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Sample records for lactose intolerance

  1. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... D and calcium supplements to be sure. Limit dairy products Most people with lactose intolerance can enjoy some ... may be possible to increase your tolerance to dairy products by gradually introducing them into your diet. Some ...

  2. Lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Charlene M

    Although lactose intolerance is very common it is not a serious health condition. The diagnosis is relatively simple and minimally invasive. Treatment is geared towards a life-long plan of management. Persons who have difficulty digesting lactose will learn by trial and error what food items cause distress and learn to avoid offending milk sugars. In addition many products are available over-the-counter to aid in digestion of lactose. Often these additives enable the person to consume lactose. Adequate amounts of calcium may be consumed by eating a carefully chosen diet containing lactose free sources of calcium in order to maintain healthy bone, nerve, and muscle development.

  3. [Lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Rosado, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The most common problem limiting milk consumption worldwide is lactose intolerance (LI), which is defined as the experience of gastrointestinal symptoms due to the intake of lactose-containing food. When symptoms ensue the intake of milk, the condition is referred as milk intolerance, and it may or may not be due to LI. The most common cause of LI is primary lactase deficiency which occurs in 30% of Mexican adults when one glass of milk is consumed (12-18 g of lactose). LI occurs in less than 15% of adults after the intake of this dose of lactose. Another cause of lactose intolerance is due to secondary lactase deficiency, which occurs because lactase is reduced due to diseases that affect the intestinal mucosa. Lactose intolerance can be eliminated or significantly reduced by elimination or reduction of the intake of milk and milk containing products. Recent studies demonstrate that when β-casein-A1 contained in milk is hydrolyzed it produces β-casomorphine-7 which is an opioid associated with milk intolerance.

  4. Lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in infant feeding, but its impact decreases as the child gets older and consumes less milk and dairy products. Congenital lactose intolerance is a very rare condition. However, lactase activity may be low and need to mature during the first weeks of life in many infants. However, the evidence that unabsorbed lactose is causing infantile crying and colic is contradictory. Unabsorbed lactose has a bifidogenic effect and improves calcium absorption. Lactose malabsorption may occur secondary and thus temporally to other etiologies such as infectious gastroenteritis, cow's milk allergy and celiac disease. One the cause is treated, lactase activity will gradually return to normal. The vast majority of Asian children will develop late onset congenital lactase deficiency. However, this entity only exceptionally causes symptoms before the age of 4-5 years. Symptoms are abdominal cramps, flatulence and watery, acid stools, and decrease the quality of life but lactose intolerance is not associated with "true disease". The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds and confirmed with a lactose breath test, if needed. These patients need to have a lifetime long reduced lactose intake to improve their quality of life.

  5. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... in them. Lactose is the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. After eating foods with lactose in them, you ... get enough of it from your diet, since milk and foods made with milk are the most ...

  6. Lactose Intolerance (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have this kind of discomfort after consuming dairy products might have lactose intolerance, which is caused ... they just have to limit the amount of dairy products they consume. Lactose intolerance can be managed — ...

  7. Lactose Intolerance (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... when a person eats something containing lactose, an enzyme in the small intestine called lactase breaks down ... intolerance do not produce enough of the lactase enzyme to break down lactose. Instead, undigested lactose sits ...

  8. What Causes Lactose Intolerance?

    MedlinePlus

    ... FOIA Jobs at NICHD Meetings, Conferences & Events Partnering & Donating to the ... intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Not having enough lactase in the body is the cause of lactose intolerance. The names ...

  9. Lactose Intolerance (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctors usually diagnose lactose intolerance through a simple hydrogen breath test. A person blows into a tube ... there is a higher than average level of hydrogen and methane in the breath. That's because undigested ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: lactose intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... lactose, a sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Lactose is normally broken down by an ... If individuals with lactose intolerance consume lactose-containing dairy products, they may experience abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, ...

  11. Lactose Intolerance (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... aged cheeses, including cheddar. Yogurt that contains live cultures is more easily digested because it contains healthy bacteria that produce lactase. Even if you're lactose intolerant, you may be able to handle smaller portions of your favorite dairy products. It also may help to eat a food ...

  12. Lactose intolerance in infants.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Cathy

    Cathy Taylor describes the pathophysiology and aetiology of lactose intolerance and how to diagnose and treat it. Management of the infant by the primary health care team is discussed, with emphasis on advice and nutritional support that can be recommended to parents.

  13. [Research advancement about lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Yin, Shi-An

    2006-05-01

    Lactose intolerance associated with nutrition and health of human especially infant period of time and effect milk product intake. It is important significance to maintain health and cut down the aged risk of osteoporosis because lactose intolerance was understand about grouping, clinical symptom and diagnose. There are extensive perspective for understand prevent and control lactose intolerance for lactose gene polymorphism. It is effective method for earlier period detection gene screen with lactose typing for osteoporosis, however there are carry out multiplicity research in many ways to improve and control lactose intolerance

  14. How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a likely sign of problems digesting lactose. 1 Lactose intolerance test. For this test, blood samples are taken before and after a person drinks a beverage that contains lactose. The amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood is ... hydrogen breath test is preferred over this test. 3 Stool acidity ...

  15. Lactose Intolerance (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... even if you've never had trouble with dairy products or other foods containing lactose. previous continue What ... of medicine you can take when you eat dairy products and other foods containing lactose. This medicine, which ...

  16. Is it just lactose intolerance?

    PubMed

    Olivier, Celso Eduardo; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Pavan, Célia Regina; dos Santos, Raquel Acácia Pereira Gonçalves; dos Santos Lima, Regiane Patussi; Pinto, Daiana Guedes; da Silva, Mariana Dias; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Acquired delayed-onset hypolactasia is a common autosomal recessive condition. Cow's milk allergies, conversely, are less common conditions that may manifest with equivalent symptoms and are able to simulate and/or aggravate lactose intolerance. This study was designed to evaluate the contribution of IgE-mediated cow's milk sensitization to the symptomatology of adult patients with lactose-free diet refractory lactose intolerance. Forty-six adult patients with lactose intolerance and persistent symptoms despite a lactose-free diet underwent skin-prick test to investigate cow's milk, goat's milk, and soy protein-specific-IgE. SDS-PAGE immunoblotting was used to investigate the presence of cow's milk protein-specific IgE. The percentage of patients who had skin reactions to whole cow's milk, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins, goat's milk, and soy was 69.5, 36.9, 56.5, 56.5%, 54.3, and 50%, respectively. The percentage of patients with immunoblot-detected IgE specific for alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins, and bovine serum albumin was 21.7, 63, 67.3, and 2.1%, respectively. IgE-mediated sensitization to cow's milk is a frequent comorbidity in subjects with lactose-free diet refractory lactose intolerance and is worth consideration in patients with this condition.

  17. From 'lactose intolerance' to 'lactose nutrition'.

    PubMed

    Lukito, Widjaja; Malik, Safarina G; Surono, Ingrid S; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of lactose intolerance has become embedded in Western medicine and developing economy medicine. It is based on evidence that intestinal lactase activity persists into later childhood and throughout life in only a minority of the world's population, notably northern European-derived populations. These people have the T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the rs49882359 allele (C/T), also known as C/T-13910, the MCM6 gene which positively influences the lactase LCT gene. Other lactase persistent (LP) populations are found in Africa and the Middle East with different genetic variants. These SNPs represent co-evolution with dairying since the agricultural revolution and nutrient-dependent ecological adaptation. That said, gastrointestinal symptoms considered due to small intestinal lactose malabsorption are poorly correlated with lactase non-persistence (LNP), the situation for most people. With LNP, colonic microbiome lactase enables lactose fermentation to occur so that none is found in faeces. Whether the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gases (hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane) produced cause symptoms is dose-dependent. Up to 25 g of lactose at any one time can usually be consumed by a LNP person, but its food and meal pattern context, the microbiomic characteristics, age and other factors may alter tolerance. Thus, the notion that lactose intolerance is a disorder or disease of LNP people is misplaced and has been one of cultural perspective. What actually matters is whether a particular dairy product as normally consumed give rise to symptoms. It is, therefore, proposed that lactose tolerance tests be replaced with dairy food tolerance tests.

  18. Lactose intolerance and other disaccharidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Balvir S

    2014-09-01

    Intolerance to foods which contain lactose can cause a range of intestinal and systemic symptoms. These symptoms are caused by Lactase deficiency which is encoded by a single gene (LCT) of ≈ 50 kb located on chromosome 2q21. In some food items, lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose due to inadequately labeled, confusing diagnosis of lactose intolerance based on dietary restriction of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. The key in the management of lactose intolerance is the dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labeled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the types, symptoms and management of lactose intolerance and also highlights differences from milk allergy which closely mimics the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

  19. Lactose Intolerance (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... called lactose that is found in milk and dairy products. Normally when a person eats something containing ... of symptoms. It all depends on how much dairy or how many milk-containing foods the person ...

  20. Lactose intolerance: from diagnosis to correct management.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, T; D'Angelo, G; D'Aversa, F; Campanale, M C; Cesario, V; Montalto, M; Gasbarrini, A; Ojetti, V

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses one of the most relevant problems in gastrointestinal clinical practice: lactose intolerance. The role of lactase-persistence alleles the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption the development of lactose intolerance symptoms and its management. Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately, 75% of the world's population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhea with a considerable intraindividual and interindividual variability in the severity. Diagnosis is most commonly performed by the non invasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Management of lactose intolerance consists of two possible clinical choice not mutually exclusive: alimentary restriction and drug therapy.

  1. [Lactose-containing tablets for patients with lactose intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Picksak, Gesine; Stichtenoth, Dirk O

    2009-01-01

    Lactose is often used as an excipient in tablets because of its ideal characteristics. Most patients with lactose intolerance tolerate small amounts of lactose. However, the nocebo effect must be considered. Thus, patients should be informed about the very small amounts of lactose in the medication. If the patient is still suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and there is no lactose-free alternative, the enzyme lactase can be substituted individually.

  2. Lactose intolerance in Indonesian children.

    PubMed

    Hegar, Badriul; Widodo, Ariani

    2015-01-01

    "Lactose intolerance (LI)" is considered a common problem in Asians, and in many parts of the world. Its prevalence and age of manifestation varies between by Asian country, for possible genetic or cultural reasons. Studies in Indonesian children 3-15 years old (y) are available within the past two decades, using a pure lactose tolerance test. The prevalences of lactose malabsorption (LM) in pre-elementary (3-5 y), elementary (6-11 y), and junior high (12-14 y) school-children were 21.3%, 57.8%, and 73%, respectively. An increasing trend for LM prevalence was seen within the pre-elementary group, from 9.1% at 3 y to 28.6% at 5 y. The most frequent symptoms of LI in junior high school (JHS) group were abdominal pain (64.1%), abdominal distention (22.6%), nausea (15.1%), flatulence (5.7%), and diarrhea (1.9%), mostly within one hour of lactose ingestion. In children with regular and irregular milk drinking, LM occurred in 81.2% and 69.6%; LI was found in 56.2% and 52.1%, respectively. Most JHS children with dairy-associated recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) symptoms proved to be malabsorbers. Dairy products most related to RAP were milk and yogurt. LI was found in 81% of RAP children with abdominal pain most frequently, followed by nausea, bloating, diarrhea, borborygmi, and flatulence. Symp-tom onset occurred 30 minutes after lactose ingestion, especially nausea, bloating, and abdominal pain. In RAP children LI symptoms mostly found in breath hydrogen concentration>20 ppm. More LI symptoms were found in lactose malabsorbers, but symptoms were mild and generally disappeared in 7 hours, and in most by 15 hours.

  3. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2005-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection.

  4. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2009-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection.

  5. [Progress on the research of lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Sai, X Y

    2016-02-01

    Our group generalized the research development of lactose intolerance, both internationally and nationally. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis, genetic polymorphisms of lactase deficiency, relevant progress of diagnostic methods and treatment. Through this systematic review, we undedrstood that there were insufficient research efforts made on understanding the epidemiological feature of lactose intolerance in this country. Relevant genetic mutations of people were also not clear, neither the development of simple and effective diagnosis method made. We should continue to extensively and deeply carry out the study regarding methods for early prevention and intervention on lactose intolerance.

  6. Lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Melvin B

    2006-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition presents an updated review of lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. Differences between primary, secondary, congenital, and developmental lactase deficiency that may result in lactose intolerance are discussed. Children with suspected lactose intolerance can be assessed clinically by dietary lactose elimination or by tests including noninvasive hydrogen breath testing or invasive intestinal biopsy determination of lactase (and other disaccharidase) concentrations. Treatment consists of use of lactase-treated dairy products or oral lactase supplementation, limitation of lactose-containing foods, or dairy elimination. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports use of dairy foods as an important source of calcium for bone mineral health and of other nutrients that facilitate growth in children and adolescents. If dairy products are eliminated, other dietary sources of calcium or calcium supplements need to be provided.

  7. [Lactose intolerance: past and present. Part 1].

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2015-09-20

    Lactose intolerance is the most prevalent intestinal malabsorption disorder. After presentation of its history, the author describes the emergence of lactose intolerance during the evolution of species, and the biochemistry of lactose as well as features of human and bacterial lactase enzymes are then described. The unequal distribution of lactose intolerance in different continents and population is discussed, followed by presentation of past and present prevalence data in Hungary. Adult-type hypolactasia is caused by a polymorphism of the MCM6 gene located upstream from the lactase gene on the long arm of the chromosome 2. It can be determined with the polymerase chain reaction. The intestinal symptoms of lactose intolerance are well known, but its extra-intestinal manifestations are less recognised. Invasive diagnostic methods (determination of lactase activity from small intestinal biopsies, lactose tolerance test), are accurate, but have been replaced by the non-invasive methods; their gold standard is the H2 breath test. Genetic testing is being used more and more frequently in Hungary too, and, presumably, the methane breath test will be also available in the near future. Lactose intolerance can be accompanied by inflammatory bowel diseases, coeliac disease and irritable bowel syndrome; it could be established whether this association is causal or not in order to start a correct diet and therapy.

  8. [Lactose intolerance: pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Hutyra, Tomasz; Iwańczak, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Lactose malabsorption and milk products intolerance symptoms are the most common alimentary tract disorders. Lactose intolerance is a result of lactase deficiency or lack of lactase and lactose malabsorption. Three types of lactase deficiency were distinguished: congenital, late-onset lactase deficiency and secondary lactase deficiency. Lactose intolerance means the appearance of clinical gastrointestinal symptoms after ingestion of lactose. To the clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance belongs: nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, cramps, flatulence, flatus, diarrhea and abdominal pain. The diagnosis of lactose intolerance is based on the breath hydrogen test and analysis of lactase activity in the small intestine mucosa. Dietary treatment eliminates clinical symptoms.

  9. [Lactose intolerance: past and present. Part II].

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2015-10-25

    The author summarises the interrelations between lactose intolerance, calcium and vitamin D metabolism and osteoporosis. Lactose intolerance enhances the risk of forearm and hip fractures in some patients. Lactase gene genotype and fracture risk are related in some populations. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increase bone mineral content and they are justified in children, during pregnancy and lactation, and in postmenopausal women. The intake of milk and milk products could increase the risk of ovarian carcinoma. CC genotype of the lactase gene increased the risk of colorectal carcinoma in Finns; no such effect was observed in British, Spanish and Italian patients. Even small quantities of lactose in drugs (10-750 mg) could elicit intolerance symptoms due to individual susceptibility. In spite of public knowledge and advertising, controlled studies did not prove the beneficial effect of either a lactose-free diet, enzyme supplementation or probiotics in an evidence-based manner. While accepted guidelines are lacking, a personalised therapy is mandatory. In spite of increasing public interest in lactose intolerance, many unknown factors must still be studied.

  10. Dairy intake, dietary adequacy, and lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P

    2013-03-01

    Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactose intolerance (real or perceived).

  11. Lactose intolerance and lactase deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Rings, E H; Grand, R J; Büller, H A

    1994-10-01

    The term lactase deficiency is widely used to indicate a low or absent level of lactase enzyme in the small intestine, leading to lactose intolerance. This term is correctly used when the intestinal mucosa is damaged and results in secondary lactase deficiency. In the case of the genetically determined decrease of lactase activity during childhood, however, low lactase levels suggest that the majority of the world's population is "abnormal," whereas individuals from caucasian extraction with high levels of lactase enzyme throughout life are then considered "normal." It would be better to ascribe racial and ethnic lactose malabsorption as the result of genetically determined reduction of lactase activity, rather then implying an "abnormality" by the term, "deficiency." Recent studies reveal that this genetic control is at the transcriptional level. The symptomatology of lactose intolerance varies widely, and the diagnostic method of choice is the lactose breath hydrogen test in combination with clinical findings, although small intestinal biopsies should be performed when mucosal diseases are suspected. Treatment of lactose intolerance depends on the age of the child. In young infants complete restriction of lactose containing foods is rarely necessary.

  12. [Calcium supplementation uncovering lactose intolerance - a case report].

    PubMed

    Trifina, Eva; Geissler, Dietmar; Zwettler, Elisabeth; Klaushofer, Klaus; Mikosch, Peter

    2012-03-01

    A 44 yr-old female with osteoporosis had no relevant gastrointestinal symptoms and did not avoid any specific food. However, after prescription of a lactose-rich calcium supplementation, clinical symptoms suspicious for lactose intolerance occurred, which were thereafter confirmed by a lactose tolerance test. Lactose intolerance may present with only slight or subtle symptoms. Drugs containing lactose may induce or increase gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with lactose intolerance. In case of gastrointestinal symptoms occurring after the initiation of drugs containing lactose, the possibility of lactose intolerance should be considered and tested by lactose tolerance test or genetic testing for the LCT (-13910) polymorphism. Due to the prevalence of about 15-25% lactose intolerance in the Austrian population, lactose free drugs should be prescribed as widely as possible.

  13. What People with Lactose Intolerance Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. In the intestines, undigested lactose leads to ... Within 30 minutes to 2 hours after eating dairy products containing lactose, people with lactose intolerance start ...

  14. Severe lactose intolerance with lactosuria and vomiting.

    PubMed Central

    Hosková, A; Sabacký, J; Mrskos, A; Pospísil, R

    1980-01-01

    An infant with lactose intolerance is described. A breast-fed infant developed vomiting at 3 weeks, and became dehydrated. Lactosuria, aminoaciduria, and liver damage were preesent. A milk-free diet led to rapid recovery. At 6 months a normal diet was well tolerated. PMID:7416780

  15. [Abdominal spasms, meteorism, diarrhea: fructose intolerance, lactose intolerance or IBS?].

    PubMed

    Litschauer-Poursadrollah, Margaritha; El-Sayad, Sabine; Wantke, Felix; Fellinger, Christina; Jarisch, Reinhart

    2012-12-01

    Meteorism, abdominal spasms, diarrhea, casually obstipation, flatulence and nausea are symptoms of fructose malabsorption (FIT) and/or lactose intolerance (LIT), but are also symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore these diseases should be considered primarily in patients with digestive complaints. For diagnosis an H(2)-breath test is used.In 1,935 patients (526 m, 1,409 f) a fructose intolerance test and in 1,739 patients (518 m,1,221 f) a lactose intolerance test was done.FIT is found more frequently than LIT (57 versus 52 % in adults (p < 0,02) and in children 90 versus 62 % (p < 0,001)) and is in polyintolerances most frequently correlated to histamine intolerance (HIT). Headache (ca. 10 %), fatigue (ca. 5 %) and dizziness (ca. 3 %) may occur after the test, irrespective whether the test was positive or negative.In more than 2/3 of patients a diet reduced in fructose or lactose may lead to improvement or remission of these metabolic disorders. IBS, which is often correlated with FIT (183/221 patients = 83 %), can be improved by relevant but also not relevant diets indicating that irritable bowel disease seems to be caused primarily by psychological disorders.

  16. Lactose malabsorption and lactose intolerance: implications for general milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Torún, B; Solomons, N W; Viteri, F E

    1979-12-01

    A total of 194 publications related to lactose malabsorption or intolerance were reviewed. The poor correlation between lactose malabsorption and intolerance to the amounts of milk ordinarily ingested in a meal, indicates that the assumption of milk tolerance by many populations is exaggerated. The methods for the diagnosis of these conditions were critically evaluated and it is suggested that, a) "physiological" doses of lactose be used; b) milk is the vehicle of choice; c) tests of intolerance be double-blind, and d) analysis of breath hydrogen be used for malabsorption. Most of the evidence indicates that milk consumption allows adequate growth of children, even when they are malnourished and have diarrhea. Nevertheless, it is recommended to substitute temporarily non-human milk by other good sources of dietary protein and energy during episodes of severe diarrhea, and to reintroduce milk to the diet gradually during convalescence. Breast feeding, however, should not be interrupted. These is not enough scientific nor epidemiological support to justify discouraging the use of milk in food supplementation programs, but several aspects that must be considered in such programs are outlined.

  17. Lactose intolerance in systemic nickel allergy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cazzato, I A; Vadrucci, E; Cammarota, G; Minelli, M; Gasbarrini, A

    2011-01-01

    Some patients affected by nickel-contact allergy present digestive symptoms in addition to systemic cutaneous manifestations, falling under the condition known as systemic nickel allergy syndrome (SNAS). A nickel-related pro-inflammatory status has been documented at intestinal mucosal level. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance in patients affected by SNAS compared to a healthy population. Consecutive patients affected by SNAS referring to our departments were enrolled. The control population consisted of healthy subjects without gastrointestinal symptoms. All subjects enrolled underwent lactose breath test under standard conditions. One hundred and seventy-eight SNAS patients and 60 healthy controls were enrolled. Positivity of lactose breath test occurred in 74.7% of the SNAS group compared to 6.6% of the control group. Lactose intolerance is highly prevalent in our series of patients affected by SNAS. Based on our preliminary results, we can hypothesize that in SNAS patients, the nickel-induced pro-inflammatory status could temporarily impair the brush border enzymatic functions, resulting in hypolactasia. Further trials evaluating the effect of a nickel-low diet regimen on lactase activity, histological features and immunological pattern are needed.

  18. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  19. Lactose intolerance: an unnecessary risk for low bone density.

    PubMed

    Savaiano, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The potential for lactose intolerance causes 25-50 million Americans and an unknown number of people around the world to avoid milk. Milk avoidance is a significant risk factor for low bone density. Individuals who avoid milk, due to intolerance or learned aversion, consume significantly less calcium and have poorer bone health and probable higher risk of osteoporosis. Lactose intolerance is easily managed by: (1) regular consumption of milk that adapts the colon bacteria and facilitates digestion of lactose; (2) consumption of yogurts and cheeses and other dairy foods low in lactose; consumption of dairy foods with meals to slow transit and maximize digestion, and use of lactose-digestive aids. As dairying spreads around the world to new markets and dairy foods become the dominant source of calcium in these markets, the potential for lactose intolerance will grow. Management of lactose intolerance globally will require both education and product development.

  20. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Misselwitz, Benjamin; Pohl, Daniel; Frühauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactose intolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactose intolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance.

  1. Lactose Intolerance in Adults: Biological Mechanism and Dietary Management.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanyong; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Dai, Ning; Fox, Mark

    2015-09-18

    Lactose intolerance related to primary or secondary lactase deficiency is characterized by abdominal pain and distension, borborygmi, flatus, and diarrhea induced by lactose in dairy products. The biological mechanism and lactose malabsorption is established and several investigations are available, including genetic, endoscopic and physiological tests. Lactose intolerance depends not only on the expression of lactase but also on the dose of lactose, intestinal flora, gastrointestinal motility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract to the generation of gas and other fermentation products of lactose digestion. Treatment of lactose intolerance can include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. This is effective if symptoms are only related to dairy products; however, lactose intolerance can be part of a wider intolerance to variably absorbed, fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs). This is present in at least half of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and this group requires not only restriction of lactose intake but also a low FODMAP diet to improve gastrointestinal complaints. The long-term effects of a dairy-free, low FODMAPs diet on nutritional health and the fecal microbiome are not well defined. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis, biological mechanism, diagnosis and dietary management of lactose intolerance.

  2. Lactose Intolerance in Adults: Biological Mechanism and Dietary Management

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yanyong; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Dai, Ning; Fox, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Lactose intolerance related to primary or secondary lactase deficiency is characterized by abdominal pain and distension, borborygmi, flatus, and diarrhea induced by lactose in dairy products. The biological mechanism and lactose malabsorption is established and several investigations are available, including genetic, endoscopic and physiological tests. Lactose intolerance depends not only on the expression of lactase but also on the dose of lactose, intestinal flora, gastrointestinal motility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract to the generation of gas and other fermentation products of lactose digestion. Treatment of lactose intolerance can include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. This is effective if symptoms are only related to dairy products; however, lactose intolerance can be part of a wider intolerance to variably absorbed, fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs). This is present in at least half of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and this group requires not only restriction of lactose intake but also a low FODMAP diet to improve gastrointestinal complaints. The long-term effects of a dairy-free, low FODMAPs diet on nutritional health and the fecal microbiome are not well defined. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis, biological mechanism, diagnosis and dietary management of lactose intolerance. PMID:26393648

  3. [Pharmaceutical drugs containing lactose can as a rule be used by persons with lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Vinther, Siri; Rumessen, Jöri Johannes; Christensen, Mikkel

    2015-03-09

    Lactose is often used as an excipient in pharmaceutical drugs. Current evidence indicates that the amount of lactose in most drugs is not sufficient to cause symptoms in persons with lactose intolerance, although interindividual differences in sensitivity probably exist. Patient preferences and/or suboptimal treatment adherence could be reasons for considering lactose-free drug alternatives.

  4. Clinical picture of hypolactasia and lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Villako, K; Maaroos, H

    1994-01-01

    Selective adult-type hypolactasia, the main cause of primary malabsorption of lactose, shows considerable variation in terms of its symptoms, which mainly depend on the amount of milk consumption. The article discusses congenital lactase deficiency and familial lactose intolerance. Links between hypolactasia and non-specific abdominal complaints, coronary heart disease and cataract are presented. The decrease in lactase activity in the brush border of jejunal mucosa, associated with diseases of the mucosa or any other condition which damages the enterocytes, is discussed as a cause of secondary hypolactasia. It is shown that adult-type primary hypolactasia and selective lactose malabsorption represent a major problem in the everyday work of general practitioners, particularly in populations where hypolactasia is common. Therefore, the examination and treatment of non-selected patients with vague abdominal complaints is important in primary health care. As the need for calcium in humans is largely met by the intake of milk, the consumption of milk has to be in amounts that are tolerable for the individual.

  5. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    He, T; Venema, K; Priebe, M G; Welling, G W; Brummer, R-J M; Vonk, R J

    2008-08-01

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the fermentation metabolites and how these processes would play a role in the pathophysiology of lactose intolerance. We suggest that the balance between the removal and production rate of osmotic-active components (lactose, and intermediate metabolites, e.g. lactate, succinate, etc.) in the colon is a key factor in the development of symptoms. The involvement of the colon may provide the basis for designing new targeted strategies for dietary and clinical management of lactose intolerance.

  6. [Lactose and gluten intolerance: which to suscept?].

    PubMed

    Van Gossum, M; Mascart, F; Rickaert, F; Codden, T; Colonius, V

    2000-09-01

    Lactose intolerance affects millions of people world-wide and should be suspected specially when evaluating gastrointestinal symptoms in ethnic populations in which it is prevalent. Fortunately, once a diagnosis is made, management is fairly straightforward. The authors discuss symptoms and methods of detection and offer their recommendations for helping patients with this common disorder. Coeliac disease is the end result of 3 processes that culminate in intestinal damage: genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immunological based inflammation. Epidemiological studies based on serologic tests suggest that the prevalence of coeliac disease has been significantly underestimated. The classic sprue syndrome of steatorrhea and malnutrition may be less common than more subtle and often monosymptomatic presentations of the disease. The authors discuss the diagnostic criteria and the clinical utility of serologic tests.

  7. Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Reaction Kinetics Governing Lactose Conversion of Dairy Products within the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Jimmy L.

    2008-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is a condition suffered by an estimated 50 million Americans. Certain ethnic and racial populations are more widely affected than others. As many as 75 percent of all African-American, Jewish, Native American, and Mexican-American adults, and 90 percent of Asian-American adults are lactose intolerant. Some populations in Africa…

  8. [Lactose intolerance: changing paradigms due to molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Mattar, Rejane; Mazo, Daniel Ferraz de Campos

    2010-01-01

    In most mammals, lactase activity declines on the intestinal wall after weaning, characterizing primary hypolactasia that provokes symptoms of lactose intolerance. The intensity of symptoms of distention, flatulence, abdominal pain and diarrhea varies, according to the amount of ingested lactose, and increases with age. Hypolactasia is genetically determined; nonetheless, a mutation occurred that had made a part of mankind tolerate milk in adulthood. Diagnosis is made by a tolerance test, using the lactose challenge. With the discovery made by the Finns of polymorphism associated with lactase persistence, mainly, in Northern Europe, the genetic test was incorporated as a more comfortable diagnostic tool for the intolerant. In Brazil, 43% of Caucasian and Mulatto groups have lactase persistence allele, with hipolactasia more frequently found among Blacks and Japanese. However, in clinical practice people with hypolactasia may be advised to consume certain dairy products and food containing lactose without developing intolerance symptoms, whereas others will need a lactose restriction diet.

  9. Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2013-08-01

    Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactose intolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactose intolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ≥19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactose intolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactose intolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p < 0.001). A greater proportion used supplements containing calcium (52% vs. 37%, p < 0.001) and vitamin D (58% vs. 46%, p < 0.001), but calcium intakes from the combination of milk products, alternatives, and supplements were lower (739 ± 30 mg·day(-1) vs. 893 ± 13 mg·day(-1), p < 0.0001). Variation in self-reported lactose intolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactose intolerant. Regardless of whether lactose intolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised.

  10. Clinical implications of lactose malabsorption versus lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Michael; Wilt, Timothy; Shaukat, Aasma

    2013-07-01

    The majority of the world's adult population and an estimated 80 million Americans are hypolactasic and hence malabsorb ingested lactose. Although lactose malabsorption is easily identified, less readily assessed is the clinically important question of how often does this malabsorption induce symptoms. This review summarizes: (1) knowledge concerning the etiology and diagnosis of hypolactasia and the pathophysiology of the symptoms of lactose malabsorption and (2) the results of well-controlled trials of the symptomatic response of lactose malabsorbers to varying dosages of lactose and the efficacy of therapeutic interventions to alleviate these symptoms. We conclude that the clinical significance of lactose malabsorption has been overestimated by both the lay public and physicians in that commonly ingested doses of lactose (ie, the quantity in a cup of milk) usually do not cause perceptible symptoms when ingested with a meal. Symptoms occur when the lactose dosage exceeds that in a cup of milk or when lactose is ingested without other nutrients. Simple dietary instruction, rather than the use of commercial products to reduce lactose intake, is recommended for the vast majority of lactose-malabsorbing subjects.

  11. [Glycoprotein hexoses in feces of infants with lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Filippvskiĭ, G K; Klimov, L Ia

    1995-01-01

    A modified method for estimation of total glycoprotein hexoses in feces, based on their measurements in the blood serum, is presented. Sixty-six nursing children with lactose intolerance, breastfed or formula fed, were examined; formula fed babies were kept on mixtures with high and low lactose content. Glycoprotein hexose parameters were as follows (X +/- m): 13.51 +/- 1.93, 12.05 +/- 2.20, and 3.69 +/- 0.47 g/l feces. In control children without lactose intolerance (n = 33) this value was 3.6 +/- 0.79 g/l. Increased glycoprotein excretion is connected with glycocalix and small intestinal enterocyte alteration.

  12. Dietary treatment of lactose intolerance in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Sinden, A A; Sutphen, J L

    1991-12-01

    During the past several years there have been many reports of alternative dietary therapies for primary and secondary lactose intolerance. We have learned that it is useful to feed through most episodes of mild diarrhea that previously would have been treated with clear liquid diets. Infant formulas, including both soy-protein and hydrolysate formulas with specially designed carbohydrate, protein, and fat components, are available to treat the infant with diarrheal syndromes and secondary lactase deficiency. Also, the diet can be supplemented with lactase. Specialized lactose-reduced products as well as cultured and fermented dairy products may be used in varying degrees for lactose-intolerant children. The ingestion of milk with food and fiber components in the diet has also been shown to improve symptoms of lactose intolerance. This review summarizes the essentials of diagnosis of and dietary therapy for lactose intolerance. Our findings indicate that a number of specialized formulas and products are available for successful dietary management of lactose intolerance in infants and children.

  13. Decrease in TSH levels after lactose restriction in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients with lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Asik, Mehmet; Gunes, Fahri; Binnetoglu, Emine; Eroglu, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Neslihan; Sen, Hacer; Akbal, Erdem; Bakar, Coskum; Beyazit, Yavuz; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT) and the effects of lactose restriction on thyroid function in these patients. Eighty-three HT patients taking L-thyroxine (LT4) were enrolled, and lactose tolerance tests were performed on all patients. Lactose intolerance was diagnosed in 75.9 % of the patients with HT. Thirty-eight patients with LI were started on a lactose-restricted diet for 8 weeks. Thirty-eight patients with LI (30 euthyroid and 8 with subclinical hypothyroidism), and 12 patients without LI were included in the final analysis. The level of TSH significantly decreased in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients with LI [from 2.06 ± 1.02 to 1.51 ±1.1 IU/mL and from 5.45 ± 0.74 to 2.25 ± 1.88 IU/mL,respectively (both P<0.05)]. However, the level of TSH in patients without LI did not change significantly over the 8 weeks (P>0.05). Lactose intolerance occurs at a high frequency in HT patients. Lactose restriction leads to decreased levels of TSH, and LI should be considered in hypothyroid patients who require increasing LT4 doses,have irregular TSH levels and are resistant to LT4 treatment.

  14. [Food intolerances caused by enzyme defects and carbohydrate malassimiliations : Lactose intolerance and Co].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    Apart from allergic conditions, carbohydrate malassimiliations (sugar metabolism disorders) are classified within the group of food intolerances. These dose-dependent, yet non-immunological reactions require gastroenterological or internal diagnosis following nutritional therapy. Intolerances to carbohydrates such as lactose (milk sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar) in addition to sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol etc.) have been gaining increasing attention in recent decades as they are the cause of a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms. There are currently various options for both diagnosis and therapy that differ notably in terms of effort, costs, and efficiency. Nutritional change and patient education are the bases of therapy. Non-observance of the trigger will result in increasing complaints and possibly even more infections, e.g., diverticula, rectal disorders, bacterial miscolonization, bile acid malabsorption). For an optimal therapy, the following sugar metabolism disorders have to be differentiated: hypolactasia versus lactose maldigestion, fructose malabsorption versus fructose overload, combined lactose and fructose intolerance, and isolated adverse reactions against sorbitol.For the medical conditions listed above, a three- or four-stage treatment regimen is recommended. Extensive dietary restrictions with regard to the relevant sugar, except for lactose, should not be maintained over a longer period of time.

  15. How Many People Are Affected or At Risk for Lactose Intolerance?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition. (2006). Lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics , 118(3), 1276–1286. PMID 16951027 [top] « What are common ... Home Contact Accessibility Web Policies ...

  16. Novel epoxy activated hydrogels for solving lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, Magdy M M; Hassan, Mohamed E

    2014-01-01

    "Lactose intolerance" is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5-10% w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3 U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11 U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's -SH, -NH, and -OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's -NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, K m and V max, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2 h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel.

  17. Recent Advances on Lactose Intolerance: Tolerance Thresholds and Currently Available Solutions.

    PubMed

    Corgneau, M; Scher, J; Ritié-Pertusa, L; Le, D T L; Petit, J; Nikolova, Y; Banon, S; Gaiani, C

    2015-12-29

    The genetically-programmed reduction in lactase activity during adulthood affects 70% of the world adult population and can cause severe digestive disorders, which are the sign of lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance symptoms vary depending on the residual lactase activity, the small bowel transit time, and especially the amount of ingested lactose. To formulate dairy products suitable for the vast majority of lactose intolerants, it is essential to define lactose intolerance threshold. A recent meta-analysis permitted to show that almost all lactose intolerants tolerate 12 g of lactose in one intake and approximately 18 g of lactose spread over the day. The prevalence and severity of lactose intolerance are probably overestimated by the general public. This misconception usually leads to an unnecessary reduction of dairy foodstuff consumption. Nevertheless, dairy products are essential for health mainly due to their calcium content and the positive influence of probiotic bacteria. The formulation of dairy products suitable for most intolerant and suspicious subjects seems necessary. The use of exogenous enzyme preparations, as well as the consumption of lactose-free products or products rich in probiotic bacteria are proposed as symptom-reducing strategies.

  18. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: What should be the best clinical management?

    PubMed Central

    Usai-Satta, Paolo; Scarpa, Mariella; Oppia, Francesco; Cabras, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) is the incomplete hydrolysis of lactose due to lactase deficiency, which may occur as a primary disorder or secondary to other intestinal diseases. Primary adult-type hypolactasia is an autosomal recessive condition resulting from the physiological decline of lactase activity. Different methods have been used to diagnose LM. Lactose breath test represents the most reliable technique. A recent consensus conference has proposed the more physiological dosage of 25 g of lactose and a standardized procedure for breath testing. Recently a new genetic test, based on C/T13910 polymorphism, has been proposed for the diagnosis of adult-type hypolactasia, complementing the role of breath testing. LM represents a well-known cause of abdominal symptoms although only some lactose malabsorbers are also intolerants. Diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward. Many non-malabsorber subjects diagnose themselves as being lactose intolerant. Blind lactose challenge studies should be recommended to obtain objective results. Besides several studies indicate that subjects with lactose intolerance can ingest up to 15 g of lactose with no or minor symptoms. Therefore a therapeutic strategy consists of a lactose restricted diet avoiding the nutritional disadvantages of reduced calcium and vitamin intake.Various pharmacological options are also available. Unfortunately there is insufficient evidence that these therapies are effective. Further double-blind studies are needed to demonstrate treatment effectiveness in lactose intolerance. PMID:22966480

  19. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: What should be the best clinical management?

    PubMed

    Usai-Satta, Paolo; Scarpa, Mariella; Oppia, Francesco; Cabras, Francesco

    2012-06-06

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) is the incomplete hydrolysis of lactose due to lactase deficiency, which may occur as a primary disorder or secondary to other intestinal diseases. Primary adult-type hypolactasia is an autosomal recessive condition resulting from the physiological decline of lactase activity. Different methods have been used to diagnose LM. Lactose breath test represents the most reliable technique. A recent consensus conference has proposed the more physiological dosage of 25 g of lactose and a standardized procedure for breath testing. Recently a new genetic test, based on C/T13910 polymorphism, has been proposed for the diagnosis of adult-type hypolactasia, complementing the role of breath testing. LM represents a well-known cause of abdominal symptoms although only some lactose malabsorbers are also intolerants. Diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward. Many non-malabsorber subjects diagnose themselves as being lactose intolerant. Blind lactose challenge studies should be recommended to obtain objective results. Besides several studies indicate that subjects with lactose intolerance can ingest up to 15 g of lactose with no or minor symptoms. Therefore a therapeutic strategy consists of a lactose restricted diet avoiding the nutritional disadvantages of reduced calcium and vitamin intake.Various pharmacological options are also available. Unfortunately there is insufficient evidence that these therapies are effective. Further double-blind studies are needed to demonstrate treatment effectiveness in lactose intolerance.

  20. Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, between 30 and 50 million Americans have the potential for lactose-intolerance symptoms. However, lactose-intolerance prevalence rates in practical life settings may be lower than originally suggested. The goal of thi...

  1. HRQoL questionnaire evaluation in lactose intolerant patients with adverse reactions to foods.

    PubMed

    Erminia, Ridolo; Ilaria, Baiardini; Tiziana, Meschi; Silvia, Peveri; Antonio, Nouvenne; Pierpaolo, Dall'Aglio; Loris, Borghi

    2013-09-01

    The occurrence of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms attributed either to food allergy or intolerance has significantly increased. Nevertheless, an accurate and detailed case history, a systematic evaluation and the outcomes of specific allergy tests to identify the offending foods, including "in vivo" and "in vitro" allergy tests, are often negative for food allergy and may indicate a lactose intolerance, which is a recurrent condition affecting about 50% of adults. The aims of our study were the following: (1) What is the real incidence of the food hypersensitivity and the primary lactose intolerance in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, initially referred to allergy or food intolerance? (2) Does lactose intolerance affect the quality of life and compliance to the therapy program? We investigated 262 consecutive patients, 72 men and 190 women. An accurate and detailed history and clinical examination were completed to investigate the offending foods. The evaluation in each patient included: allergy tests, lactose H2 breath test (LHBT) and the HRQoL questionnaire. Five years after the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, a questionnaire on the persistence of gastrointestinal symptoms after lactose ingestion and the diet compliance was distributed. Our results demonstrate an high prevalence of lactose intolerance, more frequent in women; in these patients, bloating and diarrhea are the most reported symptoms. We observe only a significant positive correlation between adverse drug reaction (ADR) and LHBT+ patients, but not an augmented prevalence of food allergy and a negative impact on the HRQoL questionnaire of lactose intolerance.

  2. Lactose intolerance and African Americans: implications for the consumption of appropriate intake levels of key nutrients.

    PubMed

    2009-10-01

    Lactose intolerance is a complex condition that is complicated by cultural beliefs and perceptions about the consumption of dairy products. These attitudes about dairy may contribute to inadequate intake of key nutrients that may impact conditions that contribute to health disparities in African Americans. While a complex health problem, lactose intolerance is easy to treat. However, no treatment can improve the body's ability to produce lactase. Yet, symptoms can be controlled through dietary strategies. This position paper emphasizes the importance of using patient and provider-level strategies in order to reduce the risks to the health of African Americans that may accrue as a result of dairy nutrient deficiency. Evaluation and assessment of interventions tested is critical so that evidence-based approaches to addressing dairy nutrient deficiency and lactose Intolerance can be created. Lastly, it is essential for physicians to communicate key messages to their patients. Since dairy nutrients address important health concerns, the amelioration of lactose intolerance is an investment in health. Lactose intolerance is common, is easy to treat, and can be managed. It is possible to consume dairy even in the face of a history of maldigestion or lactose intolerant issues. Gradually increasing lactose in the diet--drinking small milk portions with food, eating yogurt, and consuming cheese--are effective strategies for managing lactose intolerance and meeting optimal dairy needs.

  3. Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

    2013-01-01

    Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.

  4. [Lactose intolerance. Its definition, its prevalence in Mexico, and its implications in milk consumption].

    PubMed

    Palma, M; Rosado, J L; López, P; González, C; Valencia, M E

    1996-11-01

    In this document we describe some aspects of lactose and milk intolerance, discuss the results of studies carried out previously in Mexico, and report an investigation whose objective was to quantify the impact of lactose intolerance on the habitual consumption of milk in an open population. The prevalence of lactose intolerance and its effect on the consumption of milk was studied in three regions of Mexico. The design of the study was prospective, randomized, double-blind and crossover. The presence of milk intolerance was investigated in 960 subjects with ages between 6 months and 99 years who, as a function of age, received 240 or 360 mL of intact milk and the same amount of hydrolyzed milk. We quantified the consumption of milk and the presence of symptoms after ingesting the tested milk. Seven percent manifested symptoms with the intact milk but only 2% with the hydrolyzed milk (p < 0.001). The presence of symptoms in the intolerant subjects was significantly associated with a lower consumption of milk in comparison with the tolerant individuals (p < 0.001). On the other hand, the consumption of milk appeared to be only marginally associated with the intolerance and its symptoms. We conclude that lactose intolerance does not appear to be a major factor in determining milk consumption in Mexican healthy populations.

  5. Fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption testing: the relationship with symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, C H; Materna, A; Wermelinger, C; Schuler, J

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption with the symptoms of different functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) remains unclear. Aim To investigate the prevalence of fructose and lactose intolerance (symptom induction) and malabsorption and their association with clinical gastrointestinal (GI) as well as non-GI symptoms in FGID and the outcome of dietary intervention. Methods Fructose and lactose intolerance (defined by positive symptom index) and malabsorption (defined by increased hydrogen/methane) were determined in 1372 FGID patients in a single centre using breath testing. Results were correlated with clinical symptoms in different FGID Rome III subgroups. The effectiveness of a targeted saccharide-reduced diet was assessed after 6–8 weeks. Results Intolerance prevalence across all FGIDs was 60% to fructose, 51% to lactose and 33% to both. Malabsorption occurred in 45%, 32% and 16% respectively. There were no differences in intolerance or malabsorption prevalence between FGID subgroups. FGID symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during testing (r = 0.35–0.61. P < 0.0001), but not with malabsorption. Non-GI symptoms occurred more commonly in patients with intolerances. Methane breath levels were not associated with constipation using several cut-off thresholds. Adequate symptom relief was achieved in >80% of intolerant patients, irrespective of malabsorption. Conclusions Fructose and lactose intolerances are common in FGID and associated with increased non-GI symptoms, but not with specific FGID subtypes. Symptoms experienced during breath testing, but not malabsorption, correlate with FGID symptoms. Effective symptom relief with dietary adaptation is not associated with malabsorption. Mechanisms relating to the generation of GI and non-GI symptoms due to lactose and fructose in FGID need to be explored further. PMID:23574302

  6. Prevalence and Symptom Correlation of Lactose Intolerance in the North East Part of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Saha, M; Shil, B C; Saha, S K; Chowdhury, M; Perveen, I; Banik, R; Rahman, M H

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to see the prevalence of lactose intolerance and symptom correlation following oral lactose challenge in healthy volunteers in the north east part of Bangladesh. Symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, borborygmi, flatulence, diarrhea and others were noted for 24 hours and blood glucose was estimated at 0 hour and 30 minutes after 50 gm oral lactose load to healthy volunteers. Failure to rise blood glucose level ≥1.1 mmol/l at 30 minutes after lactose intake from fasting level was taken as lactose malabsorption (LM) i.e., lactose intolerance. Sensitivity and specificity of different symptoms were then found out. A total of 171 volunteers (male 123, female 48) with a mean age 34.08 years participated in this study. Lactose intolerance was found among 82.5% (n=141, M=100, F=41) subjects. Symptoms mostly experience by the lactose malabsorbers were diarrhea 93(66.0%), borborygmi 80(56.7%), abdominal pain 31(22.0%) and flatulence 32(22.7%). LM prevalence was found to increase with increasing number of symptoms up to 3 symptoms. A week positive correlation (r=0.205, P=0.007) was found between the number of symptoms and proportion of subjects having positive lactose tolerance test. Lactose intolerance among healthy adults of North East part of our country is as common as in other Asian countries including China and Malaysia. But LM is higher than that of Europeans and south Indians. Diarrhea and borborygmi were mostly associated with LM.

  7. Modification of sweet acidophilus milk to improve utilization by lactose-intolerant persons.

    PubMed

    McDonough, F E; Hitchins, A D; Wong, N P; Wells, P; Bodwell, C E

    1987-03-01

    Enhanced digestion of yogurt by lactose-intolerant individuals is believed to be due to inherent beta-galactosidase (lactase) in the culture organisms that aids in the hydrolysis of ingested lactose. However, sweet acidophilus milk, which contains lactase-rich organisms, does not enhance lactose digestion. Using breath-hydrogen measurements to indicate malabsorption in 14 human subjects, we compared utilization of: milk, yogurt, heated yogurt, yogurt plus lactose, heated yogurt plus lactase, sweet acidophilus milk (SAM), and SAM made with sonicated cells. Results indicate that both the reduction of lactose during fermentation and the presence of indigenous bacterial lactase are responsible for the increased ability to tolerate lactose in yogurt. Improved utilization of SAM by sonication suggests that intracellular lactase is not available during digestion and that sonication releases the lactase activity from the cells.

  8. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-08-31

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal.

  9. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-01-01

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal. PMID:26404364

  10. The Diverse Forms of Lactose Intolerance and the Putative Linkage to Several Cancers.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mahdi; Diekmann, Lena; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y

    2015-08-28

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is a membrane glycoprotein and the only β-galactosidase of the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium. Besides active transcription, expression of the active LPH requires different maturation steps of the polypeptide through the secretory pathway, including N- and O-glycosylation, dimerization and proteolytic cleavage steps. The inability to digest lactose due to insufficient lactase activity results in gastrointestinal symptoms known as lactose intolerance. In this review, we will concentrate on the structural and functional features of LPH protein and summarize the cellular and molecular mechanism required for its maturation and trafficking. Then, different types of lactose intolerance are discussed, and the molecular aspects of lactase persistence/non-persistence phenotypes are investigated. Finally, we will review the literature focusing on the lactase persistence/non-persistence populations as a comparative model in order to determine the protective or adverse effects of milk and dairy foods on the incidence of colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancers.

  11. Lactose intolerance: a non-allergic disorder often managed by allergologists.

    PubMed

    Perino, A; Cabras, S; Obinu, D; Cavalli Sforza, L

    2009-02-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a very common condition characterized by intestinal lactase deficiency. Primary lactose malabsorption is an inherited deficit present in the majority of the world's population, while secondary bypolactasia can be the consequence of an intestinal disease. The presence of malabsorbed lactose in the colonic lumen may cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This condition is known as lactose intolerance. Lactase non-persistence is the ancestral state, whilst two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lactase gene have been associated with lactase persistence. These are C/T 13910 and G/A 22018 substitutions. Lactase persistence, this Mendelian dominant trait, only became advantageous after the invention of agriculture, when milk from domesticated animals became available for adults to drink. Lactase persistence is then strongly correlated with the diary history of the population. Diagnosis is assessed clinically by elimination of dietary lactose or, better, by non-invasive tests including hydrogen breath test and genetic test. In patients with lactase non-persistence, treatment should be considered exclusively if intolerance symptoms are present. In the absence of guidelines, the common therapeutic approach tends to exclude milk and dairy products from the diet. However, this strategy may have serious nutritional disadvantages. Several studies have been carried out to find alternative approaches, such as exogenous beta-galactosidase, yogurt and probiotics for their bacterial lactase activity, strategies that can prolong contact time between enzyme and substrate delaying gastrointestinal transit time, and chronic lactose ingestion to enhance colonic adaptation.

  12. Impact of short-chain galactooligosaccharides on the gut microbiome of lactose-intolerant individuals

    PubMed Central

    Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Ritter, Andrew J.; Savaiano, Dennis; Monteagudo-Mera, Andrea; Anderson, Carlton; Magness, Scott T.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2017-01-01

    Directed modulation of the colonic bacteria to metabolize lactose effectively is a potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. A randomized, double-blind, multisite placebo-controlled trial conducted in human subjects demonstrated that administration of a highly purified (>95%) short-chain galactooligosaccharide (GOS), designated “RP-G28,” significantly improved clinical outcomes for lactose digestion and tolerance. In these individuals, stool samples were collected pretreatment (day 0), after GOS treatment (day 36), and 30 d after GOS feeding stopped and consumption of dairy products was encouraged (day 66). In this study, changes in the fecal microbiome were investigated using 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing and high-throughput quantitative PCR. At day 36, bifidobacterial populations were increased in 27 of 30 of GOS subjects (90%), demonstrating a bifidogenic response in vivo. Relative abundance of lactose-fermenting Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus were significantly increased in response to GOS. When dairy was introduced into the diet, lactose-fermenting Roseburia species increased from day 36 to day 66. The results indicated a definitive change in the fecal microbiome of lactose-intolerant individuals, increasing the abundance of lactose-metabolizing bacteria that were responsive to dietary adaptation to GOS. This change correlated with clinical outcomes of improved lactose tolerance. PMID:28049818

  13. Hydrogen concentration in expired air analyzed with a new hydrogen sensor, plasma glucose rise, and symptoms of lactose intolerance after oral administration of 100 gram lactose.

    PubMed

    Berg, A; Eriksson, M; Bárány, F; Einarsson, K; Sundgren, H; Nylander, C; Lundström, I; Blomstrand, R

    1985-09-01

    A rapid breath hydrogen analyzer to detect lactose malabsorption is described. After ingestion of a lactose solution the patient expires into a mouthpiece attached to a hydrogen sensor at 30-min intervals for 3 1/2 h. The hydrogen of the expired air causes a voltage change that can be transformed into ppm from a calibration curve. A tolerance test with a load of 100 g lactose was performed in 43 consecutive patients with various gastrointestinal disturbances, referred to the laboratory for the commonly used lactose tolerance test based on plasma glucose measurements. Eleven patients developed symptoms of lactose intolerance during the test. Biopsy specimens from the distal duodenum or proximal jejunum showed partial villous atrophy in one, in whom celiac disease with lactose intolerance was diagnosed; the other 10 had normal specimens. In nine of them lactose intolerance was diagnosed and confirmed by observation for months on a lactose-poor diet. The 10th patient (H.P.L.) did not improve on such a diet. He also showed pronounced symptoms of intolerance during a test with monosaccharides (glucose + galactose). His intestinal disease remained undiagnosed. The 11 patients with symptoms of intolerance and 3 patients without symptoms during the lactose load showed a flat plasma glucose curve after drinking the lactose solution--that is, a maximum rise of the glucose concentration of 1.5 mmol/l. One of the symptom-free patients dropped out and could not be observed, another did not improve on a lactose-poor diet, and the third noticed a favorable effect of the diet on stool consistency but not on other abdominal symptoms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Severe lactose intolerance in a patient with coronary artery disease and ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Craveiro Barra, Sérgio Nuno; Gomes, Pedro; Leitão Marques, António

    2012-12-01

    A 72-year-old man with severe lactose intolerance was admitted for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The coronary angiogram revealed occlusion of the distal third of the first diagonal artery and several non-significant lesions. The pre-discharge echocardiogram revealed moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Discharged on dual antiplatelet therapy, rosuvastatin, perindopril and carvedilol, he was repeatedly readmitted in the following days for abdominal pain/bloating, diarrhea and nausea despite avoiding food products containing lactose. To date, there has been no comprehensive study on the relationship between lactose intolerance and coronary disease, nor has its impact on therapeutics been appropriately addressed. Intolerance to lactose-containing prescription medicines is an extremely rare phenomenon and few strategies are available to overcome this condition, as it has received little attention from the scientific community. Commercial forms of the lactase enzyme and probiotics can limit symptom severity, but different routes of administration, different brands of the same medicine or completely different medicines may be necessary. Some measures were proposed to our patient and, soon afterwards, he was completely asymptomatic in both gastrointestinal and cardiovascular terms.

  15. Properties of porcine and yogurt lactobacilli in relation to lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Burton, J P; Tannock, G W

    1997-10-01

    Lactobacilli that had been isolated from the stomach of piglets were tested for properties relevant to the production of fermented milk products for consumption by lactose-intolerant humans. The strains were characterized for beta-galactosidase activity, the ability to reduce the lactose concentration of milk, viability, and pH of the fermented milk over a 30-d period. Strains that had favorable attributes were studied further, and the optimal pH for beta-galactosidase activity, ability to grow in the presence of bile salts, and ability to deconjugate bile salts were determined. Commercial yogurts were also examined to determine whether products varied in characteristics that might affect tolerance of milk products by lactose-intolerant subjects. The Lactobacillus sp. isolated from pigs had lower beta-galactosidase activity than did Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains ATCC 11842 and NCDO 1489 and strains of lactobacilli isolated from yogurt. The beta-galactosidase activity of all strains decreased rapidly once the fermented milk was stored at 4 degrees C. Strain JB10, originating in the stomach contents of the piglets, had properties that were useful for the manufacture of fermented milk products for lactose-intolerant humans. Milk fermented by this strain had a lactose concentration of about 4.0% and contained 6.6 x 10(6) cfu/ml after storage at 4 degrees C for 20 d. Strain JB10 produced a beta-galactosidase that was active at pH 5.5 (35% of the activity at pH 7.0) and was not inhibited by the presence of bile acids in the culture medium. Beta-Galactosidase activity and lactose concentration varied among yogurts.

  16. The acceptability of milk and milk products in populations with a high prevalence of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S; Murray, E B

    1988-10-01

    result from the fermentation products. 6) Among individuals with incomplete lactose digestion, there is considerable variation in awareness of lactose intolerance and in the quantity of lactose that can be ingested without symptoms. A positive standard lactose test is not a reliable predictor of the ability of an individual to consume moderate amounts of milk and milk products without symptoms. In usual situations the quantity of lactose ingested at any one time is much less than in the lactose-tolerance test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  17. Do patients with lactose intolerance exhibit more frequent comorbidities than patients without lactose intolerance? An analysis of routine data from German medical practices

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner, Rebecca; Kostev, Karel; Gothe, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background The increase in food intolerances poses a burgeoning problem in our society. Food intolerances not only lead to physical impairment of the individual patient but also result in a high socio-economic burden due to factors such as the treatment required as well as absenteeism. The present study aimed to explore whether lactose intolerant (LI) patients exhibit more frequent comorbidities than non-LI patients. Methods The study was conducted on a case-control basis and the results were determined using routine data analysis. Routine data from the IMS Disease Analyzer database were used for this purpose. A total of 6,758 data records were processed and analyzed. Results There were significant correlations between LI and the incidence of osteoporosis, changes in mental status, and the presence of additional food intolerances. Comparing 3,379 LI vs. 3,379 non-LI patients, 34.5% vs. 17.7% (P<0.0001) suffered from abdominal pain; 30.6% vs. 17.2% (P<0.0001) from gastrointestinal infections; and 20.9% vs. 16.0% (P=0.0053) from depression. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were the highest for fructose intolerance (n=229 LI vs. n=7 non-LI; OR 31.06; P<0.0001), irritable bowel syndrome (n=247 LI vs. n=44 non-LI; OR 5.23; P<0.0001), and bloating (n=351 LI vs. n=68 non-LI; OR 4.94; P<0.0001). Conclusion The study confirms that LI should not be regarded as an isolated illness but considered a possible trigger for further diseases. Additional research is necessary to assert more precise statements. PMID:27065730

  18. [Lactose intolerance in hospitalized infants with acute diarrhea due to classic enteropathogenic Escherichia coil (EPEC)].

    PubMed

    Moreira, C R; Fagundes-Neto, U

    1997-01-01

    Three hundred and eleven hospitalized weaned infants with acute diarrhea, all under 12 months of age, were studied in order to evaluate the development of lactose intolerance and its association with age, nutritional status, birth weight, dehydration and enteropathogenic agents identified in fecal samples. After been rehydrated the infants received whole cow' milk assuring the intake of 100 kcal/kg per day. Lactose intolerance was defined according t the following criteria: 1) persistence of diarrhea associated with weight loss during 48 hours, 2) development of vomiting and/or abdominal distention associated with excretion of carbohydrate in feces and/or acids tools, 3) metabolic acidosis associated with abdominal distention at anytime of refeeding period. Lactose intolerance was detected in 52.1% (162/311) of the patients and it was significantly associated with age under 6 months (P < 0.01), birth weight under 3000 grams (P < 0.01), development of dehydration (P < 0.01) and with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) serotypes infection (P < 0.01).

  19. The Diverse Forms of Lactose Intolerance and the Putative Linkage to Several Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mahdi; Diekmann, Lena; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is a membrane glycoprotein and the only β-galactosidase of the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium. Besides active transcription, expression of the active LPH requires different maturation steps of the polypeptide through the secretory pathway, including N- and O-glycosylation, dimerization and proteolytic cleavage steps. The inability to digest lactose due to insufficient lactase activity results in gastrointestinal symptoms known as lactose intolerance. In this review, we will concentrate on the structural and functional features of LPH protein and summarize the cellular and molecular mechanism required for its maturation and trafficking. Then, different types of lactose intolerance are discussed, and the molecular aspects of lactase persistence/non-persistence phenotypes are investigated. Finally, we will review the literature focusing on the lactase persistence/non-persistence populations as a comparative model in order to determine the protective or adverse effects of milk and dairy foods on the incidence of colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancers. PMID:26343715

  20. Diagnosis of genetic predisposition for lactose intolerance by high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Delacour, Hervé; Leduc, Amandine; Louçano-Perdriat, Andréa; Plantamura, Julie; Ceppa, Franck

    2017-02-01

    Lactose, the principle sugar in milk, is a disaccharide hydrolyzed by intestinal lactase into glucose and galactose, which are absorbed directly by diffusion in the intestine. The decline of lactase expression (or hypolactasia) in intestinal microvilli after weaning is a normal phenomenon in mammals known as lactase deficiency. It is observed in nearly 75% of the world population and is an inherited autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance. It is caused by SNPs in a regulatory element for lactase gene. In Indo-European, lactase deficiency is associated with rs4982235 SNP (or -13910C>T). The aim of this study is to describe a method based on high resolution melting for rapidly detecting genetic predisposition to lactose intolerance. Analytical performance of the assay was assessed by evaluating within and betwwen-run precision and by comparing the results (n = 50 patients) obtained with the HRM assay to those obtained with the gold standard (Sanger sequencing of the region of interest). In silico prediction of HRM curves was performed to evaluate the potential impact of the other SNPs described within the PCR product on the HRM analytical performances. The assay has good performance (CV <0.2% during the between-run study). A perfect agreement with the gold standard method was observed. The presence of other polymorphisms within the amplified sequence is detected, the misclassification risk is low. This assay can be used for rapidly diagnosing genetic predisposition to lactose intolerance.

  1. Ultrasonic Monitoring of Enzyme Catalysis; Enzyme Activity in Formulations for Lactose-Intolerant Infants.

    PubMed

    Altas, Margarida C; Kudryashov, Evgeny; Buckin, Vitaly

    2016-05-03

    The paper introduces ultrasonic technology for real-time, nondestructive, precision monitoring of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in solutions and in complex opaque media. The capabilities of the technology are examined in a comprehensive analysis of the effects of a variety of diverse factors on the performance of enzyme β-galactosidase in formulations for reduction of levels of lactose in infant milks. These formulations are added to infant's milk bottles prior to feeding to overcome the frequently observed intolerance to lactose (a milk sugar), a serious issue in healthy development of infants. The results highlight important impediments in the development of these formulations and also illustrate the capability of the described ultrasonic tools in the assessment of the performance of enzymes in complex reaction media and in various environmental conditions.

  2. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... bones, such as canned salmon and sardines, and dark green vegetables, such as spinach. Manufacturers may also ... To learn more about clinical trials, why they matter, and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical ...

  3. Lactose intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements with Vitamin D. Talk to your health care provider about which ones to choose. Eat foods that have more calcium (such as leafy greens, oysters, sardines, canned salmon, shrimp, and broccoli). Drink ...

  4. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures breath hydrogen level. In most cases, a health care provider performs this test at a hospital, on an outpatient basis. Smoking ... acidity test can detect in a stool sample. Health care providers sometimes use this test to check acidity in the stools of infants ...

  5. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  6. Efficacy of traditional rice-lentil-yogurt diet, lactose free milk protein-based formula and soy protein formula in management of secondary lactose intolerance with acute childhood diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Nizami, S Q; Bhutta, Z A; Molla, A M

    1996-06-01

    Secondary lactose intolerance is often a cause of prolongation of diarrhoeal episodes. As appropriate management of lactose intolerance is elimination of lactose from diet, expansive lactose free formulae are often prescribed in acute childhood diarrhoea without establishing diagnosis of lactose intolerance. Since cheap weaning diets made from locally available cereals have been found effective in management of persistent diarrhoea, we postulated that same weaning diet made of rice lentil and yogurt (K-Y diet) could be effectively used in management of acute childhood diarrhoea associated with secondary lactose intolerance. We compared this K-Y diet with milk protein-based lactose free and soy-protein formula. Thirty children between 3-18 months of age completed dietary trial for 72 h. Of these nine children received K-Y diet (Group A), four children received milk protein-based formula (Group B) and 11 children received soy protein formula (Group C). Stool frequency was significantly reduced in children in Group A (13 +/- 6 on day 1 to 6 +/- 5 on day 3) and in Group B (13 +/- 5 on day 1 to 7 +/- 4 on day 3), but not in Group C (13 +/- 4 on day 1 to 10 +/- 8 on day 3). No significant difference was observed in intake of diet, total calories intake, and fluid intake among the three groups. It is concluded that cheap weaning diet made of locally available cereals and yogurt can be used effectively in management of secondary lactose intolerance associated with acute childhood diarrhoea.

  7. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-08-13

    Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques.

  8. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques. PMID:26287234

  9. The influence of lactose intolerance and other gastro-intestinal tract disorders on L-thyroxine absorption.

    PubMed

    Ruchała, Marek; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Zybek, Ariadna

    2012-01-01

    The preferred treatment for hypothyroidism is oral levothyroxine (LT4) ingestion, in doses that ensure a sustained state of hormonal balance. Many different factors may significantly influence the absorption of LT4, including: interval between the ingestion of the drug and the last meal, eating habits, and different functional and organic pathologies of the gastro-intestinal tract. The main purpose of this paper is to review and systematise the available literature on the subject of the influence of different malabsorption syndromes on the effectiveness of LT4 preparations. The need to use high LT4 doses in the substitutional treatment of hypothyroidism is often the very first sign of one of the pathologies that are connected with malabsorption syndrome, which might have been asymptomatic and undiagnosed previously. Patients who require more than 2 μg/kg body weight of LT4 per day, with constantly increased thyrotropin level, should be diagnosed with the suspicion of pseudomalabsorption or real absorption disorder. An LT4 absorption test, using high doses of LT4, may be useful in the diagnosis of pseudomalabsorption. After excluding non-compliance, the differential diagnosis should include such disorders as lactose intolerance, coeliac disease, atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, bowel resection, inflammatory bowel disease, and parasite infection. Where there is a diagnosis of lactose intolerance, both a low lactose diet and a lactose-free LT4 preparation should be administered to restore euthyroidism or make it possible to decrease the dose of the LT4 preparation. In coeliac disease, a gluten-free diet usually allows a normalisation of the need for LT4, as do eradication of the H. pylori infection or parasite colonisation. In cases of atrophic gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease, treating the underlying diseases and regaining the state of remission may improve the absorption of LT4. In patients after gastro-intestinal tract surgery, a dose of

  10. Lactococcus lactis expressing food-grade β-galactosidase alleviates lactose intolerance symptoms in post-weaning Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjie; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Chuan; Yu, Qian; Dai, Ruirui; Pei, Xiaofang

    2012-12-01

    The endogenous β-galactosidase expressed in intestinal microbes is demonstrated to help humans in lactose usage, and treatment associated with the promotion of beneficial microorganism in the gut is correlated with lactose tolerance. From this point, a kind of recombinant live β-galactosidase delivery system using food-grade protein expression techniques and selected probiotics as vehicle was promoted by us for the purpose of application in lactose intolerance subjects. Previously, a recombinant Lactococcus lactis MG1363 strain expressing food-grade β-galactosidase, the L. lactis MG1363/FGZW, was successfully constructed and evaluated in vitro. This study was conducted to in vivo evaluate its efficacy on alleviating lactose intolerance symptoms in post-weaning Balb/c mice, which were orally administered with 1 × 10⁶ CFU or 1 × 10⁸ CFU of L. lactis MG1363/FGZW daily for 4 weeks before lactose challenge. In comparison with naïve mice, the mice administered with L. lactis MG1363/FGZW showed significant alleviation of diarrhea symptoms in less total feces weight within 6 h post-challenge and suppressed intestinal motility after lactose challenge, although there was no significant increase of β-galactosidase activity in small intestine. The alleviation also correlated with higher species abundance, more Bifidobacterium colonization, and stronger colonization resistance in mice intestinal microflora. Therefore, this recombinant L. lactis strain effectively alleviated diarrhea symptom induced by lactose uptake in lactose intolerance model mice with the probable mechanism of promotion of lactic acid bacteria to differentiate and predominantly colonize in gut microbial community, thus making it a promising probiotic for lactose intolerance subjects.

  11. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Windey, Karen; Houben, Els; Deroover, Lise; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-08

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a (13)C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164). Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity.

  12. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Windey, Karen; Houben, Els; Deroover, Lise; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a 13C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164). Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity. PMID:26371036

  13. Prevalence of lactose intolerance and its relation with bone mineral density among Malay students of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, Noor Fairuzi Suhana; Daud, Norlida Mat; Makbul, Ika Aida Aprilini; Aziz, Qurratul Aini Salma Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Lactose intolerance (LI), a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD), is the most common type of carbohydrate intolerance, which predominantly affects Southeast Asian populations. However, data on the prevalence of LI and its association with BMD among Malaysian adults are still lacking as not much research has been done on this matter. Thus, the aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of LI and to evaluate its association with BMD among students of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. A total of 100 Malay students (50 males and 50 females) with mean age of 23.9 ± 4.7 years old and body mass index of 24.5 ± 5.8 kg/m2 were selected to involve in this preliminary study. After an overnight fast, subjects were asked to perform hydrogen breath test (HBT) and lactose tolerance test (LTT) after an intake of 300 ml lactose drink (50g lactose). HBT measurements were recorded at every 30 minutes intervals while LTT results were recorded at fasting and 30 minutes after lactose consumption. Visual analogue scales were used to measure gastrointestinal symptoms. BMD was measured at calcaneus bone using quantitative ultrasound and expressed as T-score. A consistent rise by >20 ppm for HBT and failure of blood sugar to rise by >1.10 mmol/L above basal level were considered as abnormal HBT and LTT. Lactose malabsorption (LM) is defined by abnormal HBT and LTT whilst LI is characterized by having abnormal HBT, LTT and gastrointestinal symptoms. The result showed that 86% male and 90% female subjects exhaled breath hydrogen >20 ppm but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between them. LTT results showed that 86% male subjects failed to rise their blood sugar level >1.10 mmol/L compared to 60% in female subjects. Both male and female subjects had high percentage occurrence of gastrointestinal symptom (82 % and 80% respectively) although no significant difference (p>0.05) was demonstrated. The prevalence of LI and LM among all subjects was 77% and 18

  14. A novel acid-stable, acid-active beta-galactosidase potentially suited to the alleviation of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Shane; Walsh, Gary

    2010-03-01

    Extracellular beta-galactosidase produced by a strain of Aspergillus niger van Tiegh was purified to homogeneity using a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange, chromatofocusing, and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The enzyme displayed a temperature optimum of 65 degrees C and a low pH optimum of between 2.0 and 4.0. The monomeric glycosylated enzyme displayed a molecular mass of 129 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.7. Protein database similarity searching using mass spectrometry-derived sequence data indicate that the enzyme shares homology with a previously sequenced A. niger beta-galactosidase. Unlike currently commercialised products, the enzyme displayed a high level of stability when exposed to simulated gastric conditions in vitro, retaining 68+/-2% of original activity levels. This acid-stable, acid-active beta-galactosidase was formulated, along with a neutral beta-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM5418, in a novel two-segment capsule system designed to ensure delivery of enzymes of appropriate physicochemical properties to both stomach and small intestine. When subjected to simulated full digestive tract conditions, the twin lactase-containing capsule hydrolyzed, per unit activity, some 3.5-fold more lactose than did the commercial supplemental enzyme. The acid-stable, acid-active enzyme, along with the novel two-segment delivery system, may prove beneficial in the more effective treatment of lactose intolerance.

  15. Lactose intolerance among Malay and Orang Asli female children in selected rural Selangor and its effect on bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makbul, Ika Aida Aprilini; Daud, Norlida Mat; Aziz, Nurul Azrianti Abdul; Yahya, Noor Fairuzi Suhana

    2016-11-01

    Sufficient intake of calcium during childhood is very important to ensure an optimal growth and strong bones development. However, lactose intolerance (LI) may limit the intake of milk and dairy products due to the inability of the body to digest lactose to its constituents, glucose and galactose. Children in rural area were a major concern as they are commonly associated with an inadequate intake of nutrients. Hence, the objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of LI among Malay and Orang Asli female children in rural Selangor and its association with bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 65 (39 Malay, 26 Orang Asli) female primary school students with a mean age of 10.4 ± 0.6 years old underwent hydrogen breath test and lactose tolerance test (LTT) during fasting and after ingestion of 25g lactose solution. A Wong Baker Face Pain Rating Scale (WBFPRS) was used to assess the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during the study. LI symptoms are defined when breath H2 levels exceed 20 ppm above baseline values, an increase of postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels of less than 1.1 mmol/L and GI symptom score is more or equal than score 2. BMD was measured in the calcaneus using QUS-2 Ultrasonometer. The result showed that 35 subjects (15 Malay, 20 Orang Asli) had a positive breath test (>20ppm). A total of 74.4% Malay and 88.5% Orang Asli children had an increase of PBG of less than 1.1 mmol/L. Both groups have low percentage (35.9 % Malay, 34.6 % Orang Asli) of GI symptoms. A total of 20.0% children (n=13, Malay=4, Orang Asli=9) was found to experience LI. Orang Asli children showed a significantly higher (p<0.001) BMD (95.7 ± 11.0 dB/MHz) compared to Malay children (71.7 ± 8.6 dB/MHz). The result shown there is an association between LI with BMD (p=0.031). Hence, LI does affect in decreasing an individual BMD. In conclusion, the prevalence of LI among female children in rural Selangor is low. However, the relationship between LI and BMD

  16. Lactose intolerance in persistent diarrhoea during childhood: the role of a traditional rice-lentil (Khitchri) and yogurt diet in nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Z A; Nizami, S Q; Isani, Z

    1997-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is frequently encountered in children with persistent diarrhoea (PD). Selection of an appropriate milk-based formulation is a major management problem in the developing world. In a consecutive series of studies, we evaluated the role of feeding a traditional rice-lentil (khitchri) diet alone (KY) or in combination with either soy formula (KY-Soy) a dilute buffalo milk (KY-B), in children (age 6 months-3 years) with PD. Serial observations of stool output, caloric intake and weight gain of these children over a 14 day period indicated satisfactory tolerance of the KY diet with adequate weight gain. The weight gain and stool output was however higher in lactose intolerant children, with the worst results seen with K-Y and buffalo milk combination. While lactose intolerant children with PD do have higher. rates of therapeutic failure, our data indicates that a traditional diet and yogurt combination can be used satisfactorily for nutritional rehabilitation in over 80% of such children.

  17. What Is Lactose Intolerance?

    MedlinePlus

    ... FOIA Jobs at NICHD Meetings, Conferences & Events Partnering & Donating to the NICHD Staff Directory Overview Condition Information ... and health. NIH Consensus and State-of-the-Science Statements , 27(2), 1–27. PMID 20186234 [top] ...

  18. [Lactose in human nutrition].

    PubMed

    de Vrese, M; Sieber, R; Stransky, M

    1998-09-19

    The disaccharide lactose is naturally present as a component of foods in milk and dairy products. In the gastrointestinal tract, lactose is hydrolysed by the enzyme beta-galactosidase (lactase) into glucose and galactose. These components are absorbed. In most people lactase activity decreases at the age of approximately 2 years of age. After this lactose intake can cause symptoms of bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain and diarrhoea due to the lactose reaching the large intestine. This phenomenon is called lactose intolerance. It is generally recommended that these people abandon the consumption of milk and dairy products. However, most lactose-intolerant people are able to digest small amounts of milk (approximately 200 ml). They can also consume cheese without (hard and semi-hard cheese) or only low lactose content (only present in 10% of soft cheese). These products are a very important source of calcium.

  19. Lactose intolerance genetic testing: is it useful as routine screening? Results on 1426 south-central Italy patients.

    PubMed

    Santonocito, Concetta; Scapaticci, Margherita; Guarino, Donatella; Annicchiarico, Eleonora Brigida; Lisci, Rosalia; Penitente, Romina; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2015-01-15

    Adult-type hypolactasia is a widespread condition throughout the world, causing lactose malabsorption. Several studies suggested that the identification of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations, located upstream the gene encoding the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of hypolactasia. We evaluated the frequencies of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 variants in a central-south Italian population and the usefulness of lactase deficiency genetic testing in the clinic practice. The genomic DNA of 1426 patients and 1000 healthy controls from central-south Italy was isolated from peripheral whole blood and genotyped for the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and sequencing. The frequencies of genotypes in the 1426 patients analysed were as follows: 1077 CC/GG (75.5%), 287 CT/GA (20.1%), 24 TT/AA (1.7%), 38 CC/GA (2.7%). Only 64 out of 1426 (4.5%) performed also L-BHT test, 29 of which were negative for L-BHT also in presence of different genotypes. Among the 35 individuals with L-BHT positive, 34 were CC/GG and only one CT/GA. Although lactose genetic test is a good predictor of persistence/non-persistence lactase in specific population, its use in the central-south Italy population should be limited given the high prevalence of the CCGG diplotype in normal individuals.

  20. How Is Lactose Intolerance Managed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... FOIA Jobs at NICHD Meetings, Conferences & Events Partnering & Donating to the ... managed? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content No treatment can change the body's ability to make lactase. 1 But most people ...

  1. Diagnosing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or lactose intolerance in babies who cry a lot in the first few months overlooks feeding problems.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores two areas in which the translation of research into practice may be improved in the management of cry-fuss behaviours in the first few months of life. Firstly, babies who cry excessively are often prescribed proton pump inhibitors, despite evidence that gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is very rarely a cause. The inaccuracy of commonly used explanatory mechanisms, the side-effects of acid-suppressive medications, and the failure to identify treatable problems, including feeding difficulty when the diagnosis of 'reflux' is applied, are discussed. Secondly, crying breastfed babies are still prescribed lactase or lactose-free formula, despite evidence that the problem of functional lactose overload is one of breastfeeding management. The mechanisms and management of functional lactose overload are discussed. These two problems of research translation need to be addressed because failure to identify and manage other causes of cry-fuss problems, including feeding difficulty, may have adverse outcomes for a small but significant minority of families.

  2. Adult lactose digestion status and effects on disease

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult assimilation of lactose divides humans into dominant lactase-persistent and recessive nonpersistent phenotypes. OBJECTIVES: To review three medical parameters of lactose digestion, namely: the changing concept of lactose intolerance; the possible impact on diseases of microbial adaptation in lactase-nonpersistent populations; and the possibility that the evolution of lactase has influenced some disease pattern distributions. METHODS: A PubMed, Google Scholar and manual review of articles were used to provide a narrative review of the topic. RESULTS: The concept of lactose intolerance is changing and merging with food intolerances. Microbial adaptation to regular lactose consumption in lactase-nonpersistent individuals is supported by limited evidence. There is evidence suggestive of a relationship among geographical distributions of latitude, sunhine exposure and lactase proportional distributions worldwide. DISCUSSION: The definition of lactose intolerance has shifted away from association with lactose maldigestion. Lactose sensitivity is described equally in lactose digesters and maldigesters. The important medical consequence of withholding dairy foods could have a detrimental impact on several diseases; in addition, microbial adaptation in lactase-nonpersistent populations may alter risk for some diseases. There is suggestive evidence that the emergence of lactase persistence, together with human migrations before and after the emergence of lactase persistence, have impacted modern-day diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Lactose maldigestion and lactose intolerance are not synonymous. Withholding dairy foods is a poor method to treat lactose intolerance. Further epidemiological work could shed light on the possible effects of microbial adaptation in lactose maldigesters. The evolutionary impact of lactase may be still ongoing. PMID:25855879

  3. Lactose and lactase--who is lactose intolerant and why?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Robert K; Krasinski, Stephen D; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Grand, Richard J

    2007-12-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is expressed only in the small intestine and is confined to absorptive enterocytes on the villi with a tightly controlled pattern of expression along the proximal to distal and crypt-villus axes of the intestine. LPH expression is regulated mainly at the level of lactase (LCT) gene transcription that directs 2 phenotypes: a decline in LCT activity (LCT nonpersistence) in mid-childhood in the majority of the world's population, and maintenance of the lactase levels found in infancy (LCT persistence) in people of northern European extraction and scattered populations elsewhere. The molecular mechanisms that regulate these phenotypes are not completely understood. A population genetic association of lactase persistence with 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the distal 5'-flanking region of LCT (-13.9T and -22A) has been confirmed in northern Europeans, but this fails to explain lactase persistence found in some African groups. Any hypothesis for the control of lactase expression must reconcile the presence of high levels of activity in early life in all humans and the characteristic loss of activity found subsequently in many but not all people.

  4. Lactose Intolerance: A Guide for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... a natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Your body makes an enzyme called lactase ... you will learn how much milk or other dairy products you can handle without having symptoms. Are ...

  5. Diagnosis and clinical observation of lactose-free milk powder on treatment of neonatal diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyan; Chang, Jing; Yao, Aimei; Hu, Yulian; Yuan, Yuxiao; Yu, Fengqin; Ma, Zhanmin; Wang, Guangzhou; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal lactose intolerance syndrome is a series of digestive system symptoms caused by the lack of lactase, and could not fully digest the lactose in breast milk or cow milk. Lactose is one of the disaccharides mainly existed in mammalian milk. Lactose content in breast milk is 7.2g/100ml, cow milk is 4.7g/100ml. Dairy products are the main energy sources for the newborn, and lactose provides 20% energy for infants. During the growth of the newborn, lactose not only play a significant role in energy supply, but also involve in the development of the brain growing. This study mainly studied the lactose development features, the reasons for lactose intolerance, and the measures to treat lactose deficiency.

  6. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.

    PubMed

    Savaiano, Dennis A

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated.

  7. Food intolerances and eosinophilic esophagitis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Oner; Mete, Emin; Catal, Ferhat; Ozol, Duygu

    2009-01-01

    Food intolerance is an adverse reaction to a particular food or ingredient that may or may not be related to the immune system. A deficiency in digestive enzymes can also cause some types of food intolerances like lactose and gluten intolerance. Food intolerances may cause unpleasant symptoms, including nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which usually begin about half an hour after eating or drinking the food in question, but sometimes symptoms may delayed up to 48 h. There is also a strong genetic pattern to food intolerances. Intolerance reactions to food chemicals are mostly dose-related, but also some people are more sensitive than others. Diagnosis can include elimination and challenge testing. Food intolerance can be managed simply by avoiding the particular food from entering the diet. Babies or younger children with lactose intolerance can be given soy milk or hypoallergenic milk formula instead of cow's milk. Adults may be able to tolerate small amounts of troublesome foods, so may need to experiment. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is defined as isolated eosinophilic infiltration in patients with reflux-like symptoms and normal pH studies and whose symptoms are refractory to acid-inhibition therapy. Food allergy, abnormal immunologic response, and autoimmune mechanisms are suggested as possible etiological factors for EE. This article is intended to review the current literature and to present a practical approach for managing food intolerances and EE in childhood.

  8. Tolerance to glucose polymers in malnourished infants with diarrhea and disaccharide intolerance.

    PubMed

    Fagundes-Neto, U; Viaro, T; Lifshitz, F

    1985-02-01

    The response of infants with diarrhea and lactose intolerance to feedings containing soy protein and sucrose (Sobee), and/or to a carbohydrate free formula (RCF), to which glucose polymers (GP) were added, was assessed in twenty patients. They all were less than ten months of age and had varying degrees of malnutrition. Eleven had acute diarrhea and nine had chronic diarrhea. None of them had classical enteropathogenic strains and parasites in the stools. All had lactose intolerance when feedings were begun with cow's milk formula and some also had sucrose intolerance when fed sucrose containing soy formulas. They had persistent loose stools and excreted feces with an acid pH and with carbohydrates, thus they were given dietary treatment with RCF with GP. There were 9 patients with acute diarrhea and lactose intolerance (1 of them also had sucrose intolerance), who improved on RCF with GP feedings; but 2 patients (lactose and sucrose intolerant) failed to respond to this diet. There were six patients with chronic diarrhea and lactose intolerance (four of them also had sucrose intolerance), who improved on RCF with GP formula, but there were three patients who failed on this treatment. These data show that some infants with diarrhea, malnutrition, and lactose-sucrose intolerance may also develop intolerance to GP and require further dietary management with glucose as the source of carbohydrate in the diet.

  9. Milk Intolerance and the American Indian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Historian, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The intolerance of milk by American Indians and other groups (Thais, Chinese, Filipinos, Melonesians of New Guinea, Australian Aborigines, Black groups of Africa, American Blacks, and Eskimos) due to the lack of the lactose enzyme is discussed in this article. (FF)

  10. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  11. Statin intolerance.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zahid

    2014-05-15

    The term statin intolerance refers to an inability to use statins because of muscle symptoms or elevated creatine kinase, and the major diagnostic challenge is to unambiguously link these to statin use. Roughly 5% to 10% of statin users develop statin intolerance, and because statin use is expected to increase--especially after recent updated guidelines have expanded the statin benefit groups--adverse effects from statins will become a growing issue. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology--and even the terminology--of statin-related muscle injury lacks clarity. Several risk factors have been identified, including advanced age, family history of myopathy and statin dose; many cases manifest only after patients are administered an interacting medication (e.g., azole antifungals, cimetidine, clarithromycin, erythromycin and cyclosporine). The diagnosis of myopathy remains challenging, especially because some patients can have normal serum creatine kinase levels despite demonstrable weakness and muscle biopsy-proven statin-induced myopathy. A statin withdrawal and rechallenge helps patients distinguish whether their myalgia symptoms are because of statins, but, in at least 1 clinical trial, even 5% of placebo-treated patients developed myalgias during a controlled withdrawal and rechallenge. No consensus exists for management of patients with statin intolerance. Many patients can eventually tolerate a statin but often at suboptimal doses. A subset of patients do well with nondaily regimens such as every other day or once weekly dosing. Some patients cannot tolerate statins at all, requiring nonstatin lipid-lowering medications--the benefit of which remains unclear with regard to preventing atherosclerotic events. Ultimately, statin intolerance undermines the drug adherence that is critical for achieving the benefits of lifelong lipid-lowering therapy. In conclusion, statin myopathy is a common challenge in lipid management, and further work is needed to establish a

  12. Lactose tolerance tests

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...

  13. Breath hydrogen test after oral lactose in postgastrectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Welsh, J D; Griffiths, W J

    1980-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare breath hydrogen tests after oral lactose ingestion in nonoperated subjects and postgastrectomy patients. Simultaneous oral lactose tolerance tests and breath hydrogen tests were performed in 50 subjects. Twenty of the 30 subjects without prior gastric surgery had normal lactase activities and low breath hydrogen concentrations. The other 10 subjects had low lactase levels and increased breath hydrogen concentrations. The remaining 20 subjects had prior gastric surgery. Seven of these had normal lactase activities, no history of milk intolerance and low breath hydrogen concentrations. Two of the postgastrectomy patients had low intestinal lactases, milk intolerance, and high breath hydrogens. The remaining 11 postgastrectomy patients had normal intestinal lactases but high breath hydrogens. Eight of the 11 had milk intolerance while two of the other three had not consumed milk since childhood. From these studies the following conclusions can be reached: 1)a low lactose breath hydrogen test in the postgastrectomy subject correctly identifies the individual with normal lactase activity. However, high breath hydrogen responses, may be found in either those with lactase deficiency or normal lactase activity. 2) Lactose malabsorption would appear to explain the milk intolerance in the postgastrectomy patient with normal lactase activity.

  14. Optimization and shelf life of a low-lactose yogurt with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, A; Acha, R; Calleja, M-T; Chiralt-Boix, A; Wittig, E

    2012-07-01

    Lactose intolerance results in gastrointestinal discomfort and the malabsorption of certain nutrients, such as calcium. The replacement of milk with low-lactose and probiotic-enriched dairy products is an effective strategy of mitigating the symptoms of lactose intolerance. Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) is a safe, immunity-stimulating probiotic. We have developed a process to increase the hydrolysis of lactose and HN001 growth in yogurt versus β-galactosidase (βG) concentration and enzymatic hydrolysis time (EHT) before bacterial fermentation. The objective of this study was to optimize the conditions by which yogurt is processed as a function of βG and EHT using a multifactorial design, with lactose content, HN001 growth, process time, and sensory quality as dependent variables. Further, the shelf life of the optimized yogurt was evaluated. In the optimization study, polynomials explained the dependent variables. Based on Pearson correlation coefficients, HN001 growth correlated positively with the hydrolysis of lactose. However, low lactose content and high HN001 count increased the fermentation time and lowered the sensory quality. The optimized conditions-using polynomials to obtain yogurt with >1 × 10(7) cfu of HN001/mL, <10 g of lactose/L, and a minimum overall sensory quality of 7 on the Karlsruhe scale-yielded a theoretical value of 910 neutral lactose units/kg for βG and 2.3h for EHT, which were validated in an industrial-scale assay. Based on a shelf-life study at 3 temperatures, the hydrolysis of lactose and the growth of HN001 continue during storage. Arrhenius equations were developed for the variables in the shelf-life study. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to develop a low-lactose yogurt to which HN001 has been added for lactose-intolerant persons who wish to strengthen their immune system.

  15. Lactose, galactose and glucose determination in naturally "lactose free" hard cheese: HPAEC-PAD method validation.

    PubMed

    Monti, Lucia; Negri, Stefano; Meucci, Aurora; Stroppa, Angelo; Galli, Andrea; Contarini, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    A chromatographic method by HPAEC-PAD was developed and in-house validated for the quantification of low sugar levels in hard cheese, specifically Grana Padano PDO cheese. Particular attention was paid to the extraction procedure, due to residual microbial and enzymatic activities. Specificity in detection and linearity were verified. Recoveries ranged from 93% for lactose to 98% for glucose and galactose. The obtained LOD and LOQ values were, respectively, 0.25 and 0.41mg/100g for lactose, 0.14 and 0.27mg/100g for galactose, and 0.16 and 0.26mg/100g for glucose. The method was applied to 59 samples of Grana Padano PDO cheese: galactose showed the highest concentration and variability among the samples (1.36±0.89), compared to both lactose (0.45±0.12) and glucose (0.46±0.13). Considering the very low levels of sugars detected, authentic PDO Grana Padano could be safely included in the diet of people suffering from lactose intolerance.

  16. The diagnosis and management of patients with lactose-intolerance.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sherry L; Attel, Susan

    2013-07-10

    Approximately 70% of the world's population is lactase deficient. This article reviews the evolutionary history of lactase deficiency, recent recommendations to establish screening, and clinical practice guidelines for increased diagnosis of this important, yet often misunderstood condition of malabsorption.

  17. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. RESULTS: Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P < 0.001). 4SLHBT showed excellent diagnostic concordance with standard LHBT (97%-100%, Kappa​​ 0.815-0.942) with high sensitivity (90%-100%) and specificity (100%) at all three lactose doses in both groups. CONCLUSION: Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice. PMID:26140004

  18. [Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    2009-04-01

    The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy.

  19. Streamlined analysis of lactose-free dairy products.

    PubMed

    Morlock, Gertrud E; Morlock, Lauritz P; Lemo, Carot

    2014-01-10

    Functional food for lactose-intolerant consumers and its global prevalence has created a large market for commercially available lactose-free food products. The simplest approach for detection and quantitation of lactose in lactose-free dairy products was developed. A one-step sample preparation was employed and the resulting 10% sample solution was directly subjected to the chromatographic system. LODs down to 0.04 mg/L were obtained for dairy products by application volumes up to 250 μL on a rectangular start zone, which is the lowest LOD reported in matrix so far. The highly matrix-robust, streamlined approach was demonstrated for a broad range of dairy products, even with high fat and protein contents. The mean recovery rate for 11 types of dairy products spiked at the strictest lactose content discussed (0.01%) was 90.5±10.5% (n=11). The mean repeatability for 11 dairy products spiked at the 0.01% level was 1.3±1.0% (n=11). It is the simplest approach with regard to sample preparation at low running costs (0.3 Euro or 0.4 USD/analysis) and fast analysis time (3 min/analysis). It enabled an efficient product screening, and at the same time, the quantitation of lactose in relevant samples. This streamlined analysis is highly attractive to the field of food safety and quality control of lactose-free dairy products, for which a limit value for lactose is expected soon in the EU. This methodological concept can be transferred to other challenging fields.

  20. Is it possible to find presence of lactose in pharmaceuticals? - Preliminary studies by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banas, A.; Banas, K.; Kalaiselvi, S. M. P.; Pawlicki, B.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Breese, M. B. H.

    2017-01-01

    Lactose and saccharose have the same molecular formula; however, the arrangement of their atoms is different. A major difference between lactose and saccharose with regard to digestion and processing is that it is not uncommon for individuals to be lactose intolerant (around two thirds of the population has a limited ability to digest lactose after infancy), but it is rather unlikely to be saccharose intolerant. The pharmaceutical industry uses lactose and saccharose as inactive ingredients of drugs to help form tablets because of their excellent compressibility properties. Some patients with severe lactose intolerance may experience symptoms of many allergic reactions after taking medicine that contains this substance. People who are specifically ;allergic; to lactose (not just lactose intolerant) should not use tablets containing this ingredient. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has a unique chemical fingerprinting capability and plays a significant important role in the identification and characterization of analyzed samples and hence has been widely used in pharmaceutical science. However, a typical FTIR spectrum collected from tablets contains a myriad of valuable information hidden in a family of tiny peaks. Powerful multivariate spectral data processing can transform FTIR spectroscopy into an ideal tool for high volume, rapid screening and characterization of even minor tablet components. In this paper a method for distinction between FTIR spectra collected for tablets with or without lactose is presented. The results seem to indicate that the success of identifying one component in FTIR spectra collected for pharmaceutical composition (that is tablet) is largely dependent on the choice of the chemometric technique applied.

  1. In vitro and in vivo lactose and lactulose effects on colonic fermentation and portal-systemic encephalopathy parameters.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Esquivel, M; Moran, S; Poo, J L; Muñoz, R M

    1997-01-01

    Lactose intolerance occurs in the majority of human groups, excluding people from Northern Europe. Because its effect is similar to that of lactulose, lactose seems to be an alternative treatment for patients with portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE) and lactase deficiency. The mechanism of action of lactose is similar to that of lactulose. In vivo, lactose improves PSE parameters and causes acidic diarrhea. We performed in vitro studies in a fecal incubation system to investigate the biochemical and bacteriological effects induced by different substances customarily used for the treatment of patients with PSE (lactose, lactulose and Neomycin). In vitro experiments showed that lactose and lactulose decreased aerobic flora counts and reduced the pH of fecal incubation. Both disaccharides reduced the ammonia concentration in the incubation system.

  2. Relative efficiency of yogurt, sweet acidophilus milk, hydrolyzed-lactose milk, and a commercial lactase tablet in alleviating lactose maldigestion.

    PubMed

    Onwulata, C I; Rao, D R; Vankineni, P

    1989-06-01

    The relative effectiveness of commercially available plain yogurt (Y), sweet acidophilus milk (SAM), hydrolyzed-lactose milk (HLM), a lactase tablet (LT), and whole milk (WM) was evaluated in 10 lactose-intolerant black subjects. In a 5 x 5 Latin square design, hourly breath hydrogen excretion (BHE) was measured for 5 h after the subjects consumed the above products (18 g lactose in each except HLM, which had 5 g). Mean BHE (ppm) for Y, SAM, LT, HLM, and WM were 12, 37, 29, 18, and 33, respectively. There was a significant (p less than 0.05) positive correlation of 0.808 between the symptoms reported and the mean peak BHE. However, the correlation between the symptoms and diagnosis by history was not significant. Although Y was as effective as HLM in minimizing lactose maldigestion, it was the least accepted by the subjects in sensory evaluations. Results of this study also indicate that microbial endogenous lactase in yogurt is superior to exogenous commercial lactase in alleviating lactose maldigestion.

  3. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs.

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions.

  4. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    PubMed Central

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  5. Amperometric detection of lactose using β-galactosidase immobilized in layer-by-layer films.

    PubMed

    Campos, Paula P; Moraes, Marli L; Volpati, Diogo; Miranda, Paulo B; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Ferreira, Marystela

    2014-07-23

    A direct, low-cost method to determine the concentration of lactose is an important goal with possible impact in various types of industry. In this study, a biosensor is reported that exploits the specific interaction between lactose and the enzyme β-galactosidase (β-Gal) normally employed to process lactose into glucose and galactose for lactose-intolerant people. The biosensor was made with β-Gal immobilized in layer-by-layer (LbL) films with the polyelectrolyte poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and poly(vinyl sufonate) (PVS) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with a layer of Prussian Blue (PB). With an ITO/PB/(PEI/PVS)1(PEI/β-Gal)30 architecture, lactose could be determined with an amperometric method with sensitivity of 0.31 μA mmol(-1) cm(-2) and detection limit of 1.13 mmol L(-1), which is sufficient for detecting lactose in milk and for clinical exams. Detection occurred via a cascade reaction involving glucose oxidase titrated as electrolytic solution in the electrochemical cell, while PB allowed for operation at 0.0 V versus saturated calomel electrode, thus avoiding effects from interfering species. Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy data for the interface between the LbL film and a buffer containing lactose indicated that β-Gal lost order, which is the first demonstration of structural effects induced by the molecular recognition interaction with lactose.

  6. Formula allergy and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kerner, J A

    1995-03-01

    There are two major types of adverse reactions in infant formulas: (1) formula allergy/hypersensitivity, which is an immunologic response, and (2) formula intolerance, which is a nonimmunologic response. Formula intolerance can occur in infants with an underlying congenital or acquired enzyme deficiency (disaccharidase deficiency, galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance). The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of both reactions are reviewed in this article. The appropriateness of the use of a variety of infant formulas is discussed. Guidelines for the prevention of allergic disease are described as well.

  7. Idiopathic environmental intolerances: overview.

    PubMed

    Sparks, P J

    2000-01-01

    The editor discusses usage of the terms "iidiopathic environmental intolerance," "multiple chemical sensitivity," and "environmental illness." Also addressed are prevalence, theories of etiology, evaluation and treatment, and social and political implications.

  8. Hereditary fructose intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... in their blood and decrease their risk for gout. Outlook (Prognosis) Hereditary fructose intolerance may be mild ... fructose-containing foods due to their effects Bleeding Gout Illness from eating foods containing fructose or sucrose ...

  9. Blood glucose rise after lactose tolerance testing in infants.

    PubMed

    Paige, D M; Mellits, E D; Chiu, F Y; Davis, L; Bayless, T M; Cordano, A

    1978-02-01

    Lactose tolerance tests are used clinically to screen children and infants. It is assumed that absorption of a lactose challenge in infants would occur in a predictable pattern prior to weaning. Twenty-one infants from 3 to 12 months of age were studied. The maximum blood glucose rise over fasting levels ranged from 11.0 to 62.0 mg/100 ml; the mean was 32.6 mg/100 ml. Six infants had a maximum rise of less than 20 mg/100 ml. Eleven infants (52%) had a maximum rise of greater than 30 mg/100 ml. Signs of intolerance were not noted in any subject. Weight and length were normally disturbed. Results indicate the variance in glucose rise existing within a population of infants growing normally and consuming milk. Gastric emptying, digestion, and absorption may influence the blood glucose rise after a lactose test. Established glucose levels used as an index to lactose absorption in older children and adults may not accurately reflect lactase activity in infants.

  10. Lactose nutrition in lactase nonpersisters.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Lactose handling by the human gut by most people, beyond being breast-fed, has been considered a disorder rather than physiological. A non-human mammalian milk source is novel for the majority. During the first 6 months of life, when neonates and infants are best breast-fed, lactose along with other macronutrients, provides energy, but may have other functions as well. At birth, babies are endowed with their mother's vaginal microbiome, but not if they are born by Caesarean section. How much maternal milk lactose survives the infant's small intestine and is processed by this unique gut microbiome and to what end is still uncertain, but no lactose or galactose appears in the faeces. Once intestinal lactase activity declines in most infants, lactose may enhance innate immunity through the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP), which is best achieved by lactose synergy with other colonic fermentation metabolites such as butyrate. It is of interest whether this lactose function or a variant of it persists. It might not be evident when lactase is persistent, as it is in most people of northern European ancestry. Population genomics indicate that lactase persistence became prevalent only about 3000-1000 BC, the Bronze Age of Eurasia. Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) in lactase nonpersisters who consume dairy foods are partly dose dependent and not usually evident with single lactose intakes≤25 g per day. Spreading intake across the day reduces the risk as can various dietary patterns. Nevertheless, individual differences in GIS lactose sensitivity may merit public health and clinical consideration.

  11. High lactose tolerance in North Europeans: a result of migration, not in situ milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Vuorisalo, Timo; Arjamaa, Olli; Vasemägi, Anti; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka; Tourunen, Auli; Saloniemi, Irma

    2012-01-01

    The main carbohydrate in milk is lactose, which must be hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose before the sugars can be digested. While 65% or more of the total human population are lactose intolerant, in some human populations lactase activity commonly persists into adulthood. Lactose tolerance is exceptionally widespread in Northern European countries such as Sweden and Finland, with tolerance levels of 74% and 82%, respectively. Theoretically, this may result either from a strong local selection pressure for lactose tolerance, or from immigration of lactose tolerant people to Northern Europe. We provide several lines of archaeological and historical evidence suggesting that the high lactose tolerance in North Europeans cannot be explained by selection from in situ milk consumption. First, fresh cow milk has not belonged to the traditional diet of Swedes or Finns until recent times. Second, not enough milk has been available for adult consumption. Cattle herding has been neither widespread nor productive enough in Northern Europe to have provided constant access to fresh milk. We suggest that the high prevalence of lactose tolerance in Finland in particular may be explained by immigration of people representing so-called Corded Ware Culture, an early culture representing agricultural development in Europe.

  12. Intolerance of Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Meghan L.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressive neurologic condition that, by its nature, carries uncertainty as a hallmark characteristic. Although all patients face uncertainty, there is variability in how individuals cope with its presence. In other populations, the concept of “intolerance of uncertainty” has been conceptualized to explain this variability such that individuals who have difficulty tolerating the possibility of future occurrences may engage in thoughts or behaviors by which they attempt to exert control over that possibility or lessen the uncertainty but may, as a result, experience worse outcomes, particularly in terms of psychological well-being. This topical review introduces MS-focused researchers, clinicians, and patients to intolerance of uncertainty, integrates the concept with what is already understood about coping with MS, and suggests future steps for conceptual, assessment, and treatment-focused research that may benefit from integrating intolerance of uncertainty as a central feature. PMID:26300700

  13. Evolution and Collective Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willhoite, Fred H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Examines behavioral and intellectual conformity as major attitudes in shaping political behavior. Manifestations of coercion within human and animal social units are presented, including religious intolerance, prohibition of artistic activity and literary expression, and rejection of outsiders. Available from: Managing Editor, Department of…

  14. Improvement of symptoms in infant colic following reduction of lactose load with lactase.

    PubMed

    Kanabar, D; Randhawa, M; Clayton, P

    2001-10-01

    Transient lactose intolerance has been identified as a possible causative factor in infant colic. A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover study to investigate this has been undertaken in 53 babies with symptoms of colic. Pre-incubation of the feed with lactase resulted in breath hydrogen levels and total crying time which were both at least 45% lower than figures with placebo treatment, in 26% of the full trial group (95% confidence interval 12.9% to 44.4%), and in 38% of compliers (95% confidence interval 18.8% to 59.4%). The remainder did not respond to the same extent. These findings suggest that infant colic may have a multiple aetiology, and that in a significant number of cases the immediate cause is transient lactose intolerance, in which cases pretreatment of feeds with lactase can result in considerable symptomatic benefits.

  15. Perceived milk intolerance is related to bone mineral content in 10-13 year-old female adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine associations among lactose maldigestion status, perceived milk intolerance (PMI), dietary calcium intake and bone mineral content in early adolescent females. Methodology: Subjects were 291 girls who participated in a sub-study of the multiple-...

  16. [Hereditary fructose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Lopes, A I; Almeida, A G; Costa, A E; Costa, A; Leite, M

    1998-12-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a rare autosomal recessive, metabolic disorder, that results from a deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-biphosphate aldolase) in the liver, kidney and intestine. Recent molecular studies have identified the mutation A149P in most European patients. We describe the first case of HFI with molecular analysis in a Portuguese child, presenting the same mutation of the aldolase B gene. The role of molecular studies in the diagnosis of HFI risk patients and their families is emphasized.

  17. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaalita, W.S.; Pinder, K.L.; Lo, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5.

  18. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose.

    PubMed

    Kisaalita, W S; Pinder, K L; Lo, K V

    1987-07-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO(2) and H(2)) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced, and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5.

  19. Adult hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, L A; Valdivia, T; Nuttall, F Q

    1991-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance was diagnosed in a 69-year-old man on the basis of his medical history and the response to an intravenous fructose tolerance test. Three men of the same age as our patient were used as control subjects. Since the severity may vary and affected individuals self-impose fructose and sucrose restriction, they are essentially symptom free. The diagnosis can only be suspected by taking a careful dietary history. The prevalence of this condition in adults is unknown. It is rare but is likely to be more common than data in the literature would indicate.

  20. Adult hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Yasawy, Mohamed Ismail; Folsch, Ulrich Richard; Schmidt, Wolfgang Eckhard; Schwend, Michael

    2009-05-21

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an under-recognized, preventable life-threatening condition. It is an autosomal recessive disorder with subnormal activity of aldolase B in the liver, kidney and small bowel. Symptoms are present only after the ingestion of fructose, which leads to brisk hypoglycemia, and an individual with continued ingestion will exhibit vomiting, abdominal pain, failure to thrive, and renal and liver failure. A diagnosis of HFI was made in a 50-year-old woman on the basis of medical history, response to IV fructose intolerance test, demonstration of aldolase B activity reduction in duodenal biopsy, and molecular analysis of leukocyte DNA by PCR showed homozygosity for two doses of mutant gene. HFI may remain undiagnosed until adult life and may lead to disastrous complications following inadvertent fructose or sorbitol infusion. Several lethal episodes of HFI following sorbitol and fructose infusion have been reported. The diagnosis can only be suspected by taking a careful dietary history, and this can present serious complications.

  1. [Food Allergy and Intolerance : Distinction, Definitions and Delimitation].

    PubMed

    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Waßmann-Otto, Anja; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2016-06-01

    Immunologically mediated hypersensitivity to foods is defined as food allergy, mainly due to immunglobulins of class E (IgE) triggering immediate reactions (type I hypersensitivity) with possible involvement of mucosa, skin, airways, intestinal tract, and the vascular system. Primary food allergy is based on (early) IgE sensitization against animal (e. g., cow's milk, hen's eggs) or plant proteins (e. g. peanut, hazelnut or wheat). In the case of secondary food allergies, IgE against pollen proteins (e. g., birch) reacts to structurally related food proteins (with cross-reactions to stone and pit fruits). Non-immunological food intolerance reactions are mostly based on carbohydrate malassimilation (e. g., lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption) and are rarely due to pseudo-allergies (e. g., flavors, dyes, preservatives) primarily in patients with chronic urticaria. Common intestinal symptoms are mainly due to functional disorders (e. g., irritable bowel disease), rarely because of inflammatory intestinal diseases (e. g., celiac disease). Histamine intolerance, gluten hypersensitivity, and so-called food type III hypersensitivities are controversial diagnoses. The aforementioned disease entities/models are of variable importance for the affected individuals, the public health system, and society in general.

  2. Prediction of lactose malabsorption in referral patients.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, J A; Narvaez, R M

    1988-03-01

    Two hundred forty-two patients referred for various gastrointestinal complaints were evaluated for clinical parameters that would predict findings of lactose malabsorption. Breath hydrogen and blood glucose lactose tests were performed after ingestion of 50 g lactose. Presenting complaints, duration of symptoms, and patient demographics such as age, sex, and ethnic heritage were not different between lactose malabsorbers and absorbers as defined by the breath hydrogen lactose test. Food-related symptoms in general and after specific foods such as milk, ice cream, cheese, and yogurt were also similar between groups. Prior to testing, 30% of malabsorbers (N = 161) and 36% of absorbers (N = 81) reported lactose-related symptoms (P = NS). The blood glucose response to lactose was abnormal in 60% of malabsorbers and 15% of absorbers. This study confirmed our impression that it is difficult to predict lactose absorption status by clinical parameters. The majority of our lactose malabsorber patients were unaware of lactose-associated symptoms. Furthermore, symptom assessment, demographics, food history, and blood glucose testing did not predict abnormal hydrogen responses to lactose.

  3. Hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M; Rellos, P; Cox, T M

    1998-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI, OMIM 22960), caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, EC 4.1.2.13), is a recessively inherited condition in which affected homozygotes develop hypoglycaemic and severe abdominal symptoms after taking foods containing fructose and cognate sugars. Continued ingestion of noxious sugars leads to hepatic and renal injury and growth retardation; parenteral administration of fructose or sorbitol may be fatal. Direct detection of a few mutations in the human aldolase B gene on chromosome 9q facilitates the genetic diagnosis of HFI in many symptomatic patients. The severity of the disease phenotype appears to be independent of the nature of the aldolase B gene mutations so far identified. It appears that hitherto there has been little, if any, selection against mutant aldolase B alleles in the population: in the UK, approximately 1.3% of neonates harbour one copy of the prevalent A149P disease allele. The ascendance of sugar as a major dietary nutrient, especially in western societies, may account for the increasing recognition of HFI as a nutritional disease and has shown the prevalence of mutant aldolase B genes in the general population. The severity of clinical expression correlates well with the immediate nutritional environment, age, culture, and eating habits of affected subjects. Here we review the biochemical, genetic, and molecular basis of human aldolase B deficiency in HFI, a disorder which responds to dietary therapy and in which the principal manifestations of disease are thus preventable. Images PMID:9610797

  4. Hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Rellos, P; Cox, T M

    1998-05-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI, OMIM 22960), caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, EC 4.1.2.13), is a recessively inherited condition in which affected homozygotes develop hypoglycaemic and severe abdominal symptoms after taking foods containing fructose and cognate sugars. Continued ingestion of noxious sugars leads to hepatic and renal injury and growth retardation; parenteral administration of fructose or sorbitol may be fatal. Direct detection of a few mutations in the human aldolase B gene on chromosome 9q facilitates the genetic diagnosis of HFI in many symptomatic patients. The severity of the disease phenotype appears to be independent of the nature of the aldolase B gene mutations so far identified. It appears that hitherto there has been little, if any, selection against mutant aldolase B alleles in the population: in the UK, approximately 1.3% of neonates harbour one copy of the prevalent A149P disease allele. The ascendance of sugar as a major dietary nutrient, especially in western societies, may account for the increasing recognition of HFI as a nutritional disease and has shown the prevalence of mutant aldolase B genes in the general population. The severity of clinical expression correlates well with the immediate nutritional environment, age, culture, and eating habits of affected subjects. Here we review the biochemical, genetic, and molecular basis of human aldolase B deficiency in HFI, a disorder which responds to dietary therapy and in which the principal manifestations of disease are thus preventable.

  5. Protein patterns of brush-border fragments in congenital lactose malabsorption and in specific hypolactasia of the adult.

    PubMed

    Freiburghaus, A U; Schmitz, J; Schindler, M; Rotthauwe, H W; Kuitunen, P; Launiala, K; Hadorn, B

    1976-05-06

    Brush-border membrane proteins of the small-bowel mucosa were separated on polyacrylamide gels from intestinal biopsy specimens obtained from four children with congenital lactose malabsorption and from two adults with specific hypolactasia. In three patients with the congenital type of lactase deficiency the protein band corresponding to brush-border lactase was reduced in intensity, but was never completely absent. No difference in gel patterns was detected when this pattern in congenital deficiency was compared to that obtained from the two patients with adult-type selective hypolactasia. In one patient with congenital lactose malabsorption the protein band corresponding to lactase activity was not detectable. The findings suggest that the mechanisms leading to low lactase activity in the congenital and adult forms of lactose intolerance are similar.

  6. Hydrogen-producing Escherichia coli strains overexpressing lactose permease: FT-IR analysis of the lactose-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mara; Dimanta, Ilze; Gavare, Marita; Strazdina, Inese; Liepins, Janis; Juhna, Talis; Kalnenieks, Uldis

    2014-01-01

    The lactose permease gene (lacY) was overexpressed in the septuple knockout mutant of Escherichia coli, previously engineered for hydrogen production from glucose. It was expected that raising the lactose transporter activity would elevate the intracellular lactose concentration, inactivate the lactose repressor, induce the lactose operon, and as a result stimulate overall lactose consumption and conversion. However, overexpression of the lactose transporter caused a considerable growth delay in the recombinant strain on lactose, resembling to some extent the "lactose killing" phenomenon. Therefore, the recombinant strain was subjected to selection on lactose-containing media. Selection on plates with 3% lactose yielded a strain with a decreased content of the recombinant plasmid but with an improved ability to grow and produce hydrogen on lactose. Macromolecular analysis of its biomass by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that increase of the cellular polysaccharide content might contribute to the adaptation of E. coli to lactose stress.

  7. Lactose enhances mineral absorption in infancy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, E E; Fomon, S J

    1983-05-01

    To determine if lactose promotes the intestinal absorption of calcium and other minerals by infants, metabolic balance studies were performed with infants fed two formulas nearly identical in composition except for carbohydrate. One contained only lactose and the other contained sucrose and corn starch hydrolysate. Each of six normal infants had two balance studies performed with each formula in alternating sequence. When lactose was the carbohydrate, net absorption and net retention of calcium were significantly greater than when lactose was not present in the formula. Absorptions of magnesium and manganese were also significantly enhanced by lactose. Absorptions of copper and zinc were somewhat greater (not statistically significant) when lactose was present, whereas absorption of iron was not affected. Absorption of phosphorus was not different, but urinary excretion was less when the lactose containing formula was fed and, hence, net retention of phosphorus was significantly enhanced. These results confirm findings from animal studies and previous human studies and show that, in infants, lactose has a significant and sustained promoting effect on absorption of calcium and other minerals.

  8. Crystallization in lactose refining-a review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shin Yee; Hartel, Richard W

    2014-03-01

    In the dairy industry, crystallization is an important separation process used in the refining of lactose from whey solutions. In the refining operation, lactose crystals are separated from the whey solution through nucleation, growth, and/or aggregation. The rate of crystallization is determined by the combined effect of crystallizer design, processing parameters, and impurities on the kinetics of the process. This review summarizes studies on lactose crystallization, including the mechanism, theory of crystallization, and the impact of various factors affecting the crystallization kinetics. In addition, an overview of the industrial crystallization operation highlights the problems faced by the lactose manufacturer. The approaches that are beneficial to the lactose manufacturer for process optimization or improvement are summarized in this review. Over the years, much knowledge has been acquired through extensive research. However, the industrial crystallization process is still far from optimized. Therefore, future effort should focus on transferring the new knowledge and technology to the dairy industry.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary fructose intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... EP, Zee T, Tolan DR. Increased prevalence of mutant null alleles that cause hereditary fructose intolerance in ... F. Structural and functional analysis of aldolase B mutants related to hereditary fructose intolerance. FEBS Lett. 2002 ...

  10. Gastrointestinal food allergy and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Assa'ad, Amal H

    2006-10-01

    GI symptoms are a common manifestation of food allergy and intolerance. The primary physician is the first to evaluate these symptoms. A systematic evaluation using an accurate and detailed history, tests to identify the offending food(s), and procedures that may identify underlying pathologic disorders of the GI tract would lead to an accurate diagnosis and better targeted therapeutic interventions.

  11. [Hereditary fructose intolerance (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Thanner, F

    1977-07-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is the most important disturbance in human fructose metabolism. This paper deals with the present knowledge of biochemistry and pathophysiology of this inborn error of metabolism, which is often wrongly diagnosed and gives a detailed description of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  12. [Postoperative fructose infusion in a case of presumed hereditary fructose intolerance (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hackl, J M; Balogh, D; Kunz, F; Dworzak, E; Puschendorf, B; Decristoforo, A; Maier, F

    1978-03-31

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) was diagnosed in a 61 year-old male patient on account of liver dysfunction followed by prolonged shock immediately after the administration of a fructose and lactose infusion postoperatively. The diagnosis of HFI was based on an increased value of fructose, hypoglycaemia, lactic acidosis and diminution of the phosphate level in combination with the typical family history. The patient's children showed a normal reaction to fructose administration. The therapy included glucose, insulin and heparin administration, balance of acidosis and partial exchange of blood, which resulted in improvement in the glucose level, coagulation factors and acidosis, but could not prevent further liver damage and uraemia with a fatal outcome.

  13. [Fiber, food intolerances, FODMAPs, gluten and functional gastrointestinal disorders--update 2014].

    PubMed

    Leiß, O

    2014-11-01

    The controversial effects of dietary fiber on symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders are summarized. Studies concerning adverse reaction to foods are mentioned and the possible role of food allergy and food intolerances, especially pseudoallergic reactions to biogenes amines, in symptom provocation is discussed. The known effects of lactose deficiency and fructose malabsorption are reviewed. The FODMAP concept (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) is presented in more detail and recent studies on pathophysiological effects of FODMAP constituents and of therapeutic effects of a low FODMAP diet on symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome are discussed. Finally, studies on the new disorder non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are summarized and the state of the discussion whether wheat intolerance is due to gluten or the grains is given.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be derived from milk that has been pasteurized, or the reduced lactose whey shall be subjected to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reduced lactose whey. 184.1979a Section 184.1979a... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979a Reduced lactose whey. (a) Reduced lactose...

  15. 75 FR 2551 - NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... readily accessible source of calcium and are fortified with vitamin D and other nutrients. Therefore... low intake of vitamin D can lead to the development of rickets, especially in those of African descent... with vitamin D and other nutrients, they are often more expensive and less widely available...

  16. Development and shelf-life determination of pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed skim milk.

    PubMed

    Antunes, A E C; Silva E Alves, A T; Gallina, D A; Trento, F K H S; Zacarchenco, P B; Van Dender, A G F; Moreno, I; Ormenese, R C S C; Spadoti, L M

    2014-09-01

    The segment of the world population showing permanent or temporary lactose intolerance is quite significant. Because milk is a widely consumed food with an high nutritional value, technological alternatives have been sought to overcome this dilemma. Microfiltration combined with pasteurization can not only extend the shelf life of milk but can also maintain the sensory, functional, and nutritional properties of the product. This studied developed a pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed (delactosed) skim milk (PMLHSM). Hydrolysis was performed using β-galactosidase at a concentration of 0.4mL/L and incubation for approximately 21h at 10±1°C. During these procedures, the degree of hydrolysis obtained (>90%) was accompanied by evaluation of freezing point depression, and the remaining quantity of lactose was confirmed by HPLC. Milk was processed using a microfiltration pilot unit equipped with uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) ceramic membranes with a mean pore size of 1.4 μm and UTP of 60 kPa. The product was submitted to physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluations, and its shelf life was estimated. Microfiltration reduced the aerobic mesophilic count by more than 4 log cycles. We were able to produce high-quality PMLHSM with a shelf life of 21 to 27d when stored at 5±1°C in terms of sensory analysis and proteolysis index and a shelf life of 50d in regard to total aerobic mesophile count and titratable acidity.

  17. Gluten intolerance and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Philippe; Pelletier, Fabien; Dreno, Brigitte; Puzenat, Eve; Aubin, François

    2006-01-01

    Gluten sensitivity with or without coeliac disease (CD) symptoms and intestinal pathology has been suggested as a potentially treatable cause of various diseases. CD is a chronic disease which improves on withdrawal of wheat gliadins and barley, rye and oat prolamins from the diet. There have been numerous reports linking CD with several skin conditions. A body of evidence shows that dermatitis herpetiformis is actually a cutaneous manifestation of CD. Autoimmune diseases, allergic diseases, psoriasis and miscellaneous diseases have also been described with gluten intolerance. Dermatologists should be familiar with the appraisal of gluten sensitive enteropathy and should be able to search for an underlying gluten intolerance (GI). Serological screening by means of antigliadin, antiendomysial and transglutaminase antibodies should be performed. HLA typing is often useful in association with serologic tests. Intestinal biopsy is usually needed to establish the diagnosis of CD or GI. Thus, gluten intolerance gives rise to a variety of dermatological manifestations which may benefit from a gluten-free diet.

  18. Sensory Intolerance: Latent Structure and Psychopathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steven; Conelea, Christine A.; McKay, Dean; Crowe, Katherine B.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory intolerance refers to high levels of distress evoked by everyday sounds (e.g., sounds of people chewing) or commonplace tactile sensations (e.g., sticky or greasy substances). Sensory intolerance may be associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, OC-related phenomena, and other forms of psychopathology. Sensory intolerance is not included as a syndrome in current diagnostic systems, although preliminary research suggests that it might be a distinct syndrome. Objectives First, to investigate the latent structure of sensory intolerance in adults; that is, to investigate whether it is syndrome-like in nature, in which auditory and tactile sensory intolerance co-occur and are associated with impaired functioning. Second, to investigate the psychopathologic correlates of sensory intolerance. In particular, to investigate whether sensory intolerance is associated with OC-related phenomena, as suggested by previous research. Method A sample of 534 community-based participants were recruited via Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk program. Participants completed measures of sensory intolerance, OC-related phenomena, and general psychopathology. Results Latent class analysis revealed two classes of individuals: Those who were intolerant of both auditory and tactile stimuli (n = 150), and those who were relatively undisturbed by auditory or tactile stimuli (n = 384). Sensory intolerant individuals, compared to those who were comparatively sensory tolerant, had greater scores on indices of general psychopathology, more severe OC symptoms, a higher likelihood of meeting caseness criteria for OC disorder, elevated scores on measures of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs, a greater tendency to report OC-related phenomena (e.g., a greater frequency of tics), and more impairment on indices of social and occupational functioning. Sensory intolerant individuals had significantly higher scores on OC symptoms even after controlling for general psychopathology

  19. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  20. Soybean and Lactose in Meat Products and Preparations Sampled at Retail

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Filomena; Vollano, Lucia; Base, Giuseppe; Girasole, Mariagrazia; Smaldone, Giorgio; Cortesi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies and intolerances have increased during the last decades and regulatory authorities have taken different measures to prevent and manage consumers’ adverse reactions, including correct labelling of foods. Aim of this work was to search for soybean and lactose in meat products and meat preparations taken from retail in some provinces of Campania Region (Southern Italy) and to evaluate the food labels compliance with Regulation (EU) n.1169/2011. Soybean and lactose were searched using commercial kits in n. 58 samples of meat products produced in or distributed by 19 establishments, and in n. 55 samples of meat products and n. 8 of meat preparations produced in 21 plants. All samples were selected on the basis of the absence of any information on the labels about the presence of the two searched allergens, with the exception of n. 5 samples tested for lactose. Traces of soybean were detected in 50 out of the 58 examined samples, at concentrations up to 0.93 mg kg–1. Only two samples contained levels above the detection limit of 0.31 mg kg–1. Lactose levels ranging from 0.11 to 2.95 g/100 g, i.e. above the detection limit, were found in all the tested samples (n. 63). The results of the present research underline the need for careful controls and planning by operators as part of the self-control plans, and deserve attention from the competent authorities considering not only the consumers’ health but also the great attention media pay to regulations providing consumers with information on food. PMID:27853709

  1. Soybean and Lactose in Meat Products and Preparations Sampled at Retail.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Filomena; Vollano, Lucia; Base, Giuseppe; Girasole, Mariagrazia; Smaldone, Giorgio; Cortesi, Maria Luisa

    2016-06-03

    Food allergies and intolerances have increased during the last decades and regulatory authorities have taken different measures to prevent and manage consumers' adverse reactions, including correct labelling of foods. Aim of this work was to search for soybean and lactose in meat products and meat preparations taken from retail in some provinces of Campania Region (Southern Italy) and to evaluate the food labels compliance with Regulation (EU) n.1169/2011. Soybean and lactose were searched using commercial kits in n. 58 samples of meat products produced in or distributed by 19 establishments, and in n. 55 samples of meat products and n. 8 of meat preparations produced in 21 plants. All samples were selected on the basis of the absence of any information on the labels about the presence of the two searched allergens, with the exception of n. 5 samples tested for lactose. Traces of soybean were detected in 50 out of the 58 examined samples, at concentrations up to 0.93 mg kg(-1). Only two samples contained levels above the detection limit of 0.31 mg kg(-1). Lactose levels ranging from 0.11 to 2.95 g/100 g, i.e. above the detection limit, were found in all the tested samples (n. 63). The results of the present research underline the need for careful controls and planning by operators as part of the self-control plans, and deserve attention from the competent authorities considering not only the consumers' health but also the great attention media pay to regulations providing consumers with information on food.

  2. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  3. Bistability of the lac operon during growth of Escherichia coli on lactose and lactose+glucose.

    PubMed

    Narang, Atul; Pilyugin, Sergei S

    2008-05-01

    The lac operon of Escherichia coli can exhibit bistability. Early studies showed that bistability occurs during growth on TMG/succinate and lactose+glucose, but not during growth on lactose. More recently, studies with lacGFP-transfected cells show bistability during growth on TMG/succinate, but not during growth on lactose and lactose+glucose. In the literature, these results are invariably attributed to variations in the destabilizing effect of the positive feedback generated by induction. Specifically, during growth on TMG/succinate, lac induction generates strong positive feedback because the permease stimulates the accumulation of intracellular TMG, which in turn, promotes the synthesis of even more permease. This positive feedback is attenuated during growth on lactose because hydrolysis of intracellular lactose by beta-galactosidase suppresses the stimulatory effect of the permease. It is attenuated even more during growth on lactose + glucose because glucose inhibits the uptake of lactose. But it is clear that the stabilizing effect of dilution also changes dramatically as a function of the medium composition. For instance, during growth on TMG/succinate, the dilution rate of lac permease is proportional to its activity, e, because the specific growth rate is independent of e (it is completely determined by the concentration of succinate). However, during growth on lactose, the dilution rate of the permease is proportional to e2 because the specific growth rate is proportional to the specific lactose uptake rate, which in turn, proportional to e. We show that: (a) This dependence on e2 creates such a strong stabilizing effect that bistability is virtually impossible during growth on lactose, even in the face of the intense positive feedback generated by induction. (b) This stabilizing effect is weakened during growth on lactose+glucose because the specific growth rate on glucose is independent of e, so that the dilution rate once again contains a term that

  4. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering.

  5. Symptomatology and growth in infants with cow's milk protein intolerance using two different whey-protein hydrolysate based formulas in a Primary Health Care setting.

    PubMed

    Verwimp, J J; Bindels, J G; Barents, M; Heymans, H S

    1995-09-01

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept or Pepti Junior. The efficacy of both products, in terms of symptomatology and growth, was compared with each other. The products differ in fat source (Pepti Junior 50% of its fat as MCT, Nutrilon Pepti normal LCT fat blend) and the presence of lactose (Pepti Junior: lactose free; Nutrilon Pepti: 40% of its carbohydrate as lactose). The study was part of a large project that aimed at standardising the approach towards cow's milk protein intolerance in Baby Health Clinics. Nearly 50 Baby Health Clinics participated in this project. In this study, growth and symptomatology (skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract) were monitored during an intervention period of at least 10 weeks. Infants in both feeding groups showed normal growth, and in at least 80% of the infants an improvement of the overall symptomatology could be seen during the intervention period. Most profound were the decreases in prevalence and severity of eczema and infantile colic. No differences in efficacy were found in this study between the two infant formulas. It was concluded that the exclusive use of either whey hydrolysate based infant formula resulted in an improvement of allergic symptoms and in normal growth in infants diagnosed by elimination/provocation for cow's milk protein intolerance in a Primary Health Care setting.

  6. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life.

  7. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

  8. Two cases of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Ananth, N; Praveenkumar, G S; Rao, K Aravind; Vasanthi; Kakkilaya, Srinivas

    2003-07-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare cause of hepatic cirrhosis in the young. The disorder has a reported frequency of 1 in 20000 live births and no case has been reported from India so far. We report two cases of hereditary fructose intolerance, both with bilateral cataracts and one with cirrhosis of the liver.

  9. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactose. 168.122 Section 168.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  10. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactose. 168.122 Section 168.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  11. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactose. 168.122 Section 168.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  12. Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luty, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

  13. Orthostatic intolerance: potential pathophysiology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chih-Cherng; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn; Tang, Hung-Shang; Tung, Che-Se

    2004-09-30

    Orthostatic intolerance affects an estimated 1 in 500 persons and causes a wide range of disabilities. After essential hypertension, it is the most frequently encountered dysautonomia, accounting for the majority of patients referred to centers specializing in autonomic disorders. Patients are typically young females with symptoms such as dizziness, visual changes, head and neck discomfort, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, syncope. Syncope is the most hazardous symptom of orthostatic intolerance, presumably occurring because of impaired cerebral perfusion and in part to compensatory autonomic mechanisms. The etiology of this syndrome is still unclear but is heterogeneous. Orthostatic intolerance used to be characterized by an overall enhancement of noradrenergic tone at rest in some patients and by a patchy dysautonomia of postganglionic sympathetic fibers with a compensatory cardiac sympathetic activation in others. However, recent advances in molecular genetics are improving our understanding of orthostatic intolerance, such as several genetic diseases (such as Ehler-Danlos syndrome and norepinephrine transporter deficiency) presenting with symptoms typical of orthostatic intolerance. Future work will include investigation of genetic functional mutations underlying interindividual differences in autonomic cardiovascular control, body fluid regulation, and vascular regulation in orthostatic intolerance patients. The goal of this review article is to describe recent advances in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance and their clinical significance.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of lactose digestion in adults.

    PubMed

    Holden, C; Mace, R

    1997-10-01

    In most of the world's population the ability to digest lactose declines sharply after infancy. High lactose digestion capacity in adults is common only in populations of European and circum-Mediterranean origin and is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation to millennia of drinking milk from domestic livestock. Milk can also be consumed in a processed form, such as cheese or soured milk, which has a reduced lactose content. Two other selective pressures for drinking fresh milk with a high lactose content have been proposed: promotion of calcium uptake in high-latitude populations prone to vitamin-D deficiency and maintainance of water and electrolytes in the body in highly and environments. These three hypotheses are all supported by the geographic distribution of high lactose digestion capacity in adults. However, the relationships between environmental variables and adult lactose digestion capacity are highly confounded by the shared ancestry of many populations whose lactose digestion capacity has been tested. The three hypotheses for the evolution of high adult lactose digestion capacity are tested here using a comparative method of analysis that takes the problem of phylogenetic confounding into account. This analysis supports the hypothesis that high adult lactose digestion capacity is an adaptation to dairying but does not support the hypotheses that lactose digestion capacity is additionally selected for either at high latitudes or in highly arid environments. Furthermore, methods using maximum likelihood are used to show that the evolution of milking preceded the evolution of high lactose digestion.

  15. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose/whey fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Pedro MR; Oliveira, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolization system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae strains, particularly involving the expression of the lactose genes of the phylogenetically related yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also the lactose genes from Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, as reviewed here. Due to the existing large amounts of whey, the production of bio-ethanol from lactose by engineered S. cerevisiae has been considered as a possible route for whey surplus. Emphasis is given in the present review on strain improvement for lactose-to-ethanol bioprocesses, namely flocculent yeast strains for continuous high-cell-density systems with enhanced ethanol productivity. PMID:21326922

  16. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose/whey fermentation.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Lucília; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Oliveira, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolization system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae strains, particularly involving the expression of the lactose genes of the phylogenetically related yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also the lactose genes from Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, as reviewed here. Due to the existing large amounts of whey, the production of bio-ethanol from lactose by engineered S. cerevisiae has been considered as a possible route for whey surplus. Emphasis is given in the present review on strain improvement for lactose-to-ethanol bioprocesses, namely flocculent yeast strains for continuous high-cell-density systems with enhanced ethanol productivity.

  17. Mechanisms of post-flight orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Buckey, J. C.; Gaffney, F. A.; Lane, L. D.; Levine, B. D.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Post-flight orthostatic intolerance is a dramatic physiological consequence of human adaptation to microgravity made inappropriate by a sudden return to 1-G. The immediate mechanism is almost always a failure to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, specifically perfusion of the central nervous system, but vestibular dysfunction may occasionally be the primary cause. Orthostatic intolerance is present in a wide range of clinical disorders of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The intolerance that is produced by spaceflight and 1-G analogs (bed rest, head-down tilt at a moderate angle, water immersion) is different from its clinical counterparts by being only transiently present in subjects who otherwise have normal cardiovascular and regulatory systems. However, the same set of basic pathophysiological elements should be considered in the analysis of any form of orthostatic intolerance.

  18. [Congenital fructose intolerance. New molecular aspects].

    PubMed

    Larsen, K; Adnanes, O; Aarskog, N K; Runde, I; Ogreid, D

    1994-11-20

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a human autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of aldolase B that results in an inability to metabolize fructose and related sugars. Molecular analyses have shown that most defects are caused by point mutations in critical regions of the aldolase B gene. We have performed PCR-based DNA analysis of members of two Norwegian families with hereditary fructose intolerance. The affected individuals from both families contained a point mutation (A149P) in exon 5 of the aldolase B gene. Molecular diagnosis of fructose intolerance is rapid and specific, and causes no inconvenience to the patient. It should be preferred to conventional fructose intolerance tests and visceral biopsy analyses.

  19. Water-lactose behavior as a function of concentration and presence of lactic acid in lactose model systems.

    PubMed

    Wijayasinghe, Rangani; Vasiljevic, Todor; Chandrapala, Jayani

    2015-12-01

    The presence of high amounts of lactic acid in acid whey restricts its ability to be further processed because lactose appears to remain in its amorphous form. A systematic study is lacking in this regard especially during the concentration step. Hence, the main aim of the study was to establish the structure and behavior of water molecules surrounding lactose in the presence of 1% (wt/wt) lactic acid at a concentration up to 50% (wt/wt). Furthermore, the crystallization nature of freeze-dried lactose with or without lactic acid was established using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Two mechanisms were proposed to describe the behavior of water molecules around lactose molecules during the concentration of pure lactose and lactose solutions with lactic acid. Pure lactose solution exhibited a water evaporation enthalpy of ~679 J·g(-1), whereas lactose+ lactic acid solution resulted in ~965 J·g(-1) at a 50% (wt/wt) concentration. This indicates a greater energy requirement for water removal around lactose in the presence of lactic acid. Higher crystallization temperatures were observed with the presence of lactic acid, indicating a delay in crystallization. Furthermore, less crystalline lactose (~12%) was obtained in the presence of lactic acid, indicating high amorphous nature compared with pure lactose where ~50% crystallinity was obtained. The Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that the strong hydration layer consisting lactic acid and H3O(+) ions surrounded lactose molecules via strong H bonds, which restricted water mobility, induced a change in structure of lactose, or both, creating unfavorable conditions for lactose crystallization. Thus, partial or complete removal of lactic acid from acid whey may be the first step toward improving the ability of acid whey to be processed.

  20. Yeasts that utilize lactose in sweet whey

    SciTech Connect

    Gholson, J.H.; Gough, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Since processing costs are usually higher for whey than for other available food or feed nutrients, only about one-third of whey produced in the US is used by food and feed industries. As a result whey disposal costs are a problem. Further; when whey is disposed of through municipal sewerage systems, the lactose present is changed by bacteria to lactic acid which tends to act as a preservative and retards further oxidation of whey constituents. This article describes a method of utilizing lactose-fermenting yeasts to produce large quantities of yeast cells, single-cell protein. Kluveromyces fragilis was found to be the most effective yeast species and the yeast cells produced could be used as a natural food or feed additive. Results of this study determined that certain methods and yeast strains could reduce whey-related pollution and thus help reduce costs of whey disposal.

  1. Construction of lactose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose fermentation into ethanol fuel.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Guo, Xuewu; Shen, Tong; Dong, Jian; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2013-04-01

    Two lactose-consuming diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, AY-51024A and AY-51024M, were constructed by expressing the LAC4 and LAC12 genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus in the host strain AY-5. In AY-51024A, both genes were targeted to the ATH1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to abolish the activity of acid/neutral trehalase. In AY-51024M, both genes were respectively integrated into the MIG1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to relieve glucose repression. Physiologic studies of the two transformants under anaerobic cultivations in glucose and galactose media indicated that the expression of both LAC genes did not physiologically burden the cells, except for AY-51024A in glucose medium. Galactose consumption was initiated at higher glucose concentrations in the MIG1 deletion strain AY-51024M than in the corresponding wild-type strain and AY-51024A, wherein galactose was consumed until glucose was completely depleted in the mixture. In lactose medium, the Sp. growth rates of AY-51024A and AY-51024M under anaerobic shake-flasks were 0.025 and 0.067 h(-1), respectively. The specific lactose uptake rate and ethanol production of AY-51024M were 2.50 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1) and 23.4 g l(-1), respectively, whereas those of AY-51024A were 0.98 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1) and 24.3 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1), respectively. In concentrated cheese whey powder solutions, AY-51024M produced 63.3 g l(-1) ethanol from approximately 150 g l(-1) initial lactose in 120 h, conversely, AY-51024A consumed 63.7 % of the initial lactose and produced 35.9 g l(-1) ethanol. Therefore, relieving glucose repression is an effective strategy for constructing lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae.

  2. Impact of lactose containing foods and the genetics of lactase on diseases: an analytical review of population data.

    PubMed

    Shrier, Ian; Szilagyi, Andrew; Correa, José A

    2008-01-01

    Dairy foods (DFs) contain complex ingredients that could affect different diseases. The control of lactose digestion phenotypically divides populations into those who can [lactase persistent (LP)] and those who cannot [lactase nonpersistent (LNP)] assimilate lactose. LNP subjects, however, can adapt to lactose intolerance through intestinal bacteria. The DF/LNP status interactions may function as disease risk modifiers. We evaluated the relationship between DF and LNP with colorectal, breast, prostate, ovarian, lung, and stomach cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). Yearly per capita DF consumption, LNP national prevalence, cancer mortality, and incidence of IBD were obtained from several sources. A negative binomial regression model was used to derive incremental risks. There were statistically significant (P

  3. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture of both forms. (b) The food shall meet..., calculated on a dry basis. (3) The pH of a 10.0-percent m/m solution is not less than 4.5 nor more than 7.5... Method,” Final Action, except that a 10-percent m/m solution of lactose in water is used for...

  4. Spherical agglomerates of lactose with enhanced mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Lamešić, Dejan; Planinšek, Odon; Lavrič, Zoran; Ilić, Ilija

    2017-01-10

    The aim of this study was to prepare spherical agglomerates of lactose and to evaluate their physicochemical properties, flow properties, particle friability and compaction properties, and to compare them to commercially available types of lactose for direct compression (spray-dried, granulated and anhydrous β-lactose). Porous spherical agglomerates of α-lactose monohydrate with radially arranged prism-like primary particles were prepared exhibiting a high specific surface area. All types of lactose analysed had passable or better flow properties, except for anhydrous β-lactose, which had poor flowability. Particle friability was more pronounced in larger granulated lactose particles; however, particle structure was retained in all samples analysed. The mechanical properties of spherical agglomerates of lactose, in terms of compressibility, established with Walker analysis, and compactibility, established with a compactibility profile, were found to be superior to any commercially available types of lactose. Higher compactibility of spherical agglomerates of lactose is ascribed to significantly higher particle surface area due to a unique internal structure with higher susceptibility to fragmentation.

  5. Lactose behaviour in the presence of lactic acid and calcium.

    PubMed

    Wijayasinghe, Rangani; Vasiljevic, Todor; Chandrapala, Jayani

    2016-08-01

    Physical properties of lactose appeared influenced by presence of lactic acid in the system. Some other components such as Ca may further attenuate lactose behaviour and impact its phase transition. A model-based study was thus implemented with varying concentrations of Ca (0·12, 0·072 or 0·035% w/w) and lactic acid (0·05, 0·2, 0·4 or 1% w/w) in establishing the effects of these two main acid whey constituents on lactose phase behaviour. Concentrated solutions (50% w/w) containing lactose, lactic acid and Ca were analysed for thermal behaviour and structural changes by Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. Presence of 1% (w/w) lactic acid and 0·12% (w/w) Ca in lactose solution significantly increased the evaporation enthalpy of water, delayed and increased the energy required for lactose crystallisation as compared to pure lactose. FTIR analysis indicated a strong hydration layer surrounding lactose molecules, restricting water mobility and/or inducing structural changes of lactose, hindering its crystallisation. The formation of calcium lactate, which restricts the diffusion of lactose molecules, is also partly responsible. It appears that Ca removal from acid whey may be a necessary step in improving the processability of acid whey.

  6. Frequency of methotrexate intolerance in rheumatoid arthritis patients using methotrexate intolerance severity score (MISS questionnaire).

    PubMed

    Fatimah, Nibah; Salim, Babur; Nasim, Amjad; Hussain, Kamran; Gul, Harris; Niazi, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of methotrexate intolerance in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by applying the methotrexate intolerance severity score (MISS) questionnaire and to see the effect of dose and concomitant use of other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDS) on methotrexate (MTX) intolerance. For the descriptive study, non-probability sampling was carried out in the Female Rheumatology Department of Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. One hundred and fifty diagnosed cases of RA using oral MTX were selected. The MISS questionnaire embodies five elements: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and behavioural symptoms. The amplitude of each element was ranked from 0 to 3 being no complaint (0 points), mild (1 point), moderate (2 points) and severe (3 points). A cut-off score of 6 and above ascertained intolerance by the physicians. A total of 33.3 % of the subjects exhibited MTX intolerance according to the MISS questionnaire. Out of which, the most recurring symptom of all was behavioural with a value of 44 % whereas vomiting was least noticeable with a figure of 11 %. About 6.6 % of the women with intolerance were consuming DMARDs in conjunction with MTX. Those using the highest weekly dose of MTX (20 mg) had supreme intolerance with prevalence in 46.2 % of the patients. The frequency of intolerance decreased with a decrease in weekly dose to a minimum of 20 % with 7.5 mg of MTX. MTX intolerance has moderate prevalence in RA patients and if left undetected, the compliance to use of MTX as a first-line therapy will decrease. Methotrexate intolerance is directly proportional to the dose of MTX taken. Also, there is no upstroke seen in intolerance with the use of other disease-modifying agents.

  7. Lactose uptake driven by galactose efflux in Streptococcus thermophilus: Evidence for a galactose-lactose antiporter

    SciTech Connect

    Hutkins, R.W.; Ponne, C. )

    1991-04-01

    Galactose-nonfermenting (Gal{sup {minus}}) Streptococcus thermophilus TS2 releases galactose into the extracellular medium when grown in medium containing excess lactose. Starved and de-energized Gal{sup {minus}} cells, however, could be loaded with galactose to levels approximately equal to the extracellular concentration (0 to 50 mM). When loaded cells were separated from the medium and resuspended in fresh broth containing 5 mM lactose, galactose efflux occurred. De-energized, galactose-loaded cells, resuspended in buffer or medium, accumulated ({sup 14}C)lactose at a greater rate and to significantly higher intracellular concentrations than unloaded cells. Uptake of lactose by loaded cells was inhibited more than that by unloaded cells in the presence of extracellular galactose, indicating that a galactose gradient was involved in the exchange system. When de-energized, galactose-loaded cells were resuspended in carbohydrate-free medium at pH 6.7, a proton motive force ({Delta}p) of 86 to 90 mV was formed, whereas de-energized, nonloaded cells maintained a {Delta}p of about 56 mV. However, uptake of lactose by loaded cells occurred when the proton motive force was abolished by the addition of an uncoupler or in the presence of a proton-translocating ATPase inhibitor. These results support the hypothesis that galactose efflux in Gal{sup {minus}} S. thermophilus is electrogenic and that the exchange reaction (lactose uptake and galactose efflux) probably occurs via an antiporter system.

  8. Structural prediction and comparative docking studies of psychrophilic β- Galactosidase with lactose, ONPG and PNPG against its counter parts of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ponnada Suresh; Pulicherla, Kk; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Kumar, Anmol; Rao, Krs Sambasiva

    2011-01-01

    Enzymes from psychrophiles catalyze the reactions at low temperatures with higher specific activity. Among all the psychrophilic enzymes produced, cold active β-galactosidase from marine psychrophiles revalorizes a new arena in numerous areas at industrial level. The hydrolysis of lactose in to glucose and galactose by cold active β-galactosidase offers a new promising approach in removal of lactose from milk to overcome the problem of lactose intolerance. Herein we propose, a 3D structure of cold active β-galactosidase enzyme sourced from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis by using Modeler 9v8 and best model was developed having 88% of favourable region in ramachandran plot. Modelling was followed by docking studies with the help of Auto dock 4.0 against the three substrates lactose, ONPG and PNPG. In addition, comparative docking studies were also performed for the 3D model of psychrophilic β-galactosidase with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. Docking studies revealed that binding affinity of enzyme towards the three different substrates is more for psychrophilic enzyme when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. It indicates that the enzyme has high specific activity at low temperature when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes.

  9. Hypoxia causes glucose intolerance in humans.

    PubMed

    Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Gehring, Hartmut; Rudolf, Sebastian; Schultes, Bernd; Rook, Stefanie; Schweiger, Ulrich; Born, Jan; Fehm, Horst L; Peters, Achim

    2004-06-01

    Hypoxic respiratory diseases are frequently accompanied by glucose intolerance. We examined whether hypoxia is a cause of glucose intolerance in healthy subjects. In a double-blind within-subject crossover design, hypoxic versus normoxic conditions were induced in 14 healthy men for 30 minutes by decreasing oxygen saturation to 75% (versus 96% in control subjects) under the conditions of a euglycemic clamp. The rate of dextrose infusion needed to maintain stable blood glucose levels was monitored. Neurohormonal stress response was evaluated by measuring catecholamine and cortisol concentrations as well as cardiovascular parameters, and symptoms of anxiety. To differentiate between the effects of stress hormonal response, and hypoxia itself, on glucose intolerance, we performed hypoglycemic clamps as a nonspecific control. We found a significant decrease in dextrose infusion rate over a period of 150 minutes after the start of hypoxia (p < 0.01). Hypoxia also increased plasma epinephrine concentration (p < 0.01), heart rate (p < 0.01), and symptoms of anxiety (p < 0.05), whereas the other parameters remained unaffected. Glucose intolerance was closely comparable between hypoxic and hypoglycemic conditions (p < 0.9) despite clear differences in stress hormonal responses. Hypoxia acutely causes glucose intolerance. One of the factors mediating this effect could be an elevated release of epinephrine.

  10. [Celiac disease--the chameleon among the food intolerances].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder resulting from gluten intolerance and is based on a genetically predisposition. Symptoms occur upon exposure to prolamin from wheat, rye, barley and related grain. The pathogenesis of celiac disease has not yet been sufficiently elucidated but is being considered as an autoimmune process. At its core are the deamidation of prolamin fragments, the building of specific antibodies and the activation of cytotoxic T-cells. The immunological inflammatory process is accompanied by structural damages of the enterocytes (villous atrophy, colonization and crypt hyperplasia). The symptoms and their extent depend on the type of the celiac disease; classic and non-classic forms are being distinguished (atypical, oligosymptomatic, latent and silent celiac disease). Characteristics of the classic presentation are malabsorption syndrome and intestinal symptoms such as mushy diarrhea and abdominal distension. The diagnosis of celiac disease is based on four pillars: Anamnesis and clinical presentation, serological evidence of coeliac specific antibodies (IgA-t-TG; IgA-EmA), small intestine biopsy and improvement of symptoms after institution of a gluten-free diet. The basis of the therapy is a lifelong gluten-free diet, i. e. wheat, rye, barley, spelt, green-core, faro-wheat, kamuth and conventional oats as well as food items obtained therefrom. Small amounts of up to 50 mg gluten per day are usually tolerated by most patients; amounts of > or = 100 mg/day lead mostly to symptoms. Gluten-free foods contain < or = 20 ppm or 20 mg/kg (Sign: symbol of the 'crossed ear' or label 'gluten-free'). At the beginning of the therapy the fat and lactose intake may need to be reduced; also the supplementation of single micronutrients (fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid, B12, iron, and calcium) may be required. Alternative therapies are being developed but have not yet been clinically tested.

  11. High liver glycogen in hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Cain, A R; Ryman, B E

    1971-11-01

    A case of hereditary fructose intolerance is reported in a girl aged 2 years at the time of her death. She had apparently progressed normally until the age of 14 months. At 19 months she was admitted to hospital with failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, and superficial infections. Investigations revealed hypoglycaemia, persistent acidosis, aminoaciduria, and a high liver glycogen level which suggested that she had glycogen storage disease. There was also some evidence of malabsorption. At necropsy the liver enzyme estimations showed that fructose 1-phosphate aldolase activity was absent and that fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase activity was reduced. Hereditary fructose intolerance and glycogen storage disease have been confused in the past on clinical grounds, but a high liver glycogen level has not previously been reported in hereditary fructose intolerance.

  12. Food Intolerance vs. Food Allergy: What's the Difference?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or take lactase enzyme pills (Lactaid) to aid digestion. Causes of food intolerance include: Absence of an ... intolerance, your doctor may recommend steps to aid digestion of certain foods or to treat the underlying ...

  13. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using {sup 14}C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-08-14

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation {sup 14}C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial (convolution sign)Be densities as compared with higher initial (convolution sign)Be densities.

  14. Hydrolysis of whey lactose using CTAB-permeabilized yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Panesar, Parmjit S; Bera, Manav B; Kumar, Harish

    2009-01-01

    Disposal of lactose in whey and whey permeates is one of the most significant problems with regard to economics and environmental impact faced by the dairy industries. The enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose and galactose by beta-galactosidase constitutes the basis of the most biotechnological processes currently developed to exploit the sugar content of whey. Keeping this in view, lactose hydrolysis in whey was performed using CTAB permeabilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells. Permeabilization of K. marxianus cells in relation to beta-galactosidase activity was carried out using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to avoid the problem of enzyme extraction. Different process parameters (biomass load, pH, temperature, and incubation time) were optimized to enhance the lactose hydrolysis in whey. Maximum hydrolysis (90.5%) of whey lactose was observed with 200 mg DW yeast biomass after 90 min of incubation period at optimum pH of 6.5 and temperature of 40 degrees C.

  15. Understanding and overcoming metformin gastrointestinal intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Fabrice; Scheen, André

    2017-04-01

    Metformin is the most widely prescribed drug for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the first-line pharmacological option as supported by multiple international guidelines, yet a rather large proportion of patients cannot tolerate metformin in adequate amounts because of its associated gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs). GI AEs typically encountered with metformin therapy include diarrhoea, nausea, flatulence, indigestion, vomiting and abdominal discomfort, with diarrhoea and nausea being the most common. Although starting at a low dose and titrating slowly may help prevent some GI AEs associated with metformin, some patients are unable to tolerate metformin at all and it may also be difficult to convince patients to start metformin again after a bout of GI AEs. Despite this clinical importance, the underlying mechanisms of the GI intolerance associated with metformin are poorly known. In the present review, we discuss: the epidemiology of metformin-associated GI intolerance and its underlying mechanisms; genotype variability and associated factors affecting metformin GI intolerance, such as comorbidities, co-medications and bariatric surgery; clinical consequences and therapeutic strategies to overcome metformin GI intolerance. These strategies include appropriate titration of immediate-release metformin, use of extended-release metformin, the promise of delayed-release metformin and gut microbiome modulators, as well as alternative pharmacological therapies when metformin cannot be tolerated at all. Given the available data, all efforts should be made to maintain metformin before considering a shift to another drug therapy.

  16. Lactose uptake rate by kefir yeast using 14C-labelled lactose to explain kinetic aspects in its fermentation.

    PubMed

    Golfinopoulos, Aristidis; Papaioannou, Lamprini; Soupioni, Magdalini; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2009-11-01

    Tauhe present work shows the relation between kefir fermentation ability and carbohydrate uptake rate. This was examined in a model system containing kefir co-culture and lactose in order to study fermentation induced by yeasts and bacteria at the same time. Lactose uptake rate was recorded by using (14)C-labelled lactose. The effect of lactose, cell concentration and pH on lactose fermentation was examined. Results have shown increase of lactose uptake rate at lower cell concentrations and specifically the maximum values of lactose uptake rate were obtained at 30 degrees C, 5.5 pH value and initial lactose and cell concentration 10% w/v and 16 g/L, respectively. Likewise, lighten that the increase of the fermentation rate by immobilized cells can be attributed also, in addition to other factors, to lower cell concentration on the surface of the support or of the promoter. Besides, it is shown that the effect of pH value on the biochemical reactions, carried out by intracellular enzymes can be attributed, except to the effect of pH on enzyme ability, in addition to the effect of pH on carbohydrate uptake rate.

  17. Systems Analysis of Lactose Metabolism in Trichoderma reesei Identifies a Lactose Permease That Is Essential for Cellulase Induction

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Christa; Bååth, Jenny A.; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei colonizes predecayed wood in nature and metabolizes cellulose and hemicellulose from the plant biomass. The respective enzymes are industrially produced for application in the biofuel and biorefinery industry. However, these enzymes are also induced in the presence of lactose (1,4-0-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose), a waste product from cheese manufacture or whey processing industries. In fact, lactose is the only soluble carbon source that induces these enzymes in T. reesei on an industrial level but the reason for this unique phenomenon is not understood. To answer this question, we used systems analysis of the T. reesei transcriptome during utilization of lactose. We found that the respective CAZome encoded all glycosyl hydrolases necessary for cellulose degradation and particularly for the attack of monocotyledon xyloglucan, from which ß-galactosides could be released that may act as the inducers of T. reesei’s cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, lactose also induces a high number of putative transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Deletion of fourteen of them identified one gene that is essential for lactose utilization and lactose uptake, and for cellulase induction by lactose (but not sophorose) in pregrown mycelia of T. reesei. These data shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei metabolizes lactose and offers strategies for its improvement. They also illuminate the key role of ß-D-galactosides in habitat specificity of this fungus. PMID:23690947

  18. Systems analysis of lactose metabolism in Trichoderma reesei identifies a lactose permease that is essential for cellulase induction.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Christa; Bååth, Jenny A; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei colonizes predecayed wood in nature and metabolizes cellulose and hemicellulose from the plant biomass. The respective enzymes are industrially produced for application in the biofuel and biorefinery industry. However, these enzymes are also induced in the presence of lactose (1,4-0-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose), a waste product from cheese manufacture or whey processing industries. In fact, lactose is the only soluble carbon source that induces these enzymes in T. reesei on an industrial level but the reason for this unique phenomenon is not understood. To answer this question, we used systems analysis of the T. reesei transcriptome during utilization of lactose. We found that the respective CAZome encoded all glycosyl hydrolases necessary for cellulose degradation and particularly for the attack of monocotyledon xyloglucan, from which ß-galactosides could be released that may act as the inducers of T. reesei's cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, lactose also induces a high number of putative transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Deletion of fourteen of them identified one gene that is essential for lactose utilization and lactose uptake, and for cellulase induction by lactose (but not sophorose) in pregrown mycelia of T. reesei. These data shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei metabolizes lactose and offers strategies for its improvement. They also illuminate the key role of ß-D-galactosides in habitat specificity of this fungus.

  19. Prospective evaluation of lactose malabsorption by lactose hydrogen breath test in individuals infected with Entamoeba histolytica and passing cysts.

    PubMed

    Rana, Satya Vati; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Vinayak, Virender Kumar

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present prospective study was to detect lactose malabsorption in subjects in northern India infected with Entamoeba histolytica and passing cysts. The study group included forty-one patients with E. histolytica cysts in at least one of three consecutive faecal samples. Lactose malabsorption was detected by a lactose H2 breath test. The results were compared with those of forty controls subjects. Thirty-two of forty-one (78.0 %) subjects passing E. histolytica cysts had lactose malabsorption compared with seventeen of forty (42.5 %) control subjects (P<0.01). In conclusion, the present study shows that lactose malabsorption is significantly more common in individuals infected with E. histolytica and passing cysts compared with control subjects.

  20. A metabolic balance study in term infants fed lactose-containing or lactose-free formula.

    PubMed

    Moya, M; Lifschitz, C; Ameen, V; Euler, A R

    1999-11-01

    Lactose-free (L-) formulas are recommended for infants with conditions affecting lactose digestion. Cows' milk protein-based formulas containing other carbohydrate sources are most often used for such infants. This study compared fat absorption and absorption and retention of nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in term infants fed either a L- or standard lactose-containing (L+) bovine milk protein-based formula. Data from three single-centre, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group metabolic balance studies were combined. After a 4-7-d equilibration period on either L- or L+ formula, a 72-h balance study was performed. Twenty infants received L- and 21 received L+ formula. Besides the L- group having a higher percentage of males (65%) and the L+ group a higher percentage of females (52.4%), other baseline measurements were similar. The majority of nutrient balance data was similar between the two groups. Exceptions were relative nitrogen absorption, calcium intake and calcium retention, magnesium retention, and faecal phosphorus excretion, all of which were significantly higher in the L- group. Vitamin D supplementation did not significantly affect either calcium or phosphorus data. This new L- formula provided similar nutrients and is a suitable alternative to a L+ formula in term infants requiring L- feedings.

  1. Distress intolerance and clinical functioning in persons with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Katie L.; Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M.; Daughters, Stacey B.; Hong, L. Elliot

    2014-01-01

    Impaired tolerance to distress may help explain part of the cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia. This project investigated distress intolerance in schizophrenia patients (SZ) as compared to controls, and whether distress intolerance represented an independent domain in relationship to symptoms, cognition, and functional capacity. Healthy controls (n=43) and SZ (n=65) completed a psychological distress challenge experiment and their levels of intolerance to distress were estimated. SZ showed increased distress intolerance such that they were significantly more likely to terminate the distress challenge session early compared to controls. Greater distress intolerance was associated with reduced functional capacity and worse cognitive performance in SZ. Mediation analyses suggested that distress intolerance had an independent effect on functional capacity, while some of this effect was mediated by cognitive performance. Our results suggest that distress intolerance is a promising domain for treatment research, and functional capacity may be improved by targeting treatments towards SZ patient’s ability to tolerate distress. PMID:25107316

  2. Adaptive evolution of a lactose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombinant.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro M R; François, Jean; Parrou, Jean Luc; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2008-03-01

    The construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that ferment lactose has biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey fermentation. A flocculent lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae recombinant expressing the LAC12 (lactose permease) and LAC4 (beta-galactosidase) genes of Kluyveromyces lactis was constructed previously but showed poor efficiency in lactose fermentation. This strain was therefore subjected to an evolutionary engineering process (serial transfer and dilution in lactose medium), which yielded an evolved recombinant strain that consumed lactose twofold faster, producing 30% more ethanol than the original recombinant. We identified two molecular events that targeted the LAC construct in the evolved strain: a 1,593-bp deletion in the intergenic region (promoter) between LAC4 and LAC12 and a decrease of the plasmid copy number by about 10-fold compared to that in the original recombinant. The results suggest that the intact promoter was unable to mediate the induction of the transcription of LAC4 and LAC12 by lactose in the original recombinant and that the deletion established the transcriptional induction of both genes in the evolved strain. We propose that the tuning of the expression of the heterologous LAC genes in the evolved recombinant was accomplished by the interplay between the decreased copy number of both genes and the different levels of transcriptional induction for LAC4 and LAC12 resulting from the changed promoter structure. Nevertheless, our results do not exclude other possible mutations that may have contributed to the improved lactose fermentation phenotype. This study illustrates the usefulness of simple evolutionary engineering approaches in strain improvement. The evolved strain efficiently fermented threefold-concentrated cheese whey, providing an attractive alternative for the fermentation of lactose-based media.

  3. Intolerance to food additives - does it exist?

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S

    2012-02-01

    'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing.

  4. The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bouteldja, Nadia; Timson, David J

    2010-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare, but potentially lethal, inherited disorder of fructose metabolism, caused by mutation of the aldolase B gene. Treatment currently relies solely on dietary restriction of problematic sugars. Biochemical study of defective aldolase B enzymes is key to revealing the molecular basis of the disease and providing a stronger basis for improved treatment and diagnosis. Such studies have revealed changes in enzyme activity, stability and oligomerisation. However, linking these changes to disease phenotypes has not always been straightforward. This review gives a general overview of the features of hereditary fructose intolerance, then concentrates on the biochemistry of the AP variant (Ala149Pro variant of aldolase B) and molecular pathological consequences of mutation of the aldolase B gene.

  5. Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Y. S.; Daamen, N.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a cause of significant disability in otherwise healthy women seen by gynecologists. Orthostatic tachycardia is often the most obvious hemodynamic abnormality found in OI patients, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, fainting (syncope). It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension, and patients with OI are traditionally women of childbearing age. Estimates suggest that at least 500,000 Americans suffer from some form of OI, and such patients comprise the largest group referred to centers specialized in autonomic disorders. This article reviews recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance, and therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients.

  6. Acute rigid gas permeable contact lens intolerance.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A J; Wolsley, C; Briggs, J L; Frazer, D G

    2001-01-01

    Rigid gas permeable (RGP) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) lens wearers occasionally report episodes of acute intolerance which is experienced upon lens insertion. In this paper, we report two cases of such intolerance in which the probable cause was contact lens inversion. We also present the results of a study in which a custom-built calibrated strain gauge was used to measure the force in Newtons (N), required to invert RGP lenses [oxygen permeability, or Dk, values between 30 and 90 x 10(-11) (cm2/s) (mlO2/ml x mmHg)] and PMMA lenses of different spherical back vertex powers (+/-3.00 D, 9.00 D). Significantly, less force was required to invert minus powered lenses (17.5 +/- 4.8 N) than plus powered lenses (31.7 +/- 7 .4 N), irrespective of the material. PMMA lenses required more force to induce inversion than that required to invert RGP lenses. Lenses with a Dk of 90 required only two thirds of the force (20.0 +/- 5.8 N) required to cause inversion compared to PMMA lenses (32.9 +/- 11.0 N). High powered PMMA lenses were found to be more likely to fracture on inversion than any other lenses tested. The force required to return negatively powered lenses to their original shape, once inverted, was less than 25% of that initially required to induce inversion. Plus powered lenses either reverted to their original form spontaneously, or required less than 3% of the original inversion force to do so. It was concluded that practitioners should consider inversion as a possible reason for otherwise unexplained, acute RGP contact lens intolerance experienced upon lens insertion. The reason why inversion has eluded so many, as a possible cause of intolerance, is likely to be because minimal force is required to return those lenses, which do not crack or fracture, to their original shape.

  7. Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance and postural tachycardia syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Upright posture imposes a substantial gravitational stress on the body, for which we are able to compensate, in large part because of the autonomic nervous system. Alteration in autonomic function, therefore, may lead to orthostatic intolerance. On one extreme, patients with autonomic failure caused by degenerative loss of autonomic function are severely disabled by orthostatic hypotension and may faint whenever they stand up. Fortunately, such patients are relatively rare. On the other hand, disabling orthostatic intolerance can develop in otherwise normal young people. These patients can be severely impaired by symptoms of fatigue, tachycardia, and shortness of breath when they stand up. The actual incidence of this disorder is unknown, but these patients make up the largest group of patients referred to centers that specialize in autonomic disorders. We will review recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to orthostatic intolerance, therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients, and areas in which more research is needed.

  8. Biomass and lipids from lactose or whey by Trichosporon beigelii

    SciTech Connect

    Tahoun, M.K.; El-Merheb, Z.; Salem, A.; Youssef, A.

    1987-02-20

    The yeast Trichosporon beigelii produced the highest amount of biomass when grown in chemical-defined medium with a ratio of carbon source to nitrogen source of 30:1. On the other hand, carbon-limited medium (C-N ratio 2:1) enhanced unsaturated fatty acids synthesis. The yeast efficiently converted unsalted whey lactose to biomass, while sodium chloride in whey raised lactose assimilation to single-cell oil (SCO). 20 references.

  9. Adaptation of Escherichia coli to glucose promotes evolvability in lactose.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kelly N; Castillo, Gerardo; Wünsche, Andrea; Cooper, Tim F

    2016-02-01

    The selective history of a population can influence its subsequent evolution, an effect known as historical contingency. We previously observed that five of six replicate populations that were evolved in a glucose-limited environment for 2000 generations, then switched to lactose for 1000 generations, had higher fitness increases in lactose than populations started directly from the ancestor. To test if selection in glucose systematically increased lactose evolvability, we started 12 replay populations--six from a population subsample and six from a single randomly selected clone--from each of the six glucose-evolved founder populations. These replay populations and 18 ancestral populations were evolved for 1000 generations in a lactose-limited environment. We found that replay populations were initially slightly less fit in lactose than the ancestor, but were more evolvable, in that they increased in fitness at a faster rate and to higher levels. This result indicates that evolution in the glucose environment resulted in genetic changes that increased the potential of genotypes to adapt to lactose. Genome sequencing identified four genes--iclR, nadR, spoT, and rbs--that were mutated in most glucose-evolved clones and are candidates for mediating increased evolvability. Our results demonstrate that short-term selective costs during selection in one environment can lead to changes in evolvability that confer longer term benefits.

  10. Linking flowability and granulometry of lactose powders.

    PubMed

    Boschini, F; Delaval, V; Traina, K; Vandewalle, N; Lumay, G

    2015-10-15

    The flowing properties of 10 lactose powders commonly used in pharmaceutical industries have been analyzed with three recently improved measurement methods. The first method is based on the heap shape measurement. This straightforward measurement method provides two physical parameters (angle of repose αr and static cohesive index σr) allowing to make a first screening of the powder properties. The second method allows to estimate the rheological properties of a powder by analyzing the powder flow in a rotating drum. This more advanced method gives a large set of physical parameters (flowing angle αf, dynamic cohesive index σf, angle of first avalanche αa and powder aeration %ae) leading to deeper interpretations. The third method is an improvement of the classical bulk and tapped density measurements. In addition to the improvement of the measurement precision, the densification dynamics of the powder bulk submitted to taps is analyzed. The link between the macroscopic physical parameters obtained with these methods and the powder granulometry is analyzed. Moreover, the correlations between the different flowability indexes are discussed. Finally, the link between grain shape and flowability is discussed qualitatively.

  11. Breath hydrogen test for detecting lactose malabsorption in infants and children. Prevalence of lactose malabsorption in Japanese children and adults.

    PubMed

    Nose, O; Iida, Y; Kai, H; Harada, T; Ogawa, M; Yabuuchi, H

    1979-06-01

    The breath hydrogen test (BHT) was adapted for use in young infants and children. The diagnostic criterion of sugar malabsorption in the BHT was determined by oral administration of 0.5 g/kg of unabsorbable sugar (lactulose) to 21 healthy infants and children. A maximum increase in breath hydrogen less than 0.05 ml/min per m2 was observed in all subjects. A good correlation between results by the BHT and by the ordinary lactose tolerance test was obtained after oral administration of 2 g/kg lactose to 21 healthy infants and children, 2 congenital lactase-deficient infants, and 7 adults. Using this test, 80 healthy Japanese infants and children (aged between one month and 15 years) and 18 adults were examined for lactose malabsorption after a dose of 1 g/kg lactose. All infants and children under 2-years old absorbed lactose completely. The incidence of lactose malabsorption was 30% in 3-year, 36% in 4-year, 58% in 5-year, and 86% in 6-year-old children, 85% in schoolchildren, and 89% in adults. Thus the incidence of lactase deficiency gradually increases with age from 3 years, and about 90% of all normal Japanese adults are lactase-deficient.

  12. Non responsive celiac disease due to coexisting hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bharadia, Lalit; Shivpuri, Deepak

    2012-04-01

    Celiac disease is associated with several genetic disorders, but its association with hereditary fructose intolerance is rare. Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare autosomal recessive disease of fructose metabolism presenting as vomiting after intake of fructose. An association between these two distinct genetic gastrointestinal disorders is important as treatment failure of celiac disease calls for careful evaluation for hereditary fructose intolerance. We report a patient with an association of these two disorders.

  13. Enteral nutrition intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients.

    PubMed

    Lavrentieva, Athina; Kontakiotis, Theodore; Bitzani, Militsa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of enteral feeding intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients, the effect of enteral feeding intolerance on the efficacy of feeding, the correlation between the infection marker (procalcitonin [PCT]) and the nutrition status marker (prealbumin) and the impact of feeding intolerance on the outcome of septic burn patients. From January 2009 to December 2012 the data of all burn patients with the diagnosis of sepsis who were placed on enteral nutrition were analyzed. Septic patients were divided into two groups: group A, septic patients who developed feeding intolerance; group B, septic patients who did not develop feeding intolerance. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed and compared. The diagnosis of sepsis was applied to 29% of all patients. Of these patients 35% developed intolerance to enteral feeding throughout the septic period. A statistically significant increase in mean PCT level and a decrease in prealbumin level was observed during the sepsis period. Group A patients had statistically significant lower mean caloric intake, higher PCT:prealbumin ratio, higher pneumonia incidence, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Maximum Score, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and a higher mortality rate in comparison with the septic patients without gastric feeding intolerance. The authors concluded that a high percentage of septic burn patients developed enteral feeding intolerance. Enteral feeding intolerance seems to have a negative impact on the patients' nutritional status, morbidity, and mortality.

  14. An assessment by the Statin Intolerance Panel: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Guyton, John R; Bays, Harold E; Grundy, Scott M; Jacobson, Terry A; The National Lipid Association Statin Intolerance Panel

    2014-01-01

    This article from the National Lipid Association Statin Intolerance Panel provides a framework for understanding statin intolerance and makes general recommendations for health professionals. For specific guidance on adverse events related to muscle, liver, cognition, and glucose metabolism, one should refer to the other reports of the Statin Safety Task Force for those topics. Although statin adverse effects rarely lead to permanent sequelae, symptomatic intolerance frequently hinders cardiovascular risk reduction by statins. We emphasize here the advisory role of the clinician helping each patient to make personal decisions on statin tolerability. We identify a pressing need for further research on statin intolerance and make suggestions for research design.

  15. The influence of lactose pseudopolymorphic form on salbutamol sulfate-lactose interactions in DPI formulations.

    PubMed

    Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M; Thielmann, Frank; Acharya, Manaswini

    2008-09-01

    A series of 63- to 90-microm sieve-fractioned lactose pseudopolymorphs were investigated in terms of carrier functionality for dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Stable alpha-anhydrous, alpha-monohydrate, and beta-anhydrous were chosen as model pseudopolymorphs. In addition, the beta-anhydrous was further purified to remove residual alpha-monohydrate content (beta-treated). The carriers were investigated in terms of morphology, particle size, crystallinity, and surface energy using inverse gas chromatography. Furthermore, the lactose samples carrier performance was evaluated by studying the aerosolization efficiency of the model drug, micronized salbutamol sulfate, from drug-carrier blends using a next generation impactor (NGI). In general, the aerosol performance of drug from carrier followed the rank order alpha-monohydrate > beta-anhydrous > beta-treated > alpha-anhydrous. Significant difference in carrier size was observed, specifically with relation to the amount of fines (where a rank order of beta-treated > beta-anhydrous > alpha-monohydrate > alpha-anhydrous. No direct relationship between fine content and particle morphology was observed. In comparison, an inverse relationship between surface energy and aerosolization efficiency was found, where a plot of fine particle fraction (aerodynamic diameter < 4.46 microm) against total surface energy resulted in R(2) = .977. Such observations are most likely due to increased particle carrier adhesion and reduced drug liberation during the aerosolization process, indicating surface chemistry (in this case due to the existence of different pseudopolymorphs) to play a dominating role in DPI systems.

  16. Control of salicylate intolerance with fish oils.

    PubMed

    Healy, E; Newell, L; Howarth, P; Friedmann, P S

    2008-12-01

    We report three patients with disabling salicylate-induced intolerance who experienced abrogation of symptoms following dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). All three patients experienced severe urticaria, asthma requiring systemic steroid therapy and anaphylactic reactions. After dietary supplementation with 10 g daily of fish oils rich in omega-3 PUFAs for 6-8 weeks all three experienced complete or virtually complete resolution of symptoms allowing discontinuation of systemic corticosteroid therapy. Symptoms relapsed after dose reduction. Fish oil appears a safe and effective treatment for this difficult and often serious condition.

  17. Lactose particle engineering: Influence of ultrasound and anti-solvent on crystal habit and particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougoulos, E.; Marziano, I.; Miller, P. R.

    2010-11-01

    This study focuses on ultrasound-assisted anti-solvent crystallization of lactose, expanding on previous studies and presenting, for the first time, the results of large scale implementation of sonocrystallization for lactose. The results further clarify the interplay between solution chemistry - namely the role of β-lactose - and crystallization, representing a step forward in the fine tuning of lactose properties for pharmaceutical manufacturing applications. Batches manufactured at laboratory and pilot scales were extensively characterised, including an approach for the quantification of β-lactose in α-lactose based on powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), which is described here.

  18. Glass transition and enthalpy relaxation of amorphous lactose glass.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Kamrul; Kawai, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toru

    2006-08-14

    The glass transition temperature, T(g), and enthalpy relaxation of amorphous lactose glass were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for isothermal aging periods at various temperatures (25, 60, 75, and 90 degrees C) below T(g). Both T(g) and enthalpy relaxation were found to increase with increasing aging time and temperature. The enthalpy relaxation increased approximately exponentially with aging time at a temperature (90 degrees C) close to T(g) (102 degrees C). There was no significant change observed in the enthalpy relaxation around room temperature (25 degrees C) over an aging period of 1month. The Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) model was able to fit the experimental enthalpy relaxation data well. The relaxation distribution parameter (beta) was determined to be in the range 0.81-0.89. The enthalpy relaxation time constant (tau) increased with decreasing aging temperature. The observed enthalpy relaxation data showed that molecular mobility in amorphous lactose glass was higher at temperatures closer to T(g). Lactose glass was stable for a long time at 25 degrees C. These findings should be helpful for improving the processing and storage stability of amorphous lactose and lactose containing food and pharmaceutical products.

  19. Research perspectives and role of lactose uptake rate revealed by its study using 14C-labelled lactose in whey fermentation.

    PubMed

    Golfinopoulos, Aristidis; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Tsaousi, Konstantina; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Soupioni, Magdalini

    2011-03-01

    The present investigation examines the effect of pH, temperature and cell concentration on lactose uptake rate, in relation with kinetics of whey fermentation using kefir and determines the optimum conditions of these parameters. Lactose uptake rate was measured by adding (14)C-labelled lactose in whey. The results reveal the role of lactose uptake rate, being the main factor that affects the rate of fermentation, in contrast to the activity of the enzymes involved in lactose bioconversion process. Lactose uptake rate results discussion showed that mainly Ca(2+) is responsible for the reduced whey fermentation rate in comparison with fermentations using synthetic media containing lactose. Likewise, the results draw up perspectives on whey fermentation research to improve whey fermentation rate. Those perspectives are research to remove Ca(2+) from whey, the use of nano and microtubular biopolymers and promoters such as γ-alumina pellets and volcan foaming rock kissiris in order to accelerate whey fermentation.

  20. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  1. Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable…

  2. Crystallization of spray-dried lactose/protein mixtures in humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawqi Barham, A.; Kamrul Haque, Md.; Roos, Yrjö H.; Kieran Hodnett, B.

    2006-10-01

    An in situ crystallization technique with X-ray diffraction analysis complemented by ex situ scanning electron microscopy and chromatographic analysis of the α/( α+ β) solid-state anomeric ratios has been developed to study the crystallization of lactose/protein mixtures in humid air. This technique was used to determine changes in phase composition and morphology during crystallization. Following an induction period during which water is sorbed, crystallization is rapid and the predominant phase observed using the in situ method in spray-dried lactose/sodium-caseinate, albumin and gelatin is α-lactose monohydrate. However, in the case of spray-dried lactose/whey protein isolate (WPI) the predominant phase that appears is the α/ β mixed phase with smaller amounts of α-lactose monohydrate. With pure lactose the α/ β mixed phase appears as a transient shortly after the onset of crystallization and α-lactose monohydrate and β-lactose both appear as stable crystalline phases at longer times. Another transient phase with 2 θ=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8° was observed in spray-dried lactose/albumin. This phase decomposed as α-lactose monohydrate developed. Three phases seem to persist in the case of spray-dried lactose/gelatin, namely the phase with peaks at 2 θ=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8°, α-lactose monohydrate and β-lactose for the duration of the in situ experiment.

  3. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-09-15

    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  4. Roller compaction: Effect of relative humidity of lactose powder.

    PubMed

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2016-09-01

    The effect of storage at different relative humidity conditions, for various types of lactose, on roller compaction behaviour was investigated. Three types of lactose were used in this study: anhydrous lactose (SuperTab21AN), spray dried lactose (SuperTab11SD) and α-lactose monohydrate 200M. These powders differ in their amorphous contents, due to different manufacturing processes. The powders were stored in a climatic chamber at different relative humidity values ranging from 10% to 80% RH. It was found that the roller compaction behaviour and ribbon properties were different for powders conditioned to different relative humidities. The amount of fines produced, which is undesirable in roller compaction, was found to be different at different relative humidity. The minimum amount of fines produced was found to be for powders conditioned at 20-40% RH. The maximum amount of fines was produced for powders conditioned at 80% RH. This was attributed to the decrease in powder flowability, as indicated by the flow function coefficient ffc and the angle of repose. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was also applied to determine the velocity of primary particles during ribbon production, and it was found that the velocity of the powder during the roller compaction decreased with powders stored at high RH. This resulted in less powder being present in the compaction zone at the edges of the rollers, which resulted in ribbons with a smaller overall width. The relative humidity for the storage of powders has shown to have minimal effect on the ribbon tensile strength at low RH conditions (10-20%). The lowest tensile strength of ribbons produced from lactose 200M and SD was for powders conditioned at 80% RH, whereas, ribbons produced from lactose 21AN at the same condition of 80% RH showed the highest tensile strength. The storage RH range 20-40% was found to be an optimum condition for roll compacting three lactose powders, as it resulted in a minimum amount of fines in the

  5. Additivity of water sorption, alpha-relaxations and crystallization inhibition in lactose-maltodextrin systems.

    PubMed

    Potes, Naritchaya; Kerry, Joseph P; Roos, Yrjö H

    2012-08-01

    Water sorption of lactose-maltodextrin (MD) systems, structural relaxations and lactose crystallization were studied. Accurate water sorption data for non-crystalline lactose previously not available over a wide range of water activity, aw (<0.76aw) were derived from lactose-MD systems data. Structural relaxations and crystallization of lactose in lactose-maltodextrin (MD) systems were strongly affected by water and MD. At high MD contents, inhibition of crystallization was significant. Inhibition with a high dextrose equivalent (DE) MD was more pronounced possibly because of molecular number and size effects. At 0.55-0.76aw, inhibition increased with increasing MD content. At aw>0.66, the rate of lactose crystallization decreased at increasing MD contents. Different MDs with similar Tg in lactose-MD systems showed different crystallization inhibition effects. The results of the present study showed that the DE in selection of MD for applications has important effects on component crystallization characteristics.

  6. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Vicki J; Hutchison, Zoë L; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  7. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Vicki J.; Hutchison, Zoë L.; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  8. Biohydrogen production from lactose: influence of substrate and nitrogen concentration.

    PubMed

    Moreno, R; Fierro, J; Fernández, C; Cuetos, M J; Gómez, X

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen produced from renewable sources may be considered the energy vector of the future. However, reducing process costs is imperative in order to achieve this goal. In the present research, the effect of nitrogen (N), initial pH and substrate content for starting up the dark fermentative process was studied using the response surface methodology. Anaerobic digested dried sludge (biosolid pellets) was used as the inoculum. Synthetic wastewater was used as the substrate in batch reactors. A decrease in H2 production was observed with the increase in N and lactose concentrations. This drop was considerably greater when the concentration of lactose was at its lower level. Although the increase in lactose concentration results in a lower H2 production, the effect of N on the response is attenuated at higher levels of lactose. On the other hand, the effect of initial pH on the fermentation system was not significant. The evaluation on the process under semi-continuous conditions was performed using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs). The process was evaluated at different C/N ratios using synthetic wastewater. Results showed higher hydrogen yields with the gradual decrease in nitrogen content. The addition of cheese whey to the ASBR resulted in a H2 production rate of 0.18 L H2 L(-1) d(-1).

  9. Powder compression mechanics of spray-dried lactose nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Hellrup, Joel; Nordström, Josefina; Mahlin, Denny

    2017-02-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structural impact of the nanofiller incorporation on the powder compression mechanics of spray-dried lactose. The lactose was co-spray-dried with three different nanofillers, that is, cellulose nanocrystals, sodium montmorillonite and fumed silica, which led to lower micron-sized nanocomposite particles with varying structure and morphology. The powder compression mechanics of the nanocomposites and physical mixtures of the neat spray-dried components were evaluated by a rational evaluation method with compression analysis as a tool, using the Kawakita equation and the Shapiro-Konopicky-Heckel equation. Particle rearrangement dominated the initial compression profiles due to the small particle size of the materials. The strong contribution of particle rearrangement in the materials with fumed silica continued throughout the whole compression profile, which prohibited an in-depth material characterization. However, the lactose/cellulose nanocrystals and the lactose/sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites demonstrated high yield pressure compared with the physical mixtures indicating increased particle hardness upon composite formation. This increase has likely to do with a reinforcement of the nanocomposite particles by skeleton formation of the nanoparticles. In summary, the rational evaluation of mechanical properties done by applying powder compression analysis proved to be a valuable tool for mechanical evaluation for this type of spray-dried composite materials, unless they demonstrate particle rearrangement throughout the whole compression profile.

  10. Lactose-Inducible System for Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis. PMID:24509933

  11. Lactose-Inducible System for Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A; Leang, C; Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR

    2014-03-25

    The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis.

  12. Intolerance of uncertainty, fear of anxiety, and adolescent worry.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Michel J; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M

    2012-08-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable partially explained change in the other. Fear of anxiety and worry also showed evidence of a bidirectional relation, although change in fear of anxiety had a much weaker mediational effect on change in worry than vice versa. The findings show that relative to fear of anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty may play a greater role in the etiology of worry in adolescents.

  13. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

    PubMed Central

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Pezzella, Vincenza; Amoroso, Antonio; Cozzolino, Tommaso; Di Scala, Carmen; Passariello, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment. PMID:26978392

  14. In vivo hepatocyte MR imaging using lactose functionalized magnetoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Ketkar-Atre, Ashwini; Struys, Tom; Dresselaers, Tom; Hodenius, Michael; Mannaerts, Inge; Ni, Yicheng; Lambrichts, Ivo; Van Grunsven, Leo A; De Cuyper, Marcel; Himmelreich, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a novel lactose functionalized magnetoliposomes (MLs) as an MR contrast agent to target hepatocytes as well as to evaluate the targeting ability of MLs for in vivo applications. In the present work, 17 nm sized iron oxide cores functionalized with anionic MLs bearing lactose moieties were used for targeting the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-r), which is highly expressed in hepatocytes. Non-functionalized anionic MLs were tested as negative controls. The size distribution of lactose and anionic MLs was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). After intravenous administration of both MLs, contrast enhancement in the liver was observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Label retention was monitored non-invasively by MRI and validated with Prussian blue staining and TEM for up to eight days post MLs administration. Although the MRI signal intensity did not show significant differences between functionalized and non-functionalized particles, iron-specific Prussian blue staining and TEM analysis confirmed the uptake of lactose MLs mainly in hepatocytes. In contrast, non-functionalized anionic MLs were mainly taken up by Kupffer and sinusoidal cells. Target specificity was further confirmed by high-resolution MR imaging of phantoms containing isolated hepatocytes, Kupffer cell (KCs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) fractions. Hypointense signal was observed for hepatocytes isolated from animals which received lactose MLs but not from animals which received anionic MLs. These data demonstrate that galactose-functionalized MLs can be used as a hepatocyte targeting MR contrast agent to potentially aid in the diagnosis of hepatic diseases if the non-specific uptake by KCs is taken into account.

  15. Liquid crystalline phase as a probe for crystal engineering of lactose: carrier for pulmonary drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sharvil S; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

    2015-02-20

    The current work was undertaken to assess suitability of liquid crystalline phase for engineering of lactose crystals and their utility as a carrier in dry powder inhalation formulations. Saturated lactose solution was poured in molten glyceryl monooleate which subsequently transformed into gel. The gel microstructure was analyzed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Lactose particles recovered from gels after 48 h were analyzed for polymorphism using techniques such as FTIR, XRD, DSC and TGA. Particle size, morphology and aerosolisation properties of prepared lactose were analyzed using Anderson cascade impactor. In situ seeding followed by growth of lactose crystals took place in gels with cubic microstructure as revealed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Elongated (size ∼ 71 μm) lactose particles with smooth surface containing mixture of α and β-lactose was recovered from gel, however percentage of α-lactose was more as compared to β-lactose. The aerosolisation parameters such as RD, ED, %FPF and % recovery of lactose recovered from gel (LPL) were found to be comparable to Respitose® ML001. Thus LC phase (cubic) can be used for engineering of lactose crystals so as to obtain particles with smooth surface, high elongation ratio and further they can be used as carrier in DPI formulations.

  16. Hypocapnia and cerebral hypoperfusion in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; McPhee, B. R.; Rummans, T. A.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). METHODS: Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. RESULTS: The OI group had higher supine heart rates (P<0.001) and cardiac outputs (P<0.01) than the control group. In response to HUT, OI patients underwent a greater heart rate increment (P<0.001) and greater reductions in pulse pressure (P<0.01) and CO2 (P<0.001), but total systemic resistance failed to show an increment. Among the cerebrovascular indices, all BFVs (systolic, diastolic, and mean) decreased significantly more, and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was increased in OI patients (P<0.01) compared with control subjects. In both groups, hyperventilation induced mild tachycardia (P<0.001), a significant reduction of BFV, and a significant increase of CVR associated with a fall in CO2. Hyperventilation during HUT reproduced hypocapnia, BFV reduction, and tachycardia and worsened symptoms of OI; these symptoms and indices were improved within 2 minutes of CO2 rebreathing. The relationships between CO2 and BFV and heart rate were well described by

  17. [Hyponatremia : The water-intolerant patient].

    PubMed

    Hensen, J

    2012-09-01

    Hyponatremia due to intolerance to water is a frequent clinical condition and associated with increased mortality. Besides the well known neurological symptoms, gait disturbances, falls, fractures and osteoporosis have also been described recently in patients with chronic hyponatremia. Acute hyponatremia is a more dramatic situation and needs rapid action when severe neurological symptoms are present. Hypertonic saline is recommended to treat this condition until relief of severe symptoms. The causes of hyponatremia have to be carefully examined. Especially diuretics, antidepressants and endocrine causes, e.g. hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism and hypoaldosteronism should be excluded by examination of the patient history, clinical examination and by laboratory tests. Patients should be classified as being euvolemic, hypovolemic or hypervolemic. Whereas acute hyponatremia with severe symptom should be treated with hypertonic saline, euvolemic hyponatremia due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) with mild and moderate symptoms can now be treated with tolvaptan, a selective V(2)-vasopressin antagonist. Oral tolvaptan has been shown to be an effective and potent aquaretic to treat hyponatremia caused by SIADH as evidenced by a simultaneous increase in serum sodium and a decrease in urine osmolality. The condition of patients with mild or moderate hyponatremia is also improved. Side effects associated with tolvaptan include increased thirst, dry mouth, polyuria and hypernatremia. Rapid increases in serum sodium should be avoided by close monitoring in a hospital setting.

  18. Pathogenesis of acidosis in hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R M; Little, J A; Patten, R L; Goldstein, M B; Halperin, M L

    1979-11-01

    An 18-yr-old man with a classical history of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) developed typical biochemical changes following an oral fructose load: fructosemia, hypoglycemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hypokalemia (3.1 meq/liter) was also noted. Three aspects of this case expand the published literature on this syndrome: (1) Metabolic acidosis was found to be due to both lactic acidosis and proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA). We could quantitate the relative contribution of each, and found that urinary bicarbonate loss due to proximal RTA accounted for less than 10% of the fall in serum bicarbonate. The major cause of the metabolic acidosis was lactic acidosis. (2) Hypokalemia was found to be due to movement of potassium out of the extracellular space rather than to urinary loss. Potassium may have entered cells with phosphate or may have been sequestered in the gastrointestinal tract. (3) The coexistence of proximal RTA and acidemia made it possible to study the effect of acidemia on the urine-blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) gradient in alkaline urine (U-B PCO2). The U-B PCO2 measured during acidemia was much higher at the same urine bicarbonate concentration than in normal controls during alkalemia, providing evidence in humans that acidemia stimulates distal nephron hydrogen-ion secretion.

  19. Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.

  20. Endogenous circulating sympatholytic factor in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, R. E.; Winters, B.; Hales, M.; Barnett, T.; Schwinn, D. A.; Flavahan, N.; Berkowitz, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    Sympathotonic orthostatic hypotension (SOH) is an idiopathic syndrome characterized by tachycardia, hypotension, elevated plasma norepinephrine, and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance provoked by assumption of an upright posture. We studied a woman with severe progressive SOH with blood pressure unresponsive to the pressor effects of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. We tested the hypothesis that a circulating factor in this patient interferes with vascular adrenergic neurotransmission. Preincubation of porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings with patient plasma produced a dose-dependent inhibition of vasoconstriction to phenylephrine in vitro, abolished vasoconstriction to direct electrical stimulation, and had no effect on nonadrenergic vasoconstrictive stimuli (endothelin-1), PGF-2alpha (or KCl). Preincubation of vessels with control plasma was devoid of these effects. SOH plasma inhibited the binding of an alpha(1)-selective antagonist radioligand ([(125)I]HEAT) to membrane fractions derived from porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings, rat liver, and cell lines selectively overexpressing human ARs of the alpha(1B) subtype but not other AR subtypes (alpha(1A) and alpha(1D)). We conclude that a factor in SOH plasma can selectively and irreversibly inhibit adrenergic ligand binding to alpha(1B) ARs. We propose that this factor contributes to a novel pathogenesis for SOH in this patient. This patient's syndrome represents a new disease entity, and her plasma may provide a unique tool for probing the selective functions of alpha(1)-ARs.

  1. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a "final common pathway" for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support.

  2. The intracellular galactoglycome in Trichoderma reesei during growth on lactose.

    PubMed

    Karaffa, Levente; Coulier, Leon; Fekete, Erzsébet; Overkamp, Karin M; Druzhinina, Irina S; Mikus, Marianna; Seiboth, Bernhard; Novák, Levente; Punt, Peter J; Kubicek, Christian P

    2013-06-01

    Lactose (1,4-0-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-glucose) is used as a soluble carbon source for the production of cellulases and hemicellulases for-among other purposes-use in biofuel and biorefinery industries. The mechanism how lactose induces cellulase formation in T. reesei is enigmatic, however. Previous results from our laboratory raised the hypothesis that intermediates from the two galactose catabolic pathway may give rise to the accumulation of intracellular oligogalactosides that could act as inducer. Here we have therefore used high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry to study the intracellular galactoglycome of T. reesei during growth on lactose, in T. reesei mutants impaired in galactose catabolism, and in strains with different cellulase productivities. Lactose, allo-lactose, and lactulose were detected in the highest amounts in all strains, and two trisaccharides (Gal-β-1,6-Gal-β-1,4-Glc/Fru and Gal-β-1,4-Gal-β-1,4-Glc/Fru) also accumulated to significant levels. Glucose and galactose, as well as four further oligosaccharides (Gal-β-1,3/1,4/1,6-Gal; Gal-β-1,2-Glc) were only detected in minor amounts. In addition, one unknown disaccharide (Hex-β-1,1-Hex) and four trisaccharides were also detected. The accumulation of the unknown hexose disaccharide was shown to correlate with cellulase formation in the improved mutant strains as well as the galactose pathway mutants, and Gal-β-1,4-Gal-β-1,4-Glc/Fru and two other unknown hexose trisaccharides correlated with cellulase production only in the pathway mutants, suggesting that these compounds could be involved in cellulase induction by lactose. The nature of these oligosaccharides, however, suggests their formation by transglycosylation rather than by glycosyltransferases. Based on our results, the obligate nature of both galactose catabolic pathways for this induction must have another biochemical basis than providing substrates for inducer formation.

  3. Fermentation of Glucose, Lactose, Galactose, Mannitol, and Xylose by Bifidobacteria

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Wytske; Stouthamer, A. H.

    1968-01-01

    For six strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum (Lactobacillus bifidus), fermentation balances of glucose, lactose, galactose, mannitol, and xylose were determined. Products formed were acetate, l(+)-lactate, ethyl alcohol, and formate. l(+)-Lactate dehydrogenase of all strains studied was found to have an absolute requirement for fructose-1,6-diphosphate. The phosphoroclastic enzyme could not be demonstrated in cell-free extracts. Cell suspensions fermented pyruvate to equimolar amounts of acetate and formate. Alcohol dehydrogenase was shown in cell-free extracts. Possible explanations have been suggested for the differences in fermentation balances found for different strains and carbon sources. By enzyme determinations, it was shown that bifidobacteria convert mannitol to fructose-6-phosphate by an inducible polyol dehydrogenase and fructokinase. For one strain of B. bifidum, molar growth yields of glucose, lactose, galactose, and mannitol were determined. The mean value of Y (ATP), calculated from molar growth yields and fermentation balances, was 11.3. PMID:5674058

  4. Metabolism of lactose by Clostridium thermolacticum growing in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Collet, Christophe; Girbal, Laurence; Péringer, Paul; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul; Soucaille, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the metabolism of Clostridium thermolacticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, growing continuously on lactose (10 g l(-1)) and to determine the enzymes involved in the pathways leading to the formation of the fermentation products. Biomass and metabolites concentration were measured at steady-state for different dilution rates, from 0.013 to 0.19 h(-1). Acetate, ethanol, hydrogen and carbon dioxide were produced at all dilution rates, whereas lactate was detected only for dilution rates below 0.06 h(-1). The presence of several key enzymes involved in lactose metabolism, including beta-galactosidase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, acetate kinase, ethanol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, was demonstrated. Finally, the intracellular level of NADH, NAD+, ATP and ADP was also measured for different dilution rates. The production of ethanol and lactate appeared to be linked with the re-oxidation of NADH produced during glycolysis, whereas hydrogen produced should come from reduced ferredoxin generated during pyruvate decarboxylation. To produce more hydrogen or more acetate from lactose, it thus appears that an efficient H2 removal system should be used, based on a physical (membrane) or a biological approach, respectively, by cultivating C. thermolacticum with efficient H2 scavenging and acetate producing microorganisms.

  5. Benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia (Gullo syndrome), histamine intolerance, and carbohydrate malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Enko, Dietmar; Mangge, Harald; Schenk, Michael; Lackner, Sonja; Holasek, Sandra J.

    2017-01-01

    Benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia (Gullo syndrome) is characterized by a more than threefold increase of the pancreatic enzymes lipase and amylase in the absence of a pancreatic disease over a period of more than 1 year, with elevations and significant undulations of pancreatic enzyme serum concentrations occurring on a day-to-day basis for 5 consecutive days. Nonspecific abdominal complaints may be caused by carbohydrate and/or protein malabsorption. We report a patient with benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia with lactose and histamine malabsorption; the symptoms of gastrointestinal malabsorption were treated successfully with an individually tailored lactose- and histamine-free diet.

  6. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the lactose plasmid in Streptococcus lactis ML3 and two recombinant lactose plasmids.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P M; McKay, L L

    1982-05-01

    We investigated the molecular relationship between the 60-megadalton (Mdal) recombinant lactose plasmids in ML 3 x LM2301 lactose-positive (Lac+) transconjugants and the genetic material of Streptococcus lactis ML3. Lactose metabolism is linked to the 33-Mdal plasmid pSK08 in ML3, and the recipient LM2301 is cured of plasmid DNA. The plasmids were analyzed with a series of restriction enzymes. We found that the 60-Mdal plasmids of Lac+ transconjugants contained pSK08 DNA, but were not simply dimers of pSK08. The 60-Mdal plasmids contained a segment of DNA not apparent in pSK08. The restriction patterns of the 60-Mdal plasmid in a Lac+ nonclumping transconjugant and that in a Lac+ clumping transconjugant were different. This suggested that there was a molecular differences between these two recombinant plasmids. We conclude that the segment of DNA in the 60-Mdal plasmids that was not present in pSK08 was the proposed transfer factor responsible for cell aggregation and high-frequency conjugation.

  7. Microwave-assisted isomerisation of lactose to lactulose and Maillard conjugation of lactulose and lactose with whey proteins and peptides.

    PubMed

    Nooshkam, Majid; Madadlou, Ashkan

    2016-06-01

    Lactose was isomerised to lactulose by microwave heating and purified by a methanolic procedure to a product with approximately 72% lactulose content. Afterwards, lactose and the lactulose-rich product (PLu) were conjugated with either whey protein isolate (WPI) or its antioxidant hydrolysate (WPH) through microwaving. Lactose had a higher Maillard reactivity than PLu, and WPH was more reactive than WPI. The browning intensity of WPI-sugar systems was however higher than that of WPH-sugar pairs. Atomic force microscopy showed larger (up to ≈103 nm) particles for WPI-PLu conjugates compared to WPH-PLu counterparts (up to ≈39 nm). The Maillard conjugation progressively increased the radical-scavenging activity of WPI/WPH-sugar pairs with increasing conjugation time and improved the foaming properties of WPI and WPH. The WPI/WPH-sugar conjugates showed higher solubility and emulsification index than unreacted counterpart pairs. For native WPI, β-lactoglobulin was not degraded by in vitro gastric digestion, whereas for WPH-PLu conjugates degraded completely.

  8. Continuous ethanol fermentation of lactose by a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain

    SciTech Connect

    Domingues, L.; Dantas, M.M.; Lima, N.; Teixeira, J.A.

    1999-09-20

    Alcohol fermentation of lactose was investigated using a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cetevisiae, expressing the LAC4 (coding the {beta}-galactosidase) and LAC12 (coding for lactose permease) genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Data on yeast fermentation and growth on a medium containing lactose as the sole carbon source are presented. In the range of studied lactose concentrations, total lactose consumption was observed with a conversion yield of ethanol close to the expected theoretical value. For the continuously operating bioreactor, an ethanol productivity of 11 g L{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} (corresponding to a feed lactose concentration of 50 g L{sup {minus}1} and a dilution rate of 0.55 h{sup {minus}1}) was obtained, which is 7 times larger than the continuous conventional systems. The system stability was confirmed by keeping it in operation for 6 months.

  9. Relation of blood volume and blood pressure in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.

  10. The diagnosis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, B; Gitzelmann, R

    1981-09-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a potentially life-threatening disorder and can be suspected from a detailed nutritional history. The usefulness of 2 diagnostic procedures, fructose tolerance test (FTT) and aldolase assay on biopsied liver, was studied. A standardized intravenous FTT with 200 mg/kg b.w. was done on 11 children with HFI, 17 age-matched contrast children, 6 adults with HFI and 6 adult controls. Blood glucose, phosphorus, urate, magnesium and fructose were followed for 2 hours. By the FTT, each HFI individual was reliably distinguished from controls and contrasts and even from those with acute liver disease other than HFI. Both children with non-HFI hepatopathy examined by both procedures had a normal FTT in spite of reduced liver fructaldolase activity. HFI children responded to the FTT by earlier and more pronounced hypoglycemia than adults, and one girl converted to an adult type response between the ages 12 and 181/2 years. Responses of two HFI sibling pairs and of one set of monozygotic twins were typical for age, but resemblance was no greater than within the unrelated HFI probands. The intravenous FTT is judged a reliable diagnostic tool, simple and harmless if done in hospital. Essential fructosuria is readily diagnosed by the FTT, but fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency and HFI are not differentiated with certainty. Liver biopsies were obtained from 35 children with HFI, 14 contrast persons and 10 controls (of which 9 organ donors) and examined enzymatically. Deficiency of fructaldolase was observed in all HFI children but also in some contrast children suffering from acute liver disease other than HFI. In these, HFI could only be excluded when the reduced activity of reference enzymes such as fructose-1,6-diphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase and liver histology were included in the evaluation. In one deceased HFI infant, fructaldolase was deficient in both, liver and kidney cortex. Extent of antibody activation and of heat

  11. Characterization and selection of suitable grades of lactose as functional fillers for capsule filling: part 1.

    PubMed

    Moolchandani, Vikas; Augsburger, Larry L; Gupta, Abhay; Khan, Mansoor; Langridge, John; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize thermal, physical and mechanical properties of different grades of lactose and better understand the relationships between these properties and capsule filling performance. Eight grades of commercially available lactose were evaluated: Pharmatose 110 M, 125 M, 150 M, 200 M, 350 M (α-lactose monohydrate), AL (anhydrous lactose containing ∼80% β-AL), DCL11 (spray dried α-lactose monohydrate containing ∼15% amorphous lactose) and DCL15 (granulated α-lactose monohydrate containing ∼12% β-AL). In this study, different lactose grades were characterized by thermal, solid state, physical and mechanical properties and later evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the inter-relationships among some of these properties. The lactose grades were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), moisture sorption/desorption isotherms, particle size distribution; the flow was characterized by Carr Index (CI), critical orifice diameter (COD) and angle of friction. Plug mechanical strength was estimated from its diametric crushing strength. The first and second principal components (PC) captured 47.6% and 27.4% of variation in the physical and mechanical property data, respectively. The PCA plot grouped together 110 M, AL, DCL11 and DCL15 on the one side of plot which possessed superior properties for capsule formulation and these grades were selected for future formulation development studies (part II of this work).

  12. Short communication: Conversion of lactose and whey into lactic acid by engineered yeast.

    PubMed

    Turner, Timothy L; Kim, Eunbee; Hwang, ChangHoon; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Liu, Jing-Jing; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-01-01

    Lactose is often considered an unwanted and wasted byproduct, particularly lactose trapped in acid whey from yogurt production. But using specialized microbial fermentation, the surplus wasted acid whey could be converted into value-added chemicals. The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly used for industrial fermentation, cannot natively ferment lactose. The present study describes how an engineered S. cerevisiae yeast was constructed to produce lactic acid from purified lactose, whey, or dairy milk. Lactic acid is an excellent proof-of-concept chemical to produce from lactose, because lactic acid has many food, pharmaceutical, and industrial uses, and over 250,000 t are produced for industrial use annually. To ferment the milk sugar lactose, a cellodextrin transporter (CDT-1, which also transports lactose) and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1, which also acts as a β-galactosidase) from Neurospora crassa were expressed in a S. cerevisiae strain. A heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (encoded by ldhA) from the fungus Rhizopus oryzae was integrated into the CDT-1/GH1-1-expressing strain of S. cerevisiae. As a result, the engineered strain was able to produce lactic acid from purified lactose, whey, and store-bought milk. A lactic acid yield of 0.358g/g of lactose was achieved from whey fermentation, providing an initial proof of concept for the production of value-added chemicals from excess industrial whey using engineered yeast.

  13. Non coeliac gluten sensitivity - A new disease with gluten intolerance.

    PubMed

    Czaja-Bulsa, Grażyna

    2015-04-01

    Until recently gluten intolerance has been believed to be typical of celiac disease (CD) and wheat allergy (WA). In the last few years, however, several study results have been published that have proved that gluten intolerance can also affect people who do not suffer from any of the above mentioned diseases. The new syndrome has been named non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity (GS). It has been included in the new list of gluten-related disorders published in 2012. Researchers believe that NCGS is the most common syndrome of gluten intolerance. This review discusses many aspects of NCGS epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical spectrum, and treatment and current tools to identify patients suffering from CD, WA, and NCGS.

  14. Intolerance for approach of ambiguity in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Kuckertz, Jennie M; Strege, Marlene V; Amir, Nader

    2016-02-19

    Previous research has utilised the approach-avoidance task (AAT) to measure approach and avoidance action tendencies in socially anxious individuals. "Neutral" social stimuli may be perceived as ambiguous and hence threatening to socially anxious individuals, however it is unclear whether this results in difficulty approaching ambiguous ("neutral") versus unambiguous threat (e.g. disgust) faces (i.e. intolerance of ambiguity). Thirty participants with social anxiety disorder (SADs) and 29 non-anxious controls completed an implicit AAT in which they were instructed to approach or avoid neutral and disgust faces (i.e. pull or push a joystick) based on colour of the picture border. Results indicated that SADs demonstrated greater difficulty approaching neutral relative to disgust faces. Moreover, intolerance for approach of ambiguity predicted social anxiety severity while controlling for the effects of trait anxiety and depression. Our results provide further support for the role of intolerance of ambiguity in SAD.

  15. Food allergy and food intolerance: towards a sociological agenda.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Sarah; Woods, Brian; Burrows, Roger; Kerr, Anne

    2009-11-01

    This article asks what sociological insights an analysis of food allergy and food intolerance might afford. We outline the parameters of debates around food allergy and food intolerance in the immunological, clinical and epidemiological literatures in order to identify analytic strands which might illuminate our sociological understanding of the supposed increase in both. Food allergy and food intolerance are contested and contingent terms and it is salient that the term true food allergy is replete throughout medico-scientific, epidemiological and popular discourses in order to rebuff spurious or 'nonallergic' claims of food-related symptoms. Complexity theory is introduced as a means of gaining analytic purchase on the food allergy debate. The article concludes that the use of this perspective provides a contemporary example of the 'double hermeneutic', in that the meanings and interpretations of contemporary explanations of food allergy are both permeated by, and can be made sense of, through recourse to complexity thinking.

  16. Recommendations for the management of beta-lactam intolerance.

    PubMed

    Macy, Eric; Ngor, Eunis

    2014-08-01

    Beta-lactam intolerance, most of which is not IgE or even immunologically mediated even though it is commonly called an "allergy," can be safely managed using the following seven steps: 1. Avoid testing, re-challenging, or desensitizing individuals with histories of beta-lactam associated toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome, severe hepatitis, interstitial nephritis, or hemolytic anemia. 2. Avoid unnecessary antibiotic use, especially in the setting of viral infections. 3. Expect new intolerances to be reported after 0.5 to 4% of all antibiotic utilizations, dependent on gender and the specific antibiotic used. 4. Expect a higher incidence of new intolerances in individuals with three or more medication intolerances already noted in their medical records. 5. For individuals with an appropriate penicillin class antibiotic intolerance based on a history of anaphylaxis, urticaria, macular papular rashes, unknown symptoms, or symptoms not excluded in step one, proceed with penicillin skin testing. Skin test with penicilloyl-poly-lysine and native penicillin. If skin test is negative, proceed with an oral amoxicillin challenge. If skin test and oral challenge are negative, penicillin class antibiotics may be used. If skin test or oral challenge is positive, avoid penicillin class antibiotics. If skin test or oral challenge is positive, non-penicillin-beta-lactams may be used, unless there is a history of intolerance to a specific non-penicillin-beta-lactam, then avoid that specific non-penicillin-beta-lactam. If there is life-threatening infection that can only be treated with a penicillin class antibiotic, proceed with oral penicillin desensitization prior to any oral or parenteral penicillin use. 6. For individuals with an appropriate non-penicillin-beta-lactam intolerance, avoid re-exposure to the beta-lactam implicated. An alternative beta-lactam may be used, ideally with different side

  17. The molecular basis of hereditary fructose intolerance in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, R; Scarano, M I; Esposito, G; Chiandetti, L; Izzo, P; Salvatore, F

    1993-10-01

    We investigated the molecular defects of the aldolase B gene in five unrelated patients affected by hereditary fructose intolerance. The techniques used were DNA amplification, direct sequencing and allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization. The most frequent substitutions found in the hereditary fructose intolerance alleles analysed were the A174D and the A149P mutations, which account for 50% and 30% of the alleles, respectively. In two unrelated families, we found a rare mutation, the MD delta 4 previously described only in one British family, which may be an important cause of the disease in Italy.

  18. Roller compaction: Effect of morphology and amorphous content of lactose powder on product quality.

    PubMed

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Osborne, James D; Althaus, Tim O; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-12-30

    The effect of morphology and amorphous content, of three types of lactose, on the properties of ribbon produced using roller compaction was investigated. The three types of lactose powders were; anhydrous SuperTab21AN, α-lactose monohydrate 200 M, and spray dried lactose SuperTab11SD. The morphology of the primary particles was identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the powder amorphous content was quantified using NIR technique. SEM images showed that 21AN and SD are agglomerated type of lactose whereas the 200 M is a non-agglomerated type. During ribbon production, an online thermal imaging technique was used to monitor the surface temperature of the ribbon. It was found that the morphology and the amorphous content of lactose powders have significant effects on the roller compaction behaviour and on ribbon properties. The agglomerated types of lactose produced ribbon with higher surface temperature and tensile strength, larger fragment size, lower porosity and lesser fines percentages than the non-agglomerated type of lactose. The lactose powder with the highest amorphous content showed to result in a better binding ability between the primary particles. This type of lactose produced ribbons with the highest temperature and tensile strength, and the lowest porosity and amount of fines in the product. It also produced ribbon with more smooth surfaces in comparison to the other two types of lactose. It was noticed that there is a relationship between the surface temperature of the ribbon during production and the tensile strength of the ribbon; the higher the temperature of the ribbon during production the higher the tensile strength of the ribbon.

  19. Third-generation biosensor for lactose based on newly discovered cellobiose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Leonard; Ludwig, Roland; Haltrich, Dietmar; Gorton, Lo

    2006-01-15

    The present paper describes the principle and characteristics of a biosensor for lactose based on a third-generation design involving cellobiose dehydrogenase. As resulted from a previous comparative study (submitted manuscript), the novelty of this lactose biosensor is based on highly efficient direct electron transfer between two newly discovered cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH), from the white rot fungi Trametes villosa and Phanerochaete sordida, and a solid spectrographic graphite electrode. CDH was immobilized on the electrode surface (0.073 cm2) by simple physical adsorption, and the CDH-modified electrode was next inserted into a wall-jet amperometric cell connected on-line to a flow injection setup (0.5 mL x min(-1)). The P. sordida CDH-based lactose biosensor, proved to be the better one, has a detection limit for lactose of 1 microM, a sensitivity of 1100 microA x mM(-1) x cm(-2), a response time of 4 s (the time required to obtain the maximum peak current), and a linear range from 1 to 100 microM lactose (correlation coefficient 0.998). The simplicity of construction and analytical characteristics make this CDH-based lactose biosensor an excellent alternative to previous lactose biosensors reported in the literature or commercially available. The CDH-lactose sensor was used to quantify the content of lactose in pasteurized milk, buttermilk, and low-lactose milk, using the standard addition method. No effects of the samples matrixes were observed. The operational stability of the sensor was tested for 11 h by continuous injection of 100 microM lactose (290 injections). The final signal of the sensor was maintained at 98% of its initial signal, with a low standard deviation of 1.72 (RSD 2.41%).

  20. Rainbow Visibility: How One Catholic University Responded to Intolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Cheryl; Kirkley, Evelyn A.

    2002-01-01

    When intolerance of gays and lesbians at the University of San Diego became a problem, a group of students, staff, and faculty decided to do something about it. The result was a project called Rainbow Visibility that works on many forms to educate the campus community. (Author)

  1. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, "ambiguity aversion" and "ambiguity intolerance," are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, "ambiguity aversion" represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, "ambiguity intolerance" describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended.

  2. The Black Vote: Racial Intolerance or the Politics of Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Richard R.

    Voting behavior of blacks is examined with specific regard to racial intolerance. Factors studied include racial identification, amount of interracial contact, and the black candidate's job performance. In 1969, interviewers collected data on 400 black respondents' attitudes about Carl Stokes (the black incumbent mayoralty candidate), the other…

  3. Intolerance of Ambiguity and Political Orientation among Israeli University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fibert, Zigi; Ressler, William Harris

    1998-01-01

    Explores relations between political orientation and cognitive style among Israeli university students. Finds that intolerance of ambiguity contributed significantly to political orientation and that the political Left showed more complex cognitive styles than the Right. Notes implications for testing competing hypotheses about cognitive style and…

  4. Preliminary Investigation of Intolerance of Uncertainty Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Sarah N.; Egan, Sarah; Rees, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations or events, and it has been found to be an important maintaining factor in a number of different anxiety disorders. It is often included as a part of cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety disorders but its specific contribution to treatment outcome…

  5. Tolerance of Intolerance: Values and Virtues at Stake in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlenius, Kennert

    2008-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of the tolerance of intolerance in an educational context. It concerns a real case in a Swedish upper secondary school some years ago, when a student was suspended from school owing to his sympathies with Nazi ideas. One hundred and twenty student teachers' responses to this decision were analysed in respect of the…

  6. Orthostatic Intolerance and Motion Sickness After Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Brown, Troy E.; Wood, Scott J.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Bondar, Roberta L.; Stein, Flo; Moradshahi, Peyman; Harm, Deborah L.; Low, Phillip A.

    1999-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is common in astronauts after prolonged space flight. However, the "push-pull effect" in military aviators suggests that brief exposures to transitions between hypo- and hypergravity are sufficient to induce untoward autonomic cardiovascular physiology in susceptible individuals. We therefore investigated orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular function in 16 healthy test subjects before and after a seated 2-hr parabolic flight. At the same time, we also investigated relationships between parabolic flight-induced vomiting and changes in orthostatic and autonomic cardiovascular function. After parabolic flight, 8 of 16 subjects could not tolerate a 30-min upright tilt test, compared to 2 of 16 before flight. Whereas new intolerance in non-Vomiters resembled the clinical postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), new intolerance in Vomiters was characterized by comparatively isolated upright hypocapnia and cerebral vasoconstriction. As a group, Vomiters also had evidence for increased postflight fluctuations in efferent vagal-cardiac nerve traffic occurring independently of any superimposed change in respiration. Results suggest that syndromes of orthostatic intolerance resembling those occurring after space flight can occur after a brief (i.e., 2-hr) parabolic flight.

  7. A case of galactosemia misdiagnosed as cow's milk intolerance.

    PubMed

    Della Casa, Roberto; Ungaro, Carla; Acampora, Emma; Pignata, Claudio; Vajro, Pietro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Santamaria, Francesca; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2012-09-19

    We report on a female patient affected by galactosemia in whom the diagnosis was obscured by the concomitant presence of manifestations suggesting a cow's milk intolerance. This case exemplifies the problems in reaching a correct diagnosis in patients with metabolic diseases.

  8. Hereditary fructose intolerance and alpha(1) antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, G; Schneppenheim, R; Oldigs, H D; Santer, R

    2000-07-01

    A patient with coexisting hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) and alpha(1) antitrypsin deficiency (alpha(1)ATD) is described. Protease inhibitor typing was not conclusive, presumably because of impaired N-glycosylation secondary to HFI. The case underlines the diagnostic role of molecular genetic techniques in inborn errors of metabolism.

  9. Investigation of growth rate dispersion in lactose crystallisation by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2014-09-01

    α-Lactose monohydrate crystals have been reported to exhibit growth rate dispersion (GRD). Variation in surface dislocations has been suggested as the cause of GRD, but this has not been further investigated to date. In this study, growth rate dispersion and the change in morphology were investigated in situ and via bottle roller experiments. The surfaces of the (0 1 0) faces of crystals were examined with Atomic Force Microscopy. Smaller, slow growing crystals tend to have smaller (0 1 0) faces with narrow bases and displayed a single double spiral in the centre of the crystal with 2 nm high steps. Additional double spirals in other crystals resulted in faster growth rates. Large, fast growing crystals were observed to have larger (0 1 0) faces with fast growth in both the a and b directions (giving a broader crystal base) with macro steps parallel to the (c direction). The number and location of spirals or existence of macro steps appears to influence the crystal morphology, growth rates and growth rate dispersion in lactose crystals.

  10. Synthesis of carbon-13 enriched disaccharides: lactose and sucrose

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.E.; Unkefer, P.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Ehler, D.S.

    1986-05-01

    Disaccharides can be prepared enzymatically and by chemical synthesis. Lactose enriched with carbon-13 at C-1 can be synthesized by reacting K/sup 13/CN with a sugar having a one fewer carbon than the desired product. Thus, a mixture of 4-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-(1-/sup 13/C)glucose ((1-/sup 13/C)lactose) and 4-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-(1-/sup 13/C)mannose can be synthesized from 3-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-arabinose and K/sup 13/CN. (/sup 13/C)Sucrose is conveniently prepared in gram quantities from D-(/sup 13/C)fructose and UDP-glucose in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme sucrose synthetase. This reaction proceeds smoothly at 25/sup 0/ over a period of hours to give an equilibrium mixture which can be separated chromatographically. The glucose portion of sucrose can be labeled using enzymatically-prepared UDP-(/sup 13/C)glucose. Labeled sucrose is important for the preparation of labeled starches to be used for structural and metabolic studies.

  11. Inhibition of Recrystallization of Amorphous Lactose in Nanocomposites Formed by Spray-Drying.

    PubMed

    Hellrup, Joel; Alderborn, Göran; Mahlin, Denny

    2015-11-01

    This study aims at investigating the recrystallization of amorphous lactose in nanocomposites. In particular, the focus is on the influence of the nano- to micrometer length scale nanofiller arrangement on the amorphous to crystalline transition. Further, the relative significance of formulation composition and manufacturing process parameters for the properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Nanocomposites of amorphous lactose and fumed silica were produced by co-spray-drying. Solid-state transformation of the lactose was studied at 43%, 84%, and 94% relative humidity using X-ray powder diffraction and microcalorimetry. Design of experiments was used to analyze spray-drying process parameters and nanocomposite composition as factors influencing the time to 50% recrystallization. The spray-drying process parameters showed no significant influence. However, the recrystallization of the lactose in the nanocomposites was affected by the composition (fraction silica). The recrystallization rate constant decreased as a function of silica content. The lowered recrystallization rate of the lactose in the nanocomposites could be explained by three mechanisms: (1) separation of the amorphous lactose into discrete compartments on a micrometer length scale (compartmentalization), (2) lowered molecular mobility caused by molecular interactions between the lactose molecules and the surface of the silica (rigidification), and/or (3) intraparticle confinement of the amorphous lactose.

  12. Effect of compression pressure on inhalation grade lactose as carrier for dry powder inhalations

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Neha Sureshrao; Jamaiwar, Swapnil; Umekar, Milind Janrao; Kotagale, Nandkishor Ramdas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study focused on the potential effects of compression forces experienced during lactose (InhaLac 70, 120, and 230) storage and transport on the flowability and aerosol performance in dry powder inhaler formulation. Materials and Methods: Lactose was subjected to typical compression forces 4, 10, and 20 N/cm2. Powder flowability and particle size distribution analysis of un-compressed and compressed lactose was evaluated by Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, the angle of repose and by laser diffraction method. Aerosol performance of un-compressed and compressed lactose was assessed in dispersion studies using glass twin-stage-liquid-impenger at flow rate 40-80 L/min. Results: At compression forces, the flowability of compressed lactose was observed same or slightly improved. Furthermore, compression of lactose caused a decrease in in vitro aerosol dispersion performance. Conclusion: The present study illustrates that, as carrier size increases, a concurrent decrease in drug aerosolization performance was observed. Thus, the compression of the lactose fines onto the surfaces of the larger lactose particles due to compression pressures was hypothesized to be the cause of these observed performance variations. The simulations of storage and transport in an industrial scale can induce significant variations in formulation performance, and it could be a source of batch-to-batch variations. PMID:27014618

  13. Exogenous thyroxine improves glucose intolerance in insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Anaya, Guillermo; Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2017-03-01

    Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are associated with glucose intolerance, calling into question the contribution of thyroid hormones (TH) on glucose regulation. TH analogues and derivatives may be effective treatment options for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (IR), but their potential glucoregulatory effects during conditions of impaired metabolism are not well described. To assess the effects of thyroxine (T4) on glucose intolerance in a model of insulin resistance, an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed on three groups of rats (n = 8): (1) lean, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO), (2) obese, Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and (3) OLETF + T4 (8.0 µg/100 g BM/day × 5 weeks). T4 attenuated glucose intolerance by 15% and decreased IR index (IRI) by 34% in T4-treated OLETF compared to untreated OLETF despite a 31% decrease in muscle Glut4 mRNA expression. T4 increased the mRNA expressions of muscle monocarboxylate transporter 10 (Mct10), deiodinase type 2 (Di2), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) by 1.8-, 2.2-, 2.7- and 1.4-fold, respectively, compared to OLETF. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor were not significantly altered suggesting that the improvements in glucose intolerance and IR were independent of enhanced insulin-mediated signaling. The results suggest that T4 treatment increased the influx of T4 in skeletal muscle and, with an increase of DI2, increased the availability of the biologically active T3 to upregulate key factors such SIRT1 and UCP2 involved in cellular metabolism and glucose homeostasis.

  14. Effect of lactose concentration on batch production of ethanol from cheese whey using Candida pseudotropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; El-Taweel, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    The effect of lactose concentration on growth of Candida pseudotropicalis and ethanol production from cheese whey under batch conditions was investigated. Four initial lactose concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 g/L (5 to 20% wt/vol) were used. High concentration of lactose had an inhibitory effect on the specific growth rate, lactose utilization rate, and ethanol production rate. The maximum cell concentration was influenced by the initial substrate concentration as well as ethanol concentration. Inhibition of ethanol production was more pronounced at higher initial lactose concentrations. The maximum ethanol yield (96.6% of the theoretical yield) was achieved with the 100 g/L initial substrate concentration. The results indicated that pH control during alcohol fermentation of cheese whey is not necessary. 41 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The influence of excipients on the stability of the moisture sensitive drugs aspirin and niacinamide: comparison of tablets containing lactose monohydrate with tablets containing anhydrous lactose.

    PubMed

    Du, J; Hoag, S W

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that in tablet formulations, moisture-sensitive drugs formulated with lactose monohydrate have the same stability as formulations containing anhydrous lactose, and to characterize the kinetics of niacinamide degradation in the solid state. Aspirin and niacinamide decomposition were used as indicators of stability. Aspirin and niacinamide tablets containing either lactose monohydrate or anhydrous lactose were separately investigated at different temperatures and relative humidities; the stability tests were done at 25 degrees C--60% RH, 40 degrees C--80% RH, 60 degrees C--60% RH, 60 degrees C--80% RH, and 80 degrees C--80% RH. Official U.S. Pharmacopeia methods were used for the aspirin and niacinamide assays. Statistical analysis showed that tablets containing lactose monohydrate have the same stability as tablets containing anhydrous lactose, which means that even though water is present in the crystal structure, the bound water does not influence the reaction rate. In addition, niacinamide degradation in the solid-state can be described by a third order rate equation.

  16. Butanol production from concentrated lactose/whey permeate: Use of pervaporation membrane to recover and concentrate product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) was produced from concentrated lactose/whey permeate containing 211 gL-1 lactose. Fermentation of such a highly concentrated lactose solution was possible due to simultaneous product removal using a pervaporation membrane. In this system a p...

  17. Human insulin microcrystals with lactose carriers for pulmonary delivery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Hwan; Park, Hye Won; Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kwon, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2009-12-01

    Dry powder formulations for pulmonary delivery are attractive because many issues of solubility and stability can be minimized. Human insulin microcrystals with lactose carriers were produced for pulmonary delivery. The average particle diameter was 2.3 microm, with a narrow, monodispersed size distribution. The percentages of high molecular weight proteins (%HMWPs), other insulin-related compounds (%OIRCs), and A-21 desamido insulin (%D(es)) were very low throughout the microcrystal preparation process. Administration of the microcrystal powder by intratracheal insufflation significantly reduced the blood glucose levels of Sprague-Dawley rats. The percent minimum reductions of the blood glucose concentration (%MRBG) produced by the insulin microcrystal powder and by an insulin solution reached 40.4% and 33.4% of the initial glucose levels respectively, and their bioavailability relative to subcutaneous injection (F) was 15% and 10% respectively. These results confirm that the insulin microcrystal powder prepared is suitable for pulmonary delivery in an effective dosage form.

  18. Structural Features of Carbons Produced Using Glucose, Lactose, and Saccharose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myronyuk, Ivan F.; Mandzyuk, Volodymyr I.; Sachko, Volodymyr M.; Gun'ko, Volodymyr M.

    2016-11-01

    Glucose, lactose, and saccharose were used as precursors to prepare chars at 400 °C then activated at 800 °C or 1000 °C in closed vessels with controlled amounts of oxygen penetrating through nanopores in the vessel walls. There are correlations between the porosity, amounts of residual O- and H-containing functionalities, and electroconductivity of amorphous carbons studied. The pore size distributions calculated using the nitrogen adsorption isotherms and TEM images show that all carbons are mainly nanoporous with certain contribution of narrow mesopores (at pore half-width x < 5 nm). Oxidizing activation by oxygen penetrating into the closed vessels with chars through nanopores can more strongly change the outer layers of char particles than the inner pores. Therefore, despite relatively great burn-off degree, the textural characteristics are relatively low for activated carbons.

  19. Solid state amorphization kinetic of alpha lactose upon mechanical milling.

    PubMed

    Caron, Vincent; Willart, Jean-François; Lefort, Ronan; Derollez, Patrick; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc

    2011-11-29

    It has been previously reported that α-lactose could be totally amorphized by ball milling. In this paper we report a detailed investigation of the structural and microstructural changes by which this solid state amorphization takes place. The investigations have been performed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((13)C CP-MAS) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results reveal the structural complexity of the material in the course of its amorphization so that it cannot be considered as a simple mixture made of a decreasing crystalline fraction and an increasing amorphous fraction. Heating this complexity can give rise to a fully nano-crystalline material. The results also show that chemical degradations upon heating are strongly connected to the melting process.

  20. Chemical modification of arginine residues in the lactose repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Whitson, P.A.; Matthews, K.S.

    1987-10-06

    The lactose repressor protein was chemically modified with 2,3-butanedione and phenylglyoxal. Arginine reaction was quantitated by either amino aced analysis or incorporation of /sup 14/C-labeled phenylglyoxal. Inducer binding activity was unaffected by the modification of arginine residues, while both operator and nonspecific DNA binding activities were diminished, although to differing degrees. The correlation of the decrease in DNA binding activities with the modification of approx. 1-2 equiv of arginine per monomer suggests increased reactivity of a functionally essential residue(s). For both reagents, operator DNA binding activity was protected by the presence of calf thymus DNA, and the extent of reaction with phenylglyoxal was simultaneously diminished. This protection presumably results from steric restriction of reagent access to an arginine(s) that is (are) essential for DNA binding interactions. These experiments suggest that there is (are) an essential reactive arginine(s) critical for repressor binding to DNA.

  1. Continuous twin screw extrusion for the wet granulation of lactose.

    PubMed

    Keleb, E I; Vermeire, A; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2002-06-04

    The suitability of continuous twin screw extrusion for the wet granulation of alpha-lactose monohydrate was studied and compared with conventional high shear granulation. The influence of process parameters (screw speed and total input rate) and formulation variables (water and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) concentration) on the properties of granules (yield, particle size distribution, friability and compressibility) and tablets (tablet tensile strength, friability and disintegration time) was investigated. Variation of the formulation and process parameters had a major effect on the process feasibility. Optimization of these parameters is required to allow continuous processing and to ensure a high yield. Total input rate, screw speed and water concentration had a minor influence on the granule and the tablet properties. The addition of PVP had no major influence on the granule properties, but significantly affected the tablet characteristics. For granules formulated with and without PVP a yield above 50%, a friability below 30% and a compressibility below 15% was obtained. Tablets without PVP showed a tensile strength below 0.6 MPa, a friability above 1% and a disintegration time below 3 min, whereas tablets with PVP showed a tensile strength above 0.6 MPa, a friability below 1% and a disintegration time ranging from 8 to 15 min. High shear granulation was only possible when PVP was added and it required a higher amount of water. It was concluded that wet granulation of alpha-lactose monohydrate using continuous twin screw extrusion is a robust process and might offer a suitable alternative for high shear granulation in the pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Novel coprocessed excipients composed of lactose, HPMC, and PVPP for tableting and its application.

    PubMed

    Wang, SongTao; Li, JinZhi; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi; Kou, Xiang; Babu, Sreehari; Panicucci, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    New coprocessed excipients composed of α-lactose monohydrate (a filler), HPMC E3 (a binder), and PVPP (a superdisintegrant) were developed by spray drying in this study to improve the tableting properties of lactose. Factors affecting the properties of the coprocessed excipients were investigated by a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design. These factors include lactose grade (90 M, 200 M, and 450 M), percentage of HPMC (3.5%, 7.0%, and 10.5%), and percentage of PVPP (0% and 3.5%). The results show that the compactability of the excipients could be significantly improved by increasing either the percentage of HPMC or the primary particle size of lactose. The addition of 3.5% PVPP had little effect on the compactability, but significantly improved the disintegration ability. The developed coprocessed excipients have much lower yield pressures and much higher working efficiency during tableting compared to the main raw material (α-lactose monohydrate). These improvements are mainly attributed to the addition of HPMC and the proximately 30% amorphous lactose formed during process. Both HPMC and amorphous lactose were homogeneously distributed on the surface of the secondary particles, maximizing their effect. Furthermore, the low hygroscopicity and high glass transition temperature of HPMC led to a high yield. The drug loading capacity of the newly coprocessed excipients is also excellent. In summary, the tri-component coprocessed excipients investigated are promising and worthy of further development.

  3. Kinetics and regulation of lactose transport and metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis JA6.

    PubMed

    Santos, A M; Silveira, W B; Fietto, L G; Brandão, R L; Castro, I M

    2014-07-01

    Kluyveromyces lactis strains are able to assimilate lactose. They have been used industrially to eliminate this sugar from cheese whey and in other industrial products. In this study, we investigated specific features and the kinetic parameters of the lactose transport system in K. lactis JA6. In lactose grown cells, lactose was transported by a system transport with a half-saturation constant (K s) of 1.49 ± 0.38 mM and a maximum velocity (V max) of 0.96 ± 0.12 mmol. (g dry weight)(-1) h(-1) for lactose. The transport system was constitutive and energy-dependent. Results obtained by different approaches showed that the lactose transport system was regulated by glucose at the transcriptional level and by glucose and other sugars at a post-translational level. In K. lactis JA6, galactose metabolization was under glucose control. These findings indicated that the regulation of lactose-galactose regulon in K. lactis was similar to the regulation of galactose regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  4. The pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the composition and size of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengjie; Jin, Shaoming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-04-15

    The effects of lactose on the changes in the composition and size of casein micelles induced by high-pressure treatment and the related mechanism of action were investigated. Dispersions of ultracentrifuged casein micelle pellets with 0-10% (w/v) lactose were subjected to high pressure (400 MPa) at 20 °C for 40 min. The results indicated that the level of non-sedimentable caseins was positively related to the amount of lactose added prior to pressure treatment, and negatively correlated to the size. A mechanism for the pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the casein micelles is proposed. Lactose inhibits the hydrophobic interactions between the micellar fragments during or after pressure release, through the hydrophilic layer formed by their hydrogen bonds around the micellar fragments. In addition, lactose does not favour the association between calcium and the casein aggregates after pressure release. Due to these two functions, lactose inhibited the formation of larger micelles after pressure treatment.

  5. Novel approach to DPI carrier lactose with mechanofusion process with additives and evaluation by IGC.

    PubMed

    Kumon, Michiko; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kusai, Akira; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

    2006-11-01

    The effect of lactose carrier surface property on the inhalation profile of dry powder inhaler (DPI) was evaluated using a micronized drug (Compound A) by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Mechanofusion with magnesium stearate (Mg-St) or sucrose stearate increased the fine particle fraction (FPF), considered to be due to decrease in the interaction between Compound A and the lactose carrier. The effect of Compound A concentration on FPF was smaller in mechanofusion-processed lactose compared to intact lactose, especially when processed with Mg-St. The relationship between the IGC parameters of the lactose and FPF was also investigated. FPF increased as both the dispersive component of the surface energy and acidity similarity between the lactose carriers and Compound A increased. Although further investigation is necessary, it could be suggested that acidity similarity decreases the interaction between Compound A and lactose, thus contributing to the increase in the FPF. In conclusion, (1) mechanofusion with Mg-St or sucrose stearate could be an effective method to improve FPF of a DPI drug formulation; (2) IGC would be a valuable method to investigate the interaction between a drug and the DPI carrier; and (3) a relationship between surface acidity and inhalation profile was suggested.

  6. Technical note: optimization of lactose quantification based on coupled enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Mohanty, Indira P; Noratto, Giuliana D

    2014-01-01

    A colorimetric microplate-adapted lactose assay was developed to quantify lactose in dairy products. The assay was based on the coupled enzymatic reaction of β-galactosidase-glucose oxidase-horseradish peroxidase using Amplex red as detection probe. The assay showed good linearity in the range of 0.1 to 0.5mmol of lactose/L, with a limit of detection of 0.0433mmol/L and a limit of quantification of 0.1313mmol/L. The lactose assay at optimized conditions (5 U of β-galactosidase/mL, 5 U of glucose oxidase/mL, 1 U of horseradish peroxidase/mL, and 100μmol of Amplex red/L for 1h at 37°C in the dark) showed good correlation with a commercial lactose enzymatic kit with intraassay variation below 10% and interassay variations below 7.6%. The developed lactose microplate assay can be adopted as routine analysis for lactose determination in dairy products due to its relatively low cost compared with a commercial kit, relatively short reaction time, and high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  7. Anemia: a cause of intolerance to thyroxine sodium.

    PubMed

    Shakir, K M; Turton, D; Aprill, B S; Drake, A J; Eisold, J F

    2000-02-01

    Usual causes of intolerance to thyroxine sodium include coronary artery disease, advanced age, untreated adrenal insufficiency, and severe hypothyroidism. We describe 4 patients with iron deficiency anemia and primary hypothyroidism. After treatment with thyroxine sodium, these patients developed palpitations and feelings of restlessness, which necessitated discontinuation of the thyroid hormone. After the anemia was treated with ferrous sulfate for 4 to 7 weeks, they were able to tolerate thyroxine sodium therapy. Iron deficiency anemia coexisting with primary hypothyroidism results in a hyperadrenergic state. In such patients, we postulate that thyroid hormone administration causes palpitations, nervousness, and feelings of restlessness. Correction of any existing pronounced anemia in hypothyroid patients who are intolerant to thyroxine sodium therapy may result in tolerance to this agent.

  8. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2014-10-09

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage.

  9. Reflections on the Institute of Medicine's systemic exertion intolerance disease.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; McManimen, Stephanie; Furst, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the United States has recently proposed that the term systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID) replace chronic fatigue syndrome. In addition, the IOM proposed a new case definition for SEID, which includes substantial reductions or impairments in the ability to engage in pre‑illness activities, unrefreshing sleep, postexertional malaise, and either cognitive impairment or orthostatic intolerance. Unfortunately, these recommendations for a name change were not vetted with patient and professional audiences, and the new criteria were not evaluated with data sets of patients and controls. A recent poll suggests that the majority of patients reject this new name. In addition, studies have found that prevalence rates will dramatically increase with the new criteria, particularly due to the ambiguity revolving around exclusionary illnesses. Findings suggest that the new criteria select more patients who have less impairment and fewer symptoms than several other criteria. The implications of these findings are discussed in the current review.

  10. Renal fructose-metabolizing enzymes: significance in hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kranhold, J F; Loh, D; Morris, R C

    1969-07-25

    In patients with hereditary fructose intolerance, which is characterized by deficient aldolase activity toward fructose-1-phosphate, fructose induces a renal tubular dysfunction that implicates only the proximal convoluted tubule. Because normal metabolism of fructose by way of fructose-1-phosphate requires fructokinase, aldolase "B," and triokinase, the exclusively cortical location of these enzymes indicates that the medulla is not involved in the metabolic abnormality presumably causal of the renal dysfunction.

  11. A possible case of transient hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Catto-Smith, A G; Adams, A

    1993-01-01

    A patient is described who presented with the signs and symptoms of hereditary fructose intolerance a few hours after her first fructose challenge. The diagnosis was confirmed by the demonstration of reduced activity of hepatic aldolase B towards fructose-1-phosphate. A second liver biopsy 10 months later had normal aldolase B activity towards fructose-1-phosphate and a fructose tolerance test was also normal. A possible explanation for these findings is proposed.

  12. Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine-transporter deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Flattem, N. L.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Black, B. K.; Biaggioni, I.; Blakely, R. D.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by lightheadedness, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope and associated with postural tachycardia and plasma norepinephrine concentrations that are disproportionately high in relation to sympathetic outflow. We tested the hypothesis that impaired functioning of the norepinephrine transporter contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism of orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: In a patient with orthostatic intolerance and her relatives, we measured postural blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines, and systemic norepinephrine spillover and clearance, and we sequenced the norepinephrine-transporter gene and evaluated its function. RESULTS: The patient had a high mean plasma norepinephrine concentration while standing, as compared with the mean (+/-SD) concentration in normal subjects (923 vs. 439+/-129 pg per milliliter [5.46 vs. 2.59+/-0.76 nmol per liter]), reduced systemic norepinephrine clearance (1.56 vs. 2.42+/-0.71 liters per minute), impairment in the increase in the plasma norepinephrine concentration after the administration of tyramine (12 vs. 56+/-63 pg per milliliter [0.07 vs. 0.33+/-0.37 pmol per liter]), and a disproportionate increase in the concentration of plasma norepinephrine relative to that of dihydroxyphenylglycol. Analysis of the norepinephrine-transporter gene revealed that the proband was heterozygous for a mutation in exon 9 (encoding a change from guanine to cytosine at position 237) that resulted in more than a 98 percent loss of function as compared with that of the wild-type gene. Impairment of synaptic norepinephrine clearance may result in a syndrome characterized by excessive sympathetic activation in response to physiologic stimuli. The mutant allele in the proband's family segregated with the postural heart rate and abnormal plasma catecholamine homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic or acquired deficits in norepinephrine inactivation may underlie hyperadrenergic

  13. Proteomic analysis in allergy and intolerance to wheat products.

    PubMed

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2011-02-01

    Owing to its extensive use in the human diet, wheat is among the most common causes of food-related allergies and intolerances. Allergies to wheat are provoked by ingestion, inhalation or contact with either the soluble or the insoluble gluten proteins in wheat. Gluten proteins, and particularly the gliadin fraction, are also the main factor triggering celiac disease, a common enteropathy induced by ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related prolamins from oat, rye and barley in genetically susceptible individuals. The role of gliadin and of its derived peptides in eliciting the adverse reactions in celiac disease are still far from being completely explained. Owing to its unique pathogenesis, celiac disease is widely investigated as a model immunogenetic disorder. The structural characterization of the injuring agents, the gluten proteins, assumes a particular significance in order to deepen the understanding of the events that trigger this and similar diseases at the molecular level. Recent developments in proteomics have provided an important contribution to the understanding of several basic aspects of wheat protein-related diseases. These include: the identification of gluten fractions and derived peptides involved in wheat allergy and intolerance, including celiac disease, and the elucidation of their mechanism of toxicity; the development and validation of sensitive and specific methods for detecting trace amounts of gluten proteins in gluten-free foods for intolerant patients; and the formulation of completely new substitute foods and ingredients to replace the gluten-based ones. In this article, the main aspects of current and prospective applications of mass spectrometry and proteomic technologies to the structural characterization of gluten proteins and derived peptides are critically presented, with a focus on issues related to their detection, identification and quantification, which are relevant to the biochemical, immunological and toxicological

  14. Orthostatic intolerance in multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tramontozzi, Louis A; Russell, James A

    2012-09-01

    We report a patient with orthostatic intolerance and syncope as a major clinical manifestation of an acquired multifocal neuropathy with the clinical, electrodiagnostic, and cerebrospinal fluid features of multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy or the Lewis-Sumner syndrome. Immunomodulatory therapy led to clinical remission of both somatic and autonomic signs and symptoms. We are unaware of a previous description of symptomatic dysautonomia in this disorder.

  15. Surface roughness contribution to the adhesion force distribution of salmeterol xinafoate on lactose carriers by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nazrul; Stewart, Peter; Larson, Ian; Hartley, Patrick

    2005-07-01

    Adhesion force distributions of silica spheres (5 and 20 microm) and salmeterol xinafoate (4 microm) particles with inhalation grade lactose surfaces and spin coated lactose films were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the influence of surface roughness on the force distributions. The roughness of lactose particles and films was determined by both AFM and confocal microscopy (CM); the lactose particles showed RMS R(q) values between 0.93 and 2.2 microm. The adhesion force distributions for silica and SX probes were significantly different for the different lactose carriers and broad, e.g., the adhesion force distribution between a 5 microm silica sphere and lactose particles ranged from 5 to 105 nN. This contrasted with distributions on smooth spin coated lactose films (RMS R(q) of 0.28 nm) which were not significantly different and were narrow, e.g., the adhesion force distribution between a 5 microm silica sphere and spin coated lactose films was between 42 and 68 nN. In addition, no significant difference in adhesion force distribution occurred with silica probe size on the lactose carrier surface. The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis confirmed that the lactose surfaces were free of impurities that might contribute to variation in adhesion. Although the almost atomically flat films showed some adhesion variability, the surface roughness of the lactose particles was a major contributing factor to the broad distributions seen in this study.

  16. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-07

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO.

  17. A mechanistic investigation on the utilization of lactose as a protective agent for multi-unit pellet systems.

    PubMed

    Chin, Wun Chyi; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2016-03-01

    The effect of lactose particle size on the extent of pellet coat damage was investigated. The extent of pellet coat damage increased linearly with lactose median particle size. It was observed that coated pellets compressed with coarser lactose grades had larger and deeper surface indentations. The surfaces of the pellets compressed with coarser lactose grades were also found to be significantly rougher. Micronized lactose was capable of protecting pellet coats from damage brought about by the presence of coarser lactose particles. The findings suggested a protective effect that micronized lactose conferred to pellet coats was not only through dimensional delimitations but also by higher interparticulate friction and longer particle rearrangement phase. As a result, the pellet volume fraction in the system was reduced. The extent of pellet coat damage was found to escalate when the pellet volume fraction in such system increased beyond a critical value of 0.39.

  18. Effect of pH and lactose concentration on solvent production from whey permeate using Clostridium acetobutylicum

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, B.M.; Maddox, I.S.

    1987-02-20

    A study was performed to optimize the production of solvents from whey permeate in batch fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. Fermentations performed at relatively low pH values resulted in high solvent yields and productivities, but lactose utilization was incomplete. At higher pH values, lactose-utilization was improved but acid production dominated over solvent production. When operating at the higher pH values, an increase in the initial lactose concentration of the whey permeate resulted in lower rates of lactose utilization, and this was accompanied by increased solvent production and decreased acid production. Analysis of data from several experiments revealed a strong inverse relationship between solvent yield and lactose utilization rate. Thus, conditions which minimize the lactose utilization rate such as low culture pH values or high initial lactose concentrations, favor solventogenesis at the expense of acid production. 12 references.

  19. Unsaturated fatty acids lactose esters: cytotoxicity, permeability enhancement and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Lucarini, Simone; Fagioli, Laura; Campana, Raffaella; Cole, Hannah; Duranti, Andrea; Baffone, Wally; Vllasaliu, Driton; Casettari, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Sugar based surfactants conjugated with fatty acid chains are an emerging broad group of highly biocompatible and biodegradable compounds with established and potential future applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. In this work, we investigated absorption enhancing and antimicrobial properties of disaccharide lactose, monoesterified with unsaturated fatty acids through an enzymatic synthetic approach. After chemical and cytotoxicity characterizations, their permeability enhancing activity was demonstrated using intestinal Caco-2 monolayers through transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability studies. The synthesized compounds, namely lactose palmitoleate (URB1076) and lactose nervonate (URB1077), were shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity versus eight pathogenic species belonging to Gram-positive, Gram-negative microorganisms and fungi.

  20. Midodrine prevents orthostatic intolerance associated with simulated spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsdell, C. D.; Mullen, T. J.; Sundby, G. H.; Rostoft, S.; Sheynberg, N.; Aljuri, N.; Maa, M.; Mukkamala, R.; Sherman, D.; Toska, K.; Yelle, J.; Bloomfield, D.; Williams, G. H.; Cohen, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Many astronauts after being weightless in space become hypotensive and presyncopal when they assume an upright position. This phenomenon, known as orthostatic intolerance, may interfere with astronaut function during reentry and after spaceflight and may limit the ability of an astronaut to exit a landed spacecraft unaided during an emergency. Orthostatic intolerance is more pronounced after long-term spaceflight and is a major concern with respect to the extended flights expected aboard the International Space Station and for interplanetary exploration class missions, such as a human mission to Mars. Fully effective countermeasures to this problem have not yet been developed. To test the hypothesis that alpha-adrenergic stimulation might provide an effective countermeasure, we conducted a 16-day head-down-tilt bed-rest study (an analog of weightlessness) using normal human volunteers and administered the alpha(1)-agonist drug midodrine at the end of the bed-rest period. Midodrine was found to significantly ameliorate excessive decreases in blood pressure and presyncope during a provocative tilt test. We conclude that midodrine may be an effective countermeasure for the prevention of orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight.

  1. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, “ambiguity aversion” and “ambiguity intolerance,” are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, “ambiguity aversion” represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, “ambiguity intolerance” describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended. PMID:25698984

  2. Drug effects on orthostatic intolerance induced by bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Van Loon, G.; Keil, L. C.

    1991-01-01

    Effective and practical preventive procedures for postflight orthostatic intolerance are highly desirable. The current practice of attempts to expand plasma volume by ingestion of salt and fluids before reentry has proven benefits. This study evaluated alternative options using fludrocortisone (F) to expand plasma volume (PV), dextroamphetamine (Dex) to enhance norepinephrine (NE) release, and atropine (A) to reduce the effects of vagal stimulation. Seven subjects with proven post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance returned for a 7-day 6-deg head-down bedrest study. F (0.2 mg) was given at 8:00 AM and 8:00 PM the day before and 8:00 AM the day the subjects got out of bed (2 hours before standing). PV was measured before and 1 hour after the last dose of F. Dex (5 mg) and A (0.8 mg) were then taken orally 1 hour before the stand test. F expanded PV by 16 percent and caused sodium retention. Four of the 7 subjects stood for 1 hour post-bedrest and heart rate, plasma NE and plasma renin responses to standing were greatly enhanced and sustained. Although there was a narrowing of pulse pressure, the ability to overcome orthostatic intolerance with these countermeasures was largely due to vasoconstriction and sustained high heart rate.

  3. Orthostatic intolerance and motion sickness after parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, T. T.; Brown, T. E.; Wood, S. J.; Benavides, E. W.; Bondar, R. L.; Stein, F.; Moradshahi, P.; Harm, D. L.; Fritsch-Yelle, J. M.; Low, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    Because it is not clear that the induction of orthostatic intolerance in returning astronauts always requires prolonged exposure to microgravity, we investigated orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular function in 16 healthy subjects before and after the brief micro- and hypergravity of parabolic flight. Concomitantly, we investigated the effect of parabolic flight-induced vomiting on orthostatic tolerance, R-wave-R-wave interval and arterial pressure power spectra, and carotid-cardiac baroreflex and Valsalva responses. After parabolic flight 1) 8 of 16 subjects could not tolerate 30 min of upright tilt (compared to 2 of 16 before flight); 2) 6 of 16 subjects vomited; 3) new intolerance to upright tilt was associated with exaggerated falls in total peripheral resistance, whereas vomiting was associated with increased R-wave-R-wave interval variability and carotid-cardiac baroreflex responsiveness; and 4) the proximate mode of new orthostatic failure differed in subjects who did and did not vomit, with vomiters experiencing comparatively isolated upright hypocapnia and cerebral vasoconstriction and nonvomiters experiencing signs and symptoms reminiscent of the clinical postural tachycardia syndrome. Results suggest, first, that syndromes of orthostatic intolerance resembling those developing after space flight can develop after a brief (i.e., 2-h) parabolic flight and, second, that recent vomiting can influence the results of tests of autonomic cardiovascular function commonly utilized in returning astronauts.

  4. HIV-related social intolerance and risky sexual behavior in a high HIV prevalence environment.

    PubMed

    Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda; Sood, Neeraj

    2014-06-01

    Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV.

  5. The influence of crystallization conditions on the morphology of lactose intended for use as a carrier for dry powder aerosols.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X M; Martin, G P; Marriott, C; Pritchard, J

    2000-06-01

    Lactose has been widely used as a carrier for inhalation aerosols. The carrier morphology is believed to affect the delivery of the drug. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of crystallization conditions on the morphology of alpha-lactose monohydrate intended for use as the carrier for dry powder aerosols. The crystallization of lactose was carried out from aqueous solutions at different supersaturations, temperatures, different stages of crystallization and in the presence of different water-miscible organic solvents. The majority of lactose crystals were found to be either tomahawk-shaped or pyramidal after crystallization at an initial lactose concentration between 33-43% w/w, but these became prismatic if the lactose concentration was increased to 50% w/w. A further increase in the lactose concentration to 60% w/w led to the preparation of elongated cuboidal crystals. Higher initial lactose concentrations tended to result in the crystallization of more elongated particles. Crystallization at 40 degrees C was shown to prepare lactose crystals with a more regular shape and a smoother surface than those crystallized at 0 degrees C. Lactose particles generated during the later stage of crystallization were found to be more regular in shape with a smoother surface than those prepared in the earlier stage. The addition of 10% (v/v) methanol or ethanol or acetone to the mother liquor increased the growth rate of lactose particles whereas addition of propanol or glycerine inhibited the rate of crystal growth. Lactose crystals prepared in the presence of glycerine were more regularly shaped with a smoother surface than those prepared in the presence of ethanol or acetone. All the resultant crystals were shown to comprise alpha-lactose monohydrate. Lactose crystals could be prepared with a precisely defined morphology by means of carefully controlling the crystallization conditions.

  6. Plasmid-Determined Ability of a Salmonella tennessee Strain to Ferment Lactose and Sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E. M.; Wohlhieter, J. A.; Placek, Bruce P.; Sleet, R. B.; Baron, L. S.

    1976-01-01

    The ability of a Salmonella tennessee strain to ferment both lactose and sucrose was attributed to a conjugally transmissible plasmid, deoxyribonucleic acid molecular weight 164 × 106, bearing the genetic determinants of both fermentation characters. PMID:1107317

  7. [Studies on new co-processed excipient consisting of lactose and gelatinized starch].

    PubMed

    Wang, Song-tao; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Co-processed excipients withgelatinized or non-gelatinized starch were prepared by spray drying. Powder and tablet properties of corocessed excipients prepared were compared with those of physical mixtures and spray-dried lactose. Their applicability in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) powder tableting was tested on two TCM extracts, i.e., the gardenia extract and the Herba Sedi extract. It was shown that gelatinizing starch before co-spray drying with lactose could improve the performance and efficiency of starch as a binder, resulting in remarkable improvement in physicomechanical properties of co-processed excipients prepared. Conpared to self-made and commercially available spray-dried lactose, co-processed excipients achieved better compactability and higher drug loading for TCM extracts. In conclusion, the lactose-gelatinized starch co-processed excipient, with excellent physicomechanical properties, is promising to be explored as a new excipient for direct tableting.

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis between original and evolved recombinant lactose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro M R; Le Berre, Véronique; Sokol, Serguei; François, Jean; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2008-12-01

    The engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for lactose utilization has been attempted with the intent of developing high productivity processes for alcoholic fermentation of cheese whey. A recombinant S. cerevisiae flocculent strain that efficiently ferments lactose to ethanol was previously obtained by evolutionary engineering of an original recombinant that displayed poor lactose fermentation performance. We compared the transcriptomes of the original and the evolved recombinant strains growing in lactose, using cDNA microarrays. Microarray data revealed 173 genes whose expression levels differed more than 1.5-fold. About half of these genes were related to RNA-mediated transposition. We also found genes involved in DNA repair and recombination mechanisms, response to stress, chromatin remodeling, cell cycle control, mitosis regulation, glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation. These transcriptomic data are in agreement with some of the previously identified physiological and molecular differences between the recombinants, and point to further hypotheses to explain those differences.

  9. Solubility and selective crystallization of lactose from solutions of its hydrolysis products glucose and galactose

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, J.R.; Hegglin, M.; Prenosil, J.E.

    1983-06-01

    A high degree of conversion is desired when lactose is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. This produces, however, a high concentration of galactose, which is inhibitory for the enzyme catalyst (beta-galactosidase). The inhibition can be reduced by limiting the conversion per pass over the enzyme (e.g. to ca. 50%), separating unconverted lactose from the reactor effluent, and recycling it to the reactor inlet. (This allows the overall conversion to be raised to ca. 80-90%). The solubilities of lactose, glucose, and galactose have been determined at various temperatures and for sugar mixtures having different concentrations and degrees of hydrolysis. Various cooling crystallizations have defined convenient and simple processes for the selective separation of lactose from its hydrolysis products.

  10. Defined bacterial culture development for methane generation from lactose. [Streptococcus lactis; Clostridium formicoaceticum; Methanococcus mazei

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Tang, I.C.; Okos, M.R.

    1988-06-20

    The defined microbial cultures for methane generation from lactose were investigated. A mixed culture consisting of homolactic (Streptococcus lactis), homoacetic (Clostridium formicoaceticum), and acetate-utilizing methanogenic (Methanococcus mazei) bacteria was used to convert lactose and whey permeate to methane at mesophilic temperatures (35-37/sup 0/C) and a pH around 7.0. Lactose was first converted to lactic acid by S. lactis, then to acetic acid by C. formicoaceticum, and finally to methane and CO/sub 2/ by M. mazei. About 5.3 mol methane were obtained from each mole of lactose consumed, and the conversion of acetate to methane was the rate-limiting step for this mixed-culture fermentation.

  11. At-line measurement of lactose in dairy-processing plants.

    PubMed

    Glithero, Nick; Clark, Claire; Gorton, Lo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Pasco, Neil

    2013-04-01

    Environmental and process control applications have needs for sensors that operate continuously or repeatedly, making them applicable to batch measurement and flowing product stream measurement. Additionally, for lactose monitoring in dairy-processing plants, the sensors must have sufficient flexibility to handle a wide range of substrate concentration and be resilient to withstand wide pH excursions brought about by frequent exposure to clean-in-place chemicals that happen without any warning. This paper describes the development and trialling of an at-line lactose biosensor that meets the needs of the dairy industry for loss monitoring of lactose in dairy-processing plants by the combination of a third-generation enzyme biosensor with a sequential injection analyser. Results, both from grab sample analysis and an at-line factory prototype, are shown from their operation when installed at a Fonterra dairy factory (New Zealand) during the 2011-2012 season. Previous sensor fabrication methods were converted to a single-step process, and the flow-through cell was adapted to bubble-free operation. The lactose concentration in wastewater-processing streams was successfully monitored by taking and analysing samples every 2-3 min, semi-continuously, for 3 months by an unskilled operator. The Fonterra site flushes approximately 100-300,000 L of wastewater per hour from its lactose plant. In the 2011-2012 season, the daily mean lactose content of this wastewater varied significantly, from 0.0 to 8.0% w/v (0-233,712 μM) and equated to substantial total losses of lactose over a 6-month period. These lactose losses represent lost saleable or useable product.

  12. Sugar reduction of skim chocolate milk and viability of alternative sweetening through lactose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Qiu, Y; Drake, M A

    2015-03-01

    Milk consumption by Americans has not met the standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Chocolate milk can improve milk consumption, especially by children, due to its color and taste. However, the high sugar content of chocolate milk is a cause for concern about its healthfulness, resulting in its removal from some school lunch programs. It is important to reduce the sugar content of chocolate milk and still maintain acceptability among consumers. It is also important to investigate other natural alternatives to sweetening. The objectives of this study were to identify the different sweetness intensity perceptions of sucrose in water and various dairy matrices, to identify the acceptable reduction in sweet taste for chocolate milk for both young adults (19-35 yr) and children (5-13 yr), and to determine if lactose hydrolysis is a viable alternative. Threshold and power function studies were used to determine the benchmark concentration of sucrose in chocolate milk. The acceptability of sugar reduction from the benchmark concentration for both young adults and children and the acceptability of lactose hydrolyzed chocolate milk (4°C for 24 h) with added lactose for young adults were evaluated. Acceptability results demonstrated that sugar reduction in chocolate milk is possible for both young adults and children as long as it does not exceed a 30% reduction (from 205 mM). Lactose hydrolysis of added lactose was used to achieve the sweetness of sucrose in chocolate milk but required >7.5% (wt/vol) added lactose, which contributed undesirable calories, indicating that lactose hydrolysis may be more suitable for other dairy beverages that require less added sugar. The findings of this study demonstrate consumer acceptance of reduced-sugar chocolate milk and a possible way to use lactose hydrolysis in dairy beverages.

  13. Bistability of the naturally induced lactose utilization system of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajic, Jelena; Wall, Michael

    2006-03-01

    In the absence of the preferred sugar glucose, lactose utilization machinery in the bacterium E. coli is activated. The genetic circuit responsible for this response, lac operon, has been observed to exhibit bistability when induced by an artificial inducer, TMG. Here we investigate conditions under which bistability might be observed in response to lactose. The aim of our study is to establish whether the natural system exhibits bistability, as is often assumed despite the lack of experimental support.

  14. Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

    1985-04-01

    A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.

  15. Effect of age and lactose on sup 67 Cu utilization in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Link, J.; Dowdy, R.; Michelmann, E.; Hill, G.; Zinn, K.; Trrokey, D.; Ellersieck, M. )

    1991-03-15

    Young and old male Fischer 344 rats were fed a control diet or a lactose diet. After four weeks rats were gavaged with approximately 6.24 uCl {sup 67}Cu, placed in metabolism cages, and fed their respective diets for an additional two weeks. Daily whole body, urine and fecal radioactivity measurements were made. Rats were killed on day 42 and livers removed for radioactivity determination. Diet had no effect on whole body retention of {sup 67}Cu in the old rats; approximately 20% of the initial dose was retained by the end of the study. In the young rats, however, lactose appeared to enhance initial {sup 67}Cu retention; by day three young control rats retained only 30% of the initial dose, while the young lactose rats retained about 50%. Retention of {sup 67}Cu at the end of the study was approximately 15% and 20% for young control and young lactose rats, respectively. During the first four days post dosing, cumulative fecal {sup 67}Cu excretion was approximately 83% for young control rats and 69% for young lactose rats indicating enhancement of {sup 67}Cu absorption by lactose in the young rats. For old rats cumulative {sup 67}Cu excretion in feces was about 50% regardless of diet. Cumulative urinary {sup 67}Cu excretion was approximately 6% and 8% for young control and lactose rats, respectively vs about 11% for old rats. {sup 67}Cu retention in liver was greater in old rats regardless of diet. The early increase in {sup 67}Cu absorption after a bolus dose may have therapeutic implications. In light of current concern regarding Cu-carbohydrate interactions, the apparent enhancement Cu retention by lactose in young rats deserves further attention.

  16. Deadaption and readaptation with lactose, but no cross-adaptation to lactulose: a case of occult colonic bacterial adaptation.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Andrew; Cohen, Albert; Vinokuroff, Christina; Ahmad, Darakhshan; Nathwani, Usha; Yesovitch, Samara

    2004-11-01

    The standard 3 h breath hydrogen (3hBH2) test distinguishes lactose maldigesters from lactose digesters. However, multiple factors impact on BH2 and care is needed to exclude a priori variables. When these factors are controlled, a negative BH2 test implies lactase persistent status or lactase nonpersistent status with colonic adaptation. A case of a Sicilian man who tested negative (lactase persistent status confirmed) on an initial 50 g lactose challenge is described. It was observed that he consumed 28.1 g lactose/day before testing. He subsequently underwent five additional challenge tests in the course of the next 10 months. In four tests the dose intake of lactose was varied upon instruction, and in the fifth test a 30 g lactulose challenge was carried out. It was demonstrated that on radically decreasing lactose intake, a full lactase nonpersistent status was unmasked. Output of 3hBH2 varied inversely with daily lactose intake. Finally, at a time when he was readapted to lactose, there was no discernible adaptation to lactulose challenge. It was concluded that 'occult' colonically adapted subjects may contribute to negative BH2 tests. There is a relationship between variation in lactose intake and the results of BH2 testing. Finally, there was no cross-adaptation to lactulose challenge when lactose was used as the adapting sugar.

  17. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity.

    PubMed

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-07-08

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%-75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  18. Competitive interactions between glucose and lactose with BSA: which sugar is better for children?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiulan; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2016-04-07

    The interactions of the sugars glucose and lactose with the transport protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated using fluorescence, FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. The results indicated that glucose could be bonded and transported by BSA, mainly involving hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions (ΔH = -86.13 kJ mol(-1)). The obtained fluorescence data from the binding of sugar and BSA were processed by the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method, and the extracted concentration profiles showed that the equilibrium constant, rglucose:BSA, was about 7. However, the binding of lactose to BSA did not quench the fluorescence significantly, and this indicated that lactose could not be directly transported by BSA. The binding experiments were further performed using the fluorescence titration method in the presence of calcium and BSA. Calcium was added so that the calcium/BSA reactions could be studied in the presence or absence of glucose, lactose or hydrolysis products. The results showed that hydrolyzed lactose seemed to enhance calcium absorption in bovine animals. It would also appear that for children, lactose provides better nutrition; however, glucose is better for adults.

  19. Quantifying the release of lactose from polymer matrix tablets with an amperometric biosensor utilizing cellobiose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Knöös, Patrik; Schulz, Christopher; Piculell, Lennart; Ludwig, Roland; Gorton, Lo; Wahlgren, Marie

    2014-07-01

    The release of lactose (hydrophilic) from polymer tablets made with hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMPAA) have been studied and compared to the release of ibuprofen, a hydrophobic active substance. Lactose is one of the most used excipients for tablets, but lactose release has not been widely studied. One reason could be a lack of good analytical tools. A novel biosensor with cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) was used to detect the lactose release, which has a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) layer that increases the response. A sample treatment using polyethylenimine (PEI) was developed to eliminate possible denaturants. The developed methodology provided a good approach to detect and quantify the released lactose. The release was studied with or without the presence of a model amphiphilic substance, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), in the release medium. Ibuprofen showed very different release rates in the different media, which was attributed to hydrophobic interactions between the drug, the HMPAA and the SDS in the release medium. The release of hydrophilic lactose, which did not associate to any of the other components, was rapid and showed only minor differences. The new methodology provides a useful tool to further evaluate tablet formulations by a relatively simple set of experiments.

  20. Lactose Hydrolysis in Milk and Dairy Whey Using Microbial β-Galactosidases

    PubMed Central

    Dutra Rosolen, Michele; Gennari, Adriano; Volpato, Giandra; Volken de Souza, Claucia Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the influence of enzyme concentration, temperature, and reaction time in the lactose hydrolysis process in milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate, using two commercial β-galactosidases of microbial origins. We used Aspergillus oryzae (at temperatures of 10 and 55°C) and Kluyveromyces lactis (at temperatures of 10 and 37°C) β-galactosidases, both in 3, 6, and 9 U/mL concentrations. In the temperature of 10°C, the K. lactis β-galactosidase enzyme is more efficient in the milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate lactose hydrolysis when compared to A. oryzae. However, in the enzyme reaction time and concentration conditions evaluated, 100% lactose hydrolysis was not reached using the K. lactis β-galactosidase. The total lactose hydrolysis in whey and permeate was obtained with the A. oryzae enzyme, when using its optimum temperature (55°C), at the end of a 12 h reaction, regardless of the enzyme concentration used. For the lactose present in milk, this result occurred in the concentrations of 6 and 9 U/mL, with the same time and temperature conditions. The studied parameters in the lactose enzymatic hydrolysis are critical for enabling the application of β-galactosidases in the food industry. PMID:26587283

  1. Lactose Hydrolysis in Milk and Dairy Whey Using Microbial β-Galactosidases.

    PubMed

    Dutra Rosolen, Michele; Gennari, Adriano; Volpato, Giandra; Volken de Souza, Claucia Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the influence of enzyme concentration, temperature, and reaction time in the lactose hydrolysis process in milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate, using two commercial β-galactosidases of microbial origins. We used Aspergillus oryzae (at temperatures of 10 and 55°C) and Kluyveromyces lactis (at temperatures of 10 and 37°C) β-galactosidases, both in 3, 6, and 9 U/mL concentrations. In the temperature of 10°C, the K. lactis β-galactosidase enzyme is more efficient in the milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate lactose hydrolysis when compared to A. oryzae. However, in the enzyme reaction time and concentration conditions evaluated, 100% lactose hydrolysis was not reached using the K. lactis β-galactosidase. The total lactose hydrolysis in whey and permeate was obtained with the A. oryzae enzyme, when using its optimum temperature (55°C), at the end of a 12 h reaction, regardless of the enzyme concentration used. For the lactose present in milk, this result occurred in the concentrations of 6 and 9 U/mL, with the same time and temperature conditions. The studied parameters in the lactose enzymatic hydrolysis are critical for enabling the application of β-galactosidases in the food industry.

  2. Coarse-grained Simulations of Sugar Transport and Conformational Changes of Lactose Permease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Jewel, S. M. Yead; Dutta, Prashanta

    2016-11-01

    Escherichia coli lactose permease (LacY) actively transports lactose and other galactosides across cell membranes through lactose/H+ symport process. Lactose/H+ symport is a highly complex process that involves sugar translocation, H+ transfer, as well as large-scale protein conformational changes. The complete picture of lactose/H+ symport is largely unclear due to the complexity and multiscale nature of the process. In this work, we develop the force field for sugar molecules compatible with PACE, a hybrid and coarse-grained force field that couples the united-atom protein models with the coarse-grained MARTINI water/lipid. After validation, we implement the new force field to investigate the transport of a β-D-galactopyranosyl-1-thio- β-D-galactopyranoside (TDG) molecule across a wild-type LacY during lactose/H+ symport process. Results show that the local interactions between TDG and LacY at the binding pocket are consistent with the X-ray experiment. Protonation of Glu325 stabilizes the TDG and inward-facing conformation of LacY. Protonation of Glu269 induces a dramatic protein structural reorganization and causes the expulsion of TDG from LacY to both sides of the membrane. The structural changes occur primarily in the N-terminal domain of LacY. This work is supported by NSF Grants: CBET-1250107 and CBET -1604211.

  3. Selection of Galactose-Fermenting Streptococcus thermophilus in Lactose-Limited Chemostat Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Terence D.; Crow, Vaughan L.

    1984-01-01

    Stock cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus are essentially galactose negative (Gal−). Although both galactose 1-phosphate uridyl transferase and uridine-5-diphospho-glucose 4-epimerase are present, suggesting that the genes for the Leloir pathway exist, cells cannot induce high levels of galactokinase. Therefore, galactose is largely excreted when cultures are grown on lactose, and most strains cannot be readily adapted to grow on free galactose. Gal− cultures were grown in a chemostat under lactose limitation in which high concentrations of residual galactose were present. Under this selection pressure, Gal+ organisms eventually took over the culture with all four strains examined. Gal+ cells had induced galactokinase, and three of the four strains grew on free galactose with doubling times of 40 to 50 min. When Gal+ organisms were grown on lactose in batch culture, the galactose moiety was only partially utilized while lactose was still present. As lactose was exhausted, and catabolite repression was lifted, the Leloir pathway enzymes (especially galactokinase) were induced and the residual galactose fermented. Neither phospho-β-galactosidase activity nor the enzymes of the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway were detected in S. thermophilus. In contrast to Streptococcus cremoris and Streptococcus lactis, fermentation was homolactic with galactose in batch cultures and with lactose limitation in the chemostat. When mixed Gal+-Gal− cultures were repeatedly transferred in milk, the Gal− cells became the dominant cell type. The Gal− phenotype of stock cultures probably reflects their prolonged maintenance in milk. PMID:16346586

  4. The association between Internet addiction and belief of frustration intolerance: the gender difference.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Chung-Sheng; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance, the gender difference of frustration intolerance, and the gender differences of the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance. Participants were 2,114 students (1,204 male and 910 female) who were recruited to complete the Chen Internet Addiction Scale and Frustration Discomfort scale. Females had higher scores on the subscale of entitlement and emotional intolerance and the total scale of the frustration intolerance. There was a significant gender difference on the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance. The association was higher in male adolescents. Regression analysis revealed male adolescents with Internet addiction had higher intolerance to frustration of entitlement and emotional discomfort, and female adolescents with it had higher intolerance to emotional discomfort and lower tolerance to frustration of achievement. Frustration intolerance should be evaluated for adolescents with Internet addiction, especially for males. Rational emotive behavior therapy focusing on different irrational beliefs should be provided to male and female adolescents with Internet addiction.

  5. Multistability in the lactose utilization network of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbudak, Ertugrul M.; Thattai, Mukund; Lim, Han N.; Shraiman, Boris I.; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2004-02-01

    Multistability, the capacity to achieve multiple internal states in response to a single set of external inputs, is the defining characteristic of a switch. Biological switches are essential for the determination of cell fate in multicellular organisms, the regulation of cell-cycle oscillations during mitosis and the maintenance of epigenetic traits in microbes. The multistability of several natural and synthetic systems has been attributed to positive feedback loops in their regulatory networks. However, feedback alone does not guarantee multistability. The phase diagram of a multistable system, a concise description of internal states as key parameters are varied, reveals the conditions required to produce a functional switch. Here we present the phase diagram of the bistable lactose utilization network of Escherichia coli. We use this phase diagram, coupled with a mathematical model of the network, to quantitatively investigate processes such as sugar uptake and transcriptional regulation in vivo. We then show how the hysteretic response of the wild-type system can be converted to an ultrasensitive graded response. The phase diagram thus serves as a sensitive probe of molecular interactions and as a powerful tool for rational network design.

  6. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test

    PubMed Central

    Nepomuceno-Chamorro, Isabel; Pontes-Balanza, Beatriz; Hernández-Mendoza, Yoedusvany; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the results of applying data mining techniques to hydrogen breath test data. Disposal of H2 gas is of utmost relevance to maintain efficient microbial fermentation processes. Objectives Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production. Methods Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients. Results Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test. Conclusions Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms. PMID:28125620

  7. Applying the Implicit Association Test to Measure Intolerance of Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Oriana; Dentale, Francesco; Lauriola, Marco; Leone, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is a key trans-diagnostic personality construct strongly associated with anxiety symptoms. Traditionally, IU is measured through self-report measures that are prone to bias effects due to impression management concerns and introspective difficulties. Moreover, self-report scales are not able to intercept the automatic associations that are assumed to be main determinants of several spontaneous responses (e.g., emotional reactions). In order to overcome these limitations, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was applied to measure IU, with a particular focus on reliability and criterion validity issues. The IU-IAT and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory (IUI) were administered to an undergraduate student sample (54 females and 10 males) with a mean age of 23 years (SD = 1.7). Successively, participants were asked to provide an individually chosen uncertain event from their own lives that may occur in the future and were requested to identify a number of potential negative consequences of it. Participants' responses in terms of cognitive thoughts (i.e., cognitive appraisal) and worry reactions toward these events were assessed using the two subscales of the Worry and Intolerance of Uncertainty Beliefs Questionnaire. The IU-IAT showed an adequate level of internal consistency and a not significant correlation with the IUI. A path analysis model, accounting for 35% of event-related worry, revealed that IUI had a significant indirect effect on the dependent variable through event-related IU thoughts. By contrast, as expected, IU-IAT predicted event-related worry independently from IU thoughts. In accordance with dual models of social cognition, these findings suggest that IU can influence event-related worry through two different processing pathways (automatic vs. deliberative), supporting the criterion and construct validity of the IU-IAT. The potential role of the IU-IAT for clinical applications was discussed.

  8. Aspirin Intolerance: Experimental Models for Bed-to-Bench

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Masamichi

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin is the oldest non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and it sometimes causes asthma-like symptoms known as aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), which can be serious. Unwanted effects of aspirin (aspirin intolerance) are also observed in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, a type I allergy disease, and aspirin-induced urticaria (AIU). However the target and the mechanism of the aspirin intolerance are still unknown. There is no animal or cellular model of AERD, because its pathophysiological mechanism is still unknown, but it is thought that inhibition of cyclooxygenase by causative agents leads to an increase of free arachidonic acid, which is metabolized into cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) that provoke airway smooth muscle constriction and asthma symptoms. As the bed-to-bench approach, to confirm the clinical discussion in experimental cellular models, we have tried to develop a cellular model of AERD using activated RBL-2H3 cells, a rat mast cell like cell line. Indomethacin (another NSAID and also causes AERD), enhances in vitro cysLTs production by RBL-2H3 cells, while there is no induction of cysLTs production in the absence of inflammatory activation. Since this suggests that all inflammatory cells with activation of prostaglandin and cysLT metabolism should respond to NSAIDs, and then I have concluded that aspirin intolerance should be separated from subsequent bronchoconstriction. Evidence about the cellular mechanisms of NSAIDs may be employed for development of in vitro AERD models as the approach from bench-to-bed. PMID:27719658

  9. Perceived psychosocial stress and glucose intolerance among pregnant Hispanic women

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, M.L.; Whitcomb, B.W.; Pekow, P.; Braun, B.; Markenson, G.; Dole, N.; Manson, J.E.; Solomon, C.G.; Carbone, E.T.; Chasan-Taber, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Prior literature suggests a positive association between psychosocial stress and the risk of diabetes in non-pregnant populations, but studies during pregnancy are sparse. We evaluated the relationship between stress and glucose intolerance among 1115 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) prenatal care patients in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study in Western Massachusetts (2006–2011). Methods Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) was administered in early (mean = 12.3 weeks gestation; range 4.1–18 weeks) and mid-(mean = 21.3 weeks gestation; range 18.1–26 weeks) pregnancy. Participants were classified as having a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance, based on the degree of abnormality on glucose tolerance testing between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance was 4.1%, 7.2%, and 14.5%, respectively. Absolute levels of early or mid-pregnancy stress were not significantly associated with glucose intolerance. However, participants with an increase in stress from early to mid-pregnancy had a 2.6-fold increased odds of gestational diabetes mellitus (95% confidence intervals: 1.0–6.9) as compared to those with no change or a decrease in stress after adjusting for age and pre-pregnancy body mass index. In addition, every one-point increase in stress scores was associated with a 5.5 mg/dL increase in screening glucose level (β = 5.5; standard deviation = 2.8; P = 0.05), after adjusting for the same variables. Conclusion In this population of predominantly Puerto Rican women, stress patterns during pregnancy may influence the risk of glucose intolerance. PMID:24948416

  10. Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

  11. Mutation analysis in Turkish patients with hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Dursun, A; Kalkanoğlu, H S; Coşkun, T; Tokatli, A; Bittner, R; Koçak, N; Yüce, A; Ozalp, I; Boehme, H J

    2001-10-01

    Thirteen Turkish patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) were screened for the three common mutations, A149P, A174D and N334K, in the aldolase B gene that have been detected frequently in European population. We found that nine of the patients carry the A149P mutation in both alleles, which corresponds to a frequency of about 55%. Single-strand conformation analysis of all coding exons of the gene was also performed to detect unknown mutations in four patients not carrying the three common mutations. No aberrant migration patterns were observed in these patients.

  12. Intolerance of uncertainty in emotional disorders: What uncertainties remain?

    PubMed

    Shihata, Sarah; McEvoy, Peter M; Mullan, Barbara Ann; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    The current paper presents a future research agenda for intolerance of uncertainty (IU), which is a transdiagnostic risk and maintaining factor for emotional disorders. In light of the accumulating interest and promising research on IU, it is timely to emphasize the theoretical and therapeutic significance of IU, as well as to highlight what remains unknown about IU across areas such as development, assessment, behavior, threat and risk, and relationships to cognitive vulnerability factors and emotional disorders. The present paper was designed to provide a synthesis of what is known and unknown about IU, and, in doing so, proposes broad and novel directions for future research to address the remaining uncertainties in the literature.

  13. Cooperative binding of lactose and the phosphorylated phosphocarrier protein HPr(Ser-P) to the lactose/H+ symport permease of Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed Central

    Ye, J J; Saier, M H

    1995-01-01

    Lactobacillus brevis accumulates lactose and nonmetabolizable lactose analogues via sugar/H+ symport, but addition of glucose to the extracellular medium results in rapid efflux of the free sugar from the cells due to the uncoupling of sugar transport from proton transport. By using vesicles of L. brevis cells, we recently showed that these regulatory/effects could be attributed to the metabolite-activated ATP-dependent protein kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of serine-46 in the phosphocarrier protein HPr [HPr(Ser-P)] of the phosphotransferase system and that a mutant form of HPr with the serine-46-->aspartate replacement ([S46D]HPr) is apparently locked in the seryl phosphorylated conformation. We here demonstrate that [S46D]HPr binds directly to inside-out membrane vesicles of L. brevis that contain the lactose permease. Sugar substrates of the permease markedly and specifically stimulate binding of [S46D]HPr to the membranes while certain transport inhibitors such as N-ethylmaleimide block binding. The pH dependency for binding follows that for transport. Wild-type HPr and the [S46A]HPr mutant protein did not appreciably compete with [S46D]HPr for binding to the permease. These results provide evidence for the direct interaction of HPr(Ser-P) with an allosteric site on the lactose/proton symporter of L. brevis for the purpose of regulating sugar accumulation in response to the metabolic needs of the cell. PMID:7831302

  14. Complex dielectric properties of microcrystalline cellulose, anhydrous lactose, and α-lactose monohydrate powders using a microwave-based open-reflection resonator sensor.

    PubMed

    Sung, Pei-Fang; Hsieh, Yi-Ling; Angonese, Kristen; Dunn, Don; King, Ray J; Machbitz, Rachel; Christianson, Andrew; Chappell, William J; Taylor, Lynne S; Harris, Michael T

    2011-07-01

    The real (ε') and imaginary (ε″) components of the complex permittivity of anhydrous lactose and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under different bulk densities, moisture contents (MCs), and times of hydration (for anhydrous lactose) were measured nondestructively using a microwave resonator sensor operating in the range of 700-800 MHz. Measurements of sensor resonant frequency and conductance allow, through calibration, determination of the complex dielectric properties ε' (relative permittivity) and ε″ (relative dielectric loss) of the test material. Characteristic graphs of ε″ versus ε' - 1 curve for each powder were generated as a function of bulk density and MC. Such data can be used to develop empirical models for the simultaneous in situ measurement of the bulk density and MC of the powders. Unlike MCC, anhydrous lactose is converted to its hydrate form in the presence of moisture, which causes a reduction in the amount of physisorbed and "free" water and a subsequent change in the dielectric properties. For powders such as anhydrous lactose that can form a crystal hydrate in the presence of moisture, a combination of techniques such as vibrational spectroscopy together with microwave resonator measurements are appropriate to characterize, in situ, the physical and chemical properties of the powder.

  15. Evaluation of granulated lactose as a carrier for DPI formulations 1: effect of granule size.

    PubMed

    Du, Ping; Du, Ju; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of large granulated lactose carrier particle systems on aerosol performance of dry powder inhaler formulations. Granulated lactose carriers with average sizes ranging from 200 to 1,000 μm were prepared and subsequently fractionated into separate narrow size powders. The fractionated granulated lactose (GL) samples were characterized in terms of size, specific surface area, surface roughness, morphology, density, flowability, and solid-state. The in vitro aerosolization performance was performed on the different size fractions of GL samples from a commercial inhaler device (Aerolizer®) with a model formulation (2% w/w salbutamol sulfate). The cascade impaction parameters employed were 60 or 90 L/min with standard (aperture size, 0.6 mm) or modified piercing holes (aperture size, 1.2 mm) of the inhaler loaded capsules. It was shown that the largest size fraction formulation (850-1000 μm) had a slight improvement in the fine particle fraction (FPF) compared to immediately preceding size fractions, explained by a smaller adhesive force between drug and carrier. Compared to commercial piercing holes, enlarged piercing holes generated a slight decreasing trend of FPF as the lactose powder sizes increased from 200-250 μm to 600-850 μm, perhaps due to the reduced detachment force by flow forces. The size, surface roughness, density, and flowability of lactose carrier as well as device design all contributed to the aerosol dispersion performance of granulated lactose-based adhesive mixtures. It was concluded that poorer or enhanced redispersion performance is not an inherent property to the significantly large size of granulated lactose carriers as previously contended.

  16. Intolerance of sexy peers: intrasexual competition among women.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Sharma, Aanchal

    2011-01-01

    Intrasexual competition among males of different species, including humans, is well documented. Among females, far less is known. Recent nonexperimental studies suggest that women are intolerant of attractive females and use indirect aggression to derogate potential rivals. In Study 1, an experimental design was used to test the evolutionary-based hypothesis that women would be intolerant of sexy women and would censure those who seem to make sex too readily available. Results provide strong empirical support for intrasexual competition among women. Using independent raters, blind to condition, we found that almost all women were rated as reacting negatively ("bitchy") to an attractive female confederate when she was dressed in a sexually provocative manner. In contrast, when she was dressed conservatively, the same confederate was barely noticed by the participants. In Study 2, an experimental design was used to assess whether the sexy female confederate from Study 1 was viewed as a sexual rival by women. Results indicated that as hypothesized, women did not want to introduce her to their boyfriend, allow him to spend time alone with her, or be friends with her. Findings from both studies are discussed in terms of evolutionary theory.

  17. [Histamine intolerance - are the criteria of an adverse reaction met?].

    PubMed

    Reese, Imke

    2016-06-01

    Searching the internet for an explaination of recurring symptoms, many people come across the so-called histamine intolerance disorder. Also many practitioners like to diagnose this disorder without making sure that reproducibility, a prerequisite for an adverse reaction, is present. Consequently, presumably affected persons are often advised to follow a low-histamine diet. Depending on the source of information, these diets often avoid a huge variety of foods containing more or less histamine, which has a considerable impact on patient quality of life. While most persons benefit from such a diet in the beginning - this might be due to the change in dietary habits or the expectation of symptom improvement by dieting - in the long run the expected loss of symptoms will not happen. Underlying a diminished capacity for histamine degradation, the lack of partial or complete symptom improvement might be due to the fact that endogenous histamine release is responsible for reactions. The role of ingested histamine is discussed controversially. However, it is more than obvious that the histamine content of a certain food alone is not enough to predict its tolerance.If histamine intolerance is suspected, an individual diagnostic and therapeutic procedure is mandatory in order to minimize avoidance and to preserve a high quality of life. Ideally this is done in a close cooperation between allergologists and nutritionists/dieticians.

  18. Intergenerational transmission of prejudice, sex role stereotyping, and intolerance.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Megan; Fishbein, Harold D; Ritchey, P Neal

    2004-01-01

    The attitudes of 111 ninth and eleventh graders and both of their biological parents were independently assessed for prejudice against people with HIV/ AIDS, homosexuals, Blacks, and fat people, as well as for male and female sex role stereotyping. This study corrected for two shortcomings in previous research: neglecting to assess both parents and assessing only a single domain of prejudice. We addressed the intergenerational transmission of prejudice and stereotyping using three competing models: same-sex, parent equivalent, and differential effects. Using multiple regressions in which parents' scores were entered separately, along with control variables, different maternal and paternal influences were detected. Mothers were the primary influence for prejudice regarding HIV/AIDS, fatness, and race, and fathers were the primary influence for male and female stereotyping and prejudice against homosexuals, supporting the differential effects model. We also established that prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains reflected a more general proclivity to be intolerant. In contrast to prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains, fathers and mothers about equally shaped the adolescents' intolerance, supporting the parent equivalent model.

  19. Intolerance of uncertainty correlates with insula activation during affective ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Alan; Matthews, Scott C.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), or the increased affective response to situations with uncertain outcomes, is an important component process of anxiety disorders. Increased IU is observed in panic disorder (PD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and is thought to relate to dysfunctional behaviors and thought patterns in these disorders. Identifying what brain systems are associated with IU would contribute to a comprehensive model of anxiety processing, and increase our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. Here, we used a behavioral task, Wall of Faces (WOF), during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which probes both affect and ambiguity, to examine the neural circuitry of IU in fourteen (10 females) college age (18.8 yrs) subjects. All subjects completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), and a measure of neuroticism (i.e. the NEO-N). IUS scores but neither ASI nor NEO-N scores, correlated positively with activation in bilateral insula during affective ambiguity. Thus, the experience of IU during certain types of emotion processing may relate to the degree to which bilateral insula processes uncertainty. Previously observed insula hyperactivity in anxiety disorder individuals may therefore be directly linked to altered processes of uncertainty. PMID:18079060

  20. Intolerance of uncertainty correlates with insula activation during affective ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Alan; Matthews, Scott C; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

    2008-01-10

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), or the increased affective response to situations with uncertain outcomes, is an important component process of anxiety disorders. Increased IU is observed in panic disorder (PD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and is thought to relate to dysfunctional behaviors and thought patterns in these disorders. Identifying what brain systems are associated with IU would contribute to a comprehensive model of anxiety processing, and increase our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. Here, we used a behavioral task, Wall of Faces (WOFs), during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which probes both affect and ambiguity, to examine the neural circuitry of IU in 14 (10 females) college age (18.8 years) subjects. All subjects completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), and a measure of neuroticism (i.e. the NEO-N). IUS scores but neither ASI nor NEO-N scores, correlated positively with activation in bilateral insula during affective ambiguity. Thus, the experience of IU during certain types of emotion processing may relate to the degree to which bilateral insula processes uncertainty. Previously observed insula hyperactivity in anxiety disorder individuals may therefore be directly linked to altered processes of uncertainty.

  1. Prosthesis intolerance in patients with transfemoral amputation: a videocapillaroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Claudio; Cassigoli, Silvia; Lova, Raffaele Molino; Roccuzzo, Aurelio; Miniati, Benedetta; Ceppatelli, Simone; Conti, Andrea A; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2004-06-01

    Videocapillaroscopy is a new technique allowing a noninvasive examination of the capillary framework of the skin by using a contact probe with magnifying lenses and a cold-light epiluminescence system. The aim of this article was to investigate, by videocapillaroscopy, the microcirculation of the skin of the stump in 70 consecutive patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to their tolerance (A) or intolerance (B) to a prosthesis with an Icelandic-Swedish-New York socket. Subgroup A included 48 patients, 17 diabetic and 31 nondiabetic, and subgroup B included 22 patients, 16 diabetic and 6 nondiabetic. In subgroup B, the caliber of capillary loops was significantly larger (mean +/-standard deviation, 23.6 +/-2.04 vs. 16.2 +/-1.96 microm; P < 0.001), neoangiogenesis was significantly more frequent (82%vs. 25%, P < 0.001), and the presence of microaneurysms (64%vs. 15%, P < 0.001) and microhemorrhages (36%vs. 4%, P < 0.001) was also more frequent. Surprisingly, some such diabetes-like microvascular changes were also found in the six nondiabetic patients of subgroup B. By using multiple logistic regression analysis, intolerance to the prosthesis was significantly related to microvascular changes (P = 0.001) but not to diabetes (P = 0.601), although diabetes was unequally distributed in the two subgroups.

  2. Differentiating intolerance of uncertainty from three related but distinct constructs.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Natalie O; Ivanova, Elena; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in uncertainty have been associated with heightened anxiety, stress and approach-oriented coping. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trait characteristic that arises from negative beliefs about uncertainty and its consequences. Researchers have established the central role of IU in the development of problematic worry and maladaptive coping, highlighting the importance of this construct to anxiety disorders. However, there is a need to improve our understanding of the phenomenology of IU. The goal of this paper was to present hypotheses regarding the similarities and differences between IU and three related constructs--intolerance of ambiguity, uncertainty orientation, and need for cognitive closure--and to call for future empirical studies to substantiate these hypotheses. To assist with achieving this goal, we conducted a systematic review of the literature, which also served to identify current gaps in knowledge. This paper differentiates these constructs by outlining each definition and general approaches to assessment, reviewing the existing empirical relations, and proposing theoretical similarities and distinctions. Findings may assist researchers in selecting the appropriate construct to address their research questions. Future research directions for the application of these constructs, particularly within the field of clinical and health psychology, are discussed.

  3. Kinetic approaches to lactose operon induction and bimodality.

    PubMed

    Michel, Denis

    2013-05-21

    The quasi-equilibrium approximation is acceptable when molecular interactions are fast enough compared to circuit dynamics, but is no longer allowed when cellular activities are governed by rare events. A typical example is the lactose operon (lac), one of the most famous paradigms of transcription regulation, for which several theories still coexist to describe its behaviors. The lac system is generally analyzed by using equilibrium constants, contradicting single-event hypotheses long suggested by Novick and Weiner (1957). Enzyme induction as an all-or-none phenomenon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 43, 553-566) and recently refined in the study of (Choi et al., 2008. A stochastic single-molecule event triggers phenotype switching of a bacterial cell. Science 322, 442-446). In the present report, a lac repressor (LacI)-mediated DNA immunoprecipitation experiment reveals that the natural LacI-lac DNA complex built in vivo is extremely tight and long-lived compared to the time scale of lac expression dynamics, which could functionally disconnect the abortive expression bursts and forbid using the standard modes of lac bistability. As alternatives, purely kinetic mechanisms are examined for their capacity to restrict induction through: (i) widely scattered derepression related to the arrival time variance of a predominantly backward asymmetric random walk and (ii) an induction threshold arising in a single window of derepression without recourse to nonlinear multimeric binding and Hill functions. Considering the complete disengagement of the lac repressor from the lac promoter as the probabilistic consequence of a transient stepwise mechanism, is sufficient to explain the sigmoidal lac responses as functions of time and of inducer concentration. This sigmoidal shape can be misleadingly interpreted as a phenomenon of equilibrium cooperativity classically used to explain bistability, but which has been reported to be weak in this system.

  4. Characterization of lactose utilization and β-galactosidase in Lactobacillus brevis KB290, the hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Yajima, Nobuhiro; Saito, Tadao

    2012-12-01

    Unlike dairy lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus brevis cannot ferment milk. We characterized the lactose utilization by L. brevis KB290. In a carbohydrate fermentation assay using API 50 CHL, we showed during 7 days L. brevis did not ferment lactose. L. brevis grew to the stationary phase in 2 weeks in MRS broth containing lactose as the carbon source. L. brevis slowly consumed the lactose in the medium. L. brevis hydrolyzed lactose and a lactose analog, o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPGal). This β-galactosidase activity for ONPGal was not repressed by glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose, or maltose showing the microorganism may not have carbon catabolite repression. We purified the L. brevis β-galactosidase using ammonium sulfate precipitation and several chromatographies. The enzyme's molecular weight is estimated at 72 and 37 kDa using SDS-PAGE analysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the larger protein was 90 % similar to the sequence of the putative β-galactosidase (YP_796339) and the smaller protein was identical to the sequence of the putative β-galactosidase (YP_796338) in L. brevis ATCC367. This suggests the enzyme is a heterodimeric β-galactosidase. The specific activity of the purified enzyme for lactose is 55 U/mg. We speculate inhibition of lactose transport delays the lactose utilization in L. brevis KB290.

  5. A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for efficient conversion of lactose in salted and unsalted cheese whey into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Tahoun, M K; el-Nemr, T M; Shata, O H

    2002-10-01

    For utilization of lactose in salted and unsalted cheese whey, intergeneric protoplast fusion between lactose nonfermenting, salt-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC4126 and lactose fermenting Kluyveromyces lactis CBS683 was carried out. The fusion process gave rise to new hybrid yeast strains that revealed higher significant DNA contents than parental strains. The recombinants showed growth on either lactose or sucrose. The ethanol yields by some recombinants were 5.55% from sweet whey and 4.66% from salted whey containing up to 6% sodium chloride compared to 4.15 and 2.86% for parental K. lactis CBS683, respectively.

  6. Fermentation of raffinose by lactose-fermenting strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and by sucrose-fermenting strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, G; Luke, R K; Richmond, M H

    1978-01-01

    Introduction of plasmids carrying the lacY gene (lactose permease gene) into Yersinia enterocolitica results in cells being able to ferment both lactose and raffinose. Transfer of such plasmids into Escherichia coli C600 (lacY) confers ability to ferment lactose but not raffinose. Derivatives of C600 that ferment both lactose and sucrose (Lac+ Scr+ strains) are able to ferment raffinose, but do not grow well on raffinose minimal medium. Fermentation of raffinose by Lac+ strains of Y. enterocolitica, and by Lac+ Scr+ strains of E. coli, is explained in terms of transport of raffinose via the lac permease and subsequent breakdown catalyzed by invertase. PMID:344338

  7. Relationships among Perceived Racial Stress, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Worry in a Black Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, LaTanya S.; West, Lindsey M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among chronic worry, perceived racial stress, and intolerance of uncertainty in a sample of adults who racially identify as Black. Intolerance of uncertainty has been associated with worry and generalized anxiety disorder in predominantly White samples. Given that racial stress is likely…

  8. Inspiratory Resistance as a Potential Treatment for Orthostatic Intolerance and Hemorrhagic Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Association REVIEW ARTICLE Inspiratory Resistance as a Potential Treatment for Orthostatic Intolerance and Hemorrhagic Shock Victor A. Convertino, William H...Cooke, and Keith G. Lurie CONVERTINO VA, COOKE WH, LURIE KG. Inspiratory resistance as a potential treatment for orthostatic intolerance and...central blood volume by forcing the thoracic muscles to develop increased negative pressure, thus drawing venous blood from extrathoracic cavi- ties

  9. A Comparison of the 27-Item and 12-Item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Yu, Lai Ngo Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The 27-item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) has become one of the most frequently used measures of Intolerance of Uncertainty. More recently, an abridged, 12-item version of the IUS has been developed. The current research used clinical (n = 50) and non-clinical (n = 56) samples to examine and compare the psychometric properties of both…

  10. Studies on Intolerance in American Life. Program in American History and Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Lincoln Filene Center for Citizenship and Public Affairs.

    The narrative selected for this unit on intolerance illustrates the perennial and universal methods for scapegoating. The general teaching objectives are to lead the students: 1) to feelings of tolerance toward individuals and groups who are different; 2) to investigate intolerance in terms of some of its causes: fear, deprivation, threatened…

  11. Promoting Good Campus Relations: Dealing with Hate Crimes and Intolerance. Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This guidance has been produced to help higher education institutions (HEIs) deal with hate crimes and intolerance. Aiming to replace the previous Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals' guidance on extremism and intolerance, this publication provides an overview of the ways in which HEIs can encourage tolerance and respect and ensure that…

  12. Discomfort Intolerance: Evaluation of a Potential Risk Factor for Anxiety Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Richey, J. Anthony; Cromer, Kiara R.; Buckner, Julia D.

    2007-01-01

    Discomfort intolerance, defined as an individual difference in the capacity to tolerate unpleasant bodily sensations, is a construct recently posited as a risk factor for panic and anxiety psychopathology. The present report used a biological challenge procedure to evaluate whether discomfort intolerance predicts fearful responding beyond the…

  13. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Index: Replication and Extension with an English Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, R. Nicholas; Gosselin, Patrick; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is related to anxiety, depression, worry, and anxiety sensitivity. Precedent IU measures were criticized for psychometric instability and redundancy; alternative measures include the novel 45-item measure (Intolerance of Uncertainty Index; IUI). The IUI was developed in French with 2 parts, assessing general…

  14. Synthesis and characterization of lactose-based homopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenjing

    The focus of this dissertation is the synthesis and characterization of lactose-based functional polymers. Currently 60% of lactose, a by-product from the cheese industry, is being utilized and the remaining fraction represents a serious disposal problem because of the high biological oxygen demand. Therefore, further development of utilization of lactose is an important issue both for industry and environment. Herein, the syntheses of lactose-based polymers such glycopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels are reported. A brief review of lactose formation, physical properties, and production is presented in Chapter 1. Syntheses and applications of lactose derivatives such as lactitol, lactulose, lactaime, lactosylurea, lactosylamine, lactone, and barbituric derivative are documented. Previous work in lactose-based polymers include: (1) hydrogels from cross linking of LPEP, borate complexation of lactose-containing polymer, and copolymerization of lactose monomer with crosslinkers; (2) lactose-based polyurethane rigid foams and adhesives; and (3) lactose-containing glycopolymers are also included. Chapter 2 documents the synthesis of acrylamidolactamine and the free radical copolymerization of this monomer with N-isopropylacrylamide in the presence of BisA to make hydrogels. Swelling behavior of the hydrogels at different temperatures as well as DSC study of these hydrogels are also carried out to characterize the swelling transition and the organization of water in the copolymer hydrogels. In Chapter 3, novel monomer syntheses of N-lactosyl- N'-(4-vinylbenzyl)urea or N '-lactosyl-N,N-methyl(4-vinylbenzyl)urea are described. Polymerization of these new urea monomers using a redox initiator gave water-soluble homopolymers with molecular weights in the range of 1.9 x 103 to 5.3 x 106. Synthesis and polymerization of lactose-O-(p-vinylbenzyl)hydroxime are documented in Chapter 4. The resulting polymers had high molecular weight (106) and narrow

  15. Stability of sugar solutions: a novel study of the epimerization kinetics of lactose in water.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Rim; Drake, Alex F; Elleman, Carole; Martin, Gary P; Warren, Frederick J; Perston, Benjamin B; Ellis, Peter R; Hassoun, Mireille A; Royall, Paul G

    2014-07-07

    This article reports on the stereochemical aspects of the chemical stability of lactose solutions stored between 25 and 60 °C. The lactose used for the preparation of the aqueous solutions was α-lactose monohydrate with an anomer purity of 96% α and 4% β based on the supplied certificate of analysis (using a GC analytical protocol), which was further confirmed here by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Aliquots of lactose solutions were collected at different time points after the solutions were prepared and freeze-dried to remove water and halt epimerization for subsequent analysis by NMR. Epimerization was also monitored by polarimetry and infrared spectroscopy using a specially adapted Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) method. Hydrolysis was analyzed by ion chromatography. The three different analytical approaches unambiguously showed that the epimerization of lactose in aqueous solution follows first order reversible kinetics between 25 to 60 °C. The overall rate constant was 4.4 × 10(-4) s(-1) ± 0.9 (± standard deviation (SD)) at 25 °C. The forward rate constant was 1.6 times greater than the reverse rate constant, leading to an equilibrium constant of 1.6 ± 0.1 (±SD) at 25 °C. The rate of epimerization for lactose increased with temperature and an Arrhenius plot yielded an activation energy of +52.3 kJ/mol supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism of lactose epimerization involves the formation of extremely short-lived intermediate structures. The main mechanism affecting lactose stability is epimerization, as no permanent hydrolysis or chemical degradation was observed. When preparing aqueous solutions of lactose, immediate storage in an ice bath at 0 °C will allow approximately 3 min (180 s) of analysis time before the anomeric ratio alters significantly (greater than 1%) from the solid state composition of the starting material. In contrast a controlled anomeric composition (~38% α and ~62% β) will

  16. Toward a definition of intolerance of uncertainty: a review of factor analytical studies of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Jane; Meares, Kevin; Wilkinson, Andrew; Freeston, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Since its emergence in the early 1990s, a narrow but concentrated body of research has developed examining the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in worry, and yet we still know little about its phenomenology. In an attempt to clarify our understanding of this construct, this paper traces the way in which our understanding and definition of IU have evolved throughout the literature. This paper also aims to further our understanding of IU by exploring the latent variables measures by the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; Freeston, Rheaume, Letarte, Dugas & Ladouceur, 1994). A review of the literature surrounding IU confirmed that the current definitions are categorical and lack specificity. A critical review of existing factor analytic studies was carried out in order to determine the underlying factors measured by the IUS. Systematic searches yielded 9 papers for review. Two factors with 12 consistent items emerged throughout the exploratory studies, and the stability of models containing these two factors was demonstrated in subsequent confirmatory studies. It is proposed that these factors represent (i) desire for predictability and an active engagement in seeking certainty, and (ii) paralysis of cognition and action in the face of uncertainty. It is suggested that these factors may represent approach and avoidance responses to uncertainty. Further research is required to confirm the construct validity of these factors and to determine the stability of this structure within clinical samples.

  17. Dispersibility of lactose fines as compared to API in dry powders for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Thalberg, Kyrre; Åslund, Simon; Skogevall, Marcus; Andersson, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    This work investigates the dispersion performance of fine lactose particles as function of processing time, and compares it to the API, using Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) as model API. The total load of fine particles is kept constant in the formulations while the proportions of API and lactose fines are varied. Fine particle assessment demonstrates that the lactose fines have higher dispersibility than the API. For standard formulations, processing time has a limited effect on the Fine Particle Fraction (FPF). For formulations containing magnesium stearate (MgSt), FPF of BDP is heavily influenced by processing time, with an initial increase, followed by a decrease at longer mixing times. An equation modeling the observed behavior is presented. Surprisingly, the dispersibility of the lactose fines present in the same formulation remains unaffected by mixing time. Magnesium analysis demonstrates that MgSt is transferred to the fine particles during the mixing process, thus lubrication both BDP and lactose fines, which leads to an increased FPF. Dry particle sizing of the formulations reveals a loss of fine particles at longer mixing times. Incorporation of fine particles into the carrier surfaces is believed to be behind this, and is hence a mechanism of importance as regards the dispersion performance of dry powders for inhalation.

  18. Drying and denaturation characteristics of whey protein isolate in the presence of lactose and trehalose.

    PubMed

    Haque, M Amdadul; Chen, Jie; Aldred, Peter; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-06-15

    The denaturation kinetics of whey protein isolate (WPI), in the presence and absence of lactose and trehalose, was quantified in a convective air-drying environment. Single droplets of WPI, WPI-lactose and WPI-trehalose were dried in conditioned air (2.5% RH, 0.5m/s air velocity) at two temperatures (65°C and 80°C) for 500s. The initial solid concentration of these solutions was 10% (w/v) in all the samples. Approximately 68% of WPI was denatured when it was dried in the absence of sugars. Addition of 20% trehalose prevented the irreversible denaturation of WPI at both temperatures. Thirty percent lactose was required to prevent denaturation of WPI at 65°C and the same amount of lactose protected only 70% of WPI from denaturation at 80°C. The secondary structures of WPI were found to be altered by the drying-induced stresses, even in the presence of 20% trehalose and 30% lactose.

  19. Lactose autoinduction with enzymatic glucose release: characterization of the cultivation system in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Sonja; Junne, Stefan; Ukkonen, Kaisa; Glazyrina, Julia; Glauche, Florian; Neubauer, Peter; Vasala, Antti

    2014-02-01

    The lactose autoinduction system for recombinant protein production was combined with enzymatic glucose release as a method to provide a constant feed of glucose instead of using glycerol as a carbon substrate. Bioreactor cultivation confirmed that the slow glucose feed does not prevent the induction by lactose. HPLC studies showed that with successful recombinant protein production only a very low amount of lactose was metabolized during glucose-limited fed-batch conditions by the Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)pLysS in well-aerated conditions, which are problematic for glycerol-based autoinduction systems. We propose that slow enzymatic glucose feed does not cause a full activation of the lactose operon. However recombinant PDI-A protein (A-domain of human disulfide isomerase) was steadily produced until the end of the cultivation. The results of the cultivations confirmed our earlier observations with shaken cultures showing that lactose autoinduction cultures based on enzymatic glucose feed have good scalability, and that this system can be applied also to bioreactor cultivations.

  20. Properties of Lactose Plasmid pLY101 in Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Kadota, Mariko

    1987-01-01

    A starter strain, Lactobacillus casei C257, was found to carry a lactose plasmid, pLY101. Restriction mapping showed that pLY101 DNA was 68.2 kilobases long. Since a non-lactose-utilizing variant of C257, MSK248, lost phospho-β-galactosidase (P-β-gal) activity and pLY101 DNA had a sequence(s) homologous to the streptococcal fragment including a P-β-gal gene, pLY101 is likely to encode a P-β-gal gene required for lactose metabolism in C257. MSK248 grew in galactose medium at a rate identical to that of C257 and retained phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system activity for lactose similar to that of C257. Therefore, the C257 chromosome appears to encode a complete set of genes for the lactose-phosphotransferase system and the predominant galactose metabolic pathway in C257. pLY101 DNA had a sequence homologous to a lactobacillus insertion sequence, ISL1, which mapped more than 12 kilobases from the sequence homologous to the streptococcal P-β-gal fragment. Images PMID:16347515

  1. Unusual Organization for Lactose and Galactose Gene Clusters in Lactobacillus helveticus

    PubMed Central

    Fortina, Maria Grazia; Ricci, Giovanni; Mora, Diego; Guglielmetti, Simone; Manachini, Pier Luigi

    2003-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the Lactobacillus helveticus lactose utilization genes were determined, and these genes were located and oriented relative to one another. The lacLM genes (encoding the β-galactosidase protein) were in a divergent orientation compared to lacR (regulatory gene) and lacS (lactose transporter). Downstream from lacM was an open reading frame (galE) encoding a UDP-galactose 4 epimerase, and the open reading frame had the same orientation as lacM. The lacR gene was separated from the downstream lacS gene by 2.0 kb of DNA containing several open reading frames that were derived from fragmentation of another permease gene (lacS′). Northern blot analysis revealed that lacL, lacM, and galE made up an operon that was transcribed in the presence of lactose from an upstream lacL promoter. The inducible genes lacL and lacM were regulated at the transcriptional level by the LacR repressor. In the presence of glucose and galactose galE was transcribed from its promoter, suggesting that the corresponding enzyme can be expressed constitutively. Lactose transport was inducible by addition of lactose to the growth medium. PMID:12788721

  2. [Effect of crystalline metastasis of lactose on hardness of compressed baby milk powder].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Mitsuho; Otsubo, Kazumitsu; Ohara, Mika; Omae, Rika; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the crystalline metastasis of lactose, which is a main component baby milk powder, and the hardness of baby milk powder compressed by humidification followed by drying. Because baby milk powder is manufactured using a spray dryer, lactose in compressed baby milk powder exists in an amorphous (solid dispersion) form. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that this amorphous lactose metastasized to β-form crystalline lactose, and thereafter metastasized to the α-form during the humidification-drying process. As a result of this crystalline metastasis, the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder increased, and then decreased. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed bridging structures between the particles increased and then decreased during the humidification-drying process. This showed that bridging structures between the particles produced by crystalline metastasis of lactose as a result of the humidification-drying process, which leads to an increase in the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder. These results show that the necessary degree of hardness of the porous compressed baby milk powder (necessary for packaging and transportation) resulted from the humidification-drying process.

  3. Integrative Food-Grade Expression System Based on the Lactose Regulon of Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Gosalbes, María José; Esteban, Carlos David; Galán, José Luis; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2000-01-01

    The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromosomal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300 and contained two DNA fragments corresponding to the 3′ end of lacG and the complete lacF gene. Four unique restriction sites were created, as well as a ribosome binding site that would allow the cloning and expression of new genes between these two fragments. Then, integration of the cloned genes into the lactose operon of L. casei could be achieved via homologous recombination in a process that involved two selection steps, which yielded highly stable food-grade mutants. This procedure has been successfully used for the expression of the E. coli gusA gene and the L. lactis ilvBN genes in L. casei. Following the same expression pattern as that for the lactose genes, β-glucuronidase activity and diacetyl production were repressed by glucose and induced by lactose. This integrative vector represents a useful tool for strain improvement in L. casei that could be applied to engineering fermentation processes or used for expression of genes for clinical and veterinary uses. PMID:11055930

  4. [Hydrolyzed lactose contained in the ultrafiltrate of milk or milk products in an enzymatic membrane reactor].

    PubMed

    Roger, L; Maubois, J L; Thapon, J L; Brule, G

    1978-01-01

    Milk and milk by-products with a low lactose content, very interesting from a nutritional and technological point of view, were obtained by the application of the enzymatic membrane reactor technique. A previous separation of the aqueous phase of milk or ultrafiltrate was necessary and realized by ultrafiltration. The enzyme, a commercial beta-galactosidase, was maintained in solution in the retentate part of the membrane reactor. The optimal conditions of the lactose hydrolysis in milk and whey ultrafiltrates were determined. The behaviour of the aqueous phase of milk in membrane reactor, specially of mineral salts, was studied. Three possibilities were proposed to avoid a calcium-phosphate deposit on the surface of (and in) the reactor membranes: a precipitation of calcium salts by heating, a partial demineralization by electrodialysis or ion exchange, a calcium complexation by addition of sodium citrate. A continuous process for the lactose hydrolysis of milk and demineralized whey or milk ultrafiltrate was proposed. The organoleptic quality of low lactose milk, before and after heat treatment, was evaluated by a tasting panel. High sweeting syrup, were obtained by concentration of lactose hydrolyzed and demineralized ultrafiltrates. Nutritional aspects of these products are discussed specially from the toxicological point of view of galactose.

  5. In silico evolved lac operons exhibit bistability for artificial inducers, but not for lactose.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, M J A; Hogeweg, P

    2006-10-15

    Bistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli has been widely studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, bistability has been observed when E. coli is induced by an artificial, nonmetabolizable, inducer. However, if the lac operon is induced with lactose, the natural inducer, bistability has not been demonstrated. We derive an analytical expression that can predict the occurrence of bistability both for artificial inducers and lactose. We find very different conditions for bistability in the two cases. Indeed, for artificial inducers bistability is predicted, but for lactose the condition for bistability is much more difficult to satisfy. Moreover, we demonstrate that in silico evolution of the lac operon generates an operon that avoids bistability with respect to lactose, but does exhibit bistability with respect to artificial inducers. The activity of this evolved operon strikingly resembles the experimentally observed activity of the operon. Thus our computational experiments suggest that the wild-type lac operon, which regulates lactose metabolism, is not a bistable switch. Nevertheless, for engineering purposes, this operon can be used as a bistable switch with artificial inducers.

  6. Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Farahnak, F.; Seki, T.; Ryu, D.D.Y.; Ogrydziak, D.

    1986-02-01

    The availability of a yeast strain which is capable of fermenting lactose and at the same time is tolerant to high concentrations of ethanol would be useful for the production of ethanol from lactose. Kluyveromyces fragilis is capable of fermenting lactose, but it is not as tolerant as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of ethanol. In this study, the authors have used the protoplast fusion technique to construct hybrids between auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae having high ethanol tolerance and an auxotrophic strain of lactose-fermenting K. fragilis isolated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The fusants obtained were prototrophic and capable of assimilating lactose and producing ethanol in excess of 13% (vol/vol). The complementation frequency of fusion was about 0.7%. Formation of fusants was confirmed by the increased amount of chromosomal DNA per cell. Fusants contained 8 x 10/sup -9/ to 16 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell as compared with about 4 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell for the parental strains, suggesting that multiple fusions had taken place.

  7. Modification of electrostatic charge on inhaled carrier lactose particles by addition of fine particles.

    PubMed

    Bennett, F S; Carter, P A; Rowley, G; Dandiker, Y

    1999-01-01

    Triboelectrification affects particle adhesion and agglomeration and hence the formulation, manufacture, and use of dry powder inhaler (DPI) devices. Electrostatic charge measurement of two component mixes of spray-dried or crystalline lactose fine particles (< 10 microns) 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30% w/w with spray-dried or crystalline lactose 63-90 microns, respectively, has been undertaken using a system incorporating pneumatic transport of the mixed powders to a stainless steel cyclone charging device. The magnitude of charge on the mixes was shown to decrease with increased fine particle content, and there was no significant difference in charge for each concentration between spray-dried and crystalline lactose. Both the variation of charge and powder adhesion to the cyclone surface increased with increase in fine particle content. The proportion of fine particles in carrier systems in DPIs may thus have an important role where triboelectrification is involved.

  8. Mild protein hydrolysation of lactose-free milk further reduces milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Anu; Kautiainen, Hanna; Tikkanen, Marja-Leena; Sibakov, Timo; Tossavainen, Olli; Myllyluoma, Eveliina

    2016-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with milk are common. Besides lactose, milk proteins may cause symptoms in sensitive individuals. We have developed a method for mild enzymatic hydrolysation of milk proteins and studied the effects of hydrolysed milk on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a self-diagnosed sensitive stomach. In a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, 97 subjects consumed protein-hydrolysed lactose-free milk or commercially available lactose-free milk for 10 d. Frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms during the study period was reported and a symptom score was calculated. Rumbling and flatulence decreased significantly in the hydrolysed milk group (P < 0·05). Also, the total symptom score was lower in subjects who consumed hydrolysed milk (P < 0·05). No difference between groups was seen in abdominal pain (P = 0·47) or bloating (P = 0·076). The results suggest that mild enzymatic protein hydrolysation may decrease gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a sensitive stomach.

  9. The application of immobilized biocatalyzers to intensify the ethanol fermentation of lactose.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, M; Bednarski, W; Adamczak, M; Narwojsz, D

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol fermentation of lactose mash by biocatalyzers immobilized in sodium alginate was studied in order to improve the process productivity and economy. The fermentation effectiveness of S.cerevisiae co-immobilized with a p-galactosidase and the directly lactose- fermenting immobilized yeast: K. fragilis and C. pseudotropicalis were compared The application of the immobilized K. fragilis produced desirable results and even after its 9th (18 days) fermentation, the immobilized yeast provided the stable high fermentation level (on average about 6 ralvol of ethano/) while maintaining its activity. Such lactose-mash fermentation was greater than in conventional method (by free cells). In addition, the application of s. cerevisiae co-immobilized with p-galactosidase produced somewhat greater ferm levels than the conventional method, however, the system stability deteriorated after 6 days of fermentation.

  10. An institutional outbreak of Salmonellosis due to lactose-fermenting Salmonella newport.

    PubMed

    Anand, C M; Finlayson, M C; Garson, J Z; Larson, M L

    1980-11-01

    An institutional outbreak of salmonellosis predominantly due to a lactose-fermenting Salmonella newport is described. Control of the outbreak was hampered by delay in the initial recognition of the aberrant strain. On primary culture, salmonellae were detected on bismuth sulfite agar only; colonies that formed on MacConkey agar and Salmonella-Shigella agar could not be differentiated from lactose-fermenting nonpathogenic organisms. The reactions in triple sugar iron were atypical for Salmonella. The lactose-fermenting property was plasmid-mediated and was readily transferable. Phage typing suggested chicken as a possible source of the strain. The need for awareness of the occurrence of such strains of Salmonella that may not be recognized by cultural procedures in common use, the necessity of the routine use of bismuth sulfite agar in procedures for isolation of salmonellae, and the use of lysine iron agar in conjunction with the triple sugar iron agar are emphasized.

  11. Polyvalent lactose-quantum dot conjugate for fluorescent labeling of live leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Yang, Yang; Han, Rongcheng; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Lijun; Hong, Yuankai; Li, Zhongjun; Sha, Yinlin

    2010-06-01

    Oligosaccharides play crucial roles in many biorecognition processes by the so-called "cluster glycosidic effect". We here report a facile synthesis of lactose-CdSeS/ZnS quantum dot conjugate (Lac-QDs) by use of 1-thiol-beta-D-lactose via ligand exchange, which exhibits significantly high affinity and specificity to leukocytes in contrast to the monovalent lactose. Structural analyses indicate that there are about 132 lactosyl molecules assembled on single QDs and the hydrodynamic diameter is small, close to 8.2 nm. Further, Lac-QDs display good fluorescence and physicochemical stability in physiological conditions, as well as extremely low cytotoxicity. These properties facilitate the use of Lac-QDs in fluorescent labeling of live leukocytes.

  12. Lactose and milk replacer influence on lead absorption and lead toxicity in calves

    SciTech Connect

    Zmudzki, J.; Bratton, G.R.; Womac, C.W.; Rowe, L.D. Jr.; Wagner, B.

    1986-03-01

    The absorption, tissue deposition, retention, and excretion of ingested lead is in large part due to associated dietary factors. Young suckling calves are extremely susceptible to low doses of lead, especially when maintained totally on milk. Unfortunately, the complexity of milk makes it difficult to determine which constituent is actually responsible for increased Pb absorption. Recent studies have shown that lactose, the major carbohydrate of milk, is a dietary factor that increases the absorption of several minerals including Pb in rats. The authors laboratory has recently demonstrated that milk greatly increased the tissue deposition of lead in calves. Lactose, however, has not been considered in the ruminant animal. Moreover, liquid milk seems to increase the absorption of lead more significantly than powdered milk. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of lactose and powdered milk on lead uptake and tissue distribution in calves.

  13. The glucose intolerance of acute pancreatitis: hormonal response to arginine.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S S; Duckworth, W C; Jallepalli, P; Bobal, M A; Iyer, R

    1980-01-01

    Patients with acute pancreatitis were studied by arginine infusion at 48--72 h. 7--10 days, and 18--21 days after onset of their illness. Plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon values were determined. Acute pancreatitis was characterized by fasting hyperglycemia and hyperglucagonemia, associated with relative hyoinsulinemia. Arginine stimulation early in the disease (48--72 h) demonstrated hyperglycemia and hyperglucagonemia, which normalized by 18--21 days. Both phases of the normal biphasic insulin response to arginine were decreased during the initial arginine infusion. By 18--21 days, although the first phase was completely normal, the second phase of insulin secretion remained depressed. Acute pancreatitis is associated with damage to both the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Glucose intolerance seen with this disease appears to be the result of hyperglucagonemia and relative hypoinsulinemia. Although the healing process at 3 wk is associated with return of plasma glucose and glucagon concentrations to normal, the impaired second phase insulin secretion persists.

  14. [Textile intolerance in atopic eczema--a controlled clinical study].

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Stäbler, A; Hornstein, O P

    1990-10-01

    In patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), we often find intolerance reactions against wool, whereas irritation by synthetic fibers is still a matter of discussion. In a randomized clinical study on 55 patients with AD and 31 healthy controls, we investigated the irritative capacity of poncho-like shirts made of 4 different materials (A: cotton; B, C, D: synthetics of different fiber structure). The intensity of itching or discomfort due to repeated wearing of these shirts was evaluated by means of a point system (max.comfort = 10 points, max. discomfort = 1 point). Our study clearly showed that the irritative capacity of synthetic shirts is significantly higher in patients with AD, while cotton shirts were best tolerated. We also observed significant difference regarding the surface structure and diameter of the synthetic fibers under investigation.

  15. Fruit-induced FPIES masquerading as hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Cotugno, Giovanna; Koch, Pierluigi; Dahdah, Lamia

    2014-08-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) symptoms develop at first introduction of fruit during weaning. We report on an infant with suspected HFI who presented with repeated episodes of vomiting and hypotension after ingestion of fruit-containing meals. The first episode occurred at age 4 months. Despite negative genetic testing for HFI, strict avoidance of fruit ingestion resulted in lack of recurrence of symptoms. Oral-fructose-tolerance testing conducted with an apple mousse did not determine hypoglycemia or fructosuria but caused severe hypotension. Allergy evaluations were negative, and the history was diagnostic for fruit-induced food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Because this non-immunoglobulin E-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity manifests as profuse, repetitive vomiting, often with diarrhea, leading to acute dehydration and lethargy, it may be misinterpreted as HFI. We advise pediatricians to consider food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the differential diagnosis when there is a suspicion of HFI.

  16. Mechanisms of Orthostatic Intolerance During Real and Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP1 includes short reports on: (1) Orthostatic Tests after 42 Days of Simulated Weightlessness; (2) Effects of 12 Days Exposure to Simulated Microgravity on Central Circulatory Hemodynamics in the Rhesus Monkey; (3) Increased Sensitivity and Resetting of Baroflex Control of Exercise Heart Rate After Prolonged Bed-Rest; (4) Complex Cardiovascular Dynamics and Deconditioning During Head-down Bed Rest; (5) The Cardiovascular Effects of 6 Hours of Head-down Tilt Upon Athletes and Non-athletes; (6) Individual Susceptibility to Post-spaceflight Orthostatic Intolerance: Contributions of Gender-related and Microgravity-related Factors; (7) Cassiopee Mission 1996: Comparison of Cardiovascular Alteration after Short and Long-term Spaceflights; (8) Cerebral and Femoral Flow Response to LBNP during 6 Month MIR Spaceflights (93-95); and (9) Cerebrovascular Changes due to Spaceflight and Postflight Presyncope.

  17. [Adults with hereditary fructose intolerance: risks of fructose infusion].

    PubMed

    Steegmanns, I; Rittmann, M; Bayerl, J R; Gitzelmann, R

    1990-04-06

    After her first grand mal seizure a 30-year-old woman was given a fructose infusion by an emergency doctor. On admission to hospital she complained of severe nausea. Ultrasonography revealed hepatosplenomegaly and the gamma-GT concentration was raised to 25 U/l. As hyperinsulinism was suspected an oral glucose tolerance test was suggested, but refused by the patient. She reported marked aversion to all sweet foods. Examination of an endoscopically obtained liver biopsy revealed clear reduction in fructoaldolase activity in liver tissue, i.e. the diagnosis of hereditary fructose intolerance. Three of the patient's siblings were also affected. The widespread use of infusion solutions containing sorbitol and fructose has twice proved acutely hazardous in this patient and is generally life-threatening for persons with an inborn error of metabolism whose pathologic status often remains undiagnosed to an adult age.

  18. Simple method for detection of mutations causing hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kullberg-Lindh, C; Hannoun, C; Lindh, M

    2002-11-01

    Aldolase B is critical for sugar metabolism, and a catalytic deficiency due to mutations in its gene may result in hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) syndrome, with hypoglycaemia and severe abdominal symptoms. This report describes two cases of HFI, which were identified by intravenous fructose tolerance test and a new RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) test that detects the two most common mutations, A149P and A174D. The method includes PCR of a 224-base-pair segment of exon 5, a subsequent 3 h incubation with Cac8I and agarose electrophoresis, which reveals either or both of the mutations in one single reaction. The method might be useful for screening of these mutations, which may account for more than 70% of the mutations causing HFI.

  19. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Coping Mechanisms in Nonclinical Young Subjects

    PubMed Central

    DORUK, Ali; DUGENCİ, Muharrem; ERSÖZ, Filiz; ÖZNUR, Taner

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to explore the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and coping mechanisms in a nonclinical sample with the same age and educational level. Methods The Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced (COPE) scale was used to evaluate the coping mechanisms. The IU scale was used to evaluate IU situations. Results We found that the negative impact of uncertainty on the action in female students was greater than males. While female students used more planning, instrumental support, reinterpretation, religion, emotional support, venting, and mental disengagement coping styles, male students used more humor, denial, and alcohol/drug abuse coping styles. Subjects with psychological problems had higher IU scores and used some more coping mechanisms (restraint, acceptance, behavioral disengagement, and alcohol/drug abuse) than the others. Conclusion Our results suggest that healthy subjects use different coping styles and respond differently to uncertainty in both genders.

  20. Focused beam reflectance measurement as a tool for in situ monitoring of the lactose crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Pandalaneni, K; Amamcharla, J K

    2016-07-01

    Lactose accounts for about 75 and 85% of the solids in whey and deproteinized whey, respectively. Production of lactose is usually carried out by a process called crystallization. Several factors including rate of cooling, presence of impurities, and mixing speed influence the crystal size characteristics. To optimize the lactose crystallization process parameters to maximize the lactose yield, it is important to monitor the crystallization process. However, efficient in situ tools to implement at concentrations relevant to the dairy industry are lacking. The objective of the present work was to use a focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) system for in situ monitoring of lactose crystallization at supersaturated concentrations (wt/wt) 50, 55, and 60% at 20 and 30°C. The FBRM data were compared with Brix readings collected using a refractometer during isothermal crystallization. Chord length distributions obtained from FBRM in the ranges of <50 µm (fine crystals) and 50 to 300 µm (coarse crystals) were recorded and evaluated in relation to the extent of crystallization and rate constants deduced from the refractometer measurements. Extent of crystallization and rate constants increased with increasing supersaturation concentration and temperature. The measured fine crystal counts from FBRM increased at higher supersaturated concentration and temperature during isothermal crystallization. On the other hand, coarse counts were observed to increase with decreasing supersaturated concentration and temperature. Square weighted chord length distribution obtained from FBRM showed that as concentration increased, a decrease in chord lengths occurred at 20°C and similar observations were made from microscopic images. The robustness of FBRM in understanding isothermal lactose crystallization at various concentrations and temperatures was successfully assessed in the study.

  1. Lactose Variability of Escherichia coli in Thermally Stressed Reactor Effluent Waters

    PubMed Central

    Kasweck, K. L.; Fliermans, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lactose-utilizing and nalidixic acid-resistant populations of Escherichia coli, having an optimum growth temperature of 37°C, were placed in modified diffusion chambers. The chambers were submerged in the epilimnion and hypolimnion of a 1,100-hectare lake (Par Pond) which receives cooling water from a nuclear production reactor. Control chambers were placed in a deep-water reservoir and a Flowing-Streams Laboratory, both of which had comparable temperatures to Par Pond. The populations of E. coli were sampled regularly for up to 3 weeks. Viability of the bacteria was determined by dilution plating to nutrient agar followed by replicate plating onto selective medium to determine lactose utilization and nalidixic acid sensitivity. Initial populations of E. coli were lactose positive but changed to lactose negative in Par Pond when the reactor was operating (i.e., cooling water from the heat exchangers was being discharged to the lake). This alteration occurred most rapidly in the chambers closest to the cooling-water discharge point. Such changes did not occur in a deep-water reservoir, in Par Pond when the reactor was not operating, or in the Flowing-Streams Laboratory. The nalidixic acid-resistant characteristic remained stable regardless of the chambers' placement or reactor operations. Although the reasons for such alterations are unclear, it appears that lactose-negative populations of E. coli are selected for in these reactor effluent waters. The loss of the lactose characteristic prevents the recognition and identification of E. coli in this cooling lake (when the reactor is operating) and may prevent the assessment of water quality based on coliform recognition. PMID:365111

  2. Identification of a dehydrogenase required for lactose metabolism in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Benjamin H; Ortiz, Janett D; Manzano, Janet; Chen, Joseph C

    2010-05-01

    Caulobacter crescentus, which thrives in freshwater environments with low nutrient levels, serves as a model system for studying bacterial cell cycle regulation and organelle development. We examined its ability to utilize lactose (i) to gain insight into the metabolic capacities of oligotrophic bacteria and (ii) to obtain an additional genetic tool for studying this model organism, aiming to eliminate the basal enzymatic activity that hydrolyzes the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside (X-gal). Using a previously isolated transposon mutant, we identified a gene, lacA, that is required for growth on lactose as the sole carbon source and for turning colonies blue in the presence of X-gal. LacA, which contains a glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase domain, has homology to the flavin subunit of Pectobacterium cypripedii's gluconate dehydrogenase. Sequence comparisons indicated that two genes near lacA, lacB and lacC, encode the other subunits of the membrane-bound dehydrogenase. In addition to lactose, all three lac genes are involved in the catabolism of three other beta-galactosides (lactulose, lactitol, and methyl-beta-d-galactoside) and two glucosides (salicin and trehalose). Dehydrogenase assays confirmed that the lac gene products oxidize lactose, salicin, and trehalose. This enzymatic activity is inducible, and increased lac expression in the presence of lactose and salicin likely contributes to the induction. Expression of lacA also depends on the presence of the lac genes, implying that the dehydrogenase participates in induction. The involvement of a dehydrogenase suggests that degradation of lactose and other sugars in C. crescentus may resemble a proposed pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  3. Neuroleptic intolerance in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Lejuste, Florian; Thomas, Laure; Picard, Géraldine; Desestret, Virginie; Ducray, François; Rogemond, Veronique; Psimaras, Dimitri; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Groc, Laurent; Leboyer, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To precisely describe the initial psychiatric presentation of patients with anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibodies encephalitis (anti-NMDAR encephalitis) to identify potential clues enhancing its early diagnosis. Methods: We retrospectively studied the French Reference Centre medical records of every adult patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis to specify the patients' initial psychiatric symptoms leading to hospitalization in a psychiatric department and the reasons underlying the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Results: The medical records of 111 adult patients were reviewed. Psychiatric features were the initial presentation in 65 patients (59%). Among them, several psychiatric manifestations were observed, including visual and auditory hallucinations (n = 26, 40%), depression (n = 15, 23%), mania (n = 5, 8%), acute schizoaffective episode (n = 15, 23%), and eating disorder or addiction (n = 4; 6%). Forty-five patients (40% of total cohort) were first hospitalized in a psychiatric institution (91% women), with a median duration of stay of 9 days (range 0.25–239 days). Among them, 24 patients (53%) had associated discreet neurologic signs at the first evaluation, while 17 additional patients (38%) developed neurologic signs within a few days. Twenty-one patients (47%) were transferred to a medical unit for a suspicion of antipsychotic intolerance characterized by high temperature, muscle rigidity, mutism or coma, and biological results suggesting rhabdomyolysis. Conclusions: Several psychiatric presentations were observed in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, although none was specific; however, patients, mostly women, also had discreet neurologic signs that should be carefully assessed as well as signs of antipsychotic intolerance that should raise suspicion for anti-NMDAR encephalitis. PMID:27606355

  4. Fat Distribution and Glucose Intolerance Among Greenland Inuit

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Stolk, Ronald; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A high amount of subcutaneous fat is suggested to explain the observation of lower obesity-associated metabolic risk among Inuit than among Europeans. We examined the association between measures of obesity (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], subcutaneous adipose tissue [SAT], BMI, waist circumference [WC], and percentage of body fat) and the indices of glucose metabolism (fasting and 2-h glucose levels, insulin resistance per homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR], and the insulin sensitivity index [ISI0,120]) among Greenland Inuit. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 3,108 adult Inuit participated in a population-based study. The examination included a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measurements. VAT and SAT were measured by ultrasound according to a validated protocol. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors was obtained by interview. RESULTS Mean SATs were 1.8 and 3.5 cm in men and women, respectively. Mean VATs were 7.0 and 6.3 cm in men and women, respectively. The total prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 9%. Percentage of body fat generally was most strongly associated with all outcomes. Both SAT and VAT were significantly associated with glucose intolerance, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, and ISI0,120. VAT was more strongly associated with all outcomes than was SAT. After further adjustment for BMI or WC, VAT was associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend toward a negative or no association with SAT. CONCLUSIONS High mean values of SAT may to a large extent explain the high WC in Inuit populations, and this is suggested to contribute to the lower observed metabolic risk for a given level of obesity. PMID:23656981

  5. Intolerance of Uncertainty: A Temporary Experimental Induction Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, Oriana; Lauriola, Marco; Carleton, R. Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trans-diagnostic construct involved in anxiety and related disorders. Research focused on cross-sectional reporting, manipulating attitudes toward objective and impersonal events or on treatments designed to reduce IU in clinical populations. The current paper presents an experimental procedure for laboratory manipulations of IU and tests mediation hypotheses following the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model. Methods On pre-test, undergraduate volunteers (Study 1, n = 43;68% women. Study 2, n = 169;83.8% women) were asked to provide an idiosyncratic future negative life event. State-IU, Worry, Positive and Negative Affect were assessed after that a standardized procedure was used to identify event’s potential negative consequences. The same variables were assessed on post-test, after that participants were asked to read-through increasing and decreasing IU statements. Results Temporary changes on IU were consistently reproduced in both studies. Participants receiving increasing IU instructions reported greater state-IU, Worry and Negative Affect than those receiving decreasing IU instructions. However, this latter condition was not different from a control one (Study 2). Both studies revealed significant indirect effects of IU induction instructions on Worry and Negative Affect through state-IU. Limitations Both studies used undergraduate psychology students samples, younger than average population and predominantly female. Experimental manipulation and outcome measures belongs to the same semantic domain, uncertainty, potentially limiting generalizability. Conclusions Results supported the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed IU manipulation for non-clinical sample. Findings parallel clinical research showing that state-IU preceded Worry and Negative Affect states. PMID:27254099

  6. Crystallization of amorphous lactose at high humidity studied by terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Alexander I.; Yang, Bin; Goldup, Stephen M.; Watkinson, Michael; Donnan, Robert S.

    2013-02-01

    We report the first use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to study the hydration and crystallization of an amorphous molecular solid at high humidity. Lactose in its amorphous and monohydrate forms exhibits different terahertz spectra due to the lack of long range order in the amorphous material. This difference allowed the transformation of amorphous lactose to its monohydrate form at high humidity to be studied in real time. Spectral fitting of frequency-domain data allowed kinetic data to be obtained and the crystallization was found to obey Avrami kinetics. Bulk changes during the crystallization could also be observed in the time-domain.

  7. Novel determination of protein, fat, and lactose of milk by liquid scintillation counter

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.C.; Shand, J.H.; West, I.G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for routine determination of protein, fat, and lactose contents of milk is based on the ability of a scintillation counter to measure coloration or opalescence through attenuation of photons emitted from sealed miniature carbon-14 and hydrogen-3 radioactive standards. A series of simplified and accurate analytical procedures enable full advantage to be taken of the automatic facilities on the modern liquid scintillation counter. The methods provide several advantages over existing procedures. Accuracy of quantification was high as assessed by comparing the results with those derived by recommended Kjeldahl, Gerber, and colorimetric procedures for protein, fat, and lactose determinations, respectively.

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of crystallized-particle size in lactose-powder by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Satoshi; Hatakeyama, Sakura; Imai, Yoh; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2014-03-01

    Transmission-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is applied to evaluate crystallized lactose particle of size below 30 μm, which is far too small compared to the wavelength of incident terahertz (THz)-wave. The THz-absorption spectrum of lactose is successfully deconvoluted by Lorentzian to two spectra with peaks at 17.1 cm-1 (0.53 THz) and 45.6 cm-1 (1.37 THz) derived from α-lactose monohydrate, and a spectrum at 39.7 cm-1 (1.19 THz) from anhydrous β-lactose after removal of the broad-band spectrum by polynomial cubic function. Lactose is mainly crystallized into α-lactose monohydrate from the supersaturated solution at room temperature with a small amount of anhydrous β-lactose below 4%. The absorption feature is dependent on the crystallized particle size and the integrated intensity ratio of the two absorptions due to α-lactose monohydrate is correlated in linear for the size.

  9. Interval sampling of breath hydrogen (H2) as an index of lactose malabsorption in lactase-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Welsh, J D; Payne, D L; Manion, C; Morrison, R D; Nichols, M A

    1981-08-01

    Interval sampling of breath hydrogen content was used in lactose malabsorbers: (1) to compare hydrogen responses following increasing oral doses of lactose in milk and aqueous solutions; (2) to determine the reproducibility of interval breath sampling, and (3) to compare carbohydrate malabsorption following ingestion of either regular milk or milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Significant differences in breath hydrogen responses due to increasing amounts of lactose in milk and aqueous solutions were observed. The individual breath hydrogen responses were reproducible using the same lactose dose on different days. There was no significant difference in breath hydrogen responses or symptoms following administration of either regular milk or milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Breath hydrogen sampling at intervals, as performed in these studies, provides a sensitive and reproducible index of lactose malabsorption.

  10. Bistable behavior of the lac operon in E. coli when induced with a mixture of lactose and TMG.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Hernández, Orlando; Santillán, Moisés

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate multistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli when it is induced by a mixture of lactose and the non-metabolizable thiomethyl galactoside (TMG). In accordance with previously published experimental results and computer simulations, our simulations predict that: (1) when the system is induced by TMG, the system shows a discernible bistable behavior while, (2) when the system is induced by lactose, bistability does not disappear but excessively high concentrations of lactose would be required to observe it. Finally, our simulation results predict that when a mixture of lactose and TMG is used, the bistability region in the extracellular glucose concentration vs. extracellular lactose concentration parameter space changes in such a way that the model predictions regarding bistability could be tested experimentally. These experiments could help to solve a recent controversy regarding the existence of bistability in the lac operon under natural conditions.

  11. Bistable Behavior of the Lac Operon in E. Coli When Induced with a Mixture of Lactose and TMG

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Hernández, Orlando; Santillán, Moisés

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate multistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli when it is induced by a mixture of lactose and the non-metabolizable thiomethyl galactoside (TMG). In accordance with previously published experimental results and computer simulations, our simulations predict that: (1) when the system is induced by TMG, the system shows a discernible bistable behavior while, (2) when the system is induced by lactose, bistability does not disappear but excessively high concentrations of lactose would be required to observe it. Finally, our simulation results predict that when a mixture of lactose and TMG is used, the bistability region in the extracellular glucose concentration vs. extracellular lactose concentration parameter space changes in such a way that the model predictions regarding bistability could be tested experimentally. These experiments could help to solve a recent controversy regarding the existence of bistability in the lac operon under natural conditions. PMID:21423364

  12. Hepatic and renal failure associated with amiodarone infusion in a patient with hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Curran, B J; Havill, J H

    2002-06-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare inherited metabolic disorder. Although fructose intolerance usually presents in the paediatric age group, individuals can survive into adulthood by self.manipulation of diet. Hospitalisation can become a high.risk environment for these individuals because of loss of control of their strict dietary constraints and the added danger of administration of medications containing fructose, sucrose and sorbitol. We report a case of hereditary fructose intolerance in an adult presenting with hepatic and renal failure associated with an amiodarone infusion and explore the possibility of polysorbate 80 as a cause of this patient's hepatic and renal failure.

  13. Influence of solvents on the habit modification of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-02-01

    Restricted evaporation of solvent method was adopted for the growth of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals from different solvents. The crystal habits of grown crystals were analysed. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal behaviour of the grown crystals was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry.

  14. Incorporation of acetaminophen as an active pharmaceutical ingredient into porous lactose.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Amirali; Saffari, Morteza; Dehghani, Fariba; Langrish, Timothy

    2016-02-29

    A new formulation method for solid dosage forms with drug loadings from 0.65 ± 0.03% to 39 ± 1% (w/w) of acetaminophen (APAP) as a model drug has been presented. The proposed method involves the production of highly-porous lactose with a BET surface area of 20 ± 1 m(2)/g as an excipient using a templating method and the incorporation of drug into the porous structure by adsorption from a solution of the drug in ethanol. Drug deposition inside the carrier particles, rather than being physically distributed between them, eliminated the potential drug/carrier segregation, which resulted in excellent blend uniformities with relative standard deviations of less than 3.5% for all drug formulations. The results of DSC and XRD tests have shown deposition of nanocrystals of APAP inside the nanopores of lactose due the nanoconfinement phenomenon. FTIR spectroscopy has revealed no interaction between the adsorbed drug and the surface of lactose. The final loaded lactose particles had large BET surface areas and high porosities, which significantly increased the crushing strengths of the produced tablets. In vitro release studies in phosphate buffer (pH 5.8) have shown an acceptable delivery performance of 85% APAP release within 7 minutes for loaded powders filled in gelatin capsules.

  15. Lactose-mediated carbon catabolite repression of putrescine production in dairy Lactococcus lactis is strain dependent.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Linares, Daniel M; Fernández, Maria; Martín, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    Lactococcus lactis is the lactic acid bacterial (LAB) species most widely used as a primary starter in the dairy industry. However, several strains of L. lactis produce the biogenic amine putrescine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. We previously reported the putrescine biosynthesis pathway in L. lactis subsp. cremoris GE2-14 to be regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) via glucose but not lactose (Linares et al., 2013). The present study shows that both these sugars repress putrescine biosynthesis in L. lactis subsp. lactis T3/33, a strain isolated from a Spanish artisanal cheese. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both glucose and lactose repressed the transcriptional activity of the aguBDAC catabolic genes of the AGDI route. Finally, a screening performed in putrescine-producing dairy L. lactis strains determined that putrescine biosynthesis was repressed by lactose in all the L. lactis subsp. lactis strains tested, but in only one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain. Given the obvious importance of the lactose-repression in cheese putrescine accumulation, it is advisable to consider the diversity of L. lactis in this sense and characterize consequently the starter cultures to select the safest strains.

  16. Breath hydrogen concentrations after oral lactose and lactulose in tropical malabsorption and adult hypolactasia.

    PubMed

    Cook, G C

    1978-01-01

    Thirty-six hospital in-patients in London had breath-hydrogen concentrations measured after 50 g lactose were given orally; in 23 or them serial blood glucose concentrations were also estimated. Eight had tropical malabsorption (TM), 14 were Europeans with no detectable disease (normal group) and 14 who also had no detectable disease, were from ethnic groups known to have a very high incidence of genetically determined adult hypolactasia (hl). In 21 of them breath-hydrogen concentrations were also measured after 33.5 g of lactulose were given orally. There was a good inverse correlation between breath-hydrogen production and blood-glucose rise after lactose. Correlations between the first appearance of hydrogen (T) and the area under the hydrogen curve between 0 and 120 min (A) were inversely significant both for lactose and lactulose. Mean T was earlier and mean A greater for lactose compared with lactulose. Correlation between individual values for A after lactase and after lactulose was significant. Indirect measurements of lactase are of no value in either detecting or assessing the severity of TM; that is largely due to the very high incidence of HL in individuals exposed to that disease.

  17. Measurement of Enzyme Kinetics by Use of a Blood Glucometer: Hydrolysis of Sucrose and Lactose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinzerling, Peter; Schrader, Frank; Schanze, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    An alternative analytical method for measuring the kinetic parameters of the enzymes invertase and lactase is described. Invertase hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose and lactase hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. In most enzyme kinetics studies, photometric methods or test strips are used to quantify the derivates of the…

  18. Absorption and tolerance of lactose in infants recovering from severe diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, C H; Bautista, A; Gopalakrishna, G S; Stuff, J; Garza, C

    1985-12-01

    Nineteen infants were challenged during their convalescence from severe diarrhea with a lactose-containing meal. Twenty-four hour intake, pre- and post-challenge breath H2 levels, clinical responses, and growth were measured at approximately biweekly intervals for 3 months beginning 1 month after hospital discharge. Ten lactose-tolerant infants were assigned randomly to receive one of two formulas similar in composition except for carbohydrates: lactose (Group L) (n = 6) and sucrose (Group S) (n = 4). Infants in Group L had greater intakes and growth rates during the initial 15 days of the study. No difference in weight for age z-scores was detected between groups at the end of the observation period. Infants in Group L had higher baseline and peak breath H2 levels indicating greater colonic carbohydrate fermentation than infants in Group S: however, breath H2 levels were not predictive of tolerance to lactose-containing meals. Carbohydrate absorption by infants in Group S appeared to exceed that of infants in Group L. Thus, colonic fermentation of malabsorbed carbohydrate may have prevented diarrhea and allowed acceptable rates of catch-up growth.

  19. Efficient ethanol production from glucose, lactose, and xylose by recombinant Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Alterthum, F. ); Ingram, L.O. )

    1989-08-01

    Lactose and all of the major sugars (glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose) present in cellulose and hemicellulose were converted to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli containing plasmid-borne genes encoding the enzymes for the ethanol pathway from Zymomonas mobilis. Environmental tolerances, plasmid stability, expression of Z. mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase, substrate range, and ethanol production (from glucose, lactose, and xylose) were compared among eight American Type Culture Collection strains. E. coli ATCC 9637(pLOI297), ATCC 11303(pLOI297), and ATCC 15224(pLOI297) were selected for further development on the basis of environmental hardiness and ethanol production. Volumetric ethanol productivities per hour in batch culture were 1.4 g/liter for glucose (12%), 1.3 g/liter for lactose (12%), and 0.64 g/liter for xylose (8%). Ethanol productivities per hour ranged from 2.1 g/g of cell dry weight with 12% glucose to 1.3 g/g of cell dry weight with 8% xylose. The ethanol yield per gram of xylose was higher for recombinant E. coli than commonly reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae with glucose. Glucose (12%), lactose (12%), and xylose (8%) were converted to (by volume) 7.2% ethanol, 6.5% ethanol, and 5.2% ethanol, respectively.

  20. Catabolism of Glucose and Lactose in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Studied by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Irene; Gaspar, Paula; Sánchez, Borja; Gueimonde, Miguel; Neves, Ana Rute

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are widely used as probiotics in several commercial products; however, to date there is little knowledge about their carbohydrate metabolic pathways. In this work, we studied the metabolism of glucose and lactose in the widely used probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 by in vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The metabolism of [1-13C]glucose was characterized in cells grown in glucose as the sole carbon source. Moreover, the metabolism of lactose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1 of the glucose or the galactose moiety was determined in suspensions of cells grown in lactose. These experiments allowed the quantification of some intermediate and end products of the metabolic pathways, as well as determination of the consumption rate of carbon sources. Additionally, the labeling patterns in metabolites derived from the metabolism of glucose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1, 2, or 3 in cells grown in glucose or lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the glucose moiety ([1-13Cglucose]lactose), lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the galactose moiety ([1-13Cgalactose]lactose), and [1-13C]glucose in lactose-grown cells were determined in cell extracts by 13C NMR. The NMR analysis showed that the recovery of carbon was fully compatible with the fructose 6-phosphate, or bifid, shunt. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acetate kinase, fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase, and pyruvate formate lyase differed significantly between glucose and lactose cultures. The transcriptional analysis of several putative glucose and lactose transporters showed a significant induction of Balat_0475 in the presence of lactose, suggesting a role for this protein as a lactose permease. This report provides the first in vivo experimental evidence of the metabolic flux distribution in the catabolic pathway of glucose and lactose in bifidobacteria and shows that the bifid shunt is the only pathway

  1. Novel high-performance metagenome β-galactosidases for lactose hydrolysis in the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Erich, Sarah; Kuschel, Beatrice; Schwarz, Thilo; Ewert, Jacob; Böhmer, Nico; Niehaus, Frank; Eck, Jürgen; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-09-20

    The industrially utilised β-galactosidases from Kluyveromyces spp. and Aspergillus spp. feature undesirable kinetic properties in praxis, such as an unsatisfactory lactose affinity (KM) and product inhibition (KI) by galactose. In this study, a metagenome library of about 1.3 million clones was investigated with a three-step activity-based screening strategy in order to find new β-galactosidases with more favourable kinetic properties. Six novel metagenome β-galactosidases (M1-M6) were found with an improved lactose hydrolysis performance in original milk when directly compared to the commercial β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis (GODO-YNL2). The best metagenome candidate, called "M1", was recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) in a bioreactor (volume 35 L), resulting in a total β-galactosidase M1 activity of about 1100 μkatoNPGal,37 °C L(-1). Since milk is a sensitive and complex medium, it has to be processed at 5-10 °C in the dairy industry. Therefore, the β-galactosidase M1 was tested at 8 °C in milk and possessed a good stability (t1/2=21.8 d), a desirably low apparent KM,lactose,8 °C value of 3.8±0.7 mM and a high apparent KI,galactose,8 °C value of 196.6±55.5 mM. A lactose hydrolysis process (milk, 40 nkatlactose mLmilk,8 °C(-1)) was conducted at a scale of 0.5L to compare the performance of M1 with the commercial β-galactosidase from K. lactis (GODO-YNL2). Lactose was completely (>99.99%) hydrolysed by M1 and to 99.6% (w/v) by K. lactis β-galactosidase after 25 h process time. Thus, M1 was able to achieve the limit of <100 mg lactose per litre milk, which is recommended for dairy products labelled as "lactose-free".

  2. [A great imitator for the allergologist: intolerance to gluten].

    PubMed

    Rousset, H

    2004-03-01

    Intolerance of gluten, resposible for Coeliac disease, is essentially shown by an auto-immune enteropathy, even if the cutaneous manifestation (herpetiform dermatitis) and perhaps certain neurological signs (cerebral syndrome, peripheral neuropathy) may be independent as well as associated with the intestinal illness. This affection is of immunological nature, occuring in a genetic field that predisposes to the illness (familial form: concordance of 70% in homozygote twins; 90% of patients show an HLA molecule of type DQ2, DQ8 in almost all the other cases. The exogenous factor is the gluten content contained in wheat, rye and barley, more precisely by the intermediary "the prolamines" which are the "reactive" element that induces a the same time an inflammatory reaction of type TH11 locally (expressed by the histological aspect of a duodenal biopsy evolving as villous atrophy) and a humoral response with production of anti-gliadine and anti-transglutaminase antibodies (the role of the latter enzyme is intervention in the local transformation of antigens to make them antigenic). It is an illness of adults as well as children and this point must now be emphasized. Recent epidemiological studies insist on a high prevalence (1/300 in Europe). Clinical expression, at the start very polymorphic and so misleading, before the appearance of the more classical signs of malabsorption and development, always feared, towards a lymphoma. These signs are haematological (anemia of various types, hyper platelets by hyposplenism, haemorrhagic signs) cutaneous (herpetiform dermatitis, cutaneous vasculitis) mucosal (aphtose), hepatic (cytolysis), neurophysical (fatigue, troubles of behaviour, cerebral syndrome, neuropathy) and osteo-articulitis (osteopenia, arthralgias, diffuse pains). The association of certain auto-immune illnesses must be emphasized (diabetes, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Gougerot disease, primitive biliary cirrhosis). To think early of the possibility of intolerance to

  3. The Relationship Between Intolerance of Uncertainty, Sensory Sensitivities, and Anxiety in Autistic and Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    Neil, Louise; Olsson, Nora Choque; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Guided by a recent theory that proposes fundamental differences in how autistic individuals deal with uncertainty, we investigated the extent to which the cognitive construct 'intolerance of uncertainty' and anxiety were related to parental reports of sensory sensitivities in 64 autistic and 85 typically developing children aged 6-14 years. Intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety explained approximately half the variance in autistic children's sensory sensitivities, but only around a fifth of the variance in typical children's sensory sensitivities. In children with autism only, intolerance of uncertainty remained a significant predictor of children's sensory sensitivities once the effects of anxiety were adjusted for. Our results suggest intolerance of uncertainty is a relevant construct to sensory sensitivities in children with and without autism.

  4. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance. PMID:22778791

  5. Assessment of the inhibition of ricin toxicity by lactose in milk.

    PubMed

    Lumor, Stephen E; Deen, Bronwyn D; Ronningen, Ian; Smith, Kenneth; Fredrickson, Neal R; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

    2013-12-01

    The effect of lactose at the concentration typically found in milk (134 mM) on the ability of ricin to inhibit protein synthesis in HeLa cells was studied. Ricin (0.001 to 300 μg/ml) that was either not treated or treated with 134 mM lactose was added to test tubes containing 1 ml of HeLa cells (approximately 3 × 10(5) cells in a low-leucine medium). After 2 h of incubation at 37°C, 0.5 μCi of L-[U-(14)C]-leucine was added to each tube and incubated for another 60 min. The cells were harvested by centrifugation and lysed, and cellular proteins were separated. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the proteins was determined by liquid scintillation. The biological activity of ricin, i. e., the amount of radioactivity in a sample relative to that of the control (cells not treated with ricin), was calculated for each treatment. The inhibitory effect of 134 mM lactose on the biological activity of ricin was only significant at concentrations of ricin below 1 μg/ml. At higher ricin concentrations, the effect of 134 mM lactose decreased as the concentration of ricin increased, resulting in an increase in the inhibition of proteins synthesis. Our results also indicated that bovine milk, when used in place of 134 mM lactose, was more effective for reducing the activity of ricin at concentrations below 1 μg/ml but was ineffective against ricin concentrations greater than 1 μg/ml. These results suggest that milk may not protect against ricin intoxication at the concentration (0.89 μg/ml) equivalent to the lowest limit of its 50 % lethal dose for a 20-kg child consuming 225 ml (8 oz) of milk.

  6. Chemical and proteolysis-derived changes during long-term storage of lactose-hydrolyzed ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) milk.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Therese; Jensen, Hanne B; Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Clausen, Morten R; Eggers, Nina; Larsen, Lotte B; Ray, Colin; Andersen, Henrik J; Bertram, Hanne C

    2014-11-19

    Proteolytic activity in milk may release bitter-tasting peptides and generate free amino terminals that react with carbohydrates, which initiate Maillard reaction. Ultrahigh temperature (UHT) heat treatment inactivates the majority of proteolytic enzymes in milk. In lactose-hydrolyzed milk a β-galactosidase preparation is applied to the milk after heat treatment, which has proteolytic side activities that may induce quality deterioration of long-term-stored milk. In the present study proteolysis, glycation, and volatile compound formation were investigated in conventional (100% lactose), filtered (60% lactose), and lactose-hydrolyzed (<1% lactose) UHT milk using reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Proteolysis was observed in all milk types. However, the degree of proteolysis was significantly higher in the lactose-hydrolyzed milk compared to the conventional and filtered milk. The proteins most prone to proteolysis were β-CN and αs1-CN, which were clearly hydrolyzed after approximately 90 days of storage in the lactose-hydrolyzed milk.

  7. Effects of Topical Fucosyl-Lactose, a Milk Oligosaccharide, on Dry Eye Model: An Example of Nutraceutical Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Bucolo, Claudio; Musumeci, Maria; Salomone, Salvatore; Romano, Giovanni Luca; Leggio, Gian Marco; Gagliano, Caterina; Reibaldi, Michele; Avitabile, Teresio; Uva, Maurizio G.; Musumeci, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colostrum has been proposed to treat severe dryness and problematic eye lesions showing a beneficial effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 2-fucosyl-lactose, a natural sugar present in the human colostrum, in an experimental dry eye. Methods: Dry eye was induced in adult male New Zealand albino rabbits by topical administration of 1% atropine. Tear volume (Schirmer’s test), tear film breakup time (TBUT), corneal staining and tear osmolarity were assessed. Fucosyl-lactose eye drops was instilled at different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and, 1%). Results: After 24 h from first atropine administration, tear volume and TBUT values were significantly improved in groups treated with 2-fucosyl-lactose in a dose-dependent manner. Tear volume increased from 5.25 to 10.75 mm and TBUT values from 8.75 to 34.5 s with 0.01% or 1% 2-fucosyl-lactose treatment, respectively. No changes were observed in terms of corneal staining among the all groups treated with 2-fucosyl-lactose. Atropine instillation caused an increase of tear osmolarity (428 mOsm/L), which was reversed by topical treatment with 2-fucosyl-lactose at all doses. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 2-fucosyl-lactose, a human milk oligosaccharide, has protective effect on tear film stability. PMID:26635610

  8. Impaired gastric function in children with cow's milk intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, J; Similä, S; Herva, R

    1979-09-01

    Eight infants with cow's milk intolerance (CMI) were studied for basal and maximal gastric acid secretion and the fasting serum gastrin level. All these patients had clinical malabsorption. Jejunal biopsies revealed subtotal villous atrophy in six children and slight changes in the remaining two. The mean maximal acid secretion in the infants with CMI was significantly decreased being 85 +/- 78 mumol/h/kg (mean +/- SD), as compared with a control group of the same age with a corresponding value of 233 +/- 66 mumol/h/kg. The fasting serum gastrin level was elevated, being 104 +/- 116 pmol/l in the study group and 37 +/- 10 in the controls. Three infants with CMI underwent gastric biopsy. Marked changes with epithelial degeneration and prominent cellularity in the lamina propria were seen in two patients. The injury was most severe in the antrum of the stomach. When these patients with CMI were treated with human or soy milk, the maximal acid secretion returned normal in six months.

  9. Contextual Influences on Distress Intolerance: Priming Effects on Behavioral Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Szuhany, Kristin L.; Otto, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Distress intolerance (DI), the inability to tolerate stressful experiences, has been linked to multiple psychiatric conditions and maladaptive coping patterns. Although DI is often considered a trait-like variable, evidence indicates that self-report and behavioral indices of DI can be manipulated by contextual factors. Understanding such contextual influences is important given evidence of unexpected variability in these presumed trait-like measures over brief intervals. The current study examined the influence of context (manipulated by priming concepts of “Interminability” and “Brevity”) in predicting behavioral persistence, in relation to self-reported DI. Results indicated that priming Brevity was associated with terminating a cold-pressor task more quickly. Self-reported DI was linked to earlier termination, but there was no interaction between self-reported DI and priming condition. Results indicate that contextual cues modulate performance on behavioral measures of DI. Hence, models of DI should consider both trait-like and contextual factors in understanding variability in DI measures. PMID:26366022

  10. Odors eliciting fear: a conditioning approach to Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances.

    PubMed

    Leer, Arne; Smeets, Monique A M; Bulsing, Patricia J; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2011-06-01

    Patients suffering from Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances (IEI) report health symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, which are triggered by harmless odors and therefore medically unexplainable. In line with previous research that predominantly points towards psychological explanations, the present study tests the hypothesis that IEI symptoms result from learning via classical conditioning of odors to fear. A differential conditioning paradigm was employed. Hedonically different odors were compared on ease of fear acquisition. Conditioned stimuli (CSs) were Dimethyl Sulfide (unpleasant) and peach (pleasant). The unconditioned stimulus (US) was an electrical shock. During acquisition one odor (CS+) was followed by shock, while the other odor (CS-) was not. Next, fear extinction was tested by presenting both CS+ and CS- without US. Electrodermal response, odor evaluation, and sniffing behavior were monitored. Results showed successful fear conditioning irrespective of hedonic character as evidenced by electrodermal response. Acquired fear did not extinguish. There was no evidence of evaluative conditioning taking place, as CS evaluation did not change during fear acquisition. Early avoidance of the CS+, as deduced from odor inhalation measures, was demonstrated, but did not sustain during the entire acquisition phase. This study suggests that a fear conditioning account of IEI is only partially satisfactory.

  11. Current practices and improved recommendations for treating hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bell, L; Sherwood, W G

    1987-06-01

    A study of treatment practices of pediatric centers managing hereditary fructose intolerance and a review of recent literature on this subject were undertaken in an attempt to establish the degree of dietary liberalization allowable with age and the acceptability of foods containing trace amounts of fructose. The information was needed to plan optimal therapy and thus avoid the consequences of the disorder, namely intestinal dysfunction, metabolic imbalance, and hepatic and renal damage. Fifty responses to 113 letters to centers in Canada and the United States, as well as data from The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, identified only 29 affected children and provided information on their care, including food lists and literature references. Major principles of treatment were similar, but the approach to allowing and quantifying dietary fructose differed. In response to the apparent need for standardization of treatment, the authors formulated improved recommendations for the control of dietary fructose (less than 1.5 gm/day). Only a few foods of vegetable origin are allowed, including a limited selection of vegetables and cereal products from grain endosperm. Repeated dietary counseling is advocated with regard to allowed foods, sweeteners, and medications to ensure long-term dietary compliance.

  12. Genes and exercise intolerance: insights from McArdle disease.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Godfrey, Richard; Santalla, Alfredo; Coll-Cantí, Jaume; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Pinós, Tomàs; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel Angel; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V) is caused by inherited deficiency of a key enzyme in muscle metabolism, the skeletal muscle-specific isoform of glycogen phosphorylase, "myophosphorylase," which is encoded by the PYGM gene. Here we review the main pathophysiological, genotypic, and phenotypic features of McArdle disease and their interactions. To date, moderate-intensity exercise (together with pre-exercise carbohydrate ingestion) is the only treatment option that has proven useful for these patients. Furthermore, regular physical activity attenuates the clinical severity of McArdle disease. This is quite remarkable for a monogenic disorder that consistently leads to the same metabolic defect at the muscle tissue level, that is, complete inability to use muscle glycogen stores. Further knowledge of this disorder would help patients and enhance understanding of exercise metabolism as well as exercise genomics. Indeed, McArdle disease is a paradigm of human exercise intolerance and PYGM genotyping should be included in the genetic analyses that might be applied in the coming personalized exercise medicine as well as in future research on genetics and exercise-related phenotypes.

  13. Mechanisms of microgravity induced orthostatic intolerance: implications for effective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    The development of orthostatic hypotension and instability immediately after return from spaceflight has been a significant operational problem to astronauts for more than four decades. Significant reductions in stroke volume and peripheral vascular resistance contribute to ineffective maintenance of systemic arterial blood pressure during standing after spaceflight despite compensatory elevations in heart rate. The primary mechanism underlying reduced stroke volume appears to be a reduction in preload associated with reduced circulating blood volume, although cardiac atrophy might also contribute. Space flight and ground based experiments have demonstrated that an inability to provide adequate peripheral vasoconstriction in astronauts that become presyncopal may be associated with several mechanisms including reduced sympathetic nerve activity, arterial smooth muscle atrophy and/or hyporeactivity, hypersensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors, etc. In addition, an inability to provide adequate tachycardia in presyncopal subjects may be associated with reduced carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. Based on the current knowledge and understanding of cardiovascular mechanisms that are altered during exposure to microgravity, a major focus of future research should be directed to the systematic evaluation of potential countermeasures that specifically target and restore the function of these mechanisms. Based on a preliminary systematic evaluation presented in this review, acute physical exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, G-suit inflation, artificial gravity, and specific pharmacological interventions, alone or in combination, have shown promise as successful countermeasures that provide protection against post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

  14. An examination of distress intolerance in undergraduate students high in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Emma M; Pawluk, Elizabeth J; Koerner, Naomi; Goodwill, Alasdair M

    2015-01-01

    People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) engage in maladaptive coping strategies to reduce or avoid distress. Evidence suggests that uncertainty and negative emotions are triggers for distress in people with GAD; however, there may also be other triggers. Recent conceptualizations have highlighted six types of experiences that people report having difficulty withstanding: uncertainty, negative emotions, ambiguity, frustration, physical discomfort, and the perceived consequences of anxious arousal. The present study examined the extent to which individuals high in symptoms of GAD are intolerant of these distress triggers, compared to individuals high in depressive symptoms, and individuals who are low in GAD and depressive symptoms. Undergraduate students (N = 217) completed self-report measures of GAD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and distress intolerance. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of all of the distress triggers compared to people low in symptoms of GAD and depression. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of physical discomfort compared to those high in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, intolerance of physical discomfort was the best unique correlate of GAD status, suggesting that it may be specific to GAD (versus depression). These findings support continued investigation of the transdiagnosticity and specificity of distress intolerance.

  15. Histamine 50-Skin-Prick Test: A Tool to Diagnose Histamine Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Lukas; Ulmer, Hanno; Kofler, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus. Objective. Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick-test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Methods. Prick-testing with 1% histamine solution and wheal size-measurement to assess the relation between the wheal in prick-test, read after 20 to 50 minutes, as sign of slowed histamine degradation as well as history and symptoms of histamine intolerance. Results. Besides a pretest with 17 patients with HIT we investigated 156 persons (81 with HIT, 75 controls): 64 out of 81 with histamine intolerance(HIT), but only 14 out of 75 persons from the control-group presented with a histamine wheal ≥3 mm after 50 minutes (P < .0001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Histamine-50 skin-prickt-test offers a simple tool with relevance. PMID:23724226

  16. Extra- and intracellular lactose catabolism in Penicillium chrysogenum: phylogenetic and expression analysis of the putative permease and hydrolase genes.

    PubMed

    Jónás, Ágota; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Sándor, Erzsébet; Jäger, Szilvia; Molnár, Ákos P; Szentirmai, Attila; Karaffa, Levente

    2014-07-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is used as an industrial producer of penicillin. We investigated its catabolism of lactose, an abundant component of whey used in penicillin fermentation, comparing the type strain NRRL 1951 with the high producing strain AS-P-78. Both strains grew similarly on lactose as the sole carbon source under batch conditions, exhibiting almost identical time profiles of sugar depletion. In silico analysis of the genome sequences revealed that P. chrysogenum features at least five putative β-galactosidase (bGal)-encoding genes at the annotated loci Pc22g14540, Pc12g11750, Pc16g12750, Pc14g01510 and Pc06g00600. The first two proteins appear to be orthologs of two Aspergillus nidulans family 2 intracellular glycosyl hydrolases expressed on lactose. The latter three P. chrysogenum proteins appear to be distinct paralogs of the extracellular bGal from A. niger, LacA, a family 35 glycosyl hydrolase. The P. chrysogenum genome also specifies two putative lactose transporter genes at the annotated loci Pc16g06850 and Pc13g08630. These are orthologs of paralogs of the gene encoding the high-affinity lactose permease (lacpA) in A. nidulans for which P. chrysogenum appears to lack the ortholog. Transcript analysis of Pc22g14540 showed that it was expressed exclusively on lactose, whereas Pc12g11750 was weakly expressed on all carbon sources tested, including D-glucose. Pc16g12750 was co-expressed with the two putative intracellular bGal genes on lactose and also responded on L-arabinose. The Pc13g08630 transcript was formed exclusively on lactose. The data strongly suggest that P. chrysogenum exhibits a dual assimilation strategy for lactose, simultaneously employing extracellular and intracellular hydrolysis, without any correlation to the penicillin-producing potential of the studied strains.

  17. Natural history of soy allergy and/or intolerance in children, and clinical use of soy-protein formulas.

    PubMed

    Cantani, A; Lucenti, P

    1997-05-01

    Atopic diseases of infants and children are common, debilitating, chronic and sometimes even life-threatening. Several well-conducted studies in high risk babies have demonstrated a significant reduction in the prevalence and severity of atopic diseases with dietary and environmental manipulations. The currently available cow's milk (CM) substitutes for infants are soy protein (SP) formulas (SPFs), hydrolyzed formulas (HF), and home-made meat-based formulas. Soybeans have been cultivated in Eastern countries for many centuries and were first used to feed US babies with CM allergy (CMA) in 1929. Since then, SPFs containing purified SP, a mixture of vegetable oils, and purified carbohydrate have been developed. From a nutritional point of view, SPFs are adequate, support normal growth, protein status, bone mineralization, are well accepted, and economical. SPFs are used for different conditions including CMA, lactose and galactose intolerance and in the management of severe gastroenteritis, and some studies show that feeding SPFs for the first six months of life significantly reduces the prevalence of atopic diseases in high risk babies. Although gastrointestinal symptoms and atopic dermatitis (AD) may occur in some SPF-fed children, anaphylaxis following the ingestion of soybean is extremely rare in children. However, in the past few years the antigenicity/allergenicity of SPFs has been over-emphasized in the medical literature. In this paper on the natural history of soy antigenicity/allergenicity we discuss all the pros and cons of SPFs, their composition and nutritional value, the basic immune definitions, chemistry and characterization of SPs. We then discuss the antigenicity and allergenicity of SPFs in animals, recent data on the use of SPFs and the incidence of soy allergy in children, clinical reactions to SPFs, and the clinical relevance of skin testing and IgE antibodies to soy, challenge test procedure, clinical indication of SPFs, and their relevance in

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of lactose non-fermenting Escherichia coli in urinary isolates.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jiyoung; Yu, Jinkyung; Lee, Hyeyoung; Ryu, Hyejin; Park, Kanggyun; Park, Yeon-Joon

    2014-11-01

    Recently, serotype O75 was found to be prominent among the non-ST131 ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli, and they were all lactose non-fermenters. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of lactose non-fermenters in urinary isolates of E. coli. A total of 167 E. coli isolates was collected. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were determined by VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, France). The lactose non-fermenters underwent PCR-based O typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, phylogenetic grouping. For ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, the resistance mechanisms were investigated. Thirty-three (19.7%) isolates were lactose non-fermenters and the ciprofloxacin resistance rate was significantly higher than in lactose fermenters (66.7% vs. 31.6%, P = 0.0002). According to the serotype, O75 was the most common (42.4%, 14/33) and was followed by O16 (5/33), O2 (4/33), O25b (3/33), O15 (1/33), O6 (1/33), O1 (1/33). All the O75 isolates were ciprofloxacin-resistant and belonged to ST1193. By MLST, they were resolved into 11 STs. ST1193 was the most common (14/33) and was followed by ST131 (8/33). Interestingly, 8 isolates of ST131 were divided into three O types [O16 (4 isolates), O25b (3), and non-typeable (1)]. The ciprofloxacin resistance rate was high in isolates of O75-ST1193 and O25b-ST131 but low in O16-ST131 and O2-ST95. All the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates showed identical triple mutations in gyrA and parC but the serotype O25b isolates had an additional mutation in parC (E84V). Only one isolate harbored aac(6')-Ib-cr variant and no qnr gene was detected. Continuous monitoring of the prevalence and clonal composition of the lactose non-fermenters is needed.

  19. Distribution of Vibrio vulnificus and Other Lactose-Fermenting Vibrios in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, James D.; Warner, Robert A.; Cleland, David R.

    1983-01-01

    During the summer of 1981, 3,887 sucrose-negative vibrios were isolated from seawater, sediment, plankton, and animal samples taken from 80 sites from Miami, Fla., to Portland, Maine. Of these, 4.2% were able to ferment lactose. The lactose-positive strains isolated from the various samples correlated positively with pH and turbidity of the water, vibrios in the sediment and oysters, and total bacterial counts in oysters. Negative correlations were obtained for water salinity. Numerical taxonomy was performed on 95 of the lactose-fermenting environmental isolates and 23 reference strains. Five clusters resulted, with the major cluster containing 33 of the environmental isolates and all of the Vibrio vulnificus reference strains. The 33 isolates, which produced an acid reaction in lactose broth within hours of initial inoculation, represented 20% of all lactose-fermenting vibrios studied. These isolates were nearly identical phenotypically to clinical strains of V. vulnificus studied by the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga., and by our laboratory, and their identification was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies. V. vulnificus was isolated from all sample types and from Miami to Cape Cod, Mass., and comparison of the environmental parameters of the eight subsites yielding this species with those of all 80 subsites revealed no significant differences. The majority of the isolates were obtained from animals, with clams providing most (84%) of these. On injection into mice, 82% of the V. vulnificus isolates resulted in death. Members of the remaining four clusters contained strains which differed from V. vulnificus in such phenotypic traits as luminescence and in urease or H2S production. None of the other reference cultures, including nine other Vibrio species, were contained in the remaining clusters, and these isolates could not be identified. Most of these were also lethal for mice. Phenotypic differences, potential pathogenicity, and geographic

  20. Approaches to determine the enthalpy of crystallisation, and amorphous content, of lactose from isothermal calorimetric data.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, Sarah E; Buckton, Graham; Gaisford, Simon; Ramos, Rita

    2004-10-13

    Amorphous lactose will crystallise rapidly if its glass transition temperature is reduced below its storage temperature. This is readily achieved by storing samples at ambient temperature and a relative humidity (RH) of greater than 50%. If the sample is monitored in an isothermal microcalorimeter as it crystallises, the heat changes associated with the event can be measured; indeed this is one of the methods used to quantify the amorphous content of powders and formulations. However, variations in the calculation methods used to determine these heat changes have led to discrepancies in the values reported in the literature and frequently make comparison of data from different sources difficult. Data analysis and peak integration software allow the selection and integration of specific areas of complex traces with great reproducibility; this has led to the observation that previously ignored artefacts are in fact of sufficient magnitude to affect calculated enthalpies. In this work a number of integration methodologies have been applied to the analysis of amorphous spray-dried lactose, crystallised under 53 or 75% RH at 25 degrees C. The data allowed the selection of a standard methodology from which reproducible heat changes could be determined. The method was subsequently applied to the analysis of partially amorphous lactose samples (containing 1-100% (w/w) amorphous content) allowing the quantification limit of the technique to be established. It was found that the best approach for obtaining reproducible results was (i) to crystallise under an RH of 53%, because this slowed the crystallisation response allowing better experimental measurement and (ii) to integrate all the events occurring in the ampoule, rather than trying to select only that region corresponding to crystallisation, since it became clear that the processes occurring in the cell overlapped and could not be deconvoluted. The technique was able to detect amorphous contents as low as 1% (w

  1. Glucose intolerance following cis-platinum treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R S; Mayor, G H; Rosenbaum, R W; Hook, J B; Santiago, J V; Bond, J T

    1982-01-01

    cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum (cis-Pt) is a heavy metal complex used in cancer chemotherapy. Since this drug has been shown to induce hyperglycemia in rats, these studies were initiated to elucidate the effects of cis-Pt on carbohydrate tolerance and insulin and glucagon secretion. Two days following i.v. cis-Pt (2.5 or 7.5 mg/kg, 5 ml/kg) or vehicle administration to male F-344 rats, plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and glucagon (IRG) concentrations were determined in the basal state and serially following a glucose load (2 g/kg, i.p.). Since cis-Pt induces a dose-related anorexia, a pair-fed control group was also studied. Administration of 7.5 mg/kg cis-Pt was associated with plasma glucose concentrations 2.5-5 times greater than ad-libitum and pair-fed controls at every time point during the 2-h glucose tolerance test. Although basal plasma IRI concentrations of the 7.5-mg/kg group were comparable to ad-libitum fed controls, they were significantly greater than those of pair-fed partners. Furthermore, the appropriate IRI response to a glucose stimulus observed in both controls and the 2.5-mg/kg group was absent in the 7.5-mg/kg group. Basal plasma IRG concentrations of the 7.5-mg/kg group were approximately 3-4 times greater than ad-libitum and pair-fed controls and were not suppressed following a glucose load. These results suggest that cis-Pt induces marked glucose intolerance in association with an impaired IRI response and abnormal glucagon response to a glucose stimulus.

  2. Visual height intolerance and acrophobia: distressing partners for life.

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Fitz, Werner; Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Brandt, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The course of illness, the degree of social impairment, and the rate of help-seeking behavior was evaluated in a sample of individuals with visual height intolerance (vHI) and acrophobia. On the basis of a previously described epidemiological sample representative of the German general population, 574 individuals with vHI were identified, 128 fulfilled the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of acrophobia. The illness of the majority of all susceptible individuals with vHI ran a year-long chronic course. Two thirds were in the category "persistent/worse", whereas only one third was in the category "improved/remitted". Subjects with acrophobia showed significantly more traumatic triggers of onset, more signs of generalization to other height stimuli, higher rates of increasing intensity of symptom load, higher grades of social impairment, and greater overall negative impact on the quality of life than those with pure vHI. An unfavorable course of illness in pure vHI was predicted by major depression, agoraphobia, social phobia, posttraumatic stress, initial traumatic trigger, and female sex; an unfavorable course in acrophobia was predicted by major depression, chronic fatigue, panic attacks, initial traumatic trigger, social phobia, other specific phobic fears, and female sex. Help-seeking behavior was astonishingly low in the overall sample of individuals with vHI. The consequences of therapeutic interventions if complied with at all were quite modest. In adults pure vHI and even more so acrophobia are by no means only transitionally distressing states. In contrast to their occurrence in children they are more often persisting and disabling conditions. Both the utilization of and adequacy of treatment of these illnesses pose major challenges within primary and secondary neurological and psychiatric medical care.

  3. Visual height intolerance and acrophobia: clinical characteristics and comorbidity patterns.

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Fitz, Werner; Brandt, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the general population lifetime and point prevalence of visual height intolerance and acrophobia, to define their clinical characteristics, and to determine their anxious and depressive comorbidities. A case-control study was conducted within a German population-based cross-sectional telephone survey. A representative sample of 2,012 individuals aged 14 and above was selected. Defined neurological conditions (migraine, Menière's disease, motion sickness), symptom pattern, age of first manifestation, precipitating height stimuli, course of illness, psychosocial impairment, and comorbidity patterns (anxiety conditions, depressive disorders according to DSM-IV-TR) for vHI and acrophobia were assessed. The lifetime prevalence of vHI was 28.5% (women 32.4%, men 24.5%). Initial attacks occurred predominantly (36%) in the second decade. A rapid generalization to other height stimuli and a chronic course of illness with at least moderate impairment were observed. A total of 22.5% of individuals with vHI experienced the intensity of panic attacks. The lifetime prevalence of acrophobia was 6.4% (women 8.6%, men 4.1%), and point prevalence was 2.0% (women 2.8%; men 1.1%). VHI and even more acrophobia were associated with high rates of comorbid anxious and depressive conditions. Migraine was both a significant predictor of later acrophobia and a significant consequence of previous acrophobia. VHI affects nearly a third of the general population; in more than 20% of these persons, vHI occasionally develops into panic attacks and in 6.4%, it escalates to acrophobia. Symptoms and degree of social impairment form a continuum of mild to seriously distressing conditions in susceptible subjects.

  4. Cerebral vasoconstriction precedes orthostatic intolerance after parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrador, J. M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Brown, T. E.; Kassam, M. S.; Bondar, R. L.; Schlegel, T. T.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of brief but repeated bouts of micro- and hypergravity on cerebrovascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) were examined in 13 individuals after (compared to before) parabolic flight. Middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA MFV; transcranial Doppler ultrasound), eye level blood pressure (BP) and end tidal CO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) were measured while supine and during 80 degrees HUT for 30 min or until presyncope. In the postflight tests subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT) (n = 7) or intolerant (OI) (n = 6). BP was diminished with HUT in the OT group in both tests (p < 0.05) whereas postflight BP was not different from supine in the OI group. Postflight compared to preflight, the reduction in P(ET)CO(2) with HUT (p < 0.05) increased in both groups, although significantly so only in the OI group (p < 0.05). The OI group also had a significant decrease in supine MCA MFV postflight (p < 0.05) that was unaccompanied by a change in supine P(ET)CO(2). The decrease in MCA MFV that occurred during HUT in both groups preflight (p < 0.05) was accentuated only in the OI group postflight, particularly during the final 30 s of HUT (p < 0.05). However, this accentuated decrease in MCA MFV was not correlated to the greater decrease in P(ET)CO(2) during the same period (R = 0.20, p = 0.42). Although cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) also increased in the OI group during the last 30 s of HUT postflight (p < 0.05), the dynamic autoregulatory gain was not simultaneously changed. Therefore, we conclude that in the OI individuals, parabolic flight was associated with cerebral hypoperfusion following a paradoxical augmentation of CVR by a mechanism that was not related to changes in autoregulation nor strictly to changes in P(ET)CO(2).

  5. [Etiology, pathophysiology and clinical significance of hereditary fructose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Fauth, U; Halmágyi, M

    1991-10-01

    Due to repeatedly described incidents in patients with undiscovered hereditary fructose intolerance, the application of fructose and sorbit-containing parenteral solutions is a topic vehemently discussed. This paper presents a survey of the literature dealing with the inborn defect of fructose-1-phosphate aldolase. The physiology and pathophysiology of fructose metabolism are described as well as the clinical appearance and diagnostic possibilities. The acute course of a fructose incompatibility is determined by a threatening decrease in the blood glucose level, which is attributed to the inhibition of several enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by an intracellular accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. Within hours a global functional breakdown of organs, which normally have the enzyme, occurs. The impairment of the liver function finds expression in a severe coagulopathy, the damage of the kidney leads to anuria. In chronic oral fructose supply, damage of the liver and small intestinal mucosa with corresponding gastrointestinal symptoms determine the clinical course. Concerning diagnosis, contrary to the liver biopsy and the fructose tolerance test, the mucosal biopsy with determination of fructose-1-phosphate aldolase activity has the advantage of greater specificity and is better tolerated by the patient. A total abstinence to fructose and sorbitol-containing solutions is not considered to be necessary when the rarity of the illness is taken into account and certain precautions are taken. These include a specific anamnesis of nutrition as well as a total abstinence from fructose and sorbitol in infants and in the unconscious patient. For clinical routine a simple fructose tolerance test is suggested.

  6. Orthostatic intolerance in 6 degrees head-down tilt and lower body negative pressure loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Miyamoto, Akira; Ito, Masao; Mano, Takaichi; Nakayama, Kiyoshi

    6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest experiment for 6 days was conducted at Nihon University Itabashi Hospital for 10 male athletes. In order to observe the orthostatic intolerance due to six days head-down tilt bed rest, 70 degrees head up tilt tests were performed before and after the head-down tilt. Two types of orthostatic intolerance were distinguished by the time course of their cardiovascular responses. One was vagotonia type and the other was brain anemia type. The latter type was commonly seen among astronauts after space flight due to the lack of plasma volume. As this volume change is considered to be initiated by some fluid loss from the lower extremities, analysis was made to clarify the relation between the leg volume change and the types of orthostatic intolerance. Nakayama proposed a Heart Rate Controllability Index, which is calculated from the initiate leg volume change and heart rate increase in head up tilt, for an indicator of the orthostatic intolerability. The index was applied to the subjects of six days head-down tilt above mentioned. For the subjects who showed a sign of presyncopy, the index values were higher or lower than that of the rest subjects who showed no sign of presyncopy. In order to evaluate the validity of the index, another experiment was conducted to induce an orthostatic intolerance by a different way of loading. The same types of orthostatic intolerance were observed and the index value hit high in the brain anemia type of orthostatic intolerance, while the vagotonia type showed relatively lower values than the normal group.

  7. Failure of lactose-restricted diets to prevent radiation-induced diarrhea in patients undergoing whole pelvis irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.

    1986-05-01

    Sixty-four patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy into one of three dietary groups: the control group maintained a regular diet except that they drank at least 480 cc of milk daily; the lactose-restricted group was placed on a lactose-restricted diet; and the lactase group drank at least 480 cc of milk with lactase enzyme added to hydrolyze 90% of the lactose. The patients kept records of their stool frequency and the number of diphenoxylate tablets required to control their diarrhea during a 5 week course of standard whole pelvis irradiation. The data does not support the concept that one of the mechanisms of radiation-induced diarrhea associated with pelvic irradiation is a reduction the ability of the intestine to hydrolyze ingested lactose due to the effect of the radiation on the small intestine. There was not a significant difference in stool frequency or diphenoxylate usage among the dietary groups.

  8. Study of whey fermentation by kefir immobilized on low cost supports using 14C-labelled lactose.

    PubMed

    Soupioni, Magdalini; Golfinopoulos, Aristidis; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2013-10-01

    Brewer's Spent Grains (BSG) and Malt Spent Rootlets (MSR) were used as supports for kefir cells immobilization and the role of lactose uptake rate by kefir in the positive activity of produced biocatalysts during whey fermentation was investigated. Lactose uptake rate by the immobilized cells was recorded using (14)C-labelled lactose and the effect of various conditions (pH, temperature and kind of support) on it and consequently on fermentation time and ethanol production was examined. The results showed that lactose uptake rate was correlated to fermentation rate and increased as temperature was increased up to 30°C at pH 5.5. The same results have been recently noticed by using biocatalysts with Delignified Cellulosic Materials (DCM) and Gluten Pellets (GP), but fermentation time of about 7h by kefir immobilized on DCM and BSG resulted to two fold lower than that on GP and MSR. The highest alcohol concentration was observed by MSR.

  9. Hemagglutinating activity and conformation of a lactose-binding lectin from mushroom Agrocybe cylindracea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhao, Xi; Xu, Xiao-Chao; Li, Ling-Rui; Liu, Yan-Hong; Zhong, Shao-Dong; Bao, Jin-Ku

    2008-03-01

    A lactose-binding lectin (Agrocybe cylindracea Lectin, ACL) purified from fruiting bodies of the mushroom A. cylindracea was investigated to determine the hemagglutinating activity and conformation changes after chemical modification, removal of metal ion and treatment at different temperatures and pH. ACL agglutinated both rabbit and human erythrocytes and its hemagglutinating activity could be inhibited by lactose. This lectin was stable in the pH range of 6-9 and temperature up to 60 degrees C. Fluorescence quenching and modification of tryptophan residues indicated that there were about two tryptophan residues in ACL molecule and one of them might be located on the surface, while the other was buried in the hydrophobic shallow groove near the surface. Chemical modification of serine/threonine and histidine showed that the partial necessity of these residues for the hemagglutinating activity of ACL. However, modifications of arginine, tyrosine and cysteine residues had no effect on its agglutinating activity.

  10. Purification and characterization of a new type lactose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Konami, Y; Yamamoto, K; Osawa, T

    1991-02-01

    A new type lactose-binding lectin was purified from extracts of Ulex europaeus seeds by affinity chromatography on a column of galactose-Sepharose 4B, followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. This lectin, designated as Ulex europaeus lectin III (UEA-III), was found to be inhibited by lactose. The dimeric lectin is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 70,000 Da; it consists of two apparently identical subunits of a molecular mass of 34,000 Da. Compositional analysis showed that this lectin contains 30% carbohydrate and a large amount of aspartic acid, serine and valine, but no sulfur-containing amino acids. The N-terminal amino-acid sequences of L-fucose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin I (UEA-I) and di-N-acetylchitobiose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin II (UEA-II), both of which we have already purified and characterized, and that of UEA-III were determined and compared.

  11. Working with Enzymes - Where Is Lactose Digested? An Enzyme Assay for Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Sandi R.; Tolleson, Tonya D.; Williams, R. Jill; Underhill, Russell D.; Deal, S. Todd

    1998-06-01

    At Georgia Southern University, we offer a sophomore-level introductory biochemistry course that is aimed at nutrition and chemistry education majors. The laboratory portion of this course has long lacked an experimental introduction to enzymes. We have developed a simple enzyme assay utilizing lactase enzyme from crushed LactAid tablets and a 5% lactose solution ("synthetic milk"). In the experiment, the students assay the activity of the enzyme on the "synthetic milk" at pHs of approximately 1, 6, and 8 with the stated goal of determining where lactose functions in the digestive tract. The activity of the lactase may be followed chromatographically or spectrophotometrically. The experiment, which is actually a simple pH assay, is easily implemented in allied health chemistry laboratory courses and readily lends itself to adaptation for more complex kinetic assays in upper-level biochemistry laboratory courses. The experimental details, including a list of required supplies and hints for implementation, are provided.

  12. Lactose-Functionalized Dendrimers Arbitrate the Interaction of Galectin-3/MUC1 Mediated Cancer Cellular Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Anna K.; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    By using lactose-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimers as a tunable multivalent platform, we studied cancer cell aggregation in three different cell lines (A549, DU-145, and HT-1080) with galectin-3. We found that small lactose-functionalized G(2)-dendrimer 1 inhibited galectin-3-induced aggregation of the cancer cells. In contrast, dendrimer 4 (a larger, generation 6 dendrimer with 100 carbohydrate end groups) caused cancer cells to aggregate through a galectin-3 pathway. This study indicates that inhibition of cellular aggregation occurred because 1 provided competitive binding sites for galectin-3 (compared to its putative cancer cell ligand, TF-antigen on MUC1). Dendrimer 4, in contrast, provided an excess of ligands for galectin-3 binding; this caused crosslinking and aggregation of cells to be increased. PMID:25138772

  13. Comparative absorption of [13C]glucose and [13C]lactose by premature infants.

    PubMed

    Murray, R D; Boutton, T W; Klein, P D; Gilbert, M; Paule, C L; MacLean, W C

    1990-01-01

    Oxidation of orally administered [13C]glucose and [13C]lactose and fecal recovery of malabsorbed substrates were determined in two groups of premature infants. Eighteen studies were performed with six infants at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH); 24 studies were performed with nine infants at Columbus Children's Hospital (CCH). The two groups differed in that JHH infants had shorter gestations but were older when studied. Fecal 13C loss after [13C]glucose administration did not differ between the two groups. Compared with glucose, the metabolism of lactose appeared to involve more malabsorption and colonic fermentation in JHH infants than in CCH infants and resulted in higher fecal losses of substrate carbon. Maturation appeared to involve increased proximal intestinal absorption and greater retention of absorbed carbohydrate. Simultaneous absorption of substrate from the small and large intestine may limit the usefulness of breath tests for 13C in the premature infant.

  14. Continuous lactose fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum--assessment of acidogenesis kinetics.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Fabio; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Marzocchella, Antonio; Salatino, Piero

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the growth kinetics of acidogenic cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 is reported in the paper. Tests were carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor under controlled conditions adopting a complex medium supplemented with lactose as carbon source to mimic cheese whey. The effects of acids (acetic and butyric), solvents (acetone, ethanol and butanol) and pH on the growth rate of acidogenic cells were assessed. The conversion process was characterized under steady-state conditions in terms of concentration of lactose, cells, acids, total organic carbon and pH. The growth kinetics was expressed by means of a multiple product inhibition and interacting model including a novel formulation to account for the role of pH. The model has the potential to predict microorganism growth rate under a broad interval of operating conditions, even those typical of solvents production.

  15. Quinolone resistance and ornithine decarboxylation activity in lactose-negative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gomig, Franciane; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; de Freitas, Denis Leandro; Labas, Larissa; Etto, Rafael Mazer; Esmerino, Luiz Antonio; de Lima, Marcelo Andrade; Appel, Marcia Helena; Zanata, Silvio Marques; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Nader, Helena Bonciani; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are widely used to treat uropathogenic Escherichia coli infections. Bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials primarily involves mutations in gyrA and parC genes. To date, no studies have examined the potential relationship between biochemical characteristics and quinolone resistance in uropathogenic E. coli strains. The present work analyzed the quinolone sensitivity and biochemical activities of fifty-eight lactose-negative uropathogenic E. coli strains. A high percentage of the isolates (48.3%) was found to be resistant to at least one of the tested quinolones, and DNA sequencing revealed quinolone resistant determining region gyrA and parC mutations in the multi-resistant isolates. Statistical analyses suggested that the lack of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity is correlated with quinolone resistance. Despite the low number of isolates examined, this is the first study correlating these characteristics in lactose-negative E. coli isolates. PMID:26413057

  16. Defining the critical material attributes of lactose monohydrate in carrier based dry powder inhaler formulations using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Hanne; Hebbink, Gerald; Peters, Harry; Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to establish a function-based relationship between the physical and bulk properties of pre-blended mixtures of fine and coarse lactose grades with the in vitro performance of an adhesive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Different grades of micronised and milled lactose (Lactohale (LH) LH300, LH230, LH210 and Sorbolac 400) were pre-blended with coarse grades of lactose (LH100, LH206 and Respitose SV010) at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 wt.%. The bulk and rheological properties and particle size distributions were characterised. The pre-blends were formulated with micronised budesonide and in vitro performance in a Cyclohaler device tested using a next-generation impactor (NGI) at 90 l/min. Correlations between the lactose properties and in vitro performance were established using linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses. The addition of milled and micronised lactose fines with the coarse lactose had a significant influence on physical and rheological properties of the bulk lactose. Formulations of the different pre-blends with budesonide directly influenced in vitro performance attributes including fine particle fraction, mass median aerodynamic diameter and pre-separator deposition. While linear regression suggested a number of physical and bulk properties may influence in vitro performance, ANN analysis suggested the critical parameters in describing in vitro deposition patterns were the relative concentrations of lactose fines % < 4.5 μm and % < 15 μm. These data suggest that, for an adhesive API, the proportion of fine particles below % < 4.5 μm and % < 15 μm could be used in rational dry powder inhaler formulation design.

  17. Windowing of THz time-domain spectroscopy signals: A study based on lactose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Cabo, José; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Fraile-Peláez, Francisco Javier; Rubiños-López, Óscar; López-Santos, José María; Martín-Ramos, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Time-domain spectroscopy has established itself as a reference method for determining material parameters in the terahertz spectral range. This procedure requires the processing of the measured time-domain signals in order to estimate the spectral data. In this work, we present a thorough study of the properties of the signal windowing, a step previous to the parameter extraction algorithm, that permits to improve the accuracy of the results. Lactose has been used as sample material in the study.

  18. Properties of the Sodium Naproxen-Lactose-Tetrahydrate Co-Crystal upon Processing and Storage.

    PubMed

    Sovago, Ioana; Wang, Wenbo; Qiu, Danwen; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger; Rades, Thomas; Bond, Andrew D; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2016-04-19

    Co-crystals and co-amorphous systems are two strategies to improve the physical properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and, thus, have recently gained considerable interest both in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, the behavior of the recently identified sodium naproxen-lactose-tetrahydrate co-crystal and the co-amorphous mixture of sodium, naproxen, and lactose was investigated. The structure of the co-crystal is described using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structural analysis revealed a monoclinic lattice, space group P21, with the asymmetric unit containing one molecule of lactose, one of naproxen, sodium, and four water molecules. Upon heating, it was observed that the co-crystal transforms into a co-amorphous system due to the loss of its crystalline bound water. Dehydration and co-amorphization were studied using synchrotron X-ray radiation and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Subsequently, different processing techniques (ball milling, spray drying, and dehydration) were used to prepare the co-amorphous mixture of sodium, naproxen, and lactose. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) revealed the amorphous nature of the mixtures after preparation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed that the blends were single-phase co-amorphous systems as indicated by a single glass transition temperature. The samples were subsequently tested for physical stability under dry (silica gel at 25 and 40 °C) and humid conditions (25 °C/75% RH). The co-amorphous samples stored at 25 °C/75% RH quickly recrystallized into the co-crystalline state. On the other hand, the samples stored under dry conditions remained physically stable after five months of storage, except the ball milled sample stored at 40 °C which showed signs of recrystallization. Under these dry conditions, however, the ball-milled co-amorphous blend crystallized into the individual crystalline components.

  19. Outbreak of food poisoning caused by lactose-fermenting Salmonella tuebingen.

    PubMed

    Dube, S D

    1983-04-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning occurred in a cafeteria and involved 102 student nurses. A lactose-fermenting strain of Salmonella tuebingen was isolated. The source was traced to the chicken consumed. Production of H2S was not evident on triple sugar iron but was detected on lysine iron agar. Therefore, the present report emphasizes the importance of bismuth sulfite agar and lysine iron agar for routine use in the isolation of salmonellae from stool.

  20. Acute allergic reaction due to milk proteins contaminating lactose added to corticosteroid for injection.

    PubMed

    Eda, Asuka; Sugai, Kazuko; Shioya, Hiromi; Fujitsuka, Asako; Ito, Setsuko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Funabiki, Tetsunori

    2009-03-01

    We encountered two patients with severe cow's milk allergy who reacted strongly to an injection of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (Sol-Medrol 40 mg Pfizer, Japan). They came to our hospital because of an asthmatic attack or urticaria and were treated with Sol-Medrol 40 mg. After the injection, the allergic reaction was immediate. Skin prick tests demonstrated that the beta-lactoglobulin contaminating the lactose of the drug preparation caused the immediate allergic reaction.

  1. Understanding the effect of lactose particle size on the properties of DPI formulations using experimental design.

    PubMed

    Guenette, Estelle; Barrett, Andrew; Kraus, Debbie; Brody, Rachel; Harding, Ljiljana; Magee, Gavin

    2009-10-01

    Medicines for delivering therapeutic agents to the lung as dry powders primarily consist of a carrier and a micronised active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The performance of an inhaled formulation will depend on a number of factors amongst which the particle size distribution (PSD) plays a key role. It is suggested that increasing the number of fine particles in the carrier can improve the aerosolisation of the API. In addition the effect of PSD upon a bulk powder is also broadly understood in terms of powder flow. Other aspects of functionality that different size fractions of the carrier affect are not clearly understood; for example, it is not yet clearly known how different size fractions contribute to the different functionalities of the carrier. It is the purpose of this investigation to examine the effects of different lactose size fractions on fine particle dose, formulation stability and the ability to process and fill the material in the preferred device. In order to understand the true impact of the size fractions of lactose on the performance of dry powder inhaled (DPI) products, a statistically designed study has been conducted. The study comprised various DPI blend formulations prepared using lactose monohydrate carrier systems consisting of mixtures of four size fractions. Interactive mixtures were prepared containing 1% (w/w) salbutamol sulphate. The experimental design enabled the evaluation of the effect of lactose size fractions on processing and performance attributes of the formulation. Furthermore, the results of the study demonstrate that an experimental design approach can be used successfully to support dry powder formulation development.

  2. Lactose-hydrolyzed milk is more prone to chemical changes during storage than conventional ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Therese; Clausen, Morten R; Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Eggers, Nina; Nyegaard, Steffen; Larsen, Lotte B; Ray, Colin; Sundgren, Anja; Andersen, Henrik J; Bertram, Hanne C

    2014-08-06

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose gives rise to reactions that change the chemistry and quality of ambient-stored lactose-hydrolyzed ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare chemical changes in lactose-hydrolyzed and conventional UHT milk during a 9 month ambient storage period. Several complementary analyses of volatiles, free amino acids, acetate, furosine, and level of free amino terminals were concluded. The analyses revealed an increased level of free amino acids and an increased formation rate of specific compounds such as furosine and 2-methylbutanal in lactose-hydrolyzed UHT milk compared to conventional UHT milk during storage. These observations indicate more favorable conditions for Maillard and subsequent reactions in lactose-hydrolyzed milk compared to conventional UHT milk stored at ambient temperature. Furthermore, it is postulated that proteolytic activity from the lactase-enzyme preparation may be responsible for the observed higher levels of free amino acids in lactose-hydrolyzed UHT milk.

  3. Estimation of lactose hydrolysis by freezing point measurements in milk and whey substrates treated with lactases from various microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, S L; Frank, J F; Loewenstein, M

    1981-11-01

    beta-Galactosidase concentrates obtained from several microorganisms were used to hydrolyze skim milk, low fat (2%) milk, sweet whey, acid whey, acid whey permeate, and acid whey concentrate. Among acid substrates, the freezing point depression for each 1% lactose hydrolyzed was the greatest with the lactase from Aspergillus niger (0.0501 degrees H); among neutral substrates, the depression was greater in sweet whey (0.0495 degree H) and lesser in low fat milk (0.0445 degrees H). All data were statistically significant. The average freezing point depression for each 1% lactose hydrolyzed wa s0.0468 degrees H (range 0.0436-0.0501 degrees H). Oligosaccharides formed in the lactose hydrolysis inconsistent freezing point readings of the cryoscope at the low freezing points measured, and protease contamination in some lactases may affect the precision of freezing point determination. Hydration and volume of non-protein components in commercial enzymes, unstable color complex formed by lactose and methylamine solution, and difficulty in the use of methylamine solution might cause variations in determination of lactose by the analytical procedure. These factors can be eliminated or minimized. This method is the simplest and quickest estimation of lactose hydrolysis, and it offers great accuracy and consistency.

  4. Growth-Phase Sterigmatocystin Formation on Lactose Is Mediated via Low Specific Growth Rates in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Németh, Zoltán; Molnár, Ákos P.; Fejes, Balázs; Novák, Levente; Karaffa, Levente; Keller, Nancy P.; Fekete, Erzsébet

    2016-01-01

    Seed contamination with polyketide mycotoxins such as sterigmatocystin (ST) produced by Aspergilli is a worldwide issue. The ST biosynthetic pathway is well-characterized in A. nidulans, but regulatory aspects related to the carbon source are still enigmatic. This is particularly true for lactose, inasmuch as some ST production mutant strains still synthesize ST on lactose but not on other carbon substrates. Here, kinetic data revealed that on d-glucose, ST forms only after the sugar is depleted from the medium, while on lactose, ST appears when most of the carbon source is still available. Biomass-specified ST production on lactose was significantly higher than on d-glucose, suggesting that ST formation may either be mediated by a carbon catabolite regulatory mechanism, or induced by low specific growth rates attainable on lactose. These hypotheses were tested by d-glucose limited chemostat-type continuous fermentations. No ST formed at a high growth rate, while a low growth rate led to the formation of 0.4 mg·L−1 ST. Similar results were obtained with a CreA mutant strain. We concluded that low specific growth rates may be the primary cause of mid-growth ST formation on lactose in A. nidulans, and that carbon utilization rates likely play a general regulatory role during biosynthesis. PMID:27916804

  5. Impact of lactose starvation on the physiology of Lactobacillus casei GCRL163 in the presence or absence of tween 80.

    PubMed

    Al-Naseri, Ali; Bowman, John P; Wilson, Richard; Nilsson, Rolf E; Britz, Margaret L

    2013-11-01

    The global proteomic response of the nonstarter lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei strain GCRL163 under carbohydrate depletion was investigated to understand aspects of its survival following cessation of fermentation. The proteome of L. casei GCRL163 was analyzed quantitatively after growth in modified MRS (with and without Tween 80) with different levels of lactose (0% lactose, starvation; 0.2% lactose, growth limiting; 1% lactose, non-growth-limited control) using gel-free proteomics. Results revealed that carbohydrate starvation lead to suppression of lactose and galactose catabolic pathways as well as pathways for nucleotide and protein synthesis. Enzymes of the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, amino acid synthesis, and pyruvate and citrate metabolism become more abundant as well as other carbohydrate catabolic pathways, suggesting increased optimization of intermediary metabolism and scavenging. Tween 80 did not affect growth yield; however, proteins related to fatty acid biosynthesis were repressed in the presence of Tween 80. The data suggest that L. casei adeptly switches to a scavenging mode, using both citrate and Tween 80, and efficiently adjusts energetic requirements when carbohydrate starved and thus can sustain survival for weeks to months. Explaining the adaptation of L. casei during lactose starvation will assist efforts to maintain viability of L. casei and extend its utility as a beneficial dietary adjunct and fermentation processing aid.

  6. In vivo pharmacological evaluation of a lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shayli Varasteh; Varamini, Pegah; Steyn, Frederik; Toth, Istvan

    2015-11-10

    In the current study, the efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) was examined following oral administration in male rats. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry technique was developed and applied for measuring the concentration of lactose[Q(1)][w(6)]LHRH (compound 1) in rat plasma in order to allow measurement of pharmacokinetic parameters. LH release was evaluated using a sandwich ELISA. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax = 0.11 μg/ml) was reached at 2h (Tmax) following oral administration of the compound at 10mg/kg. The half-life was determined to be 2.6h. The absolute bioavailability of the orally administered compound was found to be 14%, which was a remarkable improvement compared to zero-to-low oral bioavailability of the native peptide. Compound 1 was effective in stimulating LH release at 20mg/kg after oral administration. The method was validated at a linear range of 0.01-20.0 μg/ml and a correlation coefficient of r(2) ≥ 0.999. The accuracy and precision values showed the reliability and reproducibility of the method for evaluation of the pharmacokinetic parameters. These findings showed that the lactose derivative of LHRH has a therapeutic potential to be further developed as an orally active therapeutics for the treatment of hormone-dependent diseases.

  7. Regulation of product formation during glucose or lactose limitation in nongrowing cells of Streptococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, A M; Crow, V L; Thomas, T D

    1984-08-01

    Nongrowing cells of Streptococcus lactis in a pH-stat were dosed with sugar to allow fermentation at the maximum rate or were fed a continuous supply of sugar at rates less than the maximum. Under anaerobic conditions, rapid fermentation of either glucose or lactose was essentially homolactic. However, with strain ML3, limiting the fermentation rate diverted approximately half of the pyruvate to formate, acetate, and ethanol. At limiting glucose fermentation rates, cells contained lower concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase activator (fructose 1,6-diphosphate) and pyruvate formate-lyase inhibitors (triose phosphates). As a result, pyruvate formate-lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase play a greater role in pyruvate metabolism. In contrast to strain ML3, strain ML8 did not give the same diversion of products under anaerobic conditions, and cells retained higher concentrations of the above effector compounds. Lactose metabolism under aerobic conditions resulted in pyruvate excretion by both S. lactis ML3 and ML8. At 7% of the maximum utilization rate, pyruvate accounted for 69 and 35% of the lactose metabolized by ML3 and ML8, respectively. Acetate was also a major product, especially with ML8. The data suggest that NADH oxidase is involved in coenzyme recycling in the presence of oxygen and that pyruvate formate-lyase is inactivated, but the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex still functions.

  8. Lactose synthetase activity in mouse mammary glands is controlled by thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial cells in explants from the mammary glands of euthyroid mature virgin mice are proliferatively dormant. They must undergo DNA synthesis and traverse the cell cycle in vitro before they are able to differentiate fully in response to insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin, and synthesize enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin (measured as lactose synthetase activity). In contrast, glands from hyperthyroid mature virgin mice do not require DNA synthesis in vitro to differentiate. Explants from the euthyroid virgin tissue overcome their dependence on DNA synthesis when 10(-9) M 3,5,3'-triiodo-L- thyronine is added directly to the cultures in addition to the other three hormones. Explants from involuted mammary glands from euthyroid primiparous mice do not require DNA synthesis in vitro to make the milk protein even though they, like explants from mature euthyroid virgin tissue, are proliferatively dormant and do not contain detectable lactose synthetase activity in vivo. Glands from primiparous animals made mildly hypothyroid by ingestion of 0.1% thiouracil in drinking water during 7 wk of involution remain morphologically indistinguishable from glands of their euthyroid counterparts. However, explants from the glands of these hypothyroid animals revert to a state of dependence on DNA synthesis to differentiate functionally. These observations suggest that the dependence on DNA synthesis and cell cycle traversal for hormonal induction of lactose synthetase activity in the mouse mammary gland is controlled by thyroid hormones. PMID:117014

  9. Comparison of the THz absorption feature in lactose to related saccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjarnason, Jon E.; Brown, Elliott R.; Korter, Timothy M.

    2007-04-01

    Solid-state organic compounds such as α-lactose-monohydrate and biotin have been shown to have narrow and intense THz absorption features at room temperature. Interest in lineshapes in the THz region is justified not only for practical reasons, since they are of crucial importance to spectroscopy-based identification of materials, but also because of the information the line-widths contain about the solid-state physics of the materials. The line-width of THz absorption features (generally from lattice vibrations) in solids is excepted to be inversely proportional to the scattering time of optical phonons. The line-width of absorption features might thus have implications on the solid-state physics of the material, in particular, the interaction of phonons and the phonon density of states. We use a continuous wave THz photomixing system to obtain a high resolution spectrum of α-lactose-mohohydrate and analyze two of its lowest-frequency absorption lines. For comparison we measure the transmission spectra of 5 chemically related saccharides: melecitose, trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, and raffinose. Since α-lactose-monohydrate has a stronger and narrower absorption feature than any of its related saccharides, this comparison study is an important step in understanding the mechanism of THz radiation absorption by organic solids and what line-widths to expect in THz spectroscopy.

  10. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, E.C.; Barondes, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found.

  11. FOOD INTOLERANCES AND ASSOCIATED SYMPTOMS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING FOBI-CAPELLA TECHNIQUE WITHOUT GASTRIC RING

    PubMed Central

    MOREIRA, Marcella de Arruda; ESPÍNOLA, Patrícia Ramos Maciel; de AZEVEDO, Camila Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is considered the only effective method to treat refractory obesity, and especially for those in which clinical treatment was not successful. However, the appearance of food intolerances and clinical manifestations are quite common. Aim To identify food intolerances and associated them to symptoms in patients undergoing Fobi-Capella technique without gastric ring. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of adult patients who had more than one year after surgery. Demographic, anthropometric, weight and preoperative height data were investigated. Nutritional status was classified according to the criteria established by the World Health Organization. It was considered food intolerance the presence of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or bloating after eating a particular food. Results The sample consisted of 61 patients who attended the nutritional consultation of which 26 (42.6%) had food intolerance, mostly related to red meat (n=12; 34.3%) during the first six months of operation; there was a significant difference between the periods between 0 and 6 months, and 7 to 12 (p=0.02). Among the symptoms reported by patients, nausea was the most recurrent until the 6th month, but without significant differences between the two periods (p=0.06). Conclusions The Fobi-Capella procedure without gastric ring promoted high frequency of intolerance to meat in general, especially for the red, chicken and fish, on this sequence; nausea was the most frequent symptom. These data suggest the need for adequate nutritional monitoring throughout the postoperative period. PMID:25861067

  12. Novel cellobiose 2-epimerases for the production of epilactose from milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose.

    PubMed

    Krewinkel, Manuel; Kaiser, Jana; Merz, Michael; Rentschler, Eva; Kuschel, Beatrice; Hinrichs, Jörg; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    A selected number of enzymes have recently been assigned to the emerging class of cellobiose 2-epimerases (CE). All CE convert lactose to the rare sugar epilactose, which is regarded as a new prebiotic. Within this study, the gene products of 2 potential CE genes originating from the mesophilic bacteria Cellulosilyticum lentocellum and Dysgonomonas gadei were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatography. The enzymes have been identified as novel CE by sequence analysis and biochemical characterizations. The biochemical characterizations included the determination of the molecular weight, the substrate spectrum, and the kinetic parameters, as well as the pH and temperature profiles in buffer and food matrices. Both identified CE epimerize cellobiose and lactose into the C2 epimerization products glucosylmannose and epilactose, respectively. The epimerization activity for lactose was maximal at pH 8.0 or 7.5 and 40°C in defined buffer systems for the CE from C. lentocellum and the CE from D. gadei, respectively. In addition, biotransformations of the foodstuff milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose were demonstrated. The CE from D. gadei was produced in a stirred-tank reactor (12 L) and purified using an automatic system. Enzyme production and purification in this scale indicates that a future upscaling of CE production is possible. The bioconversions of lactose in milk ultrafiltrate were carried out either in a batch process or in a continuously operated enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) process. Both processes ran at an industrially relevant low temperature of 8°C to reduce undesirable microbial growth. The enzyme was reasonably active at the low process temperature because the CE originated from a mesophilic organism. An epilactose yield of 29.9% was achieved in the batch process within 28 h of operation time. In the continuous EMR process, the epilactose yield in the product stream was lower, at 18.5%. However, the enzyme productivity

  13. Food intolerance, diet composition, and eating patterns in functional dyspepsia patients.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Roberta Villas Boas; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Almeida, Jazon Romilson de Souza; Mesquita, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate dietary factors, food intolerance, and the body mass index data, as an indicator of nutritional status, in functional dyspepsia patients. Forty-one functional dyspepsia patients and 30 healthy volunteers answered a standardized questionnaire to identify eating habits and food intolerance, and then completed a 7-day alimentary diary. There was no significant difference in daily total caloric intake between patients and controls. Patients associated their symptoms with the ingestion of several foods, but in general maintained their regular intake, with the exception of a small reduction in the proportion of fat in comparison with controls (median 28 vs. 34%; P = 0.001). No patient was underweight. In conclusion, our results suggest that food intolerance has no remarkable influence on food pattern and nutritional status in most functional dyspepsia patients. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of fat in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms.

  14. Orthostatic intolerance and the postural tachycardia syndrome: genetic and environment pathophysiologies. Neurolab Autonomic Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A. C.; Diedrich, A.; Carson, R.; Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a common problem for inbound space travelers. There is usually tachycardia on standing but blood pressure may be normal, low or, rarely, elevated. This condition is analogous to the orthostatic intolerance that occurs on Earth in individuals with orthostatic tachycardia, palpitations, mitral valve prolapse, and light-headedness. Our studies during the Neurolab mission indicated that sympathetic nerve traffic is raised in microgravity and that plasma norepinephrine is higher than baseline supine levels but lower than baseline upright levels. A subgroup of patients with familial orthostatic intolerance differ from inbound space travelers in that they have an alanine-to-to-proline mutation at amino acid position 457 in their norepinephrine transporter gene. This leads to poor clearance of norepinephrine from synapses, with consequent raised heart rate. Clinical features of these syndromes are presented.

  15. [Infusion-associated kidney and liver failure in undiagnosed hereditary fructose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Müller-Wiefel, D E; Steinmann, B; Holm-Hadulla, M; Wille, L; Schärer, K; Gitzelmann, R

    1983-06-24

    Appendectomy was performed in a 14 1/2-year-old boy with undiagnosed hereditary fructose intolerance because of chronic recurrent abdominal pain. During and after operation fructose containing solutions were infused. The patient received a total of 250 g fructose intravenously over 30 hours. Hours after onset of infusion he became soporous, hypoglycaemic and acidotic and was anuric after one day. Although the diagnosis was suspected by the end of the first postoperative day and fructose had been cancelled and haemodialysis been started, the boy died after a further 3 days with signs of acute kidney and liver failure. The diagnosis of hereditary fructose intolerance was biochemically established in post mortem liver tissue. This case recalls the fact that fructose, sorbitol or invert sugars should not be added to infusion solutions as they may be toxic for healthy persons and imply a lethal risk for patients with undiagnosed hereditary fructose intolerance, even well beyond the baby and infant period.

  16. Effects of exercise and metformin on the prevention of glucose intolerance: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Molena-Fernandes, C.; Bersani-Amado, C. A.; Ferraro, Z. M.; Hintze, L. J.; Nardo, N.; Cuman, R. K. N.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment. PMID:26421869

  17. Blood pressure and plasma renin activity as predictors of orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. H.; Kravik, S. E.; Geelen, G.; Keil, L.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 3 h standing, followed by a period of head-up tilt (HUT) on physiological response (orthostatic tolerance, blood pressure and heart rate), as well as on plasma vasopressin (PVP) and renin activity (PRA) were studied in 13 dehydrated (to 2.4 pct loss of body weight) subjects. Seven subjects showed signs of orthostatic intolerance (INT), manifested by sweating, pallor, nausea and dizziness. Prior to these symptoms, the INT subjects exhibited lower systolic (SP) and pulse (PP) pressures, and an elevated PRA, compared to the tolerant (TOL) subjects. HUT has aggravated increases of RPA in the INT subjects and caused an increase, higher than in TOL subjects, in PVP, while rehydration has greatly attenuated the PVP response to the HUT and decreased the PRA response. It is concluded that dehydration, together with measurements of SP, PP and PRA, may serve as a means of predicting orthostatic intolerance and may provide a physiological model for studying the causes of intolerance.

  18. Social connectedness and intolerance of uncertainty as moderators between racial microaggressions and anxiety among Black individuals.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Weng, Chih-Yuan; West, Lindsey M

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether a cultural factor (i.e., social connectedness) and a dispositional characteristic (i.e., intolerance of uncertainty) would serve as risk factors or protective factors in the association between perceived racial microaggressions and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 126 Black American individuals. Results demonstrated that perceived racial microaggression was positively associated with anxiety symptoms in Black Americans. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses identified ethnic social connectedness and intolerance of uncertainty as moderators for anxiety symptoms. Specifically, social connectedness to one's ethnic community served as a buffer and intolerance of uncertainty acted as an exacerbating factor in the relationship between perceived racial microaggressions and anxiety symptoms. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  19. (51Cr)EDTA intestinal permeability in children with cow's milk intolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Schrander, J.J.; Unsalan-Hooyen, R.W.; Forget, P.P.; Jansen, J. )

    1990-02-01

    Making use of ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA as a permeability marker, we measured intestinal permeability in a group of 20 children with proven cow's milk intolerance (CMI), a group of 17 children with similar complaints where CMI was excluded (sick controls), and a group of 12 control children. ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test results (mean +/- SD) were 6.85 +/- 3.64%, 3.42 +/- 0.94%, and 2.61 +/- 0.67% in the group with CMI, the sick control, and the control group, respectively. When compared to both control groups, patients with cow's milk intolerance (CMI) showed a significantly increased small bowel permeability. We conclude that the ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test can be helpful for the diagnosis of cow's milk intolerance.

  20. An experimental analysis of acquired impulse control among adult humans intolerant to alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianxin; Rao, Yulei; Houser, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to control tempting impulses impacts health, education, and general socioeconomic outcomes among people at all ages. Consequently, whether and how impulse control develops in adult populations is a topic of enduring interest. Although past research has shed important light on this question using controlled intervention studies, here we take advantage of a natural experiment in China, where males but not females encounter substantial social pressure to consume alcohol. One-third of our sample, all of whom are Han Chinese, is intolerant to alcohol, whereas the remaining control sample is observationally identical but alcohol tolerant. Consistent with previous literature, we find that intolerant males are significantly more likely to exercise willpower to limit their alcohol consumption than alcohol-tolerant males. In view of the strength model of self-control, we hypothesize that this enables improved impulse control in other contexts as well. To investigate this hypothesis, we compare decisions in laboratory games of self-control between the tolerant and intolerant groups. We find that males intolerant to alcohol and who regularly encounter drinking environments control their selfish impulses significantly better than their tolerant counterparts. On the other hand, we find that female Han Chinese intolerant to alcohol do not use self-control to limit alcohol consumption more than tolerant females, nor do the tolerant and intolerant females exhibit differences in self-control behaviors. Our research indicates that impulse control can be developed in adult populations as a result of self-control behaviors in natural environments, and shows that this skill has generalizable benefits across behavioral domains. PMID:28119501

  1. Food intolerance: a major factor in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, V A; McLaughlan, P; Shorthouse, M; Workman, E; Hunter, J O

    1982-11-20

    Specific foods were found to provoke symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in 14 of 21 patients. In 6 patients who were challenged double blind the food intolerance was confirmed. No difference was detected in changes in plasma glucose, histamine, immune complexes, haematocrit, eosinophil count, or breath hydrogen excretion produced after challenge or control foods. Rectal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), however, increased significantly, and in a further 5 patients rectal PGE2 correlated with wet faecal weight. Food intolerance associated with prostaglandin production is an important factor in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  2. Arachidonic acid metabolism and inhibition of cyclooxygenase in platelets from asthmatic subjects with aspirin intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bonne, C; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Wayoff, M; Descharmes, A; Gazel, P; Legrand, A; Kalt, C

    1985-02-01

    Exaggerated inhibition of cyclooxygenase has been proposed as a mechanism of drug-induced bronchospasm in aspirin-intolerant patients. This study, using platelets, shows that inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis by aspirin is unmodified in patients when compared with healthy subjects. The ratio of cyclooxygenase:lipoxygenase products is similar in platelets from patients and control subjects. We conclude that the cyclooxygenase alteration observed in cells from the respiratory tract is not generalised to other cells such as platelets. We also propose that the major abnormality in NSAID-intolerant patients would affect receptivity to lipoxygenase products more than their biosynthesis.

  3. Contact lens intolerance: refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy

    PubMed Central

    López-López, María; Pelegrín-Sánchez, José Miguel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; García-Ayuso, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Corneal refractive therapy is a non-surgical procedure whose main purpose is to improve uncorrected visual acuity during the day, without spectacles or contact lenses. We report an adult woman who shows contact lens intolerance and does not want to wear eyeglasses. We used dual axis contact lens to improve lens centration. We demonstrate a maintained unaided visual acuity during one year of treatment. In conclusion, we can consider refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy as a non-surgical option for patients who show contact lens intolerance.

  4. Identification of a lactose-responsive element upstream of the promoter of Bacillus megaterium beta-galactosidase-encoding gene mbgA.

    PubMed

    Li, Jen-Ming; Chiou, Chih-Yung; Lee, Tian-Ren; Chen, Yuan-Shou; Shaw, Gwo-Chyuan

    2005-07-01

    The Bacillus megaterium mbgA gene encodes a lactose-hydrolyzing beta-galactosidase. An AraC/XylS-type activator BgaR can activate mbgA transcription in response to lactose. In this report, we show by various deletion analyses and point mutagenesis analyses that an inverted repeat centered at position -60.5 relative to the mbgA transcriptional initiation site is the cis-acting element responsible for lactose induction of mbgA expression.

  5. Differences in the hydrolysis of lactose and other substrates by beta-D-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Lim, K P; Kim, H S

    1997-10-01

    The hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl galactopyranoside and lactose by beta-D-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis was enhanced by the addition of Mg2+ and Mn2+, but the rates of activation by each metal on both substrates were not the same. The Co2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ activated the o-nitrophenyl galactopyranoside-hydrolyzing activity of the enzyme, but these same metals inhibited the lactose-hydrolyzing activity. The addition of Mg2+ and EDTA to the assay buffer increased the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl galactopyranoside and lactose at different rates. The responses of o-nitrophenyl galactopyranoside and lactose to the enzyme activity were different as a function of pH. The hydrolyzing activity toward both substrates also was influenced by the concentration of the phosphate in the assay buffer. However, the profile of the enzyme activity toward each substrate was different as a function of concentration. Because the assay of beta-galactosidase using o-nitrophenyl galactopyranoside is fast and convenient, the estimation of lactose-hydrolyzing activity of the enzyme has frequently been made based on the assay of o-nitrophenyl galactopyranoside hydrolysis. As shown in this study, a slight change in the conditions of the assay system and the enzyme application may cause changes in the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze both lactose and o-nitrophenyl galactopyranoside. The change in o-nitrophenyl galactopyranoside-hydrolyzing activity is not always consistent with that of the lactose-hydrolyzing activity under the given condition, which may cause an inaccurate estimation of the enzyme activity in the enzyme preparation as well as in actual applications of the enzyme.

  6. A quantitation of the factors which affect the hydrolase and transgalactosylase activities of beta-galactosidase (E. coli) on lactose.

    PubMed

    Huber, R E; Kurz, G; Wallenfels, K

    1976-05-04

    A study was implemented to quantitate the hydrolase and transgalactosylase activities of beta-galactosidase (E. coli) with lactose as the substrate and to investigate various factors which affect these activities. At low lactose concentrations the rate of galactose production was equal to the rate of glucose production. The rate of galactose production relative to glucose, however, dropped dramatically at lactose concentrations higher than 0.05 M and production of trisaccharides and tetrasaccharides began (galactose/glucose ratios of about 2:1 and 3:1, respectively, were found for these two types of oligosaccharides). At least five different trissacharides were formed and their patterns of formation showed that they probably utilized both lactose and allolactose as galactosyl acceptors. Allolactose was produced in amounts proportional to glucose at all lactose concentrations (ratios of allolactose/glucose were about 0.88). Analyses of various data, including a reaction analyzed at very early times, showed that the major means of production of allolactose (and the only means initially) was the direct enzymatic transfer of galactose from the 4 position to the 6 position of the glucose moiety of lactose without prior release of glucose from the enzyme. It was shown, however, that allolactose could also be formed in significant quantities by the transfer of galactose to the 6 position of free glucose, and also by hydrolysis of preformed trisaccharide. A mechanism which fits the initial velocity data was proposed in which the steps involving the formation of an enzyme-gallactose-glucose complex, the formation and breakage of allolactose on the enzyme, and the release of glucose all seem to be of roughly equal magnitude and rate determining. Various factors affected the amounts of transgalactosylase and hydrolase activities occurring. At high pH values (greater than 7.8) the transgalactosylase/hydrolyase activity ratio increased dramatically while it decreased at low p

  7. Metabolic Transition of Milk Lactose Synthesis and Up-regulation by AKT1 in Sows from Late Pregnancy to Lactation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Chen, Baoliang; Guan, Wutai; Chen, Jun; Lv, Yantao; Qiao, Hanzhen; Wang, Chaoxian; Zhang, Yinzhi

    2017-03-01

    Lactose plays a crucial role in controlling milk volume by inducing water toward into the mammary secretory vesicles from the mammary epithelial cell cytoplasm, thereby maintaining osmolality. In current study, we determined the expression of several lactose synthesis related genes, including glucose transporters (glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter 8, sodium-glucose cotransporter 1, sodium-glucose cotransporter 3, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 5), lactose synthases (α-lactalbumin and β1,4-galactosyltransferase), and hexokinases (hexokinase-1 and hexokinase-2) in sow mammary gland tissue at day 17 before delivery, on the 1st day of lactation and at peak lactation. The data showed that glucose transporter 1 was the dominant glucose transporter within sow mammary gland and that expression of each glucose transporter 1, sodium-glucose cotransporter 1, hexokinase-1, hexokinase-2, α-lactalbumin, and β1,4-galactosyltransferase were increased (p < 0.05) when the sows transited from late pregnancy to peak lactation. AKT1 over-expressed mammary epithelial cells were then constructed, and the results indicated that AKT1 increases (p < 0.01) the expression of hexokinase-1 and glucose transporter 1. In summary, lactose synthesis was significantly elevated with the increase of milk production and AKT1 could positively regulate lactose synthesis.

  8. Effect of Dairy and Nondairy Calcium on Fecal Fat Excretion in Lactose Digester and Maldigester Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buchowski, Maciej S.; Aslam, Muhammad; Dossett, Cynthia; Dorminy, Cindy; Choi, Leena; Acra, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Background The effect of dietary calcium on fecal fat excretion in lactose maldigestion is not known. Objective To investigate the effect of dairy and nondairy dietary calcium on fecal fat excretion in lactose digesters and maldigesters during moderate energy restriction. Design A randomized cross-over trial comparing the effect of 500 mg vs. 1500 mg dairy and nondairy calcium on fecal fat excretion in 34 healthy adults during moderate (− 30%) energy restriction diet-induced weight loss for 12 weeks. The participants were classified as lactose digester or maldigester on the basis of breath hydrogen test. Measurements Anthropometric parameters and body composition, resting energy expenditure, energy and nutrient intake, fecal fat, physical activity, blood pressure, blood and urine sampling for pertinent measurements. Results Fecal fat loss expressed as percent of fat intake was significantly higher with 1500 mg (high-Ca) compared to 500 mg (low-Ca) calcium intake per day (mean: 3.0%; the 95% CI: 2.3 to 3.7%; P <0.001) independent of calcium source and lactose digestion status. Conclusions During moderate energy restriction induced weight loss a high-Ca diet causes an increase in fecal fat excretion independent of calcium source. Calcium intake related fecal fat loss is also independent of the ability to digest lactose and it is not diminished over time. PMID:19823185

  9. Recovery of Whey Proteins and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lactose Derived from Casein Whey Using a Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bipasha; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-09-01

    In this study, ultrafiltration (UF) of pretreated casein whey was carried out in a cross-flow module fitted with 5 kDa molecular weight cut-off polyethersulfone membrane to recover whey proteins in the retentate and lactose in the permeate. Effects of processing conditions, like transmembrane pressure and pH on permeate flux and rejection were investigated and reported. The polarised layer resistance was found to increase with time during UF even in this high shear device. The lactose concentration in the permeate was measured using dinitro salicylic acid method. Enzymatic kinetic study for lactose hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C using β-galactosidase enzyme. The glucose formed during lactose hydrolysis was analyzed using glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose solution was found to follow Michaelis-Menten model and the model parameters were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The hydrolysis rate was found to be maximum (with Vmax = 5.5091 mmol/L/min) at 30 °C.

  10. Fed-batch fermentation for production of Kluyveromyces marxianus FII 510700 cultivated on a lactose-based medium.

    PubMed

    Lukondeh, Tredwell; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Rogers, Peter L

    2005-07-01

    A strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus was grown in batch culture in lactose-based media at varying initial lactose concentrations (10-60 g L(-1)) at 30 degrees C, pH 5.0, dissolved oxygen concentrations greater than 20%. Increasing the concentration of mineral salts three-fold at 40 g L(-1) and 60 g L(-1) initial lactose concentration showed only a small increase in the yield of biomass, from 0.38 g g(-1) to 0.41 g g(-1), indicating that the initial batch cultures were not significantly nutrient- (mineral salts)-limited. A relatively high biomass concentration (105 g L(-1)) was obtained in fed-batch culture following extended lactose feeding. An average specific growth rate (0.27 h(-1)), biomass yield (0.38 g g(-1)) and overall productivity (2.9 g L(-1) h(-1)) were obtained for these fed-batch conditions. This fed-batch protocol provides a strategy for achieving relatively high concentrations and productivities of K. marxianus on other lactose-based substrate streams (e.g., whey) from the dairy industry.

  11. Estimation of lactose interference in vaccines and a proposal of methodological adjustment of total protein determination by the lowry method.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Hideki; Okuma, Kazu; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2012-01-01

    For national regulatory testing in Japan, the Lowry method is used for the determination of total protein content in vaccines. However, many substances are known to interfere with the Lowry method, rendering accurate estimation of protein content difficult. To accurately determine the total protein content in vaccines, it is necessary to identify the major interfering substances and improve the methodology for removing such substances. This study examined the effects of high levels of lactose with low levels of protein in freeze-dried, cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine (inactivated). Lactose was selected because it is a reducing sugar that is expected to interfere with the Lowry method. Our results revealed that concentrations of ≥ 0.1 mg/mL lactose interfered with the Lowry assays and resulted in overestimation of the protein content in a lactose concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, our results demonstrated that it is important for the residual volume to be ≤ 0.05 mL after trichloroacetic acid precipitation in order to avoid the effects of lactose. Thus, the method presented here is useful for accurate protein determination by the Lowry method, even when it is used for determining low levels of protein in vaccines containing interfering substances. In this study, we have reported a methodological adjustment that allows accurate estimation of protein content for national regulatory testing, when the vaccine contains interfering substances.

  12. Hydrolysis of whey lactose by immobilized β-galactosidase in a bioreactor with a spirally wound membrane.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Nastya; Ivanov, Yavor; Damyanova, Stanka; Kostova, Iliana; Godjevargova, Tzonka

    2016-01-01

    The β-galactosidase was covalently immobilized onto a modified polypropylene membrane, using glutaraldehyde. The optimal conditions for hydrolysis of lactose (4.7%) by immobilized β-galactosidase in a batch process were determined 13.6 U enzyme activity, 40°C, pH 6.8 and 10h. The obtained degree of hydrolysis was compared with results received by a free enzyme. It was found, that the lactose hydrolysis by an immobilized enzyme was 1.6 times more effective than the lactose hydrolysis by a free enzyme. It was determined that the stability of the immobilized enzyme was 2 times higher in comparison with the stability of free enzyme. The obtained immobilized system β-galactosidase/polypropylene membrane was applied to produce glucose-galactose syrup from waste whey. The whey characteristics and the different preliminary treatments of the whey were investigated. Then the whey lactose hydrolysis in a bioreactor by an immobilized enzyme on a spirally wound membrane was performed. The optimal membrane surface and the optimal flow rate of the whey through the membrane module were determined, respectively 100 cm(2) and 1.0 mL min(-1). After 10h, the degree of lactose hydrolysis was increased to 91%. The operation stability was studied. After 20th cycle the yield of bioreactor was 69.7%.

  13. Fermentation of lactose to bio-ethanol by yeasts as part of integrated solutions for the valorisation of cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro M R; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2010-01-01

    Cheese whey, the main dairy by-product, is increasingly recognized as a source of many bioactive valuable compounds. Nevertheless, the most abundant component in whey is lactose (ca. 5% w/v), which represents a significant environmental problem. Due to the large lactose surplus generated, its conversion to bio-ethanol has long been considered as a possible solution for whey bioremediation. In this review, fermentation of lactose to ethanol is discussed, focusing on wild lactose-fermenting yeasts, particularly Kluyveromyces marxianus, and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The early efforts in the screening and characterization of the fermentation properties of wild lactose-consuming yeasts are reviewed. Furthermore, emphasis is given on the latter advances in engineering S. cerevisiae strains for efficient whey-to-ethanol bioprocesses. Examples of industrial implementation are briefly discussed, illustrating the viability of whey-to-ethanol systems. Current developments on strain engineering together with the growing market for biofuels will likely boost the industrial interest in such processes.

  14. The influence of temperature, sucrose and lactose on dilute solution properties of basil (Ocimumbasilicum) seed gum.

    PubMed

    Mirabolhassani, Seyed Elias; Rafe, Ali; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2016-12-01

    Hydrocolloid interactions with solvent/cosolutes play a vital role in the resolution of their functional properties. Basil seed gum (BSG) is a plant-derived hydrocolloid which has been found many applications in food formulations as stabilizer, emulsifier, thickener and gelling agents. Sucrose and lactose are the most effective sugars in textural and sensorial properties of bakery and dairy products which adding them to solutions containing hydrocolloids can be helpful to approach a proper formula. In this paper, the effect of temperature (25-65°C), sucrose (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and lactose (5, 10 and 15%) were investigated through some molecular parameters of BSG. Results revealed high flexible chain (665.35), intrinsic viscosity (11.38 dl/g) and hydrogel content (73%) of BSG, which may be attributed to some extent by its high molecular weight (1.73×10(6)Da). The density and intrinsic viscosity of BSG were diminished by growing temperature from 25 to 55°C. Among five models, which were applied to estimate intrinsic viscosity, Higiro-2 was the most suitable model at varying temperatures and cosolutes concentrations. The sugars showed a significant effect on the molecular parameters of BSG such as swollen specific volume, shape function, hydration parameter, and coil dimensions. The sugars showed more impact on the [η] of BSG and its molecular parameters than that of temperature. However, lactose had a more prominent effect on the BSG dimensions than that of sucrose, which can be related to its molecular conformation and spatial orientation. It is feasible to make a proper formula by BSG and explain some phenomena in its applications in food and pharmaceutical systems.

  15. Alanine screening mutagenesis establishes the critical inactivating damage of irradiated E. coli lactose repressor.

    PubMed

    Goffinont, Stephane; Villette, Sandrine; Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    The function of the E. coli lactose operon requires the binding of lactose repressor to operator DNA. We have previously shown that γ rradiation destabilizes the repressor-operator complex because the repressor loses its DNA-binding ability. It was suggested that the observed oxidation of the four tyrosines (Y7, Y12, Y17, Y47) and the concomitant structural changes of the irradiated DNA-binding domains (headpieces) could be responsible for the inactivation. To pinpoint the tyrosine whose oxidation has the strongest effect, four headpieces containing the product of tyrosine oxidation, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), were simulated by molecular dynamics. We have observed that replacing Y47 by DOPA triggers the largest change of structure and stability of the headpiece and have concluded that Y47 oxidation is the greatest contributor to the decrease of repressor binding to DNA. To experimentally verify this conclusion, we applied the alanine screening mutagenesis approach. Tetrameric mutated repressors bearing an alanine instead of each one of the tyrosines were prepared and their binding to operator DNA was checked. Their binding ability is quite similar to that of the wild-type repressor, except for the Y47A mutant whose binding is strongly reduced. Circular dichroism determinations revealed small reductions of the proportion of α helices and of the melting temperature for Y7A, Y12A and Y17A headpieces, but much larger ones were revealed for Y47A headpiece. These results established the critical role of Y47 oxidation in modifying the structure and stability of the headpiece, and in reduction of the binding ability of the whole lactose repressor.

  16. Diabetes incidence and glucose intolerance prevalence increase with higher outdoor temperature

    PubMed Central

    Blauw, Lisanne L; Aziz, N Ahmad; Tannemaat, Martijn R; Blauw, C Alexander; de Craen, Anton J; Pijl, Hanno; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2017-01-01

    Objective Rising global temperatures might contribute to the current worldwide diabetes epidemic, as higher ambient temperature can negatively impact glucose metabolism via a reduction in brown adipose tissue activity. Therefore, we examined the association between outdoor temperature and diabetes incidence in the USA as well as the prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide. Research design and methods Using meta-regression, we determined the association between mean annual temperature and diabetes incidence during 1996–2009 for each US state separately. Subsequently, results were pooled in a meta-analysis. On a global scale, we performed a meta-regression analysis to assess the association between mean annual temperature and the prevalence of glucose intolerance. Results We demonstrated that, on average, per 1°C increase in temperature, age-adjusted diabetes incidence increased with 0.314 (95% CI 0.194 to 0.434) per 1000. Similarly, the worldwide prevalence of glucose intolerance increased by 0.170% (95% CI 0.107% to 0.234%) per 1°C rise in temperature. These associations persisted after adjustment for obesity. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the diabetes incidence rate in the USA and prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide increase with higher outdoor temperature.

  17. The Relationship between Intolerance of Uncertainty, Sensory Sensitivities, and Anxiety in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neil, Louise; Olsson, Nora Choque; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Guided by a recent theory that proposes fundamental differences in how autistic individuals deal with uncertainty, we investigated the extent to which the cognitive construct "intolerance of uncertainty" and anxiety were related to parental reports of sensory sensitivities in 64 autistic and 85 typically developing children aged…

  18. Autogenic-feedback training: A potential treatment for post-flight orthostatic intolerance in aerospace crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Miller, Neil E.; Pickering, Thomas G.; Shapiro, David

    1993-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance was identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority was given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures that the subjects made, ranged between 20 and 5O mmHg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  19. Avoiding an Intolerant Society: Why Respect of Difference May Not Be the Best Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balint, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    The building and maintaining of a tolerant society requires both a general policy of toleration on the behalf of the state, as well as a minimal number of acts of intolerance by individual citizens towards their fellow citizens. It is this second area of citizen-citizen relations that is of most interest for education policy. There are those who…

  20. Student Engagement for College Students with the Hidden Disability of Orthostatic Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabin, Beverly Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This study described the factors that contribute to engagement patterns of college students with the hidden health-related disability of orthostatic intolerance. Specifically, it used a qualitative methodology and collective-case study design to explore the categories of campus physical, institutional, academic and social engagement from a student…

  1. Autogenic-feedback training: a potential treatment for orthostatic intolerance in aerospace crews.

    PubMed

    Cowings, P S; Toscano, W B; Miller, N E; Pickering, T G; Shapiro, D; Stevenson, J; Maloney, S; Knapp, J

    1994-06-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder that are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily, and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The current pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, autogenic-feedback training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine training (15-30-minute) sessions. At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures, that the subjects made ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 45 degrees head-up tilt conditions. These findings indicate that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  2. Facing the Unknown: Intolerance of Uncertainty in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Anna R.; Freeston, Mark H.; Honey, Emma; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is a common problem for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research indicates that intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may be an important aspect of anxiety for this population. IU is the belief that uncertainty is upsetting, and not knowing what is going to happen is negative. There is little known about the…

  3. Does Homeschooling or Private Schooling Promote Political Intolerance? Evidence from a Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Political tolerance is the willingness to extend civil liberties to people who hold views with which one disagrees. Some have claimed that private schooling and homeschooling are institutions that propagate political intolerance by fostering separatism and an unwillingness to consider alternative viewpoints. I empirically test this claim by…

  4. Culture Change from Tobacco Accommodation to Intolerance: Time to Connect the Dots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingood, William C., Jr.; Allegrante, John P.; Green, Lawrence W.

    2016-01-01

    Broad changes in normative health behavior are critical to overcoming many of the contemporary challenges to public health. Reduction in tobacco use during the last third of the 20th century--one of the greatest improvements in public health--illustrates such change. The culture change from accommodation to intolerance of smoking is irrefutable.…

  5. Autogenic-Feedback Training: A Potential Treatment for Orthostatic Intolerance in Aerospace Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Miller, N. E.; Pickering, T. G.; Shapiro, D.; Stevenson, J.; Maloney, S.; Knapp, J.

    1994-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder that are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily, and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The current pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, autogenic-feedback training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine training (15-30-minute) sessions. At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures, that the subjects made ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings indicate that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  6. Computer simulation studies in fluid and calcium regulation and orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The systems analysis approach to physiological research uses mathematical models and computer simulation. Major areas of concern during prolonged space flight discussed include fluid and blood volume regulation; cardiovascular response during shuttle reentry; countermeasures for orthostatic intolerance; and calcium regulation and bone atrophy. Potential contributions of physiologic math models to future flight experiments are examined.

  7. Behavioral Manifestations and Parental Correlates of Intolerance of Ambiguity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, David M.; And Others

    The phenomenon of intolerance of ambiguity in young children was investigated in this longitudinal study. Personality data for the total of 120 children in the study were obtained from: (1) descriptions of the children at both 3 and 4 years of age by their teachers, using the California Child Q-set; (2) the children's performance on the Lowenfeld…

  8. Defining Distinct Negative Beliefs about Uncertainty: Validating the Factor Structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Kathryn A.; Dugas, Michel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the English version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; French version: M. H. Freeston, J. Rheaume, H. Letarte, M. J. Dugas, & R. Ladouceur, 1994; English version: K. Buhr & M. J. Dugas, 2002) using a substantially larger sample than has been used in previous studies. Nonclinical…

  9. Sarcopenic Obesity and the Pathogenesis of Exercise Intolerance in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Upadhya, Bharathi; Haykowsky, Mark J.; Eggebeen, Joel; Kitzman, Dalane W.

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of heart failure (HF) in older adults. The primary chronic symptom in patients with HFpEF, even when well compensated, is severe exercise intolerance. Cardiac and peripheral functions contribute equally to exercise intolerance in HFpEF, though the latter has been the focus of fewer studies. Of note, multiple studies with exercise training have shown that exercise intolerance can improve significantly in the absence of improvements in exercise cardiac output, indicating a role of peripheral, non-cardiac adaptations. In addition, clinical drug trials performed to date in HFpEF, all of which have focused on influencing cardiovascular function, have not been positive on primary clinical outcomes and most have not improved exercise capacity. Mounting evidence indicates that sarcopenic obesity, characterized by the coexistence of excess fat mass and decreased muscle mass, could contribute to the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in older HFpEF patients and may provide avenues for novel treatments. PMID:25750186

  10. Determinants of geographic patterns of diseases: interaction of lactose/lactase status and sunshine exposure.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Geographic patterns of diseases depend on multilayered causes. However, the division of the world's population into two phenotypes regarding lactose digestion and sunshine exposure to fixed areas of the globe are two relatively slow changing variables. It is hypothesized that it is a vectorial interaction between these two variables that provide a backbone to risk modification of many diseases. Lactase non persistence status tends to follow sunshine exposure particularly in Europe but Lactase persistence status is also been shown to be related to pastoral life styles in spotty regions of Africa, Middle East and China. Current emphasis of research favours the modifying role of vitamin D and sunshine. Nevertheless it was demonstrated that national digester/nondigester status has mathematical relationships to geographic distribution of some diseases. These relationships are also similar to that described for the effects of latitude through sunshine and vitamin D. This observation raises a question as to how each one affects disease outcome. In this paper lactose/lactase interactions are first reviewed for eight exemplary diseases. Based on population findings and corroborative meta-analyses gleaned from the literature 6 types of interactions may be classified. Then in a preliminary fashion lactose digester and maldigester status are related to relative annual sunshine exposure. Further the relative national annual sunshine exposure is evaluated to outcomes of the same exemplary diseases. The patterns related to sunshine reflect that obtained with national lactase status proportions and also corroborate a literature review. However, correlations are weak to moderate and only ovarian cancer reached conventional statistical significance. Because these comparisons are based on modest number of national data firm conclusions cannot be made. However, it is argued that evolutionary pressures exerted by regional sunshine exposure may have had influence on a number of relevant

  11. Lactose as a “Trojan Horse” for Quantum Dot Cell Transport**

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Alifonso, David; Tremel, Shirley; Hou, Bo; Lockyear, Harriet; Mantell, Judith; Fermin, David J; Verkade, Paul; Berry, Monica; Galan, M Carmen

    2014-01-01

    A series of glycan-coated quantum dots were prepared to probe the effect of glycan presentation in intracellular localization in HeLa and SV40 epithelial cells. We show that glycan density mostly impacts on cell toxicity, whereas glycan type affects the cell uptake and intracellular localization. Moreover, we show that lactose can act as a “Trojan horse” on bi-functionalized QDs to help intracellular delivery of other non-internalizable glycan moieties and largely avoid the endosomal/lysosomal degradative pathway. PMID:24311369

  12. Bioconversion of lactose/whey to fructose diphosphate with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    SciTech Connect

    Compagno, C.; Tura, A.; Ranzi, B.M.; Martegani, E. )

    1993-07-01

    Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that express Escherichia coli [beta]-galactosidase gene are able to bioconvert lactose or whey into fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP). High FDP yields from whey were obtained with an appropriate ratio between cell concentration and inorganic phosphate. The biomass of transformed cells can be obtained from different carbon sources, according to the expression vector bearing the lacZ gene. The authors showed that whey can be used as the carbon source for S. cerevisiae growth and as the substrate for bioconversion to fructose diphosphate.

  13. Radiation-induced tetramer-to-dimer transition of Escherichia coli lactose repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Goffinont, S.; Davidkova, M.

    2009-08-21

    The wild type lactose repressor of Escherichia coli is a tetrameric protein formed by two identical dimers. They are associated via a C-terminal 4-helix bundle (called tetramerization domain) whose stability is ensured by the interaction of leucine zipper motifs. Upon in vitro {gamma}-irradiation the repressor losses its ability to bind the operator DNA sequence due to damage of its DNA-binding domains. Using an engineered dimeric repressor for comparison, we show here that irradiation induces also the change of repressor oligomerisation state from tetramer to dimer. The splitting of the tetramer into dimers can result from the oxidation of the leucine residues of the tetramerization domain.

  14. Intolerable human suffering and the role of the ancestor: literary criticism as a means of analysis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, E

    2000-09-01

    Intolerable human suffering and the role of the ancestor: literary criticism as a means of analysis This essay explores the experience of intolerable human suffering in Toni Cade Bambara's novel, The Salt Eaters. The method of analysis is literary criticism, a technique that shares many of the same goals as other types of inquiry. It employs close reading to illuminate the novel's meaning(s), thereby revealing information about the nature of intolerable human suffering. Morrison's characteristics of black art is the literary and cultural framework that guides the analysis of Bambara's novel. The paradigm has broad application for nursing. The purpose of this analysis was to describe the role of the ancestral system as a predictor of the trajectory of suffering. The results extend Morrison's paradigm and her notion of ancestor to include traditions and other non-corporeal factors that are essential for well-being and survival. The protagonist in Bambara's novel, Velma Henry, is the patient and exemplar who does not succumb to intolerable suffering because of its cumulative weight, but because she has lost touch with the traditions of her people, an essential component of her ancestral system. The ancestral system is a rich and complex network of individuals, groups, customs and beliefs that are instructive, protective and benevolent. Ancestors are also timeless and provide wisdom, but when the ancestral system is weak or absent, the trajectory of suffering is not favourable. Nurses must learn to recognize intolerable human suffering, to identify the patient's ancestral system, and to work within that system to keep suffering patients from harm.

  15. Genealogical analysis as a new approach for the investigation of drug intolerance heritability

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Marc; Bouhali, Tarek; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Genealogical analysis has proven a useful method to understand the origins and frequencies of hereditary diseases in many populations. However, this type of analysis has not yet been used for the investigation of drug intolerance among patients suffering from inherited disorders. This study aims to do so, using data from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients receiving high doses of statins. The objective is to measure and compare various genealogical parameters that could shed light on the origins and heritability of muscular intolerance to statins using FH as a model. Analysis was performed on 224 genealogies from 112 FH subjects carrying either the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) prom_e1 deletion>15 kb (n=28) or c.259T>G (p.Trp87Gly) (n=84) mutations and 112 non-FH controls. Number of ancestors, geographical origins and genetic contribution of founders, inbreeding and kinship coefficients were calculated using the S-Plus-based GENLIB software package. For both mutations, repeated occurrences of the same ancestors are more frequent among the carriers' genealogies than among the controls', but no difference was observed between tolerant and intolerant subjects. Founders who may have introduced both mutations in the population appear with approximately the same frequencies in all genealogies. Kinship coefficients are higher among carriers, with no difference according to statins tolerance. Inbreeding coefficients are slightly lower among >15-kb deletion carriers than among c.259 T>G carriers, but the differences between tolerants and intolerants are not significant. These findings suggest that although muscular intolerance to statins shows a family aggregation, it is not transmitted through the same Mendelian pattern as LDLR mutations. PMID:24281370

  16. Genealogical analysis as a new approach for the investigation of drug intolerance heritability.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marc; Bouhali, Tarek; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane

    2014-07-01

    Genealogical analysis has proven a useful method to understand the origins and frequencies of hereditary diseases in many populations. However, this type of analysis has not yet been used for the investigation of drug intolerance among patients suffering from inherited disorders. This study aims to do so, using data from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients receiving high doses of statins. The objective is to measure and compare various genealogical parameters that could shed light on the origins and heritability of muscular intolerance to statins using FH as a model. Analysis was performed on 224 genealogies from 112 FH subjects carrying either the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) prom_e1 deletion>15 kb (n=28) or c.259T>G (p.Trp87Gly) (n=84) mutations and 112 non-FH controls. Number of ancestors, geographical origins and genetic contribution of founders, inbreeding and kinship coefficients were calculated using the S-Plus-based GENLIB software package. For both mutations, repeated occurrences of the same ancestors are more frequent among the carriers' genealogies than among the controls', but no difference was observed between tolerant and intolerant subjects. Founders who may have introduced both mutations in the population appear with approximately the same frequencies in all genealogies. Kinship coefficients are higher among carriers, with no difference according to statins tolerance. Inbreeding coefficients are slightly lower among >15-kb deletion carriers than among c.259 T>G carriers, but the differences between tolerants and intolerants are not significant. These findings suggest that although muscular intolerance to statins shows a family aggregation, it is not transmitted through the same Mendelian pattern as LDLR mutations.

  17. Study of IgG sub-class antibodies in patients with milk intolerance.

    PubMed

    Shakib, F; Brown, H M; Phelps, A; Redhead, R

    1986-09-01

    An ELISA was applied to measure IgG sub-class antibodies to cow's milk beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and alpha-casein (AC) and to hen's egg ovalbumin (OA) in the sera of nineteen adult patients with milk intolerance causing either asthma, eczema or both. Results were compared with those of forty blood donors and twenty adult patients with either asthma or eczema due to inhalant allergy. Apart from one blood donor, high titres of IgG sub-class antibodies to all three milk proteins were found only in the milk intolerance group. The most frequently detected antibody was AC-specific IgG4; being high (i.e. greater than 9.98 micrograms/ml) in eight milk intolerance cases: six with eczema, one with asthma and one with both. A variable proportion of these eight patients also had high levels of IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies to AC and IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 antibodies to BLG and ALA. In contrast, IgG antibody to the egg protein, OA, was remarkably restricted to IgG4 and was present in high titres in 68.4% of milk intolerant patients, 60% of inhalant allergy patients and 30% of blood donors. However, the greater incidence of high titres of IgG4 antibody to OA, compared to AC, was due to the superior coating efficiency of OA resulting in a more sensitive assay. We conclude that some adult cases of milk intolerance, particularly those with eczema, can be diagnosed by detecting raised serum levels of IgG sub-class antibodies to milk proteins.

  18. Lactose synthesis in a monotreme, the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus): isolation and amino acid sequence of echidna alpha-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Messer, M; Griffiths, M; Rismiller, P D; Shaw, D C

    1997-10-01

    alpha-Lactalbumin and lysozyme were each isolated from echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) milk by gel permeation and ion exchange chromatography. The alpha-lactalbumin modified the action of echidna milk galactosyltransferase to promote the synthesis of lactose but had very little effect on bovine galactosyltransferase. Echidna alpha-lactalbumin is a glycosylated protein with an apparent molecular weight of 20,000 (SDS-PAGE) whose concentration in the milk is very low compared with the concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin in the milk of other species. Its amino acid sequence is more similar to that of another monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), than to the sequences of eutherian or marsupial alpha-lactalbumins. Echidna milk lysozyme, even at high concentrations, did not promote the synthesis of lactose by either echidna or bovine galactosyltransferase. We conclude that lactose synthesis in the echidna occurs by the same mechanism as that found in the platypus and other mammals.

  19. Kinetic study on unsaponifiable fraction changes and lactose hydrolysis during storage of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO cheese.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol, vitamin E and vitamin A isomers, components of the unsaponifiable fraction, and lactose contents in Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO cheese have been studied during storage in different conditions: at 6-8 degrees C, and at room temperature (traditional habits). During cold storage there were no significant differences in the unsaponifiable compounds, while during storage at room temperature an increase of the 13-cis isomer and a decrease of all-trans-retinol were observed. Trans/cis-retinol isomerization, expressed as the Degree of Retinol Isomerization (13-cis/all-trans%) showed an increase in all samples during storage at room temperature following a linear correlation. The decrease of lactose content during storage was studied by a first-order differential relaxation equation. Apart from the traditional habits, consumers should be aware that, during storage at room temperature, the most important changes in the considered nutrients occur. These changes can be negative (vitamin A reduction) but also positive (lactose reduction).

  20. Increase of calcium and reduction of lactose concentration in milk by treatment with kefir grains and eggshell.

    PubMed

    Fina, Brenda L; Brun, Lucas R; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are the main source of calcium (Ca), but the loss of the consumption habit contributes to low consumption in adulthood, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Domestic use of kefir is straightforward and the eggshell is a natural discarded source of Ca. This paper proposes the development of an enriched Ca reduced lactose milk using eggshell and kefir. During the in vitro preparation, the pH, Ca and lactose contents were measured. Ca intestinal absorption of untreated milk and milk with kefir was compared. Finally, human volunteers consumed this dairy product and 24-h urine Ca was measured. Results showed that the beverage has lower lactose and higher Ca than untreated milk and milk with kefir. Intestinal Ca absorption was not different between both milks and an increase in urinary Ca excretion was observed in humans. This study provides a methodology to prepare at home a dairy product that could contribute to improve the Ca intake in adults.