interestingly, the NanoDSC and fluorescence measurements showed that the ferric ion bound to Lf increased its stability against denaturation induced by the surfactants. The results have important implications for understanding the influence of surfactants on structural changes in metalloproteins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Lactoferrin: Balancing Ups and Downs of Inflammation Due to Microbial Infections.

    PubMed

    Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Carrero, Julio César; de la Garza, Mireya

    2017-03-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is a glycoprotein of the primary innate immune-defense system of mammals present in milk and other mucosal secretions. This protein of the transferrin family has broad antimicrobial properties by depriving pathogens from iron, or disrupting their plasma membranes through its highly cationic charge. Noteworthy, Lf also exhibits immunomodulatory activities performing up- and down-regulation of innate and adaptive immune cells, contributing to the homeostasis in mucosal surfaces exposed to myriad of microbial agents, such as the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Although the inflammatory process is essential for the control of invasive infectious agents, the development of an exacerbated or chronic inflammation results in tissue damage with life-threatening consequences. In this review, we highlight recent findings in in vitro and in vivo models of the gut, lung, oral cavity, mammary gland, and liver infections that provide experimental evidence supporting the therapeutic role of human and bovine Lf in promoting some parameters of inflammation and protecting against the deleterious effects of bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoan-associated inflammation. Thus, this new knowledge of Lf immunomodulation paves the way to more effective design of treatments that include native or synthetic Lf derivatives, which may be useful to reduce immune-mediated tissue damage in infectious diseases.

  16. Biocompatible Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles from Lactoferrin and Pectin as Potential Vehicles for Antioxidative Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing-Kun; Qiu, Wen-Yi; Wang, Yao-Yao; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2017-07-19

    Polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (PEC NPs) were fabricated via electrostatic interactions between positively charged heat-denatured lactoferrin (LF) particles and negatively charged pectin. The obtained PEC NPs were then utilized as curcumin carriers. PEC NPs were prepared by mixing 1.0 mg/mL solutions of heat-denatured LF and pectin at a mass ratio of 1:1 (w/w) in the absence of NaCl at pH 4.50. PEC NPs that were prepared under optimized conditions were spherical in shape with a particle size of ∼208 nm and zeta potential of ∼-32 mV. Hydrophobic curcumin was successfully encapsulated into LF/pectin PEC NPs with high encapsulation efficiency (∼85.3%) and loading content (∼13.4%). The in vitro controlled release and prominent antioxidant activities of curcumin from LF/pectin PEC NPs were observed. The present work provides a facile and fast method to synthesize nanoscale food-grade delivery systems for the improved water solubility, controlled release, and antioxidant activity of hydrophobic curcumin.

  17. Varying iron release from transferrin and lactoferrin proteins. A laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Fernando; González, Ana; Sánchez, Manu; Gálvez, Natividad; Cuesta, Rafael; Capdevila, Mercè; Dominguez-Vera, Jose M

    2017-11-01

    Iron metabolism is an important subject of study for undergraduate students of chemistry and biochemistry. Relevant laboratory exercises are scarce in the literature but would be very helpful in assisting students grasp key concepts. The experiment described here deals with different iron release mechanisms of two protagonists in iron metabolism: serum transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf). Despite having very similar structures and iron-binding sites, Tf releases practically all its iron at pH 5.5 while Lf requires a significantly lower pH of 3. This difference in behavior is directly related to their respective biological functions as Tf blood-borne iron into the cell, while Lf competes with pathogens to sequester iron in biological fluids at more acidic pHs.  During this experiment, the students will carry out iron loading and unloading on both human Lf and Tf and monitor the iron release at different pHs using UV-Vis spectroscopy. With this simple approach, the students will discover the different patterns of iron release of Tf and Lf and how this variance in behavior relates to their biological functions. Furthermore, this laboratory practice can be expanded to allow students to investigate a variety of iron proteins. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(6):521-527, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions stabilized by chlorogenic acid-lactoferrin-glucose/polydextrose conjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuguo; Wang, Di; Xu, Honggao; Sun, Cuixia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of chlorogenic acid (CA)-lactoferrin (LF)-glucose (Glc) conjugate and CA-LF-polydextrose (PD) conjugate on the physicochemical characteristics of β-carotene emulsions was investigated. Novel emulsifiers were formed during Maillard reaction between CA-LF conjugate and Glc/PD. The physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions were characterized by droplet size, ζ-potential, rheological behavior, transmission changes during centrifugal sedimentation and β-carotene degradation. Results showed that the covalent attachment of Glc or PD to CA-LF conjugate effectively increased the hydrophilicity of the oil droplets surfaces and strengthened the steric repulsion between the oil droplets. Glucose was better than polydextrose for the conjugation with CA-LF conjugate to stabilize β-carotene emulsions. In comparison with LF and CA-LF-Glc/PD mixtures, CA-LF-Glc/PD ternary conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties and improved physical stability of β-carotene emulsions during the freeze-thaw treatment. In addition, CA-LF-Glc/PD conjugates significantly enhanced chemical stability of β-carotene in the emulsions against ultraviolet light exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vaginal Lactoferrin Modulates PGE2, MMP-9, MMP-2, and TIMP-1 Amniotic Fluid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Maritati, Martina; Gonelli, Arianna; Greco, Pantaleo

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in pregnancy, and cytokine and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) imbalance has been associated with premature rupture of membranes and increased risk of preterm delivery. Previous studies have demonstrated that lactoferrin (LF), an iron-binding protein with anti-inflammatory properties, is able to decrease amniotic fluid (AF) levels of IL-6. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of vaginal LF administration on amniotic fluid PGE2 level and MMP-TIMP system in women undergoing genetic amniocentesis. One hundred and eleven women were randomly divided into controls (n = 57) or treated with LF 4 hours before amniocentesis (n = 54). Amniotic fluid PGE2, active MMP-9 and MMP-2, and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 concentrations were determined by commercially available assays and the values were normalized by AF creatinine concentration. PGE2, active MMP-9, and its inhibitor TIMP-1 were lower in LF-treated group than in controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.005, and p < 0.001, resp.). Conversely, active MMP-2 (p < 0.0001) and MMP-2/TIMP-2 molar ratio (p < 0.001) were increased, whilst TIMP-2 was unchanged. Our data suggest that LF administration is able to modulate the inflammatory response following amniocentesis, which may counteract cytokine and prostanoid imbalance that leads to abortion. This trial is registered with Clinical Trial number NCT02695563. PMID:27872513

  20. Factors Affecting Lactoferrin Concentration in Human Milk: How Much Do We Know?

    PubMed Central

    Villavicencio, Aasith; Rueda, Maria S.; Turin, Christie G.; Ochoa, Theresa J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a breast milk glycoprotein with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Its beneficial properties in infants, especially in those born preterm, are currently being studied in clinical trials. However, the maternal and nursing infant factors that may affect the concentration of LF in breast milk are still not clear. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the factors that may affect LF concentration. We used a 2-step approach to identify the eligible studies according to inclusion/exclusion criteria and to determine which studies would be considered. We included 70 qualified articles from 29 countries with publication dates ranging from 1976 to 2015. We described the correlation between LF concentration in breast milk and lactation stage; 10 maternal factors, such as race, parity, among others; and 2 infant factors, infections and prematurity. Colostrum has the highest LF levels, but they decrease with days postpartum. No other factor has been consistently associated with LF concentration. A major limitation of the majority of the published studies is the small sample size and the different methods used to measure LF concentration. Therefore, there is a need for large, multicenter studies with standardized study design, sample collection, and LF measurement methods to identify clinically significant factors associated with LF expression in breast milk, which will help promote exclusive breastfeeding in preterm infants. PMID:28075610

  1. Pepsin-digested bovine lactoferrin prevents Mozzarella cheese blue discoloration caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Leonardo; Quintieri, Laura; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Monaci, Linda; Visconti, Angelo; Baruzzi, Federico

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to check the efficacy of bovine lactoferrin hydrolyzed by pepsin (LFH) to prevent blue discoloration of Mozzarella cheese delaying the growth of the related spoilage bacteria. Among 64 Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, isolated from 105 Mozzarella samples, only ten developed blue discoloration in cold-stored Mozzarella cheese slices. When Mozzarella cheese samples from dairy were treated with LFH and inoculated with a selected P. fluorescens strain, no pigmentation and changes in casein profiles were found up to 14 days of cold storage. In addition, starting from day 5, the count of P. fluorescens spoiling strain was steadily ca. one log cycle lower than that of LFH-free samples. ESI-Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry analyses allowed to reveal the pigment leucoindigoidine only in the blue LFH-free cheese samples indicating that this compound could be considered a chemical marker of this alteration. For the first time, an innovative mild approach, based on the antimicrobial activity of milk protein hydrolysates, for counteracting blue Mozzarella event and controlling psychrotrophic pigmenting pseudomonads, is here reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for heat denaturation of human recombinant lactoferrin from rice.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Eduardo; Pérez, María Dolores; Franco, Indira; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2012-06-01

    Heat denaturation of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) from rice with 3 different iron-saturation degrees, holo rhLf (iron-saturated), AsIs rhLf (60% iron saturation), and apo rhLf (iron-depleted), was studied. The 3 forms of rhLf were subjected to heat treatment, and the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the denaturation process were determined. Thermal denaturation of rhLf was assessed by measuring the loss of reactivity against specific antibodies. D(t) values (time to reduce 90% of immunoreactivity) decreased with increasing temperature of treatment for apo and holo rhLf, those values being higher for the iron-saturated form, which indicates that iron confers thermal stability to rhLf. However, AsIs rhLf showed a different behaviour with an increase in resistance to heat between 79 °C and 84 °C, so that the kinetic parameters could not be calculated. The heat denaturation process for apo and holo rhLf was best described assuming a reaction order of 1.5. The activation energy of the denaturation process was 648.20 kJ/mol for holo rhLf and 406.94 kJ/mol for apo rhLf, confirming that iron-depleted rhLf is more sensitive to heat treatment than iron-saturated rhLf.

  3. Process development and economic evaluation of recombinant human lactoferrin expressed in rice grain.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Somen; Yalda, Dorice; Lu, Stephen; Nikolov, Zivko; Misaki, Ryo; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Huang, Ning

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we show that recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) has been stably expressed at 0.5% brown rice flour weight for nine generations. Process development indicates that rhLF can be efficiently extracted from rice flour in 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing up to 0.5 M NaCl and at a ratio of 1 kg flour to 10 L buffer. After solid/liquid separation, the extract can then be loaded directly onto an ion-exchange column and rhLF can be eluted using 0.8 M NaCl. The resulting rhLF is about 95% pure. A range of biochemical and biophysical analyses were carried out and results indicated that the purified rhLF was identical to its native human counterpart other than its glycosylation. Economic analysis shows that at 600 kg/year scale, the cash cost to produce 1 g of rhLF of pharmaceutical grade is US$ 5.90. Analysis also indicates that the expression level has profound impact on costs related to planting, milling, extraction and purification, thus high level expression of recombinant protein in plants is one of the key parameters for the success of plant made pharmaceuticals.

  4. Influence of human lactoferrin expression on iron homeostasis, flavonoids, and antioxidants in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Gill, Tejpal; Grover, Sunita; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    This study was aimed at to check the influence of human lactoferrin (hLF) expression on iron homeostasis, flavonoids, and antioxidants in transgenic tobacco. Transgenic tobacco expressing hLF cDNA under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter was produced. The iron content as well as chlorophyll content of transgenic tobacco was lower compared to mock and untransformed wild plants. Interestingly, hLF transgenic tobacco showed higher level of transcript expression for genes related to iron content regulation like iron transporter and metal transporter. While expression of genes related to iron storage such as ferritin 1 and ferritin 2 was downregulated. The transcript expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase was downregulated in hLF transgenic tobacco compared to controls. Further, the transcript expression of two important genes encoding dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase regulatory enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was analyzed. The expression of DFR was found to be downregulated, while PAL expression was upregulated in hLF transgenic tobacco compared to mock and untransformed wild plant. Total phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins contents were found to be higher in hLF transgenic tobacco than the mock and untransformed wild plant. Results suggest that hLF expression in transgenic tobacco leads to iron deficiency, downregulation of antioxidant enzymes, and increase in total flavonoids.

  5. Effects of Recombinant Human Lactoferrin on Osteoblast Growth and Bone Status in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuling; Zhao, Jie; Hu, Wenping; Wang, Jianwu; Yu, Tian; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2018-04-03

    Lactoferrin (LF), an ~80 kDa iron-binding glycoprotein, modulates many biological effects, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Recently, it was shown that LF also regulates bone cell activity, suggesting its therapeutic effect on postmenopausal bone loss. However, a minimal amount is known regarding the effects of recombinant human LF (rhLF) supplementation on bone status in young healthy infants. We found osteoblast cell differentiation was significantly promoted in vitro. Furthermore, treatment of human osteoblast cells with rhLF rapidly induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/p42 MAPK, ERK1/2). In order to investigate the effects of rhLF on bone status in vivo, we used a piglet model, which is a useful model for human infants. Piglets were supplemented with rhLF milk for 30 days. Bone formation markers, Serum calcium concentration, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), tibia bone strength, and the overall metabolite profile analysis showed that rhLF was advantageous to the bone growth in piglets. These findings suggest that rhLF supplementation benefits neonate bone health by modulating bone formation.

  6. Expression, purification, and breast cancer cell inhibiting effect of recombinant human lactoferrin C-lobe.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lulu; Gao, Chen-Hui; Hong, Chao; Zhong, Qiao; Dong, Hong-Liang; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LTF), a multifunctional glycoprotein of the transferrin family mainly found in exotic secretions in mammals, is an important defense molecule against not only microbial invasion but also tumors. It folds into two globular domains (N- and C-lobes) each containing an iron-binding site. The cationic antimicrobial peptide in N-lobe is known to exert anti-tumor effect via a non-receptor-mediated pathway. However, whether LTF C-lobe also contributes to its anti-tumor activity remains to be investigated. In this study, a human LTF fragment (amino acid residues 343-682) covering the C-lobe was expressed with a histidine tag in E. coli and the purified polypeptide refolded through a series of buffer changing procedure. The resultant recombinant protein caused significant growth arrest of breast carcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, evidently via induction of apoptosis of the cell. Our data suggest a positive role for the C-lobe of human LTF in controlling tumors in vitro.

  7. Lactoferrin modified graphene oxide iron oxide nanocomposite for glioma-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Song, Meng-Meng; Xu, Huai-Liang; Liang, Jun-Xing; Xiang, Hui-Hui; Liu, Rui; Shen, Yu-Xian

    2017-08-01

    Targeting delivery of drugs in a specific manner represents a potential powerful technology in gliomas. Herein, we prepared a multifunctional targeted delivery system based on graphene oxide (GO) that contains a molecular bio-targeting ligand and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of GO for magnetic targeting. Superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was loaded on the surface of GO via chemical precipitation method to form GO@Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposites. Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-transporting serum glycoprotein that binds to receptors overexpressed at the surface of glioma cells and vascular endothelial cell of the blood brain barrier, was chosen as the targeted ligand to construct the targeted delivery system Lf@GO@Fe 3 O 4 through EDC/NHS chemistry. With the confirmation of TEM, DLS and VSM, the resulting Lf@GO@Fe 3 O 4 had a size distribution of 200-1000nm and exhibited a superparamagnetic behavior. The nano delivery system had a high loading capacity and exhibited a pH-dependent release behavior. Compared with free DOX and DOX@GO@Fe 3 O 4 , Lf@GO@Fe 3 O 4 @DOX displayed greater intracellular delivery efficiency and stronger cytotoxicity against C6 glioma cells. The results demonstrated the potential utility of Lf conjugated GO@Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposites for therapeutic application in the treatment of gliomas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Lactoferrin-modified PEGylated liposomes loaded with doxorubicin for targeting delivery to hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Minyan; Guo, Xiucai; Tu, Liuxiao; Zou, Qi; Li, Qi; Tang, Chenyi; Chen, Bao; Xu, Yuehong; Wu, Chuanbin

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is a potential-targeting ligand for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells because of its specific binding with asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). In this present work, a doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded, Lf-modified, polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated liposome (Lf-PLS) system was developed, and its targeting effect and antitumor efficacy to HCC was also explored. The DOX-loaded Lf-PLS system had spherical or oval vesicles, with mean particle size approximately 100 nm, and had an encapsulation efficiency of 97%. The confocal microscopy and flow cytometry indicated that the cellular uptake of Lf-PLS was significantly higher than that of PEGylated liposome (PLS) in ASGPR-positive cells (P<0.05) but not in ASGPR-negative cells (P>0.05). Cytotoxicity assay by MTT demonstrated that DOX-loaded Lf-PLS showed significantly stronger antiproliferative effects on ASGPR-positive HCC cells than did PLS without the Lf modification (P<0.05). The in vivo antitumor studies on male BALB/c nude mice bearing HepG2 xenografts demonstrated that DOX-loaded Lf-PLS had significantly stronger antitumor efficacy compared with PLS (P<0.05) and free DOX (P<0.05). All these results demonstrated that a DOX-loaded Lf-PLS might have great potential application for HCC-targeting therapy. PMID:26316745

  9. Research and development on lactoferrin and its derivatives in China from 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Xiumin; Hao, Ya; Teng, Da; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional glycoprotein, is an important antimicrobial and immune regulatory protein present in neutrophils and most exocrine secretions of mammals. Lactoferricin (Lfcin) is located in the N-terminal region of this protein. In this review, the current state of research into Lf and Lfcin in China is described. Searching with HistCite software in Web Sci located 118 papers published by Chinese researchers from 2011-2015, making China one of the top 3 producers of Lf research and development in the world. The biological functions of Lf and Lfcin are discussed, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities; targeted drug delivery, induction of neurocyte, osteoblast, and tenocyte growth, and possible mechanisms of action. The preparation and heterologous expression of Lf in animals, bacteria, and yeast are discussed in detail. Five Lf-related food additive factories and 9 Lf-related health food production companies are certified by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA). The latest progress in the generation of transgenic livestock in China, the safety of the use of transgenic animals, and future prospects for the uses of Lf and Lfcin are also covered.

  10. Impact of the Maillard reaction on the antioxidant capacity of bovine lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Joubran, Yousef; Mackie, Alan; Lesmes, Uri

    2013-12-15

    Studies raise the notion that the Maillard reaction (MR) may be harnessed to modify the antioxidant capacity of alimentary proteins. However, little is known about the impact of MR on bioactive proteins. Glucose and fructose were used as model moieties reacting with lactoferrin (LF). UV absorbance and SDS-PAGE analyses were used to monitor MR progression during 36 h of mild thermal processing (60 °C, 79% RH). FTIR and CD did not reveal changes in LF structure; However, dynamic light scattering showed MR increased mean particle sizes and sample turbidity at 3

  11. Effect of lactoferrin on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Chen, Qingyu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dongquan; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Peng, Lei; Zi Xu, Hua; Zhu Lu, Chuan

    2012-03-01

    Many in vitro studies of the analysis of the lactoferrin (LF) effect on cells have been reported. However, no study has yet investigated the effect of LF on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LF on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells. The hADSCs were cultured in an osteogenic medium with 0, 10, 50 and 100 μg/ml LF, respectively. hADSC proliferation was analysed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and cell osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, von Kossa staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell proliferation was significantly increased by LF in a dose-dependent manner from days 4 to 14. Cells cultured with 100 μg/ml LF presented a higher activity compared with the control. The deposition of calcium was increased after the addition of LF. The mRNA expression of type I collagen (COL-I), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and RUNX2 increased markedly as a result of LF treatment. We have shown for the first time that LF could promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs, which could be a promising approach for enhancing osteogenic capacity of cell-based construction in bone tissue engineering.

  12. Lactoferrin inhibits melanogenesis by down-regulating MITF in melanoma cells and normal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nanase; Ryu, Mizuyuki; Suzuki, Yasushi A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) on melanin-producing cells and to elucidate its mechanism of action. We tested the anti-melanogenic effect of bLf on a 3-dimensional cultured pigmentation skin model and confirmed a 20% reduction in pigmentation, suggesting that bLf was transdermally absorbed and it suppressed melanin production. Treatment of human melanoma cells with bLf resulted in a significant, dose-dependent suppression of melanin production. Apo-bLf and holo-bLf suppressed melanogenesis to the same degree as bLf. The key feature behind this anti-melanogenic effect of bLf was the down-regulation of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), leading to the suppression of tyrosinase activity. Treatment with bLf resulted in both decreased expression of MITF mRNA and enhanced degradation of MITF protein. However, the primary effector was enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), leading to the phosphorylation and degradation of MITF. Our finding that bLf suppresses melanin production in melanocytes indicates that bLf is a possible candidate for application as a skin-whitening agent.

  13. Inhibition of HSV cell-to-cell spread by lactoferrin and lactoferricin.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Håvard; Sandvik, Kjersti; Andersen, Jeanette H; Hancock, Robert E W; Gutteberg, Tore J

    2008-09-01

    The milk protein lactoferrin (Lf) has multiple functions, including immune stimulation and antiviral activity towards herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2); antiviral activity has also been reported for the N-terminal pepsin-derived fragment lactoferricin (Lfcin). The anti-HSV mode of action of Lf and Lfcin is assumed to involve, in part, their interaction with the cell surface glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate, thereby blocking of viral entry. In this study we investigated the ability of human and bovine Lf and Lfcin to inhibit viral cell-to-cell spread as well as the involvement of cell surface glycosaminoglycans during viral cell-to-cell spread. Lf and Lfcin from both human and bovine origin, inhibited cell-to-cell spread of both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Inhibition of cell-to-cell spread by bovine Lfcin involved cell surface chondroitin sulfate. Based on transmission electron microscopy studies, human Lfcin, like bovine Lfcin, was randomly distributed intracellularly, thus differences in their antiviral activity could not be explained by differences in their distribution. In contrast, the cellular localization of iron-saturated (holo)-Lf appeared to differ from that of apo-Lf, indicating that holo- and apo-Lf may exhibit different antiviral mechanisms.

  14. A heterodimer comprised of two bovine lactoferrin antimicrobial peptides exhibits powerful bactericidal activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Puknun, Aekkalak; Bolscher, Jan G M; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Kanthawong, Sakawrat; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol

    2013-07-01

    Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease that is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of this disease, has developed resistance to an increasing list of antibiotics, demanding a search for novel agents. Lactoferricin and lactoferrampin are two antimicrobial domains of lactoferrin with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. A hybrid peptide (LFchimera) containing lactoferrampin (LFampin265-284) and a part of lactoferricin (LFcin17-30) has strikingly higher antimicrobial activities compared to the individual peptides. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of this chimeric construct (LFchimera1), as well as of another one containing LFcin17-30 and LFampin268-284, a shorter fragment of LFampin265-284 (LFchimera2), and the constituent peptides were tested against 7 isolates of B. pseudomallei and compared to the preferential antibiotic ceftazidime (CAZ). All isolates including B. pseudomallei 979b shown to be resistant to CAZ, at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml, could be killed by 5-10 μM of LFchimera1 within 2 h, while the other peptides as well as the antibiotic CAZ only inhibited the B. pseudomallei strains resulting in an overgrowth in 24 h. These data indicate that LFchimera1 could be considered for development of therapeutic agents against B. pseudomallei.

  15. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Sijbrandij, Tjitske; Ligtenberg, Antoon J; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I; Bolscher, Jan G M; Bikker, Floris J

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide (LFchimera) has been constructed comprising parts of both stretches (LFcin17-30 and LFampin265-284). To investigate the potency of this construct to combat a set of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria which are regarded as simulants for biological warfare agents, the effect on bacterial killing, membrane permeability and membrane polarity were determined in comparison to the constituent peptides and the native bLF. Furthermore we aimed to increase the antimicrobial potency of the bLF derived peptides by cationic amino acid substitutions. Overall, the bactericidal activity of the peptides could be related to membrane disturbing effects, i.e. membrane permeabilization and depolarization. Those effects were most prominent for the LFchimera. Arginine residues were found to be crucial for displaying antimicrobial activity, as lysine to arginine substitutions resulted in an increased antimicrobial activity, affecting mostly LFampin265-284 whereas arginine to lysine substitutions resulted in a decreased bactericidal activity, predominantly in case of LFcin17-30.

  16. Lactoferrin: Balancing Ups and Downs of Inflammation Due to Microbial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Carrero, Julio César; de la Garza, Mireya

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is a glycoprotein of the primary innate immune-defense system of mammals present in milk and other mucosal secretions. This protein of the transferrin family has broad antimicrobial properties by depriving pathogens from iron, or disrupting their plasma membranes through its highly cationic charge. Noteworthy, Lf also exhibits immunomodulatory activities performing up- and down-regulation of innate and adaptive immune cells, contributing to the homeostasis in mucosal surfaces exposed to myriad of microbial agents, such as the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Although the inflammatory process is essential for the control of invasive infectious agents, the development of an exacerbated or chronic inflammation results in tissue damage with life-threatening consequences. In this review, we highlight recent findings in in vitro and in vivo models of the gut, lung, oral cavity, mammary gland, and liver infections that provide experimental evidence supporting the therapeutic role of human and bovine Lf in promoting some parameters of inflammation and protecting against the deleterious effects of bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoan-associated inflammation. Thus, this new knowledge of Lf immunomodulation paves the way to more effective design of treatments that include native or synthetic Lf derivatives, which may be useful to reduce immune-mediated tissue damage in infectious diseases. PMID:28257033

  17. Anti-infective efficacy of the lactoferrin-derived antimicrobial peptide HLR1r.

    PubMed

    Björn, Camilla; Mahlapuu, Margit; Mattsby-Baltzer, Inger; Håkansson, Joakim

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a new class of drug candidates for the treatment of infectious diseases. Here we describe a novel AMP, HLR1r, which is structurally derived from the human milk protein lactoferrin and demonstrates a broad spectrum microbicidal action in vitro. The minimum concentration of HLR1r needed for killing ≥99% of microorganisms in vitro, was in the range of 3-50μg/ml for common Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and for the yeast Candida albicans, when assessed in diluted brain-heart infusion medium. We found that HLR1r also possesses anti-inflammatory properties as evidenced by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion from human monocyte-derived macrophages and by repression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) secretion from human mesothelial cells, without any cytotoxic effect observed at the concentration range tested (up to 400μg/ml). HLR1r demonstrated pronounced anti-infectious effect in in vivo experimental models of cutaneous candidiasis in mice and of excision wounds infected with MRSA in rats as well as in an ex vivo model of pig skin infected with S. aureus. In conclusion, HLR1r may constitute a new therapeutic alternative for local treatment of skin infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous Isolation of Lactoferrin and Lactoperoxidase from Bovine Colostrum by SPEC 70 SLS Cation Exchange Resin

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yafei; Wang, Xuewan; Wu, Mianbin; Zhu, Wanping

    2011-01-01

    In this work, simultaneous isolation of lactoferrin (Lf) and lactoperoxidase (Lp) from defatted bovine colostrum by one-step cation exchange chromatography with SPEC 70 SLS ion-exchange resin was investigated. A RP-HPLC method for Lf and Lp determination was developed and optimized as the following conditions: detection wavelength of 220 nm, flow rate of 1 mL/min and acetonitrile concentration from 25% to 75% within 20 min. The adsorption process of Lf on SPEC 70 SLS resin was optimized using Lf standard as substrate. The maximum static binding capacity of SPEC 70 SLS resin was of 22.0 mg/g resin at 15 °C, pH 7.0 and adsorption time 3 h. The Lf adsorption process could be well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 21.73 mg/g resin at 15 °C. In batch fractionation of defatted colostrum, the binding capacities of SPEC 70 SLS resin for adsorbing Lf and Lp simultaneously under the abovementioned conditions were 7.60 and 6.89 mg/g resin, respectively, both of which were superior to those of CM Sepharose F.F. or SP Sepharose F.F. resins under the same conditions. As a result, SPEC 70 SLS resin was considered as a successful candidate for direct and economic purification of Lf and Lp from defatted colostrum. PMID:22016715

  19. Distance-Based Tear Lactoferrin Assay on Microfluidic Paper Device Using Interfacial Interactions on Surface-Modified Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kentaro; Henares, Terence G; Suzuki, Koji; Citterio, Daniel

    2015-11-11

    "Distance-based" detection motifs on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) allow quantitative analysis without using signal readout instruments in a similar manner to classical analogue thermometers. To realize a cost-effective and calibration-free distance-based assay of lactoferrin in human tear fluid on a μPAD not relying on antibodies or enzymes, we investigated the fluidic mobilities of the target protein and Tb(3+) cations used as the fluorescent detection reagent on surface-modified cellulosic filter papers. Chromatographic elution experiments in a tear-like sample matrix containing electrolytes and proteins revealed a collapse of attractive electrostatic interactions between lactoferrin or Tb(3+) and the cellulosic substrate, which was overcome by the modification of the paper surface with the sulfated polysaccharide ι-carrageenan. The resulting μPAD based on the fluorescence emission distance successfully analyzed 0-4 mg mL(-1) of lactoferrin in complex human tear matrix with a lower limit of detection of 0.1 mg mL(-1) by simple visual inspection. Assay results of 18 human tear samples including ocular disease patients and healthy volunteers showed good correlation to the reference ELISA method with a slope of 0.997 and a regression coefficient of 0.948. The distance-based quantitative signal and the good batch-to-batch fabrication reproducibility relying on printing methods enable quantitative analysis by simply reading out "concentration scale marks" printed on the μPAD without performing any calibration and using any signal readout instrument.

  20. [Do lactoferrin, lysozyme and the lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide-system cause negative microbiological results in mastitis secretions?].

    PubMed

    Schmedt Auf Der Günne, H; Tenhagen, B A; Kutzer, P; Forderung, D; Heuwieser, W

    2002-07-01

    Lactoferrin, lysozyme and the lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-peroxide-system are naturally occurring antimicrobial components of milk. The objective of this study was to examine, whether these components were responsible for negative results, when mastitis milk is cultured microbiologically. Quarter milk samples from 75 cows with clinical mastitis on a dairy farm in Brandenburg were submitted for microbiological culture and analysed for the content and the activities of the three components. Animals from all stages of lactation with clinical mastitis were included in the study. Animals were examined clinically and milk samples were collected prior to first treatment. Secretions from quarters with clinical mastitis were compared to those of neighbouring quarters without clinical mastitis. Secretions with positive cultural results were compared to those with negative results. The concentrations or activities of the three factors were significantly higher in the diseased quarters than in the quarters without clinical signs of mastitis. The concentration of lysozyme increased with severity of the clinical signs (local swelling and changes in secretion). The concentration of lactoferrin was significantly higher in quarters with slight alterations of glandular tissue than in quarters with medium or severe alterations (P < 0.05). LPS-activities did not correlate with the severity of clinical signs. No differences in the concentration of lactoferrin or LPS-activities were seen between mastitis with positive and negative culture results. The concentration of lysozyme was even higher in culturally positive samples than in negative samples (P < 0.05). Results from this study indicate that the three factors examined did not impair the results of microbiological culture of milk samples from quarters with clinical mastitis.

  1. Responsiveness of emulsions stabilized by lactoferrin nano-particles to simulated intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Meshulam, Dafna; Lesmes, Uri

    2014-01-01

    There is an upsurge of interest in the use of nano-particles to fabricate emulsions and modulate their functionality, with particular emphasis on modulating emulsion digestive fate. Food grade nano-particles formed through controlled processing and electrostatic biopolymer interactions are yet to be systematically studied for their ability to stabilize emulsions and modulate emulsion digestibility. This study focused on the responsiveness of emulsions stabilized by lactoferrin (LF) nano-particles (NPs) and dietary fibers to key digestive parameters. Compared to native LF, LF-NPs comprised emulsion exhibited elevated creaming rates as evident from accelerated stability tests performed by analytical centrifugation. The electrostatic deposition of alginate or carrageenan onto the LF-NPs significantly improved the stability of the corresponding emulsions. Further, the use of various nano-particles showed to have both beneficial and deleterious effects on emulsion responsiveness to pH (2.0 < pH < 10.0), CaCl2 (0-40 mM) and bile (0-25 mg mL(-1)). Simulated pH-stat lipolysis experiments show that the use of LF or LF-NPs had no marked effect on lipolysis. Intriguingly, the use of LF-NPs and alginate reduced emulsion lipolysis by 14% while the use of LF-NPs and carrageenan increased lipolysis by 10%. Microscopy images as well as droplet characterization in terms of size and charge indicate that the altered emulsion responsiveness may be due to physical differences in emulsion properties (e.g. droplet size) and overall organization during digestion (e.g. aggregation vs. coalescence). Overall, this study's insights could prospectively be used to harness protein nano-particles to tweak emulsion behavior during digestion.

  2. Effect of iron saturation level of lactoferrin on osteogenic activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Y; Guo, H Y; Zhang, W; Wen, P C; Zhang, H; Guo, Z R; Ren, F Z

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of iron saturation level on the osteogenic activity of lactoferrin (LF) in vitro and in vivo. Different iron saturation levels of LF (1.0, 9.0, 38, 58, and 96%) were prepared as the following samples: apo-LF, LF-9, LF-38, LF-58, and holo-LF. Using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, we observed that the stimulating osteoblast proliferation activity of LF in vitro decreased with increasing iron saturation level at 100 and 1,000 μg/mL. In vivo, 4-wk-old ICR Swiss male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: blank control (physiological saline), negative control (BSA), apo-LF, and holo-LF. Four groups of mice were injected subcutaneously with physiological saline, BSA, apo-LF, or holo-LF over the calvarial surface twice a day for 5 consecutive days at a dose of 4 mg/kg per day. Bone histomorphometry showed that new bone formation (assessed using tetracycline-HCl labels) tended to be stronger with apo-LF than with holo-LF. Using fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism measurements, we found that exposure of tryptophan increased, α-helix content increased, but β-structure content decreased with increasing iron saturation level. These findings indicated that the osteogenic activity of LF decreases with increasing iron saturation level in vitro and in vivo, which may be related to conformational changes in LF. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of bovine apo-lactoferrin on the growth and virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Luna-Castro, Sarahí; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Samaniego-Barrón, Luisa; Godínez-Vargas, Delfino; de la Garza, Mireya

    2014-10-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes porcine pleuropneumonia, leading to economic losses in the swine industry. Due to bacterial resistance to antibiotics, new treatments for this disease are currently being sought. Lactoferrin (Lf) is an innate immune system glycoprotein of mammals that is microbiostatic and microbicidal and affects several bacterial virulence factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine iron-free Lf (BapoLf) has an effect on the growth and virulence of App. Two serotype 1 strains (reference strain S4074 and the isolate BC52) and a serotype 7 reference strain (WF83) were analyzed. First, the ability of App to grow in iron-charged BLf was discarded because in vivo, BapoLf sequesters iron and could be a potential source of this element favoring the infection. The minimum inhibitory concentration of BapoLf was 14.62, 11.78 and 10.56 µM for the strain BC52, S4074 and WF83, respectively. A subinhibitory concentration (0.8 µM) was tested by assessing App adhesion to porcine buccal epithelial cells, biofilm production, and the secretion and function of toxins and proteases. Decrease in adhesion (24-42 %) was found in the serotype 1 strains. Biofilm production decreased (27 %) for only the strain 4074 of serotype 1. Interestingly, biofilm was decreased (60-70 %) in the three strains by BholoLf. Hemolysis of erythrocytes and toxicity towards HeLa cells were not affected by BapoLf. In contrast, proteolytic activity in all strains was suppressed in the presence of BapoLf. Finally, oxytetracycline produced synergistic effect with BapoLf against App. Our results suggest that BapoLf affects the growth and several of the virulence factors in App.

  4. Influence of bovine lactoferrin on the growth of selected probiotic bacteria under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Wen; Ku, Yu-We; Chu, Fang-Yi

    2014-10-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a natural glycoprotein, and it shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, reports on the influences of bLf on probiotic bacteria have been mixed. We examined the effects of apo-bLf (between 0.25 and 128 mg/mL) on both aerobic and anaerobic cultures of probiotics. We found that bLf had similar effects on the growth of probiotics under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, and that it actively and significantly (at concentrations of >0.25 mg/mL) retarded the growth rate of Bifidobacterium bifidum (ATCC 29521), B. longum (ATCC 15707), B. lactis (BCRC 17394), B. infantis (ATCC 15697), Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 23272), L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53103), and L. coryniformis (ATCC 25602) in a dose-dependent manner. Otherwise, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 128 or >128 mg/mL against B. bifidum, B. longum, B. lactis, L. reuteri, and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53103). With regard to MICs, bLf showed at least four-fold lower inhibitory effect on probiotics than on pathogens. Intriguingly, bLf (>0.25 mg/mL) significantly enhanced the growth of Rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) and L. acidophilus (BCRC 14065) by approximately 40-200 %, during their late periods of growth. Supernatants produced from aerobic but not anaerobic cultures of L. acidophilus reduced the growth of Escherichia coli by about 20 %. Thus, bLf displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of most probiotic strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. An antibacterial supernatant prepared from the aerobic cultures may have significant practical use.

  5. Antirotaviral potential of lactoferrin from different origin: effect of thermal and high pressure treatments.

    PubMed

    Parrón, José Antonio; Ripollés, Daniel; Ramos, Sergio José; Pérez, María Dolores; Semen, Zeynep; Rubio, Pedro; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2018-06-01

    Rotaviral gastroenteritis causes a high rate of infant mortality and severe healthcare implications worldwide. Several studies have pointed out that human milk and dairy fractions, such as whey and buttermilk, possess antirotaviral activity. This activity has been mainly associated with glycoproteins, among them lactoferrin (LF). Thermal treatments are necessary to provide microbiological safety and extend the shelf life of milk products, though they may diminish their biological value. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment is a non-thermal method that causes lower degradation of food components than other treatments. Thus, the main objective of this study was to prove the antirotaviral activity of LFs from different origin and to evaluate the effect of several thermal and HHP treatments on that activity. LF exerted a high antirotaviral activity, regardless of its origin. Native LFs from bovine, ovine, swine and camel milk, and the human recombinant forms, at 1 mg/mL, showed neutralizing values in the range 87.5-98.6%, while human LF neutralized 58.2%. Iron saturation of bovine LF did not modify its antirotaviral activity. Results revealed interspecies differences in LFs heat susceptibility. Thus, pasteurization at 63 °C for 30 min led to a decrease of 60.1, 44.5, 87.1, 3.8 and 8% of neutralizing activity for human, bovine, swine, ovine and camel LFs, respectively. Pasteurization at 75 °C for 20 s was less harmful to the activity of LFs, with losses ranging from 0 to 13.8%. HHP treatment at 600 MPa for 15 min did not cause any significant decrease in the neutralizing activity of LFs.

  6. "Lactoferrin and Peptide-derivatives: Antimicrobial Agents with Potential Use in Nonspecific Immunity Modulation".

    PubMed

    Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Carrero, Julio Cesar; de la Garza, Mireya

    2018-03-27

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is a conserved cationic non-heme glycoprotein that is part of the innate immune defense system of mammals. Lf is present in colostrum, milk and mucosal sites, and it is also produced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils and secreted at infection sites. Lf and Lf N-terminus peptide-derivatives named lactoferricins (Lfcins) are molecules with microbiostatic and microbicidal action in a wide array of pathogens. In addition, they display regulatory properties on components of nonspecific immunity, including toll-like receptors, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species. Mechanisms explaining the ability of Lf and Lfcins to display both up- and down-modulatory properties on cells are not fully understood but result, in part, from their interactions with membrane receptors that elicit biochemical signal pathways, whereas other receptors enable the nuclear translocation of these molecules for the modulation of target genes. The dual role of Lf and Lfcins as antimicrobials and immunomodulators is of biotechnological and pharmaceutical interest. Native Lf and its peptide-derivatives from human and bovine sources, the recombinant versions of the human protein, and their synthetic peptides have potential application as adjunctive agents in therapies to combat infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria and those caused by fungi, protozoa and viruses, as well as in the prevention and reduction of several types of cancer and response to LPS-shock, among other effects. In this review, we summarize the immunomodulatory properties of the unique multifunctional protein Lf and its N-terminus peptides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Triple combination MPT vaginal microbicide using curcumin and efavirenz loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Yeruva Samrajya; Kumar, Prashant; Kishore, Golla; Bhaskar, C; Kondapi, Anand K

    2016-05-06

    We report that a combination of anti-HIV-1 drug efavirenz (EFV), anti-microbial-spermicidal curcumin (Cur) and lactoferrin nanoparticles (ECNPs) act as MPT formulation. These nanoparticles are of well dispersed spherical shape with 40-70 nm size, with encapsulation efficiency of 63 ± 1.9% of Cur &61.5% ± 1.6 of EFV, significantly higher than that of single drug nanoparticles (Cur, 59 ± 1.34%; EFV: 58.4 ± 1.79). ECNPs were found to be sensitive at pH 5 and 6 and have not effected viability of vaginal micro-flora, Lactobacillus. Studies in rats showed that ECNPs delivers 88-124% more drugs in vaginal lavage as compared to its soluble form, either as single or combination of EFV and Cur. The ECNPs also shows 1.39-4.73 fold lower concentration of absorption in vaginal tissue and plasma compared to soluble EFV + Cur. Furthermore, ECNPs show significant reduction in inflammatory responses by 1.6-3.0 fold in terms of IL-6 and TNF-α in vaginal tissue and plasma compared to soluble EFV + Cur. ECNPs showed improved pharmacokinetics profiles in vaginal lavage with more than 50% of enhancement in AUC, AUMC, Cmax and t1/2 suggesting longer exposure of Cur and EFV in vaginal lavage compared to soluble EFV + Cur. Histopathological analysis of vaginal tissue shows remarkably lower toxicity of ECNPs compared to soluble EFV + Cur. In conclusion, ECNPs are significantly safe and exhibit higher bioavailability thus constitute an effective MPT against HIV.

  8. [Cloning goat producing human lactoferrin with genetically modified donor cells selected by single or dual markers].

    PubMed

    An, Liyou; Yuan, Yuguo; Yu, Baoli; Yang, Tingjia; Cheng, Yong

    2012-12-01

    We compared the efficiency of cloning goat using human lactoferrin (hLF) with genetically modified donor cells marked by single (Neo(r)) or double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers. Single marker expression vector (pBLC14) or dual markers expression vector (pAPLM) was delivered to goat fetal fibroblasts (GFF), and then the transgenic GFF was used as donor cells to produce transgenic goats. Respectively, 58.8% (20/34) and 86.7% (26/30) resistant cell lines confirmed the transgenic integration by PCR. Moreover, pAPLM cells lines were subcultured with several passages, only 20% (6/30) cell lines was observed fluorescence from each cell during the cell passage. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using the donor cells harbouring pBLC14 or pAPLM construct, resulting in a total of 806 reconstructed embryos, a pregnancy rate at 35 d (53.8%, 39.1%) and 60 d (26.9%, 21.7%), and an offspring birth rate (1.9%, 1.4%) with 5 and 7 newborn cloned goats, respectively. Transgene was confirmed by PCR and southern-blot in all cloned offspring. There were no significant differences at the reconstructed embryo fusion rates, pregnancy rates and the birth rate (P > 0.05) between single and double markers groups. The Neo(r)/GFP double markers could improve the reliability for accurately and efficiently selecting the genetically modified donor cells. No adverse effect was observed on the efficiency of transgenic goat production by SCNT using somatic cells transfected with double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers vector.

  9. Exosomes: Tunable Nano Vehicles for Macromolecular Delivery of Transferrin and Lactoferrin to Specific Intracellular Compartment.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Himanshu; Sheokand, Navdeep; Kumar, Santosh; Chauhan, Anoop S; Kumar, Manoj; Jakhar, Priyanka; Boradia, Vishant M; Raje, Chaaya I; Raje, Manoj

    2016-05-01

    Due to their abundant ubiquitous presence, rapid uptake and increased requirement in neoplastic tissue, the delivery of the iron carrier macromolecules transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf) into mammalian cells is the subject of intense interest for delivery of drugs and other target molecules into cells. Utilizing exosomes obtained from cells of diverse origin we confirmed the presence of the multifunctional protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) which has recently been characterized as a Tf and Lf receptor. Using a combination of biochemical, biophysical and imaging based methodologies, we demonstrate that GAPDH present in exosomes captures Tf and Lf and subsequently effectively delivers these proteins into mammalian cells. Exosome vesicles prepared had a size of 51.2 ± 23.7 nm. They were found to be stable in suspension with a zeta potential (ζ-potential) of -28.16 ± 1.15 mV. Loading of Tf/Lf did not significantly affect ζ-potential of the exosomes. The carrier protein loaded exosomes were able to enhance the delivery of Tf/Lf by 2 to 3 fold in a diverse panel of cell types. Ninety percent of the internalized cargo via this route was found to be specifically delivered into late endosome and lysosomes. We also found exosomes to be tunable nano vehicles for cargo delivery by varying the amount of GAPDH associated with exosome. The current study opens a new avenue of research for efficient delivery of these vital iron carriers into cells employing exosomes as a nano delivery vehicle.

  10. Heteroprotein Complex Formation of Bovine Lactoferrin and Pea Protein Isolate: A Multiscale Structural Analysis.

    PubMed

    Adal, Eda; Sadeghpour, Amin; Connell, Simon; Rappolt, Michael; Ibanoglu, Esra; Sarkar, Anwesha

    2017-02-13

    Associative electrostatic interactions between two oppositely charged globular proteins, lactoferrin (LF) and pea protein isolate (PPI), the latter being a mixture of vicilin, legumin, and convicilin, was studied with a specific PPI/LF molar ratio at room temperature. Structural aspects of the electrostatic complexes probed at different length scales were investigated as a function of pH by means of different complementary techniques, namely, with dynamic light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), turbidity measurements, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Irrespective of the applied techniques, the results consistently displayed that complexation between LF and PPI did occur. In an optimum narrow range of pH 5.0-5.8, a viscous liquid phase of complex coacervate was obtained upon mild centrifugation of the turbid LF-PPI mixture with a maximum R h , turbidity and the ζ-potential being close to zero observed at pH 5.4. In particular, the SAXS data demonstrated that the coacervates were densely assembled with a roughly spherical size distribution exhibiting a maximum extension of ∼80 nm at pH 5.4. Equally, AFM image analysis showed size distributions containing most frequent cluster sizes around 40-80 nm with spherical to elliptical shapes (axis aspect ratio ≤ 2) as well as less frequent elongated to chainlike structures. The most frequently observed compact complexes, we identify as mainly leading to LF-PPI coacervation, whereas for the less frequent chain-like aggregates, we hypothesize that additionally PPI-PPI facilitated complexes exist.

  11. Effects of lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase-containing food on the oral microbiota of older individuals.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Manabu; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Sugahara, Hirosuke; Odamaki, Toshitaka; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Murakami, Kohji; Ishikawa, Kentaro; Hironaka, Shouji

    2017-10-01

    The oral microbiota influences health and disease states. Some gram-negative anaerobic bacteria play important roles in tissue destruction associated with periodontal disease. Lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are antimicrobial proteins found in saliva; however, their influence on the whole oral microbiota currently remains unknown. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, the effects of long-term ingestion of LF and LPO-containing tablets on the microbiota of supragingival plaque and tongue coating were assessed. Forty-six older individuals ingested placebo or test tablets after every meal for 8 weeks. The relative abundance of bacterial species was assessed by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. Most of the bacterial species in supragingival plaque and tongue coating that exhibited significant decreases in the test group were gram-negative bacteria, including periodontal pathogens. Decreases in the total relative abundance of gram-negative organisms in supragingival plaque and tongue coating correlated with improvements in assessed variables related to oral health, such as oral malodor and plaque accumulation. Furthermore, there was significantly less microbiota diversity in supragingival plaque at 8 weeks in the test group than in the placebo group and low microbiota diversity correlated with improvements in assessed variables related to oral health. These results suggest that LF and LPO-containing tablets promote a shift from a highly diverse and gram-negative-dominated to a gram-positive-dominated community in the microbiota of supragingival plaque and tongue coating. This microbial shift may contribute to improvements in oral health, including oral malodor and state of the gingiva. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Milk with and without lactoferrin can influence intestinal damage in a pig model of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Garas, Lydia C; Feltrin, Cristiano; Hamilton, M Kristina; Hagey, Jill V; Murray, James D; Bertolini, Luciana R; Bertolini, Marcelo; Raybould, Helen E; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition remains a leading contributor to the morbidity and mortality of children under the age of five worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood necessitating an appropriate animal model to answer fundamental questions and conduct translational research into optimal interventions. One potential intervention is milk from livestock that more closely mimics human milk by increased levels of bioactive components that can promote a healthy intestinal epithelium. We tested the ability of cow milk and milk from transgenic cows expressing human lactoferrin at levels found in human milk (hLF milk) to mitigate the effects of malnutrition at the level of the intestine in a pig model of malnutrition. Weaned pigs (3 weeks old) were fed a protein and calorie restricted diet for five weeks, receiving cow, hLF or no milk supplementation daily from weeks 3-5. After three weeks, the restricted diet induced changes in growth, blood chemistry and intestinal structure including villous atrophy, increased ex vivo permeability and decreased expression of tight junction proteins. Addition of both cow and hLF milk to the diet increased growth rate and calcium and glucose levels while promoting growth of the intestinal epithelium. In the jejunum hLF milk restored intestinal morphology, reduced permeability and increased expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Overall, this pig model of malnutrition mimics salient aspects of the human condition and demonstrates that cow milk can stimulate the repair of damage to the intestinal epithelium caused by protein and calorie restriction with hLF milk improving this recovery to a greater extent.

  13. Bovine lactoferrin binds oleic acid to form an anti-tumor complex similar to HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Mai; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Hui Yuan; Ren, Fa Zheng

    2014-04-04

    α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) can bind oleic acid (OA) to form HAMLET-like complexes, which exhibited highly selective anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Considering the structural similarity to α-LA, we conjectured that lactoferrin (LF) could also bind OA to obtain a complex with anti-tumor activity. In this study, LF-OA was prepared and its activity and structural changes were compared with α-LA-OA. The anti-tumor activity was evaluated by methylene blue assay, while the apoptosis mechanism was analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blot. Structural changes of LF-OA were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The interactions of OA with LF and α-LA were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). LF-OA was obtained by heat-treatment at pH8.0 with LD50 of 4.88, 4.95 and 4.62μM for HepG2, HT29, and MCF-7 cells, respectively, all of which were 10 times higher than those of α-LA-OA. Similar to HAMLET, LF-OA induced apoptosis in tumor cells through both death receptor- and mitochondrial-mediated pathways. Exposure of tryptophan residues and the hydrophobic regions as well as the loss of tertiary structure were observed in LF-OA. Besides these similarities, LF showed different secondary structure changes when compared with α-LA, with a decrease of α-helix and β-turn and an increase of β-sheet and random coil. ITC results showed that there was a higher binding number of OA to LF than to α-LA, while both of the proteins interacted with OA through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. This study provides a theoretical basis for further exploration of protein-OA complexes. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bovine lactoferrin digested with human gastrointestinal enzymes inhibits replication of human echovirus 5 in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Furlund, Camilla B; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Devold, Tove G; Vegarud, Gerd E; Jonassen, Christine M

    2012-07-01

    Many infant formulas are enriched with lactoferrin (Lf) because of its claimed beneficial effects on health. Native bovine Lf (bLf) is known to inhibit in vitro replication of human enteroviruses, a group of pathogenic viruses that replicate in the gut as their primary infection site. On the basis of a model digestion and human gastrointestinal enzymes, we hypothesized that bLf could retain its antiviral properties against enterovirus in the gastrointestinal tract, either as an intact protein or through bioactive peptide fragments released by digestive enzymes. To test our hypothesis, bLf was digested with human gastric juice and duodenal juice in a 2-step in vitro digestion model. Two gastric pH levels and reduction conditions were used to simulate physiological conditions in adults and infants. The antiviral activity of native bLf and of the digested fractions was studied on echovirus 5 in vitro, using various assay conditions, addressing several mechanisms for replication inhibition. Both native and digested bLf fractions revealed a significant inhibitory effect, when added before or simultaneously with the virus onto the cells. Furthermore, a significant stronger sustained antiviral effect was observed when bLf was fully digested in the gastric phase with fast pH reduction to 2.5, compared with native bLf, suggesting the release of antiviral peptides from bLf during the human digestion process. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that bLf may have a role in the prevention of human gastrointestinal virus infection under physiological conditions and that food containing bLf may protect against infection in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of milk proteins enhancing the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin and lactoferricin.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Wakabayashi, H; Yamauchi, K; Abe, F

    2013-08-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is known as an iron-binding antimicrobial protein present in exocrine secretions such as milk and releases the potent antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin (LFcin) by hydrolysis with pepsin. The antimicrobial activity of LF and LFcin has been studied well; however, their cooperative action with other milk proteins remains to be elucidated. In this study, we identified milk proteins enhancing the antimicrobial activity of bovine LF and LFcin against gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. As the target fraction, we isolated a minor milk protein fraction around 15 kDa, which was identified as bovine RNase 5 (angiogenin-1), RNase 4, and angiogenin-2 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As these proteins are collectively known as the RNase A family, we referred to the target protein fraction as milk RNase of 15 kDa (MR15). The number of colony-forming units of Escherichia coli and other pathogenic microorganisms with the addition of MR15 to LF (MR15:LF ratio=16:1,000) was dramatically lowered than that with LF alone. On the other hand, MR15 itself did not show any reductions in the number of colony-forming units at the concentrations tested. Similarly, the antimicrobial activities of LFcin against various microorganisms were significantly enhanced by the addition of MR15. These results suggest that LF and MR15 may be concomitantly acting antimicrobial agents in milk. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Lactoferrin on Growth and Biofilm Formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia▿

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2009-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding antimicrobial protein present in saliva and gingival crevicular fluids, and it is possibly associated with host defense against oral pathogens, including periodontopathic bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of LF-related agents on the growth and biofilm formation of two periodontopathic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which reside as biofilms in the subgingival plaque. The planktonic growth of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia was suppressed for up to 5 h by incubation with ≥130 μg/ml of human LF (hLF), iron-free and iron-saturated bovine LF (apo-bLF and holo-bLF, respectively), and ≥6 μg/ml of bLF-derived antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B); but those effects were weak after 8 h. The biofilm formation of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia over 24 h was effectively inhibited by lower concentrations (≥8 μg/ml) of various iron-bound forms (the apo, native, and holo forms) of bLF and hLF but not LFcin B. A preformed biofilm of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia was also reduced by incubation with various iron-bound bLFs, hLF, and LFcin B for 5 h. In an examination of the effectiveness of native bLF when it was used in combination with four antibiotics, it was found that treatment with ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and minocycline in combination with native bLF for 24 h reduced the amount of a preformed biofilm of P. gingivalis compared with the level of reduction achieved with each agent alone. These results demonstrate the antibiofilm activity of LF with lower iron dependency against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia and the potential usefulness of LF for the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases and as adjunct therapy for periodontal diseases. PMID:19451301

  17. Synergistic antifungal effect of lactoferrin with azole antifungals against Candida albicans and a proposal for a new treatment method for invasive candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Ohno, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The combination of lactoferrin with fluconazole has been reported to synergistically enhance the antifungal activity of fluconazole against Candida spp. and inhibit the hyphal formation in fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida albicans. In this study, we investigated the association between the therapeutic effects of this combination and the pharmacological characteristics of fluconazole and itraconazole and the variation in these effects with differences among the strains in terms of the susceptibility and resistance mechanisms. Lactoferrin enhanced the growth-inhibitory activity of fluconazole against two different ergosterol mutants but not againt pump mutants or an azole-susceptible strain; but increased the activity of itraconazole against all the strains tested in this study. Exogenous iron cancelled the synergistic effect, which suggests that the iron-chelating function of lactoferrin may contribute to the synergism. Besides, radiolabeled fluconazole assays revealed that lactoferrin did not affect the intracellular concentrations of fluconazole, thereby indicating that these synergistic effects were not due to the alteration of the intracellular uptake of the drug. The development of new clinical treatments and therapeutic method against resistant Candida will depend on our understanding of the resistance mechanisms and methods to overcome them by the application of suitable drug combinations with synergistic effects. The results of this study might contribute to the improvement of our understand of the mechanisms underlying the resistance of Candida strains.

  18. Identification of polymorphism in exons 7 and 12 of lactoferrin gene and its association with incidence of clinical mastitis in Murrah buffalo.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Krishanender; Verma, Archana; Das Gupta, Ishwar; Thakur, Yash Pal; Verma, Nishant; Arya, Ashwani

    2015-04-01

    Lactoferrin gene is one of the important candidate genes for mastitis resistance. The gene is located on chromosome BTA 22 and consists of 17 exons spanning over 34.5 kb of genomic DNA. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to identify allelic variants in exons 7 and 12 of lactoferrin gene and to analyze association between its genetic variants and incidence of clinical mastitis in Murrah buffalo. The amplification of exons 7 and 12 of lactoferrin gene yielded amplicons of 232- and 461-bp sizes. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 232-bp amplicon using BccI restriction enzyme revealed three genotypes (AA, AB, and BB) with frequencies of 0.62, 0.22, and 0.16, respectively. The frequencies of two alleles, A and B, were estimated as 0.73 and 0.27. Hpy188I-RFLP for 461-bp amplicon revealed polymorphism with three genotypes, CC, CD, and DD, with respective frequencies of 0.06, 0.39, and 0.56, whereas frequencies for C and D alleles were 0.25 and 0.75. The chi-square (χ(2)) analysis revealed a significant association between incidence of clinical mastitis and genetic variants of exon 7, and animals of AA genotype of exon 7 were found to be least susceptible to mastitis. The findings indicate potential scope for incorporation of lactoferrin gene in selection and breeding of Murrah buffaloes for improved genetic resistance to mastitis.

  19. Summary Protocol for a Multi-Centre Randomised Controlled Trial of Enteral Lactoferrin Supplementation in Newborn Very Preterm Infants (ELFIN).

    PubMed

    2018-06-11

    In a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT), we are assessing whether giving very preterm (i.e., born at < 32 weeks' gestation) infants prophylactic enteral bovine lactoferrin supplementation (150 mg/kg/day) from shortly after birth until 34 weeks' post-menstrual age reduces the incidence of late-onset invasive infection (primary outcome), all-cause mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotising enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and the duration of antibiotic exposure, intensive care, and hospital admission. The trial is recruiting 2,200 participants from 37 neonatal care centres in the UK over 4 years. We will undertake an economic evaluation within the RCT to evaluate cost-effectiveness and provide an estimate of incremental costs for differences in the pre-specified outcomes in primary and subgroup analyses. If a statistically significant and clinically important effect on the primary outcome is detected, we will seek further funding and approval to assess the impact of enteral lactoferrin supplementation on rates of adverse neuro-developmental outcomes in the participating infants when they are 5 years old. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Recombinant lactoferrin (Lf) of Vechur cow, the critical breed of Bos indicus and the Lf gene variants.

    PubMed

    Anisha, Shashidharan; Bhasker, Salini; Mohankumar, Chinnamma

    2012-03-01

    Vechur cow, categorized as a critically maintained breed by the FAO, is a unique breed of Bos indicus due to its extremely small size, less fodder intake, adaptability, easy domestication and traditional medicinal property of the milk. Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is found predominantly in the milk of mammals. The full coding region of Lf gene of Vechur cow was cloned, sequenced and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Antibacterial activity of the recombinant Lf showed suppression of bacterial growth. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that the full coding region of Lf gene of B. indicus Vechur breed is sequenced, successfully expressed in a prokaryotic system and characterized. Comparative analysis of Lf gene sequence of five Vechur cows with B. taurus revealed 15 SNPs in the exon region associated with 11 amino acid substitutions. The amino acid arginine was noticed as a pronounced substitution and the tertiary structure analysis of the BLfV protein confirmed the positions of arginine in the β sheet region, random coil and helix region 1. Based on the recent reports on the nutritional therapies of arginine supplementation for wound healing and for cardiovascular diseases, the higher level of arginine in the lactoferrin protein of Vechur cow milk provides enormous scope for further therapeutic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lactoferrin-derived peptides and Lactoferricin chimera inhibit virulence factor production and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Xiong, W; Hu, Q; Zuo, P; Shao, B; Lan, F; Lu, X; Xu, Y; Xiong, S

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the bactericidal activity of lactoferrin-derived peptides and a new LF-derived peptides chimera (LFchimera) against P. aeruginosa and the influence on virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. Lactoferricin (LFcin) and lactoferrampin (LFampin) are highly bioactive peptides isolated from the N-terminal region of lactoferrin (LF) by pepsin digestion. In this study, we designed LFchimera containing LFcin amino acids 17-30 and LFampin amino acids 268-284. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells were incubated in medium with peptides at different concentrations, and then the assays of viability, pyocyanin, elastase activity and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa were performed. We found that the concentration-dependent antibactericidal activity and down-regulating pyocyanin, elastase and biofilm formation of LFchimera were significantly stronger than those of LF, LFcin, LFampin or LFcin plus LFampin. Our results indicated that LF, LFcin, LFampin and LFchimera were potential candidates to combat P. aeruginosa, and LFchimera was the most effective in them. The new LFchimera has better activity against P. aeruginosa than LF, LFcin and LFampin and may be a promising new compound for treatment of P. aeruginosa infection. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Influence of exogenous lactoferrin on the oxidant/antioxidant balance and molecular profile of hormone receptor-positive and -negative human breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zalutskii, I V; Lukianova, N Y; Storchai, D M; Burlaka, A P; Shvets, Y V; Borikun, T V; Todor, I M; Lukashevich, V S; Rudnichenko, Y A; Chekhun, V F

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of cytotoxic activity and pro-/antioxidant effect of lactoferrin on hormone receptor-positive and receptor-negative breast cancer cells in vitro. The study was performed on receptor-positive (MCF-7, T47D) and receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468) human breast cancer cell lines. Immunocytochemical staining, flow cytometry, low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance, and the Comet assay were used. Upon treatment with lactoferrin, the increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p < 0.05), NO generation rate by inducible NO-synthase (p < 0.05) and the level of "free" iron (p < 0.05) were observed. Moreover, the effects of lactoferrin were more pronounced in receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. These changes resulted in increased expression of proapoptotic Bax protein (p < 0.05), reduced expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein (p < 0.05) and level of not-oxidized mitochondrial cardiolipin (1.4-1.7-fold, p < 0.05). This, in turn, caused an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells (by 14-24%, p < 0.05). Cytotoxic effects of lactoferrin were accompanied by an increase in the percentage of DNA in the comet tail and blocking cell cycle at G2/M phase, especially in receptor-negative cell lines. The study showed that exogenous lactoferrin causes a violation of an antioxidant balance by increasing the level of ROS, "free" iron and NO generation rate, resalting in the blocking of cell cycle at G2/M-phase and apoptosis of malignant cells.

  3. Effect of the Various Steps in the Processing of Human Milk in the Concentrations of IgA, IgM, and Lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Gerardo; Ortiz Barrientos, Kevin Alexander; Lange, Karla; Nave, Federico; Miss Mas, Gabriela; Lam Aguilar, Pamela; Soto Galindo, Miguel Angel

    2017-09-01

    Human milk immune components are unique and important for the development of the newborn. Milk processing at the Human Milk Banks (HMB), however, causes partial destruction of immune proteins. The objective of this study was to determine the effects that heating during the milk processing procedure at the HMB had on the concentrations of IgA, IgM, and lactoferrin at three critical points in time. Fifty milk samples (150 mL) were collected from voluntary donors at the HMB at the Hospital Nacional Pedro de Bethancourt, located in Antigua Guatemala. Samples from three critical points in time during the milk processing procedure were selected for analysis: freezing/thawing I, freezing/thawing II, and pasteurization. IgA, IgM, and lactoferrin concentrations were determined during each critical point and compared with a baseline concentration. After milk processing, IgA, IgM, and lactoferrin mean concentrations were reduced by 30.0%, 36.0%, and 70.0%, respectively (p < 0.001). Reduction of biological activity was mainly attributed to pasteurization for IgA and lactoferrin (p < 0.001); the first freezing/thawing processes before pasteurization showed no significant reduction difference between mean concentrations of IgA (p = 0.160) and lactoferrin (p = 0.345) but showed a significant effect on IgM concentration (p = 0.016), and the second freezing/thawing procedure only showed a significant effect on IgA (p < 0.001). The effects of milk processing on the immune proteins that were evaluated in this study demonstrated a significant reduction.

  4. Erythropoietin and Nrf2: key factors in the neuroprotection provided by apo-lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, E T; Sokolov, A V; Pavlichenko, N N; Kostevich, V A; Abdurasulova, I N; Chechushkov, A V; Voynova, I V; Elizarova, A Yu; Kolmakov, N N; Bass, M G; Semak, I V; Budevich, A I; Kozhin, P M; Zenkov, N K; Klimenko, V M; Kirik, O V; Korzhevskii, D E; Menshchikova, E B; Vasilyev, V B

    2018-05-10

    Among the properties of lactoferrin (LF) are bactericidal, antianemic, immunomodulatory, antitumour, antiphlogistic effects. Previously we demonstrated its capacity to stabilize in vivo HIF-1-alpha and HIF-2-alpha, which are redox-sensitive multiaimed transcription factors. Various tissues of animals receiving recombinant human LF (rhLF) responded by expressing the HIF-1-alpha target genes, hence such proteins as erythropoietin (EPO), ceruloplasmin, etc. were synthesized in noticeable amounts. Among organs in which EPO synthesis occurred were brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs. Other researchers showed that EPO can act as a protectant against severe brain injury and status epilepticus in rats. Therefore, we tried rhLF as a protector against the severe neurologic disorders developed in rats, such as the rotenone-induced model of Parkinson's disease and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis as a model of multiple sclerosis, and observed its capacity to mitigate the grave symptoms. Moreover, an intraperitoneal injection of rhLF into mice 1 h after occlusion of the medial cerebral artery significantly diminished the necrosis area measured on the third day in the ischaemic brain. During this period EPO was synthesized in various murine tissues. It was known that EPO induces nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which, like HIF-1-alpha, is a transcription factor. In view that under conditions of hypoxia both factors demonstrate a synergistic protective effect, we suggested that LF activates the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway, an important link in proliferation and differentiation of normal and malignant cells. J774 macrophages were cultured for 3 days without or in the presence of ferric and ferrous ions (RPMI-1640 and DMEM/F12, respectively). Then cells were incubated with rhLF or Deferiprone. Confocal microscopy revealed nuclear translocation of Nrf2 (the key event in Keap1/Nrf2 signaling) induced by apo-rhLF (iron-free, RPMI-1640). The reference compound

  5. A role for whey-derived lactoferrin and immunoglobulins in the attenuation of obesity-related inflammation and disease.

    PubMed

    Brimelow, Rachel E; West, Nicholas P; Williams, Lauren T; Cripps, Allan W; Cox, Amanda J

    2017-05-24

    Obesity is a strong predictive factor in the development of chronic disease and has now superseded undernutrition as a major public health issue. Chronic inflammation is one mechanism thought to link excess body weight with disease. Increasingly, the gut and its extensive population of commensal microflora are recognized as playing an important role in the development of obesity-related chronic inflammation. Obesity and a high fat diet are associated with altered commensal microbial communities and increased intestinal permeability which contributes to systemic inflammation as a result of the translocation of lipopolysaccharide into the circulation and metabolic endotoxemia. Various milk proteins are showing promise in the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic low-grade inflammation via reductions in visceral fat, neutralization of bacteria at the mucosa and reduced intestinal permeability. In this review, we focus on evidence supporting the potential antiobesogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of bovine whey-derived lactoferrin and immunoglobulins.

  6. Inhibition of intestinal polyp growth by oral ingestion of bovine lactoferrin and immune cells in the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Iigo, Masaaki; Alexander, David B; Xu, Jiegou; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Suzui, Masumi; Kozu, Takahiro; Akasu, Takayuki; Saito, Daizo; Kakizoe, Tadao; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Takase, Mitsunori; Sekine, Kazunori; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-10-01

    Studies using animal models have demonstrated that ingestion of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) inhibits carcinogenesis in the colon and other organs of experimental animals. As a result of these studies, a blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted in the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan to determine whether ingestion of bLF had an effect on the growth of colorectal polyps in humans. Patients with colorectal polyps ≤5 mm diameter and likely to be adenomas ingested 0, 1.5, or 3.0 g bLF daily for 1 year. Ingestion of 3.0 g bLF suppressed the growth of colorectal polyps and increased the level of serum human lactoferrin in trial participants 63 years old or younger. The purpose of the present study was to investigate correlations between immune parameters and changes in polyp size. Trial participants with regressing polyps had increased NK cell activity, increased serum hLF levels (indicating increased neutrophil activity), and increased numbers of CD4+ cells in the polyps. These findings are consistent with a correlation between higher immune activity and suppression of colorectal polyps. In addition, participants with regressing polyps had lower numbers of PMNs and increased numbers of S100A8+ cells in the polyps, consistent with a correlation between lower inflammatory potential in the colon and suppression of colorectal polyps. Trial participants ingesting bLF had increased serum hLF levels, a possible increase in systemic NK cell activity, and increased numbers of CD4+ and CD161+ cells in the polyps. Taken together, our findings suggest that bLF suppressed colorectal polyps by enhancing immune responsiveness.

  7. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin exert antitumor activities on human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29) by activating various signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rulan; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is present at high concentrations in milk. Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a peptide fragment generated by pepsin proteolysis of bovine lactoferrin (bLf). LfcinB consists of amino acid residues 17-41 proximal to the N-terminus of bLf and a disulfide bond between residues 19 and 36, forming a loop. Both bLf and LfcinB have been demonstrated to have antitumor activities. Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in developed countries. We hypothesized that bLf and LfcinB exert antitumor activities on colon cancer cells (HT-29) by triggering various signaling pathways. bLf and LfcinB significantly induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells but not in normal human intestinal epithelial cells, as revealed by the ApoTox-Glo Triplex Assay. The LIVE/DEAD cell viability assay showed that both bLf and LfcinB reduced the viability of HT-29 cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated that bLf, cyclic LfcinB, and linear LfcinB exerted antitumor activities by differentially activating diverse signaling pathways, including p53, apoptosis, and angiopoietin signaling. Immunoblotting results confirmed that both bLf and LfcinBs increased expression of caspase-8, p53, and p21, critical proteins in tumor suppression. These results provide valuable information regarding bLf and LfcinB for potential clinical applications in colon cancer therapy.

  8. Significant antibacterial activity and synergistic effects of camel lactoferrin with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Redwan, Elrashdy M; El-Baky, Nawal Abd; Al-Hejin, Ahmed M; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Almehdar, Hussein A; Elsaway, Abdulrahman; Gomaa, Abu-Bakr M; Al-Masaudi, Saad Berki; Al-Fassi, Fahad A; AbuZeid, Isam Eldin; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes major healthcare problems in many countries, as it is present as several hospital- and community-associated strains. Hospital-associated MRSA is one of the most prevalent nosocomial pathogens throughout the world and infections caused by community-acquired MRSA are rising. This emphasizes the need for new and efficient anti-MRSA agents. We evaluated the antibacterial effects of camel lactoferrin (cLf) and human lactoferrin (hLf) alone and in combination with several antibiotics against MRSA. Antimicrobials were tested against MRSA and an S. aureus control strain by the agar disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for antimicrobials by the broth microdilution method. Synergy between cLf or hLf and antibiotics was examined by checkerboard and time-kill assays. The agar disc diffusion assay showed that MRSA growth was inhibited by cLf at 0.25-3 mg/ml and hLf at 1-3 mg/ml. cLf demonstrated 3 times higher inhibitory activity against MRSA than hLf in terms of MIC values (250 vs. 750 μg/ml, respectively). Biotinylated cLf was recognized by two membrane proteins of MRSA, 66-67 KDa. Combinations of cLf or hLf and oxacillin or vancomycin at sub-MIC levels enhanced in vitro antibacterial activity against MRSA compared with each agent alone. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects of acupuncture on lactoferrin content in tears and tear secretion in patients suffering from dry eyes: a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing-lin; Miao, Wan-hong

    2012-09-01

    With the understanding of the immune inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of dry eyes, and the limitations of widely used artificial tears and numerous pharmaceuticals and methods to promote tear secretion, clinicians pay more attention to the therapies that can promote tear secretion actively. Acupuncture treatment for dry eye may meet this requirement. To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment on dry eye and the effects on duration, and to examine the mechanisms of acupuncture in treating patients with dye eyes. The study was performed at Department of Ophthalmology, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from August 2010 to May 2011. Patients with the primary diagnosis of dry eye were enrolled. Sixty-five patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, and were given 3 weeks of acupuncture treatment or artificial tear therapy respectively. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the lactoferrin content of the tears before and after treatment. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment methods, the Schirmer I test and break-up time were also measured. Compared with before treatment, the lactoferrin content in the tears of patients in the treatment group increased, break-up time was prolonged and the result of the Schirmer I test showed improvement after 3 weeks of treatment. The indexes mentioned above did not change in the control group after treatment. There were no significant differences in tear lactoferrin and Schirmer I test between one week after treatment and after 3-week treatment in the treatment group, but break-up time was significantly shortened. The result of Schirmer I test in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group one week after treatment. Acupuncture can increase tear lactoferrin level, extend tear film break-up time and promote tear secretion in patients with dry eye in a time-limited trial. With the end of

  10. Lactoferrin release and interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor production by human polymorphonuclear cells stimulated by various lipopolysaccharides: relationship to growth inhibition of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Palma, C; Cassone, A; Serbousek, D; Pearson, C A; Djeu, J Y

    1992-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Salmonella typhimurium, at doses from 1 to 100 ng/ml, strongly enhanced growth inhibition of Candida albicans by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in vitro. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that LPS markedly augmented phagocytosis of Candida cells by increasing the number of yeasts ingested per neutrophil as well as the number of neutrophils capable of ingesting fungal cells. LPS activation caused augmented release of lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein which itself could inhibit the growth of C. albicans in vitro. Antibodies against lactoferrin effectively and specifically reduced the anti-C. albicans activity of both LPS-stimulated and unstimulated PMN. Northern (RNA blot) analysis showed enhanced production of mRNAs for interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 and in neutrophils within 1 h of stimulation with LPS. The cytokines were also detected in the supernatant of the activated PMN, and their synthesis was prevented by pretreatment of LPS-stimulated PMN with protein synthesis inhibitors, such as emetine and cycloheximide. These inhibitors, however, did not block either lactoferrin release or the anti-Candida activity of LPS-stimulated PMN. These results demonstrate the ability of various bacterial LPSs to augment neutrophil function against C. albicans and suggest that the release of a candidastatic, iron-binding protein, lactoferrin, may contribute to the antifungal effect of PMN. Moreover, the ability to produce cytokines upon stimulation by ubiquitous microbial products such as the endotoxins points to an extraphagocytic, immunomodulatory role of PMN during infection.

  11. Effect of mobile phone use on salivary concentrations of protein, amylase, lipase, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase and C-reactive protein of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, M S; Yarbakht, M; Gholamhosseinian, A; Famori, H

    2014-05-01

    The possibility of side effects associated with the electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones is a controversial issue. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on parotid gland salivary concentrations of protein, amylase, lipase, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase and C-reactive protein. Stimulated salivary samples were collected simultaneously from both parotid glands of 86 healthy volunteers. Salivary flow rate and salivary concentrations of proteins, amylase, lipase, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase, C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin A, were measured. Data were analysed using t-tests and one-way analyses of variance. Salivary flow rate and parotid gland salivary concentrations of protein were significantly higher on the right side compared to the left in those that predominantly held mobile phones on the right side. In addition, there was a decrease in concentrations of amylase, lipase, lysozyme, lactoferrin and peroxidase. The side of dominant mobile phone use was associated with differences in salivary flow rate and parotid gland salivary concentrations, in right-dominant users. Although mobile phone use influenced salivary composition, the relationship was not significant.

  12. Neuroprotection against apoptosis of SK-N-MC cells using RMP-7- and lactoferrin-grafted liposomes carrying quercetin

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Tsao, Chien-Wei

    2017-01-01

    A drug delivery system of quercetin (QU)-encapsulated liposomes (LS) grafted with RMP-7, a bradykinin analog, and lactoferrin (Lf) was developed to permeate the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and rescue degenerated neurons, acting as an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pharmacotherapy. This colloidal formulation of QU-encapsulated LS grafted with RMP-7 and Lf (RMP-7-Lf-QU-LS) was used to traverse human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) regulated by human astrocytes (HAs) and to treat SK-N-MC cells after an insult with cytotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) fibrils. We found that surface RMP-7 and Lf enhanced the ability of QU to cross the BBB without inducing strong toxicity and damaging the tight junction. In addition, RMP-7-Lf-QU-LS significantly reduced Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and improved the viability of SK-N-MC cells. Compared with free QU, RMP-7-Lf-QU-LS could also significantly inhibit the expression of phosphorylated c-Jun N terminal kinase, phosphorylated p38, and phosphorylated tau protein at serine 202 by SK-N-MC cells, indicating an important role of RMP-7, Lf, and LS in protecting neurons against apoptosis. RMP-7-Lf-QU-LS is a promising carrier targeting the BBB to prevent Aβ-insulted neurodegeneration and may have potential in managing AD in future clinical applications. PMID:28435263

  13. Protective effects of lactoferrin against intestinal mucosal damage induced by lipopolysaccharide in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Yoshihiko; Ikeda, Kenji; Kato, Ryuji; Myotoku, Michiaki; Umeda, Takashi; Ijiri, Yoshio; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2008-09-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that lactoferrin (Lf), a major iron-binding protein in human milk, induces enterocyte growth and proliferation, depending on its concentration and affects the function and permeability of the intestinal mucosa. The bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) is known to cause mucosal hyperpermeability in vivo. However, protective effects of Lf against LPS-mediated intestinal mucosal damage and barrier function in epithelial cells are not yet fully clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Lf can reduce the cellular injury and alter epithelial hyperpermeability caused by LPS in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. When cell viability was measured by a WST-1 assay (tetrazolium salt-based assay), the protective effects against LPS-induced damage to Caco-2 cells were observed at doses of 800 and 1000 microg/ml Lf. The barrier function of Caco-2 monolayer tight junctions was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability of FITC-labeled dextran 4000 (FD-4). The treatment of Caco-2 cells with Lf at doses of 400 and 1000 microg/ml significantly increased TEER as compared to treatment with LPS alone for 2 h (p<0.05). Further, at doses of 400 and 1000 microg/ml, Lf inhibited the enhancement of LPS-mediated permeability in Caco-2 cell monolayer. The results of this study suggest that Lf may have protective effects against LPS-mediated intestinal mucosal damage and impairment of barrier function in intestinal epithelial cells.

  14. [Inhibitory effect of human lactoferrin (neolactoferrin) on the growth of transplantable tumor in the uterine cervix of mice].

    PubMed

    Kobliakov, V A; Antoshina, E E; Gor'kova, T G; Gol'dman, I L; Trukhanova, L S; Sadchikova, E R

    2012-01-01

    There was studied effect of recombinant form of human breast milk component-lactoferrin, received from milk of goats-producers (neolactoferrin), on growth of transplantable tumor of the cervix in mice (TTC-5). Neolactoferrin in dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of animals' mass inhibited the rate of tumor growth. The most effective was the dose of 200 mg/kg, which was entered a week before transplantation. In contrast to the control group, in groups where neolactoferrin was entered it was fixed resorption of TTC-5 in 6 mice. Repeated transplantation TTC-5 to these mice led to reducing of the rate of tumor growth and increasing of duration of their lives. To investigate if tumor-braking effect neolactoferrin connected with direct effect on the tumor or due to the general effect of the organism, TTC-5 cells were transformed in culture and they were exposed by neolactoferrin in dose of 10 and 100 mkg/ml. In investigated doses neolactoferrin did not influence on tumor cells growth. There is discussed possible mechanism of anti-tumor effect of neolactoferrin.

  15. Effects of lactoferrin on the production of interferon-λ by the human intestinal epithelial cell line HT-29.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kouichirou; Oda, Hirotsugu; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2017-02-01

    We examined the in-vitro effects of bovine lactoferrin (LF) on the production of interferon-λ (IFN-λ), an antiviral cytokine important for the defense of enterocytes, using the human intestinal epithelial cell line HT-29. HT-29 cell cultures were treated with LF for 1 h, and the cultures were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). LF increased the concentration of IFN-λ in the culture supernatant after stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. A similar increase in the concentration of IFN-λ was observed in the supernatant of cells washed between treatment with LF and stimulation with poly I:C. At 6 and 24 h after stimulation with poly I:C (early and late phases, respectively) treated cultures contained significantly higher concentrations of IFN-λ1 in the culture supernatant, and significantly higher IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ2 mRNA levels, than controls. These results suggest that LF activates the innate cellular immunity of the enterocytes to double-stranded RNA and increases the production of IFN-λ.

  16. Detection of anti-lactoferrin antibodies and anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liming; Zhang, Yuhong; Peng, Weihua; Chen, Juanjuan; Li, Hua; Ming, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Anti-lactoferrin antibodies (ALA) and anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies (AMPA) are specific serological markers for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The project aimed to detect ALA and AMPA and explore their clinical significances in AIH patients. 59 AIH patients, 217 non AIH patients, and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. ALA and AMPA were detected by ELISA. Antineutropil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) were examined by indirect immunofluorescence. Antimitochondrial antibody M2 subtype (AMA-M2), anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody Type 1 (LKM1), anti-liver cytosol antibody Type 1 (LC1), and anti-soluble liver antigen/liver-pancreas antibodies (SLA/LP) were tested by immunoblot. The positivity for ALA was 18.6% in AIH group, only one patient in non-AIH group was positive for ALA; the positivity for AMPA was 59.3% in AIH group, with significant differences (P < 0.01) compared with other groups. The specificities for ALA and AMPA were 99.63% and 97.75%; the sensitivities were 18.64% and 59.32%; and the accuracy rates were 84.97% and 90.80%, respectively. A certain correlation was observed between ALA and SLA/LP, AMPA and ANCA, ASMA in AIH group. ALA and AMPA were associated with AIH, and had high clinical diagnostic value. Co-detection with other relative autoantibodies could play an important role in differential diagnosis of AIH.

  17. Two splice variants of the bovine lactoferrin gene identified in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, J M; Wang, Z Y; Ju, Z H; Wang, C F; Li, Q L; Sun, T; Hou, Q L; Hang, S Q; Hou, M H; Zhong, J F

    2011-12-21

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a member of the transferrin family; it plays an important role in the innate immune response. We identified novel splice variants of the bLF gene in mastitis-infected and healthy cows. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and clone sequencing analysis were used to screen the splice variants of the bLF gene in the mammary gland, spleen and liver tissues. One main transcript corresponding to the bLF reference sequence was found in three tissues in both healthy and mastitis-infected cows. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the LF gene's main transcript were not significantly different in tissues from healthy versus mastitis-infected cows. However, the new splice variant, LF-AS2, which has the exon-skipping alternative splicing pattern, was only identified in mammary glands infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Sequencing analysis showed that the new splice variant was 251 bp in length, including exon 1, part of exon 2, part of exon 16, and exon 17. We conclude that bLF may play a role in resistance to mastitis through alternative splicing mechanisms.

  18. A 17-kDa Fragment of Lactoferrin Associates With the Termination of Inflammation and Peptides Within Promote Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Lutaty, Aviv; Soboh, Soaad; Schif-Zuck, Sagie; Zeituni-Timor, Orly; Rostoker, Ran; Podolska, Malgorzata J.; Schauer, Christine; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E.; Ariel, Amiram

    2018-01-01

    During the resolution of inflammation, macrophages engulf apoptotic polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and can accumulate large numbers of their corpses. Here, we report that resolution phase macrophages acquire the neutrophil-derived glycoprotein lactoferrin (Lf) and fragments thereof in vivo and ex vivo. During the onset and resolving phases of inflammation in murine peritonitis and bovine mastitis, Lf fragments of 15 and 17 kDa occurred in various body fluids, and the murine fragmentation, accumulation, and release were mediated initially by neutrophils and later by efferocytic macrophages. The 17-kDa fragment contained two bioactive tripeptides, FKD and FKE that promoted resolution phase macrophage conversion to a pro-resolving phenotype. This resulted in a reduction in peritoneal macrophage numbers and an increase in the CD11blow subset of these cells. Moreover, FKE, but not FKD, peptides enhanced efferocytosis of apoptotic PMN, reduced TNFα and interleukin (IL)-6, and increased IL-10 secretion by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages ex vivo. In addition, FKE promoted neutrophil-mediated resolution at high concentrations (100 µM) by enhancing the formation of cytokine-scavenging aggregated NETs (tophi) at a low cellular density. Thus, PMN Lf is processed, acquired, and “recycled” by neutrophils and macrophages during inflammation resolution to generate fragments and peptides with paramount pro-resolving activities. PMID:29643857

  19. Formation of lactoferrin/sodium caseinate complexes and their adsorption behaviour at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanyang; Zhao, Zhengtao

    2017-10-01

    This research investigated the complexation behaviour between lactoferrin (Lf) and sodium caseinate (NaCas) before and after heat treatment. The results showed that heating facilitated their interaction and different complexes were formed at different Lf/NaCas ratios. The presence of low concentrations of NaCas resulted in the rapid precipitation of Lf, while no precipitation was observed at the NaCas concentrations higher than Lf/NaCas ratio of 2:1. The formed complexes at the ratio of 2:1 have an average diameter of 194±9.0nm and they exhibited a great capacity in lowering the air/water interfacial tension. Further increase of NaCas concentration to ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 resulted in the formation of smaller complexes with average diameters of 60±2.5nm. The complexes formed at these two ratios showed similar adsorption behaviour at the air/water interface and they exhibited lower capacity in decreasing the interfacial tension than the ratio of 2:1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of quantitative fecal lactoferrin assay for diagnosis of symptomatic patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Parsi, Mansour A; Ellis, Jeffrey J; Lashner, Bret A

    2008-08-01

    To assess cost-effectiveness of fecal lactoferrin (FL) as the initial diagnostic approach to symptomatic patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Four competing strategies [empiric metronidazole therapy (txMTZ), initial pouch endoscopy with biopsy (testBiop), initial FL assay followed by metronidazole therapy (testFL+MTZ), and initial FL assay followed by pouch endoscopy and biopsy (testFL+Biop)] were modeled in a decision tree. In the base-case, the average cost per patient was $241 for testFL+MTZ, $251 for txMTZ, $405 for testFL+Biop, and $431 for testBiop. The testBiop strategy had greater effectiveness compared with txMTZ but at an incremental cost of $158 per day. The txMTZ strategy was slightly more costly and minimally more effective than testFL+MTZ with an incremental cost effectiveness of just over $12 per day. However, the testFL+MTZ strategy was associated with a 31% absolute reduction in antibiotic exposure compared with the txMTZ strategy. Compared with empiric metronidazole therapy, FL before treatment with metronidazole is less costly with less exposure to antibiotics and less need for endoscopy, with only marginal decrease in effectiveness.

  1. Attenuation of massive cytokine response to the staphylococcal enterotoxin B superantigen by the innate immunomodulatory protein lactoferrin

    PubMed Central

    Hayworth, J L; Kasper, K J; Leon-Ponte, M; Herfst, C A; Yue, D; Brintnell, W C; Mazzuca, D M; Heinrichs, D E; Cairns, E; Madrenas, J; Hoskin, D W; McCormick, J K; Haeryfar, S M M

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a pyrogenic exotoxin and a potent superantigen which causes massive T cell activation and cytokine secretion, leading to profound immunosuppression and morbidity. The inhibition of SEB-induced responses is thus considered a goal in the management of certain types of staphylococcal infections. Lactoferrin (LF) is a multi-functional glycoprotein with both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. In addition, LF is known to have potent immunomodulatory properties. Given the anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties of this protein, we hypothesized that LF can modulate T cell responses to SEB. Here, we report that bovine LF (bLF) was indeed able to attenuate SEB-induced proliferation, interleukin-2 production and CD25 expression by human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4 transgenic mouse T cells. This inhibition was not due to bLF's iron-binding capacity, and could be mimicked by the bLF-derived peptide lactoferricin. Cytokine secretion by an engineered SEB-responsive human Jurkat T cell line and by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors was also inhibited by bLF. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized property of LF in modulation of SEB-triggered immune activation and suggest a therapeutic potential for this naturally occurring protein during toxic shock syndrome. PMID:19659771

  2. Bactericidal effect of bovine lactoferrin, LFcin, LFampin and LFchimera on antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Nazmi, Kamram; de la Garza, Mireya; Zazueta-Beltrán, Jorge; León-Sicairos, Nidia; Bolscher, Jan G M

    2010-06-01

    Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a major threat to the health sector worldwide due to their virulence, limited therapeutic options and distribution in both hospital and community settings. Discovery and development of new agents to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria is thus needed. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the ability of bovine lactoferrin (LF), peptides from two antimicrobial domains lactoferricin B (LFcin17-30) and lactoferrampin (LFampin265-284) and a chimeric construct (LFchimera) containing both peptides, as potential bactericidal agents against clinical isolates of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results in kinetics of growth show that LF chimera and peptides inhibited the growth of both bacterial species. By confocal microscopy and flow cytometry it was observed that LF and FITC-labeled peptides are able to interact with these bacteria and cause membrane permeabilization, as monitored by propidium iodide staining, these effects were decreased by preincubation with lipopolysaccharide in E. coli. By electron microscopy, a clear cellular damage was observed in bacteria after treatments with LFchimera and peptides, suggesting that interaction and membrane disruption are probably involved as a mechanism of action. In conclusion, results show that LFchimera, LF and peptides have potential as bactericidal agents in the antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus and E. coli and also the work strongly suggest that LFcin17-30 and LFampin265-284 acts synergistically with antibiotics against multidrug resistant EPEC and MRSA in vitro.

  3. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine lactoferrin gene influence milk somatic cell score and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yongjiang; Zhu, Xiaorui; Xing, Shiyu; Zhang, Meirong; Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Xiaolong; Karrow, Niel; Yang, Liguo; Yang, Zhangping

    2015-12-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in cow's milk that plays an important role in preventing mastitis caused by intramammary infection. In this study, 20 Chinese Holstein cows were selected randomly for PCR amplification and sequencing of the bovine lactoferrin gene promoter region and used for SNP discovery in the region between nucleotide positions -461 to -132. Three SNPs (-270T>C, -190G>A and -156A>G) were identified in bovine lactoferrin, then Chinese Holstein cows (n=866) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY (Sequenom Inc., San Diego, CA) based on the previous SNP information in this study, and the associations between SNPs or haplotype and milk somatic cell score (SCS) and production traits were analyzed by the least squares method in the GLM procedure of SAS. SNPs -270T>C and -156A>G showed close linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.76). The SNP -190G>A showed a significant association with SCS, and individuals with genotype GG had higher SCS than genotypes AG and AA. Associations were found between the SNPs -270T>C and -190G>A with SCS and the milk composition. The software MatInspector revealed that these SNPs were located within several potential transcription factor binding sites, including NF-κB p50, KLF7 and SP1, and may alter gene expression, but further investigation will be required to elucidate the biological and practical relevance of these SNPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Human recombinant lactoferrin acts synergistically with antimicrobials commonly used in neonatal practice against coagulase-negative staphylococci and Candida albicans causing neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Mohan Pammi; Rong, Liang

    2008-09-01

    Neonatal sepsis causes significant mortality and morbidity. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Candida frequently cause neonatal sepsis at >72 h of age. Lactoferrin, which is present in human milk, is a component of innate immunity and has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The synergistic effects of lactoferrin with antibiotics against neonatal isolates have not been systematically evaluated. Here, eight clinical strains (seven neonatal) of CoNS and three strains (two neonatal) of Candida albicans were studied. MIC50 and MIC90 values of human recombinant lactoferrin (talactoferrin; TLF), vancomycin (VAN) and nafcillin (NAF) against CoNS, and of TLF, amphotericin B (AMB) and fluconazole (FLC) against C. albicans, were evaluated according to established guidelines. Antimicrobial combinations of TLF with NAF or VAN against CoNS, and TLF with AMB or FLC against C. albicans, were evaluated by a checkerboard method with serial twofold dilutions. Synergy was evaluated by the median effects principle, and combination indices and dose reduction indices were reported at 50, 75 and 90% inhibitory effect at several drug-dose ratios. It was found that TLF acted synergistically with NAF and VAN against CoNS, and with AMB and FLC against C. albicans, at multiple dose effects and drug-dose ratios with few exceptions. In synergistic combinations, drug reduction indices indicated a significant reduction in doses of antibiotics, which may be clinically relevant. Thus TLF acts synergistically with anti-staphylococcal and anti-Candida agents commonly used in neonatal practice and is a promising agent that needs to be evaluated in clinical studies.

  5. Prevention of nosocomial infections in critically ill patients with lactoferrin (PREVAIL study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Muscedere, John; Maslove, David; Boyd, John Gordon; O'Callaghan, Nicole; Lamontagne, Francois; Reynolds, Steven; Albert, Martin; Hall, Rick; McGolrick, Danielle; Jiang, Xuran; Day, Andrew G

    2016-09-29

    Nosocomial infections remain an important source of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs in hospitalized patients. This is particularly problematic in intensive care units (ICUs) because of increased patient vulnerability due to the underlying severity of illness and increased susceptibility from utilization of invasive therapeutic and monitoring devices. Lactoferrin (LF) and the products of its breakdown have multiple biological effects, which make its utilization of interest for the prevention of nosocomial infections in the critically ill. This is a phase II randomized, multicenter, double-blinded trial to determine the effect of LF on antibiotic-free days in mechanically ventilated, critically ill, adult patients in the ICU. Eligible, consenting patients will be randomized to receive either LF or placebo. The treating clinician will remain blinded to allocation during the study; blinding will be maintained by using opaque syringes and containers. The primary outcome will be antibiotic-free days, defined as the number of days alive and free of antibiotics 28 days after randomization. Secondary outcomes will include: antibiotic utilization, adjudicated diagnosis of nosocomial infection (longer than 72 h of admission to ICU), hospital and ICU length of stay, change in organ function after randomization, hospital and 90-day mortality, incidence of tracheal colonization, changes in gastrointestinal permeability, and immune function. Outcomes to inform the conduct of a larger definitive trial will also be evaluated, including feasibility as determined by recruitment rates and protocol adherence. The results from this study are expected to provide insight into a potential novel therapeutic use for LF in critically ill adult patients. Further, analysis of study outcomes will inform a future, large-scale phase III randomized controlled trial powered on clinically important outcomes related to the use of LF. The trial was registered at www

  6. [Isolation and purification of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) from transgenic rice and its antibacterial activities].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinghuan; Yang, Lichen; Liu, Gaige; Gong, Zhaolong; Liu, Jikai; Hu, Yujie; Guo, Yunchang; Piao, Jianhua; Shen, Zhicheng; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-05-01

    To study the isolation and purification of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) from transgenic rice, and to check its antibacterial activities. After isolated rhLF from transgenic rice via saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, then purified it through CM Sepharose FF-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography Sephadex G25. The inhibition effects under different concentrations of rhLF (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 5.0 mg/ml) against Salmonella typhimurium, Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes were observed, using broth microdilution method. The rhLF was obtained at a higher purity (about 90%) through successful isolation and purification. After Coomassie blue staining, Westernblot and mass spectrometer analysis, it was identified as the purpose protein with the molecular weight of approximately 79 kDa. The antibacterial experiments showed that 5 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml rhLF could inhibite Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus persistently, 2 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml rhLF showed a significant inhibitory effects in the later period; while 0.5 mg/ml or lower concentration, showed no inhibitory effects. As to Bacillus cereus, only 5 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml rhLF exhibited certain inhibitory effects within 18 hours. Listeria monocytogenes was inhibited within 18 hours just at 5 mg/ml rhLF. The rhLF could be successfully separated and purified from transgenic rice, and the purified protein still has significant antibacterial activities.

  7. Evaluation of the bioactivity of recombinant human lactoferrins toward murine osteoblast-like cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ashley A; Nair, Lakshmi S

    2013-05-01

    Lactoferrin (LF), which belongs to the iron-binding transferrin family, is an important regulator of the levels of free iron in the body fluids. LF has raised significant interest as a bioactive protein due to its wide array of physiological effects on many different cell types, including osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The glycoprotein's degree of iron saturation has a pivotal influence on its physical structure. The objective of this study is to investigate the biological effects of apo (low iron saturation), pis (partially iron saturated), and holo (high iron saturation) recombinant human LF (rhLF) on MC3T3-E1 cells to identify the suitable candidate for bone tissue engineering application. Our studies demonstrated a dose-dependent mitogenic response of MC3T3 to rhLF treatment irrespective of the iron concentration. Furthermore, rhLF induced the cells to produce transcription factors, chemokines, and cytokines as determined by β-catenin activation, phosphorylation of Akt, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin (IL-6) expression. The iron saturation of rhLF did not have any significant effect on these biological activities of MC3T3 cells. In addition, the overall pattern of gene regulation in MC3T3-E1 cells upon rhLF treatment was followed by a global microarray analysis. Among the 45,200 genes tested, only 251 genes were found to be regulated by rhLFs of different iron concentrations. Of these, the transferrin receptor (Tfrc) was the only gene differentially regulated by the iron saturated and iron depleted (apo) rhLFs. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that rhLF is a bioactive protein and that the iron saturation of rhLF may not play a significant role in modulating osteoblast functions.

  8. Lactoferrin promote primary rat osteoblast proliferation and differentiation via up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jian-ming; Wu, Man; Lin, Qing-ming; Lin, Fan; Xue, Ying; Lan, Xu-hua; Chen, En-yu; Wang, Mei-li; Yang, Hai-yan; Wang, Feng-xiong

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of lactoferrin (LF) in primary fetal rat osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Primary rat osteoblasts were obtained from the calvarias of neonatal rats. Osteoblasts were treated with LF (0.1-1000 μg/mL), or OSI-906 [a selective inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor and insulin receptor]. The IGF-1 was then knocked down by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology and then was treated with recombinant human IGF-1 or LF. Cell proliferation and differentiation were measured by MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, respectively. The expression of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) mRNA were analyzed using real-time PCR. LF promotes the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in a certain range (1-100 μg/mL) in time- and dose-dependent manner. The mRNA level of IGF-1 was significantly increased, while the expression of IGFBP2 was suppressed by LF treatment. Knockdown of IGF-1 by shRNA in primary rat osteoblast dramatically decreased the abilities of proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and blocked the proliferation and differentiation effect of LF in osteoblasts. OSI906 (5 μM) blocked the mitogenic and differentiation of LF in osteoblasts. Proliferation and differentiation of primary rat osteoblasts in response to LF are mediated in part by stimulating of IGF-1 gene expression and alterations in the gene expression of IGFBP2.

  9. Long-term enteral immunonutrition containing lactoferrin in tube-fed bedridden patients: immunological and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshiaki; Yamamura, Takuya; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Katayose, Kozo; Kohga, Shin; Takase, Mitsunori; Imawari, Michio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of a novel immune-enhancing enteral formula, Prem-8, which contains lactoferrin as an immunonutrient. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 5 hospitals in Japan, and 71 tube-fed bedridden patients with serum albumin concentrations between 2.5 and 3.5 g/dL were allocated to Prem-8 (n = 38) or control formula (n = 33) groups for an observation period of 12 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing immunological (natural killer cell activity, neutrophil-phagocytic activity, neutrophil-sterilizing activity, and C-reactive protein), and nutritional (anthropometric measurements and serum levels of nutritional assessment proteins and total cholesterol) variables. Safety was assessed by comparing the incidence of adverse events. In a secondary analysis, patients were subgrouped according to the amount of protein supplemented (1 g/kg/d) so that immunological and nutritional variables and safety could be further compared. Natural killer activity and neutrophil functions were normal for both groups throughout the study period, without significant between-group differences at any point. Nutritional status was stably maintained in both groups, although the body mass index at 12 weeks was marginally lower in the Prem-8 group than in the control group (p < 0.01). The incidence of adverse events were comparable between both groups, but the incidence of fever in the Prem-8 group (7/14) was significantly lower than in the control group (10/11) in a subgroup of patients whose supplemented protein was less than 1 g/kg/d (p < 0.05). Prem-8 did not demonstrate superiority to the control formula with respect to immunological and nutritional variables, whereas the body mass index of patients in the Prem-8 group marginally decreased. However, Prem-8 had a favorable effect on the incidence of fever in a subgroup of patients with low protein intake.

  10. Study on the Simultaneously Quantitative Detection for β-Lactoglobulin and Lactoferrin of Cow Milk by Using Protein Chip Technique.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ji Yong; Huo, Jun Sheng; Ma, Xin Xin; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian

    2017-12-01

    To research a protein chip method which can simultaneously quantitative detect β-Lactoglobulin (β-L) and Lactoferrin (Lf) at one time. Protein chip printer was used to print both anti-β-L antibodies and anti-Lf antibodies on each block of protein chip. And then an improved sandwich detection method was applied while the other two detecting antibodies for the two antigens were added in the block after they were mixed. The detection conditions of the quantitative detection for simultaneous measurement of β-L and Lf with protein chip were optimized and evaluated. Based on these detected conditions, two standard curves of the two proteins were simultaneously established on one protein chip. Finally, the new detection method was evaluated by using the analysis of precision and accuracy. By comparison experiment, mouse monoclonal antibodies of the two antigens were chosen as the printing probe. The concentrations of β-L and Lf probes were 0.5 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively, while the titers of detection antibodies both of β-L and Lf were 1:2,000. Intra- and inter-assay variability was between 4.88% and 38.33% for all tests. The regression coefficients of protein chip comparing with ELISA for β-L and Lf were better than 0.734, and both of the two regression coefficients were statistically significant (r = 0.734, t = 2.644, P = 0.038; and r = 0.774, t = 2.998, P = 0.024). A protein chip method of simultaneously quantitative detection for β-L and Lf has been established and this method is worthy in further application. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Intranasal delivery of rotigotine to the brain with lactoferrin-modified PEG-PLGA nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chenchen; Wang, Aiping; Chu, Yongchao; Liu, Sha; Mu, Hongjie; Liu, Wanhui; Wu, Zimei; Sun, Kaoxiang; Li, Youxin

    Sustainable and safe delivery of brain-targeted drugs is highly important for successful therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was designed to formulate biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which were surface-modified with lactoferrin (Lf), for efficient intranasal delivery of rotigotine to the brain for the treatment of PD. Rotigotine NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation, and the effect of various independent process variables on the resulting properties of NPs was investigated by a Box-Behnken experimental design. The physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties of the NPs and Lf-NPs were characterized, and the release kinetics suggested that both NPs and Lf-NPs provided continuous, slow release of rotigotine for 48 h. Neither rotigotine NPs nor Lf-NPs reduced the viability of 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells; in contrast, free rotigotine was cytotoxic. Qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake studies demonstrated that accumulation of Lf-NPs was greater than that of NPs in 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells. Following intranasal administration, brain delivery of rotigotine was much more effective with Lf-NPs than with NPs. The brain distribution of rotigotine was heterogeneous, with a higher concentration in the striatum, the primary region affected in PD. This strongly suggested that Lf-NPs enable the targeted delivery of rotigotine for the treatment of PD. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Lf-NPs have potential as a carrier for nose-to-brain delivery of rotigotine for the treatment of PD.

  12. Effects of oral hygiene products containing lactoperoxidase, lysozyme, and lactoferrin on the composition of whole saliva and on subjective oral symptoms in patients with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Kirstilä, V; Lenander-Lumikari, M; Söderling, E; Tenovuo, J

    1996-12-01

    This study evaluates the effects of two oral hygiene products containing nonimmunoglobulin antimicrobial agents on whole saliva and on subjective oral symptoms in patients with xerostomia. Twenty patients used a lactoperoxidase-system-containing toothpaste (Biotene) combined with the use of a mouthrinse (Biotene), comprising also lysozyme and lactoferrin, for 4 weeks. Saliva samples were collected at base line, after 4 weeks' use of the products, and at the end of a 4-week washout period. Samples were analyzed for selected biochemical and microbiologic factors. The effects on subjective oral symptoms were also recorded. A 4-week daily use of toothpaste and mouthrinse relieved the symptoms of oral dryness in 16 patients. The levels of salivary hypothiocyanite, lysozyme, lactoferrin, or myeloperoxidase activity did not change, but there was a significant decrease in salivary pH (P < 0.05), total peroxidase activity (P < 0.05), and total protein content (P = 0.01). In patients with the lowest salivary flow rates (n = 5) a significant (P > or = 0.04) increase was detected in salivary hypothiocyanite concentrations. No major changes occurred in salivary microflora. The products relieved subjective oral symptoms in most xerostomic patients, but this was not necessarily related to the presence of antimicrobial agents.

  13. Combination of hypothiocyanite and lactoferrin (ALX-109) enhances the ability of tobramycin and aztreonam to eliminate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms growing on cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreau-Marquis, Sophie; Coutermarsh, Bonita; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chelating iron may be a promising new therapy to eliminate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we investigate whether ALX-109 [a defined combination of an investigational drug containing lactoferrin (an iron-binding glycoprotein) and hypothiocyanite (a bactericidal agent)], alone and in combination with tobramycin or aztreonam, reduces P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on human CF airway epithelial cells. Methods P. aeruginosa (PAO1 and six clinical isolates of Pseudomonas) biofilms grown at the apical surface of confluent monolayers of CF airway epithelial cells were treated with ALX-109, either alone or in combination with tobramycin or aztreonam. Bacterial cfu remaining after treatment were determined by plate counting. Results ALX-109 alone reduced PAO1 biofilm formation, but had no effect on established biofilms. ALX-109 enhanced the ability of tobramycin and aztreonam to inhibit PAO1 biofilm formation and to reduce established PAO1 biofilms. ALX-109 and tobramycin were additive in disrupting established biofilms formed by six clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from the sputum of CF patients. Mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates were most susceptible to the combination of ALX-109 and tobramycin. In addition, ALX-109 also enhanced the ability of aztreonam to reduce established PAO1 biofilms. Conclusions Inhalation therapy combining hypothiocyanite and lactoferrin with TOBI® (tobramycin) or Cayston® (aztreonam) may be beneficial to CF patients by decreasing the airway bacterial burden of P. aeruginosa. PMID:25213272

  14. A new lactoferrin- and iron-dependent lysosomal death pathway is induced by benzo[a]pyrene in hepatic epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gorria, Morgane; Tekpli, Xavier; Rissel, Mary

    2008-04-15

    While lysosomal disruption seems to be a late step of necrosis, a moderate lysosomal destabilization has been suggested to participate early in the apoptotic cascade. The origin of lysosomal dysfunction and its precise role in apoptosis or apoptosis-like process still needs to be clarified, especially upon carcinogen exposure. In this study, we focused on the implication of lysosomes in cell death induced by the prototype carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P; 50 nM) in rat hepatic epithelial F258 cells. We first demonstrated that B[a]P affected lysosomal morphology (increase in size) and pH (alkalinization), and that these changes were involved in caspase-3 activation andmore » cell death. Subsequently, we showed that lysosomal modifications were partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction, and that lysosomes together with mitochondria participate in B[a]P-induced oxidative stress. Using two iron chelators (desferrioxamine and deferiprone) and siRNA targeting the lysosomal iron-binding protease lactoferrin, we further demonstrated that both lysosomal iron content and lactoferrin were required for caspase-3 activation and apoptosis-like cell death.« less

  15. Complementation of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and CESI-Q-TOF-MS on identification and determination of peptides from bovine lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Shi, Pujie; Fan, Fengjiao; Tu, Maolin; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Xianbing; Du, Ming

    2018-05-01

    Digested peptides of bovine lactoferrin as the functional hydrolysates were identified by the Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). The former (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) identified 106 peptides while the latter (CE-Q-TOF-MS) characterized 102 peptides after comparison of peptides in terms of their molecular weight (MW), mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and isoelectric point (pI). In addition, the hydrophilic value, net charge (q), and molecular radius (r) of the peptides were calculated, and a correlation analysis of the two methods was conducted between the retention time (RT) and r/q ratio of the peptides in order to elucidate the different separation principles of the unique peptides. It was shown that the peptides with larger hydrophilic value were beneficial to be separated by UPLC, while the peptides with larger r/q ratio were beneficial to be separated by CE. Combination of the above mentioned two complementary techniques have confidently improved the sequence coverage of lactoferrin and enhanced the identification of peptides, which makes it up to 65.8% in this study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Growth and tolerance of formula with lactoferrin in infants through one year of age: double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Johnston, William H; Ashley, Claude; Yeiser, Michael; Harris, Cheryl L; Stolz, Suzanne I; Wampler, Jennifer L; Wittke, Anja; Cooper, Timothy R

    2015-11-07

    Human milk provides necessary macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat) required for infant nutrition. Lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional iron-binding protein predominant in human milk, shares similar protein sequence, structure, and bioactivity with bovine Lf (bLf). This large-scale pediatric nutrition study was designed to evaluate growth and tolerance in healthy infants who received study formulas with bLf at concentrations within the range of mature human milk. In this multi-center, double-blind, parallel-designed, gender-stratified prospective study 480 infants were randomized to receive a marketed routine cow's milk-based infant formula (Control; n = 155) or one of two investigational formulas with bLf at 0.6 g/L (LF-0.6; n = 165) or 1.0 g/L (LF-1.0; n = 160) from 14-365 days of age. Investigational formulas also had a prebiotic blend of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and adjusted arachidonic acid (ARA). The primary outcome was weight growth rate from 14-120 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 275, and 365 days of age. Parental recall of formula intake, tolerance, and stool characteristics was collected at each time point. Medically-confirmed adverse events were collected throughout the study period. There were no group differences in growth rate (g/day) from 14-120 days of age; 353 infants completed the study through 365 days of age ( 110; LF-0.6: 127; LF-1.0: 116). Few differences in growth, formula intake, and infant fussiness or gassiness were observed through 365 day of age. Group discontinuation rates and the overall group incidence of medically-confirmed adverse events were not significantly different. From 30 through 180 days of age, group differences in stool consistency (P < 0.005) were detected with softer stools for infants in the LF-0.6 and LF-1.0 groups versus CONTROL. Compared to the Control, infants who received investigational formulas with bLf and the

  17. The N-Terminus of Human Lactoferrin Displays Anti-biofilm Activity on Candida parapsilosis in Lumen Catheters.

    PubMed

    Fais, Roberta; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Morici, Paola; Bottai, Daria; Tavanti, Arianna; Lupetti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a major cause of hospital-acquired infection, often related to parenteral nutrition administered via catheters and hand colonization of health care workers, and its peculiar biofilm formation ability on plastic surfaces. The mortality rate of 30% points to the pressing need for new antifungal drugs. The present study aimed at analyzing the inhibitory activity of the N-terminal lactoferrin-derived peptide, further referred to as hLF 1-11, against biofilms produced by clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis characterized for their biofilm forming ability and fluconazole susceptibility. hLF 1-11 anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass, metabolic activity, and observation of sessile cell morphology on polystyrene microtiter plates and using an in vitro model of catheter-associated C. parapsilosis biofilm production. Moreover, fluctuation in transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production upon peptide exposure were evaluated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that hLF 1-11 exhibits an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all the C. parapsilosis isolates tested, in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. In addition, hLF 1-11 induced a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction of preformed-biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity at high peptide concentrations only. Interestingly, when assessed in a catheter lumen, hLF 1-11 was able to induce a 2-log reduction of sessile cell viability at both the peptide concentrations used in RPMI diluted in NaPB. A more pronounced anti-biofilm effect was observed (3.5-log reduction) when a 10% glucose solution was used as experimental condition on both early and preformed C. parapsilosis biofilm. Quantitative real time RT-PCR experiments confirmed that hLF 1-11 down-regulates key biofilm related genes. The overall findings suggest hLF 1-11 as a

  18. The N-Terminus of Human Lactoferrin Displays Anti-biofilm Activity on Candida parapsilosis in Lumen Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Fais, Roberta; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Morici, Paola; Bottai, Daria; Tavanti, Arianna; Lupetti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a major cause of hospital-acquired infection, often related to parenteral nutrition administered via catheters and hand colonization of health care workers, and its peculiar biofilm formation ability on plastic surfaces. The mortality rate of 30% points to the pressing need for new antifungal drugs. The present study aimed at analyzing the inhibitory activity of the N-terminal lactoferrin-derived peptide, further referred to as hLF 1-11, against biofilms produced by clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis characterized for their biofilm forming ability and fluconazole susceptibility. hLF 1-11 anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass, metabolic activity, and observation of sessile cell morphology on polystyrene microtiter plates and using an in vitro model of catheter-associated C. parapsilosis biofilm production. Moreover, fluctuation in transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production upon peptide exposure were evaluated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that hLF 1-11 exhibits an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all the C. parapsilosis isolates tested, in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. In addition, hLF 1-11 induced a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction of preformed-biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity at high peptide concentrations only. Interestingly, when assessed in a catheter lumen, hLF 1-11 was able to induce a 2-log reduction of sessile cell viability at both the peptide concentrations used in RPMI diluted in NaPB. A more pronounced anti-biofilm effect was observed (3.5-log reduction) when a 10% glucose solution was used as experimental condition on both early and preformed C. parapsilosis biofilm. Quantitative real time RT-PCR experiments confirmed that hLF 1-11 down-regulates key biofilm related genes. The overall findings suggest hLF 1-11 as a

  19. Retinoids, retinoid analogs, and lactoferrin interact and differentially affect cell viability of 2 bovine mammary cell types in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Baumrucker, C R

    2010-07-01

    Two bovine mammary cell types (BME-UV1 and MeBo cells) were used to evaluate the effect of natural retinoids, retinoid analogs, and bovine lactoferrin (bLf) on cell viability in vitro. Experiments with Alamar Blue showed a linear relationship between fluorescence and cell viability index. The BME-UV1 cells exhibited twice the metabolic activity but required half the doubling time of the MeBo cells. The BME-UV1 cells were very sensitive to all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) inhibition of cell viability (P<0.05) and exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition with 9-cisRA (9cRA; P<0.05). The MeBo cells exhibited some inhibition with these natural ligands (P<0.05), but they were not as sensitive. The addition of bLf had similar inhibitory effects (P<0.05) on cell viability of the 2 mammary cell types. Applications of RA receptor (RAR) agonist indicated that the stimulation of the RAR in both mammary cell types was highly effective in inhibition of cell viability (P<0.05), whereas the application of an RAR antagonist stimulated MeBo cell viability (P<0.05) and inhibited BME-UV1 cell viability (P<0.05). Finally, the use of the RAR antagonist in conjunction with bLf indicated a rescue of the bLf effect in the MeBo cells, suggesting that bLf is acting through the RAR receptor. Conversely, bLf reverted inhibition of cell viability by 9cRA in the BME-UV1 cell type (P<0.05). We conclude that RAR interaction in bovine mammary cell types regulates cell viability in vitro; we hypothesize that the natural ligands mediate regulation of bovine mammary cell viability in vivo and that bLf can either enhance or reverse the retinoid-induced inhibition of cell viability, depending on the type of bovine mammary cell studied.

  20. [RS-1 enhanced the efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9 mediated knock-in of human lactoferrin].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjun; Guo, Rihong; Deng, Mingtian; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yanli

    2017-08-25

    This study aims to knock out the goat β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene using CRISPR-Cas9 system and knock in human lactoferrin (hLF) at the BLG locus, and further study the effect of RAD51 stimulatory compound (RS-1) on homologous recombination efficiency. First, we designed an sgRNA targeting the first exon of goat BLG gene and constructed a co-expression vector pCas9-sgBLG. This sgRNA vector was then transfected into goat ear fibroblasts (GEFs), and the target region was examined by T7EN1 assay and sequencing. Second, we constructed a targeting vector pBHA-hLF-NIE including NEO and EGFP genes based on BLG gene locus. This targeting vector together with pCas9-sgBLG expression vector was co-transfected into GEFs. Transfected cells were then treated with 0, 5, 10 and 20 μmol/L RS-1 for 72 h to analyse the EGFP expression efficiency. Next, we used 800 μg/mL G418 to screen G418-resistent cell clones, and studied hLF site-specific knock-in cell clones by PCR and sequencing. The editing efficiency of sgBLG was between 25% and 31%. The EGFP expression efficiency indicated that the gene knock-in efficiency was improved by RS-1 in a dose-dependent manner, which could reach 3.5-fold compared to the control group. The percentage of positive cells with hLF knock-in was increased to 32.61% when 10 μmol/L RS-1 was used. However, when the concentration of RS-1 increased to 20 μmol/L, the percentage of positive cells decreased to 22.22% and resulted in an increase of senescent cell clone number. These results suggested that hLF knock-in and BLG knock-out in GEFs were achieved by using CRISPR/Cas9 system, and optimum concentration of RS-1 could improve knock-in efficiency, which provides a reference for efficiently obtaining gene knock-in cells using CRISPR/Cas9 in the future.

  1. In vitro and in vivo anticandidal activities of alginate-enclosed chitosan–calcium phosphate-loaded Fe-bovine lactoferrin nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Khoo Miew; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Jothy, Subramanion L; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2018-01-01

    Aim: To study the in vitro and in vivo anticandidal activity of nanocapsulated bovine lactoferrin. Materials & methods: In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities were conducted to study the anticandidal activities of nanocapsules (NCs). Results: The NCs showed good anticandidal activities. The disruption of cell wall and cell membrane was noted via microscopy studies. The NCs changed the normal growth profile of Candida albicans. NCs reduced the colony forming unit in kidney and blood samples. Histopathological examination showed better cell structure and coordination compared with untreated mice kidney. NCs also enhanced the natural killing properties of C. albicans by epithelial cells. Conclusion: NCs have effective anticandidal properties and have the potential as a therapeutic agent against candidiasis. PMID:29379633

  2. Administration of oral and vaginal prebiotic lactoferrin for a woman with a refractory vaginitis recurring preterm delivery: appearance of lactobacillus in vaginal flora followed by term delivery.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Katsufumi; Tokunaka, Mayumi; Oba, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Shirato, Nahoko; Okai, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is one of the prebiotics present in the human body. A 38-year-old multiparous woman with poor obstetrical histories, three consecutive preterm premature rupture of membrane at the 19th, 23rd and 25th week of pregnancy, was referred to our hospital. She was diagnosed as having refractory vaginitis. Although estriol vaginal tablets were used for 4 months, the vaginitis was not cured. We administrated vaginal tablets and oral agents of prebiotic LF, resulting in a Lactobacillus predominant vaginal flora. When she was pregnant, she continued to use the LF, and the Lactobacillus in the vaginal flora was continuously observed during pregnancy. An elective cesarean section was performed at the 38th week of pregnancy. When the administration of LF was discontinued after the delivery, Lactobacillus in the vaginal flora was disappeared. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Combination of hypothiocyanite and lactoferrin (ALX-109) enhances the ability of tobramycin and aztreonam to eliminate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms growing on cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Moreau-Marquis, Sophie; Coutermarsh, Bonita; Stanton, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Chelating iron may be a promising new therapy to eliminate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we investigate whether ALX-109 [a defined combination of an investigational drug containing lactoferrin (an iron-binding glycoprotein) and hypothiocyanite (a bactericidal agent)], alone and in combination with tobramycin or aztreonam, reduces P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on human CF airway epithelial cells. P. aeruginosa (PAO1 and six clinical isolates of Pseudomonas) biofilms grown at the apical surface of confluent monolayers of CF airway epithelial cells were treated with ALX-109, either alone or in combination with tobramycin or aztreonam. Bacterial cfu remaining after treatment were determined by plate counting. ALX-109 alone reduced PAO1 biofilm formation, but had no effect on established biofilms. ALX-109 enhanced the ability of tobramycin and aztreonam to inhibit PAO1 biofilm formation and to reduce established PAO1 biofilms. ALX-109 and tobramycin were additive in disrupting established biofilms formed by six clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from the sputum of CF patients. Mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates were most susceptible to the combination of ALX-109 and tobramycin. In addition, ALX-109 also enhanced the ability of aztreonam to reduce established PAO1 biofilms. Inhalation therapy combining hypothiocyanite and lactoferrin with TOBI(®) (tobramycin) or Cayston(®) (aztreonam) may be beneficial to CF patients by decreasing the airway bacterial burden of P. aeruginosa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The proton permeability of self-assembled polymersomes and their neuroprotection by enhancing a neuroprotective peptide across the blood-brain barrier after modification with lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuan; Jiang, Xinguo; Gong, Shuyu; Feng, Liang; Zhong, Yanqiang; Pang, Zhiqing

    2014-03-21

    Biotherapeutics such as peptides possess strong potential for the treatment of intractable neurological disorders. However, because of their low stability and the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), biotherapeutics are difficult to transport into brain parenchyma via intravenous injection. Herein, we present a novel poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymersome-based nanomedicine with self-assembled bilayers, which was functionalized with lactoferrin (Lf-POS) to facilitate the transport of a neuroprotective peptide into the brain. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D*) of H(+) through the polymersome membrane was 5.659 × 10(-26) cm(2) s(-1), while that of liposomes was 1.017 × 10(-24) cm(2) s(-1). The stability of the polymersome membrane was much higher than that of liposomes. The uptake of polymersomes by mouse brain capillary endothelial cells proved that the optimal density of lactoferrin was 101 molecules per polymersome. Fluorescence imaging indicated that Lf101-POS was effectively transferred into the brain. In pharmacokinetics, compared with transferrin-modified polymersomes and cationic bovine serum albumin-modified polymersomes, Lf-POS obtained the greatest BBB permeability surface area and percentage of injected dose per gram (%ID per g). Furthermore, Lf-POS holding S14G-humanin protected against learning and memory impairment induced by amyloid-β25-35 in rats. Western blotting revealed that the nanomedicine provided neuroprotection against over-expression of apoptotic proteins exhibiting neurofibrillary tangle pathology in neurons. The results indicated that polymersomes can be exploited as a promising non-invasive nanomedicine capable of mediating peptide therapeutic delivery and controlling the release of drugs to the central nervous system.

  5. Biodegradable Eri silk nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for bovine lactoferrin against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kislay; Patel, Yogesh S; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Xungai; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Eri silk nanoparticles (NPs) for delivering apo-bovine lactoferrin (Apo-bLf) (~2% iron saturated) and Fe-bLf (100% iron saturated) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Apo-bLf and Fe-bLf-loaded Eri silk NPs with sizes between 200 and 300 nm (±10 nm) showed a significant internalization within 4 hours in MDA-MB-231 cells when compared to MCF-7 cells. The ex vivo loop assay with chitosan-coated Fe-bLf-loaded silk NPs was able to substantiate its future use in oral administration and showed the maximum absorption within 24 hours by ileum. Both Apo-bLf and Fe-bLf induced increase in expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and lactoferrin receptor in epidermal growth factor (EGFR)-positive MDA-MB-231 cells, while transferrin receptor (TfR) and TfR2 in MCF-7 cells facilitated the receptor-mediated endocytosis of NPs. Controlled and sustained release of both bLf from silk NPs was shown to induce more cancer-specific cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells compared to normal MCF-10A cells. Due to higher degree of internalization, the extent of cytotoxicity and apoptosis was significantly higher in MDA-MB-231 (EGFR+) cells when compared to MCF-7 (EGFR−) cells. The expression of a prominent anticancer target, survivin, was found to be downregulated at both gene and protein levels. Taken together, all the observations suggest the potential use of Eri silk NPs as a delivery vehicle for an anti-cancer milk protein, and indicate bLf for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26730188

  6. The proton permeability of self-assembled polymersomes and their neuroprotection by enhancing a neuroprotective peptide across the blood-brain barrier after modification with lactoferrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuan; Jiang, Xinguo; Gong, Shuyu; Feng, Liang; Zhong, Yanqiang; Pang, Zhiqing

    2014-02-01

    Biotherapeutics such as peptides possess strong potential for the treatment of intractable neurological disorders. However, because of their low stability and the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), biotherapeutics are difficult to transport into brain parenchyma via intravenous injection. Herein, we present a novel poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymersome-based nanomedicine with self-assembled bilayers, which was functionalized with lactoferrin (Lf-POS) to facilitate the transport of a neuroprotective peptide into the brain. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D*) of H+ through the polymersome membrane was 5.659 × 10-26 cm2 s-1, while that of liposomes was 1.017 × 10-24 cm2 s-1. The stability of the polymersome membrane was much higher than that of liposomes. The uptake of polymersomes by mouse brain capillary endothelial cells proved that the optimal density of lactoferrin was 101 molecules per polymersome. Fluorescence imaging indicated that Lf101-POS was effectively transferred into the brain. In pharmacokinetics, compared with transferrin-modified polymersomes and cationic bovine serum albumin-modified polymersomes, Lf-POS obtained the greatest BBB permeability surface area and percentage of injected dose per gram (%ID per g). Furthermore, Lf-POS holding S14G-humanin protected against learning and memory impairment induced by amyloid-β25-35 in rats. Western blotting revealed that the nanomedicine provided neuroprotection against over-expression of apoptotic proteins exhibiting neurofibrillary tangle pathology in neurons. The results indicated that polymersomes can be exploited as a promising non-invasive nanomedicine capable of mediating peptide therapeutic delivery and controlling the release of drugs to the central nervous system.

  7. Is there any association between secretory IgA and lactoferrin concentration in mature human milk and food allergy in breastfed children.

    PubMed

    Hogendorf, Anna; Stańczyk-Przyłuska, Anna; Sieniwicz-Luzeńczyk, Katarzyna; Wiszniewska, Magdalena; Arendarczyk, Jerzy; Banasik, Małgorzata; Fendler, Wojciech; Kowalski, Marek; Zeman, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended as a protective method against the development of allergy. However, some studies have reported an increased risk of allergies development in breastfed infants of atopic mothers, which implies that atopic mothers may have an altered composition of breast milk. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) and lactoferrin in human mature milk and to evaluate the association between the levels of these proteins in breast milk with food allergy in children, depending on the allergy status of the breastfeeding mother. Medical data was collected from birth to 24 months of age from 84 mother-child pairs participating in an EU-funded project "EuroPrevall - The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe". The diagnosis of food allergy in children was based on the positive result of a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). S-IgA and lactoferrin levels were measured in the whey of mature breast milk with commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Statistical analysis (the U Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests as well as the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) was performed using STATISTICA 8.0 PL (Statsoft, Tulsa, USA). Ten out of eighty four participating children had positive skin prick tests (SPT) and/or sIgE to food antigens and in 7 (8.4%) DBPCFC confirmed food allergy. the median concentration of S-IgA was 476,83 μg/ml (range 6.51-1359.61 μg/ml). the median concentration of Lf was 15.68 μg/ml (range 11.68-36.43 μg/ml). The concentrations of S-IgA and Lf showed a moderate, negative, correlation R=-0.28; p=0.05. Mature breast milk of mothers of children with food allergy and of healthy children showed similar concentrations of both proteins. The level of S-IgA in the mature milk of mothers with atopic allergy was significantly lower, compared to non-atopic mothers. More studies are needed to reveal the mystery of the lack of protective

  8. Renoprotective Effect of Lactoferrin against Chromium-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats: Involvement of IL-18 and IGF-1 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Rehab; Salama, Abeer; Mansour, Dina; Hassan, Azza

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal widely used in more than 50 industries. Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of chromium poisoning. The present study investigated the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin (Lf) against potassium dichromate (PDC)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. Beside, because previous studies suggest that interlukin-18 (IL-18) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play important roles in promoting kidney damage, the present work aimed to evaluate the involvement of these two cytokines in PDC model of AKI and in the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin. Adult male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with Lf (200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.); the doses that are usually used in the experiment studies, for 14 days followed by a single dose of PDC (15 mg/kg, s.c.). PDC caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, and total protein levels. This was accompanied with decreased renal glutathione content, and increased renal malondialdehyde, IL-18, IL-4, nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), IGF-1, and the phosphorylated form of forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) levels. Moreover, normal expression IFN-γ mRNA and enhanced expression of TNF-α mRNA was demonstrated in renal tissues. Histopathological investigations provoked deleterious changes in the renal tissues. Tubular epithelial hyperplasia and apoptosis were demonstrated immunohistochemically by positive proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, and Caspase-3 expression, respectively. Pretreatment of rats with Lf in both doses significantly corrected all previously mentioned PDC-induced changes with no significant difference between both doses. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, tubular hyperplasia and apoptosis in PDC-induced AKI. It suggested a role of IL-18 through stimulation of IL-4-induced inflammatory pathway, and IGF-1 through triggering Fox

  9. Self-assembled amphiphilic zein-lactoferrin micelles for tumor targeted co-delivery of rapamycin and wogonin to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Sally A; Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Sheweita, Salah A; Haroun, Medhat; Helmy, Maged W; Eldemellawy, Maha A; Xia, Ying; Goodale, David; Allan, Alison L; Rohani, Sohrab

    2018-07-01

    Protein-based micelles have shown significant potential for tumor-targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs. In this light, self-assembled nanocarriers based on GRAS (Generally recognized as safe) amphiphilic protein co-polymers were synthesized via carbodiimide coupling reaction. The new nano-platform is composed of the following key components: (i) hydrophobic zein core to encapsulate the hydrophobic drugs rapamycin (RAP) and wogonin (WOG) with high encapsulation efficiency, (ii) hydrophilic lactoferrin (Lf) corona to enhance the tumor targeting, and prolong systemic circulation of the nanocarriers, and (iii) glutaraldehyde (GLA)-crosslinking to reduce the particle size and improve micellar stability. Zein-Lf micelles showed relatively rapid release of WOG followed by slower diffusion of RAP from zein core. This sequential release may aid in efflux pump inhibition by WOG thus sensitizing tumor cells to RAP action. Interestingly, these micelles showed good hemocompatibility as well as enhanced serum stability owing to the brush-like architecture of Lf shell. Moreover, this combined nano-delivery system maximized synergistic cytotoxicity of RAP and WOG in terms of tumor inhibition in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and Ehrlich ascites tumor animal model as a result of enhanced active targeting. Collectively, GLA-crosslinked zein-Lf micelles hold great promise for combined RAP/WOG delivery to breast cancer with reduced drug dose, minimized side effects and maximized anti-tumor efficacy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  11. Targeting delivery of etoposide to inhibit the growth of human glioblastoma multiforme using lactoferrin- and folic acid-grafted poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2015-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) and folic acid (FA) were crosslinked on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for transporting etoposide across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and treating human brain malignant glioblastoma. Lf- and FA-grafted PLGA NPs (Lf/FA/PLGA NPs) were employed to permeate the monolayer of human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) regulated by human astrocytes and to inhibit the multiplication of U87MG cells. Lf/FA/PLGA NPs showed a satisfactory entrapment efficiency of etoposide and characteristics of sustained drug release. When compared with PLGA NPs, the permeability coefficient for etoposide across the BBB using Lf/FA/PLGA NPs increased about twofold. The antiproliferative efficacy against the growth of U87MG cells was in the following order: Lf/FA/PLGA NPs>FA/PLGA NPs>PLGA NPs>free etoposide solution. In addition, the targeting ability of Lf/FA/PLGA NPs was evidenced by immunostaining of Lf receptor on HBMECs and folate receptor on U87MG cells during endocytosis. Lf/FA/PLGA NPs with loaded etoposide can be a promising anticancer pharmacotherapy to enhance the delivery of etoposide to malignant brain tumors for preclinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Variability of lysozyme and lactoferrin bioactive protein concentrations in equine milk in relation to LYZ and LTF gene polymorphisms and expression.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Jakub; Wodas, Lukasz; Borowska, Alicja; Sadoch, Jan; Pawlak, Piotr; Puppel, Kamila; Kuczynska, Beata; Mackowski, Mariusz

    2017-05-01

    Equine milk is considered to be an interesting product for human nutrition, mainly owing to its low allergenicity and significant amounts of bioactive proteins, including lysozyme (LYZ) and lactoferrin (LTF). The present study assessed the effect of genetic factors on LYZ and LTF concentration variability in mare's milk. Significant effects of horse breed and lactation stage on milk LYZ and LTF contents were observed. The highest level of LTF and the lowest concentration of LYZ were recorded for the Polish Warmblood Horse breed. The highest amounts of both proteins were found for the earliest investigated time point of lactation (5th week). Altogether 13 (nine novel) polymorphisms were found in the 5'-flanking regions of both genes, but they showed no significant relationship with milk LYZ and LTF contents. Several associations were found between selected SNPs and the LYZ gene relative transcript level. While the present study indicated the existence of intra- and interbreed variability of LYZ and LTF contents in mare's milk, this variation is rather unrelated to the 5'-flanking variants of genes encoding both proteins. This study is a good introduction for broader investigations focused on the genetic background for variability of bioactive protein contents in mare's milk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. On the molecular interaction between lactoferrin and the dye Red HE-3B. A novel approach for docking a charged and highly flexible molecule to protein surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasselli, Mariano; Cascone, Osvaldo; Anspach, F. Birger; Delfino, Jose M.

    2002-12-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is a non-heme, iron binding protein present in many physiological fluids of vertebrates where its main role is the microbicidal activity. It has been isolated by different methods, including dye-affinity chromatography. Red HE-3B is one of the most common triazinic dyes applied in protein purification, but scant knowledge is available on structural details and on the energetics of its interaction with proteins. In this work we present a computational approach useful for identifying possible binding sites for Red HE-3B in apo and holo forms of Lfs from human and bovine source. A new geometrical description of Red HE-3B is introduced which greatly simplifies the conformational analysis. This approach proved to be of particular advantage for addressing conformational ensembles of highly flexible molecules. Predictions from this analysis were correlated with experimentally observed dye-binding sites, as mapped by protection from proteolysis in Red HE-3B/Lf complexes. This method could bear relevance for the screening of possible dye-binding sites in proteins whose structure is known and as a potential tool for the design of engineered protein variants which could be purified by dye-affinity chromatography.

  14. On the molecular interaction between lactoferrin and the dye Red HE-3b. A novel approach for docking a charged and highly flexible molecule to protein surfaces.

    PubMed

    Grasselli, Mariano; Cascone, Osvaldo; Birger Anspach, F; Delfino, Jose M

    2002-12-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is a non-heme, iron binding protein present in many physiological fluids of vertebrates where its main role is the microbicidal activity. It has been isolated by different methods, including dye-affinity chromatography. Red HE-3B is one of the most common triazinic dyes applied in protein purification, but scant knowledge is available on structural details and on the energetics of its interaction with proteins. In this work we present a computational approach useful for identifying possible binding sites for Red HE-3B in apo and holo forms of Lfs from human and bovine source. A new geometrical description of Red HE-3B is introduced which greatly simplifies the conformational analysis. This approach proved to be of particular advantage for addressing conformational ensembles of highly flexible molecules. Predictions from this analysis were correlated with experimentally observed dye-binding sites, as mapped by protection from proteolysis in Red HE-3B/Lf complexes. This method could bear relevance for the screening of possible dye-binding sites in proteins whose structure is known and as a potential tool for the design of engineered protein variants which could be purified by dye-affinity chromatography.

  15. Protection of SK-N-MC cells against β-amyloid peptide-induced degeneration using neuron growth factor-loaded liposomes with surface lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Wang, Cheng-Ting

    2014-07-01

    A liposomal system with surface lactoferrin (Lf) was developed for delivering neuron growth factor (NGF) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and improving the viability of neuron-like SK-N-MC cells with deposited β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). The Lf-grafted liposomes carrying NGF (Lf/NGF-liposomes) were applied to a monolayer of human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) regulated by human astrocytes (HAs) and to fibrillar Aβ1-42-insulted SK-N-MC cells. An increase in cholesterol mole percentage enhanced the particle size, absolute value of zeta potential, and physical stability, however, reduced the entrapment efficiency and release rate of NGF. In addition, an increase in Lf concentration increased the particle size, surface nitrogen percentage, NGF permeability across the BBB, and viability of HBMECs, HAs, and SK-N-MC cells, however, decreased the absolute value of zeta potential, surface phosphorus percentage, and loading efficiency of Lf. After treating with Lf/NGF-liposomes, a higher Aβ concentration yielded a lower survival of SK-N-MC cells. The current Lf/NGF-liposomes are efficacious drug carriers to target the BBB and inhibit the Aβ-induced neurotoxicity as potential pharmacotherapy for Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene targeting by TALEN-induced homologous recombination in goats directs production of β-lactoglobulin-free, high-human lactoferrin milk

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chenchen; Song, Yujie; Liu, Jun; Ge, Hengtao; Li, Qian; Huang, Hui; Hu, Linyong; Zhu, Hongmei; Jin, Yaping; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) is a major goat’s milk allergen that is absent in human milk. Engineered endonucleases, including transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and zinc-finger nucleases, enable targeted genetic modification in livestock. In this study, TALEN-mediated gene knockout followed by gene knock-in were used to generate BLG knockout goats as mammary gland bioreactors for large-scale production of human lactoferrin (hLF). We introduced precise genetic modifications in the goat genome at frequencies of approximately 13.6% and 6.09% for the first and second sequential targeting, respectively, by using targeting vectors that underwent TALEN-induced homologous recombination (HR). Analysis of milk from the cloned goats revealed large-scale hLF expression or/and decreased BLG levels in milk from heterozygous goats as well as the absence of BLG in milk from homozygous goats. Furthermore, the TALEN-mediated targeting events in somatic cells can be transmitted through the germline after SCNT. Our result suggests that gene targeting via TALEN-induced HR may expedite the production of genetically engineered livestock for agriculture and biomedicine. PMID:25994151

  17. Gene targeting by TALEN-induced homologous recombination in goats directs production of β-lactoglobulin-free, high-human lactoferrin milk.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chenchen; Song, Yujie; Liu, Jun; Ge, Hengtao; Li, Qian; Huang, Hui; Hu, Linyong; Zhu, Hongmei; Jin, Yaping; Zhang, Yong

    2015-05-21

    β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) is a major goat's milk allergen that is absent in human milk. Engineered endonucleases, including transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and zinc-finger nucleases, enable targeted genetic modification in livestock. In this study, TALEN-mediated gene knockout followed by gene knock-in were used to generate BLG knockout goats as mammary gland bioreactors for large-scale production of human lactoferrin (hLF). We introduced precise genetic modifications in the goat genome at frequencies of approximately 13.6% and 6.09% for the first and second sequential targeting, respectively, by using targeting vectors that underwent TALEN-induced homologous recombination (HR). Analysis of milk from the cloned goats revealed large-scale hLF expression or/and decreased BLG levels in milk from heterozygous goats as well as the absence of BLG in milk from homozygous goats. Furthermore, the TALEN-mediated targeting events in somatic cells can be transmitted through the germline after SCNT. Our result suggests that gene targeting via TALEN-induced HR may expedite the production of genetically engineered livestock for agriculture and biomedicine.

  18. Competitive and double antibody sandwich ELISA for the quantification of lactoferrins by using monoclonal and chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Hoon; Gujral, Naiyana; Suresh, Mavanur

    2011-01-01

    Two effective competitive and double antibody sandwich ELISA based on monoclonal (MAb) and chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies were developed to determine lactoferrin (LF) content in infant and milk formulas. Leghorn laying hens were immunized with purified bovine and human LFs to produce anti-bovine LF and anti-human LF IgY antibody in the egg yolk. After 5-8 weeks of the immunization, anti-LF IgY was extracted and analyzed by ELISA. Specific IgY antibodies against LFs cross reacted with human and bovine LFs, examined by ELISA and western-blot assay. Such cross-reactivity suggested the presence of common antigenic determinants between human and bovine LFs. An indirect competitive ELISA was preferred to quantify LF in milk and infant formulas, since the range of detection is 3.125-50 μg/mL, which is broader compared to the biotinylated ELISA system (5-50 ng/mL). As per the indirect competitive ELISA system, IgY at a concentration of the 150 μg/mL was incubated with various concentrations of bovine LF ranged from 0.003-100 μg/mL. The immunoassay was used to estimate the total bovine LF content in the milk samples and infant formulas, ranging from 49.28-80.96 μg/mL and 29.92-60.00 μg/mL, respectively.

  19. Influence of calcium-induced droplet heteroaggregation on the physicochemical properties of oppositely charged lactoferrin coated lutein droplets and whey protein isolate-coated DHA droplets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Xu; Xu, Duoxia; Cao, Yanping; Wang, Shaojia; Wang, Bei; Wang, Chengtao; Sun, Baoguo

    2017-08-01

    The influence of calcium-induced droplet heteroaggregation on the formation and physicochemical stability of mixed lutein and DHA emulsions was studied. Heteroaggregation was induced by mixing oppositely charged lactoferrin (LF)-coated lutein and whey protein isolate (WPI)-coated DHA emulsions with different CaCl 2 concentrations at pH 6.0. The droplet size, zeta-potential, transmission-physical stability and microstructure behavior (CLSM and Cryo-SEM) of single-protein emulsions and mixed emulsions were measured as a function of different CaCl 2 concentrations. Lutein degradation and DHA oxidation by measurement of lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were determined during storage. The physical stability of the mixed emulsions could be modulated by controlling CaCl 2 concentrations. Microstructure behavior indicated that a mixed emulsion with 30 mM CaCl 2 promoted more droplets to form a special three-dimensional network and microcluster structures. The chemical stability of the mixed lutein and DHA emulsions was obviously enhanced by the addition of 30 mM CaCl 2 . The decreased surface areas of the DHA and lutein droplets and the physical barrier of the network of heteroaggregates against transition metals and free radicals could mainly explain the improvement in chemical stability. Calcium-induced droplet aggregation may be useful for creating specific food structures that lead to desirable physicochemical properties of multiple functional components.

  20. Dual-Targeting Lactoferrin-Conjugated Polymerized Magnetic Polydiacetylene-Assembled Nanocarriers with Self-Responsive Fluorescence/Magnetic Resonance Imaging for In Vivo Brain Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jen-Hung; Chiu, Tsung-Lang; Huang, Wei-Chen; Lai, Yen-Ho; Hu, Shang-Hsiu; Chen, You-Yin; Chen, San-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Maintaining a high concentration of therapeutic agents in the brain is difficult due to the restrictions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and rapid removal from blood circulation. To enable controlled drug release and enhance the blood-brain barrier (BBB)-crossing efficiency for brain tumor therapy, a new dual-targeting magnetic polydiacetylene nanocarriers (PDNCs) delivery system modified with lactoferrin (Lf) is developed. The PDNCs are synthesized using the ultraviolet (UV) cross-linkable 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) monomers through spontaneous assembling onto the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles to form micelles-polymerized structures. The results demonstrate that PDNCs will reduce the drug leakage and further control the drug release, and display self-responsive fluorescence upon intracellular uptake for cell trafficking and imaging-guided tumor treatment. The magnetic Lf-modified PDNCs with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-targeting ability can enhance the transportation of the PDNCs across the BBB for tracking and targeting gliomas. An enhanced therapeutic efficiency can be obtained using Lf-Cur (Curcumin)-PDNCs by improving the retention time of the encapsulated Cur and producing fourfold higher Cur amounts in the brain compared to free Cur. Animal studies also confirm that Lf targeting and controlled release act synergistically to significantly suppress tumors in orthotopic brain-bearing rats. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Serum disposition of bovine lactoferrin after oral and anal administration and its proteolytic cleavage by gastric transit in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.).

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Stefano; Caputo, Anna R

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown an immunomodulatory effect of orally administered bovine lactoferrin (LF) in fish, but the process of digestion was not characterized. In the present study, we investigated the fate of bovine LF after oral and anal administration, and studied the appearance of intact LF in the bloodstream and its proteolytic attack during the gastric transit in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) held at 9 degrees C and 18 degrees C. Data obtained showed the presence of intact bovine LF in the bloodstream only after anal administration in fish held at 18 degrees C and the presence of several peptides derived from bovine LF in the gastric content. Immunoblotting analysis showed that only a part of bovine LF-derived peptides reacted with the applied anti-bovine LF antibody. The concentration of intact bovine LF, after 30 min of administration, in the gastric content of fish reared at 18 degrees C, being extremely low, if any, led us to suspect that the immunoregulatory effect of dietary bovine LF shown in fish by several authors is not due to the intact form but to bioactive fragments, originated by the proteolytic attack during the gastric transit, as demonstrated in higher vertebrates.

  2. Lactoferrin-modified rotigotine nanoparticles for enhanced nose-to-brain delivery: LESA-MS/MS-based drug biodistribution, pharmacodynamics, and neuroprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiuju; Xu, Lixiao; Bi, Chenchen; Duan, Dongyu; Chu, Liuxiang; Yu, Xin; Wu, Zimei; Wang, Aiping; Sun, Kaoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Efficient delivery of rotigotine into the brain is crucial for obtaining maximum therapeutic efficacy for Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, in the present study, we prepared lactoferrin-modified rotigotine nanoparticles (Lf-R-NPs) and studied their biodistribution, pharmacodynamics, and neuroprotective effects following nose-to-brain delivery in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine model of PD. The biodistribution of rotigotine nanoparticles (R-NPs) and Lf-R-NPs after intranasal administration was assessed by liquid extraction surface analysis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Contralateral rotations were quantified to evaluate pharmacodynamics. Tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter immunohistochemistry were performed to compare the neuroprotective effects of levodopa, R-NPs, and Lf-R-NPs. Liquid extraction surface analysis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis, used to examine rotigotine biodistribution, showed that Lf-R-NPs more efficiently supplied rotigotine to the brain (with a greater sustained amount of the drug delivered to this organ, and with more effective targeting to the striatum) than R-NPs. The pharmacodynamic study revealed a significant difference ( P <0.05) in contralateral rotations between rats treated with Lf-R-NPs and those treated with R-NPs. Furthermore, Lf-R-NPs significantly alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the rat model of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PD. Our findings show that Lf-R-NPs deliver rotigotine more efficiently to the brain, thereby enhancing efficacy. Therefore, Lf-R-NPs might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of PD.

  3. Integrin alpha 10, CD44, PTEN, cadherin-11 and lactoferrin expressions are potential biomarkers for selecting patients in need of central nervous system prophylaxis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lemma, Siria A; Kuusisto, Milla; Haapasaari, Kirsi-Maria; Sormunen, Raija; Lehtinen, Tuula; Klaavuniemi, Tuula; Eray, Mine; Jantunen, Esa; Soini, Ylermi; Vasala, Kaija; Böhm, Jan; Salokorpi, Niina; Koivunen, Petri; Karihtala, Peeter; Vuoristo, Jussi; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Kuittinen, Outi

    2017-08-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) relapse is a devastating complication that occurs in about 5% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Currently, there are no predictive biological markers. We wanted to study potential biomarkers of CNS tropism that play a role in adhesion, migration and/or in the regulation of inflammatory responses. The expression levels of ITGA10, CD44, PTEN, cadherin-11, CDH12, N-cadherin, P-cadherin, lactoferrin and E-cadherin were studied with IHC and IEM. GEP was performed to see whether found expressional changes are regulated at DNA/RNA level. IHC included 96 samples of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), secondary CNS lymphoma (sCNSL) and systemic DLBCL (sDLBCL). IEM included two PCNSL, one sCNSL, one sDLBCL and one reactive lymph node samples. GEP was performed on two DLBCL samples, one with and one without CNS relapse. CNS disease was associated with enhanced expression of cytoplasmic and membranous ITGA10 and nuclear PTEN (P < 0.0005, P = 0.002, P = 0.024, respectively). sCNSL presented decreased membranous CD44 and nuclear and cytoplasmic cadherin-11 expressions (P = 0.001, P = 0.006, P = 0.048, respectively). In PCNSL lactoferrin expression was upregulated (P < 0.0005). IEM results were mainly supportive of the IHC results. In GEP CD44, cadherin-11, lactoferrin and E-cadherin were under-expressed in CNS disease. Our results are in line with previous studies, where gene expressions in extracellular matrix and adhesion-related pathways are altered in CNS lymphoma. This study gives new information on the DLBCL CNS tropism. If further verified, these markers might become useful in predicting CNS relapses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Integrin alpha 10, CD44, PTEN, cadherin-11 and lactoferrin expressions are potential biomarkers for selecting patients in need of central nervous system prophylaxis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lemma, Siria A; Kuusisto, Milla; Haapasaari, Kirsi-Maria; Sormunen, Raija; Lehtinen, Tuula; Klaavuniemi, Tuula; Eray, Mine; Jantunen, Esa; Soini, Ylermi; Vasala, Kaija; Böhm, Jan; Salokorpi, Niina; Koivunen, Petri; Karihtala, Peeter; Vuoristo, Jussi; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Kuittinen, Outi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Central nervous system (CNS) relapse is a devastating complication that occurs in about 5% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Currently, there are no predictive biological markers. We wanted to study potential biomarkers of CNS tropism that play a role in adhesion, migration and/or in the regulation of inflammatory responses. The expression levels of ITGA10, CD44, PTEN, cadherin-11, CDH12, N-cadherin, P-cadherin, lactoferrin and E-cadherin were studied with IHC and IEM. GEP was performed to see whether found expressional changes are regulated at DNA/RNA level. IHC included 96 samples of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), secondary CNS lymphoma (sCNSL) and systemic DLBCL (sDLBCL). IEM included two PCNSL, one sCNSL, one sDLBCL and one reactive lymph node samples. GEP was performed on two DLBCL samples, one with and one without CNS relapse. CNS disease was associated with enhanced expression of cytoplasmic and membranous ITGA10 and nuclear PTEN (P < 0.0005, P = 0.002, P = 0.024, respectively). sCNSL presented decreased membranous CD44 and nuclear and cytoplasmic cadherin-11 expressions (P = 0.001, P = 0.006, P = 0.048, respectively). In PCNSL lactoferrin expression was upregulated (P < 0.0005). IEM results were mainly supportive of the IHC results. In GEP CD44, cadherin-11, lactoferrin and E-cadherin were under-expressed in CNS disease. Our results are in line with previous studies, where gene expressions in extracellular matrix and adhesion-related pathways are altered in CNS lymphoma. This study gives new information on the DLBCL CNS tropism. If further verified, these markers might become useful in predicting CNS relapses. PMID:28854563

  5. Enhancing physicochemical properties of emulsions by heteroaggregation of oppositely charged lactoferrin coated lutein droplets and whey protein isolate coated DHA droplets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Xu; Xu, Duoxia; Cao, Yanping; Wang, Shaojia; Wang, Bei; Sun, Baoguo; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2018-01-15

    The formation and physicochemical stability of mixed functional components (lutein & DHA) emulsions through heteroaggregation were studied. It was formed by controlled heteroaggregation of oppositely charged lutein and DHA droplets coated by cationic lactoferrin (LF) and anionic whey protein isolate (WPI), respectively. Heteroaggregation was induced by mixing the oppositely charged LF-lutein and WPI-DHA emulsions together at pH 6.0. Droplet size, zeta-potential, transmission-physical stability, microrheological behavior and microstructure of the heteroaggregates formed were measured as a function of LF-lutein to WPI-DHA droplet ratio. Lutein degradation and DHA oxidation by measurement of lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were determined. Upon mixing the two types of bioactive compounds droplets together, it was found that the largest aggregates and highest physical stability occurred at a droplet ratio of 40% LF-lutein droplets to 60% WPI-DHA droplets. Heteroaggregates formation altered the microrheological properties of the mixed emulsions mainly by the special network structure of the droplets. When LF-coated lutein droplets ratios were more than 30% and less than 60%, the mixed emulsions exhibited distinct decreases in the Mean Square Displacement, which indicated that their limited scope of Brownian motion and stable structure. Mixed emulsions with LF-lutein/WPI-DHA droplets ratio of 4:6 exhibited Macroscopic Viscosity Index with 13 times and Elasticity Index with 3 times of magnitudes higher than the individual emulsions from which they were prepared. Compared with the WPI-DHA emulsion or LF-lutein emulsion, the oxidative stability of the heteroaggregate of LF-lutein/WPI-DHA emulsions was improved. Heteroaggregates formed by oppositely charged bioactive compounds droplets may be useful for creating specific food structures that lead to desirable physicochemical properties, such as microrheological property, physical and chemical

  6. Safety and efficacy of lactoferrin versus ferrous sulphate in curing iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in hereditary thrombophilia pregnant women: an interventional study.

    PubMed

    Paesano, Rosalba; Pacifici, Enrica; Benedetti, Samanta; Berlutti, Francesca; Frioni, Alessandra; Polimeni, Antonella; Valenti, Piera

    2014-10-01

    Objective Evaluate the safety and efficacy of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) versus the ferrous sulphate standard intervention in curing iron deficiency (ID) and ID anaemia (IDA) in pregnant women affected by hereditary thrombophilia (HT). Design Interventional study. Setting Secondary-level hospital for complicated pregnancies in Rome, Italy. Population 295 HT pregnant women (≥18 years) suffering from ID/IDA. Methods Women were enrolled in Arm A or B in accordance with their personal choice. In Arm A, 156 women received oral administration of 100 mg of bLf twice a day; in Arm B, 139 women received 520 mg of ferrous sulphate once a day. Therapies lasted until delivery. Main outcome measures Red blood cells, haemoglobin, total serum iron, serum ferritin (haematological parameters) were assayed before and every 30 days during therapy until delivery. Serum IL-6, key factor in inflammatory and iron homeostasis disorders, was detected at enrolment and after therapy at delivery. Possible maternal, foetal, and neonatal adverse effects were assessed. Results Haematological parameters were significantly higher in Arm A than in Arm B pregnant women (P ≤ 0.0001). Serum IL-6 significantly decreased in bLf-treated women and increased in ferrous sulphate-treated women. BLf did not exert any adverse effect. Adverse effects in 16.5 % of ferrous sulphate-treated women were recorded. Arm A women experienced no miscarriage compared to five miscarriages in Arm B women. Conclusions Differently from ferrous sulphate, bLf is safe and effective in curing ID/IDA associated with a consistent decrease of serum IL-6. The absence of miscarriage among bLf-treated women provided an unexpected benefit. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01221844.

  7. Synergistic activity of synthetic N-terminal peptide of human lactoferrin in combination with various antibiotics against carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains.

    PubMed

    Morici, P; Florio, W; Rizzato, C; Ghelardi, E; Tavanti, A; Rossolini, G M; Lupetti, A

    2017-10-01

    The spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing carbapenemases points to a pressing need for new antibacterial agents. To this end, the in-vitro antibacterial activity of a synthetic N-terminal peptide of human lactoferrin, further referred to as hLF1-11, was evaluated against K. pneumoniae strains harboring different carbapenemase genes (i.e. OXA-48, KPC-2, KPC-3, VIM-1), with different susceptibility to colistin and other antibiotics, alone or in combination with conventional antibiotics (gentamicin, tigecycline, rifampicin, clindamycin, and clarithromycin). An antimicrobial peptide susceptibility assay was used to assess the bactericidal activity of hLF1-11 against the different K. pneumoniae strains tested. The synergistic activity was evaluated by a checkerboard titration method, and the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index was calculated for the various combinations. hLF1-11 was more efficient in killing a K. pneumoniae strain susceptible to most antimicrobials (including colistin) than a colistin-susceptible strain and a colistin-resistant MDR K. pneumoniae strain. In addition, hLF1-11 exhibited a synergistic effect with the tested antibiotics against MDR K. pneumoniae strains. The results of this study indicate that resistance to hLF1-11 and colistin are not strictly associated, and suggest an hLF1-11-induced sensitizing effect of K. pneumoniae to antibiotics, especially to hydrophobic antibiotics, which are normally not effective on Gram-negative bacteria. Altogether, these data indicate that hLF1-11 in combination with antibiotics is a promising candidate to treat infections caused by MDR-K. pneumoniae strains.

  8. The clinical efficacy of a bovine lactoferrin/whey protein Ig-rich fraction (Lf/IgF) for the common cold: a double blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Coulson, Samantha; Beck, Shoshannah L; Gramotnev, Helen; Du, Sharon; Lewis, Sophie

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a bovine lactoferrin/whey protein Ig-rich fraction (Lf/IgF) combination was effective in reducing the number of colds and in turn improving symptom recovery in a cohort of males and females that reported frequently contracting a cold. A double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. One-hundred and twenty-six participants matched by age, BMI, dietary and physical parameters with self-reported frequent upper respiratory tract symptoms and infections were randomly assigned to receive 600 mg of Lf/IgF or a placebo daily for 90 days. A total of 90 participants (47 receiving the active and 43 placebo) completed the 90 day trial and 15 completed 45 days participation (6 in the active and 9 in the placebo group). The total number of colds recorded over the study period was 48 for the treatment group versus 112 for the placebo group (p < 0.001). The significant trend was retained when the data was corrected for medications returned (p < 0.001) and for guessing treatment allocations (p < 0.001). Non-parametric analysis demonstrated that the total number of cold-associated symptoms reported by participants that received Lf/IgF was significantly less than those in the placebo group (p < 0.05). Also, total days sick with a cold and cold severity were reduced over the clinical trial period for Lf/IgF over placebo, but the trend was not significant. These findings demonstrate that the Lf/IgF combination significantly decreased the incidence of colds and the cumulative number of cold-related symptoms over placebo. This therapeutic combination may be indicated for the prevention of colds and its most common symptoms in the general population when administered as a preventative supplement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of Hyphal Growth of Azole-Resistant Strains of Candida albicans by Triazole Antifungal Agents in the Presence of Lactoferrin-Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Shigeru; Teraguchi, Susumu; Hayasawa, Hirotoshi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    1998-01-01

    The effects of bovine lactoferrin (LF) or the LF-derived antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B) on the growth of Candida albicans hyphae, including those of three azole-resistant strains, were investigated by a crystal violet staining method. The hyphae of two highly azole-resistant strains were more susceptible to inhibition by LF or LFcin B than the azole-susceptible strains tested. One moderately azole-resistant strain was defective in the formation of hyphae and showed a susceptibility to LF greater than that of the susceptible strains but a susceptibility to LFcin B similar to that of the susceptible strains. The highly azole-resistant strain TIMM3317 showed trailing growth in the presence of fluconazole or itraconazole, while the extent of growth was reduced by the addition of LF or LFcin B at a sub-MIC. Thus, the addition of LF or LFcin B at a sub-MIC resulted in a substantial decrease in the MICs of fluconazole and itraconazole for two highly azole-resistant strains; e.g., the MIC of fluconazole for TIMM3317 was shifted from >256 to 0.25 μg/ml by LF, but the MICs were not decreased for the susceptible strains. The combination effects observed with triazoles and LF-related compounds in the case of the two highly azole-resistant strains were confirmed to be synergistic by the fractional inhibitory concentration index. These results demonstrate that for some azole-resistant C. albicans strains, LF-related compounds combined with triazoles can inhibit the growth of hyphae, an important form of this organism in pathogenesis. PMID:9660988

  10. Lactoferrin-modified rotigotine nanoparticles for enhanced nose-to-brain delivery: LESA-MS/MS-based drug biodistribution, pharmacodynamics, and neuroprotective effects

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Chenchen; Duan, Dongyu; Chu, Liuxiang; Yu, Xin; Wu, Zimei; Wang, Aiping; Sun, Kaoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Efficient delivery of rotigotine into the brain is crucial for obtaining maximum therapeutic efficacy for Parkinson’s disease (PD). Therefore, in the present study, we prepared lactoferrin-modified rotigotine nanoparticles (Lf-R-NPs) and studied their biodistribution, pharmacodynamics, and neuroprotective effects following nose-to-brain delivery in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine model of PD. Materials and methods The biodistribution of rotigotine nanoparticles (R-NPs) and Lf-R-NPs after intranasal administration was assessed by liquid extraction surface analysis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Contralateral rotations were quantified to evaluate pharmacodynamics. Tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter immunohistochemistry were performed to compare the neuroprotective effects of levodopa, R-NPs, and Lf-R-NPs. Results Liquid extraction surface analysis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis, used to examine rotigotine biodistribution, showed that Lf-R-NPs more efficiently supplied rotigotine to the brain (with a greater sustained amount of the drug delivered to this organ, and with more effective targeting to the striatum) than R-NPs. The pharmacodynamic study revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) in contralateral rotations between rats treated with Lf-R-NPs and those treated with R-NPs. Furthermore, Lf-R-NPs significantly alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the rat model of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PD. Conclusion Our findings show that Lf-R-NPs deliver rotigotine more efficiently to the brain, thereby enhancing efficacy. Therefore, Lf-R-NPs might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of PD. PMID:29391788

  11. Intranasal delivery of rotigotine to the brain with lactoferrin-modified PEG-PLGA nanoparticles for Parkinson’s disease treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Chenchen; Wang, Aiping; Chu, Yongchao; Liu, Sha; Mu, Hongjie; Liu, Wanhui; Wu, Zimei; Sun, Kaoxiang; Li, Youxin

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable and safe delivery of brain-targeted drugs is highly important for successful therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study was designed to formulate biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which were surface-modified with lactoferrin (Lf), for efficient intranasal delivery of rotigotine to the brain for the treatment of PD. Rotigotine NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation, and the effect of various independent process variables on the resulting properties of NPs was investigated by a Box–Behnken experimental design. The physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties of the NPs and Lf-NPs were characterized, and the release kinetics suggested that both NPs and Lf-NPs provided continuous, slow release of rotigotine for 48 h. Neither rotigotine NPs nor Lf-NPs reduced the viability of 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells; in contrast, free rotigotine was cytotoxic. Qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake studies demonstrated that accumulation of Lf-NPs was greater than that of NPs in 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells. Following intranasal administration, brain delivery of rotigotine was much more effective with Lf-NPs than with NPs. The brain distribution of rotigotine was heterogeneous, with a higher concentration in the striatum, the primary region affected in PD. This strongly suggested that Lf-NPs enable the targeted delivery of rotigotine for the treatment of PD. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Lf-NPs have potential as a carrier for nose-to-brain delivery of rotigotine for the treatment of PD. PMID:27994458

  12. A novel antimicrobial peptide derived from modified N-terminal domain of bovine lactoferrin: design, synthesis, activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria and Candida.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Biswajit; Leishangthem, Geeta Devi; Gill, Kamaldeep; Singh, Abhay K; Das, Swagata; Singh, Kusum; Xess, Immaculata; Dinda, Amit; Kapil, Arti; Patro, Ishan K; Dey, Sharmistha

    2013-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is believed to contribute to the host's defense against microbial infections. This work focuses on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of a designed peptide, L10 (WFRKQLKW) by modifying the first eight N-terminal residues of bovine LF by selective homologous substitution of amino acids on the basis of hydrophobicity, L10 has shown potent antibacterial and antifungal properties against clinically isolated extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL), producing gram-negative bacteria as well as Candida strains with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1 to 8 μg/mL and 6.5 μg/mL, respectively. The peptide was found to be least hemolytic at a concentration of 800 μg/mL. Interaction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipid A (LA) suggests that the peptide targets the membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The membrane interactive nature of the peptide, both antibacterial and antifungal, was further confirmed by visual observations employing electron microscopy. Further analyses, by means of propidium iodide based flow cytometry, also supported the membrane permeabilization of Candida cells. The peptide was also found to possess anti-inflammatory properties, by virtue of its ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). L10 therefore emerges as a potential therapeutic remedial solution for infections caused by ESBL positive, gram-negative bacteria and multidrug-resistant (MDR) fungal strains, on account of its multifunctional activities. This study may open up new approach to develop and design novel antimicrobials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel lactoferrin-conjugated amphiphilic poly(aminoethyl ethylene phosphate)/poly(L-lactide) copolymer nanobubbles for tumor-targeting ultrasonic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Binhua; Liang, Huageng; Zhang, Shengwei; Qin, Xiaojuan; Liu, Xuhan; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Fuqing; Wu, Yun; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-01-01

    In the study reported here, a novel amphiphilic poly(aminoethyl ethylene phosphate)/poly(L-lactide) (PAEEP-PLLA) copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization reaction. The perfluoropentane-filled PAEEP-PLLA nanobubbles (NBs) were prepared using the O1/O2/W double-emulsion and solvent-evaporation method, with the copolymer as the shell and liquid perfluoropentane as the core of NBs. The prepared NBs were further conjugated with lactoferrin (Lf) for tumor-cell targeting. The resulting Lf-conjugated amphiphilic poly(aminoethyl ethylene phosphate)/poly(L-lactide) nanobubbles (Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs) were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The average size of the Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs was 328.4±5.1 nm, with polydispersity index of 0.167±0.020, and zeta potential of −12.6±0.3 mV. Transmission electron microscopy imaging showed that the Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs had a near-spherical structure, were quite monodisperse, and there was a clear interface between the copolymer shell and the liquid core inside the NBs. The Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs also exhibited good biocompatibility in cytotoxicity and hemolysis studies and good stability during storage. The high cellular uptake of Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs in C6 cells (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-positive cells) at concentrations of 0–20 µg/mL indicated that the Lf provided effective targeting for brain-tumor cells. The in vitro acoustic behavior of Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs was evaluated using a B-mode clinical ultrasound imaging system. In vivo ultrasound imaging was performed on tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice, and compared with SonoVue® microbubbles, a commercial ultrasonic contrast agent. Both in vitro and in vivo ultrasound imaging indicated that the Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs possessed strong, long-lasting, and tumor-enhanced ultrasonic contrast ability. Taken together, these results indicate that

  14. Novel lactoferrin-conjugated amphiphilic poly(aminoethyl ethylene phosphate)/poly(L-lactide) copolymer nanobubbles for tumor-targeting ultrasonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Binhua; Liang, Huageng; Zhang, Shengwei; Qin, Xiaojuan; Liu, Xuhan; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Fuqing; Wu, Yun; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-01-01

    In the study reported here, a novel amphiphilic poly(aminoethyl ethylene phosphate)/poly(L-lactide) (PAEEP-PLLA) copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization reaction. The perfluoropentane-filled PAEEP-PLLA nanobubbles (NBs) were prepared using the O1/O2/W double-emulsion and solvent-evaporation method, with the copolymer as the shell and liquid perfluoropentane as the core of NBs. The prepared NBs were further conjugated with lactoferrin (Lf) for tumor-cell targeting. The resulting Lf-conjugated amphiphilic poly(aminoethyl ethylene phosphate)/poly(L-lactide) nanobubbles (Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs) were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The average size of the Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs was 328.4±5.1 nm, with polydispersity index of 0.167±0.020, and zeta potential of -12.6±0.3 mV. Transmission electron microscopy imaging showed that the Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs had a near-spherical structure, were quite monodisperse, and there was a clear interface between the copolymer shell and the liquid core inside the NBs. The Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs also exhibited good biocompatibility in cytotoxicity and hemolysis studies and good stability during storage. The high cellular uptake of Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs in C6 cells (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-positive cells) at concentrations of 0-20 µg/mL indicated that the Lf provided effective targeting for brain-tumor cells. The in vitro acoustic behavior of Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs was evaluated using a B-mode clinical ultrasound imaging system. In vivo ultrasound imaging was performed on tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice, and compared with SonoVue(®) microbubbles, a commercial ultrasonic contrast agent. Both in vitro and in vivo ultrasound imaging indicated that the Lf-PAEEP-PLLA NBs possessed strong, long-lasting, and tumor-enhanced ultrasonic contrast ability. Taken together, these results indicate that Lf

  15. Intranasal delivery of Huperzine A to the brain using lactoferrin-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Hongchen; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yiyun; Mu, Hongjie; Wu, Zimei

    2018-01-01

    Background Safe and effective delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain is important for successful therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Purpose To develop Huperzine A (HupA)-loaded, mucoadhesive and targeted polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with surface modification by lactoferrin (Lf)-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC) (HupA Lf-TMC NPs) for efficient intranasal delivery of HupA to the brain for AD treatment. Methods HupA Lf-TMC NPs were prepared using the emulsion–solvent evaporation method and optimized using the Box–Behnken design. The particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, adhesion and in vitro release behavior were investigated. The cellular uptake was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the NPs. In vivo imaging system was used to investigate brain targeting effect of NPs after intranasal administration. The biodistribution of Hup-A NPs after intranasal administration was determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results Optimized HupA Lf-TMC NPs had a particle size of 153.2±13.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.229±0.078, zeta potential of +35.6±5.2 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 73.8%±5.7%, and sustained release in vitro over a 48 h period. Adsorption of mucin onto Lf-TMC NPs was 86.9%±1.8%, which was significantly higher than that onto PLGA NPs (32.1%±2.5%). HupA Lf-TMC NPs showed lower toxicity in the 16HBE cell line compared with HupA solution. Qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake experiments indicated that accumulation of Lf-TMC NPs was higher than nontargeted analogs in 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo imaging results showed that Lf-TMC NPs exhibited a higher fluorescence intensity in the brain and a longer residence time than nontargeted NPs. After intranasal administration, Lf-TMC NPs facilitated the distribution of HupA in the brain, and the values of the drug targeting index in the mouse

  16. Intranasal delivery of Huperzine A to the brain using lactoferrin-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingqing; Wang, Aiping; Hua, Hongchen; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yiyun; Mu, Hongjie; Wu, Zimei; Sun, Kaoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Safe and effective delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain is important for successful therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To develop Huperzine A (HupA)-loaded, mucoadhesive and targeted polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with surface modification by lactoferrin (Lf)-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC) (HupA Lf-TMC NPs) for efficient intranasal delivery of HupA to the brain for AD treatment. HupA Lf-TMC NPs were prepared using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimized using the Box-Behnken design. The particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, adhesion and in vitro release behavior were investigated. The cellular uptake was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the NPs. In vivo imaging system was used to investigate brain targeting effect of NPs after intranasal administration. The biodistribution of Hup-A NPs after intranasal administration was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Optimized HupA Lf-TMC NPs had a particle size of 153.2±13.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.229±0.078, zeta potential of +35.6±5.2 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 73.8%±5.7%, and sustained release in vitro over a 48 h period. Adsorption of mucin onto Lf-TMC NPs was 86.9%±1.8%, which was significantly higher than that onto PLGA NPs (32.1%±2.5%). HupA Lf-TMC NPs showed lower toxicity in the 16HBE cell line compared with HupA solution. Qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake experiments indicated that accumulation of Lf-TMC NPs was higher than nontargeted analogs in 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo imaging results showed that Lf-TMC NPs exhibited a higher fluorescence intensity in the brain and a longer residence time than nontargeted NPs. After intranasal administration, Lf-TMC NPs facilitated the distribution of HupA in the brain, and the values of the drug targeting index in the mouse olfactory bulb, cerebrum (with hippocampus

  17. Immunization of pregnant cows with Shiga toxin-2 induces high levels of specific colostral antibodies and lactoferrin able to neutralize E. coli O157:H7 pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Adriana; Sacerdoti, Flavia; Seyahian, E Abril; Amaral, Maria Marta; Fiorentino, Gabriela; Fernandez Brando, Romina; Vilte, Daniel A; Mercado, Elsa C; Palermo, Marina S; Cataldi, Angel; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina

    2018-03-20

    E. coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen responsible for bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ability of colostral IgG obtained from Stx2-immunized cows to prevent against E. coli O157:H7 infection and Stx2 cytotoxicity. Hyperimmune colostrum (HC) was obtained from cows intramuscularly immunized with inactivated Stx2 or vehicle for controls. Colostral IgG was purified by affinity chromatography. Specific IgG antibodies against Stx2 and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) levels in HC and the corresponding IgG (HC-IgG/bLF) were determined by ELISA. The protective effects of HC-IgG/bLF against Stx2 cytotoxicity and adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 and its Stx2-negative mutant were analyzed in HCT-8 cells. HC-IgG/bLF prevention against E. coli O157:H7 was studied in human colon and rat colon loops. Protection against a lethal dose of E. coli O157:H7 was evaluated in a weaned mice model. HC-IgG/bLF showed high anti-Stx2 titers and high bLF levels that were able to neutralize the cytotoxic effects of Stx2 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, HC-IgG/bLF avoided the inhibition of water absorption induced by E. coli O157:H7 in human colon and also the pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O157:H7Δstx2 in rat colon loops. Finally, HC-IgG/bLF prevented in a 100% the lethality caused by E. coli O157:H7 in a weaned mice model. Our study suggests that HC-IgG/bLF have protective effects against E. coli O157:H7 infection. These beneficial effects may be due to specific anti-Stx2 neutralizing antibodies in combination with high bLF levels. These results allow us to consider HC-IgG/bLF as a nutraceutical tool which could be used in combination with balanced supportive diets to prevent HUS. However further studies are required before recommendations can be made for therapeutic and clinical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess effects of the single ingestion of a tablet containing lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and glucose oxidase on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Manabu; Shimizu, Eiju; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-03-22

    The main components of oral malodor have been identified as volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) including hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH). VSCs also play an important role in the progression of periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the single ingestion of a tablet containing 20 mg of lactoferrin, 2.6 mg of lactoperoxidase, and 2.6 mg of glucose oxidase on VSCs in the mouth. Subjects with VSCs greater than the olfactory threshold in their mouth air ingested a test or placebo tablet in two crossover phases. The concentrations of VSCs were monitored at baseline and 10 and 30 min after ingestion of the tablets using portable gas chromatography. Thirty-nine subjects were included in the efficacy analysis based on a full analysis set (FAS). The concentrations of total VSCs and H2S at 10 min were significantly lower in the test group than in the placebo group (-0.246 log ng/10 ml [95 % CI -0.395 to -0.098], P = 0.002; -0.349 log ng/10 ml; 95 % CI -0.506 to -0.192; P < 0.001, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, a significant difference in the concentration of total VSCs between the groups was also observed when subjects were fractionated by sex (male or female) and age (20-55 or 56-65 years). The reducing effect on total VSCs positively correlated with the probing pocket depth (P = 0.035). These results suggest that the ingestion of a tablet containing lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and glucose oxidase has suppressive effects on oral malodor. This trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry (number: UMIN000015140 , date of registration: 16/09/2014).

  19. A protein isolated from human oviductal tissue in vitro secretion, identified as human lactoferrin, interacts with spermatozoa and oocytes and modulates gamete interaction.

    PubMed

    Zumoffen, C M; Gil, R; Caille, A M; Morente, C; Munuce, M J; Ghersevich, S A

    2013-05-01

    Is lactoferrin (LF) (detected in oviductal secretion) able to bind to oocytes and sperm and modulate gamete interaction? LF binds to zona pellucida (ZP) and spermatozoa (depending upon the capacitation stage and acrosome status) and inhibits gamete interaction in vitro. Proteins from human oviductal tissue secretion modulate gamete interaction and parameters of sperm function in vitro and some of them bind to sperm, but they remain to be isolated and identified. Proteins were isolated from human oviductal tissue secretion using their sperm membrane binding ability. One of the isolated proteins was identified as human LF and immunolocalized in tubal tissues. LF expression was analyzed in native oviductal fluid and oviduct epithelial cells (at different phases of the menstrual cycle: proliferative, periovulatory and secretory). In addition, the LF binding sites on spermatozoa (at different capacitation and acrosome reaction stages) and on ZP and the dose-dependent effect of LF on gamete interaction were investigated. All experiments were performed at least three times. Tubal tissues obtained from premenopausal patients (scheduled for hysterectomy, n = 23) were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium and conditioned media (CM) were collected. Motile spermatozoa were obtained by swim-up from normozoospermic semen samples from healthy donors (n = 4). An affinity chromatography with sperm membrane extracts was used to isolate proteins from CM. Isolated proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophresis and further identified by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry peptide sequencing. The presence of LF in oviductal tissue was investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and was detected in native oviductal fluid and oviduct epithelial cells homogenates by western blot. LF binding sites on gametes were investigated by incubating gametes with the protein coupled to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The acrosome

  20. Conjugation Magnetic PAEEP-PLLA Nanoparticles with Lactoferrin as a Specific Targeting MRI Contrast Agent for Detection of Brain Glioma in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Binhua; Wang, Siqi; Rao, Rong; Liu, Xuhan; Xu, Haibo; Wu, Yun; Yang, Xiangliang; Liu, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of malignant brain gliomas is largely based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast agents. In recent years, nano-sized contrast agents have been developed for improved MRI diagnosis. In this study, oleylamine-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (OAM-MNPs) were synthesized with thermal decomposition method and encapsulated in novel amphiphilic poly(aminoethyl ethylene phosphate)/poly(L-lactide) (PAEEP-PLLA) copolymer nanoparticles. The OAM-MNP-loaded PAEEP-PLLA nanoparticles (M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs) were further conjugated with lactoferrin (Lf) for glioma tumor targeting. The Lf-conjugated M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs (Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs) were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The average size of OAM-MNPs, M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs, and Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs were 8.6 ± 0.3, 165.7 ± 0.6, and 218.2 ± 0.4 nm, with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.185 ± 0.023, 0.192 ± 0.021, and 0.224 ± 0.036, respectively. TEM imaging showed that OAM-MNPs were monodisperse and encapsulated in Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs. TGA analysis showed that the content of iron oxide nanoparticles was 92.8 % in OAM-MNPs and 45.2 % in Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs. VSM results indicated that both OAM-MNPs and Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs were superparamagnetic, and the saturated magnetic intensity were 77.1 and 74.8 emu/g Fe. Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs exhibited good biocompatibility in cytotoxicity assay. The high cellular uptake of Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs in C6 cells indicated that Lf provided effective targeting for the brain tumor cells. The T 2 relaxation rate ( r 2) of M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs and Lf-M-PAEEP-PLLA-NPs were calculated to be 167.2 and 151.3 mM-1 s-1. In MRI on Wistar rat-bearing glioma tumor, significant contrast enhancement could clearly appear at 4 h after injection and last 48 h. Prussian blue staining of the section clearly

  1. Human Lactoferrin and Peptides Derived from a Surface-Exposed Helical Region Reduce Experimental Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Håversen, Liliana A.; Engberg, Inga; Baltzer, Lars; Dolphin, Gunnar; Hanson, Lars Å.; Mattsby-Baltzer, Inger

    2000-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional immunoregulatory protein that has been associated with host defense at mucosal surfaces through its antibacterial properties. The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of LF were further explored with an animal model of experimental urinary tract infection. Bovine LF (bLF), human LF (hLF), and synthetic peptide sequences based on the antibacterial region of hLF (amino acid residues 16 to 40 [HLD1] and 18 to 40 [HLD2]) were given orally to female mice 30 min after the instillation of 108 Escherichia coli bacteria into the urinary bladder. The control groups received phosphate-buffered saline or water. C3H/Tif mice were treated with hLF or bLF, and C3H/HeN mice were treated with bLF only. The numbers of bacteria in the kidneys and bladder of C3H/Tif and C3H/HeN mice were significantly reduced 24 h later by the LF treatments compared to the findings for the control group. The hLF-treated group showed the strongest reduction compared with the vehicle-treated-group (P values were 0.009 and 0.0001 for the kidneys and bladder, respectively). The urinary leukocyte response was diminished in the hLF-treated group. The hLF treatment also significantly reduced the urinary interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels at 2 h and the systemic IL-6 levels at 24 h after infection (P values were 0.04 and < 0.002, respectively). In the bLF-treated animals, no such strong anti-inflammatory effects were obtained. In another series of experiments, C3H/Tif mice perorally treated with HLD1 or HLD2 also showed reduced numbers of bacteria in the kidneys compared with the vehicle-treated mice, although the results were significantly different only for HLD2 (P < 0.01). Analysis of urine from hLF-fed C3H/Tif mice showed that hLF was excreted into the urinary tract at 2 h after feeding. Testing of the in vitro bactericidal activity of LF (1 mg/ml) or the peptides (0.1 mg/ml) in mouse urine against the E. coli bacteria revealed moderate killing only by HLD2. In

  2. Effects of Enteric-coated Lactoferrin Tablets Containing Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans on Fecal Properties, Defecation Frequency and Intestinal Microbiota of Japanese Women with a Tendency for Constipation: a Randomized Placebo-controlled Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Noriyuki; MURAKOSHI, Michiaki; ONO, Tomoji; MORISHITA, Satoru; KOIDE, Misao; BAE, Min Jung; TOTSUKA, Mamoru; SHIMIZU, Makoto; SUGIYAMA, Keikichi; NISHINO, Hoyoku; IIDA, Norio

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oral administration of enteric-coated tablets containing lactoferrin (LF; 100 mg/tablet) and heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans FREM BP-4693 (LB; 6×109 bacteria/tablet) on fecal properties were examined in 32 Japanese women (20–60 years of age) with a tendency for constipation (defecation frequency at equal to or less than 10 times/2 weeks) by a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. A significant increase in defecation days per week was obserbed in the subjects who ingested the tablets containing LF and LB compared with the placebo group. The number of bifidobacteria in feces also significantly increased compared with the placebo group. In an in vitro study, LF and tryptic hydrolysate of LF, but not peptic hydrolysate of LF, upregulated the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC15707 when added to the culture. These results demonstrate the capability of the enteric-coated tablets containing LF and LB in improving intestinal function and suggest that they have a growth promoting function for bifidobacteria. PMID:24936358

  3. Generation of Five Human Lactoferrin Transgenic Cloned Goats Using Fibroblast Cells and Their Methylation Status of Putative Differential Methylation Regions of IGF2R and H19 Imprinted Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanyan; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Ziyu; Song, Yang; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a promising technique to produce transgenic cloned mammalian, including transgenic goats which may produce Human Lactoferrin (hLF). However, success percentage of SCNT is low, because of gestational and neonatal failure of transgenic embryos. According to the studies on cattle and mice, DNA methylation of some imprinted genes, which plays a vital role in the reprogramming of embryo in NT maybe an underlying mechanism. Methodology/Principal Findings Fibroblast cells were derived from the ear of a two-month-old goat. The vector expressing hLF was constructed and transfected into fibroblasts. G418 selection, EGFP expression, PCR, and cell cycle distribution were applied sequentially to select transgenic cells clones. After NT and embryo transfer, five transgenic cloned goats were obtained from 240 cloned transgenic embryos. These transgenic goats were identified by 8 microsatellites genotyping and southern blot. Of the five transgenic goats, 3 were lived after birth, while 2 were dead during gestation. We compared differential methylation regions (DMR) pattern of two paternally imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2R) of the ear tissues from the lived transgenic goats, dead transgenic goats, and control goats from natural reproduction. Hyper-methylation pattern appeared in cloned aborted goats, while methylation status was relatively normal in cloned lived goats compared with normal goats. Conclusions/Significance In this study, we generated five hLF transgenic cloned goats by SCNT. This is the first time the DNA methylation of lived and dead transgenic cloned goats was compared. The results demonstrated that the methylation status of DMRs of H19 and IGF2R were different in lived and dead transgenic goats and therefore this may be potentially used to assess the reprogramming status of transgenic cloned goats. Understanding the pattern of gene imprinting may be useful to improve cloning techniques in future. PMID:24204972

  4. Lactoferrin inhibits dexamethasone-induced chondrocyte impairment from osteoarthritic cartilage through up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and suppression of FASL, FAS, and Caspase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Yihui; Xue, Huaming; Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park

    Highlights: •Dex exerts dose-dependant inhibition of HACs viability and induction of apoptosis. •Dex-induced impairment of chondrocytes was attenuated by rhLF. •ERK and FASL/FAS signaling are involved in the effects of rhLF. •OA patients with glucocorticoid-induced cartilage damage may benefit from treatment with rhLF. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (Dex) is commonly used for osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. However, Dex also has many side effects following repeated use over prolonged periods mainly through increasing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Lactoferrin (LF) exerts significantly anabolic effect on many cells and little is known about its effect on OA chondrocytes. Therefore, themore » aim of this study is to investigate whether LF can inhibit Dex-induced OA chondrocytes apoptosis and explore its possible molecular mechanism involved in. MTT assay was used to determine the optimal concentration of Dex and recombinant human LF (rhLF) on chondrocytes at different time and dose points. Chondrocytes were then stimulated with Dex in the absence or presence of optimal concentration of rhLF. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated using MTT and LIVE/DEAD assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by multi-parameter apoptosis assay kit using both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), FAS, FASL, and Caspase-3 (CASP3) at the mRNA and protein levels were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The optimal concentration of Dex (25 μg/ml) and rhLF (200 μg/ml) were chosen for the following experiments. rhLF significantly reversed the detrimental effect of Dex on chondrocytes proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. In addition, rhLF significantly prevented Dex-induced down-regulation of ERK and up-regulation of FAS, FASL, and CASP3. These findings demonstrated that rh

  5. Effect of Lactoferrin on Oral Biofilm Formation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    dental implant failures, denture stomatitis and oral yeast infections such as candidiasis. It is one of the most widely studied biofilm systems, yet...and Company, Sparks, MD) and incubated at 37C for 24 h. P. gingivalis was grown in trypticase soy broth– yeast extract supplemented with 0.05% cysteine...protein, was purchased from (Sigma). In the attachment assays, artificial saliva (1 g lemco (refined meat extract of very light colour), 2 g yeast extract

  6. Varying Iron Release from Transferrin and Lactoferrin Proteins. A Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmona, Fernando; González, Ana; Sánchez, Manu; Gálvez, Natividad; Cuesta, Rafael; Capdevila, Mercè; Dominguez-Vera, Jose M.

    2017-01-01

    Iron metabolism is an important subject of study for undergraduate students of chemistry and biochemistry. Relevant laboratory exercises are scarce in the literature but would be very helpful in assisting students grasp key concepts. The experiment described here deals with different iron release mechanisms of two protagonists in iron metabolism:…

  7. METAL-DEPENDENT EXPRESSION OF FERRITIN AND LACTOFERRIN BY RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased availability of catalytically active metal has been associated with an oxidative injury. The sequestration of transition metals within intracellular ferritin confers an antioxidant function to this protein. Such storage by ferritin requires that the metal be transported...

  8. Functional activities of acidic isoferritins and lactoferrin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Broxmeyer, H E; Gentile, P; Cooper, S; Lu, L; Juliano, L; Piacibello, W; Meyers, P A; Cavanna, F

    1984-01-01

    The functional activities of acidic isoferritins (AIF) and lactoferin (LF) were evaluated. The inhibitory activity of AIF (AIFIA) was inactivated by preincubation with a monoclonal antibody (2A4) against AIF, but AIFIA was not inactivated by another monoclonal antibody against AIF (1C5), by a monoclonal antibody (3A5) against basic isoferritins, or by a heteroantiserum (LFT) against basic isoferritins. Monoclonal 2A4 also inactivated the inhibitory activity against colony formation by granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) progenitor cells that was constitutively released by human monocytes or induced by human monocytes in the presence of OKT4+ lymphocytes. In addition to OKT4+ lymphocytes, the release of AIFIA from human monocytes was modulated by iron-saturated human LF and OKT8+ lymphocytes, both of which suppressed the release of AIFIA. Evidence for the physiologic relevance of AIF as a regulator of myelopoiesis was presented, in that human AIF suppressed the numbers of CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-GEMM per femur and the cycling status of these cells in mice recovering from a sublethal dosage of Cytoxan. Abnormalities in LF and AIF interactions were found with cells from a pediatric patient with neutrophilia of unknown etiology that were consistent with the disease manifestations of neutrophilia. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from the patient contained low levels (1%-10% of control) of immunologically reactive LF and the LF found was ineffective as a suppressor molecule for the release of GM-CSF from normal mononuclear blood cells. In addition, the patient's GM-CSF releasing mononuclear blood cells were insensitive to the suppressive effects of purified LF, and colony formation by the patient's CFU-GM, but not BFU-E or CFU-GEMM, were insensitive to the suppressive effects of purified AIF. When the activity of purified AIF was assessed against mouse bone marrow cells under serum-free conditions, it was apparent that serum was not needed for the suppressive activity of AIF and that in some cases, serum actually masked the effects of AIF. Human monoblast cell line U937 was found to be a good model in vitro for the actions of LF and AIF; U937 cells induced for Ia-antigens by human gamma interferon were separated into populations of Ia-antigen+ and Ia-antigen- cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), and LF and AIF suppressed colony formation only by the Ia-antigen+ U937 cells. A comparative analysis of bovine and human LF against release of GM-CSF from human mononuclear cells demonstrated that both were active in their iron-saturated form.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  9. Efficiency of donor cell preparation and recipient oocyte source for production of transgenic cloned dairy goats harboring human lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zhou, Zheng-Rong; Jia, Ruo-Xin; Li, Meng; Song, Hui; Wang, Zi-Yu; Wang, Li-Zhong; Zhang, Guo-Min; You, Ji-Hao; Wang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of the transgenic donor cell synchronization method, oocyte sources, and other factors, on production of hLF-gene nucleus transfer dairy goats. Three transfected cell lines from ear biopsies from three 3-mo-old Saanen dairy goats (designated Number 1, Number 2, and Number 3, respectively) were selected as karyoplast donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) after detailed identification (including PCR and sequencing of PCR products). In donor cell cycle synchronization studies, the apoptosis rate of hLF transgenic fibroblasts was not different (P > 0.05) after 3 days of serum starvation or 2 days of contact inhibition. Additionally, there was no effect (P > 0.05) on developmental capacity of reconstructed embryos; however, the kidding rate of recipients in the serum starvation group was higher than that in the contact inhibition group (18 vs. 0%, respectively). The production efficiency of the transgenic cloned goats using donor cells from the Number 1 dairy goat cell line was higher than those using the Number 2 and the Number 3 cell lines (kidding rates were 18, 2, and 0%, respectively, P < 0.05). The oocyte source did not significantly affect the pregnancy rate of hLF-transgenic cloned dairy goats, but more fetuses were aborted when using in vitro matured oocytes compared to in vivo matured oocytes. In summary, utilizing transfected 3-mo-old dairy goat fibroblasts as donor cells, seven live offspring were produced, and the hLF gene was successfully integrated. This study provided additional insights into preparation of donor cells and recipient oocytes for producing transgenic cloned goats through SCNT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. IL-8, TNF ALPHA, AND LACTOFERRIN IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT HOSTS WITH EXPERIMENTAL AND BRAZILIAN CHILDREN WITH ACQUIRED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS. (R829180)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Lactoferrin and lysozyme to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chronic childhood malnutrition, as manifested by stunted linear growth, remains a persistent barrier to optimal child growth and societal development. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a significant underlying factor in the causal pathway to stunting, delayed cognitive development, and ulti...

  12. INTERLEUKIN-8, TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA, AND LACTOFERRIN IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT HOSTS WITH EXPERIMENTAL AND BRAZILIAN CHILDREN WITH ACQUIRED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS. (R829180)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. INTERLEUKIN-8, TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA, AND LACTOFERRIN IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT HOSTS WITH EXPERIMENTAL AND BRAZILIAN CHILDREN WITH ACQUIRED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS. (R828035)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Response of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis to exogenous iron sources.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Petitclerc, D; Lacasse, P

    2002-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can survive in conditions of extremely low iron concentration. The ability of S. aureus to use two exogenous hydroxamate types of siderophores (desferrioxamine and ferrichrome) and four iron-containing proteins found in cattle (hemin, hemoglobin, ferritin, and lactoferrin) were tested on 16 reference and clinical isolates. For all strains tested, ferrichrome and desferrioxamine showed strong growth-promoting activities in a disk diffusion assay and in liquid medium. The heme proteins hemin and hemoglobin were also found to support growth in culture media lacking other iron sources, while lactoferrin failed to do so. On media containing the iron chelator dipyridyl, ferritin induced a growth inhibition effect that was further enhanced in the presence of lactoferrin in seven of the 13 tested strains. Staphylococcus aureus was able to bind hemin and the level of binding activity was not increased after growth in iron-rich or -poor media. Dot-blot competition tests showed that biotin-labeled lactoferrin binds to S. aureus, and this binding can be inhibited by unlabeled lactoferrin. Expression of lactoferrin-binding activity was independent of the level of iron in the medium and the iron saturation status of lactoferrin. For each strain tested, ligand blots showed lactoferrin-binding proteins of molecular weights ranging from 32 to 92 kDa. Possible functions of these lactoferrin-binding proteins could not be related to iron acquisition mechanism in S. aureus.

  15. Detecting Candida albicans in human milk.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Jimi Francis; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Heinig, M Jane; Lönnerdal, Bo; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for diagnosis of mammary candidosis, including laboratory confirmation, are not well defined. Lactoferrin present in human milk can inhibit growth of Candida albicans, thereby limiting the ability to detect yeast infections. The inhibitory effect of various lactoferrin concentrations on the growth of C. albicans in whole human milk was studied. The addition of iron to the milk led to a two- to threefold increase in cell counts when milk contained 3.0 mg of lactoferrin/ml and markedly reduced the likelihood of false-negative culture results. This method may provide the necessary objective support needed for diagnosis of mammary candidosis.

  16. LUNG INJURY AFTER OZONE EXPOSURE IS IRON-DEPENDENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress and biological effect after ozone (O3) exposure are dependent on changes in iron homeostasis. After O3 exposure, healthy volunteers demonstrated increased lavage concentrations of iron, transferrin, lactoferrin, and ferritin. In norm...

  17. HYDROLYTIC BREAKDOWN OF LACTOFERRICIN BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactoferricin is a 25 amino acid antimicrobial peptide domain that is liberated by pepsin digestion of lactoferrin in bovine milk. Along with its antibacterial properties, lactoferricin has also been reported to have immunostimulatory, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic effects. There is substantial ...

  18. Experimental Gonococcal Infection in Male Volunteers: Cumulative Experience with Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Strains FA1090 and MS11mkC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-31

    improved our understanding of the requirements for gonococcal LOS structures, pili, opacity proteins , IgA1 protease, and the ability of infecting...indicated by the horizontal dotted line) is 1.8× 103 cfu for MS11mkC and 1.0× 105 cfu for FA1090. contained predominantly piliated (P+), Opacity protein ...Gonococcal genetic island Absent Present Dillard and Seifert, (2001) Lactoferrin utilization (expression of lactoferrin-binding proteins B and A) Lf

  19. Effect of Flash-Heat Treatment on Antimicrobial Activity of Breastmilk

    PubMed Central

    Wiedeman, Jean; Buehring, Gertrude; Peerson, Janet M.; Hayfron, Kweku; K'Aluoch, Okumu; Lonnerdal, Bo; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Coutsoudis, Anna; Abrams, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objectives The World Health Organization recommends human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers in resource-poor regions heat-treat expressed breastmilk during periods of increased maternal-to-child transmission risk. Flash-heat, a “low tech” pasteurization method, inactivates HIV, but effects on milk protein bioactivity are unknown. The objectives were to measure flash-heat's effect on antimicrobial properties of lactoferrin, lysozyme, and whole milk and on the digestive resistance of lactoferrin and lysozyme. Methods Flash-heated and unheated breastmilk aliquots from HIV-positive mothers in South Africa were “spiked” with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and then cultured for 0, 3, and 6 hours. Lysozyme and lactoferrin activities were determined by lysis of Micrococcus luteus cells and inhibition of enteropathogenic E. coli, respectively, measured spectrophotometrically. Percentages of proteins surviving in vitro digestion, lactoferrin and lysozyme activity, and bacteriostatic activity of whole milk in heated versus unheated samples were compared. Results There was no difference in rate of growth of E. coli or S. aureus in flash-heated versus unheated whole milk (p = 0.61 and p = 0.96, respectively). Mean (95% confidence interval) antibacterial activity of lactoferrin was diminished 11.1% (7.8%, 14.3%) and that of lysozyme by up to 56.6% (47.1%, 64.5%) by flash-heat. Digestion of lysozyme was unaffected (p = 0.12), but 25.4% less lactoferrin survived digestion (p < 0.0001). Conclusions In summary, flash-heat resulted in minimally decreased lactoferrin and moderately decreased lysozyme bioactivity, but bacteriostatic activity of whole milk against representative bacteria was unaffected. This suggests flash-heated breastmilk likely has a similar profile of resistance to bacterial contamination as that of unheated milk. Clinical significance of the decreased bioactivity should be tested in clinical

  20. Effect of flash-heat treatment on antimicrobial activity of breastmilk.

    PubMed

    Chantry, Caroline J; Wiedeman, Jean; Buehring, Gertrude; Peerson, Janet M; Hayfron, Kweku; K'Aluoch, Okumu; Lonnerdal, Bo; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Coutsoudis, Anna; Abrams, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers in resource-poor regions heat-treat expressed breastmilk during periods of increased maternal-to-child transmission risk. Flash-heat, a "low tech" pasteurization method, inactivates HIV, but effects on milk protein bioactivity are unknown. The objectives were to measure flash-heat's effect on antimicrobial properties of lactoferrin, lysozyme, and whole milk and on the digestive resistance of lactoferrin and lysozyme. Flash-heated and unheated breastmilk aliquots from HIV-positive mothers in South Africa were "spiked" with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and then cultured for 0, 3, and 6 hours. Lysozyme and lactoferrin activities were determined by lysis of Micrococcus luteus cells and inhibition of enteropathogenic E. coli, respectively, measured spectrophotometrically. Percentages of proteins surviving in vitro digestion, lactoferrin and lysozyme activity, and bacteriostatic activity of whole milk in heated versus unheated samples were compared. There was no difference in rate of growth of E. coli or S. aureus in flash-heated versus unheated whole milk (p = 0.61 and p = 0.96, respectively). Mean (95% confidence interval) antibacterial activity of lactoferrin was diminished 11.1% (7.8%, 14.3%) and that of lysozyme by up to 56.6% (47.1%, 64.5%) by flash-heat. Digestion of lysozyme was unaffected (p = 0.12), but 25.4% less lactoferrin survived digestion (p < 0.0001). In summary, flash-heat resulted in minimally decreased lactoferrin and moderately decreased lysozyme bioactivity, but bacteriostatic activity of whole milk against representative bacteria was unaffected. This suggests flash-heated breastmilk likely has a similar profile of resistance to bacterial contamination as that of unheated milk. Clinical significance of the decreased bioactivity should be tested in clinical trials.

  1. Effect of compounds with antibacterial activities in human milk on respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Portelli, J; Gordon, A; May, J T

    1998-11-01

    The effect of some antibacterial compounds present in human milk were tested for antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus, Semliki Forest virus and cytomegalovirus. These included the gangliosides GM1, GM2 and GM3, sialyl-lactose, lactoferrin and chondroitin sulphate A, B and C, which were all tested for their ability to inhibit the viruses in cell culture. Of the compounds tested, only the ganglioside GM2, chondroitin sulphate B and lactoferrin inhibited the absorption and growth of respiratory syncytial virus in cell culture, and none inhibited the growth of Semliki Forest virus, indicating that lipid antiviral activity was not associated with any of the gangliosides. While the concentrations of these two compounds required to inhibit respiratory syncytial virus were in excess of those present in human milk, sialyl-lactose concentrations similar to those present in human milk increased the growth of cytomegalovirus. Lactoferrin was confirmed as inhibiting both respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus growth in culture even when used at lower concentrations than those present in human milk. The antiviral activities of GM2, chondroitin sulphate B and lactoferrin were tested when added to an infant formula. Lactoferrin continued to have antiviral activity against cytomegalovirus, but a lower activity against respiratory syncytial virus; ganglioside GM2 and chondroitin sulphate B still maintained antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus.

  2. The anti-papillomavirus activity of human and bovine lactoferricin.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Nitesh; Drobni, Peter; Näslund, Jonas; Sunkari, Vivekananda Gupta; Jenssen, Håvard; Evander, Magnus

    2007-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) cause common warts, laryngeal papilloma and genital condylomata and is necessary for the development of cervical cancer. We have previously found that lactoferrin has antiviral activity against HPV-16 and others have demonstrated that lactoferricin, an N-terminal fragment of lactoferrin, has inhibitory activities against several viruses. Two cell lines and two virus types, HPV-5 and HPV-16, were used to study if lactoferrin and lactoferricin could inhibit HPV pseudovirus (PsV) infection. We demonstrated that bovine lactoferrin (bLf) and human lactoferrin (hLf) were both potent inhibitors of HPV-5 and -16 PsV infections. Among the four lactoferricin derivatives we analyzed, a 15 amino acid peptide from bovine lactoferricin (bLfcin) 17-31 was the most potent inhibitor of both HPV-5 and HPV-16 PsV infection. Among the other derivatives, the human lactoferricin (hLfcin) 1-49 showed some antiviral activity against HPV PsV infection while bLfcin 17-42 inhibited only HPV-5 PsV infection in one of the cell lines. When we studied initial attachment of HPV-16, only bLfcin 17-42 and hLfcin 1-49 had an antiviral effect. This is the first time that lactoferricin was demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on HPV infection and the antiviral activity differed depending on size, charge and structures of the lactoferricin.

  3. Discriminatory potential of C-reactive protein, cytokines, and fecal markers in infectious gastroenteritis in adults.

    PubMed

    Weh, Julia; Antoni, Christoph; Weiß, Christel; Findeisen, Peter; Ebert, Matthias; Böcker, Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluates potential markers in blood and stools for their ability to distinguish bacterial from viral gastroenteritis. A total of 108 patients were prospectively recruited, of which 27 showed bacterial, 30 viral, and 51 no detectable pathogen, respectively. Cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cells as well as the 2 fecal markers lactoferrin and calprotectin were determined. Statistics comprised Kruskal-Wallis test and U test in addition to an assessment of receiver operating characteristic. Interferon γ (IFNγ) levels were significantly increased in the viral group compared to the bacterial and nonspecific group. For the bacterial group, both fecal markers lactoferrin and calprotectin as well as CRP were significantly higher in comparison to the other 2 groups. To differentiate between bacterial and viral gastroenteritis, CRP, serum IFNγ, and the fecal proteins lactoferrin and calprotectin may be useful. A corresponding algorithm should be evaluated prospectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of protein deposition on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Borazjani, Roya; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Zhenjun; Jones, Lyndon; Willcox, Mark D P

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the adhesion of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria onto conventional hydrogel (CH) and silicone hydrogel (SH) contact lens materials with and without lysozyme, lactoferrin, and albumin coating. Four lens types (three SH-balafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, and senofilcon A; one CH-etafilcon A) were coated with lysozyme, lactoferrin, or albumin (uncoated lenses acted as controls) and then incubated in Staphylococcus aureus (Saur 31) or either of two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Paer 6294 and 6206) for 24 h at 37 °C. The total counts of the adhered bacteria were determined using the H-thymidine method and viable counts by counting the number of colony-forming units on agar media. All three strains adhered significantly lower to uncoated etafilcon A lenses compared with uncoated SH lenses (p < 0.05). Lysozyme coating on all four lens types increased binding (total and viable counts) of Saur 31 (p < 0.05). However, lysozyme coating did not influence P. aeruginosa adhesion (p > 0.05). Lactoferrin coating on lenses increased binding (total and viable counts) of Saur 31 (p < 0.05). Lactoferrin-coated lenses showed significantly higher total counts (p < 0.05) but significantly lower viable counts (p < 0.05) of adhered P. aeruginosa strains. There was a significant difference between the total and viable counts (p < 0.05) that were bound to lactoferrin-coated lenses. Albumin coating of lenses increased binding (total and viable counts) of all three strains (p < 0.05). Lysozyme deposited on contact lenses does not possess antibacterial activity against certain bacterial strains, whereas lactoferrin possess an antibacterial effect against strains of P. aeruginosa.

  5. Studies on the application of temperature-responsive ion exchange polymers with whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Pankaj; Campi, Eva M; De Silva, Kirthi; Woonton, Brad W; Jackson, W Roy; Hearn, Milton T W

    2016-03-18

    Several new types of temperature-responsive ion exchange resins of different polymer composition have been prepared by grafting the products from the co-polymerisation of N-phenylacrylamide, N-iso-propylacrylamide and acrylic acid derivatives onto cross-linked agarose. Analysis of the binding isotherms for these different resins obtained under batch adsorption conditions indicated that the resin based on N-iso-propylacrylamide containing 5% (w/w) N-phenylacrylamide and 5% (w/w) acrylic acid resulted in the highest adsorption capacity, Bmax, for the whey protein, bovine lactoferrin, e.g. 14 mg bovine lactoferrin/mL resin at 4 °C and 62 mg bovine lactoferrin/mL resin at 40 °C, respectively. Under dynamic loading conditions at 40 °C, 94% of the loaded bovine lactoferrin on a normalised mg protein per mL resin basis was adsorbed by this new temperature-responsive ion-exchanger, and 76% was eluted by a single cycle temperature shift to 4 °C without varying the composition of the 10mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, pH 6.5, or the flow rate. The binding characteristics of these different ion exchange resins with bovine lactoferrin were also compared to results obtained using other resins based on N-isopropylacrylamide but contained N-tert-butylacrylamide rather than N-phenylacrylamide, where the corresponding dynamic capture and release properties for bovine lactoferrin required different temperature conditions of 20 °C and 50 °C, respectively for optimal desorption/adsorption. The cationic protein, bovine lactoperoxidase, was also adsorbed and desorbed with these temperature-responsive resins under similar conditions of changing temperature, whereas the anionic protein, bovine β-lactoglobulin, was not adsorbed under this regime of temperature conditions but instead eluted in the flow-through. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential Protein Expression in Streptococcus uberis under Planktonic and Biofilm Growth Conditions ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, R. C.; Leigh, J. A.; Ward, P. N.; Lappin-Scott, H. M.; Bowler, L. D.

    2011-01-01

    The bovine pathogen Streptococcus uberis was assessed for biofilm growth. The transition from planktonic to biofilm growth in strain 0140J correlated with an upregulation of several gene products that have been shown to be important for pathogenesis, including a glutamine ABC transporter (SUB1152) and a lactoferrin binding protein (gene lbp; protein SUB0145). PMID:21075893

  7. [Level of selected antibacterial tear proteins in children with diabetes type 1].

    PubMed

    Moll, Agnieszka; Wyka, Krystyna; Młynarski, Wojciech; Niwald, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial immunity in diabetes is impaired, which increases the risk of general and local infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate non-specific local antibacterial immunity based on lactoferrin and lysozyme concentration in tears in children with diabetes type 1. Children at the age of 10-18 years old were studied. Group 1. consisted of children without diabetes, group 2. included patients with new onset of diabetes and group 3. consisted of children with decade-long diabetes. Among all patients tears were collected from inferior coniunctival fornix with hematocrit glass capillaries in purpose to measure lactoferrin and lysozyme concentration. ELISA method was used in laboratory testing. Level of lactoferrin did not differ significantly among all groups. Concentration of lysozyme was statistically lower in group with decade-long diabetes (group 3.) compared to patients without diabetes. Mild correlation between lactoferrin and lysozyme levels was seen in individual patients in whole group of probands together. Diabetes type 1 in children is associated with significant changes in concentration of tear proteins, which contribute to antibacterial immunity.

  8. Effect of the PiAstra Benchtop Flash-Heating Pasteurizer on Immune Factors of Donor Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Brodie; Reimers, Penny; King, Tracy; Schmidt, Stefan; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2018-05-01

    PiAstra is a simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization temperature monitoring system designed using Raspberry Pi technology for the pasteurization of human milk. This study analyzed the effect of the PiAstra FH method on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and lactoferrin activity). Donor milk samples (N = 45) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA and lactoferrin activity were compared to their unpasteurized controls using the Student's t test. The PiAstra FH method retained 34.2% of IgA (p < 0.0001) and 40.4% of lactoferrin activity (p < 0.0001) when compared to unpasteurized controls. The retention of IgA by the PiAstra is similar to previous FH studies, while retention of lactoferrin activity was higher than previous FH studies. The high-technology, low-cost PiAstra system, which is able to retain vital immune components of human milk, provides safe donor milk for low-resourced settings. This enables the use of pasteurized donor milk when human milk is not available, potentially saving vulnerable infant lives.

  9. TGF-β2, a Protective Intestinal Cytokine, Is Abundant in Maternal Human Milk and Human-Derived Fortifiers but Not in Donor Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron A.; Johnson, Marney C.; Vasquez, Margarita M.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study compared cytokines (in particular transforming growth factor [TGF]-β2) and lactoferrin in maternal human milk (MHM), human-derived milk fortifier (HDMF), and donor human milk (DHM). Materials and Methods: MHM was randomly collected from breastfeeding mothers who had no infectious illness at the time of milk expression. HDMF and DHM were products derived from human milk processed by Holder pasteurization. MHM samples were collected at different times (early/late) and gestations (preterm/term). Lactoferrin was analyzed by western blotting, and cytokines were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Significance was determined using analysis of variance. Results: In the 164 samples analyzed, TGF-β2 concentrations in HDMF and preterm MHM (at all collection times) were fivefold higher than in DHM (p<0.05). Early preterm MHM had levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-18, 11-fold higher than DHM (p<0.05). IL-6 in DHM was 0.3% of the content found in MHM. IL-18 was fourfold higher in early MHM versus late MHM regardless of gestational age (p<0.05). Lactoferrin concentration in DHM was 6% of that found in MHM. Conclusions: Pasteurization decreases concentrations of most cytokines and lactoferrin in DHM. TGF-β2, a protective intestinal cytokine, has comparable concentrations in HDMF to MHM despite pasteurization. PMID:23869537

  10. Differential profiles and inhibitory effect on rotavirus vaccines of nonantibody components in breast milk from mothers in developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung-Sil; Tate, Jacqueline E; Ray, Pratima; Dennehy, Penelope H; Archary, Derseree; Coutsoudis, Anna; Bland, Ruth; Newell, Marie-Louise; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh; Jiang, Baoming

    2013-08-01

    Live oral rotavirus vaccines have been less immunogenic and efficacious for children of developing countries than for those in middle income and industrialized countries, and the basis for these differences is not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that breastmilk from mothers in India had significantly higher IgA and neutralizing activity against rotavirus that could reduce the effective titer of rotavirus vaccines reaching the gut when compared with that from mothers in the United States. We extended our study to understand the specific contribution of those nonantibody components in breastmilk to the neutralizing activity against rotavirus vaccine we observed. Breastmilk samples were collected from mothers of breast-feeding infants aged between 4 and 29 weeks (ie, vaccine eligible age) in India (N = 40), South Africa (N = 50) and the United States (N = 51). We examined breastmilk for lactoferrin, lactadherin, rotavirus-specific IgA and neutralizing activity against 3 rotavirus vaccine strains (Rotarix, RotaTeq G1 and 116E) using enzyme immunoassays, a plaque reduction assay or a microneutralization assay. We observed higher levels of lactoferrin, lactadherin, IgA and neutralizing activity in breastmilk specimens from Indian and South African women than those from American women. We demonstrated positive associations between levels of lactoferrin or IgA and neutralizing activity in Indian and South African specimens, but not in American specimens. We demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of lactoferrin was dose- or species-dependent, as evidenced by greater reduction in titer of Rotarix and 116E by human lactoferrin. Lactadherin also exhibited inhibitory activity to rotavirus vaccines but appeared to be less effective. The lower immunogenicity and efficacy of rotavirus vaccines in developing countries could be explained, in part, by synergistic inhibitory effect of high levels of antibody and nonantibody components in breastmilk consumed by infants at

  11. Effect of synthetic antimicrobial peptides on Naegleria fowleri trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Tiewcharoen, Supathra; Phurttikul, Watchara; Rabablert, Jundee; Auewarakul, Prasert; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chetanachan, Pruksawan; Atithep, Thassanant; Junnu, Virach

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of tritrpticin, lactoferrin, killer decapeptide and scrambled peptide in vitro against Naegleria fowleri trophozoites compared with amphotericin B. Tritrpticin (100 microg/ml) caused apoptosis of N. fowleri trophozoites (2x10(5) cells/ml), while lactoferrin, killer decapeptide and scrambled peptide did not. On Gormori trichrome staining, tritrpticin affected the elasticity of the surface membrane and reduced the size of the nuclei of N. fowleri trophozoites. The ultrastructure surface membrane and food cup formation of the trophozoites were 100% inhibited. These results are consistent with inhibition of the nfa1, Mp2CL5 of the treated trophozoite, which plays a role in food cup formation. Tritrpticin 100 microg/ml was not toxic against SK-N-MC cells. Our findings suggest tritrpticin has activity against the surface membrane and nfa1 and Mp2CL5 of N. fowleri trophozoites and could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent.

  12. In vitro uptake and immune functionality of digested Rosemary extract delivered through food grade vehicles.

    PubMed

    Arranz, E; Guri, A; Fornari, T; Mendiola, J A; Reglero, G; Corredig, M

    2017-07-01

    The digestion, absorption, uptake and bioavailability of a rosemary supercritical fluid extract encapsulated in oil in water emulsion were studied. Two emulsions with opposite surface charge were prepared, containing 7% canola oil, and either 2% lactoferrin or whey protein isolate. When absorption and uptake of carnosic acid and carnosol were followed on Caco-2 cell monolayers, there were no differences with protein type. However, when co-cultures of HT-29 MTX were employed, the presence of mucus caused a higher retention of carnosic acid in the apical layer for lactoferrin emulsions. The immune activity of the bioavailable fractions collected from cell absorption experiments was tested ex vivo on murine splenocytes. Although transport through the intestinal barrier models was low, the bioavailable fractions showed a significant effect on splenocytes proliferation. These results demonstrated the potential of using rosemary supercritical extract through protein stabilized oil in water emulsions, as a food with immunomodulatory functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lessons About the Pathogenesis and Management of Aspergillosis from Studies in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gallin, John I.; Zarember, Kol

    2007-01-01

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the NADPH oxidase. The CGD phenotype includes granuloma formation and susceptibility to infection with microorganisms including Aspergillus. The immune adjuvant interferon-γ and the antifungal agent itraconazole have reduced the incidence of infections in CGD. Studies using CGD phagocytes have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS), products of the NAPDH oxidase, are critical for killing Aspergillus hyphae. But despite lack of ROS production, CGD patients generally only get infected with Aspergillus after heavy exposure. To study why CGD patients are not infected with Aspergillus more frequently we studied host defense against this ubiquitous mold further. We found that neutrophil lactoferrin is fungistatic for Aspergillus fumigatus spores by chelation of iron, an essential growth factor. Thus, the neutrophil employs both nonoxidative (lactoferrin) and oxidative (hydrogen peroxide) defense mechanisms against A. fumigatus spores and hyphae, respectively. PMID:18528501

  14. The effect of protein-coated contact lenses on the adhesion and viability of gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Williams, Timothy J; Schneider, Rene P; Willcox, Mark D P

    2003-10-01

    Gram negative bacterial adhesion to contact lenses can cause adverse responses. During contact lens wear, components of the tear film adsorb to the contact lens. This study aimed to investigate the effect of this conditioning film on the viability of bacteria. Bacteria adhered to contact lenses which were either unworn, worn for daily-, extended- or overnight-wear or coated with lactoferrin or lysozyme. Numbers of viable and total cells were estimated. The number of viable attached cells was found to be significantly lower than the total number of cells on worn (50% for strain Paer1 on daily-wear lenses) or lactoferrin-coated lenses (56% for strain Paer1). Lysozyme-coated lenses no statistically significant effect on adhesion. The conditioning film gained through wear may not inhibit bacterial adhesion, but may act adversely upon those bacteria that succeed in attaching.

  15. The Effect of Iron and Haematin on the Killing of Staphylococci by Rabbit Polymorphs

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, G. P.; Walton, Everild

    1971-01-01

    The killing of staphylococci by rabbit polymorphs is inhibited by Fe++ and haematin but not by haemoglobin as shown by viable counts in rotating suspensions and direct observation in plasma clot cultures. Killing was not inhibited by azide or catalase suggesting that the myeloperoxidase-H2O2 system was not involved under the conditions used in this work. It is suggested that the predominant bactericidal system operating in the present experiments was the liberation of cationic proteins from the lysosomes of the leucocytes both into the phagocytic vacuoles and into the medium external to the cell. The action of these proteins is known to be reversed by Fe and haematin. Lactoferrin was not bactericidal in the doses used, and Fe-lactoferrin failed to inhibit the bactericidal action of whole leucocytes, although it was effective in inhibiting that of the partially purified cationic proteins. This anomaly has not been explained. ImagesFig. 6 PMID:5125261

  16. Characteristics of Factors of Protozoa Blastocystis hominis Persistence.

    PubMed

    Potaturkina-Nesterova, N I; Il'ina, N A; Bugero, N V; Nesterov, A S

    2016-10-01

    Persistence activity manifested in the expression of anti-lysozyme, anti-lactoferrin, and antihistone factors promoting inactivation of natural anti-infection resistance factors in the body was revealed in Blastocystis hominis protozoa. Activities of these factors were ranged. The frequency of these factors in clinical isolates of blastocyst decreased in the following order: anti-lactoferrin activity (84.5±3.7%)→anti-lysozyme activity (64.8±5.7%)→anti-histone activity (48.1±2.3%). In healthy humans, the corresponding parameters were 7.3±1.3, 5.3±0.9, and 3.3±0.4%, respectively (p<0.05). It was shown that the studied activities in highly virulent blastocysts were higher than in groups of medium-, low-, and avirulent protozoa.

  17. Bactericidal activity of LFchimera is stronger and less sensitive to ionic strength than its constituent lactoferricin and lactoferrampin peptides.

    PubMed

    Bolscher, Jan G M; Adão, Regina; Nazmi, Kamran; van den Keybus, Petra A M; van 't Hof, Wim; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Bastos, Margarida; Veerman, Enno C I

    2009-01-01

    The innate immunity factor lactoferrin harbours two antimicrobial moieties, lactoferricin and lactoferrampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain of the molecule. Most likely they cooperate in many of the beneficial activities of lactoferrin. To investigate whether chimerization of both peptides forms a functional unit we designed a chimerical structure containing lactoferricin amino acids 17-30 and lactoferrampin amino acids 265-284. The bactericidal activity of this LFchimera was found to be drastically stronger than that of the constituent peptides, as was demonstrated by the need for lower dose, shorter incubation time and less ionic strength dependency. Likewise, strongly enhanced interaction with negatively charged model membranes was found for the LFchimera relative to the constituent peptides. Thus, chimerization of the two antimicrobial peptides resembling their structural orientation in the native molecule strikingly improves their biological activity.

  18. Supplementation with a dietary multicomponent (Lafergin(®)) based on Ferric Sodium EDTA (Ferrazone(®)): results of an observational study.

    PubMed

    Cignini, Pietro; Mangiafico, Lucia; Padula, Francesco; D'Emidio, Laura; Dugo, Nella; Aloisi, Alessia; Giorlandino, Claudio; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia is recognized as a specific risk factor for both adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. We decided to test the hypothesis that the daily administration of Lafergin(®), a dietary multicomponent based on Ferrazone(®) (Ferric Sodium EDTA), Lactoferrin, Vitamin C and Vitamin B12, from first trimester of pregnancy until the end of gestation, may significantly reduce, in anemic women, the severity of anemia compared to controls who received ferrous sulfate or liposomal iron.

  19. Detection of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies after acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, C; Wenisch, H; Bankl, H C; Exner, M; Graninger, W; Looareesuwan, S; Rumpold, H

    1996-01-01

    Four of 30 patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection in Bangkok, Thailand, were positive for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence 1 month after antimalarial therapy. No myeloperoxidase, proteinase 3, lactoferrin, or elastase reactivity was found. Since no evidence of vasculitis was seen in these patients, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody production in malaria-infected susceptible patients probably represents a secondary response, indicating neutrophil activation. PMID:8770517

  20. Investigation of the Basis for Persistent Porin Serotypes of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae in Community Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    inability to utilize lactoferrin. Potential mutations in the fbpA gene must also be considered, which could cause some type of alteration in the FbpA...Davis, W. Fischer, J. C. Thomas, I. Martin, C. Ison, P.F. Sparling, and M. S. Cohen. 1998. Molecular Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Causing Repeated...J. C. Thomas, I. Martin, C. Ison, P. F. Sparling, and M. S. Cohen. 1999. Molecular typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae causing repeated infections

  1. High Levels of Chemokine C-C Motif Ligand 20 in Human Milk and Its Production by Oral Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Alan G; Komesu, Marilena C; Duarte, Geraldo; Del Ciampo, Luiz A; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y

    2017-03-01

    Chemokine C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL20) is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues. Although CCL20 is secreted by many normal human tissues, no studies have evaluated the presence of CCL20 in human milk or its production by oral keratinocytes stimulated by human milk. To evaluate the presence of CCL20 in breast milk and verify CCL20 secretion in vitro by oral keratinocytes stimulated with human and bovine milk, as well as its possible association with breast milk lactoferrin levels. The levels of CCL20 and lactoferrin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in human milk at three different stages of maturation from 74 healthy breastfeeding mothers. In vitro, oral keratinocytes were stimulated with human and bovine milk, and CCL20 was measured in their supernatant. High concentrations of CCL20 were detected in the human breast milk samples obtained during the first week (1,777.07 pg/mL) and second week postpartum (1,523.44 pg/mL), with a significantly low concentration in samples at 3-6 weeks postpartum (238.42 pg/mL; p < 0.0001). Human breast milk at different weeks postpartum stimulated higher CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes compared with bovine milk (p < 0.05). Such stimulation had no association with breast milk lactoferrin concentration. CCl20 is present at high levels in human milk, predominantly in the first and second week postpartum, but at significantly lower levels at 3-6 weeks postpartum. Human milk is capable of stimulating CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes, and this induction had no association with breast milk lactoferrin concentration.

  2. Influence of prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment on biologically-active human milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jih-Chin; Chen, Chao-Huei; Fang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Teh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive proteins in human milk may be influenced by prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these procedures. Three forms of human milk - freshly expressed, frozen at -20°C for a prolonged duration, and pasteurized milk - were collected from 14 healthy lactating mothers and a milk bank. The concentrations of major bioactive proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and leptin) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Changes in these proteins by heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C for 30 minutes were further evaluated. The mean concentrations of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A were significantly reduced by 66% and 25.9%, respectively, in pasteurized milk compared with those in freshly-expressed milk. Heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C did not cause significant changes in lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A, but there was an apparent increase in lysozyme (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in leptin level among these three forms of milk prior to (p = 0.153) or after heat treatment (p = 0.053). Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Heat and ultraviolet light treatment of colostrum and hospital milk: effects on colostrum and hospital milk characteristics and calf health and growth parameters.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A G V; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Young, R; Knauer, W A; Nydam, D V; Bicalho, R C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different physical treatments of bovine colostrum and hospital milk on milk bacteriology, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactoferrin concentrations, calf serum IgG concentrations and calf health, growth and survivability. Pooled colostrum samples (n=297) were heat treated (HTC; 63°C for 60 min), exposed to ultraviolet light (UVC; 45 J/cm(2)) or untreated ('raw', RC). Hospital milk (n=712) was subjected to high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST; 72°C for 15s), ultraviolet light irradiation (UVH; 45 J/cm(2)) or was untreated. Neonatal Holstein heifer calves (n=875) were randomly enrolled (309 HTC, 285 UVC, 281 RC) and block randomized (by colostrum treatment) into hospital milk treatments HTST (n=449) or UVH (n=426). HTC was more effective than UVC and HTST was more effective than UVH in reducing bacterial counts. IgG and lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTC and UVC than in RC. Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTST than in UVH or untreated hospital milk. There were no significant differences in serum IgG concentrations among calves fed HTC, UVC or RC. Colostrum and hospital milk treatments did not have any significant effect on calf body weight gain, survivability, or frequency of diarrhea or pneumonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [A new approach to clinical and laboratory diagnosis of systemic and local soft tissue infections].

    PubMed

    Barkhatova, N A

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic measurements of blood TNF-a, IL-IRA, CRP, oligopeptide, and lactoferrin levels in patients with systemic and local soft tissue infections revealed direct correlation between them which allowed to use these indicators for the diagnosis of systemic infections. Results of clinical and laboratory analyses provided a basis for distinguishing short-term systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis and developing relevant diagnostic criteria. Sepsis combined with systemic inflammatory response syndrome persisting for more than 72 hours after the onset of adequate therapy was characterized by CRP levels > 30 mg/l, oligopeptides > 0.34 U, lactoferrin > 1900 ng/ml, TNF-a > 6 pg/ml, ILL-IRA < 1500 pg/ml Patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome for less than 72 hours had lower TNF-a, CRP, oligopeptide, and lactoferrin levels with IL-IRA > 1500 pg/ml. This new approach to early diagnosis of systemic infections makes it possible to optimize their treatment and thereby enhance its efficiency.

  5. Biological effects of novel bovine milk fractions.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Novel dairy fractions have been isolated and are now commercially available. Several of them have been shown to have biological activities in various test systems. α-Lactalbumin was first isolated to provide a good source of tryptophan, often the first limiting amino acid in infant formulas, but has then been shown to be digested into smaller peptides with antimicrobial and prebiotic activities, immunostimulatory effect and acting as enhancers of mineral absorption. Lactoferrin bioactivities include antibacterial and antiviral effects, regulation of immune function, stimulation of intestinal proliferation and differentiation and facilitating iron absorption, but these activities may have been limited due to earlier contamination with LPS. Lactoferrin free of lipopolysaccharide may prove to be more effective with regard to exerting these activities. Osteopontin is a heavily phosphorylated and glycosylated protein that modulates immune function and stimulates Th1/Th2 switching, and, possibly, also affects bone mineralization and growth. Biological activities of lactoferrin may be facilitated by osteopontin. Milk fat globule membranes are a fraction that has previously been excluded from infant formulas, but components of this fraction have been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities and to prevent infection. Further clinical studies are needed on infants fed formulas with these components incorporated. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Duplexed sandwich immunoassays on a fiber-optic microarray.

    PubMed

    Rissin, David M; Walt, David R

    2006-03-30

    In this paper, we describe a duplexed imaging optical fiber array-based immunoassay for immunoglobulin A (IgA) and lactoferrin. To fabricate the individually addressable array, microspheres were functionalized with highly specific monoclonal antibodies. The microspheres were loaded in microwells etched into the distal face of an imaging optical fiber bundle. Two microsphere-based sandwich immunoassays were developed to simultaneously detect IgA and lactoferrin, two innate immune system proteins found in human saliva. Individual microspheres could be interrogated for the simultaneous measurement of both proteins. The working concentration range for IgA detection was between 700 pM and 100 nM, while the working concentration range for lactoferrin was between 385 pM and 10 nM. The cross-reactivity between detection antibodies and their non-specific targets was relatively low in comparison to the signal generated by the specific binding with their targets. These results suggest that the degree of multiplexing on this fiber-optic array platform can be increased beyond a duplex.

  7. Causes for massive bacterial colonization on mucosal membranes during infectious mononucleosis: implications for acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Stenfors, Lars-Eric; Bye, Helga-Marie; Räisänen, Simo

    2002-09-24

    A common complication of virus-induced upper respiratory tract infections is acute otitis media caused by bacterial pathogens. Simultaneously, increased bacterial colonization in the nasopharynx occurs. Our intention in this study was to identify the causes of this increased colonization of bacteria by evaluating their coating with the antibacterial substances lysozyme, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins IgG, S-IgA and IgM and their ability to penetrate epithelial cells during infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Cellular samples were collected from the oropharynx of 21 patients (16 males, five females; age range 10-21 years) with current IM. An immunocytochemical assay using gold-labelled antiserum to human lysozyme, lactoferrin, IgG, S-IgA and IgM followed by gold particle and epithelial cell tracing in the transmission electron microscope. A significant reduction in bacterial coating with IgG (P<0.05) and S-IgA (P<0.01) was noted, whereas there was a significant increase in coating with lactoferrin (P<0.01) and IgM (P<0.01). No significant change in lysozyme coating of the bacteria was noted, compared with healthy controls. Bacterial penetration into epithelial cells was seen particularly in patients culture-positive for beta-haemolytic streptococci. Reduced bacterial coating with IgG and S-IgA immunoglobulins, combined with bacterial penetration into epithelial cells, may exacerbate the bacterial colonization on oropharyngeal mucosal membranes observed during IM.

  8. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-02-22

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples ( N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student's t -test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity ( p < 0.0001), and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001). Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants' lives.

  9. Visualization of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Fibrin Meshwork in Human Fibrinopurulent Inflammatory Lesions: III. Correlative Light and Electron Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Onouchi, Takanori; Shiogama, Kazuya; Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Takaki, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released from dead neutrophils at the site of inflammation represent webs of neutrophilic DNA stretches dotted with granule-derived antimicrobial proteins, including lactoferrin, and play important roles in innate immunity against microbial infection. We have shown the coexistence of NETs and fibrin meshwork in varied fibrinopurulent inflammatory lesions at both light and electron microscopic levels. In the present study, correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) employing confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was performed to bridge light and electron microscopic images of NETs and fibrin fibrils in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, autopsied lung sections of legionnaire’s pneumonia. Lactoferrin immunoreactivity and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) reactivity were used as markers of NETs, and fibrin was probed by fibrinogen gamma chain. Of note is that NETs light microscopically represented as lactoferrin and DAPI-colocalized dots, 2.5 μm in diameter. CLEM gave super-resolution images of NETs and fibrin fibrils: “Dotted” NETs were ultrastructurally composed of fine filaments and masses of 58 nm-sized globular materials. A fibrin fibril consisted of clusters of smooth-surfaced filaments. NETs filaments (26 nm in diameter) were significantly thinner than fibrin filaments (295 nm in diameter). Of note is that CLEM was applicable to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of autopsy material. PMID:27917008

  10. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-01-01

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001), and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001). Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives. PMID:28241418

  11. Serine Protease PrtA from Streptococcus pneumoniae Plays a Role in the Killing of S. pneumoniae by Apolactoferrin ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Shaper; Wilson, Landon; Benjamin, William H.; Novak, Jan; Barnes, Stephen; Hollingshead, Susan K.; Briles, David E.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that apolactoferrin, the iron-free form of human lactoferrin, can kill many species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. Lactoferricin, an N-terminal peptide of apolactoferrin, and fragments of it are even more bactericidal than apolactoferrin. In this study we found that apolactoferrin must be cleaved by a serine protease in order for it to kill pneumococci. The serine protease inhibitors were able to block killing by apolactoferrin but did not block killing by a lactoferrin-derived peptide. Thus, the killing of pneumococci by apolactoferrin appears to require a protease to release a lactoferricin-like peptide(s). Incubation of apolactoferrin with growing pneumococci resulted in a 12-kDa reduction in its molecular mass, of which about 7 to 8 kDa of the reduction was protease dependent. Capsular type 2 and 19F strains with mutations in the gene encoding the major cell wall-associated serine protease, prtA, lost much of their ability to degrade apolactoferrin and were relatively resistant to killing by apolactoferrin (P < 0.001). Recombinant PrtA was also able to cleave apolactoferrin, reducing its mass by about 8 kDa, and greatly enhance the killing activity of the solution containing the apolactoferrin and its cleavage products. Mass spectroscopy revealed that PrtA makes a major cut between amino acids 78 and 79 of human lactoferrin, removing the N-terminal end of the molecule (about 8.6 kDa). The simplest interpretation of these data is that the mechanism by which apolactoferrin kills Streptococcus pneumoniae requires the release of a lactoferricin-like peptide(s) and that it is this peptide(s), and not the intact apolactoferrin, which kills pneumococci. PMID:21422179

  12. Protein deposition and its effect on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Omali, Negar Babaei; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial adhesion to contact lenses is believed to be the initial step for the development of several adverse reactions that occur during lens wear such as microbial keratitis. This study examined the effect of combinations of proteins on the adhesion of bacteria to contact lenses. Unworn balafilcon A and senofilcon A lenses were soaked in commercially available pure protein mixtures to achieve the same amount of various proteins as found ex vivo. These lenses were then exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Following incubation, the numbers of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus that adhered to the lenses were measured. The possible effect of proteins on bacterial growth was investigated by incubating bacteria in medium containing protein. Although there was a significant (p < 0.003) increase in the total or viable counts of one strain of S. aureus (031) on balafilcon A lenses soaked in the lysozyme/lactoferrin combination, the protein adhered to lenses did not alter the adhesion of any other strains of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus (p > 0.05). Growth of S. aureus 031 (p < 0.0001) but not of P. aeruginosa 6294 was stimulated by addition of lysozyme/lactoferrin combination (2.8/0.5 mg/mL). Addition of lipocalin did not affect the growth of any strains tested (p > 0.05). Adsorption of amounts of lysozyme and lactoferrin or lipocalin equivalent to those extracted from worn contact lenses did not affect the adhesion of most strains of S. aureus or P. aeruginosa to lens surfaces.

  13. Group B Streptococcus Induces Neutrophil Recruitment to Gestational Tissues and Elaboration of Extracellular Traps and Nutritional Immunity.

    PubMed

    Kothary, Vishesh; Doster, Ryan S; Rogers, Lisa M; Kirk, Leslie A; Boyd, Kelli L; Romano-Keeler, Joann; Haley, Kathryn P; Manning, Shannon D; Aronoff, David M; Gaddy, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae , or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen associated with infection during pregnancy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Infection of the extraplacental membranes surrounding the developing fetus, a condition known as chorioamnionitis, is characterized histopathologically by profound infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs, neutrophils) and greatly increases the risk for preterm labor, stillbirth, or neonatal GBS infection. The advent of animal models of chorioamnionitis provides a powerful tool to study host-pathogen relationships in vivo and ex vivo . The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immune response elicited by GBS and evaluate how antimicrobial strategies elaborated by these innate immune cells affect bacteria. Our work using a mouse model of GBS ascending vaginal infection during pregnancy reveals that clinically isolated GBS has the capacity to invade reproductive tissues and elicit host immune responses including infiltration of PMNs within the choriodecidua and placenta during infection, mirroring the human condition. Upon interacting with GBS, murine neutrophils elaborate DNA-containing extracellular traps, which immobilize GBS and are studded with antimicrobial molecules including lactoferrin. Exposure of GBS to holo- or apo-forms of lactoferrin reveals that the iron-sequestration activity of lactoferrin represses GBS growth and viability in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data indicate that the mouse model of ascending infection is a useful tool to recapitulate human models of GBS infection during pregnancy. Furthermore, this work reveals that neutrophil extracellular traps ensnare GBS and repress bacterial growth via deposition of antimicrobial molecules, which drive nutritional immunity via metal sequestration strategies.

  14. A Pilot Study to Determine the Safety and Feasibility of Oropharyngeal Administration of Own Mother’s Colostrum to Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nancy A.; Meier, Paula P.; Groer, Maureen W.; Zeller, Janice M.; Engstrom, Janet L.; Fogg, Lou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the safety of oropharyngeal administration of own mother’s colostrum to ELBW infants in first days of life. A secondary purpose was to investigate the feasibility of (1) delivering this intervention to ELBW infants in the first days of life, and (2) measuring concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and lactoferrin in tracheal aspirate secretions and urine of these infants. Subjects Five ELBW infants (mean BW and gestational age = 657 grams and 25.5 weeks, respectively). Design Quasi experimental, one group, pretest-posttest design. Methods Subjects received 0.2 mL of OMC administered oropharyngeally every two hours for 48 consecutive hours, beginning at 48 hours of life. Concentrations of sIgA and lactoferrin were measured in tracheal aspirates and urine of each subject at baseline, at the completion of the intervention and again 2 weeks later. Results All infants completed the entire treatment protocol, each receiving 24 treatments. A total of 15 urine specimens were collected and 14 were sufficient in volume for analysis. A total of 15 tracheal aspirates were collected, but only 7 specimens (47%) were sufficient in volume for analysis. There was wide variation in concentrations of sIgA and lactoferrin in urine and tracheal aspirates among the five infants; however several results were outside the limits of assay detection. All infants began to suck on the endotracheal tube during the administration of colostrum drops. Oxygen saturation measures remained stable or increased slightly during each of the treatment sessions. There were no episodes of apnea, bradycardia, hypotension or other adverse effects associated with the administration of colostrum. Conclusions Oropharyngeal administration of OMC is easy, inexpensive, and well-tolerated by even the smallest and sickest ELBW infants. Future research should continue to examine the optimal procedure for measuring the direct immune effects of this therapy, as well as the clinical

  15. Tear analysis in contact lens wearers.

    PubMed Central

    Farris, R L

    1985-01-01

    Tear analysis in contact lens wearers was compared with tear analysis in aphakics without contact lens wear and normal phakic patients. Subjects were divided into five groups: group 1, aphakic without contact lens; group 2, phakic with daily-wear hard contact lens; group 3, phakic with daily-wear soft contact lens; group 4, phakic with extended-wear soft contact lens; and group 5, aphakic with extended-wear soft contact lens. The experimental groups were compared with age- and sex-matched control groups for statistical analysis of tear variables by means of the Student's t-test. The variables measured were tear osmolarity, tear albumin, and lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in basal and reflex tears. Highly significant elevations of tear osmolarity were found in aphakic subjects without contact lenses. Less significant differences in tear osmolarity were found in phakic subjects with hard daily-wear lenses or with extended-wear soft lenses. Tear albumin, lysozyme, and lactoferrin in basal and reflex tears were not significantly different in the different groups of contact lens wearers or in the group of aphakic subjects without contact lenses compared with their control groups. Individual variations in tear albumin, lysozyme, and lactoferrin appeared to be responsible for the inability to demonstrate significant differences in tear composition in association with the wearing of different types of contact lenses. Older and aphakic patients demonstrated a tendency to have increased concentrations of proteins in the tears compared with younger, phakic contact lens wearers and normal controls without contact lenses. PMID:3914131

  16. Evaluation of Decellularized Porcine Jejunum as a Matrix for Lacrimal Gland Reconstruction In Vitro for Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Massie, Isobel; Spaniol, Kristina; Barbian, Andreas; Poschmann, Gereon; Stühler, Kai; Geerling, Gerd; Metzger, Marco; Mertsch, Sonja; Schrader, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) can cause blindness in severe cases, but mainly palliative treatments exist. A tissue-engineered lacrimal gland (LG) could provide a curative treatment. We aimed to evaluate decellularized porcine jejunum (SIS-Muc) as a scaffold for porcine LG epithelial cells. To evaluate SIS-Muc as a potential scaffold, basement membrane proteins in SIS-Muc and native LG were compared (immunohistochemistry [IHC]). Porcine LG epithelial cells cultured on plastic were characterized (immunocytochemistry), and their culture supernatant was compared with porcine tears (proteomics). Epithelial cells were then seeded onto SIS-Muc in either a static (cell crown) or dynamic culture (within a perfusion chamber) and metabolic (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and secretory capacities (β-hexosaminidase assay), protein expression (IHC), and ultrastructure transmission electron microscopy (TEM) compared in each. Collagen IV and laminin were found in both native LG and SIS-Muc. When cultured on plastic, LG epithelial cells expressed pan-cytokeratin, Rab3D, HexA, and produced mucins, but lysozyme and lactoferrin expression was nearly absent. Some porcine tear proteins (lipocalin-2 and lactoferrin) were found in LG epithelial cell culture supernatants. When LG cells were cultured on SIS-Muc, metabolic and β-hexosaminidase activities were greater in dynamic cultures than static cultures (P < 0.05). In both static and dynamic cultures, cells expressed pan-cytokeratin, Rab3D, lysozyme, and lactoferrin and produced mucins, and TEM revealed cell polarization at the apical surface and cell-cell and cell-scaffold contacts. SIS-Muc is a suitable scaffold for LG cell expansion and may be useful toward reconstruction of LG tissue to provide a curative treatment for DES. Dynamic culture enhances cell metabolic and functional activities.

  17. Interaction between rose bengal and different protein components.

    PubMed

    Tseng, S C; Zhang, S H

    1995-07-01

    Bindings of rose bengal to several proteins were determined by Sephadex G-75 chromatography. Their respective blocking effect against dye uptake was demonstrated in an assay using a rabbit corneal epithelial cell layer. The total binding capacity of nonmucin proteins was measured using fluorometry and Scatchard analysis. The results showed that albumin, lactoferrin, transferrin, and lysozyme could--but serum prealbumin, IgA, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and Sepharose 4B-purified porcine stomach mucin (PSM) could not--bind rose bengal. Lysozyme formed precipitates with rose bengal. Sufficient concentrations of albumin, lactoferrin, transferrin, or lysozyme premixed with rose bengal could block dye uptake by cells, but IgA and serum prealbumin could not. Premixed PSM was not as effective as precoated PSM in blocking dye uptake. The dissociation constant (Kd) was 1.2 x 10(-7) M, 3.6 x 10(-7) M, 3.9 x 10(-7) M, and 1.6 x 10(-6) M for albumin, transferrin, lactoferrin, and lysozyme, respectively. Based on these values, the total maximal binding capacity of nonmucin proteins in normal 7-microliters tears was extrapolated to be 0.249 micrograms rose bengal, which is too small to explain the negative staining of rose bengal on the normal ocular surface. Rose bengal, but not fluorescein, could interact with carbohydrate-containing Sephadex, CMC, and PSM to slow down its elution via Sephadex column chromatography. Therefore, the normal negative staining to rose bengal might be caused by the blocking effect of preocular mucus tear layer, which serves as a diffusion barrier. Rose bengal remains a unique dye for detecting the protective function of the preocular mucus tear.

  18. Group B Streptococcus Induces Neutrophil Recruitment to Gestational Tissues and Elaboration of Extracellular Traps and Nutritional Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kothary, Vishesh; Doster, Ryan S.; Rogers, Lisa M.; Kirk, Leslie A.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Romano-Keeler, Joann; Haley, Kathryn P.; Manning, Shannon D.; Aronoff, David M.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen associated with infection during pregnancy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Infection of the extraplacental membranes surrounding the developing fetus, a condition known as chorioamnionitis, is characterized histopathologically by profound infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs, neutrophils) and greatly increases the risk for preterm labor, stillbirth, or neonatal GBS infection. The advent of animal models of chorioamnionitis provides a powerful tool to study host-pathogen relationships in vivo and ex vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immune response elicited by GBS and evaluate how antimicrobial strategies elaborated by these innate immune cells affect bacteria. Our work using a mouse model of GBS ascending vaginal infection during pregnancy reveals that clinically isolated GBS has the capacity to invade reproductive tissues and elicit host immune responses including infiltration of PMNs within the choriodecidua and placenta during infection, mirroring the human condition. Upon interacting with GBS, murine neutrophils elaborate DNA-containing extracellular traps, which immobilize GBS and are studded with antimicrobial molecules including lactoferrin. Exposure of GBS to holo- or apo-forms of lactoferrin reveals that the iron-sequestration activity of lactoferrin represses GBS growth and viability in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data indicate that the mouse model of ascending infection is a useful tool to recapitulate human models of GBS infection during pregnancy. Furthermore, this work reveals that neutrophil extracellular traps ensnare GBS and repress bacterial growth via deposition of antimicrobial molecules, which drive nutritional immunity via metal sequestration strategies. PMID:28217556

  19. Colorectal mucus binds DC-SIGN and inhibits HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Stax, Martijn J; Mouser, Emily E I M; van Montfort, Thijs; Sanders, Rogier W; de Vries, Henry J C; Dekker, Henk L; Herrera, Carolina; Speijer, Dave; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A

    2015-01-01

    Bodily secretions, including breast milk and semen, contain factors that modulate HIV-1 infection. Since anal intercourse caries one of the highest risks for HIV-1 transmission, our aim was to determine whether colorectal mucus (CM) also contains factors interfering with HIV-1 infection and replication. CM from a number of individuals was collected and tested for the capacity to bind DC-SIGN and inhibit HIV-1 cis- or trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes. To this end, a DC-SIGN binding ELISA, a gp140 trimer competition ELISA and HIV-1 capture/ transfer assays were utilized. Subsequently we aimed to identify the DC-SIGN binding component through biochemical characterization and mass spectrometry analysis. CM was shown to bind DC-SIGN and competes with HIV-1 gp140 trimer for binding. Pre-incubation of Raji-DC-SIGN cells or immature dendritic cells (iDCs) with CM potently inhibits DC-SIGN mediated trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes with CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains, while no effect on direct infection is observed. Preliminary biochemical characterization demonstrates that the component seems to be large (>100kDa), heat and proteinase K resistant, binds in a α1-3 mannose independent manner and is highly variant between individuals. Immunoprecipitation using DC-SIGN-Fc coated agarose beads followed by mass spectrometry indicated lactoferrin (fragments) and its receptor (intelectin-1) as candidates. Using ELISA we showed that lactoferrin levels within CM correlate with DC-SIGN binding capacity. In conclusion, CM can bind the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and block HIV-1 trans-infection of both CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains. Furthermore, our data indicate that lactoferrin is a DC-SIGN binding component of CM. These results indicate that CM has the potential to interfere with pathogen transmission and modulate immune responses at the colorectal mucosa.

  20. Effect of Human Milk and its Components on Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Allison, L M; Walker, L A; Sanders, B J; Yang, Z; Eckert, G; Gregory, R L

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of human breast milk and its components on the nutritional aspect of the caries process due to Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilm formation. Human breast milk was collected from 11 mothers during 3-9 months postpartum. To test for the effect on biofilm formation, a 16-hour culture of S. mutans was treated with dilutions of human breast milk and several major components of human breast milk, lactose, lactoferrin, IgA, and bovine casein in sterile 96-well flat bottom microtiter plates for 24 hours. The biofilms were fixed, washed, stained with crystal violet, and extracted. Absorbance was measured to evaluate biofilm growth mass. Dilutions 1:10-1:2,560 of the human breast milk samples increased biofilm formation by 1.5-3.8 fold compared to the control. Lactoferrin decreased biofilm formation significantly in all dilutions (average milk concentration of 3 mg/ml). Lactose had no effect at average breast milk concentrations (60 mg/ml) except at its lowest concentration (15 mg/ml) where it was increased. IgA significantly decreased biofilm formation at its highest concentration of 2,400 μg/ml (average milk concentration 600 μg/ml). Casein caused significantly increased biofilm formation at all concentrations tested above the average milk content (2.3 mg/ml). The results of this study demonstrate an increase in S. mutans biofilm formation by human breast milk 3-9 months post partum. Among its major components, only casein significantly increased biofilm formation among the concentrations analyzed. Lactose had no effect except at 15 mg/ml. Lactoferrin and IgA significantly decreased S. mutans biofilm formation at their highest concentrations. This information expands the current knowledge regarding the nutritional influence of breastfeeding and validates the necessity to begin an oral hygiene regimen once the first tooth erupts.

  1. A Neisseria meningitidis fbpABC mutant is incapable of using nonheme iron for growth.

    PubMed

    Khun, H H; Kirby, S D; Lee, B C

    1998-05-01

    The neisserial fbpABC locus has been proposed to act as an iron-specific ABC transporter system. To confirm this assigned function, we constructed an fbpABC mutant in Neisseria meningitidis by insertional inactivation of fbpABC with a selectable antibiotic marker. The mutant was unable to use iron supplied from human transferrin, human lactoferrin, or iron chelates. However, the use of iron from heme and human hemoglobin was unimpaired. These results support the obligatory participation of fbpABC in neisserial periplasmic iron transport and do not indicate a role for this genetic locus in the heme iron pathway.

  2. A Neisseria meningitidis fbpABC Mutant Is Incapable of Using Nonheme Iron for Growth

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Heng H.; Kirby, Shane D.; Lee, B. Craig

    1998-01-01

    The neisserial fbpABC locus has been proposed to act as an iron-specific ABC transporter system. To confirm this assigned function, we constructed an fbpABC mutant in Neisseria meningitidis by insertional inactivation of fbpABC with a selectable antibiotic marker. The mutant was unable to use iron supplied from human transferrin, human lactoferrin, or iron chelates. However, the use of iron from heme and human hemoglobin was unimpaired. These results support the obligatory participation of fbpABC in neisserial periplasmic iron transport and do not indicate a role for this genetic locus in the heme iron pathway. PMID:9573125

  3. Biomarkers in the Detection of Prostate Cancer in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    externalized 189  phosphatidylserine,  milk   fat  globule‐E8/lactoferrin (MFG‐E8), CD80, CD86, CD96, Rab‐5b and 190  MHC class I and MHC class II complexes (7...aggressive features of PCas. Initially, proteins , mRNA and DNA will be extracted from nitrocellulose blots of biopsies of the prostate which are being...Similarly, proteins associated with racial differences and/or aggressiveness will be identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) and by

  4. Nanocarrier possibilities for functional targeting of bioactive peptides and proteins: state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Carla G; Matos, Carla M; Teixeira, José A; Balcão, Victor M

    2012-02-01

    This review attempts to provide an updated compilation of studies reported in the literature pertaining to production of nanocarriers encasing peptides and/or proteins, in a way that helps the reader direct a bibliographic search and develop an integrated perspective of the subject. Highlights are given to bioactive proteins and peptides, with a special focus on those from dairy sources (including physicochemical characteristics and properties, and biopharmaceutical application possibilities of e.g. lactoferrin and glycomacropeptide), as well as to nanocarrier functional targeting. Features associated with micro- and (multiple) nanoemulsions, micellar systems, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles, together with biopharmaceutical considerations, are presented in the text in a systematic fashion.

  5. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-02-01

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  6. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The anti-catabolic role of bovine lactoferricin in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ahmadinia, Kasra; Yan, Dongyao; Ellman, Michael; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-10-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a multifunctional peptide derived from bovine lactoferrin that demonstrates antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activities. Recently, studies have focused on the anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory potential of LfcinB. LfcinB is able to modulate the effects cytokines such as IL-1 and fibroblast growth factor 2 as well as promote specific cartilage anabolic factors. These properties are particularly important in maintaining cartilage homeostasis and preventing a catabolic state, which leads to clinical pathology. This review focuses on the recent literature elucidating the role of LfcinB in preventing cartilage degradation.

  8. Effect of two pasteurization methods on the protein content of human milk.

    PubMed

    Baro, Cristina; Giribaldi, Marzia; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Dellavalle, Giuseppina; Conti, Amedeo; Tonetto, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Coscia, Alessandra; Fabris, Claudio; Moro, Guido Eugenio; Cavallarin, Laura; Bertino, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    The Holder method is the recommended pasteurization method for human milk banks, as it ensures the microbiological safety of human milk (HM). The loss of some biologically active milk components, due to the heat treatment, is a main limit to the diffusion of donor HM. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization may be an alternative to maintain the nutritional and immunological quality of HM. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of Holder and HTST pasteurization on the HM protein profile. The protein patterns of HTST-treated milk and raw milk were similar. The Holder method modified bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and components of the immune system. The HTST method preserved the integrity of bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and, to some extent, of IgAs. Holder pasteurization decreased the amount of bile salt-stimulated lipase and inactivated the remaining molecules, while the HTST method did not alter its activity. Pasteurization increased the bioavailable lysine quantity. HTST pasteurization seems to better retain the protein profile and some of the key active components of donor HM.

  9. High-temperature short-time pasteurisation of human breastmilk is efficient in retaining protein and reducing the bacterial count.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Daniel; Joellenbeck, Mirjam; Winkler, Karl; Kunze, Mirjam; Huzly, Daniela; Hentschel, Roland

    2017-05-01

    Milk banks are advised to use Holder pasteurisation to inactivate the cytomegalovirus, but the process adversely affects the bioactive properties of human breastmilk. This study explored the antibacterial efficacy of an alternative high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment of human breastmilk and its effect on marker proteins, compared with the Holder method. Breastmilk samples were obtained from 27 mothers with infants in a German neonatal intensive care unit. The samples were either heated to 62°C for five seconds using HTST or processed using Holder pasteurisation, at 63 ± 0.5°C for 30 minutes. Immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase and bile salt-stimulated lipase concentrations and bacterial colony-forming units/mL were measured before and after heating. HTST-treated samples retained higher rates of immunoglobulin A (95% versus 83%), alkaline phosphatase (6% versus 0%) and bile salt-stimulated lipase (0.8% versus 0.4%) than Holder pasteurisation samples (all p < 0.01), but not lactoferrin (32% versus 20%, p = 0.18) and lysozyme (72% versus 65%, p = 1). No difference in antibacterial efficacy was noted between the two groups (p = 0.29). Using the HTST treatment protocol retained some of the bioactive properties of human breastmilk and appeared to have similar antibacterial efficacy to Holder pasteurisation. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Radiotherapy changes salivary properties and impacts quality of life of children with Hodgkin disease.

    PubMed

    Marangoni-Lopes, L; Rodrigues, L P; Mendonça, R H; Nobre-Dos Santos, M

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to perform a longitudinal investigation of the effects of radiotherapy on salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and protein composition of saliva and on the quality of life of children with Hodgkin disease. Ten children (6-16-year-old) with Hodgkin disease and 10 matched healthy children were investigated. Stimulated and non-stimulated saliva samples were collected at baseline, after 1080 and 2160cGy of radiation, and 1, 2, and 3 months post-radiotherapy. The salivary flow rate was expressed as mL/min. Buffer capacity was determined by titration. Amylase activity, immunoglobulin A, mucin, and lactoferrin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Quality of life was assessed by Quality of Life - Head and Neck module 35 questionnaire. We found that radiotherapy caused hyposalivation at 1080cGy and 1 month after radiotherapy and reduced buffering capacity at 2160cGy. Mucin concentration and amylase activity in non-stimulated saliva increased 1 month after radiotherapy. Lactoferrin concentration increased during and after radiotherapy. Immunoglobulin A concentration increased at 1080cGy, 1 and 2 months, for non-stimulated saliva and at 2160cGy and 1 month for stimulated saliva. Children reported more pain after radiotherapy and more xerostomia during radiotherapy. We concluded that the radiotherapy protocol affected the children's salivary properties and children's quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Salivary innate defense system in type 1 diabetes mellitus in children with mixed and permanent dentition.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Anna; Knaś, Małgorzata; Kuźmiuk, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Niczyporuk, Marek; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    It should be expected that type 1 diabetes mellitus may disturb innate and acquired immunity. There are no data on type 1 diabetes mellitus-related changes in the salivary flow and the protein output responsible for the innate immunity of saliva depending on the quality of dentition reflecting the age of child. The aim of this work was the evaluation of parameters responsible for the innate immunity of saliva in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In diabetic children, adolescent and healthy volunteers, the salivary flow, the output and the concentration of the activity of peroxidase (colorimetry), lysozyme (radial immunodiffusion) and lactoferrin (ELISA) were determined. In children with mixed and permanent dentition, type 1 diabetes mellitus significantly decreases (as compared with the appropriate controls) the unstimulated salivary flow, the output, concentration of peroxidase and the output of the lysozyme and lactoferrin. In conclusion, it may be stated that type 1 diabetes mellitus causes functional changes in the salivary glands, resulting in a decrease of the salivary flow and weakening of the salivary innate defense system, thus creating a threat to the oral and general health of type 1 diabetes mellitus children. The results showed that the salivary glands of younger children, when compared to adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus, are more susceptible to the injurious effects of the disease.

  12. The Effect of UV-C Pasteurization on Bacteriostatic Properties and Immunological Proteins of Donor Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk possesses bacteriostatic properties, largely due to the presence of immunological proteins. Heat treatments such as Holder pasteurization reduce the concentration of immunological proteins in human milk and consequently increase the bacterial growth rate. This study investigated the bacterial growth rate and the immunological protein concentration of ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiated, Holder pasteurized and untreated human milk. Methods Samples (n=10) of untreated, Holder pasteurized and UV-C irradiated human milk were inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus and the growth rate over 2 hours incubation time at 37°C was observed. Additionally, the concentration of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme of untreated and treated human milk was analyzed. Results The bacterial growth rate of untreated and UV-C irradiated human milk was not significantly different. The bacterial growth rate of Holder pasteurized human milk was double compared to untreated human milk (p<0.001). The retention of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme after UV-C irradiation was 89%, 87%, and 75% respectively, which were higher than Holder treated with 49%, 9%, and 41% respectively. Conclusion UV-C irradiation of human milk preserves significantly higher levels of immunological proteins than Holder pasteurization, resulting in bacteriostatic properties similar to those of untreated human milk. PMID:24376898

  13. A Lectin Purified from Blood Red Bracket Mushroom, Pycnoporus sanguineus (Agaricomycetidae), Mycelium Displayed Affinity Toward Bovine Transferrin.

    PubMed

    Albores, Silvana; Moros, Maria; Cerdeiras, Maria Pia; de la Fuente, Jesus Martinez; Grazu, Valeria; Fraguas, Laura Franco

    2016-01-01

    Fungal lectins constitute excellent ligands for development of affinity adsorbents useful in affinity chromatography. In this work, a lectin was purified from Pycnoporus sanguineus (PSL) mycelium using 3 procedures: by affinity chromatography, using magnetic galactosyl-nanoparticles or galactose coupled to Sepharose, and by ionic exchange chromatography (IEC). The highest lectin yield was achieved by IEC (55%); SDS-PAGE of PSL showed 2 bands with molecular mass of 68.7 and 55.2 kDa and IEC displayed 2 bands at pi 5.5 and 5.2. The lectin agglutinates rat erythrocytes, exhibiting broad specificity toward several monosaccharides, including galactose. The agglutination was also inhibited by the glycoproteins fetal calf fetuin, bovine lactoferrin, bovine transferrin, and horseradish peroxidase. The lectin was then used to synthesize an affinity adsorbent (PSL-Sepharose) and the interaction with glycoproteins was evaluated by analyzing their chromatographic behaviors. The strongest interaction with the PSL-derivative was observed with transferrin, although lower interactions were also displayed toward fetuin and lactoferrin. These results indicate that the purified PSL constitutes an interesting ligand for the design of affinity adsorbents to be used (i.e., in glycoprotein purification).

  14. Effects of prolonged intensive training on the resting levels of salivary immunoglobulin A and cortisol in adolescent volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Li, T L; Lin, H C; Ko, M H; Chang, C K; Fang, S H

    2012-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of prolonged intensive training on adolescent athletes. This study investigated the differences in mucosal immune functions and stress responses between intensively trained male adolescent volleyball players and age-matched sedentary controls. Twelve male volleyball players (16.5 [0.7] years of age) and sixteen healthy sedentary male volunteers (17.1 [0.6] years of age) participated in this study. Volleyball players were engaged in regular and year-round training. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from volleyball players during the high-intensity training period and from the counterparts at the same timepoints after at least 18 hours of rest. Concentrations of salivary total protein, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cortisol, and lactoferrin were measured. Results of this study revealed that the SIgA concentrations and the ratio of SIgA/total protein in volleyball players were significantly lower compared with those in sedentary controls. However, the salivary cortisol concentrations and the ratio of cortisol/total protein in volleyball players were markedly higher compared with those in sedentary controls. No significant difference was observed in lactoferrin levels between volleyball players and sedentary controls. The findings of this study suggest that the prolonged intensive training may elicit a sustained stress and induce a suppressive effect on mucosal immunity in regularly and intensively trained adolescent athletes.

  15. Identification of multifunctional peptides from human milk.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Bharti, Rashmi; Porto, William F; Gauri, Samiran S; Mandal, Mahitosh; Franco, Octavio L; Ghosh, Ananta K

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceutical industries have renewed interest in screening multifunctional bioactive peptides as a marketable product in health care applications. In this context, several animal and plant peptides with potential bioactivity have been reported. Milk proteins and peptides have received much attention as a source of health-enhancing components to be incorporated into nutraceuticals and functional foods. By using this source, 24 peptides have been fractionated and purified from human milk using RP-HPLC. Multifunctional roles including antimicrobial, antioxidant and growth stimulating activity have been evaluated in all 24 fractions. Nevertheless, only four fractions show multiple combined activities among them. Using a proteomic approach, two of these four peptides have been identified as lactoferrin derived peptide and kappa casein short chain peptide. Lactoferrin derived peptide (f8) is arginine-rich and kappa casein derived (f12) peptide is proline-rich. Both peptides (f8 and f12) showed antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fraction 8 (f8) exhibits growth stimulating activity in 3T3 cell line and f12 shows higher free radical scavenging activity in comparison to other fractions. Finally, both peptides were in silico evaluated and some insights into their mechanism of action were provided. Thus, results indicate that these identified peptides have multiple biological activities which are valuable for the quick development of the neonate and may be considered as potential biotechnological products for nutraceutical industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Crosstalk between coagulation and inflammation in mastitis and metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bobowiec, Ryszard; Wessely-Szponder, Joanna; Hola, Piotr

    2009-06-01

    Coagulation and inflammation are closely related as part of the mechanisms of host defence during a severe infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between thrombin as a factor in both the coagulative and inflammatory processes and neutrophil secretory function on the basis of lactoferrin (LF), elastase and myeloperoxidase release in the course of mastitis and metritis in cows. Thrombin generation was measured on the basis of hydrolysis of SAR-PRO-ARG-pNA and lactoferrin concentration was estimated by an ELISA method. The greatest thrombin generation was observed in the metritis group (1.18 +/- 0.62 IU). The level of LF was the highest in the group of cows with mastitis (0.74 +/- 0.55 mg/ml) in the first phase of the disease. In the second phase of the diseases the level of serum LF in cows with mastitis diminished to the value of 0.41 +/- 0.16 mg/ml, whereas in cows with metritis the level of LF increased to 0.51 +/- 0.17 mg/ml. This study reveals that the excessive production of thrombin not only causes hypercoagulatory disorders but also exaggerates neutrophil function by the release of some enzymes which may play a destructive role during disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These enzymes also inhibit anticoagulative systems, thus potentially worsening the course of the disease.

  17. Green Tea Consumption after Intense Taekwondo Training Enhances Salivary Defense Factors and Antibacterial Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and α-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, α-amylase activity and the ratio of α-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of α-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

  18. Gastrin-releasing peptide in human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, J N; Lundgren, J D; Goff, J; Peden, D; Merida, M; Shelhamer, J; Kaliner, M

    1990-04-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), the 27 amino acid mammalian form of bombesin, was studied in human inferior turbinate nasal mucosa. The GRP content of the mucosa measured by radioimmunoassay was 0.60 +/- 0.25 pmol/g tissue (n = 9 patients; mean +/- SEM). GRP-immunoreactive nerves detected by the immunogold method of indirect immunohistochemistry were found predominantly in small muscular arteries, arterioles, venous sinusoids, and between submucosal gland acini. 125I-GRP binding sites determined by autoradiography were exclusively and specifically localized to nasal epithelium and submucosal glands. There was no binding to vessels. The effects of GRP on submucosal gland product release were studied in short-term explant culture. GRP (10 microM) significantly stimulated the release of the serous cell-specific product lactoferrin, and [3H]glucosamine-labeled glycoconjugates which are products of epithelial goblet cells and submucosal gland cells. These observations indicate that GRP released from nerve fibers probably acts on glandular GRP receptors to induce glycoconjugate release from submucosal glands and epithelium and lactoferrin release from serous cells, but that GRP would probably not affect vascular permeability.

  19. Refrigerator storage of expressed human milk in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Slutzah, Meredith; Codipilly, Champa N; Potak, Debra; Clark, Richard M; Schanler, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations for refrigerator storage of human milk, the overall integrity (bacterial growth, cell counts, and component concentrations) of milk was examined during 96 hours of storage at 4 degrees C. Fresh milk samples (n = 36) were divided and stored at 4 degrees C for 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. At each time, pH, white cell count, and osmolality were measured and additional samples were stored at -80 degrees C until analyzed for bacteria and concentrations of lactoferrin, secretory (s)IgA, fat, fatty acids, and protein. There were no significant changes for osmolality, total and Gram-negative bacterial colony counts or concentrations of sIgA, lactoferrin, and fat. Gram-positive colony counts (2.9 to 1.6 x 10(5) colony-forming units per mL), pH (7.21 to 6.68), white blood cell counts (2.31 to 1.85 x 10(6) cells per mL), and total protein (17.5 to 16.7 g/L) declined, and free fatty acid concentrations increased (0.35 to 1.28 g/L) as storage duration increased, P < .001. Changes were minimal and the overall integrity of milk during refrigerator storage was preserved. Fresh mother's milk may be stored at refrigerator temperature for as long as 96 hours.

  20. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Affolter, Michael; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Jenni, Rosemarie; Roggero, Iris; Avanti-Nigro, Ornella; de Castro, Carlos Antonio; Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.; Favre, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors. PMID:27548208

  1. Diquafosol Tetrasodium Increases the Concentration of Mucin-like Substances in Tears of Healthy Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Shigeyasu, Chika; Hirano, Shinichiro; Akune, Yoko; Yamada, Masakazu

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of topical application of diquafosol tetrasodium on proteins and mucin-like substances from tears of clinically healthy subjects. Tears were collected from both the eyes of 10 healthy volunteers. Diquafosol tetrasodium solution (3%) was applied once to the right eye and 0.9% sodium chloride solution (saline) once to the left eye. Tear samples were collected by Schirmer test strips before application and 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after application. Sialic acid, a marker of mucin-like substances, and major tear proteins including secretory IgA, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, and lysozyme were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Levels of total protein, sIgA and lysozyme were transiently decreased in both groups but returned to baseline levels within 15 min after application. The concentration of lactoferrin and lipocalin-1 did not change significantly in both groups. Sialic acid in tears was significantly decreased 5 min after saline application, but significantly increased 5 min after diquafosol application. No significant difference in sialic acid was seen after 15 min in both groups. Topical application of saline and diquafosol resulted in transient decrease of tear proteins possibly due to wash out or dilution effects. In contrast, diquafosol application significantly increased sialic acid, although the effect was transient. This suggests diquafosol stimulates the secretion of mucins from ocular tissues of healthy human subjects.

  2. Influence of specific amino acid side-chains on the antimicrobial activity and structure of bovine lactoferrampin.

    PubMed

    Haney, Evan F; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G M; Vogel, Hans J

    2012-06-01

    Lactoferrin is an 80 kDa iron binding protein found in the secretory fluids of mammals and it plays a major role in host defence. An antimicrobial peptide, lactoferrampin, was identified through sequence analysis of bovine lactoferrin and its antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacteria and yeast species is well documented. In the present work, the contribution of specific amino acid residues of lactoferrampin was examined to evaluate the role that they play in membrane binding and bilayer disruption. The structures of all the bovine lactoferrampin derivatives were examined with circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their interactions with phospholipids were evaluated with differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal titration calorimetry techniques. From our results it is apparent that the amphipathic N-terminal helix anchors the peptide to membranes with Trp 268 and Phe 278 playing important roles in determining the strength of the interaction and for inducing peptide folding. In addition, the N-terminal helix capping residues (DLI) increase the affinity for negatively charged vesicles and they mediate the depth of membrane insertion. Finally, the unique flexibility in the cationic C-terminal region of bovine lactoferrampin does not appear to be essential for the antimicrobial activity of the peptide.

  3. Serotype-specific differences in inhibition of reovirus infectivity by human-milk glycans are determined by viral attachment protein σ1.

    PubMed

    Iskarpatyoti, Jason A; Morse, E Ashley; McClung, R Paul; Ikizler, Miné; Wetzel, J Denise; Contractor, Nikhat; Dermody, Terence S

    2012-11-25

    Human milk contains many bioactive components, including secretory IgA, oligosaccharides, and milk-associated proteins. We assessed the antiviral effects of several components of milk against mammalian reoviruses. We found that glucocerebroside (GCB) inhibited the infectivity of reovirus strain type 1 Lang (T1L), whereas gangliosides GD3 and GM3 and 3'-sialyllactose (3SL) inhibited the infectivity of reovirus strain type 3 Dearing (T3D). Agglutination of erythrocytes mediated by T1L and T3D was inhibited by GD3, GM3, and bovine lactoferrin. Additionally, α-sialic acid, 3SL, 6'-sialyllactose, sialic acid, human lactoferrin, osteopontin, and α-lactalbumin inhibited hemagglutination mediated by T3D. Using single-gene reassortant viruses, we found that serotype-specific differences segregate with the gene encoding the viral attachment protein. Furthermore, GD3, GM3, and 3SL inhibit T3D infectivity by blocking binding to host cells, whereas GCB inhibits T1L infectivity post-attachment. These results enhance an understanding of reovirus cell attachment and define a mechanism for the antimicrobial activity of human milk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of UV-C pasteurization on bacteriostatic properties and immunological proteins of donor human milk.

    PubMed

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2013-01-01

    Human milk possesses bacteriostatic properties, largely due to the presence of immunological proteins. Heat treatments such as Holder pasteurization reduce the concentration of immunological proteins in human milk and consequently increase the bacterial growth rate. This study investigated the bacterial growth rate and the immunological protein concentration of ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiated, Holder pasteurized and untreated human milk. Samples (n=10) of untreated, Holder pasteurized and UV-C irradiated human milk were inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus and the growth rate over 2 hours incubation time at 37°C was observed. Additionally, the concentration of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme of untreated and treated human milk was analyzed. The bacterial growth rate of untreated and UV-C irradiated human milk was not significantly different. The bacterial growth rate of Holder pasteurized human milk was double compared to untreated human milk (p<0.001). The retention of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme after UV-C irradiation was 89%, 87%, and 75% respectively, which were higher than Holder treated with 49%, 9%, and 41% respectively. UV-C irradiation of human milk preserves significantly higher levels of immunological proteins than Holder pasteurization, resulting in bacteriostatic properties similar to those of untreated human milk.

  5. Visualization of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Fibrin Meshwork in Human Fibrinopurulent Inflammatory Lesions: II. Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Onouchi, Takanori; Shiogama, Kazuya; Matsui, Takahiro; Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Sakurai, Kouhei; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) represent an extracellular, spider’s web-like structure resulting from cell death of neutrophils. NETs play an important role in innate immunity against microbial infection, but their roles in human pathological processes remain largely unknown. NETs and fibrin meshwork both showing fibrillar structures are observed at the site of fibrinopurulent inflammation, as described in our sister paper [Acta Histochem. Cytochem. 49; 109–116, 2016]. In the present study, immunoelectron microscopic study was performed for visualizing NETs and fibrin fibrils (thick fibrils in our tongue) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of autopsied lung tissue of legionnaire’s pneumonia. Lactoferrin and fibrinogen gamma chain were utilized as markers of NETs and fibrin, respectively. Analysis of immuno-scanning electron microscopy indicated that NETs constructed thin fibrils and granular materials were attached onto the NETs fibrils. The smooth-surfaced fibrin fibrils were much thicker than the NETs fibrils. Pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that lactoferrin immunoreactivities were visible as dots on the fibrils, whereas fibrinogen gamma chain immunoreactivities were homogeneously observed throughout the fibrils. Usefulness of immunoelectron microscopic analysis of NETs and fibrin fibrils should be emphasized. PMID:27682015

  6. Conformational study of bovine lactoferricin in membrane-micking conditions by molecular dynamics simulation and circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Daidone, Isabella; Magliano, Alessandro; Di Nola, Alfredo; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Clarkson, Matilda Manuela; Lizzi, Anna Rita; Oratore, Arduino; Mazza, Fernando

    2011-04-01

    Lactoferricins are potent antimicrobial peptides released by pepsin cleavage of Lactoferrins. Bovine Lactoferricin (LfcinB) has higher activity than the intact bovine Lactoferrin, and is the most active among the other Lactoferricins of human, murine and caprine origin. In the intact protein the fragment corresponding to LfcinB is in an helical conformation, while in water LfcinB adopts an amphipathic β-hairpin structure. However, whether any of these structural motifs is the antibacterial active conformation, i.e., the one interacting with bacterial membrane components, remains to be seen. Here we present Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations indicating that in membrane-mimicking solvents the LfcinB adopts an amphipathic β-hairpin structure similar to that observed in water, but differing in the dynamic behavior of the side-chains of the two tryptophan residues. In the membrane-mimicking solvent these side-chains show a high propensity to point towards the hydrophobic environment, rather than being in the hydrophobic core as seen in water, while the backbone preserves the hairpin conformation as found in water. These results suggest that the tryptophans might act as anchors pulling the stable, solvent-invariant hairpin structure into the membrane.

  7. Cloning and expression of antibacterial goat lactoferricin from Escherichia coli AD494(DE3)pLysS expression system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gen-Hung; Yin, Li-Jung; Chiang, I-Hua; Jiang, Shann-Tzong

    2008-12-01

    Goat lactoferricin (GLfcin), an antibacterial peptide, is released from the N terminus of goat lactoferrin by pepsin digestion. Two GLfcin-related cDNAs, GLfcin L and GLfcin S, encoding Ala20-Ser60 and Ser36-Ser60 of goat lactoferrin, respectively, were cloned into the pET-23a(+) expression vector upstream from (His)6-Tag gene and transformed into Escherichia coli AD494(DE3)pLysS expression host. After being induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), two (His)6-Tag fused recombinant lactoferricins, GLfcin L-His*Tag and GLfcin S-His*Tag, were expressed in soluble form within the E. coli cytoplasm. The GLfcin L-His*Tag and GLfcin S-His*Tag were purified using HisTrap affinity chromatography. According to an antibacterial activity assay using the agar diffusion method, GLfcin L-His*Tag had antibacterial activity against E. coli BCRC 11549, Staphylococcus aureus BCRC 25923, and Propionibacterium acnes BCRC 10723, while GLfcin S-His*Tag was able to inhibit the growth of E. coli BCRC 11549 and P. acnes BCRC 10723. These two recombinant lactoferricins behaved as thermostable peptides, which could retain their activity for up to 30 min of exposure at 100 degrees C.

  8. Design and activity of novel lactoferrampin analogues against O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jenniffer; Ortiz, Claudia; Guzmán, Fanny; Cárdenas, Constanza; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Torres, Rodrigo

    2014-04-01

    Lactoferrampin 265-284 (LFampin 265-284) is a peptide consisting of residues 265-284 of N1-domain of bovine Lactoferrin (LF). This peptide has several cationic groups in the C-terminal lobe, exhibiting an antibacterial activity against a wide range of microorganisms. However, LFampin 265-284 exhibits low antimicrobial activity against the O157:H7 enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7) when compared with Lactoferrin chimera and Lactoferricin. Here, we have designed three analogues of LFampin 265-284 based on the distribution of cationic groups, hydrophobicity, size, and sequence. Analogues were synthesized by solid phase chemistry using Fmoc methodology obtaining peptides with 95% purity. All peptides maintain the ability to adopt helical conformations (checked by circular dichroism spectra and molecular simulations). Some of these analogues exhibited a significant increase in antimicrobial activity by counting colony forming units against EHEC O157:H7 compared to native LFampin 265-284, with MIC of 10 and 40 µM for 264G-D265K and 264G-D265K/S272R, respectively. The incorporation of a GKLI sequence in the N-terminal lobe increased dramatically its antibacterial activity, an effect which has been attributed to the addition of cationic groups in the N-terminal side that may stabilize the helical conformation of the new designed peptides. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Miguel A.; Vargas, Miguel A.; Regueiro, Verónica; Llompart, Catalina M.; Albertí, Sebastián; Bengoechea, José A.

    2004-01-01

    The innate immune system plays a critical role in the defense of areas exposed to microorganisms. There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that antimicrobial peptides and proteins (APs) are one of the most important weapons of this system and that they make up the protective front for the respiratory tract. On the other hand, it is known that pathogenic organisms have developed countermeasures to resist these agents such as reducing the net negative charge of the bacterial membranes. Here we report the characterization of a novel mechanism of resistance to APs that is dependent on the bacterial capsule polysaccharide (CPS). Klebsiella pneumoniae CPS mutant was more sensitive than the wild type to human neutrophil defensin 1, β-defensin 1, lactoferrin, protamine sulfate, and polymyxin B. K. pneumoniae lipopolysaccharide O antigen did not play an important role in AP resistance, and CPS was the only factor conferring protection against polymyxin B in strains lacking O antigen. In addition, we found a significant correlation between the amount of CPS expressed by a given strain and the resistance to polymyxin B. We also showed that K. pneumoniae CPS mutant bound more polymyxin B than the wild-type strain with a concomitant increased in the self-promoted pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that CPS protects bacteria by limiting the interaction of APs with the surface. Finally, we report that K. pneumoniae increased the amount of CPS and upregulated cps transcription when grown in the presence of polymyxin B and lactoferrin. PMID:15557634

  10. Composition of incubation solution impacts in vitro protein uptake to silicone hydrogel contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Heynen, Miriam; Luensmann, Doerte; Jones, Lyndon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of incubation solution composition on protein deposition to silicone hydrogel (SH) contact lenses using a simplistic and a complex model of the tear film. Methods Three SH materials – senofilcon A (SA), lotrafilcon B (LB), and balafilcon A (BA) – were incubated in two different solutions; Solution A was a simplistic augmented buffered saline solution containing a single protein, whereas Solution B was a complex artificial tear solution (ATS), containing the augmented buffered saline solution in addition to proteins, lipids, and mucins (pH=7.4). The proteins of interest (lysozyme, lactoferrin, albumin) were radiolabeled with Iodine-125 (2% protein of interest) and the accumulation of the conjugated protein to the lens materials was determined after 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of incubation. Protein deposition was measured using a gamma counter and the raw data were translated into absolute amounts (µg/lens) via extrapolation from standards. Results After 28 days, lysozyme uptake was significantly lower on BA lenses when incubated in Solution A (33.7 μg) compared to Solution B (56.2 μg), p<0.001. SA lenses deposited similar amounts of lysozyme when incubated in either Solution A (2.6 μg) or Solution B (4.1 μg), p>0.05. LB lenses also deposited similar amounts of lysozyme for both solutions (Solution A: 5.0 μg, Solution B: 4.7 μg, p>0.05). After 28 days, BA lenses accumulated approximately twice the amount of lactoferrin than the other lens materials, with 30.3 μg depositing when exposed to Solution A and 22.0 μg with Solution B. The difference between the two solutions was statistically significant (p<0.001). LB materials deposited significantly greater amounts of lactoferrin when incubated in Solution A (16.6 μg) compared to Solution B (10.3 μg), p<0.001. Similar amounts of lactoferrin were accumulated onto SA lenses regardless of incubation solution composition (Solution A: 8.2 μg, Solution B: 11.2 μg, p>0.05). After 28

  11. Antimicrobial proteins in human unstimulated whole saliva in relation to each other, and to measures of health status, dental plaque accumulation and composition.

    PubMed

    Rudney, J D; Krig, M A; Neuvar, E K; Soberay, A H; Iverson, L

    1991-01-01

    Saliva antimicrobial proteins may interact in a common system to influence the oral ecology. Clinical studies of antimicrobial protein action thus may require a multiple-protein approach. Multivariate statistical methods have been used to describe possible patterns of interaction for lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase and secretory IgA in stimulated parotid saliva. However, oral microbes are most likely to encounter antimicrobial proteins in mixed resting saliva. Relationships among levels of lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, and secretory IgA therefore were investigated in whole saliva from 216 subjects, and an attempt made to relate interperson variation in those proteins to differences in health and status, and dental plaque accumulation and composition. All proteins were significantly (alpha = 0.05) correlated with each other (r = 0.38-0.52, p less than 0.001). There was only one axis of common variation among proteins, and that axis was significantly correlated (p less than 0.001) with total protein (r = 0.84) and flow rate (r = -0.56). That pattern deviated from the previous finding that proteins of acinar origin tended to vary independently from proteins of ductal origin in stimulated parotid saliva. The difference between parotid and whole saliva may reflect constitutive secretion of all proteins at low levels of stimulation. Common variation of unstimulated saliva proteins suggests that antimicrobial actions can be compared in subjects at population extremes. There were no significant associations between antimicrobial proteins in whole saliva and measures of health status or plaque accumulation. However, the proportions of Streptococcus sanguis were significantly correlated with lysozyme (r = -0.26), lactoferrin (r = -0.34), peroxidase (r = -0.30), total protein (r = -0.37), flow rate (r = 0.24) and principal-components scores (r = -0.33) in a subset of subjects (n = 85) where commercial biochemical tests were used to supplement species

  12. Integrated system for temperature-controlled fast protein liquid chromatography comprising improved copolymer modified beaded agarose adsorbents and a travelling cooling zone reactor arrangement.

    PubMed

    Müller, Tobias K H; Cao, Ping; Ewert, Stephanie; Wohlgemuth, Jonas; Liu, Haiyang; Willett, Thomas C; Theodosiou, Eirini; Thomas, Owen R T; Franzreb, Matthias

    2013-04-12

    An integrated approach to temperature-controlled chromatography, involving copolymer modified agarose adsorbents and a novel travelling cooling zone reactor (TCZR) arrangement, is described. Sepharose CL6B was transformed into a thermoresponsive cation exchange adsorbent (thermoCEX) in four synthetic steps: (i) epichlorohydrin activation; (ii) amine capping; (iii) 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) immobilization; and 'graft from' polymerization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-tert-butylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide). FT-IR, (1)H NMR, gravimetry and chemical assays allowed precise determination of the adsorbent's copolymer composition and loading, and identified the initial epoxy activation step as a critical determinant of 'on-support' copolymer loading, and in turn, protein binding performance. In batch binding studies with lactoferrin, thermoCEX's binding affinity and maximum adsorption capacity rose smoothly with temperature increase from 20 to 50 °C. In temperature shifting chromatography experiments employing thermoCEX in thermally jacketed columns, 44-51% of the lactoferrin adsorbed at 42 °C could be desorbed under binding conditions by cooling the column to 22 °C, but the elution peaks exhibited strong tailing. To more fully exploit the potential of thermoresponsive chromatography adsorbents, a new column arrangement, the TCZR, was developed. In TCZR chromatography, a narrow discrete cooling zone (special assembly of copper blocks and Peltier elements) is moved along a bespoke fixed-bed separation columnfilled with stationary phase. In tests with thermoCEX, it was possible to recover 65% of the lactoferrin bound at 35 °C using 8 successive movements of the cooling zone at a velocity of 0.1mm/s; over half of the recovered protein was eluted in the first peak in more concentrated form than in the feed. Intra-particle diffusion of desorbed protein out of the support pores, and the ratio between the velocities of the cooling

  13. Advanced microscopic methods for the detection of adhesion barriers in immunology in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Shane

    2017-07-01

    Advanced methods of microscopy and advanced techniques of analysis stemming therefrom have developed greatly in the past few years.The use of single discrete methods has given way to the combination of methods which means an increase in data for processing to progress to the analysis and diagnosis of ailments and diseases which can be viewed by each and any method.This presentation shows the combination of such methods and gives example of the data which arises from each individual method and the combined methodology and suggests how such data can be streamlined to enable conclusions to be drawn about the particular biological and biochemical considerations that arise.In this particular project the subject of the methodology was human lactoferrin and the relation of the adhesion properties of hlf in the overcoming of barriers to adhesion mainly on the perimeter of the cellular unit and how this affects the process of immunity in any particular case.

  14. Role of Innate Immunity in Neonatal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca, Alex G; Wynn, James L; Moldawer, Lyle L; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Newborns are at increased risk of infection due to genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Herein we examine the roles of the neonatal innate immune system in host defense against bacterial and viral infections. Full-term newborns express a distinct innate immune system biased towards TH2/TH17-polarizing and anti-inflammatory cytokine production with relative impairment in TH1-polarizing cytokine production that leaves them particularly vulnerable to infection with intracellular pathogens. In addition to these distinct features, preterm newborns also have fragile skin, impaired TH17-polarizing cytokine production and deficient expression of complement and of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (APPs) that likely contribute to susceptibility to pyogenic bacteria. Ongoing research is identifying APPs, including bacterial/permeability-increasing protein and lactoferrin, as well as pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists that may serve to enhance protective newborn and infant immune responses as stand alone immune response modifiers or vaccine adjuvants. PMID:23297181

  15. Gut-targeted immunonutrition boosting natural killer cell activity using Saccharomyces boulardii lysates in immuno-compromised healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yasuhiro; Marotta, Francesco; Kantah, Makoto K; Zerbinati, Nicola; Kushugulova, Almagul; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Illuzzi, Nicola; Sapienza, Chiara; Takadanohara, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Riyichi; Catanzaro, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effect of KC-1317 (a symbiotic mixture containing Saccharomyces boulardii lysate in a cranberry, colostrum-derived lactoferrin, fragaria, and lactose mixture) supplementation in immune-compromised but otherwise healthy elderly subjects. A liquid formulation of KC-1317 was administered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) fashion to healthy volunteers (65-79 years) previously selected for low natural killer (NK) cell activity, and this parameter was checked at the completion of the study. A significant improvement in NK cell activity of KC-1317 consumers was observed as compared to placebo at the end of 2 months. Although preliminary, these beneficial immune-modulatory effects of KC-1317 in aged individuals might indicate its employment within a wider age-management strategy.

  16. Human Milk Glycoproteins Protect Infants Against Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Breastfeeding protects the neonate against pathogen infection. Major mechanisms of protection include human milk glycoconjugates functioning as soluble receptor mimetics that inhibit pathogen binding to the mucosal cell surface, prebiotic stimulation of gut colonization by favorable microbiota, immunomodulation, and as a substrate for bacterial fermentation products in the gut. Human milk proteins are predominantly glycosylated, and some biological functions of these human milk glycoproteins (HMGPs) have been reported. HMGPs range in size from 14 kDa to 2,000 kDa and include mucins, secretory immunoglobulin A, bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin, butyrophilin, lactadherin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review summarizes known biological roles of HMGPs that may contribute to the ability of human milk to protect neonates from disease. PMID:23697737

  17. Development of assay system for immunoglobulin production regulatory factors using whole cell cultures of mouse splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Takasugi, M; Tamura, Y; Tachibana, H; Sugano, M; Yamada, K

    2001-01-01

    We tried to establish an assay system for screening and assessment of immunoregulatory factors using whole cell cultures of mouse splenocytes and found that splenic adhesive cells markedly increased immunogobulin (Ig) production of splenocytes. In the absence of adhesive cells, lipopolysaccharides, pokeweed mitogen, and phytohemagglutinin stimulated the production of IgA, IgG, and IgM in a class-dependent manner. Adhesive cells increased more markedly Ig production of splenocytes stimulated with these mitogens. When mouse splenocytes were cultured with milk proteins in the absence of adhesive cells, lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-casein, and beta-casein stimulated IgA and IgG production. Adhesive cells increased IgA production of splenocytes stimulated with milk proteins, especially. These results suggest that the assay system is useful for assessment of Ig production-regulating factors.

  18. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Gonococcal Infection in Male Volunteers: Cumulative Experience with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains FA1090 and MS11mkC

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Marcia M.; Sparling, P. Frederick; Cohen, Myron S.; Shafer, William M.; Deal, Carolyn D.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental infection of male volunteers with Neisseria gonorrhoeae is safe and reproduces the clinical features of naturally acquired gonococcal urethritis. Human inoculation studies have helped define the natural history of experimental infection with two well-characterized strains of N. gonorrhoeae, FA1090 and MS11mkC. The human model has proved useful for testing the importance of putative gonococcal virulence factors for urethral infection in men. Studies with isogenic mutants have improved our understanding of the requirements for gonococcal LOS structures, pili, opacity proteins, IgA1 protease, and the ability of infecting organisms to obtain iron from human transferrin and lactoferrin during uncomplicated urethritis. The model also presents opportunities to examine innate host immune responses that may be exploited or improved in development and testing of gonococcal vaccines. Here we review results to date with human experimental gonorrhea. PMID:21734909

  20. Glycan involvement in the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tears.

    PubMed

    Kautto, Liisa; Nguyen-Khuong, Terry; Everest-Dass, Arun; Leong, Andrea; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark D P; Packer, Nicolle H; Peterson, Robyn

    2016-04-01

    The human eye is constantly bathed by tears, which protect the ocular surface via a variety of mechanisms. The O-linked glycans of tear mucins have long been considered to play a role in binding to pathogens and facilitating their removal in the tear flow. Other conjugated glycans in tears could similarly contribute to pathogen binding and removal but have received less attention. In the work presented here we assessed the contribution of glycan moieties, in particular the protein attached N-glycans, presented by the broad complement of tear proteins to the adhesion of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of microbial keratitis and ulceration of the cornea. Our adhesion assay involved immobilising the macromolecular components of tears into the wells of a polyvinyl difluoride (PVDF) microtitre filter plate and probing the binding of fluorescently labelled bacteria. Three P. aeruginosa strains were studied: a cytotoxic strain (6206) and an invasive strain (6294) from eye infections, and an invasive strain (320) from a urinary tract infection (UTI). The ocular isolates adhered two to three times more to human tears than to human saliva or porcine gastric mucin, suggesting ocular niche-specific adaptation. Support for the role of the N-glycans carried by human tear proteins in the binding and removal of P. aeruginosa from the eye was shown by: 1) pre-incubation of the bacteria with free component sugars, galactose, mannose, fucose and sialyl lactose (or combination thereof) inhibiting adhesion of all the P. aeruginosa strains to the immobilised tear proteins, with the greatest inhibition of binding of the ocular cytotoxic 6206 and least for the invasive 6294 strain; 2) pre-incubation of the bacteria with N-glycans released from the commercially available human milk lactoferrin, an abundant protein that carries N-linked glycans in tears, inhibiting the adhesion to tears of the ocular bacteria by up to 70%, which was significantly more

  1. Improved health-relevant functionality in dark germinated Mucuna pruriens sprouts by elicitation with peptide and phytochemical elicitors.

    PubMed

    Randhir, Reena; Kwon, Young-In; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-10-01

    The health-relevant functionality of Mucuna pruriens was improved by priming the seeds with elicitors of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) such as fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs), lactoferrin (LF) and oregano extract (OE) followed by dark germination. FPH elicited the highest phenolic content of 19 mg/g FW on day 1, which was 38% higher than control sprouts. OE enhanced Parkinson's disease-relevant L-DOPA content by 33% on day 1 compared to control sprouts. Anti-diabetes-relevant alpha-amylase inhibition percent (AIP) and alpha-glucosidase inhibition percent (GIP) were high in the cotyledons and decreased following elicitation and sprouting. For potential anti-diabetic applications, low AIP and high GIP with moderate L-DOPA content on day 4 of dark germination could be optimal. Improved L-DOPA concentrations in a soluble phenolic and antioxidant-rich M. pruriens background on day 1 sprouts have potential for Parkinson's disease management.

  2. Dissecting the role of milk components on gut microbiota composition

    PubMed Central

    Maga, Elizabeth A.; Weimer, Bart C.; Murray, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The composition of human milk is tailored to contribute to the development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of newborns and infants. Importantly, human milk contains the antimicrobial compounds lysozyme and lactoferrin that are thought to contribute to the formation of a health-promoting microbiota. As these protective factors are lacking in the milk of dairy animals, we genetically engineered goats expressing human lysozyme in their milk and have recently reported a new animal model to dissect out the role of milk components on gut microbiota formation. Using the pig as a more human-relevant animal model, we demonstrated that consumption of lysozyme-rich milk enriched the abundance of bacteria associated with GI health and decreased those associated with disease, much like human milk. This work demonstrated that the pig is a valid animal model for gut microbiome studies on the effects of dietary components on microbiota composition, host-microbe interactions and state of the intestine. PMID:23235404

  3. Bioactive peptides derived from human milk proteins--mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Human milk contains a multitude of bioactive proteins with very diverse functions, which are beneficial for the rapidly growing neonate. The large variety of bioactivities is accomplished by the combination of bioactive proteins per se and gastrointestinal release of bioactive peptides derived from them. The bioactivities exerted by these peptides include enhancement of mineral absorption, immunomodulation, opioid, antihypertensive and antimicrobial activities. Notably, several of the activities are not attributed to the parental proteins, but exclusively to released bioactive peptides. This article reviews studies on bioactive peptides derived from major human milk proteins, such as caseins, α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin, during gastrointestinal digestion. Studies of bovine milk counterparts are also cited as a comparison. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Recent advances in prevention of sepsis in the premature neonates in NICU.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, P; Rizzollo, S; Decembrino, L; Ruffinazzi, G; Rossi Ricci, A; Gallo, E; Stolfi, I; Mostert, M; Stronati, M; Farina, D

    2011-03-01

    Sepsis-related morbidity and mortality are major problems in NICU. Preterm neonates display clinical characteristics that make them prone to infections. Due to the high frequency of severe neurodevelopmental sequelae in survivors, the best possible strategy to manage sepsis in NICU is to prevent them. Hygiene, cohorting, stewardship on use of H2-blockers, steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotic are mandatory, as well as proper management of central venous accesses and surgical devices. In addition, clinical research offers the opportunity of adopting pharmacological preventative strategies such as use of palivizumab to prevent RSV infection, use of fluconazole to prevent fungal sepsis, use of probiotics and lactoferrin to enhance the innate immunity, and use of pagibaximab to prevent staphylococcal sepsis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lactoferricin treatment decreases the rate of cell proliferation of a human colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Freiburghaus, C; Janicke, B; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Oredsson, S M; Paulsson, M A

    2009-06-01

    Food components modify the risk of cancer at a large number of sites but the mechanism of action is unknown. In the present investigation, we studied the effect of the peptide lactoferricin derived from bovine milk lactoferrin on human colon cancer CaCo-2 cells. The cells were either untreated or treated with 2.0, 0.2, or 0.02 microM lactoferricin. Cell cycle kinetics were investigated with a bromodeoxyuridine DNA flow cytometric method. The results show that lactoferricin treatment slightly but significantly prolonged the S phase of the cell cycle. Lactoferricin treatment lowered the level of cyclin E1, a protein involved in the regulation of genes required for G(1)/S transition and consequently for efficient S phase progression. The slight prolongation of the S phase resulted in a reduction of cell proliferation, which became more apparent after a long treatment time.

  6. Interference of the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B with the action of various antibiotics against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Vorland, L H; Osbakk, S A; Perstølen, T; Ulvatne, H; Rekdal, O; Svendsen, J S; Gutteberg, T J

    1999-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, lactoferricin, can be generated upon gastric pepsin cleavage of lactoferrin. We have examined the interaction of lactoferricin of bovine origin, Lf-cin B, with the antibiotics penicillin G, vancomycin, gentamicin, colistin, D-cycloserine and erythromycin against E. coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. We demonstrated synergism between Lf-cin B and erythromycin against E. coli, and partial synergism between Lf-cin B and penicillin G, vancomycin and gentamicin against E. coli. Only penicillin G acted in partial synergism with Lf-cin B against S. aureus. Lf-cin B antagonized vancomycin and gentamicin against S. aureus in low concentration. We conclude that Lf-cin B may facilitate the uptake of antibiotics across the cell envelope.

  7. [Separation and identification of bovine lactoferricin by high performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/ time of flight mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    An, Meichen; Liu, Ning

    2010-02-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) method was developed for the separation and identification of bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB). Bovine lactoferrin was hydrolyzed by pepsin and then separated by ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). The antibacterial activities of the fractions from RP-LC separation were determined and the protein concentration of the fraction with the highest activity was measured, whose sequence was indentified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The relative molecular mass of LfcinB was 3 124.89 and the protein concentration was 18.20 microg/mL. The method of producing LfcinB proposed in this study has fast speed, high accuracy and high resolution.

  8. The structure of the antimicrobial active center of lactoferricin B bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Schibli, D J; Hwang, P M; Vogel, H J

    1999-03-12

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) is a 25-residue antimicrobial peptide released from bovine lactoferrin upon pepsin digestion. The antimicrobial center of LfcinB consists of six residues (RRWQWR-NH2), and it possesses similar bactericidal activity to LfcinB. The structure of the six-residue peptide bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles has been determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics refinement. The peptide adopts a well defined amphipathic structure when bound to SDS micelles with the Trp sidechains separated from the Arg residues. Additional evidence demonstrates that the peptide is oriented in the micelle such that the Trp residues are more deeply buried in the micelle than the Arg and Gln residues.

  9. Recent studies on the antimicrobial peptides lactoferricin and lactoferrampin.

    PubMed

    Yin, C; Wong, J H; Ng, T B

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferricin and lactoferrampin, peptides derived from the whey protein lactoferrin, are antimicrobial agents with a promising prospect and are currently one of the research focuses. In this review, a basic introduction including location and solution structures of these two peptides is given. Their biological activities encompassing antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities with possible mechanisms are mentioned. In terms of modification studies, research about identification of their active derivatives and crucial amino acid residues is also discussed. Various attempts at modification of lactoferricin and lactoferrampin such as introducing big hydrophobic side-chains; employing special amino acids for synthesis; N-acetylization, amidation, cyclization and peptide chimera are summarized. The studies on lactoferricin-lactoferrampin chimera are discussed in detail. Future prospects of lactoferricin and lactoferrampin are covered.

  10. Proteases in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus confer reduced susceptibility to lactoferricin B.

    PubMed

    Ulvatne, Hilde; Haukland, Hanne Husom; Samuelsen, Ørjan; Krämer, Manuela; Vorland, Lars H

    2002-10-01

    Lactoferricin B is a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the N-terminal part of bovine lactoferrin. The effect of bacterial proteases on the antibacterial activity of lactoferricin B towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated using various protease inhibitors and protease-deficient E. coli mutants. Sodium-EDTA, a metalloprotease inhibitor, was the most efficient inhibitors in both species, but combinations of sodium-EDTA with other types of protease inhibitor gave a synergic effect. The results indicate that several groups of proteases are involved in resistance to lactoferricin B in both E. coli and S. aureus. We also report that genetic inactivation of the heat shock-induced serine protease DegP increased the susceptibility to lactoferricin B in E. coli, suggesting that this protease, at least, is involved in reduced susceptibility to lactoferricin B.

  11. Inability to detect transferrin receptors on P. falciparum parasitized red cells.

    PubMed

    Pollack, S; Schnelle, V

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which P. falciparum takes up iron from transferrin has been explored. Binding of 125I labelled transferrin to parasitized red cells at 37 degrees C is two-fold greater than to control cells; at 0 degrees C there is no significant difference. The binding is non-specific as judged from the following: it is not saturable; it is not limited to transferrin as lactoferrin (which has iron binding domains) and bovine serum albumin (which does not) also bind in excess to parasitized red cells. A transferrin receptor complex could not be demonstrated when parasitized red cells, to which 125I transferrin was bound, were solubilized in Triton X100. Previous observation showed that uptake of transferrin iron by parasitized red cells is not accompanied by equimolar uptake of transferrin protein. We therefore suggest that nonspecifically bound transferrin is endocytosed, that the protein is degraded and the iron selectively retained.

  12. Gut Balance, a synbiotic supplement, increases fecal Lactobacillus paracasei but has little effect on immunity in healthy physically active individuals

    PubMed Central

    West, Nicholas P.; Pyne, David B.; Cripps, Allan; Christophersen, Claus T.; Conlon, Michael A.; Fricker, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Synbiotic supplements, which contain multiple functional ingredients, may enhance the immune system more than the use of individual ingredients alone. A double blind active controlled parallel trial over a 21 day exercise training period was conducted to evaluate the effect of Gut BalanceTM, which contains Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (L. casei 431®), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis (BB-12®), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5®), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®), two prebiotics (raftiline and raftilose) and bovine whey derived lactoferrin and immunoglobulins with acacia gum on fecal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), gut permeability, salivary lactoferrin and serum cytokines. All subjects randomized were included in the analysis. There was a 9-fold (1.2-fold to 64-fold; 95% confidence intervals p = 0.03) greater increase in fecal L. paracasei numbers with Gut BalanceTM compared with acacia gum supplementation. Gut BalanceTM was associated with a 50% (-12% to 72%; p = 0.02) smaller increase in the concentration of serum IL-16 in comparison to acacia gum from pre- to post-study. No substantial effects of either supplement were evident in fecal SCFA concentrations, measures of mucosal immunity or GI permeability. Clinical studies are now required to determine whether Gut BalanceTM may exert beneficial GI health effects by increasing the recovery of fecal L. paracasei. Both supplements had little effect on immunity. Twenty-two healthy physically active male subjects (mean age = 33.9 ± 6.5 y) were randomly allocated to either daily prebiotic or synbiotic supplementation for 21 day. Saliva, blood, urine and fecal samples were collected pre-, mid- and post-intervention. Participants recorded patterns of physical activity on a self-reported questionnaire. PMID:22572834

  13. Efficacy, Safety and Anticancer Activity of Protein Nanoparticle-Based Delivery of Doxorubicin through Intravenous Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Golla, Kishore; Cherukuvada, Bhaskar; Ahmed, Farhan; Kondapi, Anand K.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Doxorubicin is a potent anticancer drug and a major limiting factor that hinders therapeutic use as its high levels of systemic circulation often associated with various off-target effects, particularly cardiotoxicity. The present study focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of doxorubicin when it is loaded into the protein nanoparticles and delivered intravenously in rats bearing Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The proteins selected as carrier were Apotransferrin and Lactoferrin, since the receptors for these two proteins are known to be over expressed on cancer cells due to their iron transport capacity. Methods Doxorubicin loaded apotransferrin (Apodoxonano) and lactoferrin nanoparticles (Lactodoxonano) were prepared by sol-oil chemistry. HCC in the rats was induced by 100 mg/l of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) in drinking water for 8 weeks. Rats received 5 doses of 2 mg/kg drug equivalent nanoparticles through intravenous administration. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of nanoformulations was evaluated in healthy rats and anticancer activity was studied in DENA treated rats. The anticancer activity was evaluated through counting of the liver nodules, H & E analysis and by estimating the expression levels of angiogenic and antitumor markers. Results In rats treated with nanoformulations, the numbers of liver nodules were found to be significantly reduced. They showed highest drug accumulation in liver (22.4 and 19.5 µg/g). Both nanoformulations showed higher localization compared to doxorubicin (Doxo) when delivered in the absence of a carrier. Higher amounts of Doxo (195 µg/g) were removed through kidney, while Apodoxonano and Lactodoxonano showed only a minimal amount of removal (<40 µg/g), suggesting the extended bioavailability of Doxo when delivered through nanoformulation. Safety analysis shows minimal cardiotoxicity due to lower drug accumulation in heart in the case of nanoformulation. Conclusion Drug delivery through nanoformulations not

  14. A Target-Specific Oral Formulation of Doxorubicin-Protein Nanoparticles: Efficacy and Safety in Hepatocellular Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Golla, Kishore; Bhaskar, Cherukuvada; Ahmed, Farhan; Kondapi, Anand K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) also known as malignant hepatoma is a most common liver cancer. Doxorubicin (Doxo) is an anti-cancer drug having activity against a wide spectrum of cancer types. Clinical Utility of doxo has been limited due to its poor bioavailability and toxicity to heart and spleen. Furthermore, cancer chemotherapeutics have limited oral absorption. Transferrin family proteins are highly abundant and plays important role in transport and storage of iron in cells and tissues. Since apotransferrin and lactoferrin receptors are highly expressed on the surface of metabolically active cancer cells, the principal objective of present study is to evaluate efficacy of doxorubicin loaded apotransferrin and lactoferrin nanoparticles (apodoxonano or lactodoxonano) in oral treatment of HCC in rats. Study Design: HCC was induced in rats by supplementing 100 mg/L of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) in drinking water for 8 weeks. A week after the last day of DENA administration, rats were divided into four groups, each group comprising of five animals. Each group was administered with one of the drug viz., saline, doxorubicin (doxo), apodoxonano and lactodoxonano (4 mg/ kg equivalent of drug). In each case, they received 8 doses of the drug orally with six day interval. One week after the last dose, anticancer activity was evaluated by counting the liver nodules, H & E analysis of tissue sections and expression levels of angiogenic and antitumor markers. Results: In rats treated with apodoxonano and lactodoxonano, the number of neoplastic nodules was significantly lower than that of rats administered with saline or with doxo. Apodoxonano and lactodoxonano did not exhibit decrease in mean body weight, which was markedly reduced by 22% in the case of doxo administered rats. In rats treated with nanoformulations, the number of liver nodules was found reduced by >93%. Both nanoformulations showed significantly high localization in liver compared to doxo

  15. Fractionation of whey proteins with high-capacity superparamagnetic ion-exchangers.

    PubMed

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, Sune F L; Thomas, Owen R T

    2004-09-30

    In this study we describe the design, preparation and testing of superparamagnetic anion-exchangers, and their use together with cation-exchangers in the fractionation of bovine whey proteins as a model study for high-gradient magnetic fishing. Adsorbents prepared by attachment of trimethyl amine to particles activated in sequential reactions with allyl bromide and N-bromosuccinimide yielded a maximum bovine serum albumin binding capacity of 156 mg g(-1) combined with a dissociation constant of 0.60 microM, whereas ion-exchangers created by linking polyethylene imine through superficial aldehydes bound up to 337 mg g(-1) with a dissociation constant of 0.042 microM. The latter anion-exchanger was selected for studies of whey protein fractionation. In these, crude bovine whey was treated with a superparamagnetic cation-exchanger to adsorb basic protein species, and the supernatant arising from this treatment was then contacted with the anion-exchanger. For both adsorbent classes of ion-exchanger, desorption selectivity was subsequently studied by sequentially increasing the concentration of NaCl in the elution buffer. In the initial cation-exchange step quantitative removal of lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) was achieved with some simultaneous binding of immunoglobulins (Ig). The immunoglobulins were separated from the other two proteins by desorbing with a low concentration of NaCl (< or = 0.4 M), whereas lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase were co-eluted in significantly purer form, e.g. lactoperoxidase was purified 28-fold over the starting material, when the NaCl concentration was increased to 0.4-1 M. The anion-exchanger adsorbed beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) selectively allowing separation from the remaining protein.

  16. Acute inflammatory proteins constitute the organic matrix of prostatic corpora amylacea and calculi in men with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sfanos, Karen S.; Wilson, Brice A.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Isaacs, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Corpora amylacea (CA) are a frequent microscopic finding in radical prostatectomy specimens from men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer. Although often observed histologically to be associated with inflammation, the contribution of CA to prostatitis-related symptoms of unknown etiology or to prostate carcinogenesis remains unclear. Prostatic calculi (PC), which potentially represent calcified forms of CA, are less common but can cause urological disease including urinary retention and prostatitis. We conducted a comprehensive compositional analysis of CA/PC to gain insight into their biogenesis. Infrared spectroscopy analysis of calculi collected from 23 patients confirmed a prevalence of calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite. This result sets PC apart from most urinary stones, which largely are composed of calcium oxalate. Tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of CA/PC revealed that lactoferrin is the predominant protein component, a result that was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Other proteins identified, including calprotectin, myeloperoxidase, and α-defensins, are proteins contained in neutrophil granules. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) suggested the source of lactoferrin to be prostate-infiltrating neutrophils as well as inflamed prostate epithelium; however, IHC for calprotectin suggested prostate-infiltrating neutrophils as a major source of the protein, because it was absent from other prostate compartments. This study represents a definitive analysis of the protein composition of prostatic CA and calculi and suggests that acute inflammation has a role in their biogenesis—an intriguing finding, given the prevalence of CA in prostatectomy specimens and the hypothesized role for inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:19202053

  17. Binding and Utilization of Human Transferrin by Prevotella nigrescens

    PubMed Central

    Duchesne, Pascale; Grenier, Daniel; Mayrand, Denis

    1999-01-01

    To survive and multiply within their hosts, pathogens must possess efficient iron-scavenging mechanisms. In the present study, we investigate the capacity of Prevotella nigrescens and Prevotella intermedia to use various sources of iron for growth and characterize the transferrin-binding activity of P. nigrescens. Iron-saturated human transferrin and lactoferrin, but not ferric chloride and the iron-free form of transferrin, could be used as sources of iron by P. nigrescens and P. intermedia. Neither siderophore activity nor ferric reductase activity could be detected in P. nigrescens and P. intermedia. However, both species showed transferrin-binding activity as well as the capacity to proteolytically cleave transferrin. To various extents, all strains of P. nigrescens and P. intermedia tested demonstrated transferrin-binding activity. The activity was heat and protease sensitive. The capacity of P. nigrescens to bind transferrin was decreased when cells were grown in the presence of hemin. Preincubation of bacterial cells with hemin, hemoglobin, lactoferrin, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G, or laminin did not affect transferrin-binding activity. The transferrin-binding protein could be extracted from the cell surface of P. nigrescens by treatment with a zwitterionic detergent. Subjecting the cell surface extract to affinity chromatography on an agarose-transferrin column revealed that it contained a protein having an estimated molecular mass of 37 kDa and possessing transferrin-binding activity. The transferrin-binding activity of P. nigrescens and P. intermedia may permit the bacteria to obtain iron for survival and growth in periodontal pockets. PMID:9916061

  18. Effect of innate antiviral glycoproteins in breast milk on seroconversion to rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) in children in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwila-Kazimbaya, Katayi; Garcia, Miguel Pugliese; Bosomprah, Samuel; Laban, Natasha Makabilo; Chisenga, Caroline Cleopatra; Permar, Sallie Robey; Simuyandi, Michelo; Munsaka, Sody; Chilengi, Roma

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccines have been introduced into national immunization programmes to mitigate morbidity and mortality associated rotavirus diarrhoea. Lower vaccine effectiveness has however been noted in low-middle income countries, but little is known about the role of maternal components found in breast milk. This study assessed the effect of lactoferrin, lactadherin, and tenascin-c on rotavirus vaccine seroconversion. This was a retrospective cohort study of 128 infants who had been fully immunized with Rotarix™. Serum samples were collected from the infant at baseline and one month after second rotavirus vaccine dose. Breast milk samples were collected from mothers at baseline. Standard ELISA was used to determine titres of rotavirus-specific immunologlobulin G and A in breast milk and serum as well as concentrations of lactoferrin, lactadherin, and tenascin-c. Poisson regression model with robust standard error was used to estimate the effect of breast milk components on seroconversion. The components were modelled on log base 2 so that the effect would be interpreted as a doubling of the concentration. In a multivariable analysis adjusting for maternal age, maternal HIV status, seropositivity at baseline, sex, age of child at vaccination as well as breast milk IgA and IgG, we found evidence of independent effect of LA (Adjusted IRR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99; P = 0.019) on seroconversion while there was no evidence for TNC (Adjusted IRR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.85-1.17; P = 0.967) and LF (Adjusted RR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.96-1.05); P = 0.802). We explored the joint effects of the three components but we found no evidence (Adjusted RR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.81; P = 0.535). High breast milk concentrations of lactadherin might play a role in infant's failure to seroconvert to rotavirus vaccines. Further research to understand this observed association is an important consideration.

  19. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme, Immunoglobulin A, oligosaccharides and sodium in longitudinal samples of mother's milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Host Defense Proteins in Breast Milk and Neonatal Yeast Colonization.

    PubMed

    Chow, Brian D W; Reardon, Juliann L; Perry, Emily O; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S; Tucker, Richard; Bliss, Joseph M

    2016-02-01

    Colonization increases risk for invasive candidiasis in neonates. Breast milk host defense proteins may affect yeast colonization of infants. This study aimed to evaluate breast milk host defense proteins relative to yeast colonization in infants. Infants admitted for longer than 72 hours to the neonatal intensive care unit at Women & Infants Hospital in Providence, Rhode Island, were eligible. After consent, expressed breast milk and swabs from oral, rectal, and inguinal sites from infants were cultured weekly for 12 weeks, or until discharge, transfer, or death. Breast milk was tested for levels of human lactoferrin, lysozyme, apolipoprotein J, mucin-1, dermcidin, and soluble CD14 using commercial ELISA. Concentrations of these components were compared in breast milk received by infants who were colonized or not colonized with yeast. From an original cohort of 130, 61 infants had samples available for this subanalysis. A convenience sample of stored breast milk was analyzed. Median lactoferrin, apolipoprotein J, and mucin-1 did not differ between colonized and uncolonized groups. Soluble CD14 was higher in the surface-colonized group (1.8 μg/mL, n = 12) compared with the surface-uncolonized group (1.6 μg/mL, n = 12, P = .02). Median lysozyme levels were higher in the surface-uncolonized group (483.0 ng/mL, n = 12) versus the surface-colonized group (298.3 ng/mL, n = 12, P = .04). Median dermcidin levels were higher in the surface-uncolonized group (19.4 ng/mL, n = 12) versus the surface-colonized group (8.7 ng/mL, n = 12, P = .04). This study shows an association between colonization with Candida in neonates and lower levels of lysozyme and dermcidin in received breast milk. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Kinetic characterization of a novel endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase on concentrated bovine colostrum whey to release bioactive glycans.

    PubMed

    Karav, Sercan; Parc, Annabelle Le; de Moura Bell, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega; Rouquié, Camille; Mills, David A; Barile, Daniela; Block, David E

    2015-09-01

    EndoBI-1 is a recently isolated endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, which cleaves the N-N'-diacetyl chitobiose moiety found in the N-glycan core of high mannose, hybrid and complex N-glycans. These N-glycans have selective prebiotic activity for a key infant gut microbe, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The broad specificity of EndoBI-1 suggests the enzyme may be useful for many applications, particularly for deglycosylating milk glycoproteins in dairy processing. To facilitate its commercial use, we determined kinetic parameters for EndoBI-1 on the model substrates ribonuclease B and bovine lactoferrin, as well as on concentrated bovine colostrum whey. Km values ranging from 0.25 to 0.49, 0.43 to 1.00 and 0.90 to 3.18 mg/mL and Vmax values ranging from 3.5×10(-3) to 5.09×10(-3), 4.5×10(-3) to 7.75×10(-3) and 1.9×10(-2)to 5.2×10(-2) mg/mL×min were determined for ribonuclease B, lactoferrin and whey, respectively. In general, EndoBI-1 showed the highest apparent affinity for ribonuclease B, while the maximum reaction rate was the highest for concentrated whey. EndoBI-1-released N-glycans were quantified by a phenol-sulphuric total carbohydrate assay and the resultant N-glycan structures monitored by nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS. The kinetic parameters and structural characterization of glycans released suggest EndoBI-1 can facilitate large-scale release of complex, bioactive glycans from a variety of glycoprotein substrates. Moreover, these results suggest that whey, often considered as a waste product, can be used effectively as a source of prebiotic N-glycans. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Resveratrol in Hepatitis C Patients Treated with Pegylated-Interferon-α-2b and Ribavirin Reduces Sleep Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Manuela; Bertino, Gaetano; Gagliano, Caterina; Malaguarnera, Michele; Bella, Rita; Borzì, Antonio Maria; Madeddu, Roberto; Drago, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. Aim: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Peg-IFN-α and RBV. Patients and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1.5 mg/kg per week), Ribavirin and placebo (N-acetylcysteine 600 mg and lactoferrin 23.6 g), while 30 subjects (Group B) received the same dosage of Pegylated-Interferon-α2b, Ribavirin and association of N-acetylcysteine 600 mg, lactoferrin 23.6 g and Resveratrol 19.8 mg for 12 months. All subjects underwent laboratory exams and questionnaires to evaluate mood and sleep disorders (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)). Results: The comparison between Group A and Group B showed significant differences after six months in C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001); after 12 months in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p < 0.0001) Viremia (p < 0.0001), HAI (p < 0.0012) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001); and at follow up in AST (p < 0.0001), Viremia (p < 0.0026) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001). Significant differences were observed after 12 month and follow-up in General Health Questionnaire, after 1, 6, 12 and follow-up in Profile of Mood States, after 6, 12, follow-up in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Conclusions: Supplementation with Resveratrol decreased General Health Questionnaire score and reduced sleep disorders in patients treated with Peg–IFN-α and RBV. PMID:28820468

  3. Administration of a Multi-Strain Probiotic Product to Women in the Perinatal Period Differentially Affects the Breast Milk Cytokine Profile and May Have Beneficial Effects on Neonatal Gastrointestinal Functional Symptoms. A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Maria Elisabetta; Di Mauro, Antonio; Mastromarino, Paola; Fanelli, Margherita; Martinelli, Domenico; Urbano, Flavia; Capobianco, Daniela; Laforgia, Nicola

    2016-10-27

    Probiotic supplementation to women during pregnancy and lactation can modulate breast milk composition, with immune benefits being transferred to their infants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of high-dose probiotic supplementation to women during late pregnancy and lactation on cytokine profile and secretory IgA (sIgA) in breast milk and thus to study if differences in breast milk composition can affect lactoferrin and sIgA levels in stool samples of newborns. The safety of maternal probiotic administration on neonatal growth pattern and gastrointestinal symptoms were also evaluated. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took either the probiotic ( n = 33) or a placebo ( n = 33) daily. Levels of interleukins (IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and sIgA in breast milk; and the level of sIgA and lactoferrin in newborn stool samples were analyzed at birth and then again at one month of life. Antropometrical evaluation and analysis of gastrointestinal events in newborns was also performed. Probiotic maternal consumption had a significant impact on IL6 mean values in colostrum and on IL10 and TGF-β1 mean values in mature breast milk. Fecal sIgA mean values were higher in newborns whose mothers took the probiotic product than in the control group. Probiotic maternal supplementation seems to decrease incidence of infantile colic and regurgitation in infants. High-dose multi-strain probiotic administration to women during pregnancy influences breast milk cytokines pattern and sIgA production in newborns, and seems to improve gastrointestinal functional symptoms in infants.

  4. Administration of a multistrain probiotic product (VSL#3) to women in the perinatal period differentially affects breast milk beneficial microbiota in relation to mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Mastromarino, Paola; Capobianco, Daniela; Miccheli, Alfredo; Praticò, Giulia; Campagna, Giuseppe; Laforgia, Nicola; Capursi, Teresa; Baldassarre, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation to a mother during the perinatal period can have a positive impact on the breast milk composition. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, during late pregnancy and lactation, on breast milk levels of beneficial bacteria and some functional components (oligosaccharides and lactoferrin) potentially able to have a positive influence on the microbiota. Breast milk microbiota was analyzed by conventional and quantitative real-time PCR. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took daily either the probiotic (n=33) or a placebo (n=33). Intergroup analysis demonstrated that the amounts of both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were significantly higher in the colostrum and mature milk of the mothers taking VSL#3 in comparison to those taking placebo. The analysis of bacterial strains and species present in breast milk of VSL#3 supplemented mothers indicated that the administered probiotic microorganisms did not pass from maternal gut to mammary gland. In women with vaginal delivery, significantly higher amounts of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were detected in colostrum and mature milk of probiotic treated group in comparison to placebo group, whereas no significant difference was observed between groups in women who had caesarean section, neither in colostrum nor in mature milk. Milk levels of oligosaccharides and lactoferrin were similar in placebo and probiotic supplemented groups at all timepoints and regardless of the mode of delivery. Our results indicate a probiotic-dependent modulation of breast milk microbiota in vaginally delivering women, possibly exerted through a systemic effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactions between whey proteins and salivary proteins as related to astringency of whey protein beverages at low pH.

    PubMed

    Ye, A; Streicher, C; Singh, H

    2011-12-01

    Whey protein beverages have been shown to be astringent at low pH. In the present study, the interactions between model whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin and lactoferrin) and human saliva in the pH range from 7 to 2 were investigated using particle size, turbidity, and ζ-potential measurements and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The correlation between the sensory results of astringency and the physicochemical data was discussed. Strong interactions between β-lactoglobulin and salivary proteins led to an increase in the particle size and turbidity of mixtures of both unheated and heated β-lactoglobulin and human saliva at pH ∼3.4. However, the large particle size and high turbidity that occurred at pH 2.0 were the result of aggregation of human salivary proteins. The intense astringency in whey protein beverages may result from these increases in particle size and turbidity at these pH values and from the aggregation and precipitation of human salivary proteins alone at pH <3.0. The involvement of salivary proteins in the interaction is a key factor in the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages. At any pH, the increases in particle size and turbidity were much smaller in mixtures of lactoferrin and saliva, which suggests that aggregation and precipitation may not be the only mechanism linked to the perception of astringency in whey protein. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Persistent oral human papillomavirus infection is associated with smoking and elevated salivary immunoglobulin G concentration.

    PubMed

    Haukioja, Anna; Asunta, Maribel; Söderling, Eva; Syrjänen, Stina

    2014-09-01

    Prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence in oral mucosa are largely unknown. Furthermore, the antiviral effects of saliva in the outcome of oral HPV infections are unexplored. To compare the levels of selected salivary defence proteins in women with a persistent oral HPV infection and in those without any signs of oral HPV. Lifestyle factors including the use of oral contraceptives, oral sex, smoking and alcohol drinking habits were also assessed. This nested case-control study of the Finnish Family HPV Study included 60 women with a persistent oral HPV infection and 117 women who remained HPV DNA negative throughout a 6-year follow-up. Whole saliva samples and oral scrapings for HPV testing were collected at the same visit. The oral HPV status was related to salivary concentrations of lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgA, IgG, total protein and sodium as well as to the use of oral contraceptives, oral sex, smoking and alcohol drinking habits. Women with a persistent oral HPV infection had higher salivary levels of IgG (p=0.007) and lysozyme (p=0.002, when adjusted to the total protein concentration), than those without an HPV infection. Lactoferrin and IgA concentrations were not related to the HPV-status. Smoking increased the risk of a persistent oral HPV infection (p=0.020), but the oral HPV status was not related to other life-style factors studied. Smoking is a risk factor for a persistent oral HPV infection. Oral HPV infection may be associated with increased concentrations of salivary IgG and lysozyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An in vitro method for comparing biocompatibility of materials for extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Peek, Giles J; Scott, Richard; Killer, Hilliary M; Firmin, Richard K

    2002-03-01

    We measured the response of fresh heparinized human blood to recirculation through circuits made of LVA (Portex Industries, Hythe, Kent, UK), SRT (Rehau UK, Langley, Slough, UK) and Tygon S-65-HL (Norton Performance Plastics, Corby, Northants, UK), as control. Circuit construction: 1/2 in. tubing, heat exchanger (Dideco D-720P), Stockert roller pump, just underoccluded, Cincinnati Sub Zero heater, circuit volume of 500 ml. Flow 3.45 l/min, 37 degrees C. at 10 min, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h. n=5 in each group; 2/5 SRT experiments were stopped at 45 and 60 min due to overpressurization. Baseline activated clotting time (ACT) of 300 s, increasing in all groups as fibrinogen fell to zero with SRT and LVA. Minimum fibrinogen was 1 g/l for Tygon. Absolute thrombocytopenia occurred (SRT and LVA 60 min and Tygon 240 min). International normalized ratio (INR) in both the SRT and LVA circuits increased, but mean increase for Tygon (0.56) was smaller than the other two materials. Plasma free haemoglobin increased in all three materials; the increase was greater in the LVA circuits compared to the control. C5b9 levels increased equally in all groups. Lactoferrin levels rose equally in all groups to a maximum at 150 min. The neutrophil counts fell, mirroring the lactoferrin. The total white cell counts also fell in all groups; in the LVA circuits, the fall was significantly lower than in the control. Rapid disappearance of platelets and fibrinogen from the blood in the SRT and LVA circuits excludes them both from extracorporeal use. Paradoxically, SRT caused the least complement activation of the three materials. This method can be used to compare biocompatibility.

  8. Effects of Extended Freezer Storage on the Integrity of Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Ahrabi, Ali Faraghi; Handa, Deepali; Codipilly, Champa N; Shah, Syed; Williams, Janet E; McGuire, Mark A; Potak, Debra; Aharon, Grace Golda; Schanler, Richard J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the integrity (pH, bacterial counts, host defense factors, nutrient contents, and osmolality) of freshly expressed and previously refrigerated human milk subjected to long-term freezer storage. Mothers donated 100 mL of freshly expressed milk. Samples were divided into baseline, storage at -20°C (fresh frozen) for 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, and prior storage at +4°C for 72 hours (refrigerated frozen) before storage at -20°C for 1 to 9 months. Samples were analyzed for pH, total bacterial colony count, gram-positive and gram-negative colony counts, and concentrations of total protein, fat, nonesterified fatty acids, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, and osmolality. Milk pH, total bacterial colony count, and Gram-positive colony counts decreased significantly with freezer storage (P < .001); bacterial counts decreased most rapidly in the refrigerated frozen group. The gram-negative colony count decreased significantly over time (P < .001). Nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased significantly with time in storage (P < .001). Freezing for up to 9 months did not affect total protein, fat, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, or osmolality in either group. Freezer storage of human milk for 9 months at -20°C is associated with decreasing pH and bacterial counts, but preservation of key macronutrients and immunoactive components, with or without prior refrigeration for 72 hours. These data support current guidelines for freezer storage of human milk for up to 9 months for both freshly expressed and refrigerated milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The nutritive and immunoprotective quality of human milk beyond 1 year postpartum: are lactation-duration-based donor exclusions justified?

    PubMed

    Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Allen, Jonathan C

    2013-08-01

    Donor human milk is critical for the fragile preterm infant who does not have access to his or her mother's milk, improving survival rates and quality of survival and decreasing hospital stay. Despite the opening of donor milk banks around the world, shortages continue as demand for donor milk exceeds supply. One potential means of increasing supply is by reducing exclusion criteria that prohibit mothers from donating milk based on duration of lactation. Minimal research has been done on the composition of human milk during the second year of lactation, with most research focusing on the nutritive compounds and not the immunoprotective compounds. Several immunoprotective compounds, including lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and oligosaccharides, are abundant in human milk compared to bovine-based infant formula and are partially or fully retained during Holder pasteurization, making them an important differentiating feature of donor milk. A PubMed search was conducted to review studies in human milk composition during the second year of lactation. Limitations of existing research include sample collection protocols, small study sizes, and use of populations that may have been at risk for nutritional deficiencies. Stable concentrations of several components were reported including protein, lactose, iron, copper, lactoferrin, and secretory immunoglobulin A. Lysozyme concentration increased during extended lactation, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined into the second year. Conflicting findings were reported on fat content, and no information was available regarding oligosaccharide content. More research is needed to create evidence-based guidelines regarding the nutritive and immunoprotective value of donor milk throughout the course of lactation.

  10. Do thawing and warming affect the integrity of human milk?

    PubMed

    Handa, D; Ahrabi, A F; Codipilly, C N; Shah, S; Ruff, S; Potak, D; Williams, J E; McGuire, M A; Schanler, R J

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the integrity of the human milk (pH, bacterial counts, host defense factors and nutrients) subjected to thawing, warming, refrigeration and maintenance at room temperature. Mothers in the neonatal intensive care unit donated freshly expressed milk. A baseline sample was stored at -80 °C and the remainder of the milk was divided and stored for 7 days at -20 °C. The milk was then subjected to two methods of thawing and warming: tepid water and waterless warmer. Thawed milk also was refrigerated for 24 h prior to warming. Lastly, warmed milk was maintained at room temperature for 4 h to simulate a feeding session. Samples were analyzed for pH, bacterial colony counts, total fat and free fatty acids, and the content of protein, secretory IgA and lactoferrin. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t test. There were no differences between processing methods and no changes in fat, protein, lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A with processing steps. Milk pH and bacterial colony counts declined while free fatty acids rose with processing. Refrigeration of thawed milk resulted in greater declines in pH and bacteria and increases in free fatty acids. Bacterial colony counts and free fatty acids increased with maintenance at room temperature. The integrity of the milk was affected similarly by the two thawing and warming methods. Thawing and warming change the integrity of previously frozen human milk, but not adversely. Concerns about maintaining warmed milk at room temperature need to be explored.

  11. Human milk proteins: key components for the biological activity of human milk.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Human milk contains a wide array of proteins that provide biologic activities ranging from antimicrobial effects to immunostimulatory functions. Proteins like lactoferrin, secretory IgA, kappa-casein, lactoperoxidase, haptocorrin, lactadherin and peptides formed from human milk proteins during digestion can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and viruses and therefore protect against infection. At the same time, proteins like lactoferrin, bile-salt stimulated lipase, haptocorrin, kappa-casein, and folate-binding protein can facilitate the absorption of nutrients in the neonatal gut. However, the proteins in human milk themselves also provide adequate amounts of essential amino acids to the growing infant. This suggests a highly adapted digestive system, which allows the survival of some proteins and peptides in the upper gastrointestinal tract, while still allowing amino acid utilization from these proteins further down in the gut. It is now possible to produce recombinant human milk proteins in transgenic plants and animals, which makes it possible to further study the bioactivity of these proteins. Provided these proteins can be produced in large scale at low cost, that they show biologic activity and pose no safety concerns, it may be possible to add some human milk proteins to infant diets, such as formula and complementary foods. Human milk proteins produced in rice or potatoes, for example, could be added without much purification, because these staples commonly are used in weaning foods. Thus, some qualities provided by human milk may be included into other diets, although it is highly unlikely that all unique components of human milk can be copied this way.

  12. The estrogenic effects of apigenin, phloretin and myricetin based on uterotrophic assay in immature Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Barlas, Nurhayat; Özer, Saadet; Karabulut, Gözde

    2014-04-07

    Chemicals that occur in vegetal food and known as phytoestrogens, because of their structures similarity to estrogen, have benefits on chronic diseases. Despite this, when they are taken at high amounts, they can cause harmful effects on endocrine system of human and animals. In this study, it has been intended to determine the estrogenic potencies of phytoestrogens apigenin, phloretin and myricetin whose affinities for estrogen receptors in vitro. The female rats divided into 17 groups, each containing six rats. There was a negative control group and there were positive control dose groups which contains ethinyl estradiol, ethinyl estradiol+tamoxifen and genistein. The other dose groups which were tested for estrogenic activity contains apigenin, myricetin and phloretin All chemicals have been given to Wistar immature female rats with oral gavage for 3 consecutive days. By using uterotrophic analysis, uterus wet and blotted weights, vaginal opening, uterus length of female rats has been recorded at the end of the experiment. For detect of cell response, luminal epithelium height, gland number and lactoferrin intensity in luminal epithelium of uterus were evaluated. Biochemical analysises in blood were performed. Relative uterus weights of rats in 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin were statistically increased according to vehicle control and positive control groups. In dose groups of apigenin and phloretin it was found that there were cell responses in uterus. All treatment groups had a significant difference in the high intensity of lactoferrin and uterine gland count compared to oil control group. There was no difference between phloretin and apigenin treatment groups in uterine weight statictically. Uterine heights were increased in positive control groups and 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin. Epithelial cell heights were increased in treatment groups except apigenin and phloretin dose groups. There was no difference between all treatment groups in

  13. Expression and Purification of the Main Component Contained in Camel Milk and Its Antimicrobial Activities Against Bacterial Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Tanhaeian, Abbas; Shahriari Ahmadi, Farajollah; Sekhavati, Mohammad Hadi; Mamarabadi, Mojtaba

    2018-04-04

    Lactoferrin is the most dominant protein in milk after casein. This protein plays a crucial role in many biological processes including the regulation of iron metabolism, induction and modulation of the immune system, the primary defense against microorganisms, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and presenting antimicrobial activity against various pathogens such as parasites, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. The major antimicrobial effect of lactoferrin is related to its N-terminal tail where different peptides for instance lactoferricin and lactoferrampin which are important for their antimicrobial abilities are present. The growth rate of bacterial cells in camel milk is lower than that of the cow milk due to having more antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we have fused a codon-optimized partial camel lactoferrcin and lactoferrampin DNA sequences in order to construct a fused peptide via a lysine. This chimeric 42-mer peptide consists of complete and partial amino acid sequence of camel lactoferrampin and lactoferricin, respectively. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells were used for synthesizing this recombinant peptide. Finally, the antibacterial activities of this constructed peptide were investigated under in vitro condition. The result showed that, all construction, cloning and expression processes were successfully performed in HEK-293. One His-tag tail was added to the chimera in order to optimize the isolation and purification processes and also reduce the cost of production. Additionally, His-tag retained the antimicrobial activity of the chimera. The antimicrobial tests showed that the growth rate in the majority of bacterial plant pathogens, including gram negative and positive bacteria, was inhibited by recombinant chimera as the level of MIC values were evaluated between 0.39 and 25.07 μg/ml for different bacterial isolates.

  14. Isotretinoin therapy changes the expression of antimicrobial peptides in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Borovaya, Alena; Dombrowski, Yvonne; Zwicker, Stephanie; Olisova, Olga; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wolf, Ronald; Schauber, Jürgen; Sárdy, Miklós

    2014-10-01

    In acne vulgaris, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could play a dual role; i.e., protective by acting against Propionibacterium acnes, pro-inflammatory by acting as signalling molecules. The cutaneous expression of 15 different AMPs was investigated in acne patients; furthermore, the impact of isotretinoin therapy on AMP expression was analysed in skin biopsies from 13 patients with acne vulgaris taken before, during and after a 6-month treatment cycle with isotretinoin using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cutaneous expression of the AMPs cathelicidin, human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), lactoferrin, lysozyme, psoriasin (S100A7), koebnerisin (S100A15), and RNase 7 was upregulated in untreated acne vulgaris, whereas α-defensin-1 (HNP-1) was downregulated compared to controls. While relative expression levels of cathelicidin, HBD-2, lactoferrin, psoriasin (S100A7), and koebnerisin (S100A15) decreased during isotretinoin treatment, only those of cathelicidin and koebnerisin returned to normal after 6 months of isotretinoin therapy. The increased expression of lysozyme and RNase 7 remained unaffected by isotretinoin treatment. The levels of granulysin, RANTES (CCL5), perforin, CXCL9, substance P, chromogranin B, and dermcidin were not regulated in untreated acne patients and isotretinoin had no effect on these AMPs. In conclusion, the expression of various AMPs is altered in acne vulgaris. Isotretinoin therapy normalizes the cutaneous production of distinct AMPs while the expression of others is still increased in healing acne. Considering the antimicrobial and pro-inflammatory role of AMPs, these molecules could serve as specific targets for acne therapy and maintenance of clinical remission.

  15. Preventing necrotizing enterocolitis by food additives in neonates: A network meta-analysis revealing the efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wentao; Sui, Wu; Mu, Linsong; Yi, Wenying; Li, Haijuan; Wei, Liqin; Yin, Weihong

    2017-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious multifactorial gastrointestinal disease which is often discovered in premature infants. Various additives have been used to prevent NEC; yet, their relative efficacy and safety remain disputed. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives, namely, probiotics, probiotics + fructo-oligosaccharides, pentoxifylline, arginine, and lactoferrin in preventing NEC in neonates. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library had been searched for all eligible randomized control trials. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for dichotomous data and mean differences with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) were estimated for continuous data. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve was used to rank efficacy and safety of the prevention methods on each endpoint. A total of 27 eligible studies with 4649 preterm infants were included in this network meta-analysis (NMA), and the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives were evaluated. Probiotic and arginine exhibited better preventive efficacy compared with placebo (OR = 0.50, 95% CrIs: 0.32-0.73; OR = 0.30, 95% CrIs: 0.12-0.73, respectively). Only probiotic achieved a considerable decrease in the risk of mortality compared to placebo (OR = 0.68, 95% CrIs: 0.46-0.98). NEC patients with lactoferrin appeared to have lower incidence of sepsis than those of placebo (OR = 0.13, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.61) or probiotic (OR = 0.18, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.83). Based on this NMA, probiotics had the potential to be the most preferable additive, since it exhibited a significant superiority for NEC and mortality as well as a relatively balanced performance in safety.

  16. Salivary alterations in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dodds, M W; Yeh, C K; Johnson, D A

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether saliva output and composition are altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus by comparison with a healthy, non-medicated control group, and also a group of hypertensives. From a community-dwelling cohort of Mexican American and European American subjects enrolled in the OH:SALSA oral aging study, we identified 233 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 227 with hypertension, and 240 healthy control subjects. We collected unstimulated whole (UW) and submandibular/ sublingual (US) saliva, as well as stimulated parotid (SP) and submandibular/ sublingual (SS) saliva. Flow rates were determined, yeast carriage was assayed in UW saliva, and SP and SS saliva samples were analyzed for protein composition. ELISA was used to determine concentrations of an array of specific protein components, with both antimicrobial and other activities. Both diabetic and hypertensive subjects had reduced output of both stimulated and unstimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva. 30% of the diabetic subjects had high oral yeast counts (> or =1000 cfu/mL) compared with 17% of the healthy subjects and 20% of the hypertensives. Significant increases in the concentrations of a number of the protein components were found in the diabetic subjects, specifically, SP lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and salivary peroxidase (SPO), as well as SS total protein, albumin, lactoferrin and secretory IgA. The pattern of decreased flow rates and increased protein concentrations were similar, but consistently greater in diabetics than hypertensives, suggesting that disease-specific mechanisms may be responsible. Diabetics may be more prone to oral dryness and infections than non-diabetics.

  17. Impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bellanger, Amandine; Ménard, Olivia; Pladys, Patrick; Le Gouar, Yann; Dirson, Emelyne; Kroell, Florian; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie; Bourlieu, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Holder pasteurization has been reported to modify human milk composition and structure by inactivating bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) and partially denaturing some of its proteins, potentially affecting its subsequent digestion. We sought to determine the impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion (particularly for proteins and lipids) in preterm infants who were fed their mothers' own milk either raw or pasteurized. In a randomized controlled trial, 12 hospitalized tube-fed preterm infants were their own control group in comparing the gastric digestion of raw human milk (RHM) with pasteurized human milk (PHM). Over a 6-d sequence, gastric aspirates were collected 2 times/d before and after RHM or PHM ingestion. The impact of milk pasteurization digestive kinetics and disintegration was tested with the use of a general linear mixed model. Despite inactivating BSSL, instantaneous lipolysis was not affected by pasteurization (mean ± SD at 90 min: 12.6% ± 4.7%; P > 0.05). Lipolysis occurred in milk before digestion and was higher for PHM than for RHM (mean ± SD: 3.2% ± 0.6% and 2.2% ± 0.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). Pasteurization enhanced the proteolysis of lactoferrin (P < 0.01) and reduced that of α-lactalbumin (only at 90 min) (P < 0.05). Strong emulsion destabilization was observed, with smaller aggregates and a higher specific surface for PHM (P < 0.05). Pasteurization did not affect gastric emptying (∼30-min half time) or pH (mean ± SD: 4.4 ± 0.8) at 90 min. Overall, pasteurization had no impact on the gastric digestion of lipids and some proteins from human milk but did affect lactoferrin and α-lactalbumin proteolysis and emulsion disintegration. Freeze-thawing and pasteurization increased the milk lipolysis before digestion but did not affect gastric lipolysis. Possible consequences on intestinal digestion and associated nutritional outcomes were not considered in this study. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  18. Unstimulated salivary flow, pH, proteins and oral health in patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kobus, Agnieszka; Kierklo, Anna; Zalewska, Anna; Kuźmiuk, Anna; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Ławicki, Sławomir; Bagińska, Joanna

    2017-06-02

    There have been inconsistent conclusions regarding salivary abnormalities and their effect on oral health of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the flow rate and selected biochemical parameters of unstimulated whole saliva in correlation to oral health in JIA children. Thirty-four JIA patients and 34 age- and sex-matched controls not affected by JIA (C) were divided into two groups: with mixed and permanent dentition. DMFT/dmft, gingival and simplified oral hygiene indices were evaluated. Salivary flow rate, pH, lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary protein concentrations and peroxidase activity were assessed. The salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the total JIA group (0.41 ml/min) as compared with the C (0.51 ml/min) and in the permanent dentition of JIA children (0.43 ml/min) as compared with the C (0.61 ml/min). A significantly lower pH was observed in total (6.74), mixed (6.7) and permanent (6.76) dentition of JIA groups in comparison to the C (7.25, 7.21, 7.28 respectively). The specific activity of peroxidase was significantly higher in JIA patients (total 112.72 IU/l, mixed dentition 112.98 IU/l, permanent dentition 112.5 IU/l) than in the C group (total 70.03 IU/l, mixed dentition 71.83 IU/l, permanent dentition 68.61 IU/l). The lysozyme concentration in JIA patients (total and permanent dentition groups) was significantly higher than in the C group. There were no significant differences in lactoferrin and salivary protein concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences in oral status between JIA patients and C, respectively: DMFT = 5.71, dmft = 3.73, OHI-S = 0.95, GI = 0.25 and DMFT 5.71, dmft = 3.73, OHI-S = 0.85, GI = 0.24. The specific activity of peroxidase in the unstimulated whole saliva was inversely correlated with the GI index, whereas the salivary lysozyme concentration was inversely correlated with the dmft index in JIA patients. In

  19. Local and systemic response to intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge during long-term manipulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vernay, M C M B; Wellnitz, O; Kreipe, L; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-05-01

    The metabolic load during periods of high milk production in dairy cows causes a variety of changes of metabolite blood concentrations including dramatically decreased glucose levels. These changes supposedly impair the immune system. The goal of this study was, therefore, to evaluate adaptations of the cow's immune system in response to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation during a 3-d modification of plasma glucose and insulin induced by different clamp infusions. Seventeen midlactating dairy cows received a hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp induced by insulin infusion (HypoG; n=5), a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp induced by insulin and glucose infusion (EuG; n=6), or infusion of saline solution (NaCl; n=6) for 56 h. At 48 h of infusion, 2 udder quarters were challenged with 200 μg of Escherichia coli LPS. At 48 h of infusion (immediately before LPS challenge), tumor necrosis factor α, lactoferrin, and serum amyloid A (SAA) mRNA abundance was increased in HypoG and Il-1β mRNA abundance was decreased in EuG. After LPS challenge, plasma glucose concentration did not decrease, although plasma insulin increased simultaneously in all groups either due to enhanced endogenous release (NaCl) or due to increased insulin infusion rate (HypoG; EuG). Plasma cortisol, rectal temperatures, and milk somatic cell count of challenged quarters increased, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were similarly decreased across treatments. In mammary biopsies, increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10, and SAA were observed in LPS-treated quarters of all groups, with a more pronounced increase in IL-1β, IL-10, and SAA expression in EuG. Nuclear factor-κB mRNA expression was upregulated in NaCl and EuG but not in HypoG in response to LPS. Lactoferrin, toll-like receptor 4, and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was increased in LPS-treated quarters of EuG only, and 5-lipoxygenase mRNA expression was decreased

  20. High resolution of heterogeneity among human neutrophil granules: physical, biochemical, and ultrastructural properties of isolated fractions.

    PubMed

    Rice, W G; Kinkade, J M; Parmley, R T

    1986-08-01

    Previous studies on the fractionation of human neutrophil granules have identified two major populations: myeloperoxidase (MPO)-containing azurophil, or primary, granules and MPO-deficient specific, or secondary, granules. Peripheral blood neutrophils from individual donors were lysed in sucrose-free media by either hypotonic shock or nitrogen cavitation. Using a novel two-gradient Percoll density centrifugation system, the granule-rich postnuclear supernatant was rapidly (ten minutes) and reproducibly resolved into 13 granule fractions (L1 through L8 and H1 through H5). Granule flotation and recentrifugation experiments on both continuous, self-generated and multiple-step gradients using individual and mixed isolated fractions demonstrated that the banding patterns were isopycnic and nonartifactual. Isolated granules were intact based on the findings that biochemical latency of several granule enzymes was greater than 95%, and thin-sectioned electron micrographs demonstrated intact granule profiles. Biochemical analyses of the granule marker proteins MPO, beta-glucuronidase, lysozyme, and lactoferrin indicated that a number of the fractions were related to the major azurophil and specific granule populations. Lactoferrin was found in ten of 13 fractions (L1 through L8, H1 to H2), whereas MPO was found in every fraction. Consistent with these biochemical data, all fractions exhibited varying degrees of heterogeneity based on ultrastructural morphology and cytochemistry, including diaminobenzidine (DAB) reactivity for peroxidase and periodate-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining for complex glycoconjugates. A variable but significant percentage (23% to 70%) of the granules in fractions L1 through L8 and H1 and H2 showed DAB reactivity, while about 90% of the granules in fractions H3 through H5 were peroxidase positive. These results demonstrated that DAB-reactive granules spanned the entire range of granule size and density. Ultrastructural PA

  1. Reptilian transferrins: evolution of disulphide bridges and conservation of iron-binding center.

    PubMed

    Ciuraszkiewicz, Justyna; Biczycki, Marian; Maluta, Aleksandra; Martin, Samuel; Watorek, Wiesław; Olczak, Mariusz

    2007-07-01

    Transferrins, found in invertebrates and vertebrates, form a physiologically important family of proteins playing a major role in iron acquisition and transport, defense against microbial pathogens, growth and differentiation. These proteins are bilobal in structure and each lobe is composed of two domains divided by a cleft harboring an iron atom. Vertebrate transferrins comprise of serotransferrins, lactoferrins and ovotransferrins. In mammals serotransferrins transport iron in physiological fluids and deliver it to cells, while lactoferrins scavenge iron, limiting its availability to invading microbes. In oviparous vertebrates there is only one transferrin gene, expressed either in the liver to be delivered to physiological fluids as serotransferrin, or in the oviduct with a final localization in egg white as ovotransferrin. Being products of one gene sero- and ovotransferrin are identical at the amino-acid sequence level but with different, cell specific glycosylation patterns. Our knowledge of the mechanisms of transferrin iron binding and release is based on sequence and structural data obtained for human serotransferrin and hen and duck ovotransferrins. No sequence information about other ovotransferrins was available until our recent publication of turkey, ostrich, and red-eared turtle (TtrF) ovotransferrin mRNA sequences [Ciuraszkiewicz, J., Olczak, M., Watorek, W., 2006. Isolation, cloning and sequencing of transferrins from red-eared turtle, African ostrich and turkey. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 143 B, 301-310]. In the present paper, ten new reptilian mRNA transferrin sequences obtained from the Nile crocodile (NtrF), bearded dragon (BtrF), Cuban brown anole (AtrF), veiled and Mediterranean chameleons (VtrF and KtrF), sand lizard (StrF), leopard gecko (LtrF), Burmese python (PtrF), African house snake (HtrF), and grass snake (GtrF) are presented and analyzed. Nile crocodile and red-eared turtle transferrins have a disulphide bridge pattern identical to

  2. Effect of intramammary infusion of chitosan hydrogels at drying-off on bovine mammary gland involution.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, S; Fustier, P; Taherian, A R; Bisakowski, B; Zhao, X; Lacasse, P

    2017-03-01

    The transition from lactation to the dry period in dairy cows is a period of high risk for acquiring new intramammary infections. This risk is reduced when the involution of the mammary gland is completed. Accordingly, approaches that speed up the involution process after drying-off could reduce the incidence of mastitis. The current study aimed to develop a biological response modifier that could be injected into cow teats to promote immune cell migration and speed up involution. Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, is able to trigger host innate immunity. We developed 2 formulations made from either high- or low-viscosity chitosan. Both are liquid at room temperature but form a hydrogel at body temperature. In the first experiment, each udder quarter of 7 Holstein cows in late lactation was randomly assigned at drying-off to receive one of the following intramammary infusions: 2.5 or 5 mL of 5% (wt/vol) low-viscosity chitosan hydrogel, 5 mL of 5% high-viscosity chitosan hydrogel, or 5 mL of water. Milk (mammary secretion) samples were collected from each quarter on d -4, -1 (drying-off), 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10. Milk somatic cell counts and the concentrations of involution markers such as BSA, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactoferrin were measured in each sample. In comparison with the control, the chitosan hydrogel infusions significantly hastened the increases in somatic cell counts, BSA and lactoferrin concentrations, and lactate dehydrogenase activity in mammary secretions. No major differences between sources or volumes of chitosan were observed for the measured parameters. The compatibility of this approach with an internal teat sealant was verified in the second experiment. Each udder quarter of 8 Holstein cows was randomly assigned at drying-off to receive one of the following intramammary infusions: 5 mL of 2% low-viscosity chitosan hydrogel, 4 g of an internal teat sealant, a combination of sealant and chitosan, or 5 mL of water. Milk

  3. Phase I Randomized Safety Study of Twice Daily Dosing of Acidform Vaginal Gel: Candidate Antimicrobial Contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Marla J.; Carpenter, Colleen A.; Lo, Yungtai; Einstein, Mark H.; Liu, Congzhou; Fredricks, David N.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acidform gel, an acid-buffering product that inactivates spermatozoa, may be an effective topical non-hormonal contraceptive. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of vaginal dosing and effects of Acidform on mucosal immune mediators, antimicrobial properties of genital secretions, and vaginal microbiota. Methods Thirty-six sexually abstinent U.S. women were randomized to apply Acidform or hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) placebo gel twice daily for 14 consecutive days. Safety was assessed by symptoms and pelvic examination. The impact of gel on mucosal immunity was assessed by quantifying cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial proteins and antimicrobial activity of genital secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) at screening, 2 hours after gel application, and on days 7, 14 and 21. Vaginal microbiota was characterized at enrollment and day 14 using species-specific quantitative PCR assays. Results The median vaginal and cervical pH was significantly lower 2 hours after application of Acidform and was associated with an increase in the bactericidal activity of CVL against E. coli. However, 65% of women who received Acidform had at least one local adverse event compared with 11% who received placebo (p = 0.002). While there was no increase in inflammatory cytokines or chemokines, CVL concentrations of lactoferrin and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), an anti-inflammatory protein, were significantly lower following Acidform compared to HEC placebo gel application. There were no significant changes in Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus jensenii in either group but there was a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis in the Acidform group (p = 0.08). Conclusions Acidform gel may augment mucosal defense as evidenced by an increase in bactericidal activity of genital secretions against E. coli and a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis colonization. However, Acidform was associated with more irritation than placebo and lower levels

  4. Effect of oxidative stress induced by intracranial iron overload on central pain after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan Xing; Hou, Jing Ming; Sun, Tian Sheng

    2017-02-08

    Central pain (CP) is a common clinical problem in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent studies found the pathogenesis of CP was related to the remodeling of the brain. We investigate the roles of iron overload and subsequent oxidative stress in the remodeling of the brain after SCI. We established a rat model of central pain after SCI. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: SCI, sham operation, SCI plus deferoxamine (DFX) intervention, and SCI plus nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor treatment. Pain behavior was observed and thermal pain threshold was measured regularly, and brain levels of iron, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), ferritin (Fn), and lactoferrin (Lf), were detected in the different groups 12 weeks after establishment of the model. Rats demonstrated self-biting behavior after SCI. Furthermore, the latent period of thermal pain was reduced and iron levels in the hind limb sensory area, hippocampus, and thalamus increased after SCI. Iron-regulatory protein (IRP) 1 levels increased in the hind limb sensory area, while Fn levels decreased. TfR1 mRNA levels were also increased and oxidative stress was activated. Oxidative stress could be inhibited by ferric iron chelators and NOS inhibitors. SCI may cause intracranial iron overload through the NOS-iron-responsive element/IRP pathway, resulting in central pain mediated by the oxidative stress response. Iron chelators and oxidative stress inhibitors can effectively relieve SCI-associated central pain.

  5. Characterization of cultivated murine lacrimal gland epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shinya; Kawashima, Motoko; Okada, Naoko; Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Ito, Masataka; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To date, mouse lacrimal gland epithelial cells have been cultured successfully but only in cases involving newborn mouse lacrimal glands. In this work, we attempted to cultivate and characterize adult mouse lacrimal gland epithelial cells. Methods Lacrimal glands were removed from newborn mice (C57B/6) and isolated lacrimal gland epithelial cells were seeded onto tissue culture treated or low adherent culture dishes in Cnt-07 culture medium with or without cholera toxin. Cultivated cells were characterized by immunostaining with pan-cytokeratin, α-smooth muscle actin, and lactoferrin antibodies. Lacrimal gland cells from 7-week-old green fluorescent protein (GFP) and non-GFP (C57B/6) mice were mixed and seeded onto uncoated dishes to assess sphere-forming efficiency. Cells were also seeded onto 3T3 cell feeder layers to assess colony forming efficiency. Results Lacrimal gland epithelial cells were selectively cultured with cholera toxin, and cell type was verified by pan-cytokeratin and α-smooth muscle actin immunostaining. Sphere formation from single cells of adult mice was observed using specific medium and low adherent culture dishes. These cells could also undergo colony formation on 3T3 feeder cells. Conclusions Adult mouse lacrimal gland epithelial cells were successfully cultivated in cholera toxin-containing medium, and were observed to form spheres from single cells. PMID:22665974

  6. Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring

    PubMed Central

    Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

  7. Assessment of the potential utility of different regions of Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) for mastitis subunit vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Perrig, Melina Soledad; Veaute, Carolina; Renna, María Sol; Pujato, Nazarena; Calvinho, Luis; Marcipar, Iván; Barbagelata, María Sol

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcus uberis is one of the most prevalent pathogens causing clinical and subclinical mastitis worldwide. Among bacterial factors involved in intramammary infections caused by this organism, S. uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) is one of the main virulence factors identified. This molecule is involved in S. uberis internalization to mammary epithelial cells through lactoferrin (Lf) binding. The objective of this study was to evaluate SUAM properties as a potential subunit vaccine component for prevention of S. uberis mastitis. B epitope prediction analysis of SUAM sequence was used to identify potentially immunogenic regions. Since these regions were detected all along the gene, this criterion did not allow selecting a specific region as a potential immunogen. Hence, four fractions of SUAM (-1fr, 2fr, 3fr and 4fr), comprising most of the protein, were cloned and expressed. Every fraction elicited a humoral immune response in mice as predicted by bioinformatics analysis. SUAM-1fr generated antibodies with the highest recognition ability towards SUAM native protein. Moreover, antibodies against SUAM-1fr produced the highest proportion of internalization inhibition of S. uberis to mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, SUAM immunogenic and functionally relevant regions were identified and allowed to propose SUAM-1fr as a potential candidate for a subunit vaccine for S. uberis mastitis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Swimming attenuates inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in a rat model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced chronic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-shan; Liu, Qin-qin; Wang, Li-feng; Yang, An-gang; Gao, Chun-fang; Li, Jun-tang

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular physical exercise suppresses chronic inflammation. However, the potential inhibitory effects of swimming on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis, and its underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. In this study, rats were orally administered DSS to induce chronic colitis, and subsequently treated with or without swimming exercise. A 7-week swimming program (1 or 1.5 hours per day, 5 days per week) ameliorated DSS-caused colon shortening, colon barrier disruption, spleen enlargement, serum LDH release, and reduction of body weight gain. Swimming for 1.5 hours per day afforded greater protection than 1 hour per day. Swimming ameliorated DSS-induced decrease in crypt depth, and increases in myeloperoxidase activity, infiltration of Ly6G+ neutrophils and TNF-a- and IFN-?-expressing CD3+ T cells, as well as fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin. Swimming inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production and decreased the protein expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-?B p65 and cyclooxygenase 2, whereas it elevated interleukin-10 levels. Swimming impeded the generation of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide; however, it boosted glutathione levels, total antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Additionally, swimming decreased caspase-3 activity and expression of apoptosis-inducing factor, cytochrome c, Bax, and cleaved-caspase-3, but increased Bcl-2 levels. Overall, these results suggest that swimming exerts beneficial effects on DSS-induced chronic colitis by modulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. PMID:28030847

  9. Pre-germinated brown rice could enhance maternal mental health and immunity during lactation.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shigeko; Hayashi, Takashi; Hayashi, Keiko; Murai, Fumie; Hori, Miyo; Kimoto, Koichi; Murakami, Kazuo

    2007-10-01

    Rice is a dietary staple worldwide, especially pre-germinated brown rice has recently been widely served in Japan because of its abundant nutrition. Relationship between lactation and pre-germinated brown rice has attracted interest in terms of mental health and immunity. To demonstrate that Japanese foods are beneficial for psychosomatic health, the effects of pre-germinated brown rice on the mental status and immunological features during lactation were investigated. Forty-one breast-feeding mothers were recruited, and randomly divided into two groups. One group took pre-germinated brown rice and the other white rice (control) as their staple diet for 2 weeks. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and salivary amylase activity as psychological indices and secretory IgA (s-IgA) and lactoferrin (LTF) in breast milk as immunological indices were determined before and after dietary intervention, and changes were investigated. In the psychological assessment, the scores of depression, anger-hostility, and fatigue were decreased on POMS analysis in the pre-germinated brown rice diet group, resulting in a significant decrease in total mood disturbance (TMD). The salivary amylase activity measurement suggested that resistance to stress was increased in the pre-germinated brown rice diet group. On the immunological assessment, the s-IgA level was significantly increased in the pre-germinated brown rice diet group. We have shown that pre-germinated brown rice may have beneficial effects on psychosomatic health.

  10. Human Milk: Bioactive Proteins/Peptides and Functional Properties.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-23

    Breastfeeding has been associated with many benefits, both in the short and in the long term. Infants being breastfed generally have less illness and have better cognitive development at 1 year of age than formula-fed infants. Later in life, they have a lower risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Several components in breast milk may be responsible for these different outcomes, but bioactive proteins/peptides likely play a major role. Some proteins in breast milk are comparatively resistant towards digestion and may therefore exert their functions in the gastrointestinal tract in intact form or as larger fragments. Other milk proteins may be partially digested in the upper small intestine and the resulting peptides may exert functions in the lower small intestine. Lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA have been found intact in the stool of breastfed infants and are therefore examples of proteins that are resistant against proteolytic degradation in the gut. Together, these proteins serve protective roles against infection and support immune function in the immature infant. α-lactalbumin, β-casein, κ-casein and osteopontin are examples of proteins that are partially digested in the upper small intestine, and the resulting peptides influence functions in the gut. Such functions include stimulation of immune function, mineral and trace element absorption and defense against infection. © 2016 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Purpura, cutaneous necrosis, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine.

    PubMed

    Graf, Jonathan; Lynch, Kara; Yeh, Chia-Lin; Tarter, Laura; Richman, Nicole; Nguyen, Thuy; Kral, Alex; Dominy, Steven; Imboden, John

    2011-12-01

    To describe the clinical and serologic abnormalities in 6 patients who presented with retiform purpura and extensive cutaneous necrosis after exposure to levamisole-adulterated cocaine. All patients were evaluated at San Francisco General Hospital or the University of California San Francisco Medical Center. Each underwent standard screening for substances of abuse and had urine tested for the presence of levamisole by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Routine laboratory, autoantibody, and antiphospholipid antibody testing was performed in the hospitals' clinical or reference laboratories. Testing for atypical antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) was performed separately using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The patients were women ages 39-50 years who presented with retiform purpura and cutaneous necrosis. Skin biopsies revealed a predominantly small-vessel thrombotic vasculopathy with varying degrees of vasculitis. Four patients were neutropenic. All tested positive for lupus anticoagulant, had IgM antibodies to cardiolipin, and tested strongly positive for ANCAs in a perinuclear pattern by immunofluorescence. Each patient had antibodies to multiple components of neutrophil granules, including neutrophil elastase, lactoferrin, cathepsin G, proteinase 3, and myeloperoxidase. Rheumatologists should be aware of this distinctive form of necrotic purpura, its associated autoantibodies, and its link to levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Drop-out phagemid vector for switching from phage displayed affinity reagents to expression formats.

    PubMed

    Pershad, Kritika; Sullivan, Mark A; Kay, Brian K

    2011-05-15

    Affinity reagents that are generated by phage display are typically subcloned into an expression vector for further biochemical characterization. This insert transfer process is time consuming and laborious especially if many inserts are to be subcloned. To simplify the transfer process, we have constructed a "drop-out" phagemid vector that can be rapidly converted to an expression vector by a simple restriction enzyme digestion with MfeI (to "drop-out" the gene III coding sequence), which generates alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusions of the affinity reagents on religation. Subsequently, restriction digestion with AscI drops out the AP coding region and religation generates affinity reagents with a C-terminal six-histidine tag. To validate the usefulness of this vector, four different human single chain Fragments of variable regions (scFv) were tested, three of which show specific binding to three zebrafish (Danio rerio) proteins, namely suppression of tumorigenicity 13, recoverin, and Ppib and the fourth binds to human Lactoferrin protein. For each of the constructs tested, the gene III and AP drop-out efficiency was between 90% and 100%. This vector is especially useful in speeding up the downstream screening of affinity reagents and bypassing the time-consuming subcloning experiments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoretical framework for analyzing structural compliance properties of proteins.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Keisuke

    2018-01-01

    We propose methods for directly analyzing structural compliance (SC) properties of elastic network models of proteins, and we also propose methods for extracting information about motion properties from the SC properties. The analysis of SC properties involves describing the relationships between the applied forces and the deformations. When decomposing the motion according to the magnitude of SC (SC mode decomposition), we can obtain information about the motion properties under the assumption that the lower SC mode motions or the softer motions occur easily. For practical applications, the methods are formulated in a general form. The parts where forces are applied and those where deformations are evaluated are separated from each other for enabling the analyses of allosteric interactions between the specified parts. The parts are specified not only by the points but also by the groups of points (the groups are treated as flexible bodies). In addition, we propose methods for quantitatively evaluating the properties based on the screw theory and the considerations of the algebraic structures of the basic equations expressing the SC properties. These methods enable quantitative discussions about the relationships between the SC mode motions and the motions estimated from two different conformations; they also help identify the key parts that play important roles for the motions by comparing the SC properties with those of partially constrained models. As application examples, lactoferrin and ATCase are analyzed. The results show that we can understand their motion properties through their lower SC mode motions or the softer motions.

  14. Effects of whey protein supplements on metabolism: evidence from human intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Graf, Sonja; Egert, Sarah; Heer, Martina

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of milk and dairy products is inversely associated with a lower risk of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In particular, whey protein seems to induce these effects because of bioactive compounds such as lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, glutamine and lactalbumin. In addition, it is an excellent source of branch chained amino acids. This review summarizes recent findings on the effects of whey protein on metabolic disorders and the musculoskeletal system. We identified 25 recently published intervention trials examining chronic and/or acute effects of whey protein supplementation on lipid and glucose metabolism, blood pressure, vascular function and on the musculoskeletal system. Whey protein appears to have a blood glucose and/or insulin lowering effect partly mediated by incretins. In addition, whey protein may increase muscle protein synthesis. In contrast there are no clear-cut effects shown on blood lipids and lipoproteins, blood pressure and vascular function. For bone metabolism the data are scarce. In summary, whey protein may affect glucose metabolism and muscle protein synthesis. However, the evidence for a clinical efficacy is not strong enough to make final recommendations with respect to a specific dose and the duration of supplementation.

  15. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends.

    PubMed

    Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  16. Human milk antibacterial factors: the effect of temperature on defense systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Allen, J C

    2001-01-01

    Bovine milk will eventually spoil at refrigeration temperatures, but endogenous or exogenous pathogenic or spoilage bacteria in human milk stored for delayed feeding will die. We investigated the mechanism for these antibacterial properties and their response to high-tempertature, short-time (HTST, 72 degrees C-75 degrees C, 15 sec) and low-temperature long-time (LTLT, 65 degrees C, 30 min) pasteurization. Nonpathogenic Listeria innocua (10(6) cfu/mL) was inoculated into raw and processed bovine and human milk; bacterial plate counts twice weekly determined antibacterial activities. Up to 99% of L. innocua were killed and further growth was inhibited in raw and pasteurized human milk for at least 60 days at 4 degrees C. Reactive IgA antibodies against Listeria antigens were demonstrated by enzyme immunoassay in some human milk samples; sIgA activity against Escherichia coli O antigens was significantly decreased by heat treatments (raw, 1.8; HTST, 1.1; LTLT, 1.3 activity units). Adding human lactoferrin (0.5-20 mg/mL) to the Listeria inoculum (approximately 10(7) cfu/mL) in 1% peptone water did not inhibit bacterial growth.

  17. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  18. Recombinant production of a chimeric antimicrobial peptide in E. coli and assessment of its activity against some avian clinically isolated pathogens.

    PubMed

    Tanhaiean, Abass; Azghandi, Marjan; Razmyar, Jamshid; Mohammadi, Elyas; Sekhavati, Mohammad Hadi

    2018-06-08

    Over the last decades, poultry industry faced to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria as a global concern. Antimicrobial peptide (AMPs) known as potential antibiotic alternative and were considered as a new antimicrobial agent. Current methods of production and purification of AMPs have several limitations such as: costly, time-consuming and killing the producing host cells in recombinant form. In the present study, a chimeric peptide derived from camel lactoferrin was produced in Escherichia coli periplasmic space using a pET-based expression system and its antibacterial activity was determined on some avian pathogens in vitro. A carboxy-terminal polyhistidine tag was used for purification by Ni 2+ affinity chromatography with an average yield of 0.42 g/L. The His-tagged chimeric peptide showed different range of antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated avian pathogens with low chicken blood hemolysis activity and high serum stability. Overall, the results of this investigation showed the recombinant chimeric peptide was successfully expressed in pET-based expression system and could be considered as a proper alternative for some currently used antibiotics in poultry industry and drugs veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined use of X-ray fluorescence microscopy, phase contrast imaging for high resolution quantitative iron mapping in inflamed cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramaccioni, C.; Procopio, A.; Farruggia, G.; Malucelli, E.; Iotti, S.; Notargiacomo, A.; Fratini, M.; Yang, Y.; Pacureanu, A.; Cloetens, P.; Bohic, S.; Massimi, L.; Cutone, A.; Valenti, P.; Rosa, L.; Berlutti, F.; Lagomarsino, S.

    2017-06-01

    X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRFM) is a powerful technique to detect and localize elements in cells. To derive information useful for biology and medicine, it is essential not only to localize, but also to map quantitatively the element concentration. Here we applied quantitative XRFM to iron in phagocytic cells. Iron, a primary component of living cells, can become toxic when present in excess. In human fluids, free iron is maintained at 10-18 M concentration thanks to iron binding proteins as lactoferrin (Lf). The iron homeostasis, involving the physiological ratio of iron between tissues/secretions and blood, is strictly regulated by ferroportin, the sole protein able to export iron from cells to blood. Inflammatory processes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial pathoge inhibit ferroportin synthesis in epithelial and phagocytic cells thus hindering iron export, increasing intracellular iron and bacterial multiplication. In this respect, Lf is emerging as an important regulator of both iron and inflammatory homeostasis. Here we studied phagocytic cells inflamed by bacterial LPS and untreated or treated with milk derived bovine Lf. Quantitative mapping of iron concentration and mass fraction at high spatial resolution is obtained combining X-ray fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy and synchrotron phase contrast imaging.

  20. Adsorption behavior of proteins on temperature-responsive resins.

    PubMed

    Poplewska, Izabela; Muca, Renata; Strachota, Adam; Piątkowski, Wojciech; Antos, Dorota

    2014-01-10

    The adsorption behavior of proteins on thermo-responsible resins based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and its copolymer containing an anionic co-monomer has been investigated. The influence of the polymer composition, i.e., the content of the co-monomer and crosslinker on the thermo-sensitivity of the protein adsorption has been quantified. The properties of ungrafted polymer as well grafted onto the agarose matrix have been analyzed and compared. Batch and dynamic (column) experiments have been performed to measure the adsorption equilibrium of proteins and to quantify the phase transition process. As model proteins lysozyme, lactoferrin, α-chymotrypsinogen A and ovalbumin have been used. The adsorption process was found to be governed by ionic interactions between the negatively charged surface of resin and the protein, which enabled separation of proteins differing in electrostatic charge. The interactions enhanced with increase of temperature. Decrease of temperature facilitated desorption of proteins and reduced the salt usage in the desorption buffer. Grafted polymers exhibited markedly higher mechanical stability and, however, weaker temperature response compared to the ungrafted ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Multi-Technique Reconfigurable Electrochemical Biosensor: Enabling Personal Health Monitoring in Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Sun, Alexander; Venkatesh, A G; Hall, Drew A

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the design and characterization of a reconfigurable, multi-technique electrochemical biosensor designed for direct integration into smartphone and wearable technologies to enable remote and accurate personal health monitoring. By repurposing components from one mode to the next, the biosensor's potentiostat is able reconfigure itself into three different measurements modes to perform amperometric, potentiometric, and impedance spectroscopic tests all with minimal redundant devices. A [Formula: see text] PCB prototype of the module was developed with discrete components and tested using Google's Project Ara modular smartphone. The amperometric mode has a ±1 nA to [Formula: see text] measurement range. When used to detect pH, the potentiometric mode achieves a resolution of < 0.08 pH units. In impedance measurement mode, the device can measure 50 Ω-10 [Formula: see text] and has been shown to have of phase error. This prototype was used to perform several point-of-care health tracking assays suitable for use with mobile devices: 1) Blood glucose tests were conducted and shown to cover the diagnostic range for Diabetic patients (  ∼  200 mg/dL). 2) Lactoferrin, a biomarker for urinary tract infections, was detected with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ng/mL. 3) pH tests of sweat were conducted to track dehydration during exercise. 4) EIS was used to determine the concentration of NeutrAvidin via a label-free assay.

  2. An on-line database for human milk composition in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shi-An; Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Understanding human milk composition is critical for setting nutrient recommended intakes (RNIs) for both infants and lactating women. However, nationwide human milk composition remains unavailable in China. Through cross-sectional study, human milk samples from 11 provinces in China were collected and their compositions were analyzed. Nutritional and health status of the lactating women and their infants were evaluated through questionnaire, physical examination and biochemical indicators. A total of 6,481 breast milk samples including colostrum (1,859), transitional milk (1,235) and mature milk (3,387) were collected. Contents of protein, fat, lactose, total solid and energy of more than 4,500 samples were analyzed using a human milk analyzer. About 2,000 samples were randomly selected for 24 mineral analyses. Free B-vitamins including thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxal, pyridomine, pyridoxamine, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), biotin and pantothenic acid were analyzed in 1,800 samples. Amino acids (~800) and proteins (alpha-lactoalbumin, beta-casein, and lactoferrin) were analyzed. In addition, serum retinol and carotenoids, 25(OH)D, vitamin B-12, folic acid, ferritin and biochemical indicators (n=1,200 to 2,000) were analysed in the lactating women who provided the breast milk. Ongoing work: Fatty acids (C4-C24), fatsoluble vitamins and carotenoids, are on-going analysis. A regional breast milk compositional database is at an advanced stage of development in China with the intention that it be available on-line.

  3. Human Milk Components Modulate Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammation.

    PubMed

    He, YingYing; Lawlor, Nathan T; Newburg, David S

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is central to innate immunity. Aberrant expression of TLRs is found in neonatal inflammatory diseases. Several bioactive components of human milk modulate TLR expression and signaling pathways, including soluble toll-like receptors (sTLRs), soluble cluster of differentiation (sCD) 14, glycoproteins, small peptides, and oligosaccharides. Some milk components, such as sialyl (α2,3) lactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose III, are reported to increase TLR signaling; under some circumstances this might contribute toward immunologic balance. Human milk on the whole is strongly anti-inflammatory, and contains abundant components that depress TLR signaling pathways: sTLR2 and sCD14 inhibit TLR2 signaling; sCD14, lactadherin, lactoferrin, and 2'-fucosyllactose attenuate TLR4 signaling; 3'-galactosyllactose inhibits TLR3 signaling, and β-defensin 2 inhibits TLR7 signaling. Feeding human milk to neonates decreases their risk of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, the TLR regulatory components found in human milk hold promise as benign oral prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for the many gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders mediated by abnormal TLR signaling. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Nutritive and Bioactive Proteins in Breastmilk.

    PubMed

    Haschke, Ferdinand; Haiden, Nadja; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2016-01-01

    Protein ingested with breast milk provides indispensable amino acids which are necessary for new protein synthesis for growth and replacement of losses via urine, feces, and the skin. Protein gain in the body of an infant is highest during the first months when protein concentrations in breast milk are higher than during later stages of lactation. Low-birth-weight infants have higher protein needs than term infants and need protein supplements during feeding with breastmilk. Based on our better understanding of protein evolution in breastmilk during the stages of lactation, new infant formulas with lower protein concentration but better protein quality have been created, successfully tested, and are now available in many countries. Besides providing indispensable amino acids, bioactive protein in breast milk can be broadly classified into 4 major functions, that is, providing protection from microbial insults and immune protection, aiding in digestive functions, gut development, and being carriers for other nutrients. Individual proteins and their proposed bioactivities are summarized in this paper in brief. Indeed, some proteins like lactoferrin and sIgA have been extensively studied for their biological functions, whereas others may require more data in support to further validate their proposed functions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Antimicrobial defense systems in saliva.

    PubMed

    van 't Hof, Wim; Veerman, Enno C I; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M

    2014-01-01

    The oral cavity is one of the most heavily colonized parts of our body. The warm, nutrient-rich and moist environment promotes the growth of a diverse microflora. One of the factors responsible for the ecological equilibrium in the mouth is saliva, which in several ways affects the colonization and growth of bacteria. In this paper, we discuss the various mechanisms by which the composition of the oral microflora is modulated by saliva. Saliva covers the oral hard and soft tissues with a conditioning film which governs the initial attachment of microorganisms, a crucial step in the setup of the oral microflora. It furthermore contains proteins which in the soluble phase bind to bacteria, blocking their adherence to surfaces. When the supply of nutrients is diminished, bacteria use salivary glycoproteins, especially high-molecular-weight mucins, as a source of complex carbohydrates, requiring a consortium of microorganisms for breakdown. In this way saliva promotes the complexity of the oral microflora, which in itself protects against overgrowth by few pathogenic species. Finally, saliva harbors a large panel of antimicrobial proteins which directly and indirectly inhibit uncontrolled outgrowth of bacteria. These include lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and antimicrobial peptides. Under pathological conditions serum leakage occurs, and saliva mobilizes the humoral and cellular defense mechanisms in the blood. In sum, saliva favors the establishment of a highly diverse microflora, rather than a semisterile environment.

  6. Camel milk: a possible boon for type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R P; Tantia, P; Jain, S; Agrawal, R; Agrawal, V

    2013-11-03

    Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with over nutrition in later life may also play a role in epidemic of diabetes. The efficacy of camel milk consumption as an adjunct to routine diabetic management in type 1 diabetes is a approach showing new rays of hope to cope with this disorder by adding a food supplement with medicinal values. Research on the beneficial aspects of camel milk has been taking place in different corners of globe since last three decades. Continuous efforts to disclose the role of camel milk in diabetes has rendered it title of 'white gold'. Biochemical studies has revealed the components e.g. insulin like protein, lactoferrin, immunoglobulins are responsible for imparting camel milk the scientific weightage. In parallel, epidemiological surveys stating low prevalence of diabetes in communities consuming camel milk clearly indicate towards its hopeful role in maintaining hyperglycemia. This article shades light on camel milk production, composition, characteristics as well as it expresses positive effect of camel milk on blood glucose level, insulin dose, beta cell function. This review also compiles various epidemiological studies carried out to bring forth utility of camel milk suggesting it as a useful food supplement or alternative therapy for type 1 diabetic patients.

  7. Oleic Acid, deglycosylated vitamin D-binding protein, nitric oxide: a molecular triad made lethal to cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Marco; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo J V; Noakes, David; Morucci, Gabriele; Taubmann, Margit; Thyer, Lynda; Pacini, Stefania

    2014-07-01

    Oleic Acid (OA) has been shown to have anticancer properties mediated by interaction with proteins such as α-lactalbumin and lactoferrins. Therefore, we synthesized complexes of OA and Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) that inhibits per se cancer cell proliferation and metastatic potential. We hypothesised that OA-GcMAF complexes could exploit the anticancer properties of both OA and GcMAF in a synergistic manner. We postulated that the stimulating effects of GcMAF on macrophages might lead to release of nitric oxide (NO). Patients with advanced cancer were treated at the Immuno Biotech Treatment Centre with OA-GcMAF-based integrative immunotherapy in combination with a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet, fermented milk products containing naturally-produced GcMAF, Vitamin D3, omega-3 fatty acids and low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Measuring the tumour by ultrasonographic techniques, we observed a decrease of tumour volume of about 25%. These observations demonstrate that OA, GcMAF and NO can be properly combined and specifically delivered to advanced cancer patients with significant effects on immune system stimulation and tumour volume reduction avoiding harmful side-effects. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Fractionation of sheep cheese whey by a scalable method to sequentially isolate bioactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan

    2016-07-15

    This study reports a procedure for the simultaneous purification of glyco(caseino)macropeptide, immunoglobulin, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin from sheep cheese sweet whey, an under-utilized by-product of cheese manufacture generated by an emerging sheep dairy industry in New Zealand. These proteins have recognized value in the nutrition, biomedical and health-promoting supplements industries. A sequential fractionation procedure using economical anion and cation exchange chromatography on HiTrap resins was evaluated. The whey protein fractionation is performed under mild conditions, requires only the adjustment of pH between ion exchange chromatography steps, does not require buffer exchange and uses minimal amounts of chemicals. The purity of the whey protein fractions generated were analyzed by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography and the identity of the proteins was confirmed by mass spectrometry. This scalable procedure demonstrates that several proteins of recognized value can be fractionated in reasonable yield and purity from sheep cheese whey in one streamlined process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Why whey? Camel whey protein as a new dietary approach to the management of free radicals and for the treatment of different health disorders

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Gamal; Ramadan, Nancy K; Sayed, Leila H; Badr, Badr M; Omar, Hossam M; Selamoglu, Zeliha

    2017-01-01

    The balance between free radicals and antioxidants is an important factor for maintaining health and slowing disease progression. The use of antioxidants, particularly natural antioxidants, has become an important strategy for dealing with this cause of widespread diseases. Natural antioxidants have been used as therapeutic tools against many diseases because they are safe, effective, and inexpensive and are among the most commonly used adjuvants in the treatment of several diseases. Camel whey protein (CWP) is considered a strong natural antioxidant because it decreases oxidative stress, enhances immune system function, and increases glutathione levels. The structure of CWP is very similar to that of other types of whey protein from different types of milk. CWP contains many components, such as lactoferrin (LF), lactalbumin, lactoglobulins, lactoperoxidase, and lysozyme, and is rich in immunoglobulins. However, in contrast to other WPs, CWP lacks β-lactoglobulin, the main cause of milk allergies in children. The components of CWP have many beneficial effects, including stimulation of both innate and adaptive immunity and anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. Recently, it has been shown that CWP and its unique components can facilitate the treatment of impaired diabetic wound healing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CWP in human and other animal disorders are not fully understood. Therefore, the current review presents a concise summary of the scientific evidence of the beneficial effects of CWP to support its therapeutic use in disease treatment and nutritional intervention. PMID:28804604

  10. Processing of whey modulates proliferative and immune functions in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Sangild, Per T; Li, Yanqi; Bering, Stine B; Chatterton, Dereck E W

    2016-02-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is often subjected to heat treatment during industrial processing, resulting in protein denaturation and loss of protein bioactivity. We hypothesized that WPC samples subjected to different degrees of thermal processing are associated with different levels of bioactive proteins and effects on proliferation and immune response in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). The results showed that low-heat-treated WPC had elevated levels of lactoferrin and transforming growth factor-β2 compared with that of standard WPC. The level of aggregates depended on the source of whey, with the lowest level being found in WPC derived from acid whey. Following acid activation, WPC from acid whey enhanced IEC proliferation compared with WPC from sweet whey or nonactivated WPC. Low-heat-treated WPC from acid whey induced greater secretion of IL-8 in IEC than either standard WPC from acid whey or low-heat-treated WPC from sweet whey. Following acid activation (to activate growth factors), low-heat-treated WPC from sweet whey induced higher IL-8 levels in IEC compared with standard WPC from sweet whey. In conclusion, higher levels of bioactive proteins in low-heat-treated WPC, especially from acid whey, may enhance proliferation and cytokine responses of IEC. These considerations could be important to maintain optimal bioactivity of infant formulas, including their maturational and immunological effects on the developing intestine. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitation of human milk proteins and their glycoforms using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jincui; Kailemia, Muchena J; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Parker, Evan A; Hong, Qiuting; Sabia, Rocchina; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2017-01-01

    Human milk plays a substantial role in the child growth, development and determines their nutritional and health status. Despite the importance of the proteins and glycoproteins in human milk, very little quantitative information especially on their site-specific glycosylation is known. As more functions of milk proteins and other components continue to emerge, their fine-detailed quantitative information is becoming a key factor in milk research efforts. The present work utilizes a sensitive label-free MRM method to quantify seven milk proteins (α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, α1-antitrypsin, and lysozyme) using their unique peptides while at the same time, quantifying their site-specific N-glycosylation relative to the protein abundance. The method is highly reproducible, has low limit of quantitation, and accounts for differences in glycosylation due to variations in protein amounts. The method described here expands our knowledge about human milk proteins and provides vital details that could be used in monitoring the health of the infant and even the mother. Graphical Abstract The glycopeptides EICs generated from QQQ.

  12. The use of multiplexed MRM for the discovery of biomarkers to differentiate iron-deficiency anemia from anemia of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Dominik; Cohen Freue, Gabriela V; Sojo, Luis; Kuzyk, Michael A; Ratkay, Leslie; Parker, Carol E; Goldberg, Y Paul; Borchers, Christoph H

    2012-06-27

    In this study we demonstrate the use of a multiplexed MRM-based assay to distinguish among normal (NL) and iron-metabolism disorder mouse models, particularly, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), inflammation (INFL), and inflammation and anemia (INFL+IDA). Our initial panel of potential biomarkers was based on the analysis of 14 proteins expressed by candidate genes involved in iron transport and metabolism. Based on this study, we were able to identify a panel of 8 biomarker proteins: apolipoprotein A4 (APO4), transferrin, transferrin receptor 1, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, lactoferrin, hemopexin, and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP8) that clearly distinguish among the normal and disease models. Within this set of proteins, transferrin showed the best individual classification accuracy over all samples (72%) and within the NL group (94%). Compared to the best single-protein biomarker, transferrin, the use of the composite 8-protein biomarker panel improved the classification accuracy from 94% to 100% in the NL group, from 50% to 72% in the INFL group, from 66% to 96% in the IDA group, and from 79% to 83% in the INFL+IDA group. Based on these findings, validation of the utility of this potentially important biomarker panel in human samples in an effort to differentiate IDA, inflammation, and combinations thereof, is now warranted. This article is part of a Special Section entitled: Understanding genome regulation and genetic diversity by mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Iron acquisition by Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Pidcock, K A; Wooten, J A; Daley, B A; Stull, T L

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms for acquisition of iron by Haemophilus influenzae and their role in pathogenesis are not known. Heme and nonheme sources of iron were evaluated for their effect on growth of type b and nontypable strains of H. influenzae in an iron-restricted, defined medium. All 13 strains acquired iron from heme, hemoglobin, hemoglobin-haptoglobin, and heme-hemopexin. Among nonheme sources of protein-bound iron, growth of H. influenzae was enhanced by partially saturated human transferrin but not by lactoferrin or ferritin. Purified ferrienterochelin and ferridesferrioxamine failed to provide iron to H. influenzae, and the supernatants of H. influenzae E1a grown in iron-restricted medium failed to enhance iron-restricted growth of siderophore-dependent strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Arthrobacter terregens. Marked alterations in the profile of outer membrane proteins of H. influenzae were observed when the level of free iron was varied between 1 microM and 1 mM. Catechols were not detected in the supernatants of strain E1a; however, iron-related hydroxamate production was detected by two biochemical assays. We conclude that the sources of iron for H. influenzae are diverse. The significance of hydroxamate production and iron-related outer membrane proteins to H. influenzae iron acquisition is not yet clear. Images PMID:2964410

  14. Comparative Proteomics of Human and Macaque Milk Reveals Species-Specific Nutrition during Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kristen L; Weber, Darren; Phinney, Brett S; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Hinde, Katie; Lönnerdal, Bo; Korf, Ian; Lemay, Danielle G

    2015-05-01

    Milk has been well established as the optimal nutrition source for infants, yet there is still much to be understood about its molecular composition. Therefore, our objective was to develop and compare comprehensive milk proteomes for human and rhesus macaques to highlight differences in neonatal nutrition. We developed a milk proteomics technique that overcomes previous technical barriers including pervasive post-translational modifications and limited sample volume. We identified 1606 and 518 proteins in human and macaque milk, respectively. During analysis of detected protein orthologs, we identified 88 differentially abundant proteins. Of these, 93% exhibited increased abundance in human milk relative to macaque and include lactoferrin, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, vitamin D-binding protein, and haptocorrin. Furthermore, proteins more abundant in human milk compared with macaque are associated with development of the gastrointestinal tract, the immune system, and the brain. Overall, our novel proteomics method reveals the first comprehensive macaque milk proteome and 524 newly identified human milk proteins. The differentially abundant proteins observed are consistent with the perspective that human infants, compared with nonhuman primates, are born at a slightly earlier stage of somatic development and require additional support through higher quantities of specific proteins to nurture human infant maturation.

  15. Flow cytometric analysis of cell-surface and intracellular antigens in leukemia diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, W; Strobl, H; Majdic, O

    1994-12-15

    New technology allows highly sensitive flow cytometric detection and quantitative analysis of intracellular antigens in normal and malignant hemopoietic cells. With this technology, the earliest stages of myeloid and lymphoid differentiation can easily and reliably be identified using antibodies directed against (pro-)myeloperoxidase/MPO, CD22 and CD3 antigens, respectively. Particularly for the analysis of undifferentiated acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cells, the immunological demonstration of intracellular MPO or its enzymatically inactive proforms is highly relevant, since other myeloid marker molecules such as CD33, CD13, or CDw65 are either not restricted to the granulomonocytic lineage or appear later in differentiation. By combining MPO staining with staining for lactoferrin (LF), undifferentiated cells can be distinguished from the granulomonocytic maturation compartment in bone marrow, since LF is selectively expressed from the myelocyte stage of differentiation onward. The list of informative intracellular antigens to be used in leukemia cell analysis will certainly expand in the near future. One candidate, intracellular CD68, has already been tested by us, and results are presented. Also dealt within this article are surface marker molecules not (as yet) widely used in leukemia cell analysis but with the potential to provide important additional information. Among them are the surface structures CD15, CD15s, CDw65, CD79a (MB-1), CD79b (B29), CD87 (uPA-R), and CD117 (c-kit).

  16. Prevention of fungal spoilage in food products using natural compounds: A review.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Susana; Fuentes, Ana; Talens, Pau; Barat, Jose Manuel

    2017-04-10

    The kingdom Fungi is the most important group of microorganism contaminating food commodities, and chemical additives are commonly used in the food industry to prevent fungal spoilage. However, the increasing consumer concern about synthetic additives has led to their substitution by natural compounds in foods. The current review provides an overview of using natural agents isolated from different sources (plants, animals, and microorganisms) as promising antifungal compounds, including information about their mechanism of action and their use in foods to preserve and prolong shelf life. Compounds derived from plants, chitosan, lactoferrin, and biocontrol agents (lactic acid bacteria, antagonistic yeast, and their metabolites) are able to control the decay caused by fungi in a wide variety of foods. Several strategies are employed to reduce the drawbacks of some antifungal agents, like their incorporation into oil-in-water emulsions and nanoemulsions, edible films and active packaging, and their combination with other natural preservatives. These strategies facilitate the addition of volatile agents into food products and, improve their antifungal effectiveness. Moreover, biological agents have been investigated as one of the most promising options in the control of postharvest decay. Numerous mechanisms of action have been elucidated and different approach