Science.gov

Sample records for lacunae tissue strain

  1. Mineralisation of collagen rich soft tissues and osteocyte lacunae in Enpp1−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajjawi, Mark O.R.; MacRae, Vicky E.; Huesa, Carmen; Boyde, Alan; Millán, José Luis; Arnett, Timothy R.; Orriss, Isabel R.

    2014-01-01

    Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) hydrolyse nucleotide triphosphates to the corresponding nucleotide monophosphates and the mineralisation inhibitor, pyrophosphate (PPi). This study examined the role of NPP1 in osteocytes, osteoclasts and cortical bone, using a mouse model lacking NPP1 (Enpp1−/−). We used microcomputed tomography (μCT) to investigate how NPP1 deletion affects cortical bone structure; excised humerus bones from 8, 15 and 22-week old mice were scanned at 0.9 μm. Although no changes were evident in the cortical bone of 8-week old Enpp1−/− mice, significant differences were observed in older animals. Cortical bone volume was decreased 28% in 22-week Enpp1−/− mice, whilst cortical porosity was reduced 30% and 60% at 15 and 22-weeks, respectively. This was accompanied by up to a 15% decrease in closed pore diameter and a 55% reduction in the number of pores. Cortical thickness was reduced up to 35% in 15 and 22-week Enpp1−/− animals and the endosteal diameter was increased up to 23%. Thus, the cortical bone from Enpp1−/− mice was thinner and less porous, with a larger marrow space. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a decrease in the size and number of blood vessel channels in the cortical bone as well as a 40% reduction in the mean plan area of osteocyte lacunae. We noted that the number of viable osteocytes isolated from the long bones of Enpp1−/− mice was decreased ≤ 50%. In contrast, osteoclast formation and resorptive activity were unaffected by NPP1 deletion. μCT and histological analysis of Enpp1−/− mice also revealed calcification of the joints and vertebrae as well as soft tissues including the whisker follicles, ear pinna and trachea. This calcification worsened as the animals aged. Together, these data highlight the key role of NPP1 in regulating calcification of both soft and skeletal tissues. PMID:25260930

  2. Preparation of acellular myocardial scaffolds with well-preserved cardiomyocyte lacunae, and method for applying mechanical and electrical simulation to tissue construct.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Williams, Lakiesha N; de Jongh Curry, Amy L; Liao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering/regeneration using decellularized myocardium has attracted great research attention due to its potential benefit for myocardial infarction (MI) treatment. Here we describe an optimal decellularization protocol to generate 3D porcine myocardial scaffolds with well-preserved cardiomyocyte lacunae and a multi-stimulation bioreactor that is able to provide coordinated mechanical and electrical stimulation for facilitating cardiac construct development.

  3. One-month spaceflight compromises the bone microstructure, tissue-level mechanical properties, osteocyte survival and lacunae volume in mature mice skeletons.

    PubMed

    Maude, Gerbaix; Vasily, Gnyubkin; Delphine, Farlay; Cécile, Olivier; Patrick, Ammann; Guillaume, Courbon; Norbert, Laroche; Rachel, Gential; Hélène, Follet; Françoise, Peyrin; Boris, Shenkman; Guillemette, Gauquelin-Koch; Laurence, Vico

    2017-06-01

    The weightless environment during spaceflight induces site-specific bone loss. The 30-day Bion-M1 mission offered a unique opportunity to characterize the skeletal changes after spaceflight and an 8-day recovery period in mature male C57/BL6 mice. In the femur metaphysis, spaceflight decreased the trabecular bone volume (-64% vs. Habitat Control), dramatically increased the bone resorption (+140% vs. Habitat Control) and induced marrow adiposity invasion. At the diaphysis, cortical thinning associated with periosteal resorption was observed. In the Flight animal group, the osteocyte lacunae displayed a reduced volume and a more spherical shape (synchrotron radiation analyses), and empty lacunae were highly increased (+344% vs. Habitat Control). Tissue-level mechanical cortical properties (i.e., hardness and modulus) were locally decreased by spaceflight, whereas the mineral characteristics and collagen maturity were unaffected. In the vertebrae, spaceflight decreased the overall bone volume and altered the modulus in the periphery of the trabecular struts. Despite normalized osteoclastic activity and an increased osteoblast number, bone recovery was not observed 8 days after landing. In conclusion, spaceflight induces osteocyte death, which may trigger bone resorption and result in bone mass and microstructural deterioration. Moreover, osteocyte cell death, lacunae mineralization and fatty marrow, which are hallmarks of ageing, may impede tissue maintenance and repair.

  4. Age effects on the material and mechanical properties of bone at the osteocyte lacuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Ryan Shawn

    This is an exploratory study aimed at characterizing the microenvironment of bone tissue around osteocyte lacunae, referred to as peri-lacunar tissue, as a function of age. Comprising nearly 90% of all bone cells, osteocytes are ideally situated to sense mechanical strain and translate mechanical signals into biochemical signals to regulate bone modeling and remodeling. Previous work has shown that there is an amplification of globally applied macroscopic bone strains at the microstructural level of the osteocyte due to a strain concentrating effect around the osteocyte lacuna and surrounding extracellular matrix. This peri-lacunar region is believed to have different material and mechanical properties than bone tissue not associated with an osteocyte lacuna. These alterations in bone tissue at the osteocyte lacuna are believed to have a significant impact on the tissue strains sensed by the osteocyte. The global hypotheses are two-fold. First, peri-lacunar tissue is significantly different from non peri-lacunar bone tissue. Second, the mechanotransduction signal---the translation of mechanical stimuli to cellular signal---acting on the osteocyte is altered as the peri-lacunar tissue's mechanical and material properties change with aging. These hypotheses are tested using Raman spectroscopy, two dimensional displacement/strain mapping, and nanoindentation. Using these three techniques the mechanical and material properties of the peri-lacunar tissue were found to be significantly different from the surrounding non peri-lacunar tissue in its young crystalline structure, but not in its old crystalline structure, mineralization, carbonate substitution, collagen cross-linking, effective strains, and elastic modulus. Age effects on the bone tissue irrespective of location with respect to the lacuna were significant as carbonate substitution, crystallinity, collagen cross-linking, and effective strains near the loaded crack tip showed significant differences. These

  5. Osteocyte lacuna population densities in sheep, elk and horse calcanei.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G

    2005-01-01

    Osteocytes, the most prevalent cell type in bone, appear to communicate via gap junctions. In limb-bone diaphyses, it has been hypothesized that these cellular networks have the capacity to monitor habitual strains, which can differ significantly between cortical locations of the same bone. Regional differences in microdamage associated with prevalent/predominant strain mode (tension, compression, or shear) and/or magnitude may represent an important "variable" detected by this network. This hypothesis was indirectly addressed by examining bones subjected to habitual bending for correlations of osteocyte lacuna population densities (n/mm(2) bone area, Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar) with locations experiencing high and low strain, and/or prevalent/predominant tension, compression, and shear. We examined dorsal ("compression"), plantar ("tension"), and medial/lateral ("shear" or neutral axis) cortices of mid-diaphyseal sections of calcanei of adult sheep, elk, and horses. Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar data, quantified in backscattered electron images, were also evaluated in a context of various additional structural and material variables (e.g. % ash, cortical thickness, porosity, and secondary osteon population). Results showed significant differences in dorsal versus plantar comparisons with the highest Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar in dorsal cortices of sheep and elk (p < 0.0001); but this was a statistical trend in the equine calcanei (p = 0.14). There were no consistent transcortical (pericortical to endocortical) differences, and Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar in neutral axes was not consistently different from dorsal/plantar cortices. Correlations of Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar with structural and material parameters were also poor and/or inconsistent within or between species. These results provide little or no evidence that the number of osteocyte lacunae has a functional role in mechanotransduction pathways that are typically considered in bone adaptation. Although dorsal/plantar differences may be adaptations for prevalent

  6. Lesbian Lacunae: Invisible Spaces in Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozingo, Karen A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research about sexuality and dance has begun to address the needs of gay male dancers, yet the needs of lesbian dancers have remained mostly absent from scholarly discourse. Exploring the lesbian lacunae, or invisible spaces of dance education, reveals the personal, political, and pedagogical implications of their existence within the dance…

  7. Lesbian Lacunae: Invisible Spaces in Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozingo, Karen A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research about sexuality and dance has begun to address the needs of gay male dancers, yet the needs of lesbian dancers have remained mostly absent from scholarly discourse. Exploring the lesbian lacunae, or invisible spaces of dance education, reveals the personal, political, and pedagogical implications of their existence within the dance…

  8. Polar lacuna on ionograms. E- or F-region processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    1995-04-01

    Lacuna on ionograms indicate conditions where the usual ionospheric reflections of vertically propagating radio waves transmitted from and subsequently received by an ionosonde are missing over a range of frequencies. Reflections from the lowermost E-region should still be observable contrary to the more usual cases where absorption processes in the underlying D-region removes the low-frequency part of the ionospheric reflections appearing in ionograms. It is emphasized below that lacuna cases related to E-region processes should be distinguished from lacunae related to processes in the F1 and F2 regions. This distinction appears to have been neglected in a recent paper.

  9. Macro- to microscale strain transfer in fibrous tissues is heterogeneous and tissue-specific.

    PubMed

    Han, Woojin M; Heo, Su-Jin; Driscoll, Tristan P; Smith, Lachlan J; Mauck, Robert L; Elliott, Dawn M

    2013-08-06

    Mechanical deformation applied at the joint or tissue level is transmitted through the macroscale extracellular matrix to the microscale local matrix, where it is transduced to cells within these tissues and modulates tissue growth, maintenance, and repair. The objective of this study was to investigate how applied tissue strain is transferred through the local matrix to the cell and nucleus in meniscus, tendon, and the annulus fibrosus, as well as in stem cell-seeded scaffolds engineered to reproduce the organized microstructure of these native tissues. To carry out this study, we developed a custom confocal microscope-mounted tensile testing device and simultaneously monitored strain across multiple length scales. Results showed that mean strain was heterogeneous and significantly attenuated, but coordinated, at the local matrix level in native tissues (35-70% strain attenuation). Conversely, freshly seeded scaffolds exhibited very direct and uniform strain transfer from the tissue to the local matrix level (15-25% strain attenuation). In addition, strain transfer from local matrix to cells and nuclei was dependent on fiber orientation and tissue type. Histological analysis suggested that different domains exist within these fibrous tissues, with most of the tissue being fibrous, characterized by an aligned collagen structure and elongated cells, and other regions being proteoglycan (PG)-rich, characterized by a dense accumulation of PGs and rounder cells. In meniscus, the observed heterogeneity in strain transfer correlated strongly with cellular morphology, where rounder cells located in PG-rich microdomains were shielded from deformation, while elongated cells in fibrous microdomains deformed readily. Collectively, these findings suggest that different tissues utilize distinct strain-attenuating mechanisms according to their unique structure and cellular phenotype, and these differences likely alter the local biologic response of such tissues and constructs in

  10. Ultrasound strain imaging for quantification of tissue function: cardiovascular applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Korte, Chris L.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.

    2013-03-01

    With ultrasound imaging, the motion and deformation of tissue can be measured. Tissue can be deformed by applying a force on it and the resulting deformation is a function of its mechanical properties. Quantification of this resulting tissue deformation to assess the mechanical properties of tissue is called elastography. If the tissue under interrogation is actively deforming, the deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as `strain imaging'. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaques characterization, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. We developed radio frequency (RF) based ultrasound methods to assess the deformation at higher resolution and with higher accuracy than commercial methods using conventional image data (Tissue Doppler Imaging and 2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so 1D. We further extended this method to multiple directions and further improved precision by using compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. In arteries, the presence of vulnerable plaques may lead to acute events like stroke and myocardial infarction. Consequently, timely detection of these plaques is of great diagnostic value. Non-invasive ultrasound strain compounding is currently being evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify the vulnerability of plaques. In the heart, we determined the strain locally and at high resolution resulting in a local assessment in contrary to conventional global functional parameters like cardiac output or shortening fraction.

  11. The Effect of Target Strain Error on Plantar Tissue Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Shruti; Ledoux, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate quantification of soft tissue properties, specifically the stress-relaxation behavior of viscoelastic tissues such as plantar tissue, requires precise testing under physiologically relevant loading. However, limitations of testing equipment often result in target strain errors that can contribute to large stress errors and confound comparative results to an unknown extent. Previous investigations have modeled this artifact but they have been unable to obtain empirical data to validate their models. Moreover, there are no studies that address this issue for plantar tissue. The purpose of this research was to directly measure the difference in peak force for a series of small target strain errors within the range of our typical stress-relaxation experiments for subcutaneous plantar soft tissue. Method of Approach Five plantar tissue specimens were tested to seven incremental target strain error levels of −0.9%, −0.6%, −0.3%, 0.0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, and 0.9%, so as to undershoot and overshoot the target displacement in 0.3% increments. The imposed strain errors were accurately attained using a special compensation feature of our materials testing software that can drive the actuator to within 0% (1 to 2μm) of the target level for cyclic tests. Since stress-relaxation tests are not cyclic, we emulated the ramp portion of our stress relaxation tests with 5Hz triangle waves. Results The average total stress variation for all specimens was 25±5%, with the highest and lowest stresses corresponding to the largest and smallest strain errors of 0.9% and −0.9% respectively. A strain overshoot of 0.3%, the target strain error observed in our typical stress relaxation experiments, corresponded to an average stress overshoot of 3±1%. Conclusions Plantar tissue in compression is sensitive to small target strain errors that can result in stress errors that are several fold larger. The extent to which overshoot may affect the peak stress will likely differ

  12. Geometry of Local Lacunae of Hyperbolic Operators with Constant Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, V. A.

    1993-02-01

    A graphical geometric characterization is given of local lacunae (domains of regularity of the fundamental solution) near the simple singular points of the wave fronts of nondegenerate hyperbolic operators. To wit: a local (near a simple singularity of the front) component of the complement of the front is a local lacuna precisely when it satisfies the Davydov-Borovikov signature condition near all the nonsingular points on its boundary, and its boundary has no edges of regression near which the component in question is a "large" component of the complement of the front.

  13. Lacunae-based open boundary conditions for dissipative MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Eric; Glasser, A. H.; Lukin, V. S.; Shumlak, U.

    2010-11-01

    Hyperbolic-based open boundary conditions have proven to be inadequate for modeling dissipative MHD systems, especially when diffusive effects are dominant at the boundary, as is common, for example, at the ends of an FRC or a mirror plasma. Lacunae-based open boundary conditions (LOBC) are under development for modeling open boundaries in mixed hyperbolic-parabolic systems. Initial work on Lacunae-based BC was done by V.S. Ryaben'kii, S.V. Tsynkov et al. [1]. Lacunae are still regions behind trailing fronts that exist in wave-type solutions. To implement LOBC, a buffer region is appended to the domain of interest. In this buffer region, by taking advantage of the lacunae in the solution, outgoing waves are damped and reflection is prevented. Diffusive behavior is bounded by a Dirichlet or Neumann condition at the edge of the buffer region. Wave reflection is prevented and parabolic behavior is properly bounded. Progress developing LOBC in the SEL/HiFi spectral element code is presented.[4pt] [1] V.S. Ryaben'kii et al., Global discrete artificial boundary conditions for time-dependent wave propagation, J. Comp. Phys., 174 (2001) 712

  14. Compliant intracortical implants reduce strains and strain rates in brain tissue in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Arati; Nguyen, Jessica K.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2015-06-01

    Objective. The objective of this research is to characterize the mechanical interactions of (1) soft, compliant and (2) non-compliant implants with the surrounding brain tissue in a rodent brain. Understanding such interactions will enable the engineering of novel materials that will improve stability and reliability of brain implants. Approach. Acute force measurements were made using a load cell in n = 3 live rats, each with 4 craniotomies. Using an indentation method, brain tissue was tested for changes in force using established protocols. A total of 4 non-compliant, bare silicon microshanks, 3 non-compliant polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)-coated silicon microshanks, and 6 compliant, nanocomposite microshanks were tested. Stress values were calculated by dividing the force by surface area and strain was estimated using a linear stress-strain relationship. Micromotion effects from breathing and vascular pulsatility on tissue stress were estimated from a 5 s interval of steady-state measurements. Viscoelastic properties were estimated using a second-order Prony series expansion of stress-displacement curves for each shank. Main results. The distribution of strain values imposed on brain tissue for both compliant nanocomposite microshanks and PVAc-coated, non-compliant silicon microshanks were significantly lower compared to non-compliant bare silicon shanks. Interestingly, step-indentation experiments also showed that compliant, nanocomposite materials significantly decreased stress relaxation rates in the brain tissue at the interface (p < 0.05) compared to non-compliant silicon and PVAc-coated silicon materials. Furthermore, both PVAc-coated non-compliant silicon and compliant nanocomposite shanks showed significantly reduced (by 4-5 fold) stresses due to tissue micromotion at the interface. Significance. The results of this study showed that soft, adaptive materials reduce strains and strain rates and micromotion induced stresses in the surrounding brain tissue

  15. Tissue tectonics: morphogenetic strain rates, cell shape change and intercalation.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Guy B; Kabla, Alexandre J; Schultz, Nora L; Butler, Lucy C; Sanson, Benedicte; Gorfinkiel, Nicole; Mahadevan, L; Adams, Richard J

    2009-06-01

    The dynamic reshaping of tissues during morphogenesis results from a combination of individual cell behaviors and collective cell rearrangements. However, a comprehensive framework to unambiguously measure and link cell behavior to tissue morphogenesis is lacking. Here we introduce such a kinematic framework, bridging cell and tissue behaviors at an intermediate, mesoscopic, level of cell clusters or domains. By measuring domain deformation in terms of the relative motion of cell positions and the evolution of their shapes, we characterized the basic invariant quantities that measure fundamental classes of cell behavior, namely tensorial rates of cell shape change and cell intercalation. In doing so we introduce an explicit definition of cell intercalation as a continuous process. We mapped strain rates spatiotemporally in three models of tissue morphogenesis, gaining insight into morphogenetic mechanisms. Our quantitative approach has broad relevance for the precise characterization and comparison of morphogenetic phenotypes.

  16. F-lacuna at cusp latitude and its associated TEC variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sheng-Gao; Zhang, Bei-Chen; Fang, Han-Xian; Liu, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Qing-He; Hu, Hong-Qiao; Liu, Rui-Yuan; Li, Chong-Yin

    2014-12-01

    As a frequent phenomenon occurring during summer days in high-latitude ionosphere, the F-lacuna manifests itself as disappearance of F region ionogram traces. Based on the 7.5 min interval Digisonde ionograms recorded at Zhongshan station (69.4°S, 76.4°E geographic coordinates; 74.5°S, 96.0°E corrected geomagnetic coordinates), we present temporal characteristics of the F-lacuna, as well as its correlation with geomagnetic activity, interplanetary magnetic field, and colocated TEC. Magnetic Local Time (MLT) distribution of the F-lacuna occurrence exhibits a dawn-dusk asymmetry. All types of F-lacuna favor the dawn sector, mainly occurring at 08:00-11:00MLT for F1 and total lacuna, 6:00-8:00MLT for F2-lacuna. The magnetic activity is found to have a strong positive correlation with the F2 and total lacuna. F2-lacuna occurrence is favored by southward component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and total lacuna by high values of either eastward or westward component. It is worth to mention that the F-lacuna associates with the simultaneous total electron content (TEC) condition which has a positive correlation with F1-lacuna occurrence, while a strong negative correlation with the F2 and total lacuna. The associated TEC variation may provide a significant evidence for interpreting the F-lacuna phenomenon.

  17. Medical ultrasound: imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Peter N. T.; Liang, Hai-Dong

    2011-01-01

    After X-radiography, ultrasound is now the most common of all the medical imaging technologies. For millennia, manual palpation has been used to assist in diagnosis, but it is subjective and restricted to larger and more superficial structures. Following an introduction to the subject of elasticity, the elasticity of biological soft tissues is discussed and published data are presented. The basic physical principles of pulse-echo and Doppler ultrasonic techniques are explained. The history of ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is summarized, together with a brief critique of previously published reviews. The relevant techniques—low-frequency vibration, step, freehand and physiological displacement, and radiation force (displacement, impulse, shear wave and acoustic emission)—are described. Tissue-mimicking materials are indispensible for the assessment of these techniques and their characteristics are reported. Emerging clinical applications in breast disease, cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, minimally invasive surgery, musculoskeletal studies, radiotherapy, tissue engineering, urology and vascular disease are critically discussed. It is concluded that ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is now sufficiently well developed to have clinical utility. The potential for further research is examined and it is anticipated that the technology will become a powerful mainstream investigative tool. PMID:21680780

  18. Medical ultrasound: imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity.

    PubMed

    Wells, Peter N T; Liang, Hai-Dong

    2011-11-07

    After X-radiography, ultrasound is now the most common of all the medical imaging technologies. For millennia, manual palpation has been used to assist in diagnosis, but it is subjective and restricted to larger and more superficial structures. Following an introduction to the subject of elasticity, the elasticity of biological soft tissues is discussed and published data are presented. The basic physical principles of pulse-echo and Doppler ultrasonic techniques are explained. The history of ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is summarized, together with a brief critique of previously published reviews. The relevant techniques-low-frequency vibration, step, freehand and physiological displacement, and radiation force (displacement, impulse, shear wave and acoustic emission)-are described. Tissue-mimicking materials are indispensible for the assessment of these techniques and their characteristics are reported. Emerging clinical applications in breast disease, cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, minimally invasive surgery, musculoskeletal studies, radiotherapy, tissue engineering, urology and vascular disease are critically discussed. It is concluded that ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is now sufficiently well developed to have clinical utility. The potential for further research is examined and it is anticipated that the technology will become a powerful mainstream investigative tool.

  19. Invasion of Porphyromonas gingivalis strains into vascular cells and tissue

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ingar; Progulske-Fox, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a major pathogen in adult periodontitis and is also associated with multiple systemic diseases, for example, cardiovascular diseases. One of its most important virulence factors is invasion of host cells. The invasion process includes attachment, entry/internalization, trafficking, persistence, and exit. The present review discusses these processes related to P. gingivalis in cardiovascular cells and tissue. Although most P. gingivalis strains invade, the invasion capacity of strains and the mechanisms of invasion including intracellular trafficking among them differ. This is consistent with the fact that there are significant differences in the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis strains. P. gingivalis invasion mechanisms are also dependent on types of host cells. Although much is known about the invasion process of P. gingivalis, we still have little knowledge of its exit mechanisms. Nevertheless, it is intriguing that P. gingivalis can remain viable in human cardiovascular cells and atherosclerotic plaque and later exit and re-enter previously uninfected host cells. PMID:26329158

  20. Tissue Doppler and strain imaging for evaluating tissue elasticity of breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anke; Warm, Mathias; Hoopmann, Markus; Diekmann, Felix; Fischer, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    Sonoelastography depicts the intrinsic elastic properties of a tissue which are characterized by the strain applied to achieve tissue deformation and the velocity at which tissue deformation occurs. The present study served to investigate whether the specificity of B-mode ultrasound (US) can be improved by combining B-mode imaging with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and offline analysis of tissue strain imaging (TSI). Fifty women, 25 with malignant and 25 with benign focal breast lesions, were examined by US with a linear transducer (9 MHz, Aplio, Toshiba, Otawara, Japan). B-mode US views of the lesions were overlaid with color-coded TDI information and area quotients (AQ = area B-mode view/area TDI) were calculated. TSI views were reconstructed offline from the source data. This was done by placing a region of interest (ROI) in the target lesion and color-encoded display of the information. In addition, tissue elasticity was evaluated using a scale of 1-5 corresponding to the BI-RADS categories. Maximum strain (strain factor, SF) was determined in the ROI. All patients also underwent mammography. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated and statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's test. Sensitivity/specificity was 96%/68% for B-mode US, 100%/40% for combined B-mode US and mammography, and 96%/80% for TSI. The AQ of benign and malignant lesions was significantly different (p = .00008) as was the difference in SF (p = .0004). The readers considered TSI a feasible technique. Evaluation of elasticity based on the quantification of strain factors improves characterization of focal breast lesions, especially the differentiation of BI-RADS 3 and 4 lesions. Surprisingly, significant results in characterizing breast lesions were obtained with the simple technique of TDI, showing a lower tissue displacement in malignant cases.

  1. Strain rate sensitivity of skin tissue under thermomechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Zhou, B; Xu, F; Chen, C Q; Lu, T J

    2010-02-13

    There have been limited studies addressing the thermally dependent mechanical properties of skin tissue, although this can contribute to a variety of medical applications. To address this, an experimental study on the tensile behaviour of pig skin tissue under different thermal loading conditions and different mechanical stretching rates was performed. The results indicate that there is a significant variation among skin tensile behaviours under different temperatures and loading rates, which is correlated with dermal collagen denaturation. The Ogden model was used to summarize the effect of the strain rate and the temperature upon the measured constitutive response through two parameters (alpha and mu). These results can be used in future models to improve clinical thermal treatments for skin tissue.

  2. Soft tissue strain measurement using an optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, Siew Lok; Tay, Cho Jui; Goh, Cho Hong James

    2008-11-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a non-contact optical technique that allows the full-field estimation of strains on a surface under an applied deformation. In this project, the application of an optimized DIC technique is applied, which can achieve efficiency and accuracy in the measurement of two-dimensional deformation fields in soft tissue. This technique relies on matching the random patterns recorded in images to directly obtain surface displacements and to get displacement gradients from which the strain field can be determined. Digital image correlation is a well developed technique that has numerous and varied engineering applications, including the application in soft and hard tissue biomechanics. Chicken drumstick ligaments were harvested and used during the experiments. The surface of the ligament was speckled with black paint to allow for correlation to be done. Results show that the stress-strain curve exhibits a bi-linear behavior i.e. a "toe region" and a "linear elastic region". The Young's modulus obtained for the toe region is about 92 MPa and the modulus for the linear elastic region is about 230 MPa. The results are within the values for mammalian anterior cruciate ligaments of 150-300 MPa.

  3. Right ventricular involvement in anterior myocardial infarction: a tissue Doppler-derived strain and strain rate study

    PubMed Central

    Sonmez, Osman; Kayrak, Mehmet; Altunbas, Gokhan; Abdulhalikov, Turyan; Alihanoglu, Yusuf; Bacaksiz, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Gok, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Strain and strain rate imaging is currently the most popular echocardiographic technique that reveals subclinical myocardial damage. There are currently no available data on this imaging method with regard to assessing right ventricular involvement in anterior myocardial infarction. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate right ventricular regional functions using a derived strain and strain rate imaging tissue Doppler method in patients who were successfully treated for their first anterior myocardial infarction. METHODS: The patient group was composed of 44 patients who had experienced their first anterior myocardial infarction and had undergone successful percutaneous coronary intervention. Twenty patients were selected for the control group. The right ventricular myocardial samplings were performed in three regions: the basal, mid, and apical segments of the lateral wall. The individual myocardial velocity, strain, and strain rate values of each basal, mid, and apical segment were obtained. RESULTS: The right ventricular myocardial velocities of the patient group were significantly decreased with respect to all three velocities in the control group. The strain and strain rate values of the right mid and apical ventricular segments in the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (excluding the right ventricular basal strain and strain rate). In addition, changes in the right ventricular mean strain and strain rate values were significant. CONCLUSION: Right ventricular involvement following anterior myocardial infarction can be assessed using tissue Doppler based strain and strain rate PMID:24141839

  4. [Repetitive strain injuries. Forearm pain caused by tissue responses to repetitive strain].

    PubMed

    Sorgatz, H

    2002-10-01

    According to the National Research Council, painful work-related upper limb disorders are caused by different pathophysiological mechanisms, one of which is repetitive strain injury (RSI). Forearm pain, tenderness, and paresthesias are thought to result from a continual risk of exceeding limits of "cumulative trauma load tolerance" (CTLT, cf. NRC 2001) in soft tissue by thousands of high-frequency, repetitive movements. On the other hand, repetitive painful stimulations also produce neuroplastic changes in the spinal and supraspinal nociceptive systems. Thus, repetitive motor and nociceptive impulses become part of the same motor programs, which are also responsible for high-frequency movements and tissue damage. In this way RSI pain may be felt as a task-related response, even after all injuries are completely healed. Consequences of this neuroplastic CTLT model for RSI prevention and therapy are discussed.

  5. An active strain electromechanical model for cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Nobile, F; Quarteroni, A; Ruiz-Baier, R

    2012-01-01

    We propose a finite element approximation of a system of partial differential equations describing the coupling between the propagation of electrical potential and large deformations of the cardiac tissue. The underlying mathematical model is based on the active strain assumption, in which it is assumed that there is a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation tensor into a passive and active part holds, the latter carrying the information of the electrical potential propagation and anisotropy of the cardiac tissue into the equations of either incompressible or compressible nonlinear elasticity, governing the mechanical response of the biological material. In addition, by changing from a Eulerian to a Lagrangian configuration, the bidomain or monodomain equations modeling the evolution of the electrical propagation exhibit a nonlinear diffusion term. Piecewise quadratic finite elements are employed to approximate the displacements field, whereas for pressure, electrical potentials and ionic variables are approximated by piecewise linear elements. Various numerical tests performed with a parallel finite element code illustrate that the proposed model can capture some important features of the electromechanical coupling and show that our numerical scheme is efficient and accurate.

  6. Spatial distribution of osteocyte lacunae in equine radii and third metacarpals: considerations for cellular communication, microdamage detection and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Grunander, Todd R; Hamrick, Mark W

    2005-01-01

    Osteocytes, which are embedded in bone matrix, are the most abundant cells in bone. Despite the ideal location of osteocytes to sense the local environment and influence bone remodeling, their functions, and the relative importance of these functions, remain controversial. In this study, we tested several hypotheses that address the possibilities that population densities of osteocyte lacunae (Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar) correlate with strain-, remodeling- or metabolism-related aspects of the local biomechanical environments of mid-third diaphyseal equine radii and third metacarpals from skeletally mature animals. Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar data, quantified in multiple cortical locations, were analyzed for possible correlations with (1) structural and material characteristics (e.g., cortical thickness, percent ash, secondary osteon population density, mean osteon cross-sectional area, and predominant collagen fiber orientation), (2) strain characteristics, including prevalent/predominant strain magnitude and mode (tension, compression, shear), (3) hypothesized strain-mode-related microdamage characteristics, which might be perceived by osteocyte 'operational' networks, and (4) variations in remodeling dynamics and/or metabolism (i.e. presumably higher in endocortical regions than in other transcortical locations). Results showed relatively uniform Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar between regions with highly non-uniform strain and strain-related environments and markedly heterogeneous structural and material organization. These results suggest that population densities of these cells are poorly correlated with mechanobiological characteristics, including local variations in metabolic rate and strain magnitude/mode. Although osteocytes hypothetically evolved both as strain sensors and fatigue damage sensors able to direct the removal of damage as needed, the mechanisms that govern the distribution of these cells remain unclear. The results of this study provide little or no evidence that the number of osteocyte

  7. Surface depressions (Lacunas) on Bering Glacier, Alaska: a product of downwasting through differential ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleisher, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    Bering Glacier lacunas are steep-sided, flat-floored hollows ranging in size from 40 to 60 m wide, 80 to 120 m long, and 35 to 50 m in deep. They are confined within a band of clean ice (1.5 km wide, 5 km long) paralleling the eastern margin of the Bering piedmont lobe. The 1993-1995 surge displaced the lacuna band several kilometers onto the foreland. Specifically significant is the formation of a new band of lacunas 5-6 years later in the same location occupied by the displaced band prior to the surge. Conditions essential to lacuna formation were initiated during the surge as overriding ice was thrust into position across the trend of a subglacial trough, leading to stagnation of ice within the trough. Stagnation combined with saturation at depth altered ice texture and density. Exposure of this ice through normal ablation led to areas of differential ablation and the formation of lacunas.

  8. Lacunae infills for in situ treatment of historic glazed tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Marta T.; Esteves, Lurdes; Ferreira, Teresa A.; Candeias, António; Tennent, Norman H.; Rodrigues, José Delgado; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of current conservation materials and methods together with those adopted in the past is essential to aid research and improve or develop better conservation options. The infill and painting of tile lacunae are subjected to special requirements mainly when used in outdoor settings. A selection of the most commonly used materials was undertaken and performed based on inquiries to practitioners working in the field. The infill pastes comprised organic (epoxy, polyester), inorganic (slaked lime, hydraulic lime and zinc hydroxychloride) and mixed organic-inorganic (slaked lime mixed with a vinylic resin) binders. The selected aggregates were those most commonly used or those already present in the commercially formulated products. The infill pastes were characterised by SEM, MIP, open porosity, water absorption by capillarity, water vapour permeability, thermal and hydric expansibilities and adhesion to the ceramic body. Their performance was assessed after curing, artificial ageing (salt ageing and UV-Temp-RH cycles) and natural ageing. The results were interpreted in terms of their significance as indicators of effectiveness, compatibility and durability.

  9. A strain-hardening bi-power law for the nonlinear behaviour of biological soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, S; Vezin, P; Palierne, J-F

    2010-03-22

    Biological soft tissues exhibit a strongly nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour. Among parenchymous tissues, kidney and liver remain less studied than brain, and a first goal of this study is to report additional material properties of kidney and liver tissues in oscillatory shear and constant shear rate tests. Results show that the liver tissue is more compliant but more strain hardening than kidney. A wealth of multi-parameter mathematical models has been proposed for describing the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. A second purpose of this work is to develop a new constitutive law capable of predicting our experimental data in the both linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regime with as few parameters as possible. We propose a nonlinear strain-hardening fractional derivative model in which six parameters allow fitting the viscoelastic behaviour of kidney and liver tissues for strains ranging from 0.01 to 1 and strain rates from 0.0151 s(-1) to 0.7s(-1).

  10. Biomechanical strain characteristics of soft tissue biceps tenodesis and bony tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Levin, Steven D; Wellman, David S; Liu, Charley; Li, Yue; Ren, Yupeng; Shah, Nirav A; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2013-09-01

    Biomechanical analysis of biceps tenodesis procedures has historically focused on load to failure models. Minimal data exists for the analysis of biomechanical strain properties of the biceps tendon in a sub-failure, physiologic cadaver model. Tendon strain characteristics are different between bony and soft tissue tenodesis surgery, and the soft tissue tenodesis procedure reproduces a strain pattern more similar to the native biceps tendon. Eight fresh frozen cadaver upper extremities were mounted onto a custom device that controls shoulder abduction and rotation. Strain on the tendon was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer as the arm was moved through cycles of abduction and external rotation. Each arm was mounted once, and all 3 testing procedures were performed on each of the 8 specimens. Statistical analysis was completed using ANOVA, followed by multiple comparisons with Bonferroni correction. The bony tenodesis model placed higher strain on the biceps tendon than the soft tissue tenodesis (p = 0.025). Also, the bony tenodesis model increased the strain on the biceps tendon when compared to the native tendon (p = 0.031). In contrast, the soft tissue tenodesis did not significantly alter strain when compared to the native tendon (p = 0.089). The soft tissue tenodesis procedure better maintained the native strain environment when compared to the bony tenodesis using an interference screw. Due to this closer approximation of native biceps tendon biomechanics, the soft tissue procedure may be more preferable clinically than the bony tenodesis. 1, Controlled Laboratory Study.

  11. Correlating optical coherence elastography based strain measurements with collagen content of the human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Salehi, Hassan S; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Kueck, Angela; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript, the initial feasibility of a catheter based phase stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system was studied for characterization of the strain inside different human ovarian tissue groups. The ovarian tissue samples were periodically compressed with 500 Hz square wave signal along the axial direction between the surface of an unfocused transducer and a glass cover slide. The displacement and corresponding strain were calculated during loading from different locations for each tissue sample. A total of 27 ex vivo ovaries from 16 patients were investigated. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the average displacement and strain of the normal and malignant tissue groups. A sensitivity of 93.2% and a specificity of 83% were achieved using 25 microstrain (με) as the threshold. The collagen content of the tissues was quantified from the Sirius Red stained histological sections. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the tissue groups were found to have a strong negative correlation (R = -0.75, p < 0.0001) with the amount of strain inside the tissue. This indicates much softer and degenerated tissue structure for the malignant ovaries as compared to the dense, collagen rich structure of the normal ovarian tissue. The initial results indicate that the swept source OCT system can be useful for estimating the elasticity of the human ovarian tissue.

  12. Effect of bone-soft tissue friction on ultrasound axial shear strain elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Songyuan; Chaudhry, Anuj; Kim, Namhee; Reddy, J. N.; Righetti, Raffaella

    2017-08-01

    Bone-soft tissue friction is an important factor affecting several musculoskeletal disorders, frictional syndromes and the ability of a bone fracture to heal. However, this parameter is difficult to determine using non-invasive imaging modalities, especially in clinical settings. Ultrasound axial shear strain elastography is a non-invasive imaging modality that has been used in the recent past to estimate the bonding between different tissue layers. As most elastography methods, axial shear strain elastography is primarily used in soft tissues. More recently, this technique has been proposed to assess the bone-soft tissue interface. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a variation in bone-soft tissue friction coefficient in the resulting axial shear strain elastograms. Finite element poroelastic models of bone specimens exhibiting different bone-soft tissue friction coefficients were created and mechanically analyzed. These models were then imported to an ultrasound elastography simulation module to assess the presence of axial shear strain patterns. In vitro experiments were performed to corroborate selected simulation results. The results of this study show that the normalized axial shear strain estimated at the bone-soft tissue interface is statistically correlated to the bone-soft tissue coefficient of friction. This information may prove useful to better interpret ultrasound elastography results obtained in bone-related applications and, possibly, monitor bone healing.

  13. Soft Tissue Strain Rates in Side-Blast Incidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-02

    light armour vehicles (LAV). The establishment of meaningful injury criteria is, however, a challenging task that is still under extensive studies...improve models’ representativeness. This paper introduces a simplified finite element model of a human neck to study the reaction of armour vehicle...crashes or falls. Therefore, there is no consensus on what strain rate should be used to elaborate accurate human body models under various impact

  14. Assessment of left ventricular functions with tissue Doppler, strain, and strain rate echocardiography in patients with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Özben; Özgür, Senem; Örün, Utku Arman; Doğan, Vehbi; Yılmaz, Osman; Keskin, Mahmut; Arı, Mehmet Emre; Erdoğan, Özlem; Karademir, Selmin

    2015-08-01

    This study assessed the early changes in regional and global systolic and diastolic myocardial functions in patients with familial Mediterranean fever without any cardiovascular symptoms using tissue Doppler and strain and strain rate echocardiography and compared them to the results of a control group. This study has a cross-sectional and observational design. FMF patients with normal left ventricular function were included in the study. We excluded patients who had arrhythmia, acquired/congenital heart disease, pericarditis, or acute attack. We compared 45 children with familial Mediterranean fever on colchicine therapy and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy children. The 45 patients with familial Mediterranean fever included 24 (55.3%) girls and 21 (46.7%) boys with a mean age of 11.3 ± 3.7 (range 2-18) years. The mean disease duration was 4.6 ± 2.4 (range 0.5-10) years. In the patient group, the homozygous M694V mutation was the most common (64.4%) mutation. The patients with familial Mediterranean fever had statistically lower longitudinal global strain, radial global strain, and strain rates (-14.44 ± 4.77%, 14.80 ± 6.29%, and 0.59 ± 0.24 s, respectively) than the controls (-17.40 ± 1.79%, 17.53 ± 4.63%, and 0.83 ± 0.51 s) (p < 0.05). The circumferential global strain did not differ significantly between the groups. Patients with familial Mediterranean fever who are subclinical from a cardiac aspect might have normal left ventricular function as measured by conventional echocardiography. However, the disease affects their myocardial tissue, and these patients should be followed with conventional, strain, and strain rate echocardiography techniques regularly.

  15. Assessment of left ventricular functions with tissue Doppler, strain, and strain rate echocardiography in patients with familial Mediterranean fever

    PubMed Central

    Ceylan, Özben; Özgür, Senem; Örün, Utku Arman; Doğan, Vehbi; Yılmaz, Osman; Keskin, Mahmut; Arı, Mehmet Emre; Erdoğan, Özlem; Karademir, Selmin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the early changes in regional and global systolic and diastolic myocardial functions in patients with familial Mediterranean fever without any cardiovascular symptoms using tissue Doppler and strain and strain rate echocardiography and compared them to the results of a control group. Methods: This study has a cross-sectional and observational design. FMF patients with normal left ventricular function were included in the study. We excluded patients who had arrhythmia, acquired/congenital heart disease, pericarditis, or acute attack. We compared 45 children with familial Mediterranean fever on colchicine therapy and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Results: The 45 patients with familial Mediterranean fever included 24 (55.3%) girls and 21 (46.7%) boys with a mean age of 11.3±3.7 (range 2-18) years. The mean disease duration was 4.6±2.4 (range 0.5-10) years. In the patient group, the homozygous M694V mutation was the most common (64.4%) mutation. The patients with familial Mediterranean fever had statistically lower longitudinal global strain, radial global strain, and strain rates (-14.44±4.77%, 14.80±6.29%, and 0.59±0.24 s, respectively) than the controls (-17.40±1.79%, 17.53±4.63%, and 0.83±0.51 s) (p<0.05). The circumferential global strain did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusion: Patients with familial Mediterranean fever who are subclinical from a cardiac aspect might have normal left ventricular function as measured by conventional echocardiography. However, the disease affects their myocardial tissue, and these patients should be followed with conventional, strain, and strain rate echocardiography techniques regularly. PMID:25550179

  16. Cyclic Strain Anisotropy Regulates Valvular Interstitial Cell Phenotype and Tissue Remodeling in 3D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Russell A.; Chin, Karen; Santisakultarm, Thom P.; Dropkin, Amanda; Richards, Jennifer M.; Schaffer, Chris B.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Many planar connective tissues exhibit complex anisotropic matrix fiber arrangements that are critical to their biomechanical function. This organized structure is created and modified by resident fibroblasts in response to mechanical forces in their environment. The directionality of applied strain fields change dramatically during development, aging, and disease, but the specific effect of strain direction on matrix remodeling is less clear. Current mechanobiological inquiry of planar tissues is limited to equibiaxial or uniaxial stretch, which inadequately simulate many in vivo environments. In this study, we implement a novel bioreactor system to demonstrate the unique effect of controlled anisotropic strain on fibroblast behavior in 3D engineered tissue environments, using aortic valve interstitial fibroblast cells (VIC) as a model system. Cell seeded 3D collagen hydrogels were subjected to cyclic anisotropic strain profiles maintained at constant areal strain magnitude for up to 96 hours at 1Hz. Increasing anisotropy of biaxial strain resulted in increased cellular orientation and collagen fiber alignment along the principal directions of strain and cell orientation was found to precede fiber reorganization. Cellular proliferation and apoptosis were both significantly enhanced under increasing biaxial strain anisotropy (P < 0.05). While cyclic strain reduced both vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin compared to unstrained controls, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression increased with strain anisotropy and correlated with direction (P < 0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that strain field anisotropy is an independent regulator of fibroblast cell phenotype, turnover, and matrix reorganization, which may inform normal and pathological remodeling in soft tissues. PMID:22281945

  17. Increased cytotoxicity and streptolysin O activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kittang, Bård R; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Oppegaard, Oddvar; Johansson, Linda; Bruun, Trond; Mylvaganam, Haima; Svensson, Mattias; Skrede, Steiner; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2015-11-25

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 69) were analyzed with respect to virulence factor expression and cytotoxic or inflammatory effects on human cells and 3D skin tissue models. SDSE strains efficiently infected the 3D-skin model and severe tissue pathology, inflammatory responses and altered production of host structural framework proteins associated with epithelial barrier integrity were evident already at 8 hours post-infection. Invasive strains were significantly more cytotoxic towards keratinocytes and expressed higher Streptokinase and Streptolysin O (SLO) activities, as compared to non-invasive strains. The opposite was true for Streptolysin S (SLS). Fractionation and proteomic analysis of the cytotoxic fractions implicated SLO as a factor likely contributing to the keratinocyte cytotoxicity and tissue pathology. Analyses of patient tissue biopsies revealed massive bacterial load, high expression of slo, as well as immune cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest the contribution of SLO to epithelial cytotoxicity and tissue pathology in SDSE tissue infections.

  18. Increased cytotoxicity and streptolysin O activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infections

    PubMed Central

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kittang, Bård R.; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Oppegaard, Oddvar; Johansson, Linda; Bruun, Trond; Mylvaganam, Haima; Arnell, Per; Hyldegaard, Ole; Nekludov, Michael; Karlsson, Ylva; Svensson, Mattias; Skrede, Steiner; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 69) were analyzed with respect to virulence factor expression and cytotoxic or inflammatory effects on human cells and 3D skin tissue models. SDSE strains efficiently infected the 3D-skin model and severe tissue pathology, inflammatory responses and altered production of host structural framework proteins associated with epithelial barrier integrity were evident already at 8 hours post-infection. Invasive strains were significantly more cytotoxic towards keratinocytes and expressed higher Streptokinase and Streptolysin O (SLO) activities, as compared to non-invasive strains. The opposite was true for Streptolysin S (SLS). Fractionation and proteomic analysis of the cytotoxic fractions implicated SLO as a factor likely contributing to the keratinocyte cytotoxicity and tissue pathology. Analyses of patient tissue biopsies revealed massive bacterial load, high expression of slo, as well as immune cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest the contribution of SLO to epithelial cytotoxicity and tissue pathology in SDSE tissue infections. PMID:26601609

  19. Rubidibacter lacunae gen. nov., sp. nov., a unicellular, phycoerythrin-containing cyanobacterium isolated from seawater of Chuuk lagoon, Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Han; Noh, Jae Hoon; Lee, Charity M; Rho, Seungmok

    2008-12-01

    A unicellular cyanobacterium, designated KORDI 51-2(T), was isolated from surface seawater of Chuuk lagoon, Micronesia. The cells were wine-coloured rods and emitted red fluorescence under green excitation of an epifluorescence microscope. Thus, morphologically, the strain resembled Synechococcus species. However, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain KORDI 51-2(T) and related strains belonging to cyanobacteria, the novel strain was distantly related to members of the 'Halothece' cluster. However, sequence similarities between strain KORDI 51-2(T) and members of the 'Halothece' cluster were very low, ranging from 90.7 to 92.1 %, and phylogenetic analyses showed that the strain formed a distinct branch. Therefore, a polyphasic characterization including morphology, physiology and pigment composition was conducted to elucidate the taxonomic position of strain KORDI 51-2(T). The strain grew within a temperature range of 25-35 degrees C and a salinity range of 2-7 %. The optimal temperature and salinity were about 30 degrees C and 5 %, respectively. Strain KORDI 51-2(T) contained phycoerythrin, and the dominant carotenoid pigments were zeaxanthin, beta-carotene and echinenone. The DNA G+C content was 60.5 mol%. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, and the physiological data and pigment compositions, strain KORDI 51-2(T) is considered to represent a new genus and novel species of cyanobacteria for which the name Rubidibacter lacunae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KORDI 51-2(T) (=KCTC 40015(T)=UTEX L2944(T)).

  20. Immediate Changes to Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Strains Following Manual Lymph Drainage in Legs with Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Kakutani, Hiromi; Nakamura, Kaori; Morikage, Noriyasu; Yamashita, Osamu; Harada, Takasuke; Ueda, Koshiro; Samura, Makoto; Tanaka, Yuya; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the immediate impact of manual lymph drainage (MLD) on skin and subcutaneous tissue strains in legs with lymphedema using free-hand real-time tissue elastography (RTE). Methods: Skin and subcutaneous tissue strain measurements were taken at the middle of the inner thigh and calf by RTE in 20 legs with lymphedema of 18 patients (stage II: 11, late stage II: 7, stage III: 2) and in 70 legs of 35 normal subjects. In patients with lymphedema, the same measurements were repeated immediately following MLD. Results: Significant negative correlations were found between pre-MLD strains and the MLD-induced changes in thigh and calf skin strains (thigh skin: p <0.01, calf skin: p = 0.05), but not in subcutaneous tissue strains. Pre-MLD intercepts of these regression lines were closer to normal values as compared to mean pre-MLD values (normal thigh skin: 0.54% ± 0.30%, calf skin: 0.25% ± 0.18%, Pre-MLD thigh skin: 0.39% ± 0.20%, calf skin: 0.17% ± 0.12%, Pre-MLD intercept of thigh skin: 0.48%, Pre-MLD intercept of calf skin: 0.31%). Conclusions: It appears that MLD did not simply soften the skin, but rather normalized it in terms of strain. However, this was not confirmed in the subcutaneous tissue. PMID:27087870

  1. Dynamical properties of the brain tissue under oscillatory shear stresses at large strain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjema, F.; Khelidj, B.; Lounis, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental work, we study the viscoelastic behaviour of in vitro brain tissue, particularly the white matter, under oscillatory shear strain. The selective vulnerability of this tissue is the anisotropic mechanical properties of theirs different regions lead to a sensitivity to the angular shear rate and magnitude of strain. For this aim, shear storage modulus (G‧) and loss modulus (G″) were measured over a range of frequencies (1 to 100 Hz), for different levels of strain (1 %, to 50 %). The mechanical responses of the brain matter samples showed a viscoelastic behaviour that depend on the correlated strain level and frequency range and old age sample. The samples have been showed evolution behaviour by increasing then decreasing the strain level. Also, the stiffness anisotropy of brain matter was showed between regions and species.

  2. Luminescent Tension-Indicating Orthopedic Strain Gauges for Non-Invasive Measurements Through Tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anker, Jeffrey (Inventor); Rogalski, Melissa (Inventor); Anderson, Dakota (Inventor); Heath, Jonathon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Strain gauges that can provide information with regard to the state of implantable devices are described. The strain gauges can exhibit luminescence that is detectable through living tissue, and the detectable luminescent emission can vary according to the strain applied to the gauge. A change in residual strain of the device can signify a loss of mechanical integrity and/or loosening of the implant, and this can be non-invasively detected either by simple visual detection of the luminescent emission or through examination of the emission with a detector such as a spectrometer or a camera.

  3. Strain measurement of pure titanium covered with soft tissue using X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Kazuhiro; Tadano, Shigeru

    2010-03-01

    Measurement of the stress and strain applied to implants and bone tissue in the human body are important for fracture prediction and evaluations of implant adaptation. The strain of titanium (Ti) materials can be measuring by X-ray diffraction techniques. This study applied X-ray diffraction to the skin tissue-covered Ti. Characteristic X-rays of Mo Kalpha were used and the X-rays diffracted from the Ti were detected through the covering skin tissue. The X-ray absorption by skin tissue is large under the diffracted X-rays detected in low angles because the length of penetration depends on the angle of inclination, equal to the Bragg angle. The effects of skin tissue to detect the diffracted X-rays were investigated in the experiments. And the strain measurements were conducted under bending loads applied to the Ti specimen. The effect of skin tissue was absorption of X-rays as well as the X-rays scattered from the physiological saline contained in the tissue. The X-rays scattered by the physiological saline creates a specific background pattern near the peaks from the (002) and (011) lattice planes of Ti in the X-ray diffraction profile. Diffracted X-rays from the Ti were detected after being transmitted through 1 mm thick skin tissue by Mo Kalpha. Individual peaks such as (010), (002), (011), and (110) were clearly established by using a parallel beam arrangement. The strains of (110) lattice planes were measured with or without the tissue cover were very similar. The strain of the (110) lattice planes of Ti could be measured by Mo Kalpha when the Ti specimen was located under the skin tissue.

  4. Transfer of Macroscale Tissue Strain to Microscale Cell Regions in the Deformed Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Upton, Maureen L.; Gilchrist, Christopher L.; Guilak, Farshid; Setton, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Cells within fibrocartilaginous tissues, including chondrocytes and fibroblasts of the meniscus, ligament, and tendon, regulate cell biosynthesis in response to local mechanical stimuli. The processes by which an applied mechanical load is transferred through the extracellular matrix to the environment of a cell are not fully understood. To better understand the role of mechanics in controlling cell phenotype and biosynthetic activity, this study was conducted to measure strain at different length scales in tissue of the fibrocartilaginous meniscus of the knee joint, and to define a quantitative parameter that describes the strain transferred from the far-field tissue to a microenvironment surrounding a cell. Experiments were performed to apply a controlled uniaxial tensile deformation to explants of porcine meniscus containing live cells. Using texture correlation analyses of confocal microscopy images, two-dimensional Lagrangian and principal strains were measured at length scales representative of the tissue (macroscale) and microenvironment in the region of a cell (microscale) to yield a strain transfer ratio as a measure of median microscale to macroscale strain. The data demonstrate that principal strains at the microscale are coupled to and amplified from macroscale principal strains for a majority of cell microenvironments located across diverse microstructural regions, with average strain transfer ratios of 1.6 and 2.9 for the maximum and minimum principal strains, respectively. Lagrangian strain components calculated along the experimental axes of applied deformations exhibited considerable spatial heterogeneity and intersample variability, and suggest the existence of both strain amplification and attenuation. This feature is consistent with an in-plane rotation of the principal strain axes relative to the experimental axes at the microscale that may result from fiber sliding, fiber twisting, and fiber-matrix interactions that are believed to be

  5. Measurement, variation, and scaling of osteocyte lacunae: a case study in birds.

    PubMed

    D'Emic, Michael D; Benson, Roger B J

    2013-11-01

    Basic issues surrounding osteocyte biology are still poorly understood, including the variability of osteocyte morphology within and among bones, individuals, and species. Several studies have suggested that the volume or shape of osteocytes (or their lacunae) is related to bone and/or organismal growth rate or metabolism, but the nature of this relationship, if any, is unclear. Furthermore, several studies have linked osteocyte lacuna volume with genome size or growth rate and suggested that osteocyte lacuna volume is unrelated to body size. Herein the scaling of osteocyte lacuna volume with body mass, growth and basal metabolic rates, genome size, and red blood cell size is examined using a broad sample of extant birds within a phylogenetic framework. Over 12,000 osteocyte lacuna axes were measured in a variety of bones from 34 avian and four non-avian dinosaur species. Osteocyte lacunae in parallel-fibered bone are scalene ellipsoids; their morphology and volume cannot be reliably estimated from any single thin section, and using a prolate ellipsoid model to estimate osteocyte lacuna volume results in a substantial (ca. 2-7 times) underestimate relative to true lacunar volume. Orthogonal thin sections reveal that in birds, even when only observing parallel-fibered, primary, cortical bone, intra-skeletal variation in osteocyte lacuna volume and shape is very high (volumes vary by a factor of 5.4 among different bones), whereas variation among homologous bones of the same species is low (1.2-44%; mean=12%). Ordinary and phylogenetically informed bivariate and multiple regressions demonstrate that in birds, osteocyte volume scales significantly but weakly with body mass and mass-specific basal metabolic rate and moderately with genome size, but not with erythrocyte size. Avian whole-body growth rate and osteocyte lacuna volume are weakly and inversely related. Finally, we present the first three-dimensionally calculated osteocyte volumes for several non

  6. Liver tissue characterization from uniaxial stress-strain data using probabilistic and inverse finite element methods.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y B; Chui, C K; Teo, C L

    2013-04-01

    Biological soft tissue is highly inhomogeneous with scattered stress-strain curves. Assuming that the instantaneous strain at a specific stress varies according to a normal distribution, a nondeterministic approach is proposed to model the scattered stress-strain relationship of the tissue samples under compression. Material parameters of the liver tissue modeled using Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic constitutive equation were represented by a statistical function with normal distribution. Mean and standard deviation of the material parameters were determined using inverse finite element method and inverse mean-value first-order second-moment (IMVFOSM) method respectively. This method was verified using computer simulation based on direct Monte-Carlo (MC) method. The simulated cumulative distribution function (CDF) corresponded well with that of the experimental stress-strain data. The resultant nondeterministic material parameters were able to model the stress-strain curves from other separately conducted liver tissue compression tests. Stress-strain data from these new tests could be predicted using the nondeterministic material parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of tissue preservation temperature on high strain-rate material properties of brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Guan, Yabo; Shender, Barry; Paskoff, Glenn; Laud, Purushottam

    2011-02-03

    Postmortem preservation conditions may be one of factors contributing to wide material property variations in brain tissues in literature. The objective of present study was to determine the effects of preservation temperatures on high strain-rate material properties of brain tissues using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). Porcine brains were harvested immediately after sacrifice, sliced into 2 mm thickness, preserved in ice cold (group A, 10 samples) and 37°C (group B, 9 samples) saline solution and warmed to 37°C just prior to the test. A SHPB with tube aluminum transmission bar and semi-conductor strain gauges were used to enhance transmitted wave signals. Data were gathered using a digital acquisition system and processed to obtain stress-strain curves. All tests were conducted within 4 h postmortem. The mean strain-rate was 2487±72 s(-1). A repeated measures model with specimen-level random effects was used to analyze log transformed stress-strain responses through the entire loading range. The mean stress-strain curves with ±95% confidence bands demonstrated typical power relationships with the power value of 2.4519 (standard error, 0.0436) for group A and 2.2657 (standard error, 0.0443) for group B, indicating that responses for the two groups are significantly different. Stresses and tangent moduli rose with increasing strain levels in both groups. These findings indicate that storage temperatures affected brain tissue material properties and preserving tissues at 37°C produced a stiffer response at high strain-rates. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate material properties obtained from appropriately preserved tissues to accurately predict the responses of brain using stress analyses models, such as finite element simulations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Stress and strain localization in stretched collagenous tissues via a multiscale modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Marino, Michele; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Mechanobiology of cells in soft collagenous tissues is highly affected by both tissue response at the macroscale and stress/strain localization mechanisms due to features at lower scales. In this paper, the macroscale mechanical behaviour of soft collagenous tissues is modelled by a three-level multiscale approach, based on a multi-step homogenisation technique from nanoscale up to the macroscale. Nanoscale effects, related to both intermolecular cross-links and collagen mechanics, are accounted for, together with geometric nonlinearities at the microscale. Moreover, an effective submodelling procedure is conceived in order to evaluate the local stress and strain fields at the microscale, which is around and within cells. Numerical results, obtained by using an incremental finite element formulation and addressing stretched tendinous tissues, prove consistency and accuracy of the model at both macroscale and microscale, confirming also the effectiveness of the multiscale modelling concept for successfully analysing physiopathological processes in biological tissues.

  9. ACTIVATION AND APONEUROSIS MORPHOLOGY AFFECT IN VIVO MUSCLE TISSUE STRAINS NEAR THE MYOTENDINOUS JUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Niccolo M.; Epstein, Frederick H.; Blemker, Silvia S.

    2012-01-01

    Hamstring strain injury is one of the most common injuries in athletes, particularly for sports that involve high speed running. The aims of this study were to determine whether muscle activation and internal morphology influence in vivo muscle behavior and strain injury susceptibility. We measured tissue displacement and strains in the hamstring muscle injured most often, the biceps femoris long head muscle (BFLH), using cine DENSE dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Strain measurements were used to test whether strain magnitudes are (i) larger during active lengthening than during passive lengthening and (ii) larger for subjects with a relatively narrow proximal aponeurosis than a wide proximal aponeurosis. Displacement color maps showed higher tissue displacement with increasing lateral distance from the proximal aponeurosis for both active lengthening and passive lengthening, and higher tissue displacement for active lengthening than passive lengthening. First principal strain magnitudes were averaged in a 1 cm region near the myotendinous junction, where injury is most frequently observed. It was found that strains are significantly larger during active lengthening (0.19 SD 0.09) than passive lengthening (0.13 SD 0.06) (p < 0.05), which suggests that elevated localized strains may be a mechanism for increased injury risk during active as opposed to passive lengthening. First principal strains were higher for subjects with a relatively narrow aponeurosis width (0.26 SD 0.15) than wide (0.14 SD 0.04) (p < 0.05). This result suggests that athletes who have BFLH muscles with narrow proximal aponeuroses may have an increased risk for BFLH strain injuries. PMID:22236527

  10. Activation and aponeurosis morphology affect in vivo muscle tissue strains near the myotendinous junction.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Epstein, Frederick H; Blemker, Silvia S

    2012-02-23

    Hamstring strain injury is one of the most common injuries in athletes, particularly for sports that involve high speed running. The aims of this study were to determine whether muscle activation and internal morphology influence in vivo muscle behavior and strain injury susceptibility. We measured tissue displacement and strains in the hamstring muscle injured most often, the biceps femoris long head muscle (BFLH), using cine DENSE dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Strain measurements were used to test whether strain magnitudes are (i) larger during active lengthening than during passive lengthening and (ii) larger for subjects with a relatively narrow proximal aponeurosis than a wide proximal aponeurosis. Displacement color maps showed higher tissue displacement with increasing lateral distance from the proximal aponeurosis for both active lengthening and passive lengthening, and higher tissue displacement for active lengthening than passive lengthening. First principal strain magnitudes were averaged in a 1cm region near the myotendinous junction, where injury is most frequently observed. It was found that strains are significantly larger during active lengthening (0.19 SD 0.09) than passive lengthening (0.13 SD 0.06) (p<0.05), which suggests that elevated localized strains may be a mechanism for increased injury risk during active as opposed to passive lengthening. First principal strains were higher for subjects with a relatively narrow aponeurosis width (0.26 SD 0.15) than wide (0.14 SD 0.04) (p<0.05). This result suggests that athletes who have BFLH muscles with narrow proximal aponeuroses may have an increased risk for BFLH strain injuries.

  11. Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA).2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain.3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines.4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

  12. Design and Validation of Equiaxial Mechanical Strain Platform, EQUicycler, for 3D Tissue Engineered Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    It is crucial to replicate the micromechanical milieu of native tissues to achieve efficacious tissue engineering and regenerative therapy. In this study, we introduced an innovative loading platform, EQUicycler, that utilizes a simple, yet effective, and well-controlled mechanism to apply physiologically relevant homogenous mechanical equiaxial strain on three-dimensional cell-embedded tissue scaffolds. The design of EQUicycler ensured elimination of gripping effects through the use of biologically compatible silicone posts for direct transfer of the mechanical load to the scaffolds. Finite Element Modeling (FEM) was created to understand and to quantify how much applied global strain was transferred from the loading mechanism to the tissue constructs. In vitro studies were conducted on various cell lines associated with tissues exposed to equiaxial mechanical loading in their native environment. In vitro results demonstrated that EQUicycler was effective in maintaining and promoting the viability of different musculoskeletal cell lines and upregulating early differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. By utilizing EQUicycler, collagen fibers of the constructs were actively remodeled. Residing cells within the collagen construct elongated and aligned with strain direction upon mechanical loading. EQUicycler can provide an efficient and cost-effective tool to conduct mechanistic studies for tissue engineered constructs designed for tissue systems under mechanical loading in vivo. PMID:28168197

  13. Design and Validation of Equiaxial Mechanical Strain Platform, EQUicycler, for 3D Tissue Engineered Constructs.

    PubMed

    Elsaadany, Mostafa; Harris, Matthew; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2017-01-01

    It is crucial to replicate the micromechanical milieu of native tissues to achieve efficacious tissue engineering and regenerative therapy. In this study, we introduced an innovative loading platform, EQUicycler, that utilizes a simple, yet effective, and well-controlled mechanism to apply physiologically relevant homogenous mechanical equiaxial strain on three-dimensional cell-embedded tissue scaffolds. The design of EQUicycler ensured elimination of gripping effects through the use of biologically compatible silicone posts for direct transfer of the mechanical load to the scaffolds. Finite Element Modeling (FEM) was created to understand and to quantify how much applied global strain was transferred from the loading mechanism to the tissue constructs. In vitro studies were conducted on various cell lines associated with tissues exposed to equiaxial mechanical loading in their native environment. In vitro results demonstrated that EQUicycler was effective in maintaining and promoting the viability of different musculoskeletal cell lines and upregulating early differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. By utilizing EQUicycler, collagen fibers of the constructs were actively remodeled. Residing cells within the collagen construct elongated and aligned with strain direction upon mechanical loading. EQUicycler can provide an efficient and cost-effective tool to conduct mechanistic studies for tissue engineered constructs designed for tissue systems under mechanical loading in vivo.

  14. Effect of Strain, Region, and Tissue Composition on Glucose Partitioning in Meniscus Fibrocartilage.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, Kelsey L; Jackson, Alicia R

    2017-03-01

    A nearly avascular tissue, the knee meniscus relies on diffusive transport for nutritional supply to cells. Nutrient transport depends on solute partitioning in the tissue, which governs the amount of nutrients that can enter a tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain, tissue region, and tissue composition on the partition coefficient of glucose in meniscus fibrocartilage. A simple partitioning experiment was employed to measure glucose partitioning in porcine meniscus tissues from two regions (horn and central), from both meniscal components (medial and lateral), and at three levels of compression (0%, 10%, and 20%). Partition coefficient values were correlated to strain level, water volume fraction, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of tissue specimens. Partition coefficient values ranged from 0.47 to 0.91 (n = 48). Results show that glucose partition coefficient is significantly (p < 0.001) affected by compression, decreasing with increasing strain. Furthermore, we did not find a statistically significant effect of tissue when comparing medial versus lateral (p = 0.181) or when comparing central and horn regions (p = 0.837). There were significant positive correlations between tissue water volume fraction and glucose partitioning for all groups. However, the correlation between GAG content and partitioning was only significant in the lateral horn group. Determining how glucose partitioning is affected by tissue composition and loading is necessary for understanding nutrient availability and related tissue health and/or degeneration. Therefore, this study is important for better understanding the transport and nutrition-related mechanisms of meniscal degeneration.

  15. A novel platform for in situ investigation of cells and tissues under mechanical strain.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W W; Kural, M H; Saif, T A

    2010-08-01

    The mechanical micro-environment influences cellular responses such as migration, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Cells are subjected to mechanical stretching in vivo, e.g., epithelial cells during embryogenesis. Current methodologies do not allow high-resolution in situ observation of cells and tissues under applied strain, which may reveal intracellular dynamics and the origin of cell mechanosensitivity. A novel polydimethylsiloxane substrate was developed, capable of applying tensile and compressive strain (up to 45%) to cells and tissues while allowing in situ observation with high-resolution optics. The strain field of the substrate was characterized experimentally using digital image correlation, and the deformation was modeled by the finite element method, using a Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic constitutive relation. The substrate strain was found to be uniform for >95% of the substrate area. As a demonstration of the system, mechanical strain was applied to single fibroblasts transfected with GFP-actin and whole transgenic Drosophila embryos expressing GFP in all neurons during live imaging. Three observations of biological responses due to applied strain are reported: (1) dynamic rotation of intact actin stress fibers in fibroblasts; (2) lamellipodia activity and actin polymerization in fibroblasts; (3) active axonal contraction in Drosophila embryo motor neurons. The novel platform may serve as an important tool in studying the mechanoresponse of cells and tissues, including whole embryos. Copyright 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel platform for in situ investigation of cells and tissues under mechanical strain

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Wylie W.; Kural, Mehmet H.; Saif, Taher A.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical micro-environment influences cellular responses such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cells are subjected to mechanical stretching in vivo, e.g., epithelial cells during embryogenesis. Current methodologies do not allow high resolution in situ observation of cells and tissues under applied strain, which may reveal intracellular dynamics and the origin of cell mechanosensitivity. We have developed a novel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate capable of applying tensile and compressive strain (up to 45%) to cells and tissues while allowing in situ observation with high resolution optics. The strain field of the substrate was characterized experimentally using digital image correlation (DIC) and the deformation was modeled with finite element method (FEM) using a Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic constitutive relation. The substrate strain was found to be uniform for greater than 95% of the substrate area. As a demonstration of our system, we applied mechanical strain to single fibroblasts transfected with GFP-Actin and whole transgenic Drosophila embryos expressing GFP in all neurons during live imaging. We report three observations of biological responses due to applied strain: (1) dynamic rotation of intact actin stress fibers in fibroblasts; (2) lamellipodia activity and actin polymerization in fibroblasts; (3) active axonal contraction in Drosophila embryo motor neurons. Our novel platform may serve as an important tool in studying the mechanoresponse of cells and tissues including whole embryos. PMID:20188869

  17. The effect of mechanical strains in soft tissues of the shoulder during load carriage.

    PubMed

    Hadid, Amir; Belzer, Noa; Shabshin, Nogah; Zeilig, Gabi; Gefen, Amit; Epstein, Yoram

    2015-11-26

    Soldiers and recreational backpackers are often required to carry heavy loads during military operations or hiking. Shoulder strain appears to be one of the limiting factors of load carriage due to skin and underlying soft tissue deformations, trapped nerves, or obstruction of blood vessels. The present study was aimed to determine relationships between backpack weights and the state of loads in the shoulder׳s inner tissues, with a special focus on the deformations in the brachial plexus. Open-MRI scans were used for developing and then verifying a three-dimensional, non-linear, large deformation, finite element model of the shoulder. Loads were applied at the strap-shoulder contact surfaces of the model by pulling the strap towards the shoulder until the desired load was reached. Increasing the strap tensile forces up to a load that represents 35kg backpack resulted in gradual increase in strains within the underlying soft tissues: the maximal tensile strain in the brachial plexus for a 25kg backpack was 12%, and while carrying 35kg, the maximal tensile strain increased to 16%. The lateral aspect of the brachial plexus was found to be more vulnerable to deformation-inflicted effects than the medial aspect. This is due to the anatomy of the clavicle that poorly shields the plexus from compressive loads applied during load carriage, while the neural tissue in the medial aspect of the shoulder is better protected by the clavicle. The newly developed model can serve as a tool to estimate soft tissue deformations in the brachial plexus for heavy backpack loads, up to 35kg. This method will allow further development of new strap structures and materials for alleviating the strains applied on the shoulder soft tissues.

  18. Electrical conductivity and ion diffusion in porcine meniscus: effects of strain, anisotropy, and tissue region.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, Kelsey L; McMahan, Jeffrey B; Jackson, Alicia R

    2016-09-06

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain, anisotropy, and tissue region on electrical conductivity and ion diffusivity in meniscus fibrocartilage. A one-dimensional, 4-wire conductivity experiment was employed to measure the electrical conductivity in porcine meniscus tissues from two tissue regions (horn and central), for two tissue orientations (axial and circumferential), and for three levels of compressive strain (0%, 10%, and 20%). Conductivity values were then used to estimate the relative ion diffusivity in meniscus. The water volume fraction of tissue specimens was determined using a buoyancy method. A total of 135 meniscus samples were measured; electrical conductivity values ranged from 2.47mS/cm to 4.84mS/cm, while relative ion diffusivity was in the range of 0.235 to 0.409. Results show that electrical conductivity and ion diffusion are significantly anisotropic (p<0.001), both being higher in the circumferential direction than in the axial direction. Additionally, the findings show that compression significantly affects the electrical conductivity with decreasing conductivity levels corresponding to increased compressive strain (p<0.001). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant effect of tissue region when comparing axial conductivity in the central and horn regions of the tissue (p=0.999). There was a positive correlation between tissue water volume fraction and both electrical conductivity and relative ion diffusivity for all groups investigated. This study provides important insight into the electromechanical and transport properties in meniscus fibrocartilage, which is essential in developing new strategies to treat and/or prevent tissue degeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiscale Strain Analysis of Tissue Equivalents Using a Custom-Designed Biaxial Testing Device

    PubMed Central

    Bell, B.J.; Nauman, E.; Voytik-Harbin, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical signals transferred between a cell and its extracellular matrix play an important role in regulating fundamental cell behavior. To further define the complex mechanical interactions between cells and matrix from a multiscale perspective, a biaxial testing device was designed and built. Finite element analysis was used to optimize the cruciform specimen geometry so that stresses within the central region were concentrated and homogenous while minimizing shear and grip effects. This system was used to apply an equibiaxial loading and unloading regimen to fibroblast-seeded tissue equivalents. Digital image correlation and spot tracking were used to calculate three-dimensional strains and associated strain transfer ratios at macro (construct), meso, matrix (collagen fibril), cell (mitochondria), and nuclear levels. At meso and matrix levels, strains in the 1- and 2-direction were statistically similar throughout the loading-unloading cycle. Interestingly, a significant amplification of cellular and nuclear strains was observed in the direction perpendicular to the cell axis. Findings indicate that strain transfer is dependent upon local anisotropies generated by the cell-matrix force balance. Such multiscale approaches to tissue mechanics will assist in advancement of modern biomechanical theories as well as development and optimization of preconditioning regimens for functional engineered tissue constructs. PMID:22455913

  20. Tissue motion and strain in the human brain assessed by intraoperative ultrasound in glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Selbekk, Tormod; Brekken, Reidar; Solheim, Ole; Lydersen, Stian; Hernes, Toril A N; Unsgaard, Geirmund

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate tissue motion and strain imposed by cardiovascular pulsation in pathologic and normal brain parenchyma, as quantified from in vivo ultrasound data. Ultrasound acquired during surgery of 16 patients with glial tumors was retrospectively processed and analyzed. The tissue velocity was quantified at depths of 1cm, 2cm and 3cm from brain cortex to investigate spatial dependency with depth. Comparison of strain and velocity in tumor and adjacent normal parenchyma was performed by selecting two regions-of-interest in the hyperechoic tumor and two regions in the low-echogenic areas interpreted as mainly normal tissue with some degree of tumor cell infiltration. The absolute maximum tissue velocity is seen to increase with increasing depths in 14 of 16 cases (87.5%). The maximum tissue velocities in the four regions close to the ultrasound visible tumor border are not statistically different (p=0.163 to p=0.975). The strain magnitudes are significantly higher in the regions with expected normal brain parenchyma than in regions with expected glial tumor tissue, both for the two regions being closest to the tumor border (p=0.0004) and for the two regions further away from the tumor border (p=0.0009). We conclude that the velocity of the brain parenchyma imposed by arterial pulsation during a cardiac cycle is generally increasing with increasing depth from cortex. The maximum velocity appears to be similar in regions with expected normal brain and tumor tissue, thus, does not seem to be affected by pathology. Strain magnitude is, however, a suitable parameter for discrimination of glial tumor and normal brain parenchyma. (E-mail: Tormod.Selbekk@sintef.no).

  1. Tissue Doppler, strain, and strain rate measurements assessed by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in healthy newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Elkiran, Ozlem; Karakurt, Cemsit; Kocak, Gulendam; Karadag, Ahmet

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate cardiac maturational and haemodynamic alteration in healthy newborns and infants and determine reference values in this period using tissue Doppler, strain, and strain rate echocardiography. The study included 149 healthy subjects. Babies from 1 day to 3 months were selected from the well-baby nursery department, and infants were selected from paediatric clinics during routine visits for health maintenance. Subjects were allocated to four groups: preterm (36-37 weeks, n = 32), term (≥ 38 weeks, n = 32), 1 month of age (n = 47), and 3 months of age (n = 38). Standard echocardiographic evaluations, pulsed wave Doppler, tissue Doppler echocardiography, strain, and strain rate studies were applied by the same person using a MyLab50 echo machine. Longitudinal and circumferential systolic strain and strain rate measurements were assessed by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in all subjects. The longitudinal systolic velocity, strain, and strain rate values derived from left ventricle apical four-, three-, and two-chamber images, and circumferential systolic velocity, strain, and strain rate values derived from left ventricle short-axis images decreased from the base to the apex in all subjects (p < 0.001). Significant cardiac haemodynamic alterations occurred during the newborn and early infancy periods and were detected by tissue Doppler, strain, and strain rate echocardiography. Although two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography is useful and can produce improved, reliable results in clinical practice, it has some limitations. Therefore, more studies on this issue are required.

  2. Variation of osteocyte lacunae size within the tetrapod skeleton: implications for palaeogenomics.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Shaena; Brusatte, Stephen L; De Wolf, Wendy; Norell, Mark A

    2011-10-23

    Recent studies have emphasized the ability to reconstruct genome sizes (C-values) of extinct organisms such as dinosaurs, using correlations between known genome sizes and bone cell (osteocyte lacunae) volumes. Because of the established positive relationship between cell size and genome size in extant vertebrates, osteocyte lacunae volume is a viable proxy for reconstructing C-values in the absence of any viable genetic material. However, intra-skeletal osteocyte lacunae size variation, which could cause error in genome size estimation, has remained unexplored. Here, 11 skeletal elements of one individual from each of four major clades (Mammalia, Amphibia, Aves, Reptilia) were examined histologically. Skeletal elements in all four clades exhibit significant differences in the average sizes of their lacunae. This variation, however, generally does not cause a significant difference in the estimated genome size when common phylogenetic estimation methods are employed. On the other hand, the spread of the estimations illustrates that this method may not be precise. High variance in genome size estimations remains an outstanding problem. Additionally, a suite of new methods is introduced to further automate the measurement of bone cells and other microstructural features on histological thin sections.

  3. Determination of reference genes for circadian studies in different tissues and mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Circadian rhythms have a profound effect on human health. Their disruption can lead to serious pathologies, such as cancer and obesity. Gene expression studies in these pathologies are often studied in different mouse strains by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Selection of reference genes is a crucial step of qPCR experiments. Recent studies show that reference gene stability can vary between species and tissues, but none has taken circadian experiments into consideration. Results In the present study the expression of ten candidate reference genes (Actb, Eif2a, Gapdh, Hmbs, Hprt1, Ppib, Rn18s, Rplp0, Tbcc and Utp6c) was measured in 131 liver and 97 adrenal gland samples taken from three mouse strains (C57BL/6JOlaHsd, 129Pas plus C57BL/6J and Crem KO on 129Pas plus C57BL/6J background) every 4 h in a 24 h period. Expression stability was evaluated by geNorm and NormFinder programs. Differences in ranking of the most stable reference genes were observed both between individual mouse strains as well as between tissues within each mouse strain. We show that selection of reference gene (Actb) that is often used for analyses in individual mouse strains leads to errors if used for normalization when different mouse strains are compared. We identified alternative reference genes that are stable in these comparisons. Conclusions Genetic background and circadian time influence the expression stability of reference genes. Differences between mouse strains and tissues should be taken into consideration to avoid false interpretations. We show that the use of a single reference gene can lead to false biological conclusions. This manuscript provides a useful reference point for researchers that search for stable reference genes in the field of circadian biology. PMID:20712867

  4. Predicting cell viability within tissue scaffolds under equiaxial strain: multi-scale finite element model of collagen-cardiomyocytes constructs.

    PubMed

    Elsaadany, Mostafa; Yan, Karen Chang; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2017-01-16

    Successful tissue engineering and regenerative therapy necessitate having extensive knowledge about mechanical milieu in engineered tissues and the resident cells. In this study, we have merged two powerful analysis tools, namely finite element analysis and stochastic analysis, to understand the mechanical strain within the tissue scaffold and residing cells and to predict the cell viability upon applying mechanical strains. A continuum-based multi-length scale finite element model (FEM) was created to simulate the physiologically relevant equiaxial strain exposure on cell-embedded tissue scaffold and to calculate strain transferred to the tissue scaffold (macro-scale) and residing cells (micro-scale) upon various equiaxial strains. The data from FEM were used to predict cell viability under various equiaxial strain magnitudes using stochastic damage criterion analysis. The model validation was conducted through mechanically straining the cardiomyocyte-encapsulated collagen constructs using a custom-built mechanical loading platform (EQUicycler). FEM quantified the strain gradients over the radial and longitudinal direction of the scaffolds and the cells residing in different areas of interest. With the use of the experimental viability data, stochastic damage criterion, and the average cellular strains obtained from multi-length scale models, cellular viability was predicted and successfully validated. This methodology can provide a great tool to characterize the mechanical stimulation of bioreactors used in tissue engineering applications in providing quantification of mechanical strain and predicting cellular viability variations due to applied mechanical strain.

  5. Tissue tropism and parasite burden of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Dadimoghaddam, Yousef; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Hossienikhah, Zahra

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate parasite distribution and tissue tropism of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in experimentally infected mice using real time QPCR. In this survey 16 Balb/c mice were inoculated with 1 × 10(4) alive tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain. After 1, 2, 3 days post infection and the last day (before death), different tissues of mice including blood, brain, eye, liver, spleen, kidney, heart and muscle were harvested. Following tissues DNA extraction, the parasite burden was quantified using real time QPCR targeting the B1 gene (451 bp). It showed that Toxoplasma after intraperitoneal injection was able to movement to various tissues in 24 hours. Parasite burden was high in all tissues but the most number of parasites were observed in kidney, heart and liver, respectively. These data provide significant baseline information about Toxoplasma pathogenesis, vaccine monitoring and drug efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A strain-absorbing design for tissue-machine interfaces using a tunable adhesive gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungwon; Inoue, Yusuke; Kim, Dongmin; Reuveny, Amir; Kuribara, Kazunori; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Reeder, Jonathan; Sekino, Masaki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Yusuke; Someya, Takao

    2014-12-01

    To measure electrophysiological signals from the human body, it is essential to establish stable, gentle and nonallergic contacts between the targeted biological tissue and the electrical probes. However, it is difficult to form a stable interface between the two for long periods, especially when the surface of the biological tissue is wet and/or the tissue exhibits motion. Here we resolve this difficulty by designing and fabricating smart, stress-absorbing electronic devices that can adhere to wet and complex tissue surfaces and allow for reliable, long-term measurements of vital signals. We demonstrate a multielectrode array, which can be attached to the surface of a rat heart, resulting in good conformal contact for more than 3 h. Furthermore, we demonstrate arrays of highly sensitive, stretchable strain sensors using a similar design. Ultra-flexible electronics with enhanced adhesion to tissue could enable future applications in chronic in vivo monitoring of biological signals.

  7. A strain-absorbing design for tissue-machine interfaces using a tunable adhesive gel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungwon; Inoue, Yusuke; Kim, Dongmin; Reuveny, Amir; Kuribara, Kazunori; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Reeder, Jonathan; Sekino, Masaki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Yusuke; Someya, Takao

    2014-12-19

    To measure electrophysiological signals from the human body, it is essential to establish stable, gentle and nonallergic contacts between the targeted biological tissue and the electrical probes. However, it is difficult to form a stable interface between the two for long periods, especially when the surface of the biological tissue is wet and/or the tissue exhibits motion. Here we resolve this difficulty by designing and fabricating smart, stress-absorbing electronic devices that can adhere to wet and complex tissue surfaces and allow for reliable, long-term measurements of vital signals. We demonstrate a multielectrode array, which can be attached to the surface of a rat heart, resulting in good conformal contact for more than 3 h. Furthermore, we demonstrate arrays of highly sensitive, stretchable strain sensors using a similar design. Ultra-flexible electronics with enhanced adhesion to tissue could enable future applications in chronic in vivo monitoring of biological signals.

  8. Mechanical characterization of brain tissue in simple shear at dynamic strain rates.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Badar; Destrade, Michel; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2013-12-01

    During severe impact conditions, brain tissue experiences a rapid and complex deformation, which can be seen as a mixture of compression, tension and shear. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) occurs in animals and humans when both the strains and strain rates exceed 10% and 10/s, respectively. Knowing the mechanical properties of brain tissue in shear at these strains and strain rates is thus of particular importance, as they can be used in finite element simulations to predict the occurrence of brain injuries under different impact conditions. However, very few studies in the literature provide this information. In this research, an experimental setup was developed to perform simple shear tests on porcine brain tissue at strain rates ≤120/s. The maximum measured shear stress at strain rates of 30, 60, 90 and 120/s was 1.15±0.25kPa, 1.34±0.19kPa, 2.19±0.225kPa and 2.52±0.27kPa, (mean±SD), respectively at the maximum amount of shear, K=1. Good agreement of experimental, theoretical (Ogden and Mooney-Rivlin models) and numerical shear stresses was achieved (p=0.7866-0.9935). Specimen thickness effects (2.0-10.0mm thick specimens) were also analyzed numerically and we found that there is no significant difference (p=0.9954) in the shear stress magnitudes, indicating a homogeneous deformation of the specimens during simple shear tests. Stress relaxation tests in simple shear were also conducted at different strain magnitudes (10-60% strain) with the average rise time of 14ms. This allowed us to estimate elastic and viscoelastic parameters (initial shear modulus, μ=4942.0Pa, and Prony parameters: g1=0.520, g2=0.3057, τ1=0.0264s, and τ2=0.011s) that can be used in FE software to analyze the non-linear viscoelastic behavior of brain tissue. This study provides new insight into the behavior in finite shear of brain tissue under dynamic impact conditions, which will assist in developing effective brain injury criteria and adopting efficient countermeasures against

  9. The free diffusion of macromolecules in tissue-engineered skeletal muscle subjected to large compression strains.

    PubMed

    Gefen, Amit; Cornelissen, Lisette H; Gawlitta, Debby; Bader, Dan L; Oomens, Cees W J

    2008-01-01

    Pressure-related deep tissue injury (DTI) represents a severe pressure ulcer, which initiates in compressed muscle tissue overlying a bony prominence and progresses to more superficial tissues until penetrating the skin. Individual subjects with impaired motor and/or sensory capacities are at high risk of developing DTI. Impaired diffusion of critical metabolites in compressed muscle tissue may contribute to DTI, and impaired diffusion of tissue damage biomarkers may further impose a problem in developing early detection blood tests. We hypothesize that compression of muscle tissue between a bony prominence and a supporting surface locally influences the diffusion capacity of muscle. The objective of this study was therefore, to determine the effects of large compression strains on free diffusion in a tissue-engineered skeletal muscle model. Diffusion was measured with a range of fluorescently labeled dextran molecules (10, 20, 150kDa) whose sizes were representative of both hormones and damage biomarkers. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to compare diffusion coefficients (D) of the different dextrans between the uncompressed and compressed (48-60% strain) states. In a separate experiment, we simulated the effects of local partial muscle ischemia in vivo, by reducing the temperature of compressed specimens from 37 to 34 degrees C. Compared to the D in the uncompressed model system, values in the compressed state were significantly reduced by 47+/-22% (p<0.02). A 3 degrees C temperature decrease further reduced D in the compressed specimens by 10+/-6% (p<0.05). In vivo, the effects of large strains and ischemia are likely to be summative, and hence, the present findings suggest an important role of impaired diffusion in the etiology of DTI, and should also be considered when developing biochemical screening methods for early detection of DTI.

  10. An experimental study on the mechanical properties of rat brain tissue using different stress-strain definitions.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2014-07-01

    There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be employed to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. It is worth knowing that an optimize stress-strain definition of the brain tissue at different loading directions may have implications for neuronavigation and surgery simulation through haptic devices. This study is aimed to conduct a comparative study on different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain and to recommend a specific definition when testing brain tissues. Prepared cylindrical samples are excised from the parietal lobes of rats' brains and experimentally tested by applying load on both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are used to determine the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain. The highest non-linear stress-strain relation is observed for the Almansi-Hamel strain definition and it may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. The Green-St. Venant strain definition fails to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and triggers an underestimation of the elastic modulus. The results suggest the application of the true stress-true strain definition for characterization of the brain tissues mechanics since it gives more accurate measurements of the tissue's response using the instantaneous values.

  11. Engineering human neo-tendon tissue in vitro with human dermal fibroblasts under static mechanical strain.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dan; Liu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, Wen Jie; Cui, Lei; Cao, Yilin

    2009-12-01

    Proper cell source is one of the key issues for tendon engineering. Our previous study showed that dermal fibroblasts could be used to successfully engineer tendon in vivo and tenocytes could engineer neo-tendon in vitro with static strain. This study further investigated the possibility of engineering human neo-tendon tissue in vitro using dermal fibroblasts. Human dermal fibroblasts were seeded on polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers pre-fixed on a U-shape as a mechanical loading group, or simply cultured in a dish as a tension-free group. In addition, human tenocytes were also seeded on PGA fibers with tension as a comparison to human dermal fibroblasts. The results showed that human neo-tendon tissue could be generated using dermal fibroblasts during in vitro culture under static strain and the tissue structure became more mature with the increase of culture time. Longitudinally aligned collagen fibers and spindle shape cells were observed histologically and collagen fibril diameter and tensile strength increased with time and reached a peak at 14 weeks. In contrast, the dermal fibroblast-PGA constructs failed to form neo-tendon, but formed disorganized fibrous tissue in tension-free condition with significantly weaker strength and poor collagen fiber formation. Interestingly, neo-tendon tissues generated with human dermal fibroblasts were indistinguishable from the counterpart engineered with human tenocytes, which supports the viewpoint that human dermal fibroblasts is likely to replace tenocytes for future tendon graft development in vitro with dynamic mechanical loading in a bioreactor system.

  12. Fibre cables in the lacunae of Typha leaves contribute to a tensegrity structure

    PubMed Central

    Witztum, Allan; Wayne, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cables composed of long, non-lignified fibre cells enclosed in a cover of much shorter thin-walled, crystal-containing cells traverse the air chambers (lacunae) in leaves of the taller species of Typha. The non-lignified fibre cables are anchored in diaphragms composed of stellate cells of aerenchyma tissue that segment the long air chambers into smaller compartments. Although the fibre cables are easily observed and can be pulled free from the porous-to-air diaphragms, their structure and function have been ignored or misinterpreted. Methods Leaves of various species of Typha were dissected and fibre cables were pulled free and observed with a microscope using bright-field and polarizing optics. Maximal tensile strength of freshly removed cables was measured by hanging weights from fibre cables, and Instron analysis was used to produce curves of load versus extension until cables broke. Key Results and Conclusions Polarized light microscopy revealed that the cellulose microfibrils that make up the walls of the cable fibres are oriented parallel to the long axis of the fibres. This orientation ensures that the fibre cables are mechanically stiff and strong under tension. Accordingly, the measured stiffness and tensile strength of the fibre cables were in the gigapascal range. In combination with the dorsal and ventral leaf surfaces and partitions that contain lignified fibre bundles and vascular strands that are strong in compression, the very fine fibre cables that are strong under tension form a tensegrity structure. The tensegrity structure creates multiple load paths through which stresses are redistributed throughout the 1–3 m tall upright leaves of Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. × glauca, T. domingensis and T. shuttleworthii. The length of the fibre cables relative to the length of the leaf blades is reduced in the last-formed leaves of flowering individuals. Fibre cables are absent in the shorter leaves of Typha minima and, if

  13. Fibre cables in the lacunae of Typha leaves contribute to a tensegrity structure.

    PubMed

    Witztum, Allan; Wayne, Randy

    2014-04-01

    Cables composed of long, non-lignified fibre cells enclosed in a cover of much shorter thin-walled, crystal-containing cells traverse the air chambers (lacunae) in leaves of the taller species of Typha. The non-lignified fibre cables are anchored in diaphragms composed of stellate cells of aerenchyma tissue that segment the long air chambers into smaller compartments. Although the fibre cables are easily observed and can be pulled free from the porous-to-air diaphragms, their structure and function have been ignored or misinterpreted. Leaves of various species of Typha were dissected and fibre cables were pulled free and observed with a microscope using bright-field and polarizing optics. Maximal tensile strength of freshly removed cables was measured by hanging weights from fibre cables, and Instron analysis was used to produce curves of load versus extension until cables broke. Polarized light microscopy revealed that the cellulose microfibrils that make up the walls of the cable fibres are oriented parallel to the long axis of the fibres. This orientation ensures that the fibre cables are mechanically stiff and strong under tension. Accordingly, the measured stiffness and tensile strength of the fibre cables were in the gigapascal range. In combination with the dorsal and ventral leaf surfaces and partitions that contain lignified fibre bundles and vascular strands that are strong in compression, the very fine fibre cables that are strong under tension form a tensegrity structure. The tensegrity structure creates multiple load paths through which stresses are redistributed throughout the 1-3 m tall upright leaves of Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. × glauca, T. domingensis and T. shuttleworthii. The length of the fibre cables relative to the length of the leaf blades is reduced in the last-formed leaves of flowering individuals. Fibre cables are absent in the shorter leaves of Typha minima and, if present, only extend for a few centimetres from the sheath

  14. Tissue Tropism of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Belonging to the O55 Serogroup

    PubMed Central

    Fitzhenry, R. J.; Reece, S.; Trabulsi, L. R.; Heuschkel, R.; Murch, S.; Thomson, M.; Frankel, G.; Phillips, A. D.

    2002-01-01

    Four enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains belonging to the O55 serogroup (G21 and G30 [both O55:H6], G35 [O55:H−], and G58 [O55:H7]) were tested for their tissue tropism by using human intestinal in vitro organ culture. Strains showed restricted adhesion with attaching-and-effacing activity to follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches, with no apparent adhesion to duodenum or colon. G35 and G58 express intimin γ and show a similar tropism to intimin γ-expressing enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7. However, strains G21 and G30 were unusual because they expressed intimin α and had a restricted tissue tropism of intimin γ phenotype. The amino acid sequence of the carboxy-terminal 280 amino acids of intimin from G21 was determined. Comparison with the prototype intimin α from strain E2348/69 (O127:H6) showed a single amino acid difference (corresponding to Val907 and Ala907 in the whole intimins). This mutation was reproduced by site-directed mutagenesis in an intimin α plasmid template, pCVD438, with the hypothesis that it may induce a change in tropism. However, when the mutated plasmid was placed in both EPEC and EHEC backgrounds, duodenal adhesion in a manner similar to strain E2348/69 was evident upon in vitro organ culture. Thus, additional factor(s) unrelated to intimin exist in the O55:H6 genome that influence human intestinal tissue tropism. PMID:12117946

  15. Characterizing white matter tissue in large strain via asymmetric indentation and inverse finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuan; Lee, Chung-Hao; Sun, Lining; Ji, Songbai; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the mechanical properties of white matter is important to understand and model brain development and injury. With embedded aligned axonal fibers, white matter is typically modeled as a transversely isotropic material. However, most studies characterize the white matter tissue using models with a single anisotropic invariant or in a small-strain regime. In this study, we combined a single experimental procedure - asymmetric indentation - with inverse finite element (FE) modeling to estimate the nearly incompressible transversely isotropic material parameters of white matter. A minimal form comprising three parameters was employed to simulate indentation responses in the large-strain regime. The parameters were estimated using a global optimization procedure based on a genetic algorithm (GA). Experimental data from two indentation configurations of porcine white matter, parallel and perpendicular to the axonal fiber direction, were utilized to estimate model parameters. Results in this study confirmed a strong mechanical anisotropy of white matter in large strain. Further, our results suggested that both indentation configurations are needed to estimate the parameters with sufficient accuracy, and that the indenter-sample friction is important. Finally, we also showed that the estimated parameters were consistent with those previously obtained via a trial-and-error forward FE method in the small-strain regime. These findings are useful in modeling and parameterization of white matter, especially under large deformation, and demonstrate the potential of the proposed asymmetric indentation technique to characterize other soft biological tissues with transversely isotropic properties.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cardiac Strain Pattern Following Transplantation of Human Tissue Engineered Heart Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xulei; Riegler, Johannes; Tiburcy, Malte; Zhao, Xin; Chour, Tony; Ndoye, Babacar; Nguyen, Michael; Adams, Jackson; Ameen, Mohamed; Denney, Thomas S.; Yang, Phillip C.; Nguyen, Patricia; Zimmermann, Wolfram H.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of tissue engineering approaches in combination with exogenously produced cardiomyocytes offers the potential to restore contractile function after myocardial injury. However, current techniques assessing changes in global cardiac performance following such treatments are plagued by relatively low detection ability. As the treatment is locally performed, this detection could be improved by myocardial strain imaging that measures regional contractility. Methods and Results Tissue engineered heart muscles (EHMs) were generated by casting human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes with collagen in preformed molds. EHMs were transplanted (n=12) to cover infarct and border zones of recipient rat hearts one month after ischemia reperfusion injury. A control group (n=10) received only sham placement of sutures without EHMs. To assess the efficacy of EHMs, MRI and ultrasound-based strain imaging were performed prior to and four weeks after transplantation. In addition to strain imaging, global cardiac performance was estimated from cardiac MRI. Although no significant differences were found with global changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (Control −9.6±1.3% vs. EHM −6.2±1.9%, P=0.17), regional myocardial strain from tagged MRI was able to detect preserved systolic function in EHM-treated animals compared to control (Control 4.4±1.0% vs. EHM 1.0±0.6%, P=0.04). However, ultrasound-based strain failed to detect any significant change (Control 2.1±3.0% vs. EHM 6.3±2.9%, P=0.46). Conclusions This study highlights the feasibility of using cardiac strain from tagged MRI to assess functional changes in rat models due to localized regenerative therapies, which may not be detected by conventional measures of global systolic performance. PMID:27903535

  17. Callosal agenesis, chorioretinal lacunae, absence of infantile spasms, and normal development: Aicardi syndrome without epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Prats Viñas, Jose Maria; Martinez Gonzalez, María Jesús; Garcia Ribes, Ainhoa; Martinez Gonzalez, Sonia; Martinez Fernandez, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    Aicardi syndrome is defined by the clinical triad of infantile spasms, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and pathognomonic chorioretinal lacunae. Almost all patients are females with severe cognitive and physical disabilities. All of the cases reported in the literature have had early-onset seizures. Most cases of Aicardi syndrome exhibit very slow development, even when seizures are eventually controlled, and the cases with a relatively favourable outcome are associated with low intelligence quotient levels. A relationship between chorioretinal changes or severity of the agenesis of the corpus callosum and prognosis of Aicardi syndrome has been claimed, but few data are available about the clinical features that can predict clinical outcome. We describe a case of Aicardi syndrome in a female aged 24 months. Magnetic resonance imaging showed complete agenesis of the corpus callosum and ophthalmoscopy revealed chorioretinal lacunae in the left eye. She had never had seizures and her psychomotor and language development were normal for age.

  18. Investigation of nutrient transport mechanisms in the lacunae-canaliculi system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiner, S.; Théoval, A.; Pivonka, P.; Smith, D. W.; Bonewald, L. F.

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate nutrient transport mechanisms in the lacunae-canaliculi system. The latter has been identified as the main pathway for the supply of osteocytes, bone cells that play a crucial role in triggering bone remodeling-related cell activities, with vital nutrients. Recent findings suggest that their transport through the lacuna-canaliculi system is mainly driven by spatial concentration gradients and by mechanical stimuli exerted on the surrounding bone matrix, leading to changes in pore pressure and consequently to advective solute transport. Thus, the underlying mathematical framework is based on classical diffusion and Navier-Stokes equations. The set of governing equations is solved numerically, by means of the Finite Element method. Numerical studies are carried out to elucidate the influence of different loading and boundary conditions on the resulting nutrient transport. The results are finally compared to corresponding findings reported in the open bone biology literature.

  19. Ultrasound Elastography for Estimation of Regional Strain of Multilayered Hydrogels and Tissue-Engineered Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chen-Yuan; Heebner, Joseph; Baskaran, Harihara; Welter, Jean F.; Mansour, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage constructs tend to develop inhomogeneously, thus, to predict the mechanical performance of the tissue, conventional biomechanical testing, which yields average material properties, is of limited value. Rather, techniques for evaluating regional and depth-dependent properties of TE cartilage, preferably non-destructively, are required. The purpose of this study was to build upon our previous results and to investigate the feasibility of using ultrasound elastography to non-destructively assess the depth-dependent biomechanical characteristics of TE cartilage while in a sterile bioreactor. As a proof-of-concept, and to standardize an assessment protocol, a well-characterized three-layered hydrogel construct was used as a surrogate for TE cartilage, and was studied under controlled incremental compressions. The strain field of the construct predicted by elastography was then validated by comparison with a poroelastic finite-element analysis (FEA). On average, the differences between the strains predicted by elastography and the FEA were within 10%. Subsequently engineered cartilage tissue was evaluated in the same test fixture. Results from these examinations showed internal regions where the local strain was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than that near the surface. These studies document the feasibility of using ultrasound to evaluate the mechanical behaviors of maturing TE constructs in a sterile environment. PMID:26077987

  20. Strain-induced tissue growth laws: applications to embryonic cardiovascular development.

    PubMed

    Rugonyi, Sandra

    2013-02-28

    Hemodynamic conditions play an essential role in the cardiovascular system, with abnormal blood flow conditions leading to growth and remodeling of cardiovascular walls. During embryonic development, altered hemodynamic conditions lead to congenital heart disease, which affects about 1% of newborn babies in developed countries. However, the mechanisms by which hemodynamic conditions affect cardiovascular development have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, we propose a model of cardiac growth in response to hemodynamic conditions, in which growth is modulated by a combination of wall strains and wall shear stresses. This is in contrast to previous models that proposed stress-induced growth laws. Because during embryonic development blood pressure increases over time, and this increase in blood pressure produces an increase in wall stresses, stress-induced growth laws would require time-dependent parameters. While blood pressure increases during development, cardiovascular walls become stiffer and thicker, and thus we postulate that instead strains experienced by cells remain approximately the same during development. This assumption motivated our cardioavascular model of strain-induced growth in response to hemodynamic conditions, which we implemented using finite element methods. Model simulations show that the proposed model results in tissue growth that is physiologically reasonable. Further, our analyses demonstrate that mechanical coupling - that results from residual stresses originating from differential tissue growth - may play a more important role in the modulation of cardiovascular tissue growth and remodeling than currently acknowledged.

  1. Ultrasound Elastography for Estimation of Regional Strain of Multilayered Hydrogels and Tissue-Engineered Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chen-Yuan; Heebner, Joseph; Baskaran, Harihara; Welter, Jean F; Mansour, Joseph M

    2015-12-01

    Tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage constructs tend to develop inhomogeneously, thus, to predict the mechanical performance of the tissue, conventional biomechanical testing, which yields average material properties, is of limited value. Rather, techniques for evaluating regional and depth-dependent properties of TE cartilage, preferably non-destructively, are required. The purpose of this study was to build upon our previous results and to investigate the feasibility of using ultrasound elastography to non-destructively assess the depth-dependent biomechanical characteristics of TE cartilage while in a sterile bioreactor. As a proof-of-concept, and to standardize an assessment protocol, a well-characterized three-layered hydrogel construct was used as a surrogate for TE cartilage, and was studied under controlled incremental compressions. The strain field of the construct predicted by elastography was then validated by comparison with a poroelastic finite-element analysis (FEA). On average, the differences between the strains predicted by elastography and the FEA were within 10%. Subsequently engineered cartilage tissue was evaluated in the same test fixture. Results from these examinations showed internal regions where the local strain was 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than that near the surface. These studies document the feasibility of using ultrasound to evaluate the mechanical behaviors of maturing TE constructs in a sterile environment.

  2. An effective ultrasonic strain measurement-based shear modulus reconstruction technique for superficial tissues - demonstration on in vitro pork ribs and in vivo human breast tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Nakayama, Kiyoshi; Kubota, Mitsuhiro

    2000-06-01

    An effective shear modulus reconstruction technique is described which uses ultrasonic strain measurements for diagnosis of superficial tissues, i.e. our previously developed ultrasonic strain measurement and shear modulus reconstruction methods are combined and enhanced. The technique realizes very low computational load, yet yields fairly high quantitativeness, high stability and spatial resolution, and large dynamic range. The suitability of the method is demonstrated on in vitro pork ribs and in vivo human breast tissues (fibroadenoma and scirrhous carcinoma).

  3. Comparing elastographic strain images with modulus images obtained using nanoindentation: preliminary results using phantoms and tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Seshadri; Krouskop, T; Ophir, Jonathan

    2004-03-01

    Conventional elastography involves quasistatic mechanical compression (external or internal) of the tissue under ultrasonic insonification to obtain radiofrequency (RF) A-lines before and after compression. Cross-correlation of the pre- and postcompression A-lines results in displacement images with axial gradients that produce the strain images (strain elastograms). Though the strain elastograms show structural similarities to the modulus images, they are not related in a simple way to the modulus images because the strains depend on both modulus and geometry of the materials being deformed. Therefore, a quantification of the similarities between the strain and modulus images may enhance the interpretation confidence of strain elastograms in depicting tissue structure. To demonstrate similarities between modulus images and strain elastograms, a feasibility study of using nanoindentation to obtain modulus images of thin slices of tissue and tissue-mimicking phantoms (agar-gelatin mixtures) was performed first, with encouraging results. This was followed by a comparison of modulus images and strain elastograms obtained from the same sample slices. The experimental results indicated that, under certain experimental conditions, it is feasible to perform quantitative comparisons between strain images (using elastography) and modulus images. A good visual, as well as quantitative, correspondence between structures in the modulus and strain images could be obtained at a 3-mm scale.

  4. Regional myocardial long-axis strain and strain rate measured by different tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography methods: a comparison with tagged magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Brage H; Crosby, Jonas; Steen, Per Arvid; Torp, Hans; Slørdahl, Stig A; Støylen, Asbjørn

    2009-03-01

    Compare four different echocardiographic methods, based on tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle tracking (ST) separately or combined, for long-axis strain and strain rate (SR) measurements, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tagging as a reference. In 21 subjects (10 with myocardial infarction) peak systolic strain and systolic and early diastolic SR were measured by four different echo methods: (i) two-dimensional (2D) strain (B-mode); (ii) ST (custom software) of segment end-points (B-mode); (iii) similar to (ii), but combining ST with tissue Doppler tracking; (iv) strain from tissue Doppler velocity gradients (VG). Agreement with MRI tagging was better for strain than for SR. Ninety-five per cent limits of agreement were wider for the TDI-VG method, and 2D strain showed negative bias compared with MRI tagging and the other echo methods. Reproducibility was better for 2D strain than for MRI tagging and the other echo methods. ST alone or combined with TDI seems to be suitable for automated measurements of regional myocardial deformation. The study gives important information on the strengths and weaknesses of the different methods, which is important for further development to increase accuracy and applicability.

  5. Comparison of Bacteroides zoogleoformans strains isolated from soft tissue infections in cats with strains from periodontal disease in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Love, D N; Johnson, J L; Jones, R F; Bailey, M

    1985-01-01

    A total of 11 strains of Bacteroides zoogleoformans were isolated from 11 of 106 different cat subcutaneous "fight wound" abscesses and were among a total of 143 Bacteroides species isolated from these samples. They constituted 3.4% (11 of 325) of all anaerobic isolates. The cat strains and strains of B. zoogleoformans isolated from humans with periodontal disease were similar phenotypically as determined by biochemical reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of soluble proteins, and guanine plus cytosine ratios of DNA. Eight cat strains and five human strains tested had 45 to 54% DNA homology with the type strain of B. zoogleoformans. The eight cat strains and five human strains (excluding the type strain) were related by DNA homology at 70 to 77%. There was 85 to 90% intragroup DNA homology among the cat strains and 86 to 89% intragroup homology among the five human strains. The implications for epidemiology and human and animal ecology are discussed. Images PMID:3965393

  6. Molecular strain identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in archival tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Zink, A R; Nerlich, A G

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the use of different molecular analyses that can identify distinct strains of human pathogenic mycobacteria in formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded archival tissue samples to see whether it is possible to differentiate between the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M tuberculosis, M bovis, M africanum, M microti, or M canettii) and/or substrains in a high number of samples. This would be of interest for identifying individual infection traits and superinfection by different mycobacterial strains. Methods: Forty nine archival tissue samples with clinically and/or histologically suspected tuberculosis infection were subjected to molecular DNA analysis. Results: The molecular analysis revealed the presence of M tuberculosis complex DNA in 20 samples, whereas acid fast bacilli could be detected by Ziehl-Neelsen staining in only eight samples. All IS6110 positive samples were further characterised by spoligotyping and seven cases provided M tuberculosis specific signatures, whereas M bovis specific signatures were obtained in four cases. The analysis of mtp40, oxyR, and pncA partial gene sequences confirmed the presence of M tuberculosis in six cases and M bovis in one case. The amplification and sequencing of four further genetic regions (katG, gyrA, TbD1, RD9) characterised six “modern” M tuberculosis strains belonging to genetic groups 2 or 3. Conclusion: This study provides clear evidence that archival paraffin wax embedded material can be used for further studies on the strain identification of M tuberculosis complex strains and can therefore unequivocally be used for the study of the epidemiology and evolution of tuberculosis pathogens. PMID:15509681

  7. Accuracy of a Wearable Sensor for Measures of Head Kinematics and Calculation of Brain Tissue Strain.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Brooklynn M; Yu, Henry; Dennison, Christopher R

    2017-02-01

    Wearable kinematic sensors can be used to study head injury biomechanics based on kinematics and, more recently, based on tissue strain metrics using kinematics-driven brain models. These sensors require in-situ calibration and there is currently no data conveying wearable ability to estimate tissue strain. We simulated head impact (n = 871) to a 50th percentile Hybrid III (H-III) head wearing a hockey helmet instrumented with wearable GForceTracker (GFT) sensors measuring linear acceleration and angular velocity. A GFT was also fixed within the H-III head to establish a lower boundary on systematic errors. We quantified GFT errors relative to H-III measures based on peak kinematics and cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM). The smallest mean errors were 12% (peak resultant linear acceleration) and 15% (peak resultant angular velocity) for the GFT within the H-III. Errors for GFTs on the helmet were on average 54% (peak resultant linear acceleration) and 21% (peak resultant angular velocity). On average, the GFT inside the helmet overestimated CSDM by 0.15.

  8. A 2D strain estimator with numerical optimization method for soft-tissue elastography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Pengfei; Shao, Jinhua; Zhu, Xinjian; Zhang, Yun; Bai, Jing

    2009-12-01

    Elastography is a bioelasticity-based imaging modality which has been proved to be a potential evaluation tool to detect the tissue abnormalities. Conventional method for elastography is to estimate the displacement based on cross-correlation technique firstly, then strain profile is calculated as the gradient of the displacement. The main problem of this method arises from the fact that the cross-correlation between pre- and post-compression signals will be decreased because of the signal's compression-to-deformation. It may constrain the estimation of the displacement. Numerical optimization, as an efficient tool to estimate the non-rigid deformation in image registration, has its potential to achieve the elastogram. This paper incorporates the idea of image registration into elastography and proposes a radio frequency (RF) signal registration strain estimator based on the minimization of a cost function using numerical optimization method with Powell algorithm (NOMPA). To evaluate the proposed scheme, the simulation data with a hard inclusion embedded in the homogeneous background is produced for analysis. NOMPA can obtain the displacement profiles and strain profiles simultaneously. When compared with the cross-correlation based method, NOMPA presents better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, 32.6+/-1.5 dB vs. 23.8+/-1.1 dB) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR, 28.8+/-1.8 dB vs. 21.7+/-0.9 dB) in axial normal strain estimation. The in vitro experiment of porcine liver with ethanol-induced lesion is also studied. The statistic results of SNR and CNR indicate that strain profiles by NOMPA performs better anti-noise and target detectability than that by cross-correlation based method. Though NOMPA carry a heavier computational burden than cross-correlation based method, it may be an useful method to obtain 2D strains in elastography.

  9. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stüssi, Edgar; Müller, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r = 0.65–0.94). Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters. PMID:25695083

  10. Photobleaching as a tool to measure the local strain field in fibrous membranes of connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Jayyosi, C; Fargier, G; Coret, M; Bruyère-Garnier, K

    2014-06-01

    Connective tissues are complex structures which contain collagen and elastin fibers. These fiber-based structures have a great influence on material mechanical properties and need to be studied at the microscopic scale. Several microscopy techniques have been developed in order to image such microstructures; among them are two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy and second harmonic generation. These observations have been coupled with mechanical characterization to link microstructural kinematics to macroscopic material parameter evolution. In this study, we present a new approach to measure local strain in soft biological tissues using a side-effect of fluorescence microscopy: photobleaching. Controlling the loss of fluorescence induced by photobleaching, we create a pattern on our sample that we can monitor during mechanical loading. The image analysis allows three-dimensional displacements of the patterns at various loading levels to be computed. Then, local strain distribution is derived using the finite element discretization on a four-node element mesh created from our photobleached pattern. Photobleaching tests on a human liver capsule have revealed that this technique is non-destructive and does not have any impact on mechanical properties. This method is likely to have other applications in biological material studies, considering that all collagen-elastin fiber-based biological tissues possess autofluorescence properties and thus can be photobleached.

  11. Tissue tropisms in group A Streptococcus: what virulence factors distinguish pharyngitis from impetigo strains?

    PubMed Central

    Bessen, Debra E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Group A streptococci (GAS) are a common cause of pharyngitis and impetigo, and distinct throat strains and skin strains have been long recognized. This review aims to describe recent advances in molecular differences between throat and skin strains, and the pathogenic mechanisms used by virulence factors that may distinguish between these two groups. Recent findings Recent findings include a new typing scheme for GAS strains based on sequence clusters of genes encoding the entire surface-exposed portion of M protein; correlations between emm-based typing schemes, clinical disease and surface adhesins; covalent bond formation mediated by GAS pili and other adhesins in binding to host ligands; a key role for superantigens in oropharyngeal infection via binding major histocompatibility complex class II antigen; and migration of GAS-specific Th17 cells from the upper respiratory tract to the brain, which may be relevant to autoimmune sequelae. Summary The gap between molecular markers of disease (correlation) and virulence mechanisms (causation) in the establishment of tissue tropisms for GAS infection currently remains wide, but the gap also continues to narrow. Whole genome sequencing combined with mutant construction and improvements in animal models for oropharyngeal infection by GAS may help pave the way for new discoveries. PMID:26895573

  12. Tissue Doppler and strain imaging of left ventricle in Beagle dogs with iatrogenic hypercortisolism

    PubMed Central

    Oui, Heejin; Jeon, Sunghoon; Lee, Gahyun; Park, Seungjo; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2015-01-01

    Changes in radial and longitudinal left ventricular (LV) function were investigated in beagles with iatrogenic hypercortisolism. A total of 11 normal dogs were used, and 2 mg/kg prednisone was administered per oral q12 h for 28 days to 7 out of 11 dogs to induce iatrogenic hypercortisolism. Body weight, blood pressure, conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of normal and iatrogenic hypercortisolism groups were conducted. The myocardial wall velocity of the LV was measured using color TDI and myocardial deformation was determined by the strain and strain rate. Conventional echocardiography revealed that the diastolic LV free wall and interventricular septum in the hypercortisolism group were thickened relative to those in the normal group. The peak early diastolic myocardial velocity and early to late diastolic myocardial velocity ratio of TDI in the hypercortisolism group were significantly lower than those in the normal group. The strain values in the hypercortisolism group were significantly lower than those in the normal group, particularly for longitudinal wall motion. The lower values of myocardium from TDI and strain imaging could be used to investigate subclinical LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in dogs with the iatrogenic hypercortisolism. PMID:26040612

  13. Tissue Doppler and strain imaging of left ventricle in Beagle dogs with iatrogenic hypercortisolism.

    PubMed

    Oui, Heejin; Jeon, Sunghoon; Lee, Gahyun; Park, Seungjo; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Choi, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    Changes in radial and longitudinal left ventricular (LV) function were investigated in beagles with iatrogenic hypercortisolism. A total of 11 normal dogs were used, and 2 mg/kg prednisone was administered per oral q12 h for 28 days to 7 out of 11 dogs to induce iatrogenic hypercortisolism. Body weight, blood pressure, conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of normal and iatrogenic hypercortisolism groups were conducted. The myocardial wall velocity of the LV was measured using color TDI and myocardial deformation was determined by the strain and strain rate. Conventional echocardiography revealed that the diastolic LV free wall and interventricular septum in the hypercortisolism group were thickened relative to those in the normal group. The peak early diastolic myocardial velocity and early to late diastolic myocardial velocity ratio of TDI in the hypercortisolism group were significantly lower than those in the normal group. The strain values in the hypercortisolism group were significantly lower than those in the normal group, particularly for longitudinal wall motion. The lower values of myocardium from TDI and strain imaging could be used to investigate subclinical LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in dogs with the iatrogenic hypercortisolism.

  14. Tissue tropisms in group A Streptococcus: what virulence factors distinguish pharyngitis from impetigo strains?

    PubMed

    Bessen, Debra E

    2016-06-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS) are a common cause of pharyngitis and impetigo, and distinct throat strains and skin strains have been long recognized. This review aims to describe recent advances in molecular differences between throat and skin strains, and the pathogenic mechanisms used by virulence factors that may distinguish between these two groups. Recent findings include a new typing scheme for GAS strains based on sequence clusters of genes encoding the entire surface-exposed portion of M protein; correlations between emm-based typing schemes, clinical disease and surface adhesins; covalent bond formation mediated by GAS pili and other adhesins in binding to host ligands; a key role for superantigens in oropharyngeal infection via binding major histocompatibility complex class II antigen; and migration of GAS-specific Th17 cells from the upper respiratory tract to the brain, which may be relevant to autoimmune sequelae. The gap between molecular markers of disease (correlation) and virulence mechanisms (causation) in the establishment of tissue tropisms for GAS infection currently remains wide, but the gap also continues to narrow. Whole genome sequencing combined with mutant construction and improvements in animal models for oropharyngeal infection by GAS may help pave the way for new discoveries.

  15. Rapid microarray-based genotyping of Chlamydia spp. strains from clinical tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Konrad; Ruettger, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Chlamydia (C.) psittaci and C. trachomatis strains can be genotyped based on variations in the ompA genomic locus. In the present chapter, we describe rapid genotyping assays for both chlamydial agents using the ArrayStrip™ (AS) microarray platform. The test is targeting multiple discriminatory sites in the variable domains of the ompA gene by using 35 (C. psittaci) and 61 (C. trachomatis) oligonucleotide probes representing genotype-specific polymorphisms. In addition to discrimination among the established genotypes, this approach allows identification of atypical strains that were not accessible to typing using previously established techniques, such as PCR-RFLP or serotyping. The present DNA microarray assay can be conducted directly on clinical tissue samples and is suitable for tracing epidemiological chains and exploring the dissemination of particular genotypes. The procedure is easy to handle and economically affordable, and it allows genotyping of up to 32 clinical samples per day, thus lending itself for routine diagnosis as well.

  16. Constitutive Modeling of Skeletal Muscle Tissue with an Explicit Strain-Energy Function

    PubMed Central

    Odegard, G.M.; Donahue, T.L. Haut; Morrow, D.A.; Kaufman, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    While much work has previously been done in the modeling of skeletal muscle, no model has, to date, been developed that describes the mechanical behavior with an explicit strain-energy function associated with the active response of skeletal muscle tissue. A model is presented herein that has been developed to accommodate this design consideration using a robust dynamical approach. The model shows excellent agreement with a previously published model of both the active and passive length-tension properties of skeletal muscle. PMID:19045546

  17. Genomic sequence analysis of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genomic sequences of low and high passages of U.S. infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO) these strains were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define relevant genomic changes associated with att...

  18. Three-dimensional development of tensile pre-strained annulus fibrosus cells for tissue regeneration: An in-vitro study

    SciTech Connect

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Lee, Wu Chean; Wong, Hee Kit; Kang, Yuejun; Hee, Hwan Tak

    2015-02-01

    Prior research has investigated the immediate response after application of tensile strain on annulus fibrosus (AF) cells for the past decade. Although mechanical strain can produce either catabolic or anabolic consequences to the cell monolayer, little is known on how to translate these findings into further tissue engineering applications. Till to date, the application and effect of tensile pre-strained cells to construct a three-dimensional (3D) AF tissue remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the effect of tensile pre-strained exposure of 1 to 24 h on the development of AF pellet culture for 3 weeks. Equibiaxial cyclic tensile strain was applied on AF monolayer cells over a period of 24 h, which was subsequently developed into a cell pellet. Investigation on cellular proliferation, phenotypic gene expression, and histological changes revealed that tensile pre-strain for 24 h had significant and lasting effect on the AF tissue development, with enhanced cell proliferation, and up-regulation of collagen type I, II, and aggrecan expression. Our results demonstrated the regenerative ability of AF cell pellets subjected to 24 h tensile pre-straining. Knowledge on the effects of tensile pre-strain exposure is necessary to optimize AF development for tissue reconstruction. Moreover, the tensile pre-strained cells may further be utilized in either cell therapy to treat mild disc degeneration disease, or the development of a disc construct for total disc replacement. - Highlights: • Establishment of tensile pre-strained cell line population for annulus development. • Tensile strain limits collagen gene expression declination in monolayer culture. • Tensile pre-strained cells up-regulate their matrix protein in 3D pellet culture.

  19. Multiscale stress-strain characterization of onion outer epidermal tissue in wet and dry states.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keekyoung; Yi, Hojae; Zamil, M Shafayet; Haque, M Amanul; Puri, Virendra M

    2015-01-01

    • Quantitative measurements of water's effects on the tension response of plant tissue will assist in understanding the regulatory mechanism underlying expansive growth. Such measurements should be multiscale in nature to account for plants' hierarchical structure.• Outer onion epidermal tissues were cut and bonded to uniaxial displacement-controlled mechanical loading devices to apply and measure the force on the sample. Fluorescent polystyrene beads (500 nm in diameter) were dispersed on the sample surface under various levels of tensile load conditions to obtain displacement maps with a confocal fluorescent microscope. The resulting strain was measured using a digital image correlation technique by tracking individual bead displacements. The applied forces were obtained by measuring the displacement of the calibrated force-sensing device. Tissue- and cell-scale mechanical properties were quantified by calculating the applied stress and the corresponding global and local strains.• The Young's modulus values of individual cell walls of dehydrated and rehydrated samples were 3.0 ± 1.0 GPa and 0.4 ± 0.2 GPa, respectively, and are different from the Young's modulus values of the global tissue-scale dehydrated and rehydrated samples, which were 1.9 ± 0.3 GPa and 0.08 ± 0.02 GPa, respectively. Poisson's ratio increased more than 3-fold due to hydration.• The results on global, cell-to-cell, and point-to-point mechanical property variations suggest the importance of the mechanical contribution of extracellular features including the middle lamella, cell shape, and dimension. This study shows that a multiscale investigation is essential for fundamental insights into the hierarchical deformation of biological systems. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Passenger mutations and aberrant gene expression in congenic tissue plasminogen activator-deficient mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, R.; Samson, A. L.; Lawrence, D. A.; Medcalf, R. L.; Bugge, T. H.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background The ability to generate defined null mutations in mice revolutionized the analysis of gene function in mammals. However, gene-deficient mice generated by using 129-derived embryonic stem cells may carry large segments of 129 DNA, even when extensively backcrossed to reference strains, such as C57BL/6J, and this may confound interpretation of experiments performed in these mice. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), encoded by the PLAT gene, is a fibrinolytic serine protease that is widely expressed in the brain. A number of neurological abnormalities have been reported in tPA-deficient mice. Objectives To study genetic contamination of tPA-deficient mice. Materials and methods Whole genome expression array analysis, RNAseq expression profiling, low- and high-density SNP analysis, bioinformatics, and genome editing was used to analyze gene expression in tPA-deficient mouse brains. Results and conclusions Genes differentially expressed in the brain of Plat−/− mice from two independent colonies highly backcrossed onto the C57BL/6J strain clustered near Plat on chromosome 8. SNP analysis attributed this anomaly to about 20 Mbp of DNA flanking Plat being of 129 origin in both strains. Bioinformatic analysis of these 129-derived chromosomal segments identified a significant number of mutations in genes co-segregating with the targeted Plat allele, including several potential null mutations. Using zinc finger nuclease technology, we generated novel “passenger mutation”-free isogenic C57BL/6J-Plat−/− and FVB/NJ-Plat−/− mouse strains by introducing an 11 bp deletion in the exon encoding the signal peptide. These novel mouse strains will be a useful community resource for further exploration of tPA function in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:27079292

  1. Ultrastructure and functional morphology of the protonephridia and segmental fenestrated lacunae in Protodrilus rubropharyngeus (Polychaeta, Protodrilidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nordheim, H.; Schrader, A.

    1994-12-01

    The protonephridia of Protodrilus rubropharyngeus are described. They consist of a terminal cell, one nephridiopore cell, and different types of duct cells (proximal, medial, distal) with the duct running intracellularly. Reabsorption takes place in the duct by means of very unique lamellar foldings. An interesting characteristic of the nephridial system in P. rubropharyngeus is the presumed double filtration of the primary urine that occurs in the walls of both the lateral blood lacunae and the terminal cell. The structure of excretory organs in relation to the particular coelomatic conditions found in different groups of polychaetes is discussed.

  2. Effect of Footwear and Orthotic Devices on Stress Reduction and Soft Tissue Strain of the Neuropathic Foot

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Donovan J.; Hastings, Mary K.; Commean, Paul K.; Smith, Kirk E.; Mueller, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Ground reaction forces from walking result in stress (pressure) and soft tissue strain at the plantar aspect of the foot. Excessive plantar pressure and tissue strain on the insensate foot may lead to ulceration. Our study investigated the effect of therapeutic footwear and custom-made orthotic inserts on pressure and tissue strain along the second ray of the plantar foot, and how these two variables are associated. Methods Twenty subjects (mean age 57.3 [SD 9.3], 12 male, 8 female, body mass index 32.5 [SD 7.4]) with diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, and a history of a plantar ulcer participated. Plantar pressure data were recorded during computed tomography scans for four conditions (barefoot, shoe, shoe+total contact insert, and shoe+total contact insert+metatarsal pad). For each condition tested, tissue strain and plantar pressure were determined at the second metatarsal head and at 15 other points along the second ray. Findings Differences were noted between the 4 conditions for pressure (p < 0.004) and soft tissue strain (p < 0.042) at the second metatarsal head. Correlation coefficients demonstrated an association between pressure and strain (Barefoot r = 0.81, Shoe r = 0.75, Shoe+total contact insert r = 0.73, and Shoe+total contact insert+metatarsal pad r = 0.44). Intepretation Footwear and orthotic devices tested in this study decreased pressure and soft tissue strain at the second ray of the foot, and these two variables were strongly related. A better understanding of the role tissue strain plays in distributing plantar forces may lead to improvements in the design of orthotic devices. PMID:17182156

  3. Experimental method to characterize the strain dependent permeability of tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Naser; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2016-11-07

    Permeability is an overarching mechanical parameter encompassing the effects of porosity, pore size, and interconnectivity of porous structures. This parameter directly influences transport of soluble particles and indirectly regulates fluid pressure and velocity in tissue engineering scaffolds. The permeability also contributes to the viscoelastic behavior of visco-porous material under loading through frictional drag mechanism. We propose a straightforward experimental method for permeability characterization of tissue engineering scaffolds. In the developed set-up a step-wise spacer was designed to facilitate measurement of the permeability under different compressive strains while maintaining similar experimental conditions during the successive measurements. As illustration of the method, we measured the permeability of scaffolds presenting different average pore sizes and subjected to different compression values. Results showed an exponential relationship between the permeability and the average pore size of the scaffolds. Furthermore, the trend of the permeability decrease with compressive strains was depending on pore sizes of the scaffolds. The permeability also appeared to play a role in relaxation behavior of the scaffolds.

  4. Left ventricular function in professional football players evaluated by tissue Doppler imaging and strain imaging.

    PubMed

    Tümüklü, Mustafa Murat; Etikan, Ilker; Cinar, Cahide Soydaş

    2008-01-01

    Long-term regular exercise is associated with physiologic and morphologic cardiac alterations. Tissue Doppler Imaging(TDI) and Strain Myocardial Imaging(SI) are new tools in the evaluation systolic and diastolic myocardial function. We sought to compare TDI and SI findings in professional football players and age adjusted sedentary controls to assess the effect of regular athletic training on myocardial function. Transthoracic echocardiography, M-mode, 2-D measurements, Doppler derived mitral-tricuspid annular velocities, reconstructed spectral pulsed wave tissue Doppler velocities, strain and strain rate imaging of seven different myocardial regions were obtained from 24 professional football players and age, sex and weight adjusted 20 controls. Age, body surface area, blood pressure and heart rate were comparable between 2 groups. Football players had significantly increased LV mass, mass index (due to both higher wall thickness and end-diastolic diameter), end-systolic and end-diastolic volume, left atrial diameter and decreased transmitral diastolic late velocity. In athletes TDI analysis showed significantly increased mitral annulus septal TDI peak early diastolic(e) velocity(0.22 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.19 +/- 0.04 m/s, P < 0.05), lateral TDI peak e velocity (0.19 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.16 +/- 0.02 m/s, P < 0.05) and lateral TDI e/a ratio (1.96 +/- 0.41 and 1.66 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05). In SI analysis mid septal walls (1.71 +/- 0.23 in athletes and 1.49 +/- 0.25 in controls, P < 0.05) and mid lateral walls (1.55 +/- 0.28 and 1.34 +/- 0.25 respectively, P < 0.05) peak systolic strain rate values differences were found to be increased in athletes. Professional football playing is associated with morphologic alteration in left ventricle and left atrium and improvement in left ventricle diastolic function which can be detected by TDI. Strain rate imaging may be a new tool to define subtle change in systolic left ventricular function in "athletes heart" which cannot be determined in

  5. A motion estimation refinement framework for real-time tissue axial strain estimation with freehand ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2010-09-01

    Ultrasound elastography has become a wellknown optional imaging method for the diagnosis of tissue abnormalities in various body parts. It images the elasticity of compliant tissues by estimating the local displacements and strains using pre- and post-compression RF echo signals. In this paper, taking the RF signal as image intensity and RF samples as pixels, we present a motion estimation framework to compute the axial tissue displacements and strains. This method takes advantage of both the block matching algorithm (BMA) and local optical flow techniques. For two frames of RF signals, coarse motion estimates are first computed using BMA. The motion estimates obtained are then used to warp the first frame toward the second one, thus making the warped frame more spatially correlated to the second one. Next, the Lucas-Kanade optical flow method is employed to compute the residual motion between the warped frame and the original second frame, with inherent sub-pixel precision. Finally, the displacements from the two steps are combined. The warp-and-refine procedure can be iterated if the residual motion is larger than a predefined empirical threshold. To test its feasibility, we first applied the method to simulated data. The results show that our method is robust to relatively large motions and is capable of generating accurate motion estimation with subsample spatial resolution. These methods have been deployed and are being tested on a commercialized ultrasound machine that previously did not have elastography functions. Quality real-time display of elastography along with freehand scanning has been accomplished. The proposed framework provides an alternative method for motion estimation with good performance, and it can potentially be improved using hardware to realize the BMA.

  6. Quantitation of stress echocardiography by tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging: a dream come true?

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Maurizio; Mele, Donato; Marino, Paolo Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Tissue Doppler (TD) is an ultrasound tool providing a quantitative agreement of left ventricular regional myocardial function in different modalities. Spectral pulsed wave (PW) TD, performed online during the examination, measures instantaneous myocardial velocities. By means of color TD, velocity images are digitally stored for subsequent off-line analysis and mean myocardial velocities are measured. An implementation of color TD includes strain rate imaging (SRI), based on post-processing conversion of regional velocities in local myocardial deformation rate (strain rate) and percent deformation (strain). These three modalities have been applied to stress echocardiography for quantitative evaluation of regional left ventricular function and detection of ischemia and viability. They present advantages and limitations. PWTD does not permit the simultaneous assessment of multiple walls and therefore is not compatible with clinical stress echocardiography while it could be used in a laboratory setting. Color TD provides a spatial map of velocity throughout the myocardium but its results are strongly affected by the frame rate. Both color TD and PWTD are also influenced by overall cardiac motion and tethering from adjacent segments and require reference velocity values for interpretation of regional left ventricular function. High frame rate (i.e. > 150 ms) post-processing-derived SRI can potentially overcome these limitations, since measurements of myocardial deformation have not any significant apex-to-base gradient. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results about the ability of SRI to detect ischemia and viability, in terms of both strain rate changes and/or evidence of post-systolic thickening. SRI is, however, Doppler-dependent and time-consuming. Further technical refinements are needed to improve its application and introduce new ultrasound modalities to overcome the limitations of the Doppler-derived deformation analysis.

  7. In vivo replication of pathogenic and attenuated strains of Junin virus in different cell populations of lymphatic tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Laguens, M; Chambó, J G; Laguens, R P

    1983-01-01

    Lymphatic tissue is one of the main sites for replication of Junin virus. To characterize which cells are involved in that replication, the presence of Junin virus in purified populations of macrophages and dendritic cells from the spleens of guinea pigs infected with pathogenic and attenuated strains was investigated by immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation into newborn mice. The pathogenic strain was present both in macrophages and in dendritic cells, but the attenuated strain selectively infected dendritic cells. These observations suggest that the pathogenic behavior and replication efficiency of these two strains of Junin virus may be related to a difference in cell targets. Images PMID:6309667

  8. The Lacuna Open Boundary Condition For Electromagnetics and Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Eric; Greenwood, Andrew; Christlieb, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    In many typical situations in computational electromagnetics (CEM), a finite computational domain must be truncated with a boundary condition (called an absorbing boundary condition or open boundary condition, among other names) that allows outgoing waves to exit with minimal spurious reflection. One highly successful such boundary condition is the perfectly matched layer (PML), introduced by Berenger in 1994 and refined by others in subsequent years, which provides for minimal reflection at an acceptable computational cost. One difficulty in the use of PML is the need to tune several parameters to suit any given problem. Another open boundary condition is the lacuna open boundary condition (LOBC), pioneered by Ryaben'kii, Tsynkov and others, which makes use of the presence of lacunae, still regions where all waves have left and will no longer return, in solutions to wave equations in odd dimensions with compactly supported sources. We examine the use of the LOBC as a means of truncating Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) meshes in electromagnetic simulations and particle-in-cell simulations of plasmas, and compare to PML in terms of spurious reflections, computational cost and ease of use.

  9. Lacuna-based Artificial Boundary Condition And Uncertainty Quantification of the Two-Fluid Plasma Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Eder; Shumlak, Uri; Lin, Guang

    2011-10-01

    Modeling open boundaries is useful for truncating extended or infinite simulation domains to regions of greatest interest. However, artificial wave reflections at the boundaries can result for oblique wave intersections. The lacuna-based artificial boundary condition (ABC) method is applied to numerical simulations of the two-fluid plasma model on unbounded domains to avoid unphysical reflections. The method is temporally nonlocal and can handle arbitrary boundary shapes with no fitting needed nor accuracy loss. The algorithm is based on the presence of lacunae (aft fronts of the waves) in wave-type solutions in odd- dimensional space. The method is applied to Maxwell's equations of the two-fluid model. Placing error bounds on numerical simulations results is important for accurate comparisons, therefore, the multi-level Monte Carlo method is used to quantify the uncertainty of the two-fluid plasma model as applied to the GEM magnetic reconnection problem to study the sensitivity of the problem to uncertainty on the mass ratio, speed of light to Alfven speed ratio and the magnitude of the magnetic field initial perturbation.

  10. The anisotropic mechanical behaviour of passive skeletal muscle tissue subjected to large tensile strain.

    PubMed

    Takaza, Michael; Moerman, Kevin M; Gindre, Juliette; Lyons, Garry; Simms, Ciaran K

    2013-01-01

    The passive mechanical properties of muscle tissue are important for many biomechanics applications. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the three-dimensional tensile response of passive skeletal muscle tissue to applied loading. In particular, the nature of the anisotropy remains unclear and the response to loading at intermediate fibre directions and the Poisson's ratios in tension have not been reported. Accordingly, tensile tests were performed along and perpendicular to the muscle fibre direction as well as at 30°, 45° and 60° to the muscle fibre direction in samples of Longissimus dorsi muscle taken from freshly slaughtered pigs. Strain was measured using an optical non-contact method. The results show the transverse or cross fibre (TT') direction is broadly linear and is the stiffest (77 kPa stress at a stretch of 1.1), but that failure occurs at low stretches (approximately λ=1.15). In contrast the longitudinal or fibre direction (L) is nonlinear and much less stiff (10 kPa stress at a stretch of 1.1) but failure occurs at higher stretches (approximatelyλ=1.65). An almost sinusoidal variation in stress response was observed at intermediate angles. The following Poisson's ratios were measured: VLT=VLT'=0.47, VTT'=0.28 and VTL=0.74. These observations have not been previously reported and they contribute significantly to our understanding of the three dimensional deformation response of skeletal muscle tissue.

  11. Electrospun polycaprolactone scaffolds under strain and their application in cartilage tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Jin

    Electrospinning is a promising fabrication method for three dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds due to its ability to produce a nano-/micro-sized non-woven fibrous structure which resembles the natural extracellular matrix. We investigated the mechanical behavior of two different electrospun microstructures. Polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers with or without "point-bonding" exhibited different deformation behaviors having significant biomedical consequences. While fibers with point-bonded structure failed due to the generation of voids by the fracture of fiber interconnections under strain, fibers without point-bonds produced a 'bamboo' structure with fiber joining visible at higher levels of strain. In addition, gelatin and PCL were electrospun and the residual solvent contents were systematically investigated. A simple and effective means of reducing residual solvent content was developed. The interaction between these electrospun matrices and chondrocytic cells were compared to other topographies having the same chemistry. Electrospun polycaprolactone fibers supported better proliferation and extracellular matrix production than the corresponding semi-porous and dense surfaces and even, at some time points, glass surfaces. The intrinsic capability of electrospinning to produce high porosity appears to offset the relative hydrophobicity of polycaprolactone resulting in a more uniform cell seeding. Electrospun fibers induced a higher level of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) production by providing a 'dynamic scaffold' in which chondrocytes are able to maintain a morphology associated with the appropriate phenotype. Finally, based on this study, a method producing macro-pores within an electrospun scaffold was developed. With this method, not only can cellular infiltration into a thick electrospun scaffold be facilitated, but scaffolds having designed, anisotropic structures can be produced that better approximate the final tissue.

  12. Feasibility and reproducibility of a standard protocol for 2D speckle tracking and tissue Doppler-based strain and strain rate analysis of the fetal heart.

    PubMed

    Crispi, Fàtima; Sepulveda-Swatson, Eduardo; Cruz-Lemini, Monica; Rojas-Benavente, Juan; Garcia-Posada, Raul; Dominguez, Jesus Maria; Sitges, Marta; Bijnens, Bart; Gratacós, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of cardiac function in the fetal heart is challenging because of its small size and high heart rate, restricted physical access to the fetus, and impossibility of fetal ECG recording. We aimed to standardize the acquisition and postprocessing of fetal echocardiography for deformation analysis and to assess its feasibility, reproducibility, and correlation for longitudinal strain and strain rate measurements by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and 2D speckle tracking (2D-strain) during pregnancy. Echocardiography was performed in 56 fetuses. 2D and color TDI in apical or basal four-chamber views were recorded for subsequent analysis. Caution was taken to achieve a frame rate >70 Hz for speckle tracking and >150 Hz for TDI analysis. For each acquisition, 7.5 s of noncompressed data were stored in cine loop format and analyzed offline. Since fetal ECG information is by definition not available, aortic valve closure was marked from aortic flow and the onset of each cardiac cycle was manually indicated in the 2D images. Sample volume length was standardized at the minimum size. Two observers measured the left and right ventricular peak systolic longitudinal strain and strain-rate. Strain and strain rate measurements were feasible in 93% of the TDI and 2D-strain acquisitions. The mean time spent on analyzing TDI images was 18 min, with an intraclass agreement coefficient of 0.86 (95% CI 0.77-0.92), 0.83 (95% CI 0.72-0.90), 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-0.98), and 0.86 (95% CI 0.76-0.92) for basal left and right free wall peak systolic strain and strain rate, respectively. Agreement between observers using tissue Doppler also showed high reliability. The mean time spent for 2D-strain analysis was 15 min, with an intraclass agreement coefficient of 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98), 0.94 (95% CI 0.89-0.96), 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-0.98), and 0.84 (95% CI 0.73-0.90) for basal left and right free wall peak systolic strain and strain rate, respectively. Agreement between observers also showed a

  13. Morphological variation in Lacuna parva (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) from different European populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Aslak

    2002-09-01

    Shells of the littorinid gastropod Lacuna parva were compared from 23 European localities and postglacial deposits in Sweden. The shells from the recent and the postglacial populations are similar with the exception of the recent population from Ellekilde Hage, Øresund, Denmark. Shells from Ellekilde Hage are different in having especially well developed whorls and only one colour morph. Differences in life-cycle and radula morphometrics further distinguish the Ellekilde Hage population from populations from the Isle of Wight, UK, and Roscoff, France. No striking differences in penial morphology were observed between the populations. It is suggested that low salinity and subtidal occurrence might be the causative agents of the conchological differences exhibited by the Øresund population.

  14. Musculotendon variability influences tissue strains experienced by the biceps femoris long head muscle during high-speed running.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Blemker, Silvia S

    2014-10-17

    The hamstring muscles frequently suffer injury during high-speed running, though the factors that make an individual more susceptible to injury remain poorly understood. The goals of this study were to measure the musculotendon dimensions of the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) muscle, the hamstring muscle injured most often, and to use computational models to assess the influence of variability in the BFlh's dimensions on internal tissue strains during high-speed running. High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired over the thigh in 12 collegiate athletes, and musculotendon dimensions were measured in the proximal free tendon/aponeurosis, muscle and distal free tendon/aponeurosis. Finite element meshes were generated based on the average, standard deviation and range of BFlh dimensions. Simulation boundary conditions were defined to match muscle activation and musculotendon length change in the BFlh during high-speed running. Muscle and connective tissue dimensions were found to vary between subjects, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 17±6% across all dimensions. For all simulations peak local strain was highest along the proximal myotendinous junction, which is where injury typically occurs. Model variations showed that peak local tissue strain increased as the proximal aponeurosis width narrowed and the muscle width widened. The aponeurosis width and muscle width variation models showed that the relative dimensions of these structures influence internal muscle tissue strains. The results of this study indicate that a musculotendon unit's architecture influences its strain injury susceptibility during high-speed running.

  15. High variability in strain estimation errors when using a commercial ultrasound speckle tracking algorithm on tendon tissue.

    PubMed

    Fröberg, Åsa; Mårtensson, Mattias; Larsson, Matilda; Janerot-Sjöberg, Birgitta; D'Hooge, Jan; Arndt, Anton

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound speckle tracking offers a non-invasive way of studying strain in the free Achilles tendon where no anatomical landmarks are available for tracking. This provides new possibilities for studying injury mechanisms during sport activity and the effects of shoes, orthotic devices, and rehabilitation protocols on tendon biomechanics. To investigate the feasibility of using a commercial ultrasound speckle tracking algorithm for assessing strain in tendon tissue. A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) phantom, three porcine tendons, and a human Achilles tendon were mounted in a materials testing machine and loaded to 4% peak strain. Ultrasound long-axis cine-loops of the samples were recorded. Speckle tracking analysis of axial strain was performed using a commercial speckle tracking software. Estimated strain was then compared to reference strain known from the materials testing machine. Two frame rates and two region of interest (ROI) sizes were evaluated. Best agreement between estimated strain and reference strain was found in the PVA phantom (absolute error in peak strain: 0.21 ± 0.08%). The absolute error in peak strain varied between 0.72 ± 0.65% and 10.64 ± 3.40% in the different tendon samples. Strain determined with a frame rate of 39.4 Hz had lower errors than 78.6 Hz as was the case with a 22 mm compared to an 11 mm ROI. Errors in peak strain estimation showed high variability between tendon samples and were large in relation to strain levels previously described in the Achilles tendon. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2016.

  16. Modelling and simulation of porcine liver tissue indentation using finite element method and uniaxial stress-strain data.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y B; Chui, C K

    2014-07-18

    We hypothesize that both compression and elongation stress-strain data should be considered for modeling and simulation of soft tissue indentation. Uniaxial stress-strain data were obtained from in vitro loading experiments of porcine liver tissue. An axisymmetric finite element model was used to simulate liver tissue indentation with tissue material represented by hyperelastic models. The material parameters were derived from uniaxial stress-strain data of compressions, elongations, and combined compression and elongation of porcine liver samples. in vitro indentation tests were used to validate the finite element simulation. Stress-strain data from the simulation with material parameters derived from the combined compression and elongation data match the experimental data best. This is due to its better ability in modeling 3D deformation since the behavior of biological soft tissue under indentation is affected by both its compressive and tensile characteristics. The combined logarithmic and polynomial model is somewhat better than the 5-constant Mooney-Rivlin model as the constitutive model for this indentation simulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cyclic mechanical strain alters tissue-factor activity in rat osteosarcoma cells cultured on a titanium substrate.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, J Gary; Slack, Steven M; Turitto, Vincent T

    2004-09-01

    Tissue factor (TF), a transmembrane glycoprotein, plays a role in the initiation of blood coagulation at sites of vascular injury. Activated products of coagulation may then enhance inflammatory responses. The present investigation assesses the ability of rat osteosarcoma (UMR-106) cells cultured on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) to express differential surface TF activity in response to cyclic mechanical strain. Strains ranged from -2000 micro-strain to +2000 micro-strain, and durations from 5, 10, and 20 min per day over 5 days to 24 h continuous stimulation. ROS cells exhibited significant TF activity as demonstrated by the conversion of Factor X to Factor Xa. Strains of +2000 micro-strain with 5-20-min duration exhibited decreased TF activity with duration from 1.4E-04 nM/cell to 8.7E-05 nM/cell. Additionally, ROS cells stimulated with calcium ionophore (A23187) exhibited at least twice the activity of nonstimulated cells. Strains of +1340 micro-strain with 5-20-min duration exhibited an increasing trend with 4.15E-05 nM/cell to 7.38E-05 nM/cell. Strain direction had no significant effect on TF activity. Thus, both mechanical and chemical stimuli induce differential expression of TF activity by ROS cells cultured on Ti6Al4V, a phenomenon that may potentiate or regulate the inflammatory responses associated with the implantation of orthopedic biomaterials. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exploring the mechanical behavior of degrading swine neural tissue at low strain rates via the fractional Zener constitutive model.

    PubMed

    Bentil, Sarah A; Dupaix, Rebecca B

    2014-02-01

    The ability of the fractional Zener constitutive model to predict the behavior of postmortem swine brain tissue was examined in this work. Understanding tissue behavior attributed to degradation is invaluable in many fields such as the forensic sciences or cases where only cadaveric tissue is available. To understand how material properties change with postmortem age, the fractional Zener model was considered as it includes parameters to describe brain stiffness and also the parameter α, which quantifies the viscoelasticity of a material. The relationship between the viscoelasticity described by α and tissue degradation was examined by fitting the model to data collected in a previous study (Bentil, 2013). This previous study subjected swine neural tissue to in vitro unconfined compression tests using four postmortem age groups (<6h, 24h, 3 days, and 1 week). All samples were compressed to a strain level of 10% using two compressive rates: 1mm/min and 5mm/min. Statistical analysis was used as a tool to study the influence of the fractional Zener constants on factors such as tissue degradation and compressive rate. Application of the fractional Zener constitutive model to the experimental data showed that swine neural tissue becomes less stiff with increased postmortem age. The fractional Zener model was also able to capture the nonlinear viscoelastic features of the brain tissue at low strain rates. The results showed that the parameter α was better correlated with compressive rate than with postmortem age.

  19. Bacterial Species- and Strain-Dependent Induction of Tissue Factor in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Veltrop, M. H. A. M.; Beekhuizen, H.; Thompson, J.

    1999-01-01

    A cardinal process in bacterial endocarditis (BE) is the activation of the clotting system and the formation of a fibrin clot on the inner surface of the heart, the so-called endocardial vegetation. The processes that lead to the activation of the clotting system on endothelial surfaces upon exposure to bacteria are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated in an in vitro model whether infection of human endothelial cells (EC) with bacteria that are relevant to BE, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, leads to induction of tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity (TFA) and whether this process is influenced by host factors, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), that are produced in response to the bacteremia in vivo. The results show that S. aureus binds to and is internalized by EC, resulting in expression of TF mRNA and TF surface protein as well as generation of TFA within 4 to 8 h after infection. No TFA was found when EC were exposed to UV-irradiated S. aureus or bacterial cell wall fragments. S. sanguis and S. epidermidis, although also binding to EC, did not induce endothelial TFA. This indicates a species and strain dependency. EC also expressed TFA after exposure to IL-1. The enhanced TFA of EC after exposure to S. aureus was not prevented by IL-1 receptor antagonist, arguing against an auto- or paracrine contribution of endogenous IL-1. When IL-1 was applied together with bacteria, this had a synergistic effect on the induction of EC TFA. This was found in particular with S. aureus but also, although to a lesser degree, with S. sanguis and S. epidermidis. This influence of IL-1 on the species- and strain-dependent induction of EC TFA suggests that bacterial factors as well as host factors orchestrate the induction of coagulation in an early stage in the pathogenesis of endovascular disease, such as BE. PMID:10531276

  20. Ultrasonographic findings of placenta lacunae and a lack of a clear zone in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shoko; Hasegawa, Junichi; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Matsuoka, Ryu; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Okai, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the frequencies of placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone are higher in cases of placenta previa compared with those without it. Ultrasonographic findings just before delivery, including placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone were prospectively evaluated in consecutive subjects. After collection, a case-control study with 1:5 matched pairs was conducted. The frequencies of ultrasonographic findings were analyzed in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta. Seventy cases with placenta previa and 350 cases with normal placentas were observed. Five and zero cases with abnormal placental adherence were observed in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta, respectively. Lack of a clear zone was observed in 60 and 1.5% of cases with and without the placental adherence (p = 0.001). Placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone were observed in 31.4 and 9.7% of cases with and without placenta previa [odds ratio (OR) 4.2]. Lack of a clear zone was observed in 5.7 and 0.9% of cases with and without placenta previa (OR 7.0). Placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone are frequently observed in placenta previa even when there is no adherence of the placenta. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Variability of antibiotic susceptibility and toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic commensal bacterium that mostly colonizes the skin and soft tissues. The pathogenicity of S. aureus is due to both its ability to resist antibiotics, and the production of toxins. Here, we characterize a group of genes responsible for toxin production and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections. Results A total of 136 S. aureus strains were collected from five different types of infection: furuncles, pyomyositis, abscesses, Buruli ulcers, and osteomyelitis, from hospital admissions and out-patients in Benin. All strains were resistant to benzyl penicillin, while 25% were resistant to methicillin, and all showed sensitivity to vancomycin. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was the most commonly produced virulence factor (70%), followed by staphylococcal enterotoxin B (44%). Exfoliative toxin B was produced by 1.3% of the strains, and was only found in isolates from Buruli ulcers. The tsst-1, sec, and seh genes were rarely detected (≤1%). Conclusions This study provides new insight into the prevalence of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in S. aureus strains responsible for skin, soft tissue, and bone infections. Our results showed that PVL was strongly associated with pyomyositis and osteomyelitis, and that there is a high prevalence of PVL-MRSA skin infections in Benin. PMID:23924370

  2. Comparison of thiol redox state of mitochondria and homogenates of various tissues between two strains of mice with different longevities

    PubMed Central

    Rebrin, Igor; Sohal, Rajindar S.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine if differences in life spans of two different strains of mice are associated with the thiol redox state of their tissues and mitochondria. A comparison, based on amounts of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH, GSSG) and reactive protein thiols, was made between short-lived SAM (P8) mice and the longer-lived C57BL/6 mice at 13 months of age. The average life span of the latter mouse strain is approximately 48% longer than the former strain. Analyses of plasma, tissue homogenates and mitochondria of liver, kidney, heart, brain and skeletal muscle indicated that, in general, amounts of GSH and reactive protein sulfhydryls and GSH:GSSG ratios were lower and concentrations of GSSG were higher in the SAM than the C57BL/6 mice. Differences in the redox state between the two strains were more consistent and pronounced in skeletal muscle than in other tissues, and in mitochondria than in their respective tissue homogenates. Overall, the results support the view that the shorter-lived SAM mice exhibit a relatively higher level of oxidative stress than the longer-lived C57BL/6 mice, which is consistent with the predictions of the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging. Intra-species comparisons may be useful for the identification of biochemical characteristics associated with the variations in life spans. PMID:15501021

  3. Normal and Fibrotic Rat Livers Demonstrate Shear Strain Softening and Compression Stiffening: A Model for Soft Tissue Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xuan; van Oosten, Anne; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Janmey, Paul A.; Wells, Rebecca G.

    2016-01-01

    Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G’ and G” and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver. PMID:26735954

  4. Duplicating Dynamic Strain-Stiffening Behavior and Nanomechanics of Biological Tissues in a Synthetic Self-Healing Flexible Network Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bin; Huang, Jun; Han, Linbo; Gong, Lu; Li, Lin; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Zeng, Hongbo

    2017-10-02

    Biological tissues can accurately differentiate external mechanical stresses and actively select suitable strategies (e.g., reversible strain-stiffening, self-healing) to sustain or restore their integrity and related functionalities as required. Synthetic materials that can imitate the characteristics of biological tissues have a wide range of engineering and bioengineering applications. However, no success has been demonstrated to realize such strain-stiffening behavior in synthetic networks, particularly using flexible polymers, which has remained a great challenge. Here, we present one such synthetic hydrogel material prepared from two flexible polymers (polyethylene glycol and branched polyethylenimine) that exhibits both strain-stiffening and self-healing capabilities. The developed synthetic hydrogel network not only mimics the main features of biological mechanically responsive systems but also autonomously self-heals after becoming damaged, thereby recovering its full capacity to perform its normal physiological functions.

  5. Optical coherence tomography for visualizing transient strains and measuring large deformations in laser-induced tissue reshaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Matveyev, Alexander L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Shabanov, Dmitry V.; Baum, Olga I.; Svistushkin, Valery M.; Sobol, Emil N.

    2016-11-01

    In the context of the development of emerging laser-assisted thermo-mechanical technologies for non-destructive reshaping of avascular collagenous tissues (cartilages and cornea), we report the first application of phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) for visualizing transient strains involving supra-wavelength inter-frame displacements of scatterers. Usually phase-sensitive OCT assumes the visualization of sub-pixel and even sub-wavelength displacements of scatterers and fairly small strains (say, <10-3), which conventionally implies the necessity of averaging for enhancing the effective signal-to-noise ratio and, correspondingly, the application of small-amplitude actuators producing periodic deformations. The original approach used here allows for direct estimation of elevated strains ~10-2 (close to onset of intense speckle blinking) obviating the necessity of averaging and phase unwrapping for supra-wavelength inter-frame displacements. We demonstrate the possibility of mapping aperiodic thermally-induced transient strains with resultant large deformations on order of tens per cent. Such strains are typical in laser tissue reshaping, but are far beyond the range of conventionally discussed OCT-based strain mapping.

  6. Repetitive differential finger motion increases shear strain between the flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Tat, Jimmy; Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Non-inflammatory fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) are characteristic in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. These pathological changes have been linked to repetitive hand tasks that create shear forces between the flexor tendons and SSCT. We measured the relative motion of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and SSCT during two repetitive finger tasks using color Doppler ultrasound. Twelve participants performed flexion-extension cycles for 30 min with the long finger alone (differential movement) and with all four fingers together (concurrent movement). Shear strain index (SSI, a relative measure of excursion in flexion and extension) and maximum velocity ratio (MVR, the ratio of SSCT versus tendon during flexion and extension) were used to represent shear. A linear effect of exertion time was significant and corresponded with larger tendon shear in differential motion. The flexion SSI increased 20.4% from the first to the 30th minute, while MVR decreased 8.9% in flexion and 8.7% in extension. No significant changes were found during concurrent motion. These results suggest that exposure to repetitive differential finger tasks may increase the risk of shear injury in the carpal tunnel.

  7. Speckle tracking-derived myocardial tissue deformation imaging in twin-twin transfusion syndrome: differences in strain and strain rate between donor and recipient twins.

    PubMed

    Rychik, Jack; Zeng, Shi; Bebbington, Michael; Szwast, Anita; Quartermain, Michael; Natarajan, Shobha; Johnson, Mark; Tian, Zhiyun

    2012-01-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a complex disorder with altered cardiovascular loading conditions that affects both donors and recipients. Myocardial tissue deformation analysis using vector velocity imaging is an angle-independent, speckle-tracking technique which can assess myocardial mechanics and may provide insight into cardiac dysfunction in TTTS. Digital dynamic two-dimensional four-chamber views were interrogated offline. Images were acquired utilizing standard video frame rates (30 frames/s). The global longitudinal strain, systolic strain rate, and diastolic strain rate were measured in the left (LV) and right ventricles (RV) of 25 fetal pairs with TTTS and compared to 25 gestational age-matched normal controls. Pulsatility indices for the umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery were measured. The gestational age at evaluation was 20.5 ± 1.3 weeks. The donor LV systolic strain rate was higher, while the donor RV diastolic strain rate was significantly lower, than control values. The recipient longitudinal strain, systolic strain rate, and diastolic strain rate were significantly lower for both LV and RV in comparison to controls. The donor umbilical artery pulsatility index was higher than control values (1.92 ± 0.45 vs. 1.41 ± 0.25, p < 0.001), while the donor middle cerebral artery pulsatility index was lower (1.46 ± 0.28 vs. 1.87 ± 0.21). Recipient umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery pulsatility indices were no different than control values. In TTTS, both the donor and the recipient exhibit abnormalities of myocardial tissue deformation with ventricle-specific changes evident based on loading conditions. Donor LV systolic function is hyperdynamic due to hypovolemia and selective ejection into a low-resistance cerebrovascular circuit while the donor RV selectively ejects into a high-resistance placental circuit. Recipient RV and LV are both globally depressed with systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Further prospective

  8. Real-time strain rate imaging: validation of peak compression and expansion rates by a tissue-mimicking phantom.

    PubMed

    Belohlavek, M; Bartleson, V B; Zobitz, M E

    2001-10-01

    Strain rate imaging is a new modality in echocardiography intended for analysis of left ventricular function. This modality extends ultrasonographic techniques for analysis of tissue velocities by providing information about rates of local myocardial compression and expansion. Cyclic cardiac deformation is a complex process. Precision and accuracy of real-time strain rate (rtSR) measurements have not been studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Using a cyclically compressed tissue-mimicking gelatin phantom, we compared rtSR values to corresponding strain rate values calculated off line from local tissue velocities measured by Doppler echocardiography. We tested a clinically relevant range of strain rates (0.5 - 3.5 sec(-1)) and different angles of insonation. Initial tests showed high precision (r > or = 0.973, P < 0.001), but the assessment of accuracy (bias < or = 0.559 sec(-1)) suggested a trend toward systematic underestimation of the reference values. We suspected a confounding influence of a clutter filter and repeated the tests with the filter inactive. The resulting accuracy improved tenfold (bias < or = 0.045 sec(-1)), and the systematic underestimation was no longer present. We conclude that the rtSR is precise and accurate for a range of the tested values.

  9. Musculotendon variability influences tissue strains experienced by the biceps femoris long head muscle during high-speed running

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Niccolo M.; Blemker, Silvia S.

    2014-01-01

    The hamstring muscles frequently suffer injury during high-speed running, though the factors that make an individual more susceptible to injury remain poorly understood. The goals of this study were to measure the musculotendon dimensions of the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) muscle, the hamstring muscle injured most often, and to use computational models to assess the influence of variability in the BFlh’s dimensions on internal tissue strains during high-speed running. High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired over the thigh in 12 collegiate athletes, and musculotendon dimensions were measured in the proximal free tendon/aponeurosis, muscle and distal free tendon/aponeurosis. Finite element meshes were generated based on the average, standard deviation and range of BFlh dimensions. Simulation boundary conditions were defined to match muscle activation and musculotendon length change in the BFlh during high-speed running. Muscle and connective tissue dimensions were found to vary between subjects, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 17 ± 6% across all dimensions. For all simulations peak local strain was highest along the proximal myotendinous junction, which is where injury typically occurs. Model variations showed that peak local tissue strain increased as the proximal aponeurosis width narrowed and the muscle width widened. The aponeurosis width and muscle width variation models showed that the relative dimensions of these structures influence internal muscle tissue strains. The results of this study indicate that a musculotendon unit’s architecture influences its strain injury susceptibility during high-speed running. PMID:25189094

  10. Vaccine-induced rabies case in a cow (Bos taurus): Molecular characterisation of vaccine strain in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Vuta, Vlad; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Barboi, Gheorghe; Motiu, Razvan; Barbuceanu, Florica; Vlagioiu, Constantin; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-09-22

    Rabies is a fatal neuropathogenic zoonosis caused by the rabies virus of the Lyssavirus genus, Rhabdoviridae family. The oral vaccination of foxes - the main reservoir of rabies in Europe - using a live attenuated rabies virus vaccine was successfully conducted in many Western European countries. In July 2015, a rabies vaccine strain was isolated from the brain tissues of a clinically suspect cow (Bos taurus) in Romania. The nucleotide analysis of both N and G gene sequences showed 100% identity between the rabid animal, the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain and five rabies vaccine batches used for the national oral vaccination campaign targeting foxes.

  11. Angular Error in Ultrasound Doppler Tissue Velocities and Its Influence on the Derived Variable Peak Systolic Strain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Both two- and four-chamber apical images have been recorded on a sample of 18 normal individuals. The study of tissue velocities in the myocard ...is the speed at which the myocard is deforming. The strain rate (dε/dt) is estimated by [9]: L vLrv −+= )(�ε (2) where v is the...increase back to zero. This is because the strain rate is negative when the myocard is contracting, as it is during systole, and positive during

  12. Ontogeny of growth hormone receptor gene expression in tissue of growth-selected strains of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mao, J N; Burnside, J; Postel-Vinay, M C; Pesek, J D; Chambers, J R; Cogburn, L A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between genetic selection for growth traits and tissue expression of the chicken growth hormone receptor (cGHR) gene. Two different populations of broiler chickens were studied. One population consisted of strain (S) 80, selected for 14 generations for high 9-week body weight (BW), and its progenitor, S90 (a 1950's strain). The second population consisted of S21, selected for 10 generations for high 4-week BW and low abdominal fat, and its progenitor S20 (a 1970's strain). Tissue (liver, fat, breast and leg muscle) and blood samples were collected from six birds/strain at 2-week intervals between 1 and 11 weeks of age. An RNase protection assay was developed to measure mRNA levels of full-length cGHR (3.2 and 4.3 kb) transcripts and chicken glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (for normalization) in total RNA prepared from tissue. Analysis of the area-under-curve (AUC) was used for strain comparisons of certain developmental profiles (BW, plasma hormones and tissue cGHR mRNA). The BW AUC showed that the growth rates are different (P < 0.05) among the four strains (S21 > S20 > S80 > S90). Both slow-growing strains (S90 and S80) had a higher (P < 0.05) plasma GH AUC than the two fast-growing strains (S20 and S21). The plasma T3 AUC was highest (P < 0.05) in S90 due to maintenance of higher T3 levels after 3 weeks of age. At 11 weeks of age, hepatic and plasma GH-binding activities were positively related to growth rate (S21 > S20 > S80 > S90). However, the developmental increase in cGHR mRNA in liver and fat was similar among these different populations of growth-selected broiler chickens. Steady-state levels of cGHR mRNA increased in a developmental manner in the liver (5-fold at 9 weeks of age) and abdominal fat (4.5-fold at 11 weeks of age) of all strains. In contrast, there was no developmental increase or strain difference in cGHR mRNA levels in breast and leg muscle. There is a discrepancy between

  13. Ex vivo determination of bone tissue strains for an in vivo mouse tibial loading model.

    PubMed

    Carriero, Alessandra; Abela, Lisa; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2014-07-18

    Previous studies introduced the digital image correlation (DIC) as a viable technique for measuring bone strain during loading. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of a DIC system in determining surface strains in a mouse tibia while loaded in compression through the knee joint. Specifically, we examined the effect of speckle distribution, facet size and overlap, initial vertical alignment of the bone into the loading cups, rotation with respect to cameras, and ex vivo loading configurations on the strain contour maps measured with a DIC system. We loaded tibiae of C57BL/6 mice (12 and 18 weeks old male) up to 12 N at 8 N/min. Images of speckles on the bone surface were recorded at 1N intervals and DIC was used to compute strains. Results showed that speckles must have the correct size and density with respect to the facet size of choice for the strain distribution to be computed and reproducible. Initial alignment of the bone within the loading cups does not influence the strain distribution measured during peak loading, but bones must be placed in front of the camera with the same orientation in order for strains to be comparable. Finally, the ex vivo loading configurations with the tibia attached to the entire mouse, or to the femur and foot, or only to the foot, showed different strain contour maps. This work provides a better understanding of parameters affecting full field strain measurements from DIC in ex vivo murine tibial loading tests.

  14. Investigation of the mechanical behavior of kangaroo humeral head cartilage tissue by a porohyperelastic model based on the strain-rate-dependent permeability.

    PubMed

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Senadeera, Wijitha; Li, Tong; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-11-01

    Solid-interstitial fluid interaction, which depends on tissue permeability, is significant to the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of humeral head (shoulder) cartilage. Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to that of the human shoulder, kangaroos present a suitable animal model. Therefore, indentation experiments were conducted on kangaroo shoulder cartilage tissues from low (10(-4)/s) to moderately high (10(-2)/s) strain-rates. A porohyperelastic model was developed based on the experimental characterization; and a permeability function that takes into account the effect of strain-rate on permeability (strain-rate-dependent permeability) was introduced into the model to investigate the effect of rate-dependent fluid flow on tissue response. The prediction of the model with the strain-rate-dependent permeability was compared with those of the models using constant permeability and strain-dependent permeability. Compared to the model with constant permeability, the models with strain-dependent and strain-rate-dependent permeability were able to better capture the experimental variation at all strain-rates (p < 0.05). Significant differences were not identified between models with strain-dependent and strain-rate-dependent permeability at strain-rate of 5 × 10(-3)/s (p = 0.179). However, at strain-rate of 10(-2)/s, the model with strain-rate-dependent permeability was significantly better at capturing the experimental results (p < 0.005). The findings thus revealed the significance of rate-dependent fluid flow on tissue behavior at large strain-rates, which provides insights into the mechanical deformation mechanisms of cartilage tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On the nature of ionogram slant Es and the F-lacuna phenomena in the auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirochkov, A. V.; Makarova, L. N.; Kustov, A. V.; Shul'Gina, N. V.

    1992-10-01

    Data from the EISCAT radar and two vertical ionosondes were used to study the slant Es and F-lacuna phenomena in the auroral ionosphere. The threshold effect in both the electric field and in the E-region electron density for the slant Es echoes onset was found and the respective threshold values were estimated as 30 mV/m and 200,000/cu cm. Predictions of slant Es trace shape are made on the basis of EISCAT measurements of ionospheric parameters and a theoretical model of radar aurora signal formation used previously in the VHF band. Satisfactory agreement was found between the model and the experimental ionograms. We present evidence that the F-lacuna phenomenon is associated with at least two effects: a) the defocussing of radio waves during propagation in the disturbed F-region and b) the radio wave absorption during its propagation through the strongly heated, turbulent E-region.

  16. Virulence type and tissue tropism of Staphylococcus strains originating from Hungarian rabbit farms.

    PubMed

    Német, Zoltán; Albert, Ervin; Nagy, Krisztina; Csuka, Edit; Dán, Ádám; Szenci, Ottó; Hermans, Katleen; Balka, Gyula; Biksi, Imre

    2016-09-25

    Staphylococcosis has a major economic impact on rabbit farming worldwide. Previous studies described a highly virulent variant, which is disseminated across Europe. Such strains are reported to be capable of inducing uncontrollable outbreaks. The authors describe a survey conducted on 374 Staphylococcus strains isolated from rabbit farms, mostly from Hungary, between 2009 and 2014, from a variety of pathological processes. The virulence type of the strains was determined using a multiplex PCR system. 84.2% of the strains belonged to a previously rarely isolated atypical highly virulent type. Only 6.1% belonged to the typical highly virulent genotype. Even low virulent strains were present at a higher percentage (6.4%). For a small group of strains (3.2%) the detection of the femA gene failed, indicating that these strains probably do not belong to the Staphylococcus aureus species. The results reveal the possibility of the asymptomatic presence of highly virulent strains on rabbit farms. "Non-aureus" Staphylococcus sp. can also have a notable role in the etiology of rabbit staphylococcosis. An association with the lesions and the virulence type was demonstrated. Statistical analysis of data on organotropism showed a significant correlation between septicaemia and the highly virulent genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Static Compressive Strain, Anisotropy, and Tissue Region on the Diffusion of Glucose in Meniscus Fibrocartilage.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, Kelsey L; Jaworski, Lukas M; Schneiderbauer, Michaela M; Jackson, Alicia R

    2015-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a significant socio-economic concern, affecting millions of individuals each year. Degeneration of the meniscus of the knee is often associated with OA, yet the relationship between the two is not well understood. As a nearly avascular tissue, the meniscus must rely on diffusive transport for nutritional supply to cells. Therefore, quantifying structure-function relations for transport properties in meniscus fibrocartilage is an important task. The purpose of the present study was to determine how mechanical loading, tissue anisotropy, and tissue region affect glucose diffusion in meniscus fibrocartilage. A one-dimensional (1D) diffusion experiment was used to measure the diffusion coefficient of glucose in porcine meniscus tissues. Results show that glucose diffusion is strain-dependent, decreasing significantly with increased levels of compression. It was also determined that glucose diffusion in meniscus tissues is anisotropic, with the diffusion coefficient in the circumferential direction being significantly higher than that in the axial direction. Finally, the effect of tissue region was not statistically significant, comparing axial diffusion in the central and horn regions of the tissue. This study is important for better understanding the transport and nutrition-related mechanisms of meniscal degeneration and related OA in the knee.

  18. Engineering fibrin-based tissue constructs from myofibroblasts and application of constraints and strain to induce cell and collagen reorganization.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Nicky; Baaijens, Frank P T; Bouten, Carlijn V C

    2013-10-28

    Collagen content and organization in developing collagenous tissues can be influenced by local tissue strains and tissue constraint. Tissue engineers aim to use these principles to create tissues with predefined collagen architectures. A full understanding of the exact underlying processes of collagen remodeling to control the final tissue architecture, however, is lacking. In particular, little is known about the (re)orientation of collagen fibers in response to changes in tissue mechanical loading conditions. We developed an in vitro model system, consisting of biaxially-constrained myofibroblast-seeded fibrin constructs, to further elucidate collagen (re)orientation in response to i) reverting biaxial to uniaxial static loading conditions and ii) cyclic uniaxial loading of the biaxially-constrained constructs before and after a change in loading direction, with use of the Flexcell FX4000T loading device. Time-lapse confocal imaging is used to visualize collagen (re)orientation in a nondestructive manner. Cell and collagen organization in the constructs can be visualized in real-time, and an internal reference system allows us to relocate cells and collagen structures for time-lapse analysis. Various aspects of the model system can be adjusted, like cell source or use of healthy and diseased cells. Additives can be used to further elucidate mechanisms underlying collagen remodeling, by for example adding MMPs or blocking integrins. Shape and size of the construct can be easily adapted to specific needs, resulting in a highly tunable model system to study cell and collagen (re)organization.

  19. Complement gene expression in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues of NZB and NZB x W (F1) mouse strains.

    PubMed Central

    Passwell, J H; Schreiner, G F; Wetsel, R A; Colten, H R

    1990-01-01

    To study the role of local production of complement proteins during the evolution of a naturally occurring immune complex disease, C3, C4, C2 and Factor B mRNA expression was assessed in several tissues of the inbred mouse strains NZB and (NZB x W) F1 hybrid. In the NZB/W F1 hybrid strain, coincident with the development of glomerulonephritis a marked increase in kidney C3 and C4 mRNA was observed; Factor B mRNA, which is expressed as a doublet in kidney and intestine, showed an increase in expression of the smaller transcript. This alteration of kidney C3, C4 and Factor B mRNA is identical to that noted in association with lupus nephritis in the MRL lpr/lpr strain and following in vivo administration of endotoxin to the BALB/c strain. The development of systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) in the NZB/W F1 was not associated with a marked change in hepatic complement gene expression. These findings support the hypothesis that local production of complement may play a role in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis and other tissue injury in SLE. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2228028

  20. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials.

    PubMed

    Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Baylón, Karen; Ferrer, Inés; Serenó, Lídia; García-Romeu, Maria Luisa; Bagudanch, Isabel; Grabalosa, Jordi; Pérez-Recio, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Ortega-Lara, Wendy; Elizalde, Luis Ernesto

    2014-01-16

    In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model's theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGC25 3-0) and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data.

  1. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    PubMed Central

    Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Baylón, Karen; Ferrer, Inés; Serenó, Lídia; Garcia-Romeu, Maria Luisa; Bagudanch, Isabel; Grabalosa, Jordi; Pérez-Recio, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Ortega-Lara, Wendy; Elizalde, Luis Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGC25 3-0) and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data. PMID:28788466

  2. Strain impact on equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) abortion models: viral loads in fetal and placental tissues and foals.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, David W; Lunn, David P; Goehring, Lutz S; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Cook, Corey; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; McCue, Patrick; Del Piero, Fabio; Hussey, Stephen B; Hussey, Gisela Soboll

    2012-10-12

    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) continues to cause both sporadic and epidemic abortions despite extensive vaccination. Lack of progress in the development of protective vaccines may be hindered by the lack of equine abortion models that employ contemporary EHV-1 strains. The objective of our experiments was to compare a contemporary EHV-1 strain with a previously described challenge strain, and to quantify EHV-1 loads in various maternal and fetal tissues. Infection experiments were performed in two groups of 7 pregnant pony mares at 270-290 days of gestation with a contemporary EHV-1 strain (University of Findlay 2003 isolate - OH03) or an EHV-1 strain isolated over 30 years ago, and previously described in abortion models (Ab4). All mares in both groups exhibited nasal viral shedding and viremia. Infection with OH03 resulted in 1/7 abortion and infection with Ab4 resulted in 5/7 abortions. In the OH03 challenge, placentas of foals delivered at term showed little detectable virus, while the aborted fetus expressed high levels of virus infection in the spleen and liver, lower levels in the lung and thymus, and lowest levels in the chorioallantois. After Ab4 challenge, high viral loads were detected in fetal and placental tissues in abortions. In the two normal deliveries, the chorioallantois contained virus levels comparable with the chorioallantois of aborted foals and both foals shed EHV-1 starting on day 4 of life, but were clinically healthy. Our results demonstrate the continued importance of strain selection for abortion models, and this study is the first report of viral load quantification using contemporary methods. Extremely high EHV-1 loads in decidua from abortions illustrate the infection risk posed to other horses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vivian M; Wes, Ari M; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua; Percec, Ivona

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time.

  4. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Vivian M.; Wes, Ari M.; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Methods: Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. Results: The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). Conclusions: This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time. PMID:25426394

  5. Ex vivo determination of bone tissue strains for an in vivo mouse tibial loading model

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Alessandra; Abela, Lisa; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies introduced the digital image correlation (DIC) as a viable technique for measuring bone strain during loading. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of a DIC system in determining surface strains in a mouse tibia while loaded in compression through the knee joint. Specifically, we examined the effect of speckle distribution, facet size and overlap, initial vertical alignment of the bone into the loading cups, rotation with respect to cameras, and ex vivo loading configurations on the strain contour maps measured with a DIC system. We loaded tibiae of C57BL/6 mice (12 and 18 weeks old male) up to 12 N at 8 N/min. Images of speckles on the bone surface were recorded at 1 N intervals and DIC was used to compute strains. Results showed that speckles must have the correct size and density with respect to the facet size of choice for the strain distribution to be computed and reproducible. Initial alignment of the bone within the loading cups does not influence the strain distribution measured during peak loading, but bones must be placed in front of the camera with the same orientation in order for strains to be comparable. Finally, the ex vivo loading configurations with the tibia attached to the entire mouse, or to the femur and foot, or only to the foot, showed different strain contour maps. This work provides a better understanding of parameters affecting full field strain measurements from DIC in ex vivo murine tibial loading tests. PMID:24835472

  6. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Porcine Jejunum Tissues in Response to a Virulent Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Its Attenuated Strain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhonghua; Chen, Fangzhou; Ye, Shiyi; Guo, Xiaozhen; Muhanmmad Memon, Atta; Wu, Meizhou; He, Qigai

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a predominant cause of acute enteric infection, leads to severe dehydrating diarrhea and mortality in piglets all over the world. A virulent PEDV YN13 strain, isolated in our laboratory, was attenuated to yield an attenuated PEDV strain YN144. To better understand the pathogenesis mechanism and the virus-host interaction during infection with both PEDV YN13 and YN144 strains, a comparative proteomic analysis was carried out to investigate the proteomic changes produced in the primary target organ, using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, followed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 269 and 301 differently expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in the jejunum tissues of the piglets inoculated with YN13 and YN144, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that these proteins were involved in stress responses, signal transduction, and the immune system. All of these involved interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) which were up-regulated in jejunums by both of the PEDV-infected groups. Based on the comparative analysis, we proposed that different changes induced by YN13 and YN144 in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), eukaryotic initiation factor 4G1 (eIF4G1), and some members in the heat shock protein (HSP) family, may be responsible for differences in their pathogenicity. PMID:27916855

  7. Finite element analysis of tissue deformation with a radiofrequency ablation electrode for strain imaging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingfeng; Varghese, Tomy; Chen, Quan; Hall, Timothy J; Zagzebski, James A

    2007-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that radiofrequency (RF) electrode displacement or deformation-based strain imaging can be used as an alternate imaging modality to monitor and to evaluate ablative therapies for liver tumors. This paper describes a biomechanical model used to study RF electrode deformation-based strain imaging, in conjunction with a simulated medical ultrasound linear array transducer. The computer simulations reported here are important steps toward understanding this biomechanical system in vivo, thus providing a basis for improving system design, including the motion tracking algorithm and image guidance for performing RF electrode displacement-strain imaging in vivo.

  8. Tissue tropism of Saint Louis encephalitis virus: Histopathology triggered by epidemic and non-epidemic strains isolated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rivarola, María Elisa; Albrieu-Llinás, Guillermo; Pisano, María Belén; Tauro, Laura Beatriz; Gorosito-Serrán, Melisa; Beccaria, Cristian Gabriel; Díaz, Luis Adrián; Vázquez, Ana; Quaglia, Agustín; López, Cristina; Spinsanti, Lorena; Gruppi, Adriana; Contigiani, Marta Silvia

    2017-05-01

    Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) reemerged in South America, and caused encephalitis outbreaks at the beginning of the 21st century. To enhance our knowledge about SLEV virulence, we performed comparative pathogenesis studies in Swiss albino mice inoculated with two different variants, the epidemic strain CbaAr-4005 and the non-epidemic strain CorAn-9275. Only the infection of mice with SLEV strain CbaAr-4005 resulted in high viremia, invasion of peripheral tissues including the lungs, kidney, and spleen, and viral neuroinvasion. This was associated with inflammatory pathology in the lungs, spleen, and brain as well as morbidity and mortality. In contrast, neither signs of desease nor viral replication were observed in mice infected with strain CorAn-9275. Interestingly, important loss of B cells and development of altered germinal centers (GC) were detected in the spleen of mice infected with strain CbaAr-4005, whereas mice infected with SLEV CorAn-9275 developed prominent GC with conserved follicular architecture, and neutralizing antibodies.

  9. A deep learning approach to estimate chemically-treated collagenous tissue nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain responses from microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liang; Liu, Minliang; Sun, Wei

    2017-09-20

    Biological collagenous tissues comprised of networks of collagen fibers are suitable for a broad spectrum of medical applications owing to their attractive mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a noninvasive approach to estimate collagenous tissue elastic properties directly from microscopy images using Machine Learning (ML) techniques. Glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium (GLBP) tissue, widely used in the fabrication of bioprosthetic heart valves and vascular patches, was chosen to develop a representative application. A Deep Learning model was designed and trained to process second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen networks in GLBP tissue samples, and directly predict the tissue elastic mechanical properties. The trained model is capable of identifying the overall tissue stiffness with a classification accuracy of 84%, and predicting the nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain curves with average regression errors of 0.021 and 0.031. Thus, this study demonstrates the feasibility and great potential of using the Deep Learning approach for fast and noninvasive assessment of collagenous tissue elastic properties from microstructural images. In this study, we developed, to our best knowledge, the first Deep Learning-based approach to estimate the elastic properties of collagenous tissues directly from noninvasive second harmonic generation images. The success of this study holds promise for the use of Machine Learning techniques to noninvasively and efficiently estimate the mechanical properties of many structure-based biological materials, and it also enables many potential applications such as serving as a quality control tool to select tissue for the manufacturing of medical devices (e.g. bioprosthetic heart valves). Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Rats Induced Orally with Eleven Strains of Toxoplasma gondii of Seven Genotypes: Tissue Tropism, Tissue Cyst Size, Neural Lesions, Tissue Cyst Rupture without Reactivation, and Ocular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; Ferreira, Leandra R; Alsaad, Mohammad; Verma, Shiv K; Alves, Derron A; Holland, Gary N; McConkey, Glenn A

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widely distributed and successful parasites. Toxoplasma gondii alters rodent behavior such that infected rodents reverse their fear of cat odor, and indeed are attracted rather than repelled by feline urine. The location of the parasite encysted in the brain may influence this behavior. However, most studies are based on the highly susceptible rodent, the mouse. Latent toxoplasmosis was induced in rats (10 rats per T. gondii strains) of the same age, strain, and sex, after oral inoculation with oocysts (natural route and natural stage of infection) of 11 T. gondii strains of seven genotypes. Rats were euthanized at two months post inoculation (p.i.) to investigate whether the parasite genotype affects the distribution, location, tissue cyst size, or lesions. Tissue cysts were enumerated in different regions of the brains, both in histological sections as well in saline homogenates. Tissue cysts were found in all regions of the brain. The tissue cyst density in different brain regions varied extensively between rats with many regions highly infected in some animals. Overall, the colliculus was most highly infected although there was a large amount of variability. The cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum had higher tissue cyst densities and two strains exhibited tropism for the colliculus and olfactory bulb. Histologically, lesions were confined to the brain and eyes. Tissue cyst rupture was frequent with no clear evidence for reactivation of tachyzoites. Ocular lesions were found in 23 (25%) of 92 rat eyes at two months p.i. The predominant lesion was focal inflammation in the retina. Tissue cysts were seen in the sclera of one and in the optic nerve of two rats. The choroid was not affected. Only tissue cysts, not active tachyzoite infections, were detected. Tissue cysts were seen in histological sections of tongue of 20 rats but not in myocardium and leg muscle. This study reevaluated in depth the

  11. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Rats Induced Orally with Eleven Strains of Toxoplasma gondii of Seven Genotypes: Tissue Tropism, Tissue Cyst Size, Neural Lesions, Tissue Cyst Rupture without Reactivation, and Ocular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Jitender P.; Ferreira, Leandra R.; Alsaad, Mohammad; Verma, Shiv K.; Alves, Derron A.; Holland, Gary N.; McConkey, Glenn A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widely distributed and successful parasites. Toxoplasma gondii alters rodent behavior such that infected rodents reverse their fear of cat odor, and indeed are attracted rather than repelled by feline urine. The location of the parasite encysted in the brain may influence this behavior. However, most studies are based on the highly susceptible rodent, the mouse. Methodology/Principal Findings Latent toxoplasmosis was induced in rats (10 rats per T. gondii strains) of the same age, strain, and sex, after oral inoculation with oocysts (natural route and natural stage of infection) of 11 T. gondii strains of seven genotypes. Rats were euthanized at two months post inoculation (p.i.) to investigate whether the parasite genotype affects the distribution, location, tissue cyst size, or lesions. Tissue cysts were enumerated in different regions of the brains, both in histological sections as well in saline homogenates. Tissue cysts were found in all regions of the brain. The tissue cyst density in different brain regions varied extensively between rats with many regions highly infected in some animals. Overall, the colliculus was most highly infected although there was a large amount of variability. The cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum had higher tissue cyst densities and two strains exhibited tropism for the colliculus and olfactory bulb. Histologically, lesions were confined to the brain and eyes. Tissue cyst rupture was frequent with no clear evidence for reactivation of tachyzoites. Ocular lesions were found in 23 (25%) of 92 rat eyes at two months p.i. The predominant lesion was focal inflammation in the retina. Tissue cysts were seen in the sclera of one and in the optic nerve of two rats. The choroid was not affected. Only tissue cysts, not active tachyzoite infections, were detected. Tissue cysts were seen in histological sections of tongue of 20 rats but not in myocardium and leg

  12. Predicting tenocyte expression profiles and average molecular concentrations in Achilles tendon ECM from tissue strain and fiber damage.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lavagnino, Michael; Smith, David W

    2017-03-13

    In this study, we propose a method for quantitative prediction of changes in concentrations of a number of key signaling, structural and effector molecules within the extracellular matrix of tendon. To achieve this, we introduce the notion of elementary cell responses (ECRs). An ECR defines a normal reference secretion profile of a molecule by a tenocyte in response to the tenocyte's local strain. ECRs are then coupled with a model for mechanical damage of tendon collagen fibers at different straining conditions of tendon and then scaled up to the tendon tissue level for comparison with experimental observations. Specifically, our model predicts relative changes in ECM concentrations of transforming growth factor beta, interleukin 1 beta, collagen type I, glycosaminoglycan, matrix metalloproteinase 1 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5, with respect to tendon straining conditions that are consistent with the observations in the literature. In good agreement with a number of in vivo and in vitro observations, the model provides a logical and parsimonious explanation for how excessive mechanical loading of tendon can lead to under-stimulation of tenocytes and a degenerative tissue profile, which may well have bearing on a better understanding of tendon homeostasis and the origin of some tendinopathies.

  13. Effects of tissue mechanical and acoustic anisotropies on the performance of a cross-correlation-based ultrasound strain imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, He; Lee, Wei-Ning

    2017-02-01

    The anisotropic mechanical properties (mechanical anisotropy) and view-dependent ultrasonic backscattering (acoustic anisotropy) of striated muscle due to the underlying myofiber arrangement have been well documented, but whether they impact on ultrasound strain imaging (USI) techniques remains unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the performance of a cross-correlation-based two-dimensional (2D) USI method in anisotropic media under controlled quasi-static compression in silico and in vitro. First, synthetic pre- and post-deformed 2D radiofrequency images of anisotropic phantoms were simulated in two scenarios to examine the individual effect of the mechanical and acoustic anisotropies on strain estimation. In the first scenario, the phantom was defined to be transversely isotropic with the scatterer amplitudes following a zero-mean Gaussian distribution, while in the second scenario, the phantom was defined to be mechanically isotropic with Gaussian distributed scatterer amplitudes correlated along the principal directions of pre-defined fibers. These two anisotropies were then jointly incorporated into the ultrasound image simulation model with additional depth-dependent attenuation. Three imaging planes—the fiber plane with the fiber direction perpendicular to the ultrasound beam (TISperp_fb), the fiber plane with the fiber direction parallel to the beam (TISpara), and the transverse fiber plane (TISperp_cfb)—were studied. The absolute relative error (ARE) of the lateral strain estimates in TISperp_fb (20.99  ±  15.65%) was much higher than that in TISperp_cfb (4.14  ±  3.17%). The ARE in TISpara was unavailable owing to the large spatial extent of false peaks. The effect of tissue anisotropy on the performance of the 2D USI was further confirmed in an in vitro porcine skeletal muscle phantom. The best in-plane strain quality was again shown in TISperp_cfb (elastographic signal-to-noise ratio, or SNRe:  >25 d

  14. Effects of tissue mechanical and acoustic anisotropies on the performance of a cross-correlation-based ultrasound strain imaging method.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Lee, Wei-Ning

    2017-02-21

    The anisotropic mechanical properties (mechanical anisotropy) and view-dependent ultrasonic backscattering (acoustic anisotropy) of striated muscle due to the underlying myofiber arrangement have been well documented, but whether they impact on ultrasound strain imaging (USI) techniques remains unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the performance of a cross-correlation-based two-dimensional (2D) USI method in anisotropic media under controlled quasi-static compression in silico and in vitro. First, synthetic pre- and post-deformed 2D radiofrequency images of anisotropic phantoms were simulated in two scenarios to examine the individual effect of the mechanical and acoustic anisotropies on strain estimation. In the first scenario, the phantom was defined to be transversely isotropic with the scatterer amplitudes following a zero-mean Gaussian distribution, while in the second scenario, the phantom was defined to be mechanically isotropic with Gaussian distributed scatterer amplitudes correlated along the principal directions of pre-defined fibers. These two anisotropies were then jointly incorporated into the ultrasound image simulation model with additional depth-dependent attenuation. Three imaging planes-the fiber plane with the fiber direction perpendicular to the ultrasound beam (TISperp_fb), the fiber plane with the fiber direction parallel to the beam (TISpara), and the transverse fiber plane (TISperp_cfb)-were studied. The absolute relative error (ARE) of the lateral strain estimates in TISperp_fb (20.99  ±  15.65%) was much higher than that in TISperp_cfb (4.14  ±  3.17%). The ARE in TISpara was unavailable owing to the large spatial extent of false peaks. The effect of tissue anisotropy on the performance of the 2D USI was further confirmed in an in vitro porcine skeletal muscle phantom. The best in-plane strain quality was again shown in TISperp_cfb (elastographic signal-to-noise ratio, or SNRe:  >25 d

  15. RF-based two-dimensional cardiac strain estimation: a validation study in a tissue-mimicking phantom.

    PubMed

    Langeland, Stian; D'hooge, Jan; Claessens, Tom; Claus, Piet; Verdonck, Pascal; Suetens, Paul; Sutherland, George R; Bijnens, Bart

    2004-11-01

    Strain and strain rate imaging have been shown to be useful techniques for the assessment of cardiac function. However, one of the major problems of these techniques is their angle dependency. In order to overcome this problem, a new method for estimating the strain (rate) tensor had previously been proposed by our lab. The aim of this study was to validate this methodology in a phantom setup. A tubular thick-walled tissue-mimicking phantom was fixed in a water tank. Varying the intraluminal pressure resulted in a cyclic radial deformation. The 2D strain was calculated from the 2D velocity estimates, obtained from 2D radio frequency (RF) tracking using a 1D kernel. Additionally, ultrasonic microcrystals were implanted on the outer and inner walls of the tube in order to give an independent measurement of the instantaneous wall thickness. The two methods were compared by means of linear regression, the correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman statistics. As expected, the strain estimates dominated by the azimuth velocity component were less accurate than the ones dominated by the axial velocity component. Correlation coefficients were found to be r = 0.78 for the former estimates and r = 0.83 was found for the latter. Given that the overall shape and timing of the 2D deformation were very accurate (r = 0.95 and r = 0.84), these results were within acceptable limits for clinical applications. The 2D RF-tracking using a 1D kernel thus allows for 2D, and therefore angle-independent, strain estimation.

  16. On the application of strain factors for approximation of the contribution of anisotropic cells to the mechanics of a tissue construct.

    PubMed

    Pablo Marquez, J; Genin, Guy M; Elson, Elliot L

    2006-01-01

    Bio-artificial tissue constructs consisting of fibroblast cells embedded in a collagenous matrix are valuable in vitro systems in which to study cellular mechanics. Deriving cellular mechanics from the results of experimentation on tissue constructs requires a mathematical relationship that delineates amongst the contributions of the constituents of a tissue construct. A scaling between the average strain in a uniformly stretched tissue and the axial strain in isotropic cells was used in earlier work to study relations between cell mechanics and the overall mechanics of a tissue construct. That work showed that a scaling factor called a "strain factor" provided an accurate representation of the average axial strain in isotropic cells. The present study analyzes such relationships for anisotropic cells. We incorporate Eshelby's (1957; Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 241, 376; 1959; Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 252, 561) exact solution for the strain field in isolated ellipsoidal inclusions into the Zahalak (Biophysical journal 79, 2369) constitutive model for tissue constructs. Results showed that, for the case of prolate cells, the strain along the major cell axis is mostly influenced by the remote strain projected along that axis; off-axis cell mechanics plays only a small role in most tissues. The strain factor approximation is shown to be accurate for anisotropic cells to within a few percent for the vast majority of tissues. The results presented in this paper provide an explicit measure of the effects of cellular anisotropy, and a mechanism for calculating the contributions of these effects to overall tissue mechanics when these effects are important.

  17. Soft tissue strain energy minimization: a candidate control scheme for intra-finger normal-tangential force coordination.

    PubMed

    Pataky, Todd C

    2005-08-01

    The safety margin (SM) measure has been used to quantify the phenomenon that humans grasp objects more firmly than is necessary to prevent slip. The biomechanical basis for the SM phenomenon is addressed herein. A hypothesis is proposed regarding intra-finger normal-tangential force coordination. The idea is that the central nervous system (CNS) minimizes the strain energy of the soft finger pad tissue by varying normal force when presented with a certain tangential force. This control scheme requires no knowledge of the frictional conditions at the finger-object interface; the CNS needs only to detect the strain energy in the contact region, an area abundant with strain-sensitive mechanoreceptors. The scheme is not independent, but is rather a possible component of a more complicated system. The strain energy minimization problem was solved using the finite element model (FEM) of Wu et al. (Med. Eng. Phys. 24(4)(2002) 253). Optimization results revealed that the suggested control scheme produced SM values of 30-50%, corresponding closely to those reported experimentally. Slip prevention naturally emerges from the control scheme provided that the friction coefficient exceeds 0.7, a value lower than typically encountered.

  18. Engineering Fibrin-based Tissue Constructs from Myofibroblasts and Application of Constraints and Strain to Induce Cell and Collagen Reorganization

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Nicky; Baaijens, Frank P. T.; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.

    2013-01-01

    Collagen content and organization in developing collagenous tissues can be influenced by local tissue strains and tissue constraint. Tissue engineers aim to use these principles to create tissues with predefined collagen architectures. A full understanding of the exact underlying processes of collagen remodeling to control the final tissue architecture, however, is lacking. In particular, little is known about the (re)orientation of collagen fibers in response to changes in tissue mechanical loading conditions. We developed an in vitro model system, consisting of biaxially-constrained myofibroblast-seeded fibrin constructs, to further elucidate collagen (re)orientation in response to i) reverting biaxial to uniaxial static loading conditions and ii) cyclic uniaxial loading of the biaxially-constrained constructs before and after a change in loading direction, with use of the Flexcell FX4000T loading device. Time-lapse confocal imaging is used to visualize collagen (re)orientation in a nondestructive manner. Cell and collagen organization in the constructs can be visualized in real-time, and an internal reference system allows us to relocate cells and collagen structures for time-lapse analysis. Various aspects of the model system can be adjusted, like cell source or use of healthy and diseased cells. Additives can be used to further elucidate mechanisms underlying collagen remodeling, by for example adding MMPs or blocking integrins. Shape and size of the construct can be easily adapted to specific needs, resulting in a highly tunable model system to study cell and collagen (re)organization. PMID:24192534

  19. Chagas' disease: reactivity against homologous tissues induced by different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Tekiel, V S; Mirkin, G A; Gonzalez Cappa, S M

    1997-11-01

    We have previously reported that the mechanisms of neuromyopathic damage induced by Trypanosoma cruzi are mediated by T cells and are parasite-strain dependent. In the present study our aim was to determine whether the humoral response against muscle and nervous system is also parasite-strain dependent. Of the sera from mice infected with RA and CA-I. T. cruzi strains, 93% reacted against antigens of the nervous system (sciatic nerve, spinal cord and brain). No differences in the ability to recognize heart antigens were found between RA (48%) and CA-I (63%) antisera. Reactivity against skeletal muscle was only relevant in anti-CA-I sera at 270 days post-infection. Each of the antisera assayed in Western blots developed a particular antigenic pattern, but 3 antigens in the nervous system of molecular weight 48, 60 and 70 kDa were detected by 42, 28 and 23% of the sera, respectively. On the other hand, deposits of IgG were observed at the interstitial matrix in sciatic nerve and as endomisial and sarcolemmal patterns in skeletal muscle by IFAT for both RA and CA-I antisera. Absorption of sera with parasite antigens did not abolish the autoreactivity. Our results suggest that major serum autoreactivity from T. cruzi-infected mice is not parasite-strain dependent and does not arise from molecular mimicry.

  20. Effects of white, grey, and pia mater properties on tissue level stresses and strains in the compressed spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Sparrey, Carolyn J; Manley, Geoffrey T; Keaveny, Tony M

    2009-04-01

    Recent demographics demonstrate an increase in the number of elderly spinal cord injury patients, motivating the desire for a better understanding of age effects on injury susceptibility. Knowing that age and disease affect neurological tissue, there is a need to better understand the sensitivity of spinal cord injury mechanics to variations in tissue behavior. To address this issue, a plane-strain, geometrically nonlinear, finite element model of a section of a generic human thoracic spinal cord was constructed to model the response to dorsal compression. The material models and stiffness responses for the grey and white matter and pia mater were varied across a range of reported values to observe the sensitivity of model outcomes to the assigned properties. Outcome measures were evaluated for percent change in magnitude and alterations in spatial distribution. In general, principal stresses (114-244% change) and pressure (75-119% change) were the outcomes most sensitive to material variation. Strain outcome measures were less sensitive (7-27% change) than stresses (74-244% change) to variations in material tangent modulus. The pia mater characteristics had limited (<4% change) effects on outcomes. Using linear elastic models to represent non-linear behavior had variable effects on outcome measures, and resulted in highly concentrated areas of elevated stresses and strains. Pressure measurements in both the grey and white matter were particularly sensitive to white matter properties, suggesting that degenerative changes in white matter may influence perfusion in a compressed spinal cord. Our results suggest that the mechanics of spinal cord compression are likely to be affected by changes in tissue resulting from aging and disease, indicating a need to study the biomechanical aspects of spinal cord injury in these specific populations.

  1. Human ex vivo bone tissue strains around immediately-loaded implants supporting mandibular fixed prostheses.

    PubMed

    Kökat, Ali Murat; Cömert, Ayhan; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Akkocaoğlu, Murat; Akça, Kvanç; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualify and quantify bone strains around immediately-loaded implants supporting mandibular fixed prostheses with regard to number of implant support. Linear strain gauges were bonded on the labial bone of 5 Straumann dental implants placed in the mandibular symphysis region of 2 completely edentulous mandibles of fresh human cadavers. Installation torque value of each implant was measured by a custom-made torque wrench and resonance frequency analyses were undertaken. A one-piece full-arch fixed prosthesis was fabricated for each cadaver and 2 miniature load cells were integrated in the cantilever region of the prostheses for controlled loading experiments. 5-, 4-, and 3-implant support designs were consecutively tested. Strain measurements were performed at a sample rate of 10 KHz and under a maximum load of 100 N, simultaneously monitored from a computer connected to data acquisition system. The installation torque values and implant stability quotient values of the implants ranged between 42.12 to 145.67 N cm and 61 to 80, respectively. Between-group comparisons revealed that the highest strain magnitudes were recorded for the 3-implant design followed by the 4- and 5-implant designs, although there was a tendency toward similar load partitioning between 4- and 5-implant designs (P < 0.05). Bone strains around 3-implant supported mandibular fixed prostheses is significantly higher than those around 4- and 5-implant designs, and this may lead to failure of supporting implants. Four- and 5-implant designs might have similar clinical outcome.

  2. A taxonomically unique Acinetobacter strain with proteolytic and hemolytic activities recovered from a patient with a soft tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Almuzara, Marisa; Traglia, German Matías; Krizova, Lenka; Barberis, Claudia; Montaña, Sabrina; Bakai, Romina; Tuduri, Alicia; Vay, Carlos; Nemec, Alexandr; Ramírez, María Soledad

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomically unique bacterial strain, Acinetobacter sp. A47, has been recovered from several soft tissue samples from a patient undergoing reconstructive surgery owing to a traumatic amputation. The results of 16S rRNA, rpoB, and gyrB gene comparative sequence analyses showed that A47 does not belong to any of the hitherto-known taxa and may represent an as-yet-unknown Acinetobacter species. The recognition of this novel organism contributes to our knowledge of the taxonomic complexity underlying infections caused by Acinetobacter.

  3. A Taxonomically Unique Acinetobacter Strain with Proteolytic and Hemolytic Activities Recovered from a Patient with a Soft Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Almuzara, Marisa; Traglia, German Matías; Krizova, Lenka; Barberis, Claudia; Montaña, Sabrina; Bakai, Romina; Tuduri, Alicia; Vay, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A taxonomically unique bacterial strain, Acinetobacter sp. A47, has been recovered from several soft tissue samples from a patient undergoing reconstructive surgery owing to a traumatic amputation. The results of 16S rRNA, rpoB, and gyrB gene comparative sequence analyses showed that A47 does not belong to any of the hitherto-known taxa and may represent an as-yet-unknown Acinetobacter species. The recognition of this novel organism contributes to our knowledge of the taxonomic complexity underlying infections caused by Acinetobacter. PMID:25392359

  4. Shear Strain and Motion of the Subsynovial Connective Tissue and Median Nerve During Single Digit Motion

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Henderson, Jacqueline; Zhao, Kristin D.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to measure the relative motion of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, its adjacent subsynovial connective tissue, and the median nerve during single digit motion within the carpal tunnel in human cadaver specimens, and estimate the relative motions of these structures in different wrist positions. Methods Using fluoroscopy during simulated single digit flexion, we measured the relative motion of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon, subsynovial connective tissue and median nerve within the carpal tunnel in twelve human cadavers. Measurements were obtained for three wrist positions: neutral; 60 degrees flexion; and 60 degrees extension. After testing with an intact carpal tunnel was completed, the flexor retinaculum was cut with a scalpel and the same testing procedure was repeated for each wrist position. The relative motions of the tendon, subsynovial connective tissue and median nerve were compared using a shear index, defined as the ratio of the difference in motion along the direction of tendon excursion between two tissues divided by tendon excursion, expressed as a percentage. Results Both tendon-subsynovial connective tissue and tendon-nerve shear index were significantly higher in the 60 degrees of wrist flexion and extension positions, compared to the neutral position. After division of the flexor retinaculum, the shear index in the 60 degrees of wrist extension position remained significantly different, compared to the neutral position. Conclusions In summary, we have found that the relative motion between a tendon and subsynovial connective tissue in the carpal tunnel is maximal at extremes of wrist motion. These positions may predispose the subsynovial connective tissue to shear injury. PMID:19121732

  5. Solid state line scan cameras for measuring strain in soft tissues and implants.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S F; Lyman, D J; Benner, R

    1989-01-01

    The line scan camera, or LSC, is an inexpensive and easily applied technique for optical strain measurement of soft biomaterials. The LSC is based on a linear array of photodiodes; in gauging applications, where measurements between dark/light interfaces are important, the digital nature of the array can be exploited. Advantages of the LSC include low cost, high frequency response, applicability to front- or back-lighted samples, insensitivity to stray and nonuniform lighting as well as to accidental overexposure, ease and linearity of calibration, and lack of temperature sensitivity. With the 1024 element arrays used herein, the relative resolution is theoretically limited to 1 part in 1024, or 0.1%; in practice, the relative resolution is somewhat poorer. LSCs have been successfully used in mechanical tests to measure the diameter of arteries and compliant vascular grafts, the longitudinal strain of vascular grafts, and the dynamic diameter of elastic tube models of graft/artery systems in pulsatile flow visualization experiments.

  6. Strain-specific variation of the decorin-binding adhesin DbpA influences the tissue tropism of the lyme disease spirochete.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Pin; Benoit, Vivian; Yang, Xiuli; Martínez-Herranz, Raúl; Pal, Utpal; Leong, John M

    2014-07-01

    Lyme disease spirochetes demonstrate strain- and species-specific differences in tissue tropism. For example, the three major Lyme disease spirochete species, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii, are each most commonly associated with overlapping but distinct spectra of clinical manifestations. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the most common Lyme spirochete in the U.S., is closely associated with arthritis. The attachment of microbial pathogens to cells or to the extracellular matrix of target tissues may promote colonization and disease, and the Lyme disease spirochete encodes several surface proteins, including the decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding adhesin DbpA, which vary among strains and have been postulated to contribute to strain-specific differences in tissue tropism. DbpA variants differ in their ability to bind to its host ligands and to cultured mammalian cells. To directly test whether variation in dbpA influences tissue tropism, we analyzed murine infection by isogenic B. burgdorferi strains that encode different dbpA alleles. Compared to dbpA alleles of B. afzelii strain VS461 or B. burgdorferi strain N40-D10/E9, dbpA of B. garinii strain PBr conferred the greatest decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding activity, promoted the greatest colonization at the inoculation site and heart, and caused the most severe carditis. The dbpA of strain N40-D10/E9 conferred the weakest decorin- and GAG-binding activity, but the most robust joint colonization and was the only dbpA allele capable of conferring significant joint disease. Thus, dbpA mediates colonization and disease by the Lyme disease spirochete in an allele-dependent manner and may contribute to the etiology of distinct clinical manifestations associated with different Lyme disease strains. This study provides important support for the long-postulated model that strain-specific variations of Borrelia surface proteins influence tissue tropism.

  7. The role of VTIQ as a new tissue strain analytics measurement technique in testicular lesions.

    PubMed

    Trottmann, M; Marcon, J; D'Anastasi, M; Karl, A; Stief, C G; Reiser, M; Clevert, D A

    2014-01-01

    Virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) is a newly developed technique for the sonographic quantification of tissue elasticity. It has been used in the assessment of breast lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of VTIQ in indeterminate testicular lesions. Twenty patients with known testicular pathology underwent conventional B-mode sonography with additional VTIQ of the testicular lesions using a Siemens Acuson S2000™ and S3000™ (Siemens Medical Solutions, Mountain View, CA, USA) system. Tissue mechanical properties were analysed in the VTIQ examination. The pathologic diagnosis was established after surgery or in the follow-up examination for suspected benign lesions. Over 36 months, 22 focal testicular lesions (median lesion size, 18 mm; range, 4-36 mm in 20 patients (median age, 43 years; range, 22-81 years) were examined. Lesions were hyperechoic (n = 1), hypoechoic (n = 14), isoechoic (n = 1), of mixed echogenicity (n = 3) or anechoic (n = 3). Histological examination showed one benign lesion (6.25%) with a mean size of 7 mm and 15 malignant lesions (93.75%) with a mean size of 20 mm. Mean shear wave velocity for normal testicular tissue was 1.17 m/s. No shear wave velocity could be measured in cystic lesions. The rest of the benign lesions showed a mean shear wave velocity of 2.37 m/s. The value of the shear wave velocity in germ cell tumours showed a mean shear wave velocity of 1.94 m/s and for seminoma it showed a mean shear wave velocity of 2.42 m/s. VTIQ is a reliable new method for measuring qualitative and quantitative stiffness of testicular lesions and tissue. The qualitative shear-wave elastography features were highly reproducible and showed good diagnostic performance in unclear testicular lesions. The VTIQ technique is also useful in assessing small testicular nodules and pseudolesions.

  8. In vivo measurement of skin surface strain and sub-surface layer deformation induced by natural tissue stretching.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Raman; Gerhardt, Lutz-Christian; Lee, Zing S; Byers, Robert A; Woods, Daniel; Sanz-Herrera, José A; Franklin, Steve E; Lewis, Roger; Matcher, Stephen J; Carré, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    Stratum corneum and epidermal layers change in terms of thickness and roughness with gender, age and anatomical site. Knowledge of the mechanical and tribological properties of skin associated with these structural changes are needed to aid in the design of exoskeletons, prostheses, orthotics, body mounted sensors used for kinematics measurements and in optimum use of wearable on-body devices. In this case study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and digital image correlation (DIC) were combined to determine skin surface strain and sub-surface deformation behaviour of the volar forearm due to natural tissue stretching. The thickness of the epidermis together with geometry changes of the dermal-epidermal junction boundary were calculated during change in the arm angle, from flexion (90°) to full extension (180°). This posture change caused an increase in skin surface Lagrange strain, typically by 25% which induced considerable morphological changes in the upper skin layers evidenced by reduction of epidermal layer thickness (20%), flattening of the dermal-epidermal junction undulation (45-50% reduction of flatness being expressed as Ra and Rz roughness profile height change) and reduction of skin surface roughness Ra and Rz (40-50%). The newly developed method, DIC combined with OCT imaging, is a powerful, fast and non-invasive methodology to study structural skin changes in real time and the tissue response provoked by mechanical loading or stretching. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Tissue Strain Reorganizes Collagen With a Switchlike Response That Regulates Neuronal Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Phosphorylation In Vitro: Implications for Ligamentous Injury and Mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sijia; Cao, Xuan; Stablow, Alec M.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive loading of ligaments can activate the neural afferents that innervate the collagenous tissue, leading to a host of pathologies including pain. An integrated experimental and modeling approach was used to define the responses of neurons and the surrounding collagen fibers to the ligamentous matrix loading and to begin to understand how macroscopic deformation is translated to neuronal loading and signaling. A neuron-collagen construct (NCC) developed to mimic innervation of collagenous tissue underwent tension to strains simulating nonpainful (8%) or painful ligament loading (16%). Both neuronal phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is related to neuroplasticity (R2 ≥ 0.041; p ≤ 0.0171) and neuronal aspect ratio (AR) (R2 ≥ 0.250; p < 0.0001), were significantly correlated with tissue-level strains. As NCC strains increased during a slowly applied loading (1%/s), a “switchlike” fiber realignment response was detected with collagen reorganization occurring only above a transition point of 11.3% strain. A finite-element based discrete fiber network (DFN) model predicted that at bulk strains above the transition point, heterogeneous fiber strains were both tensile and compressive and increased, with strains in some fibers along the loading direction exceeding the applied bulk strain. The transition point identified for changes in collagen fiber realignment was consistent with the measured strain threshold (11.7% with a 95% confidence interval of 10.2–13.4%) for elevating ERK phosphorylation after loading. As with collagen fiber realignment, the greatest degree of neuronal reorientation toward the loading direction was observed at the NCC distraction corresponding to painful loading. Because activation of neuronal ERK occurred only at strains that produced evident collagen fiber realignment, findings suggest that tissue strain-induced changes in the micromechanical environment, especially altered local

  10. Evaluation of knee joint muscle forces and tissue stresses-strains during gait in severe OA versus normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Adouni, M; Shirazi-Adl, A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of pain and disability in the elderly with the knee being the most affected weight bearing joint. We used a musculoskeletal biomechanical model of the lower extremity including a detailed validated knee joint finite element model to compute lower extremity muscle forces and knee joint stresses-strains during the stance phase of gait. The model was driven by gait data on OA patients, and results were compared with those of the same model driven by data on normal controls. Additional analyses were performed with altered cartilage-menisci properties to evaluate the effects of deterioration during OA. In OA patients compared to normal subjects, muscle forces dropped at nearly all stance periods except mid-stance. Force in the anterior cruciate ligament remained overall the same. Total contact forces-stresses deceased by about 25%. Alterations in properties due to OA had negligible effects on muscle forces, but increased contact areas and cartilage strains and reduced contact pressures. Reductions in contact stresses and increases in tissue strains and transfer of load via menisci are partly due to the altered kinetics-kinematics of gait and partly due to deterioration in cartilage-menisci properties in OA patients. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Radial strain and strain rate by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography and the tissue velocity based technique in the dog.

    PubMed

    Chetboul, Valérie; Serres, Francois; Gouni, Vassiliki; Tissier, Renaud; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis

    2007-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a new angle-independent ultrasound technique based on tracking of speckles within the myocardium on 2D grayscale images. The aims of this prospective study were as follows: (1) to assess the variability of left ventricular peak systolic radial strain (St) and strain rate (SR) in awake dogs using STE (Protocol 1); and (2) to quantify these variables in a healthy canine population and compare them with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-based St and SR values (Protocol 2). St and SR may be assessed using TDI, which is limited by angle dependency. Thirty-six STE examinations were performed on 6 healthy dogs for Protocol 1 and 37 healthy dogs were recruited for Protocol 2. In both studies, STE measurements were obtained offline from the right parasternal short-axis view by the same trained observer using automatic frame-to-frame tracking of grayscale speckle patterns. All within- and between-day coefficients of variation were <10% (Protocol 1). In Protocol 2, St (46.7+/-12.2%) and SR (2.7+/-0.6s(-1)) measured by STE were correlated with heart rate (p<0.01), but not with the ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to early mitral annular velocity. There was a good correlation between STE and TDI for both St and SR values (p<0.001). STE is a repeatable and reproducible non-Doppler method for assessing radial St and SR. The combination of these indices with conventional echo-Doppler variables could provide a new approach for accurately quantifying canine systolic function.

  12. The Influence of Neck Muscle Tonus and Posture on Brain Tissue Strain in Pedestrian Head Impacts.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Victor S; Halldin, Peter; Kleiven, Svein

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians are one of the least protected groups in urban traffic and frequently suffer fatal head injuries. An important boundary condition for the head is the cervical spine, and it has previously been demonstrated that neck muscle activation is important for head kinematics during inertial loading. It has also been shown in a recent numerical study that a tensed neck musculature also has some influence on head kinematics during a pedestrian impact situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence on head kinematics and injury metrics during the isolated time of head impact by comparing a pedestrian with relaxed neck and a pedestrian with increased tonus. The human body Finite Element model THUMS Version 1.4 was connected to head and neck models developed at KTH and used in pedestrian-to-vehicle impact simulations with a generalized hood, so that the head would impact a surface with an identical impact response in all simulations. In order to isolate the influence of muscle tonus, the model was activated shortly before head impact so the head would have the same initial position prior to impact among different tonus. A symmetric and asymmetric muscle activation scheme that used high level of activation was used in order to create two extremes to investigate. It was found that for the muscle tones used in this study, the influence on the strain in the brain was very minor, in general about 1-14% change. A relatively large increase was observed in a secondary peak in maximum strains in only one of the simulated cases.

  13. Characteristics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Strains Isolated from Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Lorena; Machado, Virginia; Mollerach, Marta; Mota, María Inés; Tuchscherr, Lorena P. N.; Gadea, Pilar; Gardella, Noella; Sordelli, Daniel O.; Vola, Magdalena; Schelotto, Felipe; Varela, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed 90 nonduplicates community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections. All strains were mecA positive. Twenty-four of the 90 strains showed inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance. All strains produced α-toxin; 96% and 100% of them displayed positive results for lukS-F and cna genes, respectively. Eigthy-five strains expressed capsular polysaccharide serotype 8. Six different pulsotypes were discriminated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and three predominant groups of CA-MRSA strains (1, 2, and 4) were identified, in agreement with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Strains of group 1 (pulsotype A, CP8+, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)+) were the most frequently recovered and exhibited a PFGE band pattern identical to other CA-MRSA strains previously isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Three years after the first local CA-MRSA report, these strains are still producing skin and soft-tissue infections demonstrating the stability over time of this community-associated emerging pathogen. PMID:20016669

  14. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26909087

  15. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard.

    PubMed

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  16. Tissue tropism and molecular characterization of a Japanese encephalitis virus strain isolated from pigs in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lei; Wu, Rui; Liu, Hanyang; Wen, Xintian; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Ma, Xiaoping; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Qin; Cao, Sanjie

    2016-04-02

    Since September 2012, an epidemic has been spreading among swine in a pig farm located in Sichuan province, southwest China, which has resulted in abortion, stillbirth, and fetal mummification. The brains of stillborn pigs were collected and a previously unknown Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), namely SCYA201201, was isolated. According to the results of agarose gel diffusion precipitation, indirect immunofluorescence analysis, neutralization testing, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) amplification, and physical and chemical testing, the virus was conformed to have the characteristics of JEV. The virus titer in BHK-21 cells was 10(8.47)PFU/ml and the median lethal dose (LD50) to 3-week-old and 7-day-old mice was 1.99 log10 and 1.02 log10 PFU/LD50, respectively. The results of tissue tropism for mice showed that the viral load in the brain was significantly higher than other organs, indicating that the isolate was strongly neurotropic. Additionally, the complete genome sequence of the isolate was determined and compared with other JEV strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate belongs to genotype I and may be an imported virus. The isolate had 88.4% nucleotide identity with the Chinese vaccine strain SA14-14-2. However, there were 69 amino acid substitutions compared with the strain SA14-14-2. Some substitutions indicated that SCYA201201 was highly neurovirulent and infective, in accordance with the results of animal testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between CO2 storage at the last minute of gas insufflation and area of retroperitoneal lacuna during retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Ya-Hua; Yu, Chan-Juan; Jialielihan, Nuerbolati

    2016-07-22

    Adequate operation interspace is the premise of laparoscopy, and carbon dioxide (CO2) was an ideal gas for forming lacuna. A retroperitoneal space is used to form operation interspace in retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy by making ballooning, and the retroperitoneal space has no relative complete and airtight serous membrane, therefore CO2 absorption may be greater in retroperitoneal than transperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Excess CO2 absorption may induce hypercapnemia and further cause physiopathological change of respiratory and circulatory system. Therefore, exact evaluation of amount of CO2 which is eliminated from body via minute ventilation is important during retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. The aim of the paper is to study the correlation between CO2 storage at the last minute of gas insufflation and area of retroperitoneal lacuna during retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Forty ASA I/II patients undergoing retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy were enrolled. CO2 storage at the last minute of gas insufflation and area of a retroperitoneal lacuna were observed. Linear correlation and regression were performed to determine the correlation between them. There was positive correlation between CO2 storage at the last minute of gas insufflation and area of retroperitoneal lacuna (r = 0.880, P = 0.000), and the equation of linear regression was y = -83.097 + 0.925x (R(2) = 0.780, t = 11.610, P = 0.000). Amount of CO2 which is eliminated from body via mechanical ventilation could be calculated by measuring the area of retroperitoneal lacuna during retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, and an anesthetist should be aware of the size of lacuna to predict high CO2 storage at the last minute of gas insufflation.

  18. Evaluation of PCR methods for detection of Brucella strains from culture and tissues.

    PubMed

    Çiftci, Alper; İça, Tuba; Savaşan, Serap; Sareyyüpoğlu, Barış; Akan, Mehmet; Diker, Kadir Serdar

    2017-04-01

    The genus Brucella causes significant economic losses due to infertility, abortion, stillbirth or weak calves, and neonatal mortality in livestock. Brucellosis is still a zoonosis of public health importance worldwide. The study was aimed to optimize and evaluate PCR assays used for the diagnosis of Brucella infections. For this aim, several primers and PCR protocols were performed and compared with Brucella cultures and biological material inoculated with Brucella. In PCR assays, genus- or species-specific oligonucleotide primers derived from 16S rRNA sequences (F4/R2, Ba148/928, IS711, BruP6-P7) and OMPs (JPF/JPR, 31ter/sd) of Brucella were used. All primers except for BruP6-P7 detected the DNA from reference Brucella strains and field isolates. In spiked blood, milk, and semen samples, F4-R2 primer-oriented PCR assays detected minimal numbers of Brucella. In spiked serum and fetal stomach content, Ba148/928 primer-oriented PCR assays detected minimal numbers of Brucella. Field samples collected from sheep and cattle were examined by bacteriological methods and optimized PCR assays. Overall, sensitivity of PCR assays was found superior to conventional bacteriological isolation. Brucella DNA was detected in 35.1, 1.1, 24.8, 5.0, and 8.0% of aborted fetus, blood, milk, semen, and serum samples by PCR assays, respectively. In conclusion, PCR assay in optimized conditions was found to be valuable in sensitive and specific detection of Brucella infections of animals.

  19. Prediction of left ventricular contractile recovery using tissue Doppler strain and strain rate measurements at rest in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawwad, Ihab M; Al Hawary, Ahmed A; Kamal, Hanan M; Al Maghawry, Layla M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the ability of tissue Doppler (TD) deformation analysis at rest to predict left ventricular contractile recovery in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This prospective cohort enrolled 67 patients with segmental wall motion abnormality. Assessment of each segment was performed at rest and during low dose Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) using a 4 point scoring system, TD peak systolic strain (PSS) and peak systolic strain rate (PSSR). The study followed up the patients for contractile improvement after 6 months of successful PCI by echocardiography. Of a 319 dysfunctional segments, 155 (49%) showed contractile recovery and 164 (51%) did not. PSS and PSSR at rest were significantly higher in recovered segments compared to segments without recovery (PSS: -7.27 ± 0.8 Vs. -6.14 ± 0.7%, PSSR: -0.34 ± 0.13 Vs. -0.24 ± 0.1/s. p < 0.0001 both). Similarly, both parameters were significantly higher in the contractile recovery group at follow up (p 0.001). Resting PSSR as well as PSS and PSSR during DSE were significant independent predictors of contractile recovery (p < 0.001 each). For predicting segmental contractile recovery, resting PSSR with a -0.31/s cut-off point had 76% sensitivity and 59% specificity (AUC 0.74), DSE qualitative viability assessment had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 77%, DSE PSS with a cut-off point of -9.1% had 74% sensitivity and 63% specificity (AUC 0.77) and DSE PSSR with a cut-off point of -0.72/s had 78% sensitivity and 77% specificity (AUC 0.81). Resting PSSR is a modest predictor of segmental contractile recovery after PCI while PSSR during DSE has a comparable diagnostic performance to subjective wall motion scoring. Recovered segments show improvement of deformation parameters after PCI.

  20. Mono-dispersed Functional Polymeric Nanocapsules with Multi-lacuna via Soapless Microemulsion Polymerization with Spindle-like α-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles as Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangfeng; Liu, Peng

    2009-03-01

    The mono-dispersed crosslinked polymeric multi-lacuna nanocapsules (CP(St-OA) nanocapsules) about 40 nm with carboxylic groups on their inner and outer surfaces were fabricated in the present work. The small conglomerations of the oleic acid modified spindle-like α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (OA-Fe2O3) were encapsulated in the facile microemulsion polymerization with styrene (St) as monomer and divinyl benzene (DVB) as crosslinker. Then the templates, small conglomerations of OA-Fe2O3, were etched with HCl in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The surface carboxylic groups of the crosslinked polymeric multi-lacuna nanocapsules were validated by the Zeta potential analysis.

  1. Foliation of the space of periodic boundary-value problems by hypersurfaces corresponding to fixed lengths of the n th spectral lacuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymarskii, Ya M.; Evtushenko, Yu A.

    2016-05-01

    The space of one-dimensional stationary Schrödinger equations with a real-valued periodic potential and periodic boundary conditions is considered. An analytic and topological description of its foliation by hypersurfaces defined by the condition that the nth spectral lacuna has fixed length is given. The case when a lacuna degenerates into a point gives the Schwarzian derivative and the Arnold manifold. In the nondegenerate case, the linking number of the loop formed by potentials with shifted argument and an Arnold manifold is calculated. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  2. Local Petrovskii lacunas close to parabolic singular points of the wavefronts of strictly hyperbolic partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliev, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    We enumerate the local Petrovskii lacunas (that is, the domains of local regularity of the principal fundamental solutions of strictly hyperbolic PDEs with constant coefficients in {R}^N) close to parabolic singular points of their wavefronts (that is, at the points of types P_8^1, P_8^2, +/- X_9, X_9^1, X_9^2, J10^1 and J10^3). These points form the next most difficult family of classes in the natural classification of singular points after the so-called simple singularities A_k, D_k, E_6, E_7 and E_8, which have been investigated previously. Also we present a computer program which counts the topologically distinct morsifications of critical points of smooth functions, and hence also the local components of the complement of a generic wavefront at its singular points. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  3. Tissue persistence and vaccine efficacy of tricarboxylic acid cycle and one-carbon metabolism mutant strains of Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Neeti; Abdelhamed, Hossam; Karsi, Attila; Lawrence, Mark L

    2014-06-30

    Edwardsiella ictaluri causes enteric septicemia in fish. Recently, we reported construction of E. ictaluri mutants with single and double gene deletions in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and one-carbon (C-1) metabolism. Here, we report the tissue persistence, virulence, and vaccine efficacy of TCA cycle (EiΔsdhC, EiΔfrdA, and EiΔmdh), C-1 metabolism (EiΔgcvP and EiΔglyA), and combination mutants (EiΔfrdAΔsdhC, EiΔgcvPΔsdhC, EiΔmdhΔsdhC, and EiΔgcvPΔglyA) in channel catfish. The tissue persistence study showed that EiΔsdhC, EiΔfrdA, EiΔfrdAΔsdhC, and EiΔgcvPΔsdhC were able to invade catfish and persist until 11 days post-infection. Vaccination of catfish fingerlings with all nine mutants provided significant (P<0.05) protection against subsequent challenge with the virulent parental strain. Vaccinated catfish fingerlings had 100% survival when subsequently challenged by immersion with wild-type E. ictaluri except for EiΔgcvPΔglyA and EiΔgcvP. Mutant EiΔgcvPΔsdhC was found to be very good at protecting catfish fry, as evidenced by 10-fold higher survival compared to non-vaccinated fish.

  4. Strain amplification in the bone mechanosensory system.

    PubMed

    Cowin, S C; Weinbaum, S

    1998-09-01

    This article discusses the potential mechanisms by which the strain induced at the membrane of an osteocyte may be amplified from the strain experienced by the whole bone due to mechanical loading. These mechanisms address the question of how these mechanical load-induced small strains of (typically) about 0.1% (but up to 0.5%) applied to a whole bone are amplified to strains of 1% or larger at the membrane of the osteocyte buried in its lacuna in the bone matrix. The answer to this question is an important link in the mechanosensory system in bone and in relating in vitro cell studies to in vivo cellular response.

  5. Reproducibility and feasibility of right ventricular strain and strain rate (SR) as determined by myocardial speckle tracking during high-intensity upright exercise: a comparison with tissue Doppler-derived strain and SR in healthy human hearts.

    PubMed

    Lord, Rachel N; George, Keith; Jones, Helen; Somauroo, John; Oxborough, David

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to establish feasibility for myocardial speckle tracking (MST) and intra-observer reliability of both MST and tissue velocity imaging (TVI)-derived right ventricular (RV) strain (ϵ) and strain rate (SR) at rest and during upright incremental exercise. RV ϵ and SR were derived using both techniques in 19 healthy male participants. MST-derived ϵ and SR were feasible at rest (85% of segments tracked appropriately). Feasibility reduced significantly with progressive exercise intensity (3% of segments tracking appropriately at 90% maximum heart rate (HRmax)). Coefficient of variations (CoVs) of global ϵ values at rest was acceptable for both TVI and MST (7-12%), with low bias and narrow limits of agreement. Global SR data were less reliable for MST compared with TVI as demonstrated with CoV data (systolic SR=15 and 61%, early diastolic SR=16 and 17% and late diastolic SR=26 and 31% respectively). CoVs of global RV ϵ and SR obtained at 50% HRmax were acceptable using both techniques. As exercise intensity increased to 70 and 90% HRmax, reliability of ϵ and SR values reduced with larger variability in MST. We conclude that RV global and regional ϵ and SR data are feasible, comparable and reliable at rest and at 50% HRmax using both MST and TVI. Reliability was reduced during higher exercise intensities with only TVI acceptable for clinical and scientific use.

  6. [Investigation of SCCmec types and Panton-Valentine leukocidin in community-acquired and nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus strains: comparing skin and soft tissue infections to the other infections].

    PubMed

    Gülmez, Dolunay; Sancak, Banu; Ercis, Serpil; Karakaya, Jale; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2012-07-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important health care problems since they are usually multidrug resistant. Although MRSA is isolated especially from nosocomial infections, community-acquired MRSA infections are increasing. Methicillin resistance is due to the expression of mecA gene, which is located on SCCmec gene cassette. Different SCCmec types can be detected in hospital-acquired and community-acquired (CA-) MRSA strains. CA-MRSA strains might harbour Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), an important virulence factor in skin and soft tissue infections. Strains carrying PVL has the ability to penetrate undamaged skin and cause more severe infections. The aim of this study was to detect SCCmec types and PVL gene in S.aureus strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections and to compare with strains isolated from other infections in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. S.aureus strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections (n= 285) and a control group consisting of 161 strains isolated from other infections (53 blood, 48 lower respiratory tract samples, 30 sterile body fluids, 30 genitourinary tract samples) chosen by stratification and random selection method, were included in the study. Among skin and soft tissue infection strains 46.7% were from the hospitalized patients and 48.4% of skin and soft tissue infection strains were from female patients. The mean age of the skin and soft tissue infection patients was 45.5 years. Among the control strains 60.9% were from the hospitalized patients and 41.6% of the control patients were female. The mean age of the control patients was 50.2 years. Strains were identified by the Phoenix system (Becton Dickinson, USA) and identification was confirmed by tube coagulase test. Methicillin resistance was determined by the Phoenix system which determines both oxacillin and cefoxitin minimum inhibitor concentrations and, confirmed by oxacillin agar screening and

  7. Comparative Respiratory Pathogenicity and Dynamic Tissue Distribution of Chinese Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and its Attenuated Strain in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Zhang, W; Gong, W; Zhang, D; She, R; Xu, B; Ning, Y

    2015-07-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) in 2006 devastated the Chinese swine industry. HP-PRRS virus is still the predominant strain in mainland China, rather than the classical PRRSV strain, and the attenuated live vaccine remains the preferred choice for protecting piglets against HP-PRRSV infection. To fully evaluate the safety of strain GDr180, the 180th attenuated virus of the HP-PRRSV strain GD, we used clinicopathological, microscopical, ultrastructural, serological and molecular biological methods to assess the different clinical manifestations and respiratory characteristics of piglets inoculated with HP-PRRSV strain GD or strain GDr180. The 5-week-old piglets inoculated with strain GD displayed marked clinical signs, including fever, anorexia, dyspnoea and tachypnoea. Significant interstitial pneumonia was present, characterized by thickened alveolar septa infiltrated with mononuclear cells and cell debris. However, the piglets inoculated with strain GDr180 and the negative control piglets showed neither clinical signs nor microscopical or ultrastructural lesions. Ultrastructural observation of the piglets' tracheas and examination of the dynamic tissue distributions of PRRSV strain GD and attenuated strain GDr180, by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, confirmed significant differences in their pathogenicity and distribution in the respiratory systems of piglets. The differences in pathogenicity are attributable to the different severity of the pathological changes in the pigs inoculated with the two strains. Thus, the HP-PRRSV GDr180 strain is practically harmless to the respiratory systems of piglets and may be a safe candidate for inducing immunity against HP-PRRS.

  8. Non-linear stress-strain measurements of ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) compared to normal oral mucosal and skin tissue.

    PubMed

    Winterroth, Frank; Hollister, Scott J; Feinberg, Stephen E; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Fowlkes, J Brian; Ganguly, Arindam; Hollman, Kyle W

    2011-01-01

    Stress-strain curves of oral mucosal tissues were measured using direct mechanical testing. Measurements were conducted on both natural oral mucosal tissues and engineered devices, specifically a clinically developed ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME). As seeded cells proliferate on EVPOME devices, they produce a keratinized protective upper layer which fills in surface irregularities. These transformations can further alter stress-strain parameters as cells in EVPOME differentiate, more similar to natural oral mucosal tissues in contrast to an unseeded scaffold. In addition to tissue devices grown under normal conditions (37 °C), EVPOMEs were also produced at 43 °C. These thermally stressed specimens model possible failure mechanisms. Results from a mechanical deformation system capable of accurate measurements on small (approximately 1.0-1.5 cm(2)) cylindrical tissue samples are presented. Deformations are produced by lowering a circular piston, with a radius smaller than the sample radius, onto the center of the sample. Resulting force is measured with a precision electronic balance. Cultured EVPOME was less stiff than AlloDerm®, but similar to native porcine buccal tissue. Porcine skin and porcine palate tissues were even less stiff. Thermally stressed EVPOME was less stiff than normally cultured EVPOME as expected because stressed keratin cells were damaged reducing the structural integrity of the tissue.

  9. A novel computational remodelling algorithm for the probabilistic evolution of collagen fibre dispersion in biaxially strained vascular tissue.

    PubMed

    Çoban, Gürsan; Çelebi, M Serdar

    2016-09-10

    In this work, we constructed a novel collagen fibre remodelling algorithm that incorporates the complex nature of random evolution acting on single fibres causing macroscopic fibre dispersion. The proposed framework is different from the existing remodelling algorithms, in that the microscopic random force on cellular scales causing a rotational-type Brownian motion alone is considered as an aspect of vascular tissue remodelling. A continuum mechanical framework for the evolution of local dispersion and how it could be used for modeling the evolution of internal radius of biaxially strained artery structures under constant internal blood pressure are presented. A linear evolution form for the statistical fibre dispersion is employed in the model. The random force component of the evolution, which depends on the mechanical stress stimuli, is described by a single parameter. Although the mathematical form of the proposed model is simple, there is a strong link between the microscopic evolution of collagen dispersion on the cellular level and its effects on the macroscopic visible world through mechanical variables. We believe that the proposed algorithm utilizes a better understanding of the relationship between the evolution rates of mean fibre direction and fibre dispersion. The predictive capability of the algorithm is presented using experimental data. The model has been simulated by solving a single-layered axisymmetric artery (adventitia) deformation problem. The algorithm performed well for estimating the quantitative features of experimental anisotropy, the mean fibre direction vector and the dispersion ([Formula: see text]) measurements under strain-dependent evolution assumptions. © The authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  10. The mechanical heterogeneity of the hard callus influences local tissue strains during bone healing: a finite element study based on sheep experiments.

    PubMed

    Vetter, A; Liu, Y; Witt, F; Manjubala, I; Sander, O; Epari, D R; Fratzl, P; Duda, G N; Weinkamer, R

    2011-02-03

    During secondary fracture healing, various tissue types including new bone are formed. The local mechanical strains play an important role in tissue proliferation and differentiation. To further our mechanobiological understanding of fracture healing, a precise assessment of local strains is mandatory. Until now, static analyses using Finite Elements (FE) have assumed homogenous material properties. With the recent quantification of both the spatial tissue patterns (Vetter et al., 2010) and the development of elastic modulus of newly formed bone during healing (Manjubala et al., 2009), it is now possible to incorporate this heterogeneity. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of this heterogeneity on the strain patterns at six successive healing stages. The input data of the present work stemmed from a comprehensive cross-sectional study of sheep with a tibial osteotomy (Epari et al., 2006). In our FE model, each element containing bone was described by a bulk elastic modulus, which depended on both the local area fraction and the local elastic modulus of the bone material. The obtained strains were compared with the results of hypothetical FE models assuming homogeneous material properties. The differences in the spatial distributions of the strains between the heterogeneous and homogeneous FE models were interpreted using a current mechanobiological theory (Isakson et al., 2006). This interpretation showed that considering the heterogeneity of the hard callus is most important at the intermediate stages of healing, when cartilage transforms to bone via endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus pyogenes Strain 06BA18369, a Human Pathogen Associated with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Northern Canada.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ryan R; Golding, George R; Irvine, James; Graham, Morag R; Tyler, Shaun; Mulvey, Michael R; Levett, Paul N

    2013-06-27

    We report the draft sequence of Streptococcus pyogenes 06BA18369 (emm type 41.2, sequence type 579 [ST579]), isolated from a skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) mixed with Staphylococcus aureus. This genome provides insight into the genetic composition of S. pyogenes strains associated with mixed SSTIs.

  12. 3D strain measurement in soft tissue: demonstration of a novel inverse finite element model algorithm on MicroCT images of a tissue phantom exposed to negative pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, R; Zhao, Y; Cunningham, K; Kieswetter, K; Haridas, B

    2009-07-01

    This study describes a novel system for acquiring the 3D strain field in soft tissue at sub-millimeter spatial resolution during negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Recent research in advanced wound treatment modalities theorizes that microdeformations induced by the application of sub-atmospheric (negative) pressure through V.A.C. GranuFoam Dressing, a reticulated open-cell polyurethane foam (ROCF), is instrumental in regulating the mechanobiology of granulation tissue formation [Saxena, V., Hwang, C.W., Huang, S., Eichbaum, Q., Ingber, D., Orgill, D.P., 2004. Vacuum-assisted closure: Microdeformations of wounds and cell proliferation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 114, 1086-1096]. While the clinical response is unequivocal, measurement of deformations at the wound-dressing interface has not been possible due to the inaccessibility of the wound tissue beneath the sealed dressing. Here we describe the development of a bench-test wound model for microcomputed tomography (microCT) imaging of deformation induced by NPWT and an algorithm set for quantifying the 3D strain field at sub-millimeter resolution. Microdeformations induced in the tissue phantom revealed average tensile strains of 18%-23% at sub-atmospheric pressures of -50 to -200 mmHg (-6.7 to -26.7 kPa). The compressive strains (22%-24%) and shear strains (20%-23%) correlate with 2D FEM studies of microdeformational wound therapy in the reference cited above. We anticipate that strain signals quantified using this system can then be used in future research aimed at correlating the effects of mechanical loading on the phenotypic expression of dermal fibroblasts in acute and chronic ulcer models. Furthermore, the method developed here can be applied to continuum deformation analysis in other contexts, such as 3D cell culture via confocal microscopy, full scale CT and MRI imaging, and in machine vision.

  13. Strain hardening of fascia: static stretching of dense fibrous connective tissues can induce a temporary stiffness increase accompanied by enhanced matrix hydration.

    PubMed

    Schleip, Robert; Duerselen, Lutz; Vleeming, Andry; Naylor, Ian L; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Zorn, Adjo; Jaeger, Heike; Klingler, Werner

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a potential cellular basis for strain hardening of fascial tissues: an increase in stiffness induced by stretch and subsequent rest. Mice lumbodorsal fascia were isometrically stretched for 15 min followed by 30 min rest (n=16). An increase in stiffness was observed in the majority of samples, including the nonviable control samples. Investigations with porcine lumbar fascia explored hydration changes as an explanation (n=24). Subject to similar loading procedures, tissues showed decreases in fluid content immediately post-stretch and increases during rest phases. When allowed sufficient resting time, a super-compensation phenomenon was observed, characterised by matrix hydration higher than initial levels and increases in tissue stiffness. Therefore, fascial strain hardening does not seem to rely on cellular contraction, but rather on this super-compensation. Given a comparable occurrence of this behaviour in vivo, clinical application of routines for injury prevention merit exploration.

  14. Selection of achromatic and non-neutral colors to fill lacunae in frescoes guided by a variational model of perceived contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grementieri, Luca; Provenzi, Edoardo

    2017-02-01

    Many ancient paintings, in particular frescoes, have some parts ruined by time and events. Sometimes one or more non-negligible regions are completely lost, leaving a blank that is called by restaurateurs a `lacuna'. The general restoration philosophy adopted in these cases is to paint the interior part of the lacuna with an achromatic or non-neutral uniform color carefully selected in order to minimize its overall perception. In this paper, we present a computational model, based on a well-established variational theory of color perception, that may facilitate the job of a restaurateur by providing both achromatic and non-neutral colors which minimize the local contrast with the surrounding parts of the fresco.

  15. Analysis of the effect of osteon diameter on the potential relationship of osteocyte lacuna density and osteon wall thickness.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Clark, Gunnar C; Sorenson, Scott M; Taylor, Kevin W; Qiu, Shijing

    2011-09-01

    An important hypothesis is that the degree of infilling of secondary osteons (Haversian systems) is controlled by the inhibitory effect of osteocytes on osteoblasts, which might be mediated by sclerostin (a glycoprotein produced by osteocytes). Consequently, this inhibition could be proportional to cell number: relatively greater repression is exerted by progressively greater osteocyte density (increased osteocytes correlate with thinner osteon walls). This hypothesis has been examined, but only weakly supported, in sheep ulnae. We looked for this inverse relationship between osteon wall thickness (On.W.Th) and osteocyte lacuna density (Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar) in small and large osteons in human ribs, calcanei of sheep, deer, elk, and horses, and radii and third metacarpals of horses. Analyses involved: (1) all osteons, (2) smaller osteons, either ≤150 μm diameter or less than or equal to the mean diameter, and (3) larger osteons (>mean diameter). Significant, but weak, correlations between Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar and On.W.Th/On.Dm (On.Dm = osteon diameter) were found when considering all osteons in limb bones (r values -0.16 to -0.40, P < 0.01; resembling previous results in sheep ulnae: r = -0.39, P < 0.0001). In larger osteons, these relationships were either not significant (five/seven bone types) or very weak (two/seven bone types). In ribs, a negative relationship was only found in smaller osteons (r = -0.228, P < 0.01); this inverse relationship in smaller osteons did not occur in elk calcanei. These results do not provide clear or consistent support for the hypothesized inverse relationship. However, correlation analyses may fail to detect osteocyte-based repression of infilling if the signal is spatially nonuniform (e.g., increased near the central canal).

  16. Preventive fluid and dietary therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Singh, Shwaran K; Mavuduru, Ravimohan; Mandal, Arup K

    2011-07-01

    Regulation of fluid and dietary intake habits is essential in comprehensive preventive management of urolithiasis. However, despite large body of epidemiological database, there is dearth of good quality prospective interventional studies in this regard. Often there is conflict in pathophysiological basis and actual clinical outcome. We describe conflicts, controversies and lacunae in current literature in fluid and dietary modifications in prevention of urolithiasis. Adequate fluid intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis-prevention; its positive effects are seen even at low volumes. Of the citrus, orange provides the most favorable pH changes in the urine, equivalent to therapeutic alkaline citrates. Despite being richest source of citrate, lemon does not increase pH significant due to its acidic nature. Fructose, animal proteins and fats are implicated in contributing to obesity, which is an established risk factor for urolithiasis. Fructose and proteins also contribute to lithogenecity of urine directly. Sodium restriction is commonly advised since natriuresis is associated with calciuresis. Calcium restriction is not advisable for urolithiasis prevention. Adequate calcium intake is beneficial if taken with food since it reduces absorption of dietary oxalate. Increasing dietary fiber does not protect against urolithiasis. Evidence for pyridoxine and magnesium is not robust. There is no prospective interventional study evaluating effect of many dietary elements, including citrus juices, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, sodium, etc. Due to lack of good-quality prospective interventional trials it is essential to test the findings of pathophysiological understanding and epidemiological evidence. Role of probiotics and phytoceuticals needs special attention for future research.

  17. Analysis of the Effect of Osteon Diameter on the Potential Relationship of Osteocyte Lacuna Density and Osteon Wall Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G.; Clark, Gunnar C.; Sorenson, Scott M.; Taylor, Kevin W.; Qiu, Shijing

    2011-01-01

    An important hypothesis is that the degree of infilling of secondary osteons (Haversian systems) is controlled by the inhibitory effect of osteocytes on osteoblasts, which might be mediated by sclerostin (a glycoprotein produced by osteocytes). Consequently, this inhibition could be proportional to cell number: relatively greater repression is exerted by progressively greater osteocyte density (increased osteocytes correlate with thinner osteon walls). This hypothesis has been examined, but only weakly supported, in sheep ulnae. We looked for this inverse relationship between osteon wall thickness (On.W.Th) and osteocyte lacuna density (Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar) in small and large osteons in human ribs, calcanei of sheep, deer, elk, and horses, and radii and third metacarpals of horses. Analyses involved: (1) all osteons, (2) smaller osteons, either ≤150μm diameter or ≤ the mean diameter, and (3) larger osteons (>mean diameter). Significant, but weak, correlations between Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar and On.W.Th/On.Dm (On.Dm = osteon diameter) were found when considering all osteons in limb bones (r values −0.16 to −0.40, p<0.01; resembling previous results in sheep ulnae: r= −0.39, p<0.0001). In larger osteons, these relationships were either not significant (five/seven bone types) or very weak (two/seven bone types). In ribs, a negative relationship was only found in smaller osteons (r= −0.228, p<0.01); this inverse relationship in smaller osteons did not occur in elk calcanei. These results do not provide clear or consistent support for the hypothesized inverse relationship. However, correlation analyses may fail to detect osteocyte-based repression of infilling if the signal is spatially non-uniform (e.g., increased near the central canal). PMID:21809466

  18. Preventive fluid and dietary therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Singh, Shwaran K.; Mavuduru, Ravimohan; Mandal, Arup K.

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of fluid and dietary intake habits is essential in comprehensive preventive management of urolithiasis. However, despite large body of epidemiological database, there is dearth of good quality prospective interventional studies in this regard. Often there is conflict in pathophysiological basis and actual clinical outcome. We describe conflicts, controversies and lacunae in current literature in fluid and dietary modifications in prevention of urolithiasis. Adequate fluid intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis-prevention; its positive effects are seen even at low volumes. Of the citrus, orange provides the most favorable pH changes in the urine, equivalent to therapeutic alkaline citrates. Despite being richest source of citrate, lemon does not increase pH significant due to its acidic nature. Fructose, animal proteins and fats are implicated in contributing to obesity, which is an established risk factor for urolithiasis. Fructose and proteins also contribute to lithogenecity of urine directly. Sodium restriction is commonly advised since natriuresis is associated with calciuresis. Calcium restriction is not advisable for urolithiasis prevention. Adequate calcium intake is beneficial if taken with food since it reduces absorption of dietary oxalate. Increasing dietary fiber does not protect against urolithiasis. Evidence for pyridoxine and magnesium is not robust. There is no prospective interventional study evaluating effect of many dietary elements, including citrus juices, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, sodium, etc. Due to lack of good-quality prospective interventional trials it is essential to test the findings of pathophysiological understanding and epidemiological evidence. Role of probiotics and phytoceuticals needs special attention for future research. PMID:22022052

  19. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome from necrotizing soft-tissue infection of the breast caused by a mucoid type strain.

    PubMed

    Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishitobi, Natsuko; Yamamori, Yuji; Wakuri, Miho; Sano, Chiaki; Tominaga, Kiyoshi; Ikebe, Tadayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is a severe infectious disease. We report a Japanese case of Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by a highly mucoid strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. A 31-year old female with shock vital sign presented at a tertiary medical center. Her left breast was necrotizing and S. pyogenes was detected by Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic kits. Intensive care, including administration of antibiotics and skin debridement, was performed. After 53 days in our hospital, she was discharged. The blood cultures and skin swab cultures all grew S. pyogenes which displayed a highly mucoid morphology on culture media. In her course of the disease, the Streptococcus strain had infected two other family members. All of the strains possessed the T1 and M1 antigens, as well as the emm1.0 gene. As for fever genes, the strains were all positive for speA, speB, and speF, but negative for speC. All of the strains exhibited and the same pattern in PFGE with the SfiI restriction enzyme. The strain might have spread in the local area by the data from the Japanese Infectious Disease Surveillance Center. Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic kits are very useful for detecting S. pyogenes. However, they can not be used to diagnose severe streptococcul disease by highly mucoid strain alone. Careful observation of patients and colony morphology are useful methods for diagnosing severe streptococcal disease by highly mucoid strain.

  20. The structure lacuna.

    PubMed

    Boeyens, Jan C A; Levendis, Demetrius C

    2012-01-01

    Molecular symmetry is intimately connected with the classical concept of three-dimensional molecular structure. In a non-classical theory of wave-like interaction in four-dimensional space-time, both of these concepts and traditional quantum mechanics lose their operational meaning, unless suitably modified. A required reformulation should emphasize the importance of four-dimensional effects like spin and the symmetry effects of space-time curvature that could lead to a fundamentally different understanding of molecular symmetry and structure in terms of elementary number theory. Isolated single molecules have no characteristic shape and macro-biomolecules only develop robust three-dimensional structure in hydrophobic response to aqueous cellular media.

  1. The Structure Lacuna

    PubMed Central

    Boeyens, Jan C.A.; Levendis, Demetrius C.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular symmetry is intimately connected with the classical concept of three-dimensional molecular structure. In a non-classical theory of wave-like interaction in four-dimensional space-time, both of these concepts and traditional quantum mechanics lose their operational meaning, unless suitably modified. A required reformulation should emphasize the importance of four-dimensional effects like spin and the symmetry effects of space-time curvature that could lead to a fundamentally different understanding of molecular symmetry and structure in terms of elementary number theory. Isolated single molecules have no characteristic shape and macro-biomolecules only develop robust three-dimensional structure in hydrophobic response to aqueous cellular media. PMID:22942753

  2. Measurement of local strains in intervertebral disc anulus fibrosus tissue under dynamic shear: contributions of matrix fiber orientation and elastin content.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Arthur J; Buckley, Mark R; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Cohen, Itai; Iatridis, James C

    2009-10-16

    Shear strain has been implicated as an initiator of intervertebral disc anulus failure, however a clear, multi-scale picture of how shear strain affects the tissue microstructure has been lacking. The purposes of this study were to measure microscale deformations in anulus tissue under dynamic shear in two orientations, and to determine the role of elastin in regulating these deformations. Bovine AF tissue was simultaneously shear loaded and imaged using confocal microscopy following either a buffer or elastase treatment. Digital image analysis was used to track through time local shear strains in specimens sheared transversely, and stretch and rotation of collagen fiber bundles in specimens sheared circumferentially. The results of this study suggest that sliding does not occur between AF plies under shear, and that interlamellar connections are governed by collagen and fibrilin rather than elastin. The transverse shear modulus was found to be approximately 1.6 times as high in plies the direction of the collagen fibers as in plies across them. Under physiological levels of in-plane shear, fiber bundles stretched and re-oriented linearly. Elastin was found to primarily stiffen plies transversely. We conclude that alterations in the elastic fiber network, as found with IVD herniation and degeneration, can therefore be expected to significantly influence the AF response to shear making it more susceptible to micro failure under bending or torsion loading.

  3. In vivo vascular wall tissue characterization using a strain tensor measuring (STM) technique for flow-mediated vasodilation analyses.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Frisbee, Jefferson C; D'Audiffret, Alexandre; Mukdadi, Osama M

    2009-10-21

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis, and the measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in brachial and other conduit arteries has become a common method to assess the status of endothelial function in vivo. Based on the direct relationship between the FMD response and local shear stress on the conduit brachial artery endothelium, we hypothesize that measuring relevant changes in the brachial wall strain tensor would provide a non-invasive tool for assessing vascular mechanics during post-occlusion reactive hyperemia. Direct measurement of the wall strain tensor due to FMD has not yet been reported in the literature. In this work, a noninvasive direct ultrasound-based strain tensor measuring (STM) technique is presented to assess changes in the mechanical parameters of the vascular wall during post-occlusion reactive hyperemia and/or FMD, including local velocities and displacements, diameter change, local strain tensor and strain rates. The STM technique utilizes sequences of B-mode ultrasound images as its input with no extra hardware requirement, and its algorithm starts with segmenting a region of interest within the artery and providing the acquisition parameters. Then a block matching technique based on speckle tracking is employed to measure the frame-to-frame local velocities. Displacements, diameter change, local strain tensor and strain rates are then calculated by integrating or differentiating velocity components. The accuracy of the STM algorithm was assessed in vitro using phantom studies, where an average error of 7% was reported using different displacement ranging from 100 microm to 1000 microm. Furthermore, in vivo studies using human subjects were performed to test the STM algorithm during pre- and post-occlusion. Good correlations (|r| >0.5, P < 0.05) were found between the post-occlusion responses of diameter change and local wall strains. Results indicate the validity and

  4. In vivo vascular wall tissue characterization using a strain tensor measuring (STM) technique for flow-mediated vasodilation analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Frisbee, Jefferson C.; D'Audiffret, Alexandre; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2009-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis, and the measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in brachial and other conduit arteries has become a common method to assess the status of endothelial function in vivo. Based on the direct relationship between the FMD response and local shear stress on the conduit brachial artery endothelium, we hypothesize that measuring relevant changes in the brachial wall strain tensor would provide a non-invasive tool for assessing vascular mechanics during post-occlusion reactive hyperemia. Direct measurement of the wall strain tensor due to FMD has not yet been reported in the literature. In this work, a noninvasive direct ultrasound-based strain tensor measuring (STM) technique is presented to assess changes in the mechanical parameters of the vascular wall during post-occlusion reactive hyperemia and/or FMD, including local velocities and displacements, diameter change, local strain tensor and strain rates. The STM technique utilizes sequences of B-mode ultrasound images as its input with no extra hardware requirement, and its algorithm starts with segmenting a region of interest within the artery and providing the acquisition parameters. Then a block matching technique based on speckle tracking is employed to measure the frame-to-frame local velocities. Displacements, diameter change, local strain tensor and strain rates are then calculated by integrating or differentiating velocity components. The accuracy of the STM algorithm was assessed in vitro using phantom studies, where an average error of 7% was reported using different displacement ranging from 100 µm to 1000 µm. Furthermore, in vivo studies using human subjects were performed to test the STM algorithm during pre- and post-occlusion. Good correlations (|r| >0.5, P < 0.05) were found between the post-occlusion responses of diameter change and local wall strains. Results indicate the validity and versatility of

  5. Ex vivo and in vivo assessment of the non-linearity of elasticity properties of breast tissues for quantitative strain elastography.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Takeshi; Ueno, Ei; Matsumura, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Makoto; Bando, Hiroko; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the background to the image variations in strain elastography (strain imaging [SI]) depending on the manner of manipulation (compression magnitude) during elasticity image (EI) acquisition. Thirty patients with 33 breast lesions who had undergone surgery followed by SI assessment in vivo were analyzed. An analytical approach to tissue elasticity based on the stress-elastic modulus (Young's modulus) relationship was adopted. Young's moduli were directly measured ex vivo in surgical specimens ranging from 2.60 kPa (fat) to 16.08 kPa (invasive carcinoma) under the weak-stress condition (<0.2-0.4 kPa, which corresponds to the appropriate "light touch" technique in SI investigation. The contrast (ratio) of lesion to fat in elasticity ex vivo gradually decreased as the stress applied increased (around 1.0 kPa) on the background of significant non-linearity of the breast tissue. Our results indicate that the differences in non-linearity in elasticity between the different tissues within the breast under minimal stress conditions are closely related to the variation in EI quality. The significance of the "pre-load compression" concept in tissue elasticity evaluation is recognized. Non-linearity of elasticity is an essential attribute of living subjects and could provide useful information having a considerable impact on clinical diagnosis in quantitative ultrasound elastography. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue tropisms, infection kinetics, histologic lesions, and antibody response of the MR766 strain of Zika virus in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Kawiecki, Anna B; Mayton, E Handly; Dutuze, M Fausta; Goupil, Brad A; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Del Piero, Fabio; Christofferson, Rebecca C

    2017-04-18

    The appearance of severe Zika virus (ZIKV) disease in the most recent outbreak has prompted researchers to respond through the development of tools to quickly characterize transmission and pathology. We describe here another such tool, a mouse model of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis using the MR766 strain of virus that adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding ZIKV kinetics in small animal models. We infected mice with the MR766 strain of ZIKV to determine infection kinetics via serum viremia. We further evaluated infection-induced lesions via histopathology and visualized viral antigen via immunohistochemical labeling. We also investigated the antibody response of recovered animals to both the MR766 and a strain from the current outbreak (PRVABC59). We demonstrate that the IRF3/7 DKO mouse is a susceptible, mostly non-lethal model well suited for the study of infection kinetics, pathological progression, and antibody response. Infected mice presented lesions in tissues that have been associated with ZIKV infection in the human population, such as the eyes, male gonads, and central nervous system. In addition, we demonstrate that infection with the MR766 strain produces cross-neutralizing antibodies to the PRVABC59 strain of the Asian lineage. This model provides an additional tool for future studies into the transmission routes of ZIKV, as well as for the development of antivirals and other therapeutics, and should be included in the growing list of available tools for investigations of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis.

  7. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals genomic loci regulating the tissue response in high fat diet fed BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity-associated organ-specific pathological states can be ensued from the dysregulation of the functions of the adipose tissues, liver and muscle. However, the influence of genetic differences underlying gross-compositional differences in these tissues is largely unknown. In the present study, the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been combined with a genetic approach to identify genetic differences responsible for phenotypic alterations in adipose, liver and muscle tissues. Results Mice from 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains were put on high fat diet and gross-compositional changes in adipose, liver and muscle tissues were measured by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 12 for the content of fat and collagen, collagen integrity, and the lipid to protein ratio in adipose tissue and on chromosome 17 for lipid to protein ratio in liver. Using gene expression and sequence information, we suggest Rsad2 (viperin) and Colec11 (collectin-11) on chromosome 12 as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Rsad2 may act as a modulator of lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis; Colec11 might play a role in apoptopic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue. An increased level of Rsad2 transcripts in adipose tissue of DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice suggests a cis-acting genetic variant leading to differential gene activation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy effectively contributed to decompose the macromolecular composition of tissues that accumulate fat and to link this information with genetic determinants. The candidate genes in the QTL regions may contribute to obesity-related diseases in humans, in particular if the results can be verified in a bigger BXD cohort. PMID:23758785

  8. Phytohormone Involvement in the Ustilago maydis– Zea mays Pathosystem: Relationships between Abscisic Acid and Cytokinin Levels and Strain Virulence in Infected Cob Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Erin N.; Emery, R. J. Neil; Saville, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Ustilago maydis is the causative agent of common smut of corn. Early studies noted its ability to synthesize phytohormones and, more recently these growth promoting substances were confirmed as cytokinins (CKs). Cytokinins comprise a group of phytohormones commonly associated with actively dividing tissues. Lab analyses identified variation in virulence between U. maydis dikaryon and solopathogen infections of corn cob tissue. Samples from infected cob tissue were taken at sequential time points post infection and biochemical profiling was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS). This hormone profiling revealed that there were altered levels of ABA and major CKs, with a marked reduction in CK glucosides, increases in methylthiol CKs and a particularly dramatic increase in cisZ CK forms, in U. maydis infected tissue. These changes were more pronounced in the more virulent dikaryon relative to the solopathogenic strain suggesting a role for cytokinins in moderating virulence during biotrophic infection. These findings highlight the fact that U. maydis does not simply mimic a fertilized seed but instead reprograms the host tissue. Results underscore the suitability of the Ustilago maydis– Zea mays model as a basis for investigating the control of phytohormone dynamics during biotrophic infection of plants. PMID:26107181

  9. Phytohormone Involvement in the Ustilago maydis- Zea mays Pathosystem: Relationships between Abscisic Acid and Cytokinin Levels and Strain Virulence in Infected Cob Tissue.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Erin N; Emery, R J Neil; Saville, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Ustilago maydis is the causative agent of common smut of corn. Early studies noted its ability to synthesize phytohormones and, more recently these growth promoting substances were confirmed as cytokinins (CKs). Cytokinins comprise a group of phytohormones commonly associated with actively dividing tissues. Lab analyses identified variation in virulence between U. maydis dikaryon and solopathogen infections of corn cob tissue. Samples from infected cob tissue were taken at sequential time points post infection and biochemical profiling was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS). This hormone profiling revealed that there were altered levels of ABA and major CKs, with a marked reduction in CK glucosides, increases in methylthiol CKs and a particularly dramatic increase in cisZ CK forms, in U. maydis infected tissue. These changes were more pronounced in the more virulent dikaryon relative to the solopathogenic strain suggesting a role for cytokinins in moderating virulence during biotrophic infection. These findings highlight the fact that U. maydis does not simply mimic a fertilized seed but instead reprograms the host tissue. Results underscore the suitability of the Ustilago maydis- Zea mays model as a basis for investigating the control of phytohormone dynamics during biotrophic infection of plants.

  10. Early improvement in cardiac function detected by tissue Doppler and strain imaging after melphalan-dexamethasone therapy in a 51-year old subject with severe cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Ballo, Piercarlo; Motto, Andrea; Corsini, Francesca; Orlandini, Francesco; Mondillo, Sergio

    2008-11-12

    We report the case of a 51-year old man with symptoms of heart failure due to severe cardiac amyloidosis, in whom treatment with melphalan and dexamethasone yielded significant improvement in clinical status and both systolic and diastolic left ventricular (LV) function over a 12-week follow-up. The improvement in LV performance was detected by Tissue Doppler (TD) and strain analysis, despite no changes in standard indices such as ejection fraction and Doppler pattern of mitral inflow. Color TD-derived myocardial velocity and deformation indices also revealed a reduction in intra-ventricular early diastolic asynchrony after therapy. In addition, an improvement in intra-ventricular systolic synchrony was detected by strain rate and strain, but not by color TD velocity imaging. These findings suggest that treatment with melphalan and dexamethasone may improve symptoms of heart failure and LV performance in subjects with cardiac amyloidosis, and that TD and particularly strain imaging could represent useful techniques to monitor the effect of therapy on LV function in the follow-up of these patients.

  11. Genomics sequence analysis of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genomic sequences of low and high passages of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains CEO and TCO were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define genomic changes associated with attenuation and reversion to virulence. Phylogenetic analysis ...

  12. Metagenome-Assembled Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Microbial Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain Isolated from Caenorhabditis remanei Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, Duncan A.; Thanthiriwatte, Chamali; Willis, John H.; Phillips, Patrick C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative aerobic bacterium and emerging nosocomial pathogen. Here, we present a draft genome sequence for an S. maltophilia strain assembled from a metagenomic DNA extract isolated from a laboratory stock of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis remanei. PMID:28209833

  13. Global gene expression profiles of Phytophthora ramorum strain pr102 in response to plant host and tissue differentiation

    Treesearch

    Caroline M. Press; Niklaus J. Grunwald

    2008-01-01

    The release of the draft genome sequence of P. ramorum strain Pr102, enabled the construction of an oligonucleotide microarray of the entire genome of Pr102. The array contains 344,680 features (oligos) that represent the transcriptome of Pr102. P. ramorum RNA was extracted from mycelium and sporangia and used to compare gene...

  14. Whole-genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. strain SST3, an endophyte isolated from Jamaican sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) stalk tissue.

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; McGroty, Sean E; Chew, Teong Han; Chan, Kok Gan; Buckley, Larry J; Savka, Michael A; Hudson, André O

    2012-11-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SST3 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from Saccharum spp. Here we present its annotated draft genome that may shed light on its role as a bacterial endophyte of sugarcane. To our knowledge, this is the first genome announcement of a sugarcane-associated bacterium from the genus Enterobacter.

  15. Brain Tissue Cysts in Infected Mice with RH-Strain of Toxoplasma gondii and Evaluation of BAG1 and SAG1 Genes Expression

    PubMed Central

    Selseleh, Monavar; Modarressi, MH; Shojaee, S; Mohebali, M; Eshraghian, MR; Selseleh, Mina; Keshavarz, H

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects humans at high prevalence rates. The virulent RH strain of T. gondii is generally considered to have lost its cyst forming capacity. This study performed to obtain tissue cysts in mice infected with tachyzoites of RH strain treated with sulfadiazine (SDZ). It provides the opportunity to analyze the conversion of tachyzoite to bradyzoite stage of the RH strain, followed by stage-specific gene-expression analyzing. Methods Two groups of Swiss-Webster and BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously with 104 tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain and given SDZ (300 mg/l) with NaHCO3 (5 g-1) in drinking water from day1 to day 14 post infection (p.i). The infected mice were sacrificed on day 50 post infection. Their brains were removed and the numbers of tissue cysts were microscopically counted. Total RNA was extracted from brains and cDNA synthesis was carried out. Finally, RT-PCR (Reverse transcription PCR) was used to detect the expression of bradyzoite (BAG1) and tachyzoite (SAG1) specific genes during tachyzoite / bradyzoite stage conversion. Results Sixty five percent of all infected mice were survived. Cysts were detectable in mice brain (45%) on day 50 p.i. Also RT-PCR of the brain samples was positive for SAG1 and BAG1. Conclusion It seems that conversion of tachyzoites to bradyzoites in brain of mice undergoing SDZ was not completed until 50 days after inoculation. PMID:23682258

  16. Effects of exercise training on systo-diastolic ventricular dysfunction in patients with hypertension: an echocardiographic study with tissue velocity and strain imaging evaluation.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Massimo; Mazza, Andrea; Cruciani, Giancarlo; Sgorbini, Luca; Pugliese, Marco; Bendini, Maria Grazia; Severi, Paolo; Jesi, Anna Patrizia

    2014-07-01

    There is a lack of detailed data regarding the effect of exercise training in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on left and right ventricular morphologic and functional parameters by means of conventional echocardiography and sensitive new echocardiographic techniques including tissue Doppler velocity and strain imaging, that were performed in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients at baseline and at the end of a specific exercise training protocol for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We selected 116 pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients who completed the exercise training protocol. All patients underwent a clinical history and examination; transthoracic echocardiography and exercise testing were performed at baseline and at the end of the exercise training protocol. Conventional echocardiography revealed a mild degree of diastolic dysfunction without significant differences or variations from baseline to the end of the exercise training protocol. In contrast, tissue Doppler velocity and strain imaging measurements demonstrated and highlighted the positive influence of exercise training: for both left and right ventricle myocardial early peak diastolic velocities (Em), the ratio of myocardial early-late peak diastolic velocity (Em/Am), myocardial peak systolic velocities (Sm) and peak strain and strain rate values significantly increased at the end of the exercise training protocol, suggesting a relationship between exercise capacity and both left and right ventricular systo-diastolic function. Our study, by means of newer more sensitive echocardiographic techniques, clearly demonstrated the positive impact of exercise training on both left and right ventricular systo-diastolic function, in terms of adjunctive subclinical improvement, in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients.

  17. Comparative analysis of the relationship between trichloroethylene metabolism and tissue-specific toxicity among inbred mouse strains: kidney effects.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U; Kosyk, Oksana; Uehara, Takeki; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Collins, Leonard B; Bodnar, Wanda M; Ball, Louise M; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a well-known environmental and occupational toxicant that is classified as carcinogenic to humans based on the epidemiological evidence of an association with higher risk of renal-cell carcinoma. A number of scientific issues critical for assessing human health risks from TCE remain unresolved, such as the amount of kidney-toxic glutathione conjugation metabolites formed, interspecies and interindividual differences, and the mode of action for kidney carcinogenicity. It was postulated that TCE renal metabolite levels are associated with kidney-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in subacute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 d; 7 inbred mouse strains) and subchronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 wk; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. The quantitative relationship was evaluated between strain-, dose, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P-450-mediated oxidation (trichloroacetic acid [TCA], dichloroacetic acid [DCA], and trichloroethanol) and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione], and various kidney toxicity phenotypes. In subacute study, interstrain differences in renal TCE metabolite levels were observed. In addition, data showed that in several strains kidney-specific effects of TCE included induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, increased cell proliferation, and expression of KIM-1, a marker of tubular damage and regeneration. In subchronic study, peroxisome proliferator-marker gene induction and renal toxicity diminished while cell proliferative response was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in NZW/LacJ but not C57BL/6J mice. Overall, data demonstrated that renal TCE metabolite levels are associated with kidney-specific toxicity and that these effects are strain dependent.

  18. Adipose tissue Mest and Sfrp5 are concomitant with variations of adiposity among inbred mouse strains fed a non-obesogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Anunciado-Koza, Rea P; Higgins, David C; Koza, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    The expression of a subset of genes including mesoderm specific transcript (Mest), secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5) and bone morphogenetic protein 3 (Bmp3) in adipose tissue biopsies of C57BL/6J mice before exposure to an obesogenic diet were shown to be predictive for the development of obesity in mice after feeding a high fat diet for 8 weeks. This observation led to the supposition that adipose tissue expression of this subset of genes within inbred strains of mice could be associated with their susceptibility in the development of adiposity when fed a low fat diet. The analyses of male mice from 5 inbred strains showed average bodyweights ranging from 25.82 to 36.58 g at 16 weeks of age. Bodyweight was highest for AKR/J and adiposity correlated highly with bodyweight for all strains. Analyses of epididymal fat gene expression showed Mest, Sfrp5 and Bmp3 to be highly concomitant with adiposity across all strains of mice. Naked 1 (Nkd1), a gene previously shown to be associated with variations of adiposity in mice fed a high fat diet, but not predictive for the development of adiposity, showed no correlation with adiposity. In addition, the expression of Mest and Sfrp5 were tightly associated across the 5 mouse strains with the highest and lowest expression occurring in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J (B6) respectively suggesting a common mechanism for their regulation. Surprisingly, when independent cohorts for these 2 strains were fed high fat diet for 8 weeks, DBA/2J showed no further increase in Sfrp5 expression whereas expression levels for B6 mice were induced almost 20-fold. Analyses of (B6 x DBA2/J) F1 mice fed a low fat diet for 8 weeks showed intermediate levels of adiposity and gene expression for Sfrp5 and Mest suggesting a strong genetic basis for these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of head dynamic response and brain tissue stress and strain using accident reconstructions for concussion, concussion with persistent postconcussive symptoms, and subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Oeur, R Anna; Karton, Clara; Post, Andrew; Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Marshall, Shawn; Brien, Susan E; Smith, Aynsley; Cusimano, Michael D; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    Concussions typically resolve within several days, but in a few cases the symptoms last for a month or longer and are termed persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS). These persisting symptoms may also be associated with more serious brain trauma similar to subdural hematoma (SDH). The objective of this study was to investigate the head dynamic and brain tissue responses of injury reconstructions resulting in concussion, PPCS, and SDH. Reconstruction cases were obtained from sports medicine clinics and hospitals. All subjects received a direct blow to the head resulting in symptoms. Those symptoms that resolved in 9 days or fewer were defined as concussions (n = 3). Those with symptoms lasting longer than 18 months were defined as PPCS (n = 3), and 3 patients presented with SDHs (n = 3). A Hybrid III headform was used in reconstruction to obtain linear and rotational accelerations of the head. These dynamic response data were then input into the University College Dublin Brain Trauma Model to calculate maximum principal strain and von Mises stress. A Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Tukey post hoc tests were used to compare head dynamic and brain tissue responses between injury groups. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. A significant difference was identified for peak resultant linear and rotational acceleration between injury groups. Post hoc analyses revealed the SDH group had higher linear and rotational acceleration responses (316 g and 23,181 rad/sec(2), respectively) than the concussion group (149 g and 8111 rad/sec(2), respectively; p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between groups for either brain tissue measures of maximum principal strain or von Mises stress. The reconstruction of accidents resulting in a concussion with transient symptoms (low severity) and SDHs revealed a positive relationship between an increase in head dynamic response and the risk for more serious brain injury. This type of relationship was not found for

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Trichloroethylene Metabolism and Tissue-Specific Toxicity among Inbred Mouse Strains: Liver Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U.; Kosyk, Oksana; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Uehara, Takeki; Collins, Leonard B.; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Ball, Louise M.; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent. Although TCE is classified as carcinogenic to humans, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of inter-individual variability in TCE metabolism and toxicity, especially in the liver. We tested a hypothesis that amounts of oxidative metabolites of TCE in mouse liver are associated with liver-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in sub-acute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 days; 7 inbred mouse strains) and sub-chronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 weeks; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation [trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and trichloroethanol] and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione] in serum and liver, and various liver toxicity phenotypes. In sub-acute study, inter-strain variability in TCE metabolite amounts was observed in serum and liver. No induction of Cyp2e1 protein levels in liver was detected. Serum and liver levels of TCA and DCA were correlated with increased transcription of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, but not with degree of induction in hepatocellular proliferation. In sub-chronic study, serum and liver levels of oxidative metabolites gradually decreased over time despite continuous dosing. Liver protein levels of Cyp2e1, Adh and Aldh2 were unaffected by treatment with TCE. While the magnitude of induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes also declined, hepatocellular proliferation increased. This study offers a unique opportunity to provide a scientific data-driven rationale for some of the major assumptions in human health assessment of TCE. PMID:25424544

  1. Sprains and Strains

    MedlinePlus

    ... happens. A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Tendons are tissues that connect muscle to bone. Twisting or pulling these tissues can ... suddenly or develop over time. Back and hamstring muscle strains are common. Many people get strains playing ...

  2. Investigating a continuous shear strain function for depth-dependent properties of native and tissue engineering cartilage using pixel-size data.

    PubMed

    Motavalli, Mostafa; Whitney, G Adam; Dennis, James E; Mansour, Joseph M

    2013-12-01

    A previously developed novel imaging technique for determining the depth dependent properties of cartilage in simple shear is implemented. Shear displacement is determined from images of deformed lines photobleached on a sample, and shear strain is obtained from the derivative of the displacement. We investigated the feasibility of an alternative systematic approach to numerical differentiation for computing the shear strain that is based on fitting a continuous function to the shear displacement. Three models for a continuous shear displacement function are evaluated: polynomials, cubic splines, and non-parametric locally weighted scatter plot curves. Four independent approaches are then applied to identify the best-fit model and the accuracy of the first derivative. One approach is based on the Akaiki Information Criteria, and the Bayesian Information Criteria. The second is based on a method developed to smooth and differentiate digitized data from human motion. The third method is based on photobleaching a predefined circular area with a specific radius. Finally, we integrate the shear strain and compare it with the total shear deflection of the sample measured experimentally. Results show that 6th and 7th order polynomials are the best models for the shear displacement and its first derivative. In addition, failure of tissue-engineered cartilage, consistent with previous results, demonstrates the qualitative value of this imaging approach.

  3. Comparative analysis of the relationship between trichloroethylene metabolism and tissue-specific toxicity among inbred mouse strains: liver effects.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U; Kosyk, Oksana; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Uehara, Takeki; Collins, Leonard B; Bodnar, Wanda M; Ball, Louise M; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent. Although TCE is classified as carcinogenic to humans, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of interindividual variability in TCE metabolism and toxicity, especially in the liver. A hypothesis was tested that amounts of oxidative metabolites of TCE in mouse liver are associated with hepatic-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in subacute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 d; 7 inbred mouse strains) and subchronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 wk; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. The quantitative relationship was evaluated between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P-450-mediated oxidation (trichloroacetic acid [TCA], dichloroacetic acid [DCA], and trichloroethanol) and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione] in serum and liver, and various hepatic toxicity phenotypes. In subacute study, interstrain variability in TCE metabolite amounts was observed in serum and liver. No marked induction of Cyp2e1 protein levels in liver was detected. Serum and hepatic levels of TCA and DCA were correlated with increased transcription of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1 but not with degree of induction in hepatocellular proliferation. In subchronic study, serum and liver levels of oxidative metabolites gradually decreased over time despite continuous dosing. Hepatic protein levels of CYP2E1, ADH, and ALDH2 were unaffected by treatment with TCE. While the magnitude of induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes also declined, hepatocellular proliferation increased. This study offers a unique opportunity to provide a scientific data-driven rationale for some of the major assumptions in human health assessment of TCE.

  4. Immunobiotic Lactobacillus strains augment NLRP3 expression in newborn and adult porcine gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Tohno, Masanori; Shimosato, Takeshi; Aso, Hisashi; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2011-12-15

    We isolated cDNA encoding porcine nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor family, pryin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) from Peyer's patches. The complete nucleotide open reading frame of porcine NLRP3 contains 3108-bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 1036-amino acid residues. The porcine NLRP3 amino acid sequence is more similar to the longest isoform of human than the mouse counterpart. The predicted amino acid sequence of porcine NLRP3 presented nine C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domains. In newborn swine, the expression of NLRP3 was detected at higher levels in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, while lower levels were observed in intestinal tissues. In adult swine, NLRP3 was strongly expressed in Peyer's patches and the mesenteric lymph nodes, and the expression level in the lower intestinal tissues was comparable to that in spleen. Toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding domain ligands, as well as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus gasseri, enhanced NLRP3 expression in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) of newborn and adult swine. Our results should aid in understanding the intestinal immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying NLRP3 activation and the priming ability of immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria in porcine GALT.

  5. Rabies virus distribution in tissues and molecular characterization of strains from naturally infected non-hematophagous bats.

    PubMed

    Allendorf, Susan Dora; Cortez, Adriana; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Harary, Camila M Appolinário; Antunes, João Marcelo A P; Peres, Marina Gea; Vicente, Acácia Ferreira; Sodré, Miriam Martos; da Rosa, Adriana Ruckert; Megid, Jane

    2012-05-01

    Bats are main reservoirs for Lyssavirus worldwide, which is an important public health issue because it constitutes one of the big challenges in rabies control. Yet, little is known about how the virus is maintained among bats, and the epidemiological relationships remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of the rabies virus (RABV) in bat tissues and organs and to genetically characterize virus isolates from naturally infected non-hematophagous bats. The heminested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (hnRT-PCR) and sequencing using primers to the nucleoprotein coding gene were performed. The results showed a dissemination of the RABV in different tissues and organs, particularly in the salivary glands, tongue, lungs, kidneys, bladder, intestine and feces, suggesting other possible forms of RABV elimination and the possibility of transmission among these animals. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed that different variants of RABV are maintained by non-hematophagous bats in nature and have similar tissue distribution irrespective of bat species and phylogenetic characterization.

  6. Release of Tensile Strain on Engineered Human Tendon Tissue Disturbs Cell Adhesions, Changes Matrix Architecture, and Induces an Inflammatory Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Monika L.; Schjerling, Peter; Herchenhan, Andreas; Zeltz, Cedric; Heinemeier, Katja M.; Christensen, Lise; Krogsgaard, Michael; Gullberg, Donald; Kjaer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical loading of tendon cells results in an upregulation of mechanotransduction signaling pathways, cell-matrix adhesion and collagen synthesis, but whether unloading removes these responses is unclear. We investigated the response to tension release, with regard to matrix proteins, pro-inflammatory mediators and tendon phenotypic specific molecules, in an in vitro model where tendon-like tissue was engineered from human tendon cells. Tissue sampling was performed 1, 2, 4 and 6 days after surgical de-tensioning of the tendon construct. When tensile stimulus was removed, integrin type collagen receptors showed a contrasting response with a clear drop in integrin subunit α11 mRNA and protein expression, and an increase in α2 integrin mRNA and protein levels. Further, specific markers for tendon cell differentiation declined and normal tendon architecture was disturbed, whereas pro-inflammatory molecules were upregulated. Stimulation with the cytokine TGF-β1 had distinct effects on some tendon-related genes in both tensioned and de-tensioned tissue. These findings indicate an important role of mechanical loading for cellular and matrix responses in tendon, including that loss of tension leads to a decrease in phenotypical markers for tendon, while expression of pro-inflammatory mediators is induced. PMID:24465881

  7. Endogenous IL-33 is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, lymphoid organs, brain, embryos, and inflamed tissues: in situ analysis using a novel Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain.

    PubMed

    Pichery, Mélanie; Mirey, Emilie; Mercier, Pascale; Lefrancais, Emma; Dujardin, Arnaud; Ortega, Nathalie; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    IL-33 (previously known as NF from high endothelial venules) is an IL-1 family cytokine that signals through the ST2 receptor and drives cytokine production in mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, invariant NKT and NK cells, Th2 lymphocytes, and type 2 innate immune cells (natural helper cells, nuocytes, and innate helper 2 cells). Little is known about endogenous IL-33; for instance, the cellular sources of IL-33 in mouse tissues have not yet been defined. In this study, we generated an Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain (Il-33(Gt/Gt)) and used this novel tool to analyze expression of endogenous IL-33 in vivo. We found that the Il-33 promoter exhibits constitutive activity in mouse lymphoid organs, epithelial barrier tissues, brain, and embryos. Immunostaining with anti-IL-33 Abs, using Il-33(Gt/Gt) (Il-33-deficient) mice as control, revealed that endogenous IL-33 protein is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, including stratified squamous epithelia from vagina and skin, as well as cuboidal epithelium from lung, stomach, and salivary gland. Constitutive expression of IL-33 was not detected in blood vessels, revealing the existence of species-specific differences between humans and mice. Importantly, IL-33 protein was always localized in the nucleus of producing cells with no evidence for cytoplasmic localization. Finally, strong expression of the Il-33-LacZ reporter was also observed in inflamed tissues, in the liver during LPS-induced endotoxin shock, and in the lung alveoli during papain-induced allergic airway inflammation. Together, our findings support the possibility that IL-33 may function as a nuclear alarmin to alert the innate immune system after injury or infection in epithelial barrier tissues.

  8. Studies on the Infection, Colonization, and Movement of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Kiwifruit Tissues Using a GFPuv-Labeled Strain

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoning; Huang, Qiling; Zhao, Zhibo; Han, Qingmei; Ke, Xiwang; Qin, Huqiang; Huang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit bacterial canker, an economically important disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), has caused severe losses in all major areas of kiwifruit cultivation. Using a GFPuv-labeled strain of Psa, we monitored the invasion, colonization, and movement of the pathogen in kiwifruit twigs, leaves and veins. The pathogen can invade twigs through both wounds and natural openings; the highest number of Psa is obtained in cut tissues. We determined that, following spray inoculation, Psa-GFPuv could infect leaves and cause lesions in the presence and absence of wounds. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that bacterial cells colonize both phloem and xylem vessels. Bacterial infection resulted in marked alterations of host tissues including the disintegration of organelles and degeneration of protoplasts and cell walls. Furthermore, low temperature was conducive to colonization and movement of Psa-GFPuv in kiwifruit tissues. Indeed, the pathogen migrated faster at 4°C than at 16°C or 25°C in twigs. However, the optimum temperature for colonization and movement of Psa in leaf veins was 16°C. Our results, revealing a better understanding of the Psa infection process, might contribute to develop more efficacious disease management strategies. PMID:26999596

  9. Studies on the Infection, Colonization, and Movement of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Kiwifruit Tissues Using a GFPuv-Labeled Strain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoning; Huang, Qiling; Zhao, Zhibo; Han, Qingmei; Ke, Xiwang; Qin, Huqiang; Huang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit bacterial canker, an economically important disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), has caused severe losses in all major areas of kiwifruit cultivation. Using a GFPuv-labeled strain of Psa, we monitored the invasion, colonization, and movement of the pathogen in kiwifruit twigs, leaves and veins. The pathogen can invade twigs through both wounds and natural openings; the highest number of Psa is obtained in cut tissues. We determined that, following spray inoculation, Psa-GFPuv could infect leaves and cause lesions in the presence and absence of wounds. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that bacterial cells colonize both phloem and xylem vessels. Bacterial infection resulted in marked alterations of host tissues including the disintegration of organelles and degeneration of protoplasts and cell walls. Furthermore, low temperature was conducive to colonization and movement of Psa-GFPuv in kiwifruit tissues. Indeed, the pathogen migrated faster at 4°C than at 16°C or 25°C in twigs. However, the optimum temperature for colonization and movement of Psa in leaf veins was 16°C. Our results, revealing a better understanding of the Psa infection process, might contribute to develop more efficacious disease management strategies.

  10. Shear strain and motion of the subsynovial connective tissue and median nerve during single-digit motion.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Henderson, Jacqueline; Zhao, Kristin D; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the relative motion of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon, its adjacent subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT), and the median nerve during single-digit motion within the carpal tunnel in human cadaver specimens and to estimate the relative motions of these structures in different wrist positions. Using fluoroscopy during simulated single-digit flexion, we measured the relative motion of the middle finger FDS tendon, SSCT, and median nerve within the carpal tunnel in 12 human cadavers. Measurements were obtained for 3 wrist positions: neutral, 60 degrees flexion, and 60 degrees extension. After testing with an intact carpal tunnel was completed, the flexor retinaculum was cut with a scalpel, and the same testing procedure was repeated for each wrist position. The relative motions of the tendon, SSCT, and median nerve were compared using a shear index, defined as the ratio of the difference in motion along the direction of tendon excursion between 2 tissues divided by tendon excursion, expressed as a percentage. Both tendon-SSCT and tendon-nerve shear index were significantly higher in the 60 degrees of wrist flexion and extension positions than in the neutral position. After division of the flexor retinaculum, the shear index in the 60 degrees wrist extension position remained significantly different from that of the neutral position. We have found that the relative motion between a tendon and SSCT in the carpal tunnel is maximal at extremes of wrist motion. These positions may predispose the SSCT to shear injury.

  11. Mimicking mechanical response of natural tissues. Strain hardening induced by transient reticulation in lactose-modified chitosan (chitlac).

    PubMed

    Cok, Michela; Sacco, Pasquale; Porrelli, Davide; Travan, Andrea; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Marsich, Eleonora; Paoletti, Sergio; Donati, Ivan

    2017-08-13

    The effect of transient cross-links has been explored on a lactose-modified chitosan, which previously had shown interesting biological features. The presence of galactose side chains and of the polyol spacer resulted particularly appealing for the reticulation by borate ions. The interaction between chitlac and borax was investigated by means of (11)B NMR while rheology pointed to a marked non-linear behavior depending on the amount of borax added to the system. The presence of limited amount of cross-linking ion led to dilatant behavior when the steady flow curve was measured. In addition, strain stiffening was noticed on elastic response upon exceeding a critical stress, indicating a transient nature in the formation of the cross-links. The non-linear response of chitlac in the presence of borax compared surprisingly well with the one showed by proteins composing the natural ECM pointing at a possible role of mechanotransduction in the biological significance of the modified chitosan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Bilgilier, Ceren; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Raderer, Markus; Dolak, Werner; Makristathis, Athanasios; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Gastric MALT lymphoma is closely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Bacterial eradication therapy comprising clarithromycin is the first-line treatment in gastric MALT lymphoma patients. However, antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin has been increasing in Europe, and thus far, it has not been examined in gastric MALT lymphoma patients. Based upon histopathological investigation, 17 adult gastric MALT lymphoma patients were identified to be related with H. pylori infection between 1997 and 2014. Detection of H. pylori infection in these patients and clarithromycin susceptibility testing were performed by 23S rRNA gene real-time PCR. Twelve of the patients were confirmed with H. pylori infection by real-time PCR. Among these patients, only two were found to be infected with clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strain. In one of them, both the clarithromycin-resistant and sensitive genotype were detected. The rate of clarithromycin resistance was 15.4 %. Clarithromycin resistance pattern in gastric MALT lymphoma patients is under the predictions since a previous study performed in Central Europe revealed a rate of 36.6 % in Austria. Considering the low antimicrobial resistance rate, clarithromycin is still an option in gastric MALT lymphoma management.

  13. Dietary lipid levels impact lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and fatty acid synthetase gene expression in three tissues of adult GIFT strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Juan; Wu, Fan; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Wei; Wen, Hua

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary lipids on growth performance, body composition, serum parameters, and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT strain) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. We randomly assigned adult male Nile tilapia (average initial body weight = 220.00 ± 9.54 g) into six groups consisting of four replicates (20 fish per replicate). Fish in each group were hand-fed a semi-purified diets containing different lipid levels [3.3 (the control group), 28.4, 51.4, 75.4, 101.9, and 124.1 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. The results indicated that there was no obvious effect in feeding rate among all groups (P > 0.05). The highest weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio in 75.4 g kg(-1) diet group were increased by 23.31, 16.17, and 22.02 % than that of fish in the control group (P < 0.05). Protein retention ratio was highest in 51.4 g kg(-1) diet group. The results revealed that the optimum dietary lipid level for maximum growth performance is 76.6-87.9 g kg(-1). Increasing dietary lipid levels contributed to increased tissue and whole body lipid levels. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased, and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with increasing dietary lipid levels. With the exception of MUFAs, the fatty acid profiles of liver and muscle were similar. Dietary lipid levels were negatively correlated with low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol content and positively with triacylglycerol and glucose contents. In the lipid-fed groups, there was a significant down-regulation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA in liver, muscle, and visceral adipose tissues. There was a rapid up-regulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA in muscle and liver with increasing dietary lipid levels. In visceral adipose tissue, LPL mRNA was significantly down-regulated in the lipid-fed groups. Dietary lipids increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) m

  14. Genotyping of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI)-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains among outpatients in a teaching hospital in Japan: application of a phage-open reading frame typing (POT) kit.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tadashi; Saga, Tomoo; Miyazaki, Taito; Kouyama, Yuichi; Harada, Sohei; Iwata, Morihiro; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Kimura, Soichiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Urita, Yoshihisa; Sugimoto, Motonobu; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to elucidate the current epidemiological features of outpatient skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI)-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Japan. Altogether, we evaluated the performance of a phage-open reading frame typing (POT) kit for genotyping these MRSA strains. We collected 57 MRSA strains from all outpatients with SSTIs attending a teaching hospital in Japan. Drug susceptibility measurement and genotyping including SCCmec typing, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and commercial POT-kit were performed. The majority of strains (39 strains, 68 %) had the SCCmec-II element. Seventeen strains (30 %) with SCCmec-IV accounted for the second largest population. Strains with SCCmec-IV and SCCmec-V appeared multiclonal, and a predominance of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene-negative CC8/spa-CC008 strains, as well as the first isolate of an ST93 strain in Japan, was observed among them. Only one USA300 strain was identified. Strains with SCCmec-IV and SCCmec-V were significantly susceptible to antimicrobials. The PVL gene was found in 5 SCCmec-IV strains and 1 SCCmec-V strain. The POT-kit successfully predicted the SCCmec type in 54 strains (95 %), and typing by POT1 scores was highly concordant with SCCmec typing and spa typing. Moreover, three PVL-positive strains fell into a particular POT type (POT scores, 106-77-113). Simpson's index of the POT-kit was 0.977. In conclusion, the present study clarified the multiclonal nature of outpatient SSTI-associated MRSA in a teaching hospital in Japan. These data also underscore the utility of the POT-kit for non-outbreak surveillance through its simple platform consisting of two multiplex PCRs without sequencing.

  15. Variation in radular teeth and acuspid side of the radula in Lacuna pallidula, L. parva and L. vincta (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) from the Isle of Wight, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Aslak

    2001-07-01

    The variation in the radula of three species of Lacuna has been investigated and the back of the rachidian tooth is proposed as providing a new character set of potentially high taxonomic value. The term basal plate is introduced for the back of the rachidian tooth. Cusp and tooth morphology are closely related to diet and wear, and are subject to considerable homoplasy, whereas the structure of the basal plate of the rachidian tooth provides a more neutral character set. The difference in this character set between the lacunids has been quantified using seven measurements and the exploratory multivariate statistical procedure principal component analysis. The basal plate of the rachidian tooth showed interspecific differences. The taxonomic value of this new character set should be evaluated in further studies of other prosobranchs.

  16. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification Cross-Species Products of Mouse-Adapted Scrapie Strain 139A and Hamster-Adapted Scrapie Strain 263K with Brain and Muscle Tissues of Opposite Animals Generate Infectious Prions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chen; Han, Jun; Zhang, Jin; Wei, Jing; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Tian, Chan; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Qi; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Transmission of prions between mammalian species is limited by a "species barrier," a biological effect involving an increase in incubation period to decrease the percentage of animals succumbing to disease. In this study, we used protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique, which accelerates the conversion of prion proteins in vitro. Direct interspecies PMCA involving 144 cycles confirmed that both mouse-adapted scrapie strain 139A and hamster-adapted 263K could use brain homogenates of opposite species to form proteinase K (PK)-resistant PrP proteins (PrP(res)). Newly formed interspecies prions could stably propagate themselves in subsequent serial PMCA passages. The two types of PMCA-generated cross-species PrP(res) changed their glycosylation profiles, which was similar to that observed during interspecies infection by the mouse agent 139A in vivo. These profiles were distinct from individual seeded PrP(Sc) and possessed properties of new hosts. Comparative analysis with respect to PK resistance showed no significant diversity between PMCA-PrP(res) and native PrP(Sc) or between brain and muscle PrP(res). However, PrP(res) from the relatively early cycles of serial PMCA showed lower PK resistance than those from later cycles. Inoculation of these PMCA products amplified with homogeneous or heterogeneous brain tissues (cross-species products) induced experimental transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. These results suggested that PMCA can help prion strains to overcome species barrier and to propagate efficiently both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. The tissue velocity imaging and strain rate imaging in the assessment of interatrial electromechanical conduction in patients with sick sinus syndrome before and after pacemaker implantation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaozhi; Ji, Ping; Mao, Hongwei; Hu, Jianqun

    2011-05-01

    Tissue velocity imaging (TVI) and strain rate imaging (SRI) were recently introduced to quantify myocardial mechanical activity in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy. To clear whether atrial-demand-based (AAI) (R) atrial pacing can fully simulate the electromechanical conduction of physiological state and to clarify which one is more appropriate for the assessment of electromechanical activity of the heart between TVI and SRI, 30 normal subjects and 31 patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) before and after AAI(R) pacemaker implantation (PI) were investigated in this study. The results showed that the time intervals (ms), P-SRa assessed by SRI (not P-Va assessed by TVI) prolonged step by step from the lateral wall of the right atrium (RA), the interatrial septum (IAS) and the left atrium (LA) in normal subjects(5.01±0.62, 17.05±3.54 and 45.09±12.26, p<0.01). P-Va and P-SRa did not differ at the RA, IAS and LA in patients with SSS before PI (p>0.05), and they were significant longer than those of normal subjects (p<0.01). However, they shortened to normal levels in patients with SSS after PI and P-SRa showed again the trend of gradually prolonging from the RA, IAS to LA. At the same time, the peak velocities and the peak strain rates during atrial contraction also returned to normal values from lower levels. These data suggested that AAI(R) atrial pacing can successfully reverse the abnormal interatrial electromechanical conduction in patients with SSS, and SRI is more appropriate for the assessment of the electromechanical activity of atrial wall than TVI.

  18. Characterization of clinical strains of MSSA, MRSA and MRSE isolated from skin and soft tissue infections and the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Khan, Haris M; Khan, Aijaz A; Sultan, Asfia; Azam, Ameer

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is an important cause of pyogenic skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). MRSA is an important pathogen in the healthcare sector that has neither been eliminated from the hospital nor community environment. In humans, S. aureus causes superficial lesions in the skin and localized abscesses, pyogenic meningitis/encephalitis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, invasive endocarditis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections and septicemia. Investigations focused in the search of other alternatives for the treatment of MRSA infections are in progress. Among the range of compounds whose bactericidal activity is being investigated, ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) appears most promising new unconventional antibacterial agent that could be helpful to confront this and other drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of present study is to investigate the antibacterial potential of ZnO-NPs against Staphylococcus species isolated from the pus and wounds swab from the patients with skin and soft tissue infections in a tertiary care hospital of north India. ZnO-NPs (≈19.82 nm) synthesized by sol-gel process were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction , and Atomic force microscopy. The antibacterial potential was assessed using time-dependent growth inhibition assay, well diffusion test, MIC and MBC test and colony forming units methods. ZnO-NPs inhibited bacterial growth of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), MRSA and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) strains and were effective bactericidal agents that were not affected by drug-resistant mechanisms of MRSA and MRSE.

  19. Effects of mechanical strain on human mesenchymal stem cells and ligament fibroblasts in a textured poly(L-lactide) scaffold for ligament tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kreja, Ludwika; Liedert, Astrid; Schlenker, Heiter; Brenner, Rolf E; Fiedler, Jörg; Friemert, Benedikt; Dürselen, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove the effect of cyclic uniaxial intermittent strain on the mRNA expression of ligament-specific marker genes in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and anterior cruciate ligament-derived fibroblasts (ACL-fibroblasts) seeded onto a novel textured poly(L-lactide) scaffold (PLA scaffold). Cell-seeded scaffolds were mechanically stimulated by cyclic uniaxial stretching. The expression of ligament matrix gene markers: collagen types I and III, fibronectin, tenascin C and decorin, as well as the proteolytic enzymes matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1 and MMP-2 and their tissue specific inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was investigated by analysing the mRNA expression using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and related to the static control. In ACL-fibroblasts seeded on PLA, mechanical load induced up-regulation of collagen types I and III, fibronectin and tenascin C. No effect of mechanical stimulation on the expression of ligament marker genes was found in undifferentiated MSC seeded on PLA. The results indicated that the new textured PLA scaffold could transfer the mechanical load to the ACL-fibroblasts and improved their ligament phenotype. This scaffold might be suitable as a cell-carrying component of ACL prostheses.

  20. Molecular characteristics of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from outpatients with skin and soft tissue infections in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Liang, Jiansheng; Jiang, Yuanshan; Wang, Bin; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Lihua; Zhou, Yanfei; Xu, Huiqiong; Zhou, Wang

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characteristics and virulence genes of community-acquired methicillin-resistant ITALIC! Staphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA) isolates with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Outpatients with SSTIs visiting five medical and health institutions were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Available ITALIC! S. aureus isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and detection of PVL genes. For CA-MRSA isolates, we performed typing of staphylococcal cassette chromosome ITALIC! mec(SCC ITALIC! mec), multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and carriage of 27 virulence genes. A total of 203 ITALIC! S. aureusstrains were isolated from 1400 outpatients with SSTIs, and 21 (10.3%) were CA-MRSA isolates. The positive rate of PVL genes among ITALIC! S. aureus, CA-MRSA and methicillin-susceptible ITALIC! S. aureus(MSSA) isolates were 39.4%, 71.4% and 35.7%, respectively. CA-MRSA strains had greater sensitivity to non-β-lactam antimicrobial agents. All CA-MRSA isolates belonged to SCC ITALIC! mecIV and V, accounting for 47.6% and 52.4%, respectively. ST59 was the most common lineage accounting for 76.2%; ST59-SCC ITALIC! mecIVa-PVL-positive clone was found to be the predominant clone, accounting for 38.1%. All CA-MRSA isolates were found to be positive for one or more virulence genes, 28.6% of isolates carried PVL, ITALIC! seb, ITALIC! sek, ITALIC! seq, ITALIC! hla, ITALIC! hlb, ITALIC! hldand ITALIC! hlg-2. CA-MRSA infections were relatively uncommon in outpatients with SSTIs, but they carried many virulence genes, ST59-SCC ITALIC! mecIV a-PVL-positive clone was the predominant clone in Wuhan, China.

  1. Speckle tracking determination of mitral tissue annular displacement: comparison with strain and ejection fraction, and association with outcomes in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Diana Y Y; Abidin, Nik; Hughes, John; Sinha, Smeeta; Kalra, Philip A; Green, Darren

    2016-10-01

    Abnormal Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are established poor prognostic risk factors in haemodialysis patients. Tissue motion annular displacement of mitral valve annulus (TMAD), determined by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), can be performed rapidly and is an indicator of systolic dysfunction, but has been less well explored. This study aims to compare TMAD with GLS and LVEF and its association with outcomes in haemodialysis patients. 198 haemodialysis patients (median age 64.2 years, 69 % men) had 2D echocardiography, with STE determined GLS and TMAD. Bland-Altman analysis and linear regression assessed relationship between GLS, LVEF and TMAD. Cox regression analysis investigated association of TMAD with mortality and cardiac events. TMAD had low inter- and intra-observer variability with small biases and narrow limits of agreement (LOA) (bias of -0.01 ± 1.32 (95 % LOA was -2.60 to 2.58) and -0.07 ± 1.27 (95 % LOA -2.55 to 2.41) respectively). There was a moderate negative correlation between GLS and LVEF (r = -0.383, p < 0.001) and a weak positive correlation between TMAD and LVEF (r = 0.248, p < 0.001). There was strong negative correlation of TMAD with GLS (r = -0.614, p < 0.001). In a multivariable Cox regression analysis, TMAD was not associated with mortality (HR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.91-1.19), cardiac death (HR 1.03, 95 % CI 0.80-1.32) or cardiac events (HR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.80-1.02). TMAD is a quick and reproducible alternative to GLS which may be very useful in cardiovascular risk assessment, but does not have the same prognostic value in HD patients as GLS.

  2. Genome Sequence of African Swine Fever Virus BA71, the Virulent Parental Strain of the Nonpathogenic and Tissue-Culture Adapted BA71V

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Javier M.; Moreno, Leticia Tais; Alejo, Alí; Lacasta, Anna; Rodríguez, Fernando; Salas, María L.

    2015-01-01

    The strain BA71V has played a key role in African swine fever virus (ASFV) research. It was the first genome sequenced, and remains the only genome completely determined. A large part of the studies on the function of ASFV genes, viral transcription, replication, DNA repair and morphogenesis, has been performed using this model. This avirulent strain was obtained by adaptation to grow in Vero cells of the highly virulent BA71 strain. We report here the analysis of the genome sequence of BA71 in comparison with that of BA71V. They possess the smallest genomes for a virulent or an attenuated ASFV, and are essentially identical except for a relatively small number of changes. We discuss the possible contribution of these changes to virulence. Analysis of the BA71 sequence allowed us to identify new similarities among ASFV proteins, and with database proteins including two ASFV proteins that could function as a two-component signaling network. PMID:26618713

  3. Natural hybrid of Leishmania infantum/L. donovani: development in Phlebotomus tobbi, P. perniciosus and Lutzomyia longipalpis and comparison with non-hybrid strains differing in tissue tropism.

    PubMed

    Seblova, Veronika; Myskova, Jitka; Hlavacova, Jana; Votypka, Jan; Antoniou, Maria; Volf, Petr

    2015-11-25

    Infection caused by parasites from L. donovani complex can manifest as a serious visceral disease or a self-healing milder cutaneous form. The different tropism and pathology in humans is caused by the interaction between parasites, host and vector determinants but the mechanisms are not well understood. In Cukurova region in Turkey we previously identified a major focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani/infantum hybrids (CUK strain) and isolated this parasite from the locally abundant sand fly, Phlebotomus tobbi. Here, we present the first experimental study with P. tobbi. We tested the susceptibility of this species to various Leishmania under laboratory conditions, characterized glycoproteins in the P. tobbi midgut putatively involved in parasite-vector interaction and compared the development of the CUK strain in the sand fly with one other dermotropic and three viscerotropic strains belonging to the L. donovani complex. Females of laboratory reared P. tobbi, P. perniciosus and Lutzomyia longipalpis were infected using membrane feeding on rabbit blood containing promastigotes of various Leishmania species with different tropisms. The individual guts were checked microscopically for presence and localization of Leishmania parasites; the number of parasites was assessed more precisely by qPCR. In addition, glycosylation of midgut proteins of P. tobbi was studied by lectin blotting of midgut lysate with lectins specific for terminal sugars of N-type and O-type glycans. High infection rates, heavy parasite loads and late-stage infection with colonization of the stomodeal valve were observed in P. tobbi infected by Leishmania major or L. infantum CUK hybrid. In parallel, lectin blotting revealed the presence of O-glycosylated proteins in the P. tobbi midgut. In P. perniciosus and L. longipalpis all five Leishmania strains tested developed well. In both vectors, significantly higher parasite numbers were detected by qPCR for dermotropic L. donovani

  4. Tissue Microarray Analysis Applied to Bone Diagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Rafael Barrios; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Alves, Maria Teresa Seixas; Evison, Martin Paul; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio; Francisco, Rafaella Arrabaca; Astolphi, Rafael Dias; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato

    2017-01-01

    Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens. Standard hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and silver methenamine, and picrosirius red staining, and CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry were applied to TMA sections. Osteocyte and osteocyte lacuna counts, percent bone matrix loss, and fungal spheroid element counts could be measured and collagen fibre bundles observed in all specimens. Decalcification with 7% nitric acid proceeded more rapidly than with 0.5 M EDTA and may offer better preservation of histological and cellular structure. No endothelial cells could be detected using CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry. Correlation between osteocytes per lacuna and age at death may reflect reported age-related responses to microdamage. Methodological limitations and caveats, and results of the TMA analysis of post mortem diagenesis in bone are discussed, and implications for DNA survival and recovery considered. PMID:28051148

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain GM3FR, an Endophyte Isolated from Aerial Plant Tissues of Festuca rubra L.

    PubMed Central

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko; Vidal, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus GM3FR, an endophytic bacterium isolated from aerial plant tissues of Festuca rubra L. The draft genome consists of 3.5 Mb and harbors 3,551 predicted protein-encoding genes. The genome provides insights into the biocontrol potential of B. pumilus GM3FR. PMID:28360161

  6. Complete Coding Sequence of Usutu Virus Strain Gracula religiosa/U1609393/Belgium/2016 Obtained from the Brain Tissue of an Infected Captive Common Hill Myna (Gracula religiosa)

    PubMed Central

    Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Vandenbussche, Frank; Steensels, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The complete and annotated coding sequence and partial noncoding sequence of an Usutu virus genome were sequenced from RNA extracted from a clinical brain tissue sample obtained from a common hill myna (Gracula religiosa), demonstrating close homology with Usutu viruses circulating in Europe. PMID:28336592

  7. Studies on the factors essential to the initiation and maintenance of multiplication of psittacosis virus (6BC strain) in deficient cells in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    HARE, J D; MORGAN, H R

    1954-05-01

    The growth of psittacosis virus (6BC) was studied in cultures of minced whole chick embryo tissue maintained in either Hanks-Simms solution or Hanks's balanced salt solution (BSS), and in neither medium could sustained, long-term virus growth take place. Addition of beef embryo extract (BEE) to cultures at a time when virus multiplication was declining reversed this general trend and resulted in greater virus growth. This virus-stimulating action of BEE was only partially diminished by colchicine, a mitotic inhibitor, indicating that the action of BEE was not due entirely to the development of a larger population of cells as a result of its enhancement of cell proliferation. Chick embryo tissue cultivated for 13 days in BSS prior to infection lost its ability to support the growth of psittacosis virus, but this capacity could be restored by the addition of BEE, alone or with colchicine, at the time of infection. A significant amount of virus was adsorbed to tissue in BSS alone, indicating that the failure of virus to grow in depleted tissue maintained only in BSS after infection was not due entirely to failure of virus to attach to and invade the cells. It was found that an ultrafiltrate and a dialysate of BEE contained the major part of the stimulating capacity of the whole extract, indicating that the active materials were substances of low molecular weights. Autoclaved lactalbumin hydrolysate was an active stimulator, suggesting that the materials responsible for its activity were relatively heat-stable. Since a chemically defined medium (Parker 199) was equally effective in stimulating viral growth, it should be possible eventually to define the chemical nature of the virus stimulators. The implications of the findings are discussed with special reference to their application in the study of tissue tropisms and of latency in viral infections of cells.

  8. Summary of discussions on tissue schizontocidal drugs against malaria*

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The third meeting of the Scientific Working Group on the Chemotherapy of Malaria was devoted to the subject of tissue schizontocidal drugs. The papers presented at the meeting covered topics such as clinical problems associated with the use of 8-aminoquinolines, their pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, toxicity, and safety assessment. This paper summarizes the Group's discussions and conclusions on the principal lacunae in knowledge in this field, and outlines the research programme to be implemented by the Steering Committee and the Secretariat of the Scientific Working Group.

  9. Molecular Types of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Strains Causing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Nasal Colonization, Identified in Community Health Centers in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Mwangi, Michael; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Tsang, Amanda; Khalida, Chamanara; D'Orazio, Brianna; Kost, Rhonda G.; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Coffran, Cameron; Evering, Teresa H.; Coller, Barry S.; Balachandra, Shirish; Urban, Tracie; Parola, Claude; Salvato, Scott; Jenks, Nancy; Wu, Daren; Burgess, Rhonda; Chung, Marilyn; de Lencastre, Herminia

    2015-01-01

    In November 2011, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), the Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and Clinical Directors Network (CDN) launched a research and learning collaborative project with six community health centers in the New York City metropolitan area to determine the nature (clonal type) of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Between November 2011 and March 2013, wound and nasal samples from 129 patients with active SSTIs suspicious for S. aureus were collected and characterized by molecular typing techniques. In 63 of 129 patients, the skin wounds were infected by S. aureus: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 39 wounds and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was recovered from 24. Most—46 of the 63–wound isolates belonged to the CC8/Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL+) group of S. aureus clone USA300: 34 of these strains were MRSA and 12 were MSSA. Of the 63 patients with S. aureus infections, 30 were also colonized by S. aureus in the nares: 16 of the colonizing isolates were MRSA, and 14 were MSSA, and the majority of the colonizing isolates belonged to the USA300 clonal group. In most cases (70%), the colonizing isolate belonged to the same clonal type as the strain involved with the infection. In three of the patients, the identity of invasive and colonizing MRSA isolates was further documented by whole-genome sequencing. PMID:26063853

  10. Molecular Types of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Strains Causing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Nasal Colonization, Identified in Community Health Centers in New York City.

    PubMed

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Mwangi, Michael; Tobin, Jonathan N; Tsang, Amanda; Khalida, Chamanara; D'Orazio, Brianna; Kost, Rhonda G; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Coffran, Cameron; Evering, Teresa H; Coller, Barry S; Balachandra, Shirish; Urban, Tracie; Parola, Claude; Salvato, Scott; Jenks, Nancy; Wu, Daren; Burgess, Rhonda; Chung, Marilyn; de Lencastre, Herminia; Tomasz, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    In November 2011, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), the Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and Clinical Directors Network (CDN) launched a research and learning collaborative project with six community health centers in the New York City metropolitan area to determine the nature (clonal type) of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Between November 2011 and March 2013, wound and nasal samples from 129 patients with active SSTIs suspicious for S. aureus were collected and characterized by molecular typing techniques. In 63 of 129 patients, the skin wounds were infected by S. aureus: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 39 wounds and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was recovered from 24. Most-46 of the 63-wound isolates belonged to the CC8/Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL(+)) group of S. aureus clone USA300: 34 of these strains were MRSA and 12 were MSSA. Of the 63 patients with S. aureus infections, 30 were also colonized by S. aureus in the nares: 16 of the colonizing isolates were MRSA, and 14 were MSSA, and the majority of the colonizing isolates belonged to the USA300 clonal group. In most cases (70%), the colonizing isolate belonged to the same clonal type as the strain involved with the infection. In three of the patients, the identity of invasive and colonizing MRSA isolates was further documented by whole-genome sequencing.

  11. Pathological lesions in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues of ddY mice with street rabies virus (1088 strain).

    PubMed

    Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Yamada, Kentaro; Shiwa, Nozomi; Inoue, Satoshi; Nishizono, Akira; Park, Chun-Ho

    2017-06-10

    Most studies on rabies virus pathogenesis in animal models have employed fixed rabies viruses, and the results of those employing street rabies viruses have been inconsistent. Therefore, to clarify the pathogenesis of street rabies virus (1088 strain) in mice, 10(6) focus forming units were inoculated into the right hindlimb of ddY mice (6 weeks, female). At 3 days postinoculation (DPI), mild inflammation was observed in the hindlimb muscle. At 5 DPI, ganglion cells in the right lumbosacral spinal dorsal root ganglia showed chromatolysis. Axonal degeneration and inflammatory cells increased with infection progress in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia. Right hindlimb paralysis was observed from 7 DPI, which progressed to quadriparalysis. However, no pathological changes were observed in the ventral horn and root fibers of the spinal cord. Viral antigen was first detected in the right hindlimb muscle at 3 DPI, followed by the right lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia, dorsal horn of spinal cord, left red nuclei, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex (M1 area) at 5 DPI. These results suggested that the 1088 virus ascended the lumbosacral spinal cord via mainly afferent fibers at early stage of infection and moved to cerebral cortex (M1 area) using descending spinal tract. Additionally, we concluded that significant pathological changes in mice infected with 1088 strain occur in the sensory tract of the spinal cord; this selective susceptibility results in clinical features of the disease.

  12. Noninvasive monitoring of myocardial function after surgical and cytostatic therapy in a peritoneal metastasis rat model: assessment with tissue Doppler and non-Doppler 2D strain echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Jens; Knebel, Fabian; Eddicks, Stephan; Beling, Mark; Grohmann, Andrea; Panda, Alexander; Jacobi, Christoph A; Müller, Joachim M; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Baumann, Gert; Borges, Adrian C

    2007-01-01

    Objective We sought to evaluate the impact of different antineoplastic treatment methods on systolic and diastolic myocardial function, and the feasibility estimation of regional deformation parameters with non-Doppler 2D echocardiography in rats. Background The optimal method for quantitative assessment of global and regional ventricular function in rats and the impact of complex oncological multimodal therapy on left- and right-ventricular function in rats remains unclear. Methods 90 rats after subperitoneal implantation of syngenetic colonic carcinoma cells underwent different onclogical treatment methods and were diveded into one control group and five treatment groups (with 15 rats in each group): group 1 = control group (without operation and without medication), group 2 = operation group without additional therapy, group 3 = combination of operation and photodynamic therapy, group 4 = operation in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative peritoneal chemotherapy with mitomycine, and group 5 = operation in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative peritoneal chemotherapy with gemcitabine, group 6 = operation in combination with taurolidin i.p. instillation. Echocardiographic examination with estimation of wall thickness, diameters, left ventricular fractional shortening, ejection fraction, early and late diastolic transmitral and myocardial velocities, radial and circumferential strain were performed 3–4 days after therapy. Results There was an increase of LVEDD and LVESD in all groups after the follow-up period (P = 0.0037). Other LV dimensions, FS and EF as well as diastolic mitral filling parameters measured by echocardiography were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Values for right ventricular dimensions and function remained unchanged, whereas circumferential 2D strain of the inferior wall was slightly, but significantly reduced under the treatment (-18.1 ± 2.5 before and -16.2 ± 2.9 % after treatment; P = 0.001) without

  13. Hydrogel based injectable scaffolds for cardiac tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Janani; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering promises to be an effective strategy that can overcome the lacuna existing in the current pharmacological and interventional therapies and heart transplantation. Heart failure continues to be a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality across the globe. This may be attributed to the limited regeneration capacity after the adult cardiomyocytes are terminally differentiated or injured. Various strategies involving acellular scaffolds, stem cells, and combinations of stem cells, scaffolds and growth factors have been investigated for effective cardiac tissue regeneration. Recently, injectable hydrogels have emerged as a potential candidate among various categories of biomaterials for cardiac tissue regeneration due to improved patient compliance and facile administration via minimal invasive mode that treats complex infarction. This review discusses in detail on the advances made in the field of injectable materials for cardiac tissue engineering highlighting their merits over their preformed counterparts.

  14. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  15. Evaluation of four DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus detection by PCR in tissues from experimentally infected cows with the 2308 strain.

    PubMed

    Vejarano, M P; Matrone, M; Keid, L B; Rocha, V C M; Ikuta, C Y; Rodriguez, C A R; Salgado, V R; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Telles, E O; Ferreira Neto, J S

    2013-04-01

    This study compared 4 protocols for DNA extraction from homogenates of 6 different organs of cows infected with the Brucella abortus 2308 strain. The extraction protocols compared were as follows: GT (guanidine isothiocyanate lysis), Boom (GT lysis with the carrying suspension diatomaceous earth), PK (proteinase K lysis), and Santos (lysis by boiling and freezing with liquid nitrogen). Positive and negative gold standard reference groups were generated by classical bacteriological methods. All samples were processed with the 4 DNA extraction protocols and amplified with the B4 and B5 primers. The number of positive samples in the placental cotyledons was higher than that in the other organs. The cumulated results showed that the Santos protocol was more sensitive than the Boom (p=0.003) and GT (p=0.0506) methods and was similar to the PK method (p=0.2969). All of the DNA extraction protocols resulted in false-negative results for PCR. In conclusion, despite the disadvantages of classical bacteriological methods, the best approach for direct diagnosis of B. abortus in organs of infected cows includes the isolation associated with PCR of DNA extracted from the cotyledon by the Santos or PK methods.

  16. Littorellicola billhawkinsi n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the myocardial lacunae of Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus (Carangidae) in the Gulf of Mexico; with a comment on the interrelationships and functional morphology of intertrabecular aporocotylids.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    Littorellicola billhawkinsi n. gen., n. sp. infects the myocardial lacunae of the ventricle and atrium of Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus in the northern Gulf of Mexico. It differs from other aporocotylid genera by the combination of having a body 10-30× longer than wide, a posterolateral body protuberance, lateral spine rows, an aspinous anterior sucker comprising a slightly muscular rim circumscribing the mouth, asymmetrical posterior ceca 14-20× length of the anterior ceca and lacking diverticula or secondary rami, tens of testes distributing in a cobblestone-like field anterior and posterior to the distal ends of the posterior ceca, an oviducal seminal receptacle comprising the distal portion of the oviduct, and a post-cecal ovary plus by lacking rosethorn-shaped spines, a pharynx, and a Laurer's canal. The new species appears host specific to Florida pompano because no conspecific infection was detected in 134 carangids of 8 species in 4 genera captured nearby the type locality. Psettarium sebastodorum Holmes, 1971 is transferred to the new genus, as Littorellicola sebastodorum (Holmes, 1971) n. comb., because it and the new species differ from species of Psettarium by the combination of having multiple testes plus 8 other features detailed herein. This report brings the number of nominal Gulf of Mexico aporocotylids to 12 species of 8 genera, represents only the second record of an aporocotylid from a carangid there, and supports the notion that elongated, "thread-like" aporocotylids with lateral spine rows are seemingly well-adapted for infecting myocardial lacunae or embedding in the myocardium of their definitive fish hosts.

  17. Characterization of plant-growth-promoting effects and concurrent promotion of heavy metal accumulation in the tissues of the plants grown in the polluted soil by Burkholderia strain LD-11.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Hai; Tian, Hui-Hui; Liu, Hai-Ying; Fan, Xian-Wei; Liang, Yu; Li, You-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria especially with the resistance to multiple heavy metals are helpful to phytoremediation. Further development of PGP bacteria is very necessary because of the extreme diversity of plants, soils, and heavy metal pollution. A Burkholderia sp. strain, numbered LD-11, was isolated, which showed resistances to multiple heavy metals and antibiotics. It can produce indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and siderophores. Inoculation with the LD-11 improved germination of seeds of the investigated vegetable plants in the presence of Cu, promoted elongation of roots and hypocotyledonary axes, enhanced the dry weights of the plants grown in the soils polluted with Cu and/or Pb, and increased activity of the soil urease and the rhizobacteria diversity. Inoculation with the LD-11 significantly enhanced Cu and/or Pb accumulation especially in the roots of the plants grown in the polluted soils. Notably, LD-11 could produce siderophores in the presence of Cu. Conclusively, the PGP effects and concurrent heavy metal accumulation in the plant tissues results from combined effects of the above-mentioned multiple factors. Cu is an important element that represses production of the siderophore by the bacteria. Phytoremediation by synergistic use of the investigated plants and the bacterial strain LD-11 is a phytoextraction process.

  18. Photothermal strain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Changhoon; Ahn, Joongho; Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Chulhong

    2017-07-01

    Vulnerable plaques are the major cause of cardiovascular disease, but they are difficult to detect with conventional intravascular imaging techniques. Techniques are needed to identify plaque vulnerability based on the presence of lipids in plaque. Thermal strain imaging (TSI) is an imaging technique based on ultrasound (US) wave propagation speed, which varies with the medium temperature. In TSI, the strain that occurs during tissue temperature change can be used for lipid detection because it has a different tendency depending on the type of tissue. Here, we demonstrate photothermal strain imaging (pTSI) using an intravascular ultrasound catheter. pTSI is performed by slightly and selectively heating lipid using a relatively inexpensive continuous laser source. We applied a speckle-tracking algorithm to US B-mode images for strain calculations. As a result, the strain produced in porcine fat was different from the strain produced in water-bearing gelatin phantom, which made it possible to distinguish the two. This suggests that pTSI could potentially be a way of differentiating lipids in coronary artery.

  19. Lipid Peroxidation in Brain Tissue Following Administration of Low and High Doses of Arsenite and L-Ascorbate in Wistar Strain Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adegunlola, J. G.; Afolabi, O. K.; Akhigbe, R. E.; Adegunlola, G. A.; Adewumi, O. M.; Oyeyipo, I. P.; Ige, S. F.; Afolabi, A. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the mechanism by which sodium arsenite induces brain injury and the role of L-ascorbate. Thirty adult (n=5) Wistar rats weighing between 140 and 160 g were used. Group 1 neither received sodium arsenite nor L-ascorbate (control), group 2 was administered low dose of arsenite only, group 3 received high dose of arsenite only, group 4 was administered L-ascorbate only, group 5 was administered low dose of arsenite and L-ascorbate, and group 6 received high dose of arsenite and L-ascorbate. M0 alon dialdehyde, MDA, levels were significantly increased in rats treated with high dose of arsenite when compared with those treated with low dose of arsenite. However, all treated groups except those treated with L-ascorbate only showed significant increase in MDA levels when compared with the control group. Rats treated with high dose of arsenite and L-ascorbate showed a significantly higher MDA level than those treated with low dose of arsenite and L-ascorbate. However, catalase activity, body weight gain, brain weight and mean food consumption were comparable across all groups. Brain tissue total protein was similar in all groups except in both groups treated with high dose of arsenite, where they were significantly reduced when compared with the control group. I0 n conclusion, sodium arsenite treatment induces brain injury via a mechanism associated with lipid peroxidation, but not catalase-dependent. However, L-ascorbate ameliorates arsenite-induced oxidative injury in the brain. L-ascorbate antioxidative potential in alleviating arsenite-induced brain injury is dependent on the concentration of arsenite. PMID:22736903

  20. Quantification and determination of spread mechanisms of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in blood and tissues from colostrum-deprived calves during an experimental acute infection induced by a non-cytopathic genotype 1 strain.

    PubMed

    Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Molina, V; Risalde, M A; Rodríguez-Sánchez, B; Sánchez-Cordón, P J

    2012-10-01

    To detect and monitor the sequential changes in virus levels, a reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay using a TaqMan probe was carried out on frozen blood and tissues samples collected from calves experimentally infected with a non-cytopathic Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) genotype 1 strain. Blood samples were collected among days 1-14 post-inoculation (p.i). On day 3 p.i, viral RNA was detected in blood samples from six of the eight inoculated animals. Viral RNA was detected in all remaining inoculated animals between 5 and 12 days p.i. The levels of viral RNA increased along the experiment, with a maximal peak between 6 and 9 days p.i. Analysis of virus load in tissues collected from calves euthanized on days 3, 6, 9 and 14 p.i displayed that BVDV was detected on day 3 p.i, being especially abundant in tonsils and ileocaecal valve, highlighting the role of tonsils as the main earliest viral replication sites as well as the principal source for virus spread to other lymphoid tissues and visceral organs. Coinciding with the highest viraemia levels, the highest viral loads were recorded at 9 days p.i. in tonsils, ileal lymph nodes, distal ileum and spleen, showing the main role of these secondary lymphoid organs in the pathogenic mechanisms of BVDV. However, virus levels in the liver and lung increased only towards the end of the infection. This fact could influence in the appearance of bovine respiratory diseases because of the capacity of BVDV for enhancing susceptibility to secondary infections.

  1. Comparative studies on the pathogenicity and tissue distribution of three virulence variants of classical swine fever virus, two field isolates and one vaccine strain, with special regard to immunohistochemical investigations

    PubMed Central

    Belák, Katinka; Koenen, Frank; Vanderhallen, Hans; Mittelholzer, Christian; Feliziani, Francesco; De Mia, Gian Mario; Belák, Sándor

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the tissue distribution and pathogenicity of three virulence variants of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and to investigate the applicability of various conventional diagnostic procedures. Methods 64 pigs were divided into three groups and infected with the highly virulent isolate ISS/60, the moderately virulent isolate Wingene'93 and the live attenuated vaccine strain Riems, respectively. Clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes were compared in relation to time elapsed post infection. Virus spread in various organs was followed by virus isolation, by immunohistochemistry, applying monoclonal antibodies in a two-step method and by in situ hybridisation using a digoxigenin-labelled riboprobe. Results The tissue distribution data are discussed in details, analyzing the results of the various diagnostic approaches. The comparative studies revealed remarkable differences in the onset of clinical signs as well as in the development of the macro- and microscopical changes, and in the tissue distribution of CSFV in the three experimental groups. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that in the case of highly and moderately virulent virus variants the virulence does not affect the pattern of the viral spread, however, it influences the outcome, the duration and the intensity of the disease. Immunohistochemistry has the advantage to allow the rapid detection and localisation of the virus, especially in cases of early infection, when clinical signs are still absent. Compared to virus isolation, the advantage of this method is that no cell culture facilities are required. Thus, immunohistochemistry provides simple and sensitive tools for the prompt detection of newly emerging variants of CSFV, including the viruses of very mild virulence. PMID:18775072

  2. Repair of articular cartilage defects in rabbits through tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with chitosan hydrogel and chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Chen, Zhu; Liu, Kang; Wan, Yu-qing; Li, Xu-dong; Luo, Xu-wei; Bai, Yi-guang; Yang, Ze-long; Feng, Gang

    2015-11-01

    In our previous work, we prepared a type of chitosan hydrogel with excellent biocompatibility. In this study, tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with this chitosan hydrogel and costal chondrocytes was used to repair the articular cartilage defects. Chitosan hydrogels were prepared with a crosslinker formed by combining 1,6-diisocyanatohexane and polyethylene glycol. Chitosan hydrogel scaffold was seeded with rabbit chondrocytes that had been cultured for one week in vitro to form the preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage. This preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage was then transplanted into the defective rabbit articular cartilage. There were three treatment groups: the experimental group received preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage; the blank group received pure chitosan hydrogels; and, the control group had received no implantation. The knee joints were harvested at predetermined time. The repaired cartilage was analyzed through gross morphology, histologically and immunohistochemically. The repairs were scored according to the international cartilage repair society (ICRS) standard. The gross morphology results suggested that the defects were repaired completely in the experimental group after twelve weeks. The regenerated tissue connected closely with subchondral bone and the boundary with normal tissue was fuzzy. The cartilage lacuna in the regenerated tissue was similar to normal cartilage lacuna. The results of ICRS gross and histological grading showed that there were significant differences among the three groups (P<0.05). Chondrocytes implanted in the scaffold can adhere, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix. The novel tissue-engineered cartilage constructed in our research can completely repair the structure of damaged articular cartilage.

  3. Hierarchical model for strain generalized streaming potential induced by the canalicular fluid flow of an osteon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao-Gang; Yu, Wei-Lun; Cen, Hai-Peng; Wang, Yan-Qin; Guo, Yuan; Chen, Wei-Yi

    2015-02-01

    A hierarchical model is developed to predict the streaming potential (SP) in the canaliculi of a loaded osteon. Canaliculi are assumed to run straight across the osteon annular cylinder wall, while disregarding the effect of lacuna. SP is generalized by the canalicular fluid flow. Analytical solutions are obtained for the canalicular fluid velocity, pressure, and SP. Results demonstrate that SP amplitude (SPA) is proportional to the pressure difference, strain amplitude, frequency, and strain rate amplitude. However, the key loading factor governing SP is the strain rate, which is a representative loading parameter under the specific physiological state. Moreover, SPA is independent of canalicular length. This model links external loads to the canalicular fluid pressure, velocity, and SP, which can facilitate further understanding of the mechanotransduction and electromechanotransduction mechanisms of bones.

  4. Comparison of the tissue distribution and metabolism of 11-deoxy-(1,2-3H)corticosterone in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marandici, A.; Monder, C.

    1983-10-01

    Corticosteroid side-chain isomerase of mouse liver catalyzes the reversible interconversion of the ketol and aldol configurations of the corticosteroid side chain. Activity of the enzyme is under genetic control. To see if the differences in activity that were observed in vitro between inbred strains of mice were also expressed in vivo, the metabolism of 11-deoxy-(1,2-/sup 3/H)corticosterone ((1,2-/sup 3/H)DOC) was studied in BALB/c (C) and C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Maximum radioactivity appeared in most organs within 5-10 min after ip injection. Uptake of tracer into liver was greater for C than B6 mice. Tritium levels in blood, kidney, and pancreas were higher in C mice; levels in adrenal, abdominal fat, and mesentery were higher in B6 mice. In both strains, the concentrations of tracer in tissues, except in gastrointestinal tract, declined and reached a minimum within 60 min. Most of the radioactivity (84%) from (1,2-/sup 3/H)DOC accumulated in the lumen of the intestinal tract, and few counts were found in the wall. Intestinal concentrations of /sup 3/H at different postinjection intervals were greater for B6 than C mice. In contrast, twice as much radioactivity appeared in the kidneys of C than of B6 mice. The organs of excretion (kidney, liver, gall bladder, and intestine) concentrated steroid from blood. Heart, striated muscle, and spleen excluded steroid. Four acidic metabolites of (1,2-/sup 3/H)DOC were detected in liver, and two were detected in small intestine. Acids formed in liver did not accumulate, and no differences between C and B6 strains were seen. More acid metabolites accumulated in intestines of C mice than in those of B6 mice. The quantitative aspects of steroid acid formation in vivo are consistent with our previous in vitro findings that livers from C mice synthesize more pregnolic acid from DOC than do livers from B6 mice.

  5. The effect of dose on 2,3,7,8-TCDD tissue distribution, metabolism and elimination in CYP1A2 (-/-) knockout and C57BL/6N parental strains of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hakk, Heldur; Diliberto, Janet J.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2009-11-15

    Numerous metabolism studies have demonstrated that the toxic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is poorly metabolized. A hallmark feature of TCDD exposure is induction of hepatic CYP1A2 and subsequent sequestration leading to high liver-to-fat concentration ratios. This study was initiated to determine whether TCDD was inherently poorly metabolized or unavailable for metabolism because of sequestration to CYP1A2. [{sup 3}H]TCDD was administered as a single, oral dose (0.1 and 10 mug/kg) to 12 male C57BL/6N mice or 12 CYP1A2 (-/-) mice. At 96 h, less than 5% of the dose was eliminated in the urine of all groups, and TCDD detected in urine was bound to mouse major urinary protein (mMUP). Feces were the major elimination pathway (24-31% of dose), and fecal extracts and non-extractables were quantitated by HPLC for metabolites. No great differences in urinary or fecal elimination (% dose) were observed between the high and low dose treatments. TCDD concentrations were the highest in adipose tissue for CYP1A2 knockout mice but in liver for C57BL/6N mice supporting the role of hepatic CYP1A2 in the sequestration of TCDD. Overall metabolism between parental and knockout strains showed no statistical differences at either the high or low doses. The data suggested that metabolism of TCDD is inherently slow, due principally to CYP1A1, and that hepatic CYP1A2 is not an active participant in the metabolism of TCDD in male mice. Rather, CYP1A2 governs the pharmacokinetics of TCDD by making it unavailable for hepatic CYP1A1 through sequestration and attenuating extrahepatic tissue disposition.

  6. Thermal strain imaging: a review

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chi Hyung; Shi, Yan; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Kim, Kang; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Thermal strain imaging (TSI) or temporal strain imaging is an ultrasound application that exploits the temperature dependence of sound speed to create thermal (temporal) strain images. This article provides an overview of the field of TSI for biomedical applications that have appeared in the literature over the past several years. Basic theory in thermal strain is introduced. Two major energy sources appropriate for clinical applications are discussed. Promising biomedical applications are presented throughout the paper, including non-invasive thermometry and tissue characterization. We present some of the limitations and complications of the method. The paper concludes with a discussion of competing technologies. PMID:22866235

  7. Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

  8. Human dignity and human tissue: a meaningful ethical relationship?

    PubMed

    Kirchhoffer, David G; Dierickx, Kris

    2011-09-01

    Human dignity has long been used as a foundational principle in policy documents and ethical guidelines intended to govern various forms of biomedical research. Despite the vast amount of literature concerning human dignity and embryonic tissues, the majority of biomedical research uses non-embryonic human tissue. Therefore, this contribution addresses a notable lacuna in the literature: the relationship, if any, between human dignity and human tissue. This paper first elaborates a multidimensional understanding of human dignity that overcomes many of the shortcomings associated with the use of human dignity in other ethical debates. Second, it discusses the relationship between such an understanding of human dignity and 'non-embryonic' human tissue. Finally, it considers the implications of this relationship for biomedical research and practice involving human tissue. The contribution demonstrates that while human tissue cannot be said to have human dignity, human dignity is nevertheless implicated by human tissue, making what is done with human tissue and how it is done worthy of moral consideration.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in porcine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid and effects of test conditions on in vitro activity against reference strains and field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Menge, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Wilhelm, C; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 40 mg/mL solution for injection for pigs), a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide for the treatment for swine respiratory disease (SRD), was investigated in studies collecting blood plasma and postmortem samples of lung tissue and bronchial fluid (BF) from swine. In view of factors influencing the in vitro activity of macrolides, and for the interpretation of tildipirosin pharmacokinetics in relation to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), additional experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere, buffers, and serum on tildipirosin MICs for various reference strains and Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae field isolates. After single intramuscular (i.m.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.9 μg/mL observed within 23 min (Tmax ). Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRTlast) and terminal half-life (T1/2) both were about 4 days. A dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect is observed for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUClast) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. However, linear dose proportionality could not be proven with statistical methods. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded that in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 3.1 μg/g at 2 h, peaked at 4.3 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 0.8 μg/g at day 17. In BF, tildipirosin levels were 14.3, 7.0, and 6.5 μg/g at days 5, 10, and 14. T1/2 in lung was ∼7 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination. Culture media pH and carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere (CO2 -EA) had a marked impact on in vitro activity of tildipirosin in reference strains of various rapidly growing aerobic and

  10. During readaptation in vivo, a tissue culture-adapted strain of feline immunodeficiency virus reverts to broad neutralization resistance at different times in individual hosts but through changes at the same position of the surface glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bendinelli, M; Pistello, M; Del Mauro, D; Cammarota, G; Maggi, F; Leonildi, A; Giannecchini, S; Bergamini, C; Matteucci, D

    2001-05-01

    The broad resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization of lentiviruses recently isolated from infected hosts is a poorly understood feature which might contribute to the ability of these viruses to persist and to the failure of experimental vaccines to protect against virulent viruses. We studied the underlying molecular mechanisms by examining the evolution of a neutralization-sensitive, tissue culture-adapted strain of feline immunodeficiency virus upon reinoculation into specific-pathogen-free cats. Reversion to broad neutralization resistance was observed in seven of seven inoculated animals and, in individual hosts, started to develop between less than 4 and more than 15 months from infection. After comparison of the envelope sequences of the inoculum virus, of an additional 4 neutralization-sensitive in vitro variants, and of 14 ex vivo-derived variants (6 neutralization sensitive, 5 resistant, and 3 with intermediate phenotype), a Lys-->Asn or -->Glu change at position 481 in the V4 region of the surface glycoprotein appeared as a key player in the reversion. This conclusion was confirmed by mutagenesis of molecularly cloned virus. Analysis of viral quasispecies and biological clones showed that the intermediate phenotype was due to transient coexistence of neutralization-sensitive and -resistant variants. Since the amino acid position involved was the same in four of four recent revertants, it is suggested that the number of residues that control reversion to broad neutralization resistance in FIV might be very limited. Amino acid 481 was found to be changed only in one of three putative long-term revertants. These variants shared a Ser-->Asn change at position 557 in region V5, which probably collaborated with other mutations in long-term maintenance of neutralization resistance, as suggested by the study of mutagenized virus.

  11. Wound healing in the tissues of the periodontium following periradicular surgery. III. The osseous excisional wound.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J W; Jurosky, K A

    1992-02-01

    Excisional wounds were made in the maxillas and mandibles of rhesus monkeys, and the osseous wound-healing responses at postsurgical intervals ranging from 1 to 28 days were evaluated by light microscopy. The excisional defects were initially filled with a coagulum which was subsequently replaced by granulation tissue emanating from the endosteal tissues. Cortical and trabecular bone forming the wound edges was devitalized, as evidenced by an absence of osteocytes in the peripheral lacunae. At 14 days postsurgery, woven bone trabeculae occupied most of the defect, with the more superficial trabeculae in direct contact with a thick band of dense fibrous connective tissue separating the osseous defect from overlying mucosal tissues. Within the defect, new bone was deposited on devitalized bone without evidence of preceding osteoclastic activity. At 28 days, the woven bone trabeculae were more mature and a functioning periosteum was now active in repair of the cortical plate.

  12. Unusual endosteally formed bone tissue in a patagonian basal sauropodomorph dinosaur.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Ignacio A; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Pol, Diego

    2014-08-01

    Mussaurus patagonicus (Dinosauria: Sauropodomorpha) is a basal sauropodomorph from the Late Triassic of southern Argentina that is known from a large number of individuals, including juveniles, subadults, and adults. Here, we report on the occurrence of an unusual bone tissue in an individual of M. patagonicus. The rather atypical bone tissue is located within the femoral medullary cavity and also occurs within several erosion cavities of the midinner part of the cortex. This tissue is well vascularized and is composed of a matrix that consists of abundant and densely packed osteocyte lacunae. Although some features of this tissue resembles avian medullary bone, the histological features are distinctive and share more features with the pathological, reactive bone produced in extant birds in response to a retrovirus-induced disease (avian osteopetrosis). Here, we also discuss and provide histological features to effectively differentiate endosteally formed medullary bone from pathological avian osteopetrosis.

  13. Imunohistological aspects of the tissue around dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimigean, Victor; Nimigean, Vanda R.; Sǎlǎvǎstru, Dan I.; Moraru, Simona; BuÅ£incu, Lavinia; Ivaşcu, Roxana V.; Poll, Alexandru

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: study of soft and hard tissues around implants. Material and methods: For the immunohistochemical and histological study of the implant/soft tissue interface, we examined pieces of peri-implant mucosa harvested from 35 patients. The implant/bone interface was assessed using histologic and histomorphometric examination of hard tissues around unloaded, early loaded or delayed loaded dental implants with pre-established design, with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface, placed both in extraction sockets, or after bone healing following tooth removal. This study was performed on 9 common race dogs. Results: The histological study of the implant/soft tissue interface showed regenerative modifications and moderate chronic subepithelial inflammatory reactions. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the soft tissue biopsies revealed the presence of specific immunocompetent cells and proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Bone-implants contacts were more obvious in the apical half of the implants and at the edges of the threads, than between them. A mature, lamelliform bone containing lacunae with osteocytes and lack of connective tissue were noticed around implants that were late placed and loaded. The new-formed bone was also abundant in the crestal zone, not only in the apical part of the implants. Conclusions: A thorough understanding of the microstructure of dental implant/soft and hard tissue interface will improve the longevity of osseointegrated implants.

  14. Muscle strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  15. A Stereological Method for the Quantitative Evaluation of Cartilage Repair Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Lind, Martin; Spector, Myron

    2015-01-01

    Objective To implement stereological principles to develop an easy applicable algorithm for unbiased and quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair. Design Design-unbiased sampling was performed by systematically sectioning the defect perpendicular to the joint surface in parallel planes providing 7 to 10 hematoxylin–eosin stained histological sections. Counting windows were systematically selected and converted into image files (40-50 per defect). The quantification was performed by two-step point counting: (1) calculation of defect volume and (2) quantitative analysis of tissue composition. Step 2 was performed by assigning each point to one of the following categories based on validated and easy distinguishable morphological characteristics: (1) hyaline cartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in hyaline matrix), (2) fibrocartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in fibrous matrix), (3) fibrous tissue (elongated cells in fibrous tissue), (4) bone, (5) scaffold material, and (6) others. The ability to discriminate between the tissue types was determined using conventional or polarized light microscopy, and the interobserver variability was evaluated. Results We describe the application of the stereological method. In the example, we assessed the defect repair tissue volume to be 4.4 mm3 (CE = 0.01). The tissue fractions were subsequently evaluated. Polarized light illumination of the slides improved discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage and increased the interobserver agreement compared with conventional transmitted light. Conclusion We have applied a design-unbiased method for quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair, and we propose this algorithm as a natural supplement to existing descriptive semiquantitative scoring systems. We also propose that polarized light is effective for discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. PMID:26069715

  16. A Stereological Method for the Quantitative Evaluation of Cartilage Repair Tissue.

    PubMed

    Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Lind, Martin; Spector, Myron

    2015-04-01

    To implement stereological principles to develop an easy applicable algorithm for unbiased and quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair. Design-unbiased sampling was performed by systematically sectioning the defect perpendicular to the joint surface in parallel planes providing 7 to 10 hematoxylin-eosin stained histological sections. Counting windows were systematically selected and converted into image files (40-50 per defect). The quantification was performed by two-step point counting: (1) calculation of defect volume and (2) quantitative analysis of tissue composition. Step 2 was performed by assigning each point to one of the following categories based on validated and easy distinguishable morphological characteristics: (1) hyaline cartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in hyaline matrix), (2) fibrocartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in fibrous matrix), (3) fibrous tissue (elongated cells in fibrous tissue), (4) bone, (5) scaffold material, and (6) others. The ability to discriminate between the tissue types was determined using conventional or polarized light microscopy, and the interobserver variability was evaluated. We describe the application of the stereological method. In the example, we assessed the defect repair tissue volume to be 4.4 mm(3) (CE = 0.01). The tissue fractions were subsequently evaluated. Polarized light illumination of the slides improved discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage and increased the interobserver agreement compared with conventional transmitted light. We have applied a design-unbiased method for quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair, and we propose this algorithm as a natural supplement to existing descriptive semiquantitative scoring systems. We also propose that polarized light is effective for discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  17. Biomechanics of soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Miller, K

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in Computer-Integrated and Robot-Aided Surgery (in particular, the emergence of automatic surgical tools and robots (as well as advances in Virtual Reality techniques, call for closer examination of the mechanical properties of very soft tissues (such as brain, liver, kidney, etc.). Moreover, internal organs are very susceptible to trauma. In order to protect them properly against car crash and other impact consequences we need to be able to predict the organ deformation. Such prediction can be achieved by proper mathematical modelling followed by a computer simulation. The ultimate goal of our research into the biomechanics of these tissues is development of corresponding, realistic mathematical models. This paper contains experimental results of in vitro, uniaxial, unconfined compression of swine brain tissue obtained by the author in Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Japan, and discusses liver and kidney in vivo compression experiments conducted in Highway Safety Research Institute and the Medical Centre of The University of Michigan. The stress-strain curves for investigated tissues are concave upward for all compression rates containing no linear portion from which a meaningful elastic modulus might be determined. The tissue response stiffened as the loading speed increased, indicating a strong stress (strain rate dependence. As the step in the direction towards realistic computer simulation of injuries and surgical procedures, this paper presents two mathematical representations of brain, liver and kidney tissue stiffness. Biphasic and single-phase models are discussed. The biphasic model is shown to be inappropriate due to its inability to account for strong stress-strain relationship. Agreement between the proposed single-phase models and experiment is good for compression levels reaching 30% and for loading velocities varying over five orders of magnitude. Presented mathematical models can find applications in computer and robot

  18. Hip flexor strain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... flexor - aftercare; Hip flexor injury - aftercare; Hip flexor tear - aftercare; Iliopsoas strain - aftercare; Strained iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Torn iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Psoas strain - aftercare

  19. Evaluating differential nuclear DNA yield rates and osteocyte numbers among human bone tissue types: A synchrotron radiation micro-CT approach.

    PubMed

    Andronowski, Janna M; Mundorff, Amy Z; Pratt, Isaac V; Davoren, Jon M; Cooper, David M L

    2017-05-01

    Molecular human identification has conventionally focused on DNA sampling from dense, weight-bearing cortical bone tissue, typically from femora or tibiae. A comparison of skeletal elements from three contemporary individuals demonstrated that elements with high quantities of cancellous bone yielded nuclear DNA at the highest rates, suggesting that preferentially sampling cortical bone may be suboptimal (Mundorff & Davoren, 2014). Despite these findings, the reason for the differential DNA yields between cortical and cancellous bone tissues remains unknown. The primary goal of this work is to ascertain whether differences in bone microstructure can be used to explain differential nuclear DNA yield among bone tissue types observed by Mundorff and Davoren (2014), with a focus on osteocytes and the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of their associated lacunae. Osteocytes and other bone cells are recognized to house DNA in bone tissue, thus examining the density of their lacunae may explain why nuclear DNA yield rates differ among bone tissue types. Lacunae were visualized and quantified using synchrotron radiation-based micro-Computed Tomographic imaging (SR micro-CT). Volumes of interest (VOIs) from cortical and cancellous bone tissues (n=129) were comparatively analyzed from the three skeletons sampled for Mundorff and Davoren's (2014) study. Analyses tested the primary hypothesis that the abundance and density of osteocytes (inferred from their lacunar spaces) vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types. Results demonstrated that osteocyte lacunar abundance and density vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types, with cortical bone VOIs containing a higher lacunar abundance and density. We found that the osteocyte lacunar density values are independent of nuclear DNA yield, suggesting an alternative explanation for the higher nuclear DNA yields from bones with greater quantities of cancellous bone tissue. The use of SR micro-CT allowed for

  20. Dynamic compressive response of bovine liver tissues.

    PubMed

    Pervin, Farhana; Chen, Weinong W; Weerasooriya, Tusit

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to experimentally determine the strain rate effects on the compressive stress-strain behavior of bovine liver tissues. Fresh liver tissues were used to make specimens for mechanical loading. Experiments at quasi-static strain rates were conducted at 0.01 and 0.1 s(-1). Intermediate-rate experiments were performed at 1, 10, and 100 s(-1). High strain rate (1000, 2000, and 3000 s(-1)) experiments were conducted using a Kolsky bar modified for soft material characterization. A hollow transmission bar with semi-conductor strain gages was used to sense the weak forces from the soft specimens. Quartz-crystal force transducers were used to monitor valid testing conditions on the tissue specimens. The experiment results show that the compressive stress-strain response of the liver tissue is non-linear and highly rate-sensitive, especially when the strain rate is in the Kolsky bar range. The tissue stiffens significantly with increasing strain rate. The responses from liver tissues along and perpendicular to the liver surface were consistent, indicating isotropic behavior.

  1. Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Robert; Vacanti, Joseph P.

    1993-05-01

    The loss or failure of an organ or tissue is one of the most frequent, devastating, and costly problems in human health care. A new field, tissue engineering, applies the principles of biology and engineering to the development of functional substitutes for damaged tissue. This article discusses the foundations and challenges of this interdisciplinary field and its attempts to provide solutions to tissue creation and repair.

  2. Nanoscale X-Ray Microscopic Imaging of Mammalian Mineralized Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Joy C.; Almeida, Eduardo; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Lee, Chialing; Liu, Yijin; Chen, Jie; Meirer, Florian; Feser, Michael; Gelb, Jeff; Rudati, Juana; Tkachuk, Andrei; Yun, Wenbing; Pianetta, Piero

    2010-01-01

    A novel hard transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light-source operating from 5 to 15 keV X-ray energy with 14 to 30 µm2 field of view has been used for high-resolution (30–40 nm) imaging and density quantification of mineralized tissue. TXM is uniquely suited for imaging of internal cellular structures and networks in mammalian mineralized tissues using relatively thick (50 µm), untreated samples that preserve tissue micro- and nanostructure. To test this method we performed Zernike phase contrast and absorption contrast imaging of mouse cancellous bone prepared under different conditions of in vivo loading, fixation, and contrast agents. In addition, the three-dimensional structure was examined using tomography. Individual osteocytic lacunae were observed embedded within trabeculae in cancellous bone. Extensive canalicular networks were evident and included processes with diameters near the 30–40 nm instrument resolution that have not been reported previously. Trabecular density was quantified relative to rod-like crystalline apatite, and rod-like trabecular struts were found to have 51–54% of pure crystal density and plate-like areas had 44–53% of crystal density. The nanometer resolution of TXM enables future studies for visualization and quantification of ultrastructural changes in bone tissue resulting from osteoporosis, dental disease, and other pathologies. PMID:20374681

  3. Biological and molecular characterizations of Toxoplasma gondii strains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, R.A.; Lindsay, D.S.; Howe, D.K.; Roderick, Constance L.; Dubey, J.P.; Thomas, N.J.; Baeten, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from brain or heart tissue from 15 southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in cell cultures. These strains were used to infect mice that developed antibodies to T. gondii as detected in the modified direct agglutination test and had T. gondii tissue cysts in their brains at necropsy. Mouse brains containing tissue cysts from 4 of the strains were fed to 4 cats. Two of the cats excreted T. gondii oocysts in their feces that were infectious for mice. Molecular analyses of 13 strains indicated that they were all type II strains, but that they were genetically distinct from one another.

  4. High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

  5. Skeletal muscle tensile strain dependence: hyperviscoelastic nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Benjamin B; Morrow, Duane A; Odegard, Gregory M; Kaufman, Kenton R; Donahue, Tammy L Haut

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Computational modeling of skeletal muscle requires characterization at the tissue level. While most skeletal muscle studies focus on hyperelasticity, the goal of this study was to examine and model the nonlinear behavior of both time-independent and time-dependent properties of skeletal muscle as a function of strain. Materials and Methods Nine tibialis anterior muscles from New Zealand White rabbits were subject to five consecutive stress relaxation cycles of roughly 3% strain. Individual relaxation steps were fit with a three-term linear Prony series. Prony series coefficients and relaxation ratio were assessed for strain dependence using a general linear statistical model. A fully nonlinear constitutive model was employed to capture the strain dependence of both the viscoelastic and instantaneous components. Results Instantaneous modulus (p<0.0005) and mid-range relaxation (p<0.0005) increased significantly with strain level, while relaxation at longer time periods decreased with strain (p<0.0005). Time constants and overall relaxation ratio did not change with strain level (p>0.1). Additionally, the fully nonlinear hyperviscoelastic constitutive model provided an excellent fit to experimental data, while other models which included linear components failed to capture muscle function as accurately. Conclusions Material properties of skeletal muscle are strain-dependent at the tissue level. This strain dependence can be included in computational models of skeletal muscle performance with a fully nonlinear hyperviscoelastic model. PMID:26409235

  6. Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia

    Investigations on the space biosatellites has shown that the bone skeleton is one of the most im-portant targets of the effect space flight factors on the organism. Bone tissue cells were studied by electron microscopy in biosamples of rats' long bones flown on the board american station "SLS-2" and in experiments with modelling of microgravity ("tail suspension" method) with using autoradiography. The analysis of data permits to suppose that the processes of remod-eling in bone tissue at microgravity include the following succession of cell-to-cell interactions. Osteocytes as mechanosensory cells are first who respond to a changing "mechanical field". The next stage is intensification of osteolytic processes in osteocytes, leading to a volume en-largement of the osteocytic lacunae and removal of the "excess bone". Then mechanical signals have been transmitted through a system of canals and processes of the osteocytic syncitium to certain superficial bone zones and are perceived by osteoblasts and bone-lining cells (superficial osteocytes), as well as by the bone-marrow stromal cells. The sensitivity of stromal cells, pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts, under microgravity was shown in a number of works. As a response to microgravity, the system of stromal cells -preosteoblasts -osteoblasts displays retardation of proliferation, differentiation and specific functions of osteogenetic cells. This is supported by the 3H-thymidine studies of the dynamics of differentiation of osteogenetic cells in remodeling zones. But unloading is not adequate and in part of the osteocytes are apoptotic changes as shown by our electron microscopic investigations. An osteocytic apoptosis can play the role in attraction the osteoclasts and in regulation of bone remodeling. The apoptotic bodies with a liquid flow through a system of canals are transferred to the bone surface, where they fulfil the role of haemoattractants for monocytes come here and form osteoclasts. The osteoclasts destroy

  7. Tissue types (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). ...

  8. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    DOEpatents

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  9. Strain index: a new visualizing parameter for US elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Cabrera, Dario; de Luis-García, R.; Tristán-Vega, A.; Alberola-López, Carlos; Ruiz-Alzola, Juan

    2008-03-01

    Elastography, an ultrasound modality based on the relation between tissue strain and its mechanical properties, has a strong potential in the diagnosis and prognosis of tumors. For instance, tissue affected by breast and prostate cancer undergoes a change in its elastic properties. These changes can be measured using ultrasound signals. The standard way to visualize the elastic properties of tissues in elastography is the representation of the axial strain. Other approaches investigate the information contained in shear strain elastograms, vorticity or the representation of the full strain tensor. In this paper, we propose to represent the elastic behaviour of tissues through the visualization of the Strain Index, related with the trace of the strain tensor. Based on the mathematical interpretation of the strain tensor, this novel parameter is equivalent to the sum of the eigenvalues of the strain tensor, and constitutes a measure of the total amount of strain of the soft tissue. In order to show the potential of this visualization approach, a tissue-mimicking phantom was modeled as a 10x10x5 cm region containing a centered 10mm cylindrical inclusion three times stiffer than the surrounding material, and its elastic behavior was simulated using finite elements software. Synthetic pre- and post-compression (1.25%) B-mode images were computer-generated with ultrasound simulator. Results show that the visualization of the tensor trace significantly improves the representation and detection of inclusions, and can help add insight in the detection of different types of tumors.

  10. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  11. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  12. [Behavior of Argentine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strains in rodents].

    PubMed

    Saavedra, María del Cármen; Ambrosio, Ana M; Riera, Laura; Sabattini, Marta S

    2007-01-01

    The activity of LCM virus was first reported in Argentina at the beginning of the seventies and only five strains have been isolated from rodents Mus domesticus and two from humans. The objective of this paper was to find differential biological characteristics of Argentine strains of LCM virus comparing them in relation to the historical strains WE and Armstrong. Regarding the results obtained in tissue culture, when L 929 cells were used, plaque forming units (PFU) were obtained with human and mouse strains, whilst on Vero cells only human strains developed PFU. Differentials characteristics of historical and Argentine strain's plates were not found, neither differences related to the strain's origin. Neither historical nor Argentine strains were lethal to new-born mice giving a persistent infection, that was demonstrated when we inoculated new-born mouse by intracranial route with different strains of LCM virus and virus was isolated from brains harvested at different days post inoculation. The only exception was Cba An 13065 strain that exhibited virulence in new-born mice, only with 0.026 PFU was obtained 1 DL50. All the strains resulted lethal to adult mice. The mouse strains were more virulent than human strains, being Cba An 13065 the most virulent. These results demonstrate a different behavior in tissue culture between human and mouse strains and allow the identification of virulence markers by intracranial inoculation into new-born or adult mice.

  13. Simultaneous narrowband ultrasonic strain-flow imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Jean K.; Mai, Jerome J.; Lupotti, Fermin A.; Insana, Michael F.

    2004-04-01

    We are summarizing new research aimed at forming spatially and temporally registered combinations of strain and color-flow images using echo data recorded from a commercial ultrasound system. Applications include diagnosis of vascular diseases and tumor malignancies. The challenge is to meet the diverse needs of each measurement. The approach is to first apply eigenfilters that separate echo components from moving tissues and blood flow, and then estimate blood velocity and tissue displacement from the filtered-IQ-signal phase modulations. At the cost of a lower acquisition frame rate, we find the autocorrelation strain estimator yields higher resolution strain estimate than the cross-correlator since estimates are made from ensembles at a single point in space. The technique is applied to in vivo carotid imaging, to demonstrate the sensitivity for strain-flow vascular imaging.

  14. [Preliminary study on tissue-engineered cartilage with human dermal fibroblasts co-cultured with porcine chondrocytes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Zhou, Guang-dong; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yi-lin

    2009-11-01

    To explore the feasibility of constructing tissue-engineered cartilage with human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) in vitro. Porcine articular chondrocytes and HDFs were isolated and in vitro expanded respectively. Then they were mixed at the ratio of 1:1 (chondrocytes: fibroblasts) . The mixed cells were seeded onto polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffold at the ultimate concentration of 5.0 x 10(7)/ml as co-culture group. Chondrocytes and HDFs at the same ultimate concentration were seeded respectively onto the scaffold as chondrocyte group ( positive control group) and fibroblast group ( negative control group). The specimens were collected after in vitro culture for 8 weeks. Gross observation, histology and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the results. In chondrocyte group, the cell-scaffold constructs could maintain the original size and shape during in vitro culture. The new formed cartilage-like tissue had typical histological structure and extracellular matrix staining similar to normal cartilage. In co-culture group the constructs shrunk slightly at 8 weeks, cartilage-like tissue formed and GAG could be detected for strong expression by Safranin O staining. Furthermore, using the specific identification, a few HDFs derived cells were found to form lacuna structure at the peripheral area of cartilage-like tissue. In fibroblast group, the constructs deformed and shrunk gradually without mature cartilage lacuna in histology. The 3D-co-culture system can effectively induce the differentiation of HDFs to chondrocytes. The tissue-engineered cartilage can be constructed in vitro with the 3D-co-culture system.

  15. Value of tissue Doppler-derived Tei index and two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging derived longitudinal strain on predicting outcome of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Herrmann, Sebastian; Cikes, Maja; Ertl, Georg; Weidemann, Frank; Störk, Stefan; Nordbeck, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Prognosis of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) is poor. Speckle tracking imaging (STI) derived longitudinal deformation parameters and Doppler-derived left ventricular (LV) Tei index are valuable predictors of outcome in patients with AL-CA. We estimated the prognostic utility of Tei index and deformation parameters in 58 comprehensively phenotyped patients with AL-CA after a median follow-up of 365 days (quartiles 121, 365 days). The primary end point was all-cause mortality. 19 (33%) patients died during follow-up. Tei index (0.89 ± 0.29 vs. 0.61 ± 0.16, p < 0.001) and E to global early diastolic strain rate ratio (E/GLSRdias) were higher while global longitudinal systolic strain (GLSsys) was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (all p < 0.05). Tei index, NYHA functional class, GLSsys and E/GLSRdias were independent predictors of all-cause mortality risk, and Tei index ≥0.9 (HR 7.01, 95% CI 2.43-20.21, p < 0.001) was the best predictor of poor outcome. Combining Tei index and GLSsys yielded the best results on predicting death within 1 year (100% with Tei index ≥0.9 and GLSsys ≤13%) or survival (95% with Tei index ≤0.9 and GLSsys ≥13%). We conclude that 1-year mortality risk in AL-CA patients can be reliably predicted using Tei index or deformation parameters, with combined analysis offering best performance.

  16. Tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As living beings that encounter every kind of traumatic event from paper cut to myocardial infarction, we must possess ways to heal damaged tissues. While some animals are able to regrow complete body parts following injury (such as the earthworm who grows a new head following bisection), humans are sadly incapable of such feats. Our means of recovery following tissue damage consists largely of repair rather than pure regeneration. Thousands of times in our lives, a meticulously scripted but unseen wound healing drama plays, with cells serving as actors, extracellular matrix as the setting and growth factors as the means of communication. This article briefly reviews the cells involved in tissue repair, their signaling and proliferation mechanisms and the function of the extracellular matrix, then presents the actors and script for the three acts of the tissue repair drama. PMID:21220961

  17. Tissue Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, James

    2016-01-01

    Every day, 27,000 trees are used to make bathroom tissue. Americans use an average of 23.6 rolls per person per year, and more than 7 billion rolls of toilet paper are sold yearly in the United States alone. Perhaps the amount of bathroom tissue used can be reduced by changing the dimensions of the paper or the core. This brief article presents…

  18. Tissue Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, James

    2016-01-01

    Every day, 27,000 trees are used to make bathroom tissue. Americans use an average of 23.6 rolls per person per year, and more than 7 billion rolls of toilet paper are sold yearly in the United States alone. Perhaps the amount of bathroom tissue used can be reduced by changing the dimensions of the paper or the core. This brief article presents…

  19. Bone strain magnitude is correlated with bone strain rate in tetrapods: implications for models of mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Aiello, B R; Iriarte-Diaz, J; Blob, R W; Butcher, M T; Carrano, M T; Espinoza, N R; Main, R P; Ross, C F

    2015-07-07

    Hypotheses suggest that structural integrity of vertebrate bones is maintained by controlling bone strain magnitude via adaptive modelling in response to mechanical stimuli. Increased tissue-level strain magnitude and rate have both been identified as potent stimuli leading to increased bone formation. Mechanotransduction models hypothesize that osteocytes sense bone deformation by detecting fluid flow-induced drag in the bone's lacunar-canalicular porosity. This model suggests that the osteocyte's intracellular response depends on fluid-flow rate, a product of bone strain rate and gradient, but does not provide a mechanism for detection of strain magnitude. Such a mechanism is necessary for bone modelling to adapt to loads, because strain magnitude is an important determinant of skeletal fracture. Using strain gauge data from the limb bones of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, we identified strong correlations between strain rate and magnitude across clades employing diverse locomotor styles and degrees of rhythmicity. The breadth of our sample suggests that this pattern is likely to be a common feature of tetrapod bone loading. Moreover, finding that bone strain magnitude is encoded in strain rate at the tissue level is consistent with the hypothesis that it might be encoded in fluid-flow rate at the cellular level, facilitating bone adaptation via mechanotransduction.

  20. Bone strain magnitude is correlated with bone strain rate in tetrapods: implications for models of mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, B. R.; Iriarte-Diaz, J.; Blob, R. W.; Butcher, M. T.; Carrano, M. T.; Espinoza, N. R.; Main, R. P.; Ross, C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Hypotheses suggest that structural integrity of vertebrate bones is maintained by controlling bone strain magnitude via adaptive modelling in response to mechanical stimuli. Increased tissue-level strain magnitude and rate have both been identified as potent stimuli leading to increased bone formation. Mechanotransduction models hypothesize that osteocytes sense bone deformation by detecting fluid flow-induced drag in the bone's lacunar–canalicular porosity. This model suggests that the osteocyte's intracellular response depends on fluid-flow rate, a product of bone strain rate and gradient, but does not provide a mechanism for detection of strain magnitude. Such a mechanism is necessary for bone modelling to adapt to loads, because strain magnitude is an important determinant of skeletal fracture. Using strain gauge data from the limb bones of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, we identified strong correlations between strain rate and magnitude across clades employing diverse locomotor styles and degrees of rhythmicity. The breadth of our sample suggests that this pattern is likely to be a common feature of tetrapod bone loading. Moreover, finding that bone strain magnitude is encoded in strain rate at the tissue level is consistent with the hypothesis that it might be encoded in fluid-flow rate at the cellular level, facilitating bone adaptation via mechanotransduction. PMID:26063842

  1. Multimodality Instrument for Tissue Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip is discussed. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network, program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration.

  2. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Smith, Darryl L.; Sinha, Dipen N.

    1990-01-01

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element.

  3. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Smith, D.L.; Sinha, D.N.

    1988-06-28

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element. 8 figs.

  4. Histopathological findings, phenotyping of inflammatory cells, and expression of markers of nitritative injury in joint tissue samples from calves after vaccination and intraarticular challenge with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of caseonecrotic lesions developing in lungs and joints of calves infected with Mycoplasma bovis is not clear and attempts to prevent M. bovis-induced disease by vaccines have been largely unsuccessful. In this investigation, joint samples from 4 calves, i.e. 2 vaccinated and 2 non-vaccinated, of a vaccination experiment with intraarticular challenge were examined. The aim was to characterize the histopathological findings, the phenotypes of inflammatory cells, the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II) molecules, and the expression of markers for nitritative stress, i.e. inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NT), in synovial membrane samples from these calves. Furthermore, the samples were examined for M. bovis antigens including variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and M. bovis organisms by cultivation techniques. Results The inoculated joints of all 4 calves had caseonecrotic and inflammatory lesions. Necrotic foci were demarcated by phagocytic cells, i.e. macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes, and by T and B lymphocytes. The presence of M. bovis antigens in necrotic tissue lesions was associated with expression of iNOS and NT by macrophages. Only single macrophages demarcating the necrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Microbiological results revealed that M. bovis had spread to approximately 27% of the non-inoculated joints. Differences in extent or severity between the lesions in samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals were not seen. Conclusions The results suggest that nitritative injury, as in pneumonic lung tissue of M. bovis-infected calves, is involved in the development of caseonecrotic joint lesions. Only single macrophages were positive for MHC class II indicating down-regulation of antigen-presenting mechanisms possibly caused by local production of iNOS and NO by infiltrating macrophages. PMID:25162202

  5. Taxonomy of oxalotrophic Methylobacterium strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Kato, Yuko; Yilmaz, Ferah

    2008-10-01

    Most of the oxalotrophic bacteria are facultative methylotrophs and play important ecological roles in soil fertility and cycling of elements. This study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of these bacteria and provides new information about the taxonomical variability within the genus Methylobacterium. Twelve mesophilic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic oxalate-oxidizing strains were included in this work that had been previously isolated from the soil and some plant tissues by the potassium oxalate enrichment method. The isolates were characterized using biochemical tests, cellular lipid profiles, spectral characteristics of carotenoid pigments, G+C content of the DNA, and 16S rDNA sequencing. The taxonomic similarities among the strains were analyzed using the simple matching ( S SM) and Jaccard ( S J) coefficients, and the UPGMA clustering algorithm. The phylogenetic position of the strains was inferred by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences. All isolates were Gram-negative, facultatively methylotrophic, oxidase and catalase positive, and required no growth factors. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, the strains formed four closely related clusters sharing ≥85% similarity. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences demonstrated that oxalotrophic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic strains could be identified as members of the genus Methylobacterium. Except for M. variabile and M. aquaticum, all of the Methylobacterium type strains tested had the ability of oxalate utilization. Our results indicate that the capability of oxalate utilization seems to be an uncommon trait and could be used as a valuable taxonomic criterion for differentiation of Methylobacterium species.

  6. Pathogenesis of XJ and Romero strains of Junin virus in two strains of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Linde, Nathaniel S; Dziuba, Natallia; Zacks, Michele A; Smith, Jeanon N; Smith, Jennifer K; Aronson, Judy F; Chumakova, Olga V; Lander, Heather M; Peters, Clarence J; Paessler, Slobodan

    2008-08-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), a systemic infectious disease caused by infection with Junin virus, affects several organs, and patients can show hematologic, cardiovascular, renal, or neurologic symptoms. We compared the virulence of two Junin virus strains in inbred and outbred guinea pigs with the aim of characterizing this animal model better for future vaccine/antiviral efficacy studies. Our data indicate that this passage of the XJ strain is attenuated in guinea pigs. In contrast, the Romero strain is highly virulent in Strain 13 as well as in Hartley guinea pigs, resulting in systemic infection, thrombocytopenia, elevated aspartate aminotransferase levels, and ultimately, uniformly lethal disease. We detected viral antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Thus, both guinea pig strains are useful animal models for lethal Junin virus (Romero strain) infection and potentially can be used for preclinical trials in vaccine or antiviral drug development.

  7. Pathogenesis of XJ and Romero Strains of Junin Virus in Two Strains of Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Nadezhda E.; Linde, Nathaniel S.; Dziuba, Natallia; Zacks, Michele A.; Smith, Jeanon N.; Smith, Jennifer K.; Aronson, Judy F.; Chumakova, Olga V.; Lander, Heather M.; Peters, Clarence J.; Paessler, Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), a systemic infectious disease caused by infection with Junin virus, affects several organs, and patients can show hematologic, cardiovascular, renal, or neurologic symptoms. We compared the virulence of two Junin virus strains in inbred and outbred guinea pigs with the aim of characterizing this animal model better for future vaccine/antiviral efficacy studies. Our data indicate that this passage of the XJ strain is attenuated in guinea pigs. In contrast, the Romero strain is highly virulent in Strain 13 as well as in Hartley guinea pigs, resulting in systemic infection, thrombocytopenia, elevated apartate aminotransferase levels, and ultimately, uniformly lethal disease. We detected viral antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Thus, both guinea pig strains are useful animal models for lethal Junin virus (Romero strain) infection and potentially can be used for preclinical trials in vaccine or antiviral drug development. PMID:18689636

  8. Tissue Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, David Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The project began as a e ort to support InLight and Lumidigm. With the sale of the companies to a non-New Mexico entity, the project then focused on supporting a new company Medici Technologies. The Small Business (SB) is attempting to quantify glucose in tissue using a series of short interferometer scans of the nger. Each scan is produced from a novel presentation of the nger to the device. The intent of the project is to identify and, if possible, implement improved methods for classi cation, feature selection, and training to improve the performance of predictive algorithms used for tissue classi cation.

  9. Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, B A; Forsythe, M E; Stanish, W D

    2001-02-01

    To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management.

  10. Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, B. A.; Forsythe, M. E.; Stanish, W. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. CONCLUSION: Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management. PMID:11228032

  11. Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis Strain DBS 1050.

    PubMed

    Dabrazhynetskaya, Alena; Soika, Valerii; Volokhov, Dmitriy; Simonyan, Vahan; Chizhikov, Vladimir

    2014-03-06

    Mycoplasma hyorhinis is known as one of the most prevalent contaminants of mammalian cell and tissue cultures worldwide. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the fastidious M. hyorhinis strain DBS 1050.

  12. A balloon strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a unique strain measuring device which is intended to monitor the state of strain in thin balloon films during flight. The gate is bonded directly to the film without significantly altering the state of strain or stress in the wall of the balloon. Results of a model balloon inflation are presented which indicate the gage to measure strain in a deployed balloon.

  13. Balloon film strain measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the results of a flight test program in which scientific research balloon material strain was measured in order to determine stress levels. Attention is given to material strain characteristics during the inflation, launch, ascent, and flight of a natural shape, zero-pressure scientific balloon. Measurements were conducted with a simple thin film strain transducer. Thermal, meridional and circumferential strain history data for the test flight are given.

  14. Elevated temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittain, J. O.; Geslin, D.; Lei, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Materials were evaluated that could be used in manufacturing electrical resistance strain gages for static strain measurements at temperatures at or above 1273 K. Strain gage materials must have a characteristic response to strain, temperature and time that is reproducible or that varies in a predictable manner within specified limits. Several metallic alloys were evaluated, as well as a series of transition metal carbides, nitrides and silicides.

  15. Strain gradient development in 3-dimensional extracellular matrix scaffolds during in vitro mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Seifer, Benjamin J; Wagner, Christopher T

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed strain variations in 3D ECM scaffolds using a membrane-adherent model (MM) and a direct elongation model (DM). Computational models were solved for target strains from 1 to 10% at varied scaffold thicknesses and intra-scaffold slices. DM strain profiles were uniform within the scaffold and independent of thickness. However, a wide range of strains developed with substantial volume experiencing significantly off-target strain. MM strain profiles varied throughout the scaffold, exhibiting significantly reduced average strain with increasing thickness. These findings are important for tissue engineering studies since biological responses are commonly attributed to a single strain level that only partially describes the mechanical condition, making it difficult to develop precise causal relationships. Spatial strain variations and reduced average strain may warrant targeted sampling for cell response and should be taken into consideration by investigators using large-volume 3D scaffolds when engineering mechanically sensitive tissues.

  16. Novel Human Intervertebral Disc Strain Template to Quantify Regional Three-Dimensional Strains in a Population and Compare to Internal Strains Predicted by a Finite Element Model

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Brent L.; DeLucca, John F.; Peloquin, John M.; Cortes, Daniel H.; Yoder, Jonathon H.; Jacobs, Nathan T.; Wright, Alexander C.; Gee, James C.; Vresilovic, Edward J.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue strain is an important indicator of mechanical function, but is difficult to noninvasively measure in the intervertebral disc. The objective of this study was to generate a disc strain template, a 3D average of disc strain, of a group of human L4–L5 discs loaded in axial compression. To do so, magnetic resonance images of uncompressed discs were used to create an average disc shape. Next, the strain tensors were calculated pixel-wise by using a previously developed registration algorithm. Individual disc strain tensor components were then transformed to the template space and averaged to create the disc strain template. The strain template reduced individual variability while highlighting group trends. For example, higher axial and circumferential strains were present in the lateral and posterolateral regions of the disc, which may lead to annular tears. This quantification of group-level trends in local 3D strain is a significant step forward in the study of disc biomechanics. These trends were compared to a finite element model that had been previously validated against the disc-level mechanical response. Depending on the strain component, 81–99% of the regions within the finite element model had calculated strains within one standard deviation of the template strain results. The template creation technique provides a new measurement technique useful for a wide range of studies, including more complex loading conditions, the effect of disc pathologies and degeneration, damage mechanisms, and design and evaluation of treatments. PMID:26694516

  17. Strain powered antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domann, John P.; Carman, Greg P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of strain powered antennas that radiate electromagnetic energy by mechanically vibrating a piezoelectric or piezomagnetic material. A closed form analytic model of electromagnetic radiation from a strain powered electrically small antenna is derived and analyzed. Fundamental scaling laws and the frequency dependence of strain powered antennas are discussed. The radiation efficiency of strain powered electrically small antennas is contrasted with a conventional electric dipole. Analytical results show that operating at the first mechanical resonance produces the most efficient strain powered radiation relative to electric dipole antennas. A resonant analysis is exploited to determine the material property space that produces efficient strain powered antennas. These results show how a properly designed strain powered antenna can radiate more efficiently than an equally sized electric dipole antenna.

  18. Geometric reconstruction using tracked ultrasound strain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Simpson, Amber L.; Ondrake, Janet E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2013-03-01

    The accurate identification of tumor margins during neurosurgery is a primary concern for the surgeon in order to maximize resection of malignant tissue while preserving normal function. The use of preoperative imaging for guidance is standard of care, but tumor margins are not always clear even when contrast agents are used, and so margins are often determined intraoperatively by visual and tactile feedback. Ultrasound strain imaging creates a quantitative representation of tissue stiffness which can be used in real-time. The information offered by strain imaging can be placed within a conventional image-guidance workflow by tracking the ultrasound probe and calibrating the image plane, which facilitates interpretation of the data by placing it within a common coordinate space with preoperative imaging. Tumor geometry in strain imaging is then directly comparable to the geometry in preoperative imaging. This paper presents a tracked ultrasound strain imaging system capable of co-registering with preoperative tomograms and also of reconstructing a 3D surface using the border of the strain lesion. In a preliminary study using four phantoms with subsurface tumors, tracked strain imaging was registered to preoperative image volumes and then tumor surfaces were reconstructed using contours extracted from strain image slices. The volumes of the phantom tumors reconstructed from tracked strain imaging were approximately between 1.5 to 2.4 cm3, which was similar to the CT volumes of 1.0 to 2.3 cm3. Future work will be done to robustly characterize the reconstruction accuracy of the system.

  19. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  20. Tissue integrity, costs and time associated with different agents for histological bone preparation.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Adelino António Artur; Rafacho, Alex; Rivero, Elena Riet Correa; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; Siqueira, Filipe Modolo; Gondak, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    The selection of an appropriate demineralizing solution in pathology laboratories depends on several factors such as the preservation of cellularity, urgency of diagnostic and financial costs. The aim of this study was to test different decalcification bone procedures in order to establish the best value of these in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples. Femurs were removed from 13 adult male Wistar rats to obtain 130 bone disks randomly divided into five groups that were demineralized in different concentrations of nitric acid (Group I); formic acid (Group II); acetic acid (Group III); EDTA, pH7.4 (Group IV) and Morsés solution (Group V). Serial, 3-μm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to calculate the percentage of osteocyte-occupied lacunae. The sections were also stained with Masson's trichrome in conjunction with picrosirius red under polarized light followed by a semi-quantitative analysis to verify the adjacent muscle-to-bone integrity and preservation of collagen fibres. The highest percentage of osteocyte-occupied lacunae was found with 10% acetic acid solution (95.64 ± 0.95%) and Group I (nitric acid) demanded the shorter time (0.8-5.7days). Of all solutions, 5% nitric acid incurred the lowest cost to achieve complete demineralization compared with other solutions (p < .001). Group IV (EDTA) had the highest integrity of muscle and collagen type I and III (P < 0.01). Demineralization with 10% acetic acid was the most effective at preserving bone tissue, while 5% EDTA was the best at maintaining collagen and adjacent muscle to bone. In conclusion, nitric acid at 5% showed the most efficient result as it balanced both time and cost as a demineralizing solution.

  1. Anisotropic tissue motion induced by acupuncture needling along intermuscular connective tissue planes.

    PubMed

    Fox, James R; Gray, Weili; Koptiuch, Cathryn; Badger, Gary J; Langevin, Helene M

    2014-04-01

    Acupuncture needle manipulation causes mechanical deformation of connective tissue, which in turn results in mechanical stimulation of fibroblasts, with active changes in cell shape and autocrine purinergic signaling. We have previously shown using ultrasound elastography in humans that acupuncture needle manipulation causes measurable movement of tissue up to several centimeters away from the needle. The goal of this study was to quantify the spatial pattern of tissue displacement and deformation (shear strain) in response to acupuncture needling along an intermuscular connective tissue plane compared with needling over the belly of a muscle. Eleven (11) healthy human subjects underwent a single testing session during which robotic acupuncture needling was performed while recording tissue displacement using ultrasound. Outcome measures were axial and lateral tissue displacement as well as lateral shear strain calculated using ultrasound elastography postprocessing. Tissue displacement and strain extended further in the longitudinal direction when needling between muscles, and in the transverse direction when needling over the belly of a muscle. The anisotropic tissue motion observed in this study may influence the spatial distribution of local connective tissue cellular responses following acupuncture needle manipulation.

  2. Adipose Tissue Engineering for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jennifer H.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Lee, Kyongbum; Marra, Kacey G.; Rubin, J. Peter; Yoo, James J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Current treatment modalities for soft tissue defects caused by various pathologies and trauma include autologous grafting and commercially available fillers. However, these treatment methods present a number of challenges and limitations, such as donor-site morbidity and volume loss over time. As such, improved therapeutic modalities need to be developed. Tissue engineering techniques offer novel solutions to these problems through development of bioactive tissue constructs that can regenerate adipose tissue in both structure and function. Recently, a number of studies have been designed to explore various methods to engineer human adipose tissue. This review will focus on these developments in the area of adipose tissue engineering for soft tissue replacement. The physiology of adipose tissue and current surgical therapies used to replace lost tissue volume, specifically in breast tissue, are introduced, and current biomaterials, cell sources, and tissue culture strategies are discussed. We discuss future areas of study in adipose tissue engineering. PMID:20166810

  3. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  4. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  5. Strain and strain rate echocardiography in children with Wilson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Cemşit, Karakurt; Serkan, Çelik; Ayşe, Selimoğlu; İlknur, Varol; Hamza, Karabiber; Saim, Yoloğlu

    2016-01-01

    < 0.05). Segmental analysis showed that rotational strain measurement of the anterior and lateral segments of the patient group were statistically significantly lower than the corresponding values of the control group (p < 0.05). Segmental analysis showed statistically significantly lower values of end-systolic longitudinal strain [STSR (ES)] of the basal lateral (p < 0.05) and end-systolic longitudinal strain [SLSC (ES)] of the basal septal segment (p < 0.05) in the patient group. End-systolic longitudinal strain [SLSC (ES)] and positive peak transverse strain (STSR peak P) were statistically significantly lower in the patient group (p < 0.05). Segmental analysis showed statistically significantly lower values of endsystolic longitudinal strain [SLSC (ES)] of the mid-anterior and basal anterior segments (p < 0.05), end-systolic longitudinal strain [STSR (ES)] measurements of the posterior and mid-posterior segments, end-systolic longitudinal displacement [DLDC (ES)] of the basal posterior, mid-posterior and mid-antero-septal segments in the patient group. Conclusion Cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac death are rare complications but may be seen in children with Wilson’s disease due to copper accumulation in the heart tissue. Strain and strain rate echocardiography is a relatively new and useful echocardiographic technique to evaluate cardiac function and cardiac deformation abnormalities. Our study showed that despite normal systolic function, patients with Wilson’s disease showed diastolic dysfunction and regional deformation abnormalities, especially rotational strain and strain rate abnormalities. PMID:27176875

  6. Tissue culture: the unrealized potential

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Lack of differentiated functions of the tissue of origin in tissue culture thought to be due to dedifferentiation was shown to be due to selective overgrowth of fibroblasts. Enrichment culture techniques, (alternate animal and culture passage), designed to give the functionally differentiated cells selective advantage over the fibroblasts resulted in a large number of functionally differentiated clonal strains. Thus the dogma of dedifferentiation was destroyed. It is proposed to substitute the dedifferentiation hypothesis with the hypothesis that cells in culture accurately represent cells in vivo without the complex in vivo environment. With the development of hormonally defined media, combined with functionally differentiated clonal cell lines, the potential of tissue culture studies is greatly augmented. Hormonal responses and dependencies can be discovered in culture and the discovery of dependencies of cancer cells has led to a new rationale for therapy. PMID:19003154

  7. Photochemical tissue bonding

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, Robert W [Brookline, MA; Kochevar, Irene E [Charlestown, MA

    2012-01-10

    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  8. Strain sensor comprising a strain sensitive, two-mode optical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio Oliveira (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A strain sensor uses an optical fiber including a strain sensitive portion and at least one strain insensitive portion. The strain sensitive portion is mounted on the surface of a structure at a location where a strain is desired to be measured. The strain insensitive portion(s) may be fused to the strain sensitive portion to transmit light therethrough, so that the resulting pattern may be detected to determine the amount of strain by comparison with a similar fiber not subjected to strain, or with the light pattern produced when the fiber is not under strain.

  9. [Soft tissue rheumatism in erderly].

    PubMed

    Szczepański, Leszek

    2008-01-01

    Disorders of soft, peri-articular tissues are a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in elderly patients. Nevertheless, most physicians underestimate the role of soft tissue rheumatism in the pathomechanism of the pain. The impairments of soft tissue can not be diagnosed by X-rays examinations, whereas degenerative lesions of joints are easy diagnosed using this method even despite of their uncertain role in producing the symptoms. The incidence of pain syndromes originated from soft tissues differ regarding to the age of patients. In young subjects the incidence of all of them is generally low. Syndromes provoked by overloading during work: repetitive strain syndrome, canal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, golfers elbow, shoulder tendon coin disorders and myofascial pain syndrome are common in middle-aged patients. The morbidity of fibromialgia syndrome is also lower in old people probably as the result of diminished numbers and degenerative changes in nociceptive fibers. The syndromes prevailing in elderly patients include trochanteric syndrome and the pain syndromes provoked by muscle spasm depended on posture abnormalities. In the soft tissue pain syndrome prevention adapted to old age kinesitherapy and avoiding muscle overloading are recommended. Soft tissue pain syndromes are usually treated with non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. In local pain syndromes better results can be obtained by local treatment. Local injections of glikocorticosteroids are usually very effective and safe.

  10. Biothermomechanics of skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Lu, T. J.; Seffen, K. A.

    Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics and neurophysiology. During heating, thermally induced mechanical stress arises due to the thermal denaturation of collagen, resulting in macroscale shrinkage. Thus, the strain, stress, temperature and thermal pain/damage are highly correlated; in other words, the problem is fully coupled. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process and the heat-induced mechanical response, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. Exact solutions for temperature, thermal damage and thermal stress for a single-layer skin model were first derived for different boundary conditions. For multilayer models, numerical simulations using the finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) were used to analyze the temperature, burn damage and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage but large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; the stratum corneum layer, although very thin, has a large effect on the thermomechanical behavior of skin, suggesting that it should be properly accounted for in the modeling of skin thermal stresses; the stress caused by non-uniform temperature distribution in the skin may also contribute to the thermal pain sensation.

  11. Thin film strain transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A strain transducer system and process for making the same is disclosed. A beryllium copper ring having four strain gages is electrically connected in Wheatstone bridge fashion to the output instrumentation. Tabs are bonded to a balloon or like surface with strain on the surface causing bending of a ring which provides an electrical signal through the gages proportional to the surface strain. A photographic pattern of a one half ring segment as placed on a sheet of beryllium copper for chem-mill etch formation is illustrated.

  12. Strained Silicon Photonics

    PubMed Central

    Schriever, Clemens; Bohley, Christian; Schilling, Jörg; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon. PMID:28817015

  13. Tissue Photolithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Tissue lithography will enable physicians and researchers to obtain macromolecules with high purity (greater than 90 percent) from desired cells in conventionally processed, clinical tissues by simply annotating the desired cells on a computer screen. After identifying the desired cells, a suitable lithography mask will be generated to protect the contents of the desired cells while allowing destruction of all undesired cells by irradiation with ultraviolet light. The DNA from the protected cells can be used in a number of downstream applications including DNA sequencing. The purity (i.e., macromolecules isolated form specific cell types) of such specimens will greatly enhance the value and information of downstream applications. In this method, the specific cells are isolated on a microscope slide using photolithography, which will be faster, more specific, and less expensive than current methods. It relies on the fact that many biological molecules such as DNA are photosensitive and can be destroyed by ultraviolet irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to protect the contents of desired cells, yet destroy undesired cells. This approach leverages the technologies of the microelectronics industry, which can make features smaller than 1 micrometer with photolithography. A variety of ways has been created to achieve identification of the desired cell, and also to designate the other cells for destruction. This can be accomplished through chrome masks, direct laser writing, and also active masking using dynamic arrays. Image recognition is envisioned as one method for identifying cell nuclei and cell membranes. The pathologist can identify the cells of interest using a microscopic computerized image of the slide, and appropriate custom software. In one of the approaches described in this work, the software converts the selection into a digital mask that can be fed into a direct laser writer, e.g. the Heidelberg DWL66. Such a machine uses a metalized glass plate (with

  14. Multiscale mechanical modeling of soft biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2008-10-01

    Soft biological tissues include both native and artificial tissues. In the human body, tissues like the articular cartilage, arterial wall, and heart valve leaflets are examples of structures composed of an underlying network of collagen fibers, cells, proteins and molecules. Artificial tissues are less complex than native tissues and mainly consist of a fiber polymer network with the intent of replacing lost or damaged tissue. Understanding of the mechanical function of these materials is essential for many clinical treatments (e.g. arterial clamping, angioplasty), diseases (e.g. arteriosclerosis) and tissue engineering applications (e.g. engineered blood vessels or heart valves). This thesis presents the derivation and application of a multiscale methodology to describe the macroscopic mechanical function of soft biological tissues incorporating directly their structural architecture. The model, which is based on volume averaging theory, accounts for structural parameters such as the network volume fraction and orientation, the realignment of the fibers in response to strain, the interactions among the fibers and the interactions between the fibers and the interstitial fluid in order to predict the overall tissue behavior. Therefore, instead of using a constitutive equation to relate strain to stress, the tissue microstructure is modeled within a representative volume element (RVE) and the macroscopic response at any point in the tissue is determined by solving a micromechanics problem in the RVE. The model was applied successfully to acellular collagen gels, native blood vessels, and electrospun polyurethane scaffolds and provided accurate predictions for permeability calculations in isotropic and oriented fiber networks. The agreement of model predictions with experimentally determined mechanical properties provided insights into the mechanics of tissues and tissue constructs, while discrepancies revealed limitations of the model framework.

  15. Effect of higher frequency components and duration of vibration on bone tissue alterations in the rat-tail model

    PubMed Central

    PEELUKHANA, Srikara V.; GOENKA, Shilpi; KIM, Brian; KIM, Jay; BHATTACHARYA, Amit; STRINGER, Keith F.; BANERJEE, Rupak K.

    2015-01-01

    To formulate more accurate guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) linked to Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS), delineation of the response of bone tissue under different frequencies and duration of vibration needs elucidation. Rat-tails were vibrated at 125 Hz (9 rats) and 250 Hz (9 rats), at 49 m/s2, for 1D (6 rats), 5D (6 rats) and 20D (6 rats); D=days (4 h/d). Rats in the control group (6 rats for the vibration groups; 2 each for 1D, 5D, and 20D) were left in their cages, without being subjected to any vibration. Structural and biochemical damages were quantified using empty lacunae count and nitrotyrosine signal-intensity, respectively. One-way repeated-measure mixed-model ANOVA at p<0.05 level of significance was used for analysis. In the cortical bone, structural damage quantified through empty lacunae count was significant (p<0.05) at 250 Hz (10.82 ± 0.66) in comparison to the control group (7.41 ± 0.76). The biochemical damage was significant (p<0.05) at both the 125 Hz and 250 Hz vibration frequencies. The structural damage was significant (p<0.05) at 5D for cortical bone while the trabecular bone showed significant (p<0.05) damage at 20D time point. Further, the biochemical damage increased with increase in the duration of vibration with a significant (p<0.05) damage observed at 20D time point and a near significant change (p=0.08) observed at 5D time point. Structural and biochemical changes in bone tissue are dependent upon higher vibration frequencies of 125 Hz, 250 Hz and the duration of vibration (5D, 20D). PMID:25843564

  16. Effect of higher frequency components and duration of vibration on bone tissue alterations in the rat-tail model.

    PubMed

    Peelukhana, Srikara V; Goenka, Shilpi; Kim, Brian; Kim, Jay; Bhattacharya, Amit; Stringer, Keith F; Banerjee, Rupak K

    2015-01-01

    To formulate more accurate guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) linked to Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS), delineation of the response of bone tissue under different frequencies and duration of vibration needs elucidation. Rat-tails were vibrated at 125 Hz (9 rats) and 250 Hz (9 rats), at 49 m/s(2), for 1D (6 rats), 5D (6 rats) and 20D (6 rats); D=days (4 h/d). Rats in the control group (6 rats for the vibration groups; 2 each for 1D, 5D, and 20D) were left in their cages, without being subjected to any vibration. Structural and biochemical damages were quantified using empty lacunae count and nitrotyrosine signal-intensity, respectively. One-way repeated-measure mixed-model ANOVA at p<0.05 level of significance was used for analysis. In the cortical bone, structural damage quantified through empty lacunae count was significant (p<0.05) at 250 Hz (10.82 ± 0.66) in comparison to the control group (7.41 ± 0.76). The biochemical damage was significant (p<0.05) at both the 125 Hz and 250 Hz vibration frequencies. The structural damage was significant (p<0.05) at 5D for cortical bone while the trabecular bone showed significant (p<0.05) damage at 20D time point. Further, the biochemical damage increased with increase in the duration of vibration with a significant (p<0.05) damage observed at 20D time point and a near significant change (p=0.08) observed at 5D time point. Structural and biochemical changes in bone tissue are dependent upon higher vibration frequencies of 125 Hz, 250 Hz and the duration of vibration (5D, 20D).

  17. Printing of stretchable silk membranes for strain measurements.

    PubMed

    Ling, Shengjie; Zhang, Qiang; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Buehler, Markus J; Qin, Zhao

    2016-07-07

    Quantifying the deformation of biological tissues under mechanical loading is crucial to understand its biomechanical response in physiological conditions and important for designing materials and treatments for biomedical applications. However, strain measurements for biological tissues subjected to large deformations and humid environments are challenging for conventional methods due to several limitations such as strain range, boundary conditions, surface bonding and biocompatibility. Here we propose the use of silk solutions and printing to synthesize prototype strain gauges for large strain measurements in biological tissues. The study shows that silk-based strain gauges can be stretched up to 1300% without failure, which is more than two orders of magnitude larger than conventional strain gauges, and the mechanics can be tuned by adjusting ion content. We demonstrate that the printing approach can accurately provide well bonded fluorescent features on the silk membranes using designs which can accurately measure strain in the membrane. The results show that these new strain gauges measure large deformations in the materials by eliminating the effects of sliding from the boundaries, making the measurements more accurate than direct outputs from tensile machines.

  18. Principal component analysis of shear strain effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Varghese, Tomy

    2009-05-01

    Shear stresses are always present during quasi-static strain imaging, since tissue slippage occurs along the lateral and elevational directions during an axial deformation. Shear stress components along the axial deformation axes add to the axial deformation while perpendicular components introduce both lateral and elevational rigid motion and deformation artifacts into the estimated axial and lateral strain tensor images. A clear understanding of these artifacts introduced into the normal and shear strain tensor images with shear deformations is essential. In addition, signal processing techniques for improved depiction of the strain distribution is required. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of artifacts introduced due to lateral shear deformations on the normal strain tensors estimated by varying the lateral shear angle during an axial deformation. Shear strains are quantified using the lateral shear angle during the applied deformation. Simulation and experimental validation using uniformly elastic and single inclusion phantoms were performed. Variations in the elastographic signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios for axial deformations ranging from 0% to 5%, and for lateral deformations ranging from 0 to 5 degrees were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that the first and second principal component strain images provide higher signal-to-noise ratios of 20 dB with simulations and 10 dB under experimental conditions and contrast-to-noise ratio levels that are at least 20 dB higher when compared to the axial and lateral strain tensor images, when only lateral shear deformations are applied. For small axial deformations, the lateral shear deformations significantly reduces strain image quality, however the first principal component provides about a 1-2dB improvement over the axial strain tensor image. Lateral shear deformations also significantly increase the noise level in the axial and lateral strain tensor images with larger axial deformations

  19. Plethysmographic arterial waveform strain discrimination by Fisher's method.

    PubMed

    Kucewicz, John C; Huang, Lingyun; Beach, Kirk W

    2004-06-01

    Plethysmography has been used for over 50 years to measure gross change in tissue blood volume. Over the cardiac cycle, perfused tissue initially expands as the blood flow into the arterioles exceeds the flow through the capillary bed. Later in the cardiac cycle, the accumulated blood drains into the venous vasculature, allowing the tissue to return to its presystolic blood volume. Specific features in the plethysmographic waveform can be used to identify normal and abnormal perfusion. We are developing a Doppler strain-imaging technique to measure the local pulsatile expansion and relaxation of tissue analogous to the gross measurement of tissue volume change with conventional plethysmography. A phantom has been built to generate plethysmographic-style strains with amplitudes of less than 0.1% in a tissue-mimicking material. With Fisher's discriminant analysis, it is shown that normal and abnormal plethysmographic-style strains can be differentiated with high sensitivities using the Fourier components of the strain waveforms normalized to compensate for the variance in the strain amplitude estimate.

  20. In vivo tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    McCullen, Seth D; Chow, Andre G Y; Stevens, Molly M

    2011-10-01

    Tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissues often involves the in vitro manipulation and culture of progenitor cells, growth factors and biomaterial scaffolds. Though in vitro tissue engineering has greatly increased our understanding of cellular behavior and cell-material interactions, this methodology is often unable to recreate tissue with the hierarchical organization and vascularization found within native tissues. Accordingly, investigators have focused on alternative in vivo tissue engineering strategies, whereby the traditional triad (cells, growth factors, scaffolds) or a combination thereof are directly implanted at the damaged tissue site or within ectopic sites capable of supporting neo-tissue formation. In vivo tissue engineering may offer a preferential route for regeneration of musculoskeletal and other tissues with distinct advantages over in vitro methods based on the specific location of endogenous cultivation, recruitment of autologous cells, and patient-specific regenerated tissues.

  1. Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference strains and strains isolated from environmental water and patients.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic strains of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference strains, 235 environmental strains isolated from water, and 4 clinical strains isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila strains were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila strains, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical strains also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella strains. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila strains were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila strains. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila strains. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water.

  2. Mastication and the Postorbital Ligament: Dynamic Strain in Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Susan W.; Rafferty, Katherine L.; Liu, Zi Jun; Lemme, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Although the FEED database focuses on muscle activity patterns, it is equally suitable for other physiological recording and especially for synthesizing different types of information. The present contribution addresses the interaction between muscle activity and ligamentary stretch during mastication. The postorbital ligament is the thickened edge of a septum dividing the orbital contents from the temporal fossa and is continuous with the temporal fascia. As a tensile element, this fascial complex could support the zygomatic arch against the pull of the masseter muscle. An ossified postorbital bar has evolved repeatedly in mammals, enabling resistance to compression and shear in addition to tension. Although such ossification clearly reinforces the skull against muscle pull, the most accepted explanation is that it helps isolate the orbital contents from contractions of the temporalis muscle. However, it has never been demonstrated that the contraction of jaw muscles deforms the unossified ligament. We examined linear deformation of the postorbital ligament in minipigs, Sus scrofa, along with electromyography of the jaw muscles and an assessment of changes in pressure and shape in the temporalis. During chewing, the ligament elongated (average 0.9%, maximum 2.8%) in synchrony with the contraction of the elevator muscles of the jaw. Although the temporalis bulged outward and created substantial pressure against the braincase, the superficial fibers usually retracted caudally, away from the postorbital ligament. In anesthetized animals, stimulating either the temporalis or the masseter muscle in isolation usually elongated the ligament (average 0.4–0.7%). These results confirm that contraction of the masticatory muscles can potentially distort the orbital contents and further suggest that the postorbital ligament does function as a tension member resisting the pull of the masseter on the zygomatic arch. PMID:21593142

  3. Mastication and the postorbital ligament: dynamic strain in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Herring, Susan W; Rafferty, Katherine L; Liu, Zi Jun; Lemme, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Although the FEED database focuses on muscle activity patterns, it is equally suitable for other physiological recording and especially for synthesizing different types of information. The present contribution addresses the interaction between muscle activity and ligamentary stretch during mastication. The postorbital ligament is the thickened edge of a septum dividing the orbital contents from the temporal fossa and is continuous with the temporal fascia. As a tensile element, this fascial complex could support the zygomatic arch against the pull of the masseter muscle. An ossified postorbital bar has evolved repeatedly in mammals, enabling resistance to compression and shear in addition to tension. Although such ossification clearly reinforces the skull against muscle pull, the most accepted explanation is that it helps isolate the orbital contents from contractions of the temporalis muscle. However, it has never been demonstrated that the contraction of jaw muscles deforms the unossified ligament. We examined linear deformation of the postorbital ligament in minipigs, Sus scrofa, along with electromyography of the jaw muscles and an assessment of changes in pressure and shape in the temporalis. During chewing, the ligament elongated (average 0.9%, maximum 2.8%) in synchrony with the contraction of the elevator muscles of the jaw. Although the temporalis bulged outward and created substantial pressure against the braincase, the superficial fibers usually retracted caudally, away from the postorbital ligament. In anesthetized animals, stimulating either the temporalis or the masseter muscle in isolation usually elongated the ligament (average 0.4-0.7%). These results confirm that contraction of the masticatory muscles can potentially distort the orbital contents and further suggest that the postorbital ligament does function as a tension member resisting the pull of the masseter on the zygomatic arch.

  4. Light intensity strain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A process is described for the analysis of the strain field of structures subjected to large deformations involving a low modulus substrate having a high modulus, relatively thin coating. The optical properties of transmittance and reflectance are measured for the coated substrate while stressed and unstressed to indicate the strain field for the coated substrate.

  5. Mechanical strain isolator mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Gordon E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.

  6. Chitinase producing Bt strains

    Treesearch

    Haim B. Gunner; Matthew Zimet; Sarah Berger

    1985-01-01

    Screening of 402 strains of more than 18 varieties of Bacillus thuringiensis showed chitinase to be inducible in virtually every serovar tested. Though the chitinase titre varied among strains, there was a strong correlation between enhanced lethality to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), and an increase in...

  7. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends on the grade of the ... be healing as expected. Alternative Names Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - ... Ali K, Leland JM. Hamstring strains and tears in the athlete. Clin Sports Med . 2012;31( ...

  8. Lung tissue mechanics as an emergent phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Bates, Jason H T

    2011-04-01

    The mechanical properties of lung parenchymal tissue are both elastic and dissipative, as well as being highly nonlinear. These properties cannot be fully understood, however, in terms of the individual constituents of the tissue. Rather, the mechanical behavior of lung tissue emerges as a macroscopic phenomenon from the interactions of its microscopic components in a way that is neither intuitive nor easily understood. In this review, we first consider the quasi-static mechanical behavior of lung tissue and discuss computational models that show how smooth nonlinear stress-strain behavior can arise through a percolation-like process in which the sequential recruitment of collagen fibers with increasing strain causes them to progressively take over the load-bearing role from elastin. We also show how the concept of percolation can be used to link the pathologic progression of parenchymal disease at the micro scale to physiological symptoms at the macro scale. We then examine the dynamic mechanical behavior of lung tissue, which invokes the notion of tissue resistance. Although usually modeled phenomenologically in terms of collections of springs and dashpots, lung tissue viscoelasticity again can be seen to reflect various types of complex dynamic interactions at the molecular level. Finally, we discuss the inevitability of why lung tissue mechanics need to be complex.

  9. Design and Fabrication of Anatomical Bioreactor Systems Containing Alginate Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; Orazizadeh, Mahmoud; Ansari-Asl, Karim; Banoni, Salem; Izadi, Sina; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a tissue-engineering approach through alginate gel molding to mimic cartilage tissue in a three-dimensional culture system. The perfusion biomimetic bioreactor was designed to mimic natural joint. The shear stresses exerting on the bioreactor chamber were calculated by Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). Several alginate/bovine chondrocyte constructs were prepared, and were cultured in the bioreactor. Histochemical and immunohistochemical staining methods for the presence of glycosaminoglycan(GAG), overall matrix production and type II collagen protein were performed, respectively. The dynamic mechanical device applied a linear mechanical displacement of 2 mm to 10 mm. The CFD modeling indicated peak velocity and maximum wall shear stress were 1.706×10−3 m/s and 0.02407 dyne/cm 2, respectively. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis revealed evidence of cartilage-like tissue with lacunas similar to those of natural cartilage and the production of sulfated GAG of matrix by the chondrons, metachromatic territorial matrix-surrounded cells and accumulation of type II collagen around the cells. The present study indicated that when chondrocytes were seeded in alginate hydrogel and cultured in biomimetic cell culture system, cells survived well and secreted newly synthesized matrix led to improvement of chondrogenesis. PMID:23408660

  10. Histochemical Examination on Periodontal Tissues of Klotho-Deficient Mice Fed With Phosphate-Insufficient Diet.

    PubMed

    Hikone, Kumiko; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Tsuchiya, Erika; Hongo, Hiromi; Sasaki, Muneteru; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Kudo, Ai; Oda, Kimimitsu; Haraguchi, Mai; de Freitas, Paulo Henrique Luiz; Li, Minqi; Iida, Junichiro; Amizuka, Norio

    2017-04-01

    To elucidate which of elevated serum concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) or disrupted signaling linked to αklotho/fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a predominant regulator for senescence-related degeneration seen in αKlotho-deficient mice, we have examined histological alteration of the periodontal tissues in the mandibular interalveolar septum of αKlotho-deficient mice fed with Pi-insufficient diet. We prepared six groups of mice: wild-type, kl/kl, and αKlotho(-/-) mice with normal diet or low-Pi diet. As a consequence, kl/kl(norPi) and αKlotho(-/-norPi) mice showed the same abnormalities in periodontal tissues: intensely stained areas with hematoxylin in the interalveolar septum, dispersed localization of alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-reactive osteoclasts, and accumulation of dentin matrix protein 1 in the osteocytic lacunae. Although kl/kl(lowPi) mice improved these histological abnormalities, αKlotho(-/- lowPi) mice failed to normalize those. Gene expression of αKlotho was shown to be increased in kl/kl (lowPi) specimens. It seems likely that histological abnormalities of kl/kl mice have been improved by the rescued expression of αKlotho, rather than low concentration of serum Pi. Thus, the histological malformation in periodontal tissues in αKlotho-deficient mice appears to be due to not only increased concentration of Pi but also disrupted αklotho/FGF23 signaling.

  11. Conservative treatment for repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    Konijnenberg, H S; de Wilde, N S; Gerritsen, A A; van Tulder, M W; de Vet, H C

    2001-10-01

    Various conservative treatment options for repetitive strain injury are widely used, despite questionable evidence of their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of these treatment options for relieving symptoms of repetitive strain injury and improving activities of daily living. Searches in Medline and Embase, with additional reference checking resulted in 15 eligible trials for this review. Methodological quality was assessed, and data-extraction was performed. With the use of a "best-evidence synthesis", no strong evidence was found for the effectiveness of any of the treatment options. There is limited evidence that multidisciplinary rehabilitation, ergonomic intervention measures, exercises, and spinal manipulation combined with soft tissue therapy are effective in providing symptom relief or improving activities of daily living. There is conflicting evidence for the effectiveness of behavioral therapy. In conclusion, little is known about the effectiveness of conservative treatment options for repetitive strain injury. To establish strong evidence, more high-quality trials are needed.

  12. Heat strain in cold.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, Hannu; Rissanen, Sirkka

    2006-07-01

    In spite of increased environmental cold stress, heat strain is possible also in a cold environment. The body heat balance depends on three factors: environmental thermal conditions, metabolic heat production and thermal insulation of clothing and other protective garments. As physical exercise may increase metabolic heat production from rest values by ten times or even more, the required thermal insulation of clothing may vary accordingly. However, in most outdoor work, and often in indoor cold work, too, the thermal insulation of clothing is impractical, difficult or impossible to adjust according to the changes in physical activity. This is especially true with whole body covering garments like chemical protective clothing. As a result of this imbalance, heat strain may develop. In cold all the signs of heat strain (core temperature above 38 degrees C, warm or hot thermal sensations, increased cutaneous circulation and sweating) may not be present at the same time. Heat strain in cold may be whole body heat strain or related only to torso or core temperature. Together with heat strain in torso or body core, there can be at the same time even cold strain in peripheral parts and/or superficial layers of the body. In cold environment both the preservation of insulation and facilitation of heat loss are important. Development of clothing design is still needed to allow easy adjustments of thermal insulation.

  13. Thin film strain transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Previous attempts to develop an appropriate sensor for measuring the stress or strain of high altitude balloons during flight are reviewed as well as the various conditions that must be met by such a device. The design, development and calibration of a transducer which promises to satisfy the necessary design constraints are described. The thin film strain transducer has a low effective modulus so as not to interfere with the strain that would naturally occur in the balloon. In addition, the transducer has a high sensitivity to longitudinal strain (7.216 mV/V/unit strain) which is constant for all temperature from room temperature to -80 C and all strains from 5 percent compression to 10 percent tensile strain. At the same time, the sensor is relatively insensitive (0.27 percent) to transverse forces. The device has a standard 350 ohm impedance which is compatible with available bridge balance, amplification and telemetry instrumentation now available for balloon flight. Recommendations are included for improved coatings to provide passive thermal control as well as model, tethered and full scale flight testing.

  14. Comparison of two Egyptian strains of Schistosoma mansoni in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Soliman, G N; el Assal, F M; Mansour, N S; Garo, K

    1986-01-01

    In human infection with Schistosoma mansoni from Beni-Suef, the eggs were encountered more frequently in the urine of patients than in infection with S. mansoni from Giza, where eggs were passed into the stool. A comparative study of the two strains of S. mansoni from Beni-Suef and Giza has been carried out in golden hamster. Consistent strain differences were observed. The Beni-Suef strain proved to have lower worm recovery and different egg distribution patterns in tissues of infected hamsters. Worms of both sexes of this strain were larger in size and required a longer period to reach maturity. Hence, the prepatent period was prolonged. Significant differences between the two strains were also noted in the number of eggs per worm. A lower mortality rate and a longer survival time were encountered in hamsters infected with the Beni-Suef strain.

  15. Characterization of vascular strain during in-vitro angioplasty with high-resolution ultrasound speckle tracking

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ultrasound elasticity imaging provides biomechanical and elastic properties of vascular tissue, with the potential to distinguish between tissue motion and tissue strain. To validate the ability of ultrasound elasticity imaging to predict structurally defined physical changes in tissue, strain measurement patterns during angioplasty in four bovine carotid artery pathology samples were compared to the measured physical characteristics of the tissue specimens. Methods Using computational image-processing techniques, the circumferences of each bovine artery specimen were obtained from ultrasound and pathologic data. Results Ultrasound-strain-based and pathology-based arterial circumference measurements were correlated with an R2 value of 0.94 (p = 0.03). The experimental elasticity imaging results confirmed the onset of deformation of an angioplasty procedure by indicating a consistent inflection point where vessel fibers were fully unfolded and vessel wall strain initiated. Conclusion These results validate the ability of ultrasound elasticity imaging to measure localized mechanical changes in vascular tissue. PMID:20727172

  16. Strain gauge installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Conard, Lisa Marie

    1998-01-01

    A tool and a method for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool.

  17. Nanoindentation hardness of mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Oyen, Michelle L

    2006-01-01

    A series elastic and plastic deformation model [Sakai, M., 1999. The Meyer hardness: a measure for plasticity? Journal of Materials Research 14(9), 3630-3639] is used to deconvolute the resistance to plastic deformation from the plane strain modulus and contact hardness parameters obtained in a nanoindentation test. Different functional dependencies of contact hardness on the plane strain modulus are examined. Plastic deformation resistance values are computed from the modulus and contact hardness for engineering materials and mineralized tissues. Elastic modulus and plastic deformation resistance parameters are used to calculate elastic and plastic deformation components, and to examine the partitioning of indentation deformation between elastic and plastic. Both the numerical values of plastic deformation resistance and the direct computation of deformation partitioning reveal the intermediate mechanical responses of mineralized composites when compared with homogeneous engineering materials.

  18. Strain imaging with intravascular ultrasound: An in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrey, Christian; Ermert, Helmut; Bojara, Waldemar; Holt, Stephan; Lindstaedt, Michael

    2004-05-01

    The evaluation of mechanical properties of coronary plaques is of high interest for the assessment of coronary diseases. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can be used to visualize strain in coronary tissue. In this study, strain imaging is performed using an IVUS system with a 40-MHz rotating single-element transducer. Radio frequency (rf) data are acquired during in vivo examinations and sampled at 100 MHz. Image frames are stored consecutively during 3 s at a frame rate of 30/s. Data are recorded at different levels of tissue compression. The required pressure difference is caused by natural pulsatile blood flow. The strain imaging algorithm estimates radial strain from rf data based on frame-to-frame correlation. Rotating transducers often show nonuniform rotational distortion (NURD), which leads to misaligned echo lines in consecutive frames. This results in lateral motion artifacts and causes decorrelation. This effect is reduced by lateral motion correction based on block-matching algorithms. Results show that strain imaging can successfully be performed in vivo with data acquired predominantly in diastole. Different coronary tissue regions can be identified by local strain variations. If NURD is present, strain image quality is degraded. In some cases NURD is reduced by repositioning the transducer.

  19. Nonlinear viscoelastic response of vocal-fold tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2002-05-01

    Previous rheological measurements of the viscoelastic shear properties of vocal-fold tissues have focused on the linear regime, in the small strain region typically with γ0<=1.0%. This imposed limit was necessary in order for the theory of linear viscoelasticity to be valid, yielding dynamic shear data that can be applicable for the biomechanical modeling of small-amplitude vocal-fold oscillation. Nonetheless, as the physiological range of phonation does involve more than small-amplitude oscillation, the large strain viscoelastic behaviors of vocal-fold tissues are equally important and remain to be quantified. This paper reports preliminary measurements of some of these viscoelastic behaviors in large strain shear. Excised sheep vocal-fold mucosal tissues were subject to stress relaxation, constant stress, and constant strain rate tests in a controlled-strain torsional rheometer. Results showed that vocal-fold tissues demonstrate nonlinear viscoelastic response in shear, including stress relaxation that is dependent on strain and strain creep that is dependent on stress. These findings cannot be adequately described by Y. C. Fung's quasilinear viscoelasticity formulation, which assumes strain dependence and time dependence to be separable. A more general constitutive model is being developed to better characterize the observed nonlinear response.

  20. High-level relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense strains from widely separated outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Tettelin, Hervé; Davidson, Rebecca M; Agrawal, Sonia; Aitken, Moira L; Shallom, Shamira; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Strong, Michael; de Moura, Vinicius Calado Nogueira; De Groote, Mary Ann; Duarte, Rafael S; Hine, Erin; Parankush, Sushma; Su, Qi; Daugherty, Sean C; Fraser, Claire M; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; Holland, Steven M; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Olivier, Kenneth N; Jackson, Mary; Zelazny, Adrian M

    2014-03-01

    Three recently sequenced strains isolated from patients during an outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense infections at a cystic fibrosis center in the United States were compared with 6 strains from an outbreak at a cystic fibrosis center in the United Kingdom and worldwide strains. Strains from the 2 cystic fibrosis outbreaks showed high-level relatedness with each other and major-level relatedness with strains that caused soft tissue infections during an epidemic in Brazil. We identified unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis and soft tissue outbreak strains, separate single-nucleotide polymorphisms only in cystic fibrosis outbreak strains, and unique genomic traits for each subset of isolates. Our findings highlight the necessity of identifying M. abscessus to the subspecies level and screening all cystic fibrosis isolates for relatedness to these outbreak strains. We propose 2 diagnostic strategies that use partial sequencing of rpoB and secA1 genes and a multilocus sequence typing protocol.

  1. Measurement of surface deformation of soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Stokes, I; Greenapple, D M

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the surface shape and deformations of soft tissue in three dimensions. The method uses close range stereophotogrammetry to record the three-dimensional locations of miniature optical targets applied to the tissue surface. This has been applied to study of human lumbar intervertebral disc. Measurements of the strain along surface annular fibers have been made under varying loads. In this case the maximum expected errors are about 0.15 mm, which corresponds to a strain of less than 1%. Preliminary findings have differed from predictions made in published mathematical models for the disc in that they show very little strain of the annulus in compression loading, but confirm axial torsional loading as liable to produce mechanical disruption of the disc annulus.

  2. Strain and magnetic remanence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, Graham John

    1993-05-01

    Experimental data may be compatible with the hypothesis that a single direction of magnetic remanence rotates as a rigid marker with strains up to 40% shortening in coaxial, perfect flattening ( X = Y > Z). Detailed agreement with the passive line model is relatively poor for the specimens in which remanance is carried by magnetite. However, for this range of strains the differences with the passive line model (Wettstein's equation) are so slight that the latter model may be more easily employed to de-strain or restore deformed remanance to its original attitude. In the case of hematite-bearing remanences, the differences between the passive line and rigid marker model are even smaller because of the higher aspect ratios of grains of hematite. Therefore it is suggested that Wettstein's equation may be safely used to restore remanence after even higher strains, where the remanence is carried by hematite.

  3. Nanowires enabling strained photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Greil, J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Lugstein, A.; Birner, S.

    2014-04-21

    Photovoltaic nano-devices have largely been relying on charge separation in conventional p-n junctions. Junction formation via doping, however, imposes major challenges in process control. Here, we report on a concept for photovoltaic energy conversion at the nano scale without the need for intentional doping. Our approach relies on charge carrier separation in inhomogeneously strained germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). This concept utilizes the strain-induced gradient in bandgap along tapered NWs. Experimental data confirms the feasibility of strain-induced charge separation in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NW devices with an internal quantum efficiency of ∼5%. The charge separation mechanism, though, is not inherently limited to a distinct material. Our work establishes a class of photovoltaic nano-devices with its opto-electronic properties engineered by size, shape, and applied strain.

  4. Strains and Sprains

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the joint or muscle swelling and bruising warmth and redness of the injured area difficulty moving ... looks "bent" or misshapen signs of infection (increased warmth, redness, streaks, swelling, and pain) a strain or ...

  5. Sprains and Strains

    MedlinePlus

    ... people at risk for strains. Gymnastics, tennis, rowing, golf, and other sports that require extensive gripping can ... participating in any sport or exercise. Wear protective equipment when playing. Run on even surfaces. Information on ...

  6. Strain and strain rate: An emerging technology in the perioperative period.

    PubMed

    Malik, Vishwas; Subramaniam, Arun; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Newer noninvasive parameters are being used for perioperative detection of myocardial ischaemia. TDI and global strain rate are some of these parameters. TDI signal is a modification of the routine Doppler flow signal. It is obtained by using thresholding and filtering algorithms that reject echoes originating from the blood pool (by-passing the high pass filter). Set-Up of the machine by activating the TDI function allows decreasing the system gain using a low pass filter and eliminates the signal produced by blood flow. Doppler shift obtained from myocardial tissue motion are of higher amplitudes (reflectivity 40 dB higher) and move about 10 times slower than blood (velocity range: 0.06 to 0.24 m/s). Speckle tracking echocardiography (tissue tracking, 2D strain) utilizes routine gray-scale 2D echo images to calculate myocardial strain. Interactions of ultrasound with myocardium result in reflection and scattering. These interactions generate a finely gray-shaded, speckled pattern (acoustic marker). This speckled pattern is unique for each myocardial region and relatively stable throughout the cardiac cycle. Spatial and temporal image processing of acoustic speckles in both 2D and 3D allows for the calculation of myocardial velocity, strain, and Strain rate.

  7. Canalicular network morphology is the major determinant of the spatial distribution of mass density in human bone tissue: evidence by means of synchrotron radiation phase-contrast nano-CT.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Bernhard; Varga, Peter; Langer, Max; Pacureanu, Alexandra; Schrof, Susanne; Männicke, Nils; Suhonen, Heikki; Maurer, Peter; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Francoise; Raum, Kay

    2015-02-01

    In bone remodeling, maturation of the newly formed osteonal tissue is associated with a rapid primary increase followed by a slower secondary increase of mineralization. This requires supply and precipitation of mineral into the bone matrix. Mineral delivery can occur only from the extracellular fluid via interfaces such as the Haversian system and the osteocyte pore network. We hypothesized that in mineralization, mineral exchange is achieved by the diffusion of mineral from the lacunar-canalicular network (LCN) to the bone matrix, resulting in a gradual change in tissue mineralization with respect to the distance from the pore-matrix interface. We expected to observe alterations in the mass density distribution with tissue age. We further hypothesized that mineral exchange occurs not only at the lacunar but also at the canalicular boundaries. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the spatial distribution of mass density in the perilacunar and pericanalicular bone matrix and to explore how these densities are influenced by tissue aging. This is achieved by analyzing human jawbone specimens originating from four healthy donors and four treated with high-dosage bisphosphonate using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast nano-CT with a 50-nm voxel size. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that mass density in the direct vicinity of both lacunae (p < 0.001) and canaliculi (p < 0.001) is different from the mean matrix mass density, resulting in gradients with respect to the distance from both pore-matrix interfaces, which diminish with increasing tissue age. Though limited by the sample size, these findings support our hypotheses. Moreover, the density gradients are more pronounced around the lacunae than around the canaliculi, which are explained by geometrical considerations in the LCN morphology. In addition, we speculate that mineral exchange occurs at all interfaces of the LCN, not only in mineralization but also in mineral

  8. Lacuna maculare in latitudine nell'emisfero nord del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubergia, Gian Paolo; Piovan, Luciano

    2005-04-01

    This paper completes the study of sunspot activity as far as latitude distribution is concerned, having already outlined in this journal the lack of spots around the 9-10° of southern latitudes. We searched for a similar behaviour in the northern hemisphere. We present the confirmation of our hypothesis, thanks to the discovery of a slight anomaly in the northern hemisphere, which showed a latitudinal mobility of about 5° during periods of time greater than the duration of the typical magnetic cycles of the sunspots.

  9. Analysis of flux of gas passing circle lacuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi-Jun; Sun, Ke-Yu; Yu, Xiu-Ping

    2002-12-01

    The rate of flow of the gas flowing through cirque chink often needs calculation in engineering. The characters of compressibility and thermodynamics have some effect on the gas flowing, so the analysis on the flow of gas is more complex than that of liquid. But under different conditions and different requirements of precision the analysis can be simplified suitably, then make the formulae given become simple subsequently. This paper analyzes various gas flux based on basic characters and motion laws of gas and the analysis is just applied in an engineering project.

  10. Stress-strain experiments on individual collagen fibrils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhilei L; Dodge, Mohammad Reza; Kahn, Harold; Ballarini, Roberto; Eppell, Steven J

    2008-10-01

    Collagen, a molecule consisting of three braided protein helices, is the primary building block of many biological tissues including bone, tendon, cartilage, and skin. Staggered arrays of collagen molecules form fibrils, which arrange into higher-ordered structures such as fibers and fascicles. Because collagen plays a crucial role in determining the mechanical properties of these tissues, significant theoretical research is directed toward developing models of the stiffness, strength, and toughness of collagen molecules and fibrils. Experimental data to guide the development of these models, however, are sparse and limited to small strain response. Using a microelectromechanical systems platform to test partially hydrated collagen fibrils under uniaxial tension, we obtained quantitative, reproducible mechanical measurements of the stress-strain curve of type I collagen fibrils, with diameters ranging from 150-470 nm. The fibrils showed a small strain (epsilon < 0.09) modulus of 0.86 +/- 0.45 GPa. Fibrils tested to strains as high as 100% demonstrated strain softening (sigma(yield) = 0.22 +/- 0.14 GPa; epsilon(yield) = 0.21 +/- 0.13) and strain hardening, time-dependent recoverable residual strain, dehydration-induced embrittlement, and susceptibility to cyclic fatigue. The results suggest that the stress-strain behavior of collagen fibrils is dictated by global characteristic dimensions as well as internal structure.

  11. Growth strain in coconut palm trees.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan S; Chen, Shin S; Lin, Tsan P; Chen, Yuh S

    2002-03-01

    Until recently, growth stress studies have been made only on coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. Growth stress of trees is thought to be initiated in newly formed secondary xylem cells. This stress can accumulate for years and is distributed inside the trunk. Major characteristics of the trunk of monocotyledonous trees include numerous vascular bundles scattered inside the ground tissue and the lack of secondary growth for enlarging the diameter of the trunk. We used the strain gauge method to measure the released growth strain of the monocotyledonous woody palm, coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and to investigate the surface growth strain of the trunk and central cylinder at different trunk heights. The internal strains of both vertical and leaning trunks were measured and compared with those of coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. We found that tensile stress existed longitudinally on the surface of vertically growing trunks, whereas compression stress was found at the bending position of leaning trunks. Compression stress was found in the outer part of the central cylinder, whereas tensile stress is generally found in the outer part of the trunk in coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. The distribution of strain in the palm trunk is similar to that of compression wood of the leaning trunk of a conifer. Specific gravity was greater in the outer part of the trunk than in the inner part of the trunk. This difference may be related to the distribution of growth stress.

  12. Medial cortex strain distribution during noncemented total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Elias, J J; Nagao, M; Chu, Y H; Carbone, J J; Lennox, D W; Chao, E Y

    2000-01-01

    Intraoperative proximal femur fractures are a significant concern during noncemented total hip arthroplasty. The current study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that broaching the femur and inserting the stem without using mallet applied impact loads will reduce the risk of intraoperative fracture. Rosette strain gauges were applied to the medial and anteromedial cortex of six human anatomic specimen femurs to compare the strain distribution for broaching and stem insertion. Eight additional femurs were used to compare the strain distribution for stem insertion using impact loading and constant rate stem insertion. For the impact loading stem insertions, the soft tissues surrounding the femur were modeled. Constant rate stem insertions were performed using a mechanical testing machine. The largest strains measured at the medial and anteromedial sites primarily were aligned with the femur hoop axis. The largest strain magnitude, orientation, and sign (tensile or compressive) varied widely among femurs. The stem insertion strains were significantly larger than the broaching strains (two-way analysis of variance with replication). The impact stem insertion strains were not significantly different from the constant rate stem insertion strains. The results indicate that the femur geometry and material properties have a greater influence on the strain distribution than does the implantation technique.

  13. Physical models of tissue in shear fields.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Edwin L; Parker, Kevin J

    2014-04-01

    This review considers three general classes of physical as opposed to phenomenological models of the shear elasticity of tissues. The first is simple viscoelasticity. This model has a special role in elastography because it is the language in which experimental and clinical data are communicated. The second class of models involves acoustic relaxation, in which the medium contains inner time-dependent systems that are driven through the external bulk medium. Hysteresis, the phenomenon characterizing the third class of models, involves losses that are related to strain rather than time rate of change of strain. In contrast to the vast efforts given to tissue characterization through their bulk moduli over the last half-century, similar research using low-frequency shear data is in its infancy. Rather than a neat summary of existing facts, this essay is a framework for hypothesis generation-guessing what physical mechanisms give tissues their shear properties.

  14. Strain: Fact or Fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, Renée

    2017-04-01

    2017 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of John Ramsay's well known textbook "Folding and Fracturing of Rocks" - ... and the 30th anniversary of the rejection of a rather less well known paper entitled "Strain: Fact or Fiction?" submitted by Renée Panozzo to the Journal of Structural Geology. The gist of the paper was simple and straight forward: it was argued that not every fabric that can be observed in deformed rocks is necessarily a measure of the amount of strain the rock incurred. A distinction was made between a general "fabric", i.e., the traceable geometry of grain boundaries, for example, and a so-called "strain fabric", i.e., the model geometry that would result from homogeneously straining an initially isotropic fabric and that would exhibit at least orthorhombic symmetry. To verify if a given fabric was indeed a strain fabric it was therefore suggested to use the SURFOR method (published by Panozzo) and to carry out a so-called strain test, i.e., a check of symmetry, before interpreting the results of a fabric analysis in terms of strain. The problem with the paper was that it was very obviously written out of frustration. The frustration came form having reviewed a number of manuscripts which tried to use the then novel SURFOR method for strain analysis without first checking if the the fabric was a indeed a "strain fabric" or not, and then blaming the SURFOR method for producing ambiguous results. As a result, the paper was not exactly well balanced and carefully thought out. It was considered "interesting but not scholarly" by one of the reviewers and down-right offensive by the second. To tell the truth, however, the paper was not formally rejected. The editor Sue Treagus strongly encouraged Panozzo to revise the paper, ... and 30 years later, I will follow her advise and offer a revised paper as a tribute to John Ramsay. To quote from the original manuscript: "We should be a little more impressed that strain works so well, and less

  15. Longitudinal residual strain and stress-strain relationship in rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yanling; Fan, Yanhua; Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2006-06-07

    To obtain a more detailed description of the stress-free state of the intestinal wall, longitudinal residual strain measurements are needed. Furthermore, data on longitudinal stress-strain relations in visceral organs are scarce. The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal residual strain and the longitudinal stress-strain relationship in the rat small intestine. The longitudinal zero-stress state was obtained by cutting tissue strips parallel to the longitudinal axis of the intestine. The longitudinal residual stress was characterized by a bending angle (unit: degrees per unit length and positive when bending outwards). Residual strain was computed from the change in dimensions between the zero-stress state and the no-load state. Longitudinal stresses and strains were computed from stretch experiments in the distal ileum at luminal pressures ranging from 0-4 cmH2O. Large morphometric variations were found between the duodenum and ileum with the largest wall thickness and wall area in the duodenum and the largest inner circumference and luminal area in the distal ileum (p < 0.001). The bending angle did not differ between the duodenum and ileum (p > 0.5). The longitudinal residual strain was tensile at the serosal surface and compressive at the mucosal surface. Hence, the neutral axis was approximately in the mid-wall. The longitudinal residual strain and the bending angle was not uniform around the intestinal circumference and had the highest values on the mesenteric sides (p < 0.001). The stress-strain curves fitted well to the mono-exponential function with determination coefficients above 0.96. The alpha constant increased with the pressure, indicating the intestinal wall became stiffer in longitudinal direction when pressurized. Large longitudinal residual strains reside in the small intestine and showed circumferential variation. This indicates that the tissue is not uniform and cannot be treated as a homogenous material. The longitudinal stiffness

  16. Longitudinal residual strain and stress-strain relationship in rat small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yanling; Fan, Yanhua; Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Background To obtain a more detailed description of the stress-free state of the intestinal wall, longitudinal residual strain measurements are needed. Furthermore, data on longitudinal stress-strain relations in visceral organs are scarce. The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal residual strain and the longitudinal stress-strain relationship in the rat small intestine. Methods The longitudinal zero-stress state was obtained by cutting tissue strips parallel to the longitudinal axis of the intestine. The longitudinal residual stress was characterized by a bending angle (unit: degrees per unit length and positive when bending outwards). Residual strain was computed from the change in dimensions between the zero-stress state and the no-load state. Longitudinal stresses and strains were computed from stretch experiments in the distal ileum at luminal pressures ranging from 0–4 cmH2O. Results Large morphometric variations were found between the duodenum and ileum with the largest wall thickness and wall area in the duodenum and the largest inner circumference and luminal area in the distal ileum (p < 0.001). The bending angle did not differ between the duodenum and ileum (p > 0.5). The longitudinal residual strain was tensile at the serosal surface and compressive at the mucosal surface. Hence, the neutral axis was approximately in the mid-wall. The longitudinal residual strain and the bending angle was not uniform around the intestinal circumference and had the highest values on the mesenteric sides (p < 0.001). The stress-strain curves fitted well to the mono-exponential function with determination coefficients above 0.96. The α constant increased with the pressure, indicating the intestinal wall became stiffer in longitudinal direction when pressurized. Conclusion Large longitudinal residual strains reside in the small intestine and showed circumferential variation. This indicates that the tissue is not uniform and cannot be treated as a homogenous

  17. Functional Strain-Line Pattern in the Human Left Ventricle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; De Luca, Alessio; Caracciolo, Giuseppe; Mangual, Jan O.; Shah, Amil; Toncelli, Loira; Domenichini, Federico; Tonti, Giovanni; Galanti, Giorgio; Sengupta, Partho P.; Narula, Jagat; Solomon, Scott

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of deformations in terms of principal directions appears well suited for biological tissues that present an underlying anatomical structure of fiber arrangement. We applied this concept here to study deformation of the beating heart in vivo analyzing 30 subjects that underwent accurate three-dimensional echocardiographic recording of the left ventricle. Results show that strain develops predominantly along the principal direction with a much smaller transversal strain, indicating an underlying anisotropic, one-dimensional contractile activity. The strain-line pattern closely resembles the helical anatomical structure of the heart muscle. These findings demonstrate that cardiac contraction occurs along spatially variable paths and suggest a potential clinical significance of the principal strain concept for the assessment of mechanical cardiac function. The same concept can help in characterizing the relation between functional and anatomical properties of biological tissues, as well as fiber-reinforced engineered materials.

  18. Novel human intervertebral disc strain template to quantify regional three-dimensional strains in a population and compare to internal strains predicted by a finite element model.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Brent L; DeLucca, John F; Peloquin, John M; Cortes, Daniel H; Yoder, Jonathon H; Jacobs, Nathan T; Wright, Alexander C; Gee, James C; Vresilovic, Edward J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2016-07-01

    Tissue strain is an important indicator of mechanical function, but is difficult to noninvasively measure in the intervertebral disc. The objective of this study was to generate a disc strain template, a 3D average of disc strain, of a group of human L4-L5 discs loaded in axial compression. To do so, magnetic resonance images of uncompressed discs were used to create an average disc shape. Next, the strain tensors were calculated pixel-wise by using a previously developed registration algorithm. Individual disc strain tensor components were then transformed to the template space and averaged to create the disc strain template. The strain template reduced individual variability while highlighting group trends. For example, higher axial and circumferential strains were present in the lateral and posterolateral regions of the disc, which may lead to annular tears. This quantification of group-level trends in local 3D strain is a significant step forward in the study of disc biomechanics. These trends were compared to a finite element model that had been previously validated against the disc-level mechanical response. Depending on the strain component, 81-99% of the regions within the finite element model had calculated strains within one standard deviation of the template strain results. The template creation technique provides a new measurement technique useful for a wide range of studies, including more complex loading conditions, the effect of disc pathologies and degeneration, damage mechanisms, and design and evaluation of treatments. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1264-1273, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Principles and clinical applications of strain imaging.

    PubMed

    Govind, Satish C; Kiotsekoglou, Anatoli; Gopal, Aasha S; Brodin, Lars Ake; Ramesh; Saha, Samir K

    2011-01-01

    M-Mode echocardiography, 2-D grey scale imaging and standard Doppler that constitute conventional echocardiography has been used for over many decades now. Although these modalities form the backbone in routine clinical echocardiography, its inability to objectively quantify left ventricular function at regional and global levels as well as its loading and heart rate dependency make conventional echocardiography an incomplete tool in clinical situations. Tissue Doppler imaging (which includes myocardial velocity, displacement and strain) has been successfully used in a variety of clinical situations, from investigations of diastolic function to implantation of bi-ventricular pacing for cardiac resynchronization therapy and even in preclinical diagnosis of genetic diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Strain imaging has been found to be superior to velocity in a variety of clinical conditions and enables us to quantify deformation as a measurable number in terms of regional myocardial deformation. Strain and strain rate have to be assessed together since they provide complementary information somewhat analogous to ejection fraction and contraction. This article has tried to simplify its principles, understand its limitations and know its utility to ensure having a better knowledge of this promising tool before one starts to actively use it. In this review, focus has been made on the physical, technical and also clinical aspects of strain imaging. In the new world of multi-modality imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and nuclear perfusion scintigraphy (NPS) are the competitors of echocardiography, but it would be of interest to note that even these modalities are also adapting concepts of strain imaging (in CMR) and left ventricular synchronicity (in NPS). This only emphasizes the role of advanced echocardiography as a more economical and stand-alone modality visa vis the other two related technologies. The sooner we adapt to these advanced

  20. Strain-dependent internal parameters in hyperelastic biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giantesio, G.; Musesti, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper concerns the behavior of hyperelastic energies depending on an internal parameter. First, the situation in which the internal parameter is a function of the gradient of the deformation is presented. Second, two models where the parameter describes the activation of skeletal muscle tissue are analyzed. In those models, the activation parameter depends on the strain and it is important to consider the derivative of the parameter with respect to the strain in order to capture the proper behavior of the stress.

  1. Localized strain measurements of the intervertebral disc annulus during biaxial tensile testing.

    PubMed

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    Both inter-lamellar and intra-lamellar failures of the annulus have been described as potential modes of disc herniation. Attempts to characterize initial lamellar failure of the annulus have involved tensile testing of small tissue samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method of measuring local surface strains through image analysis of a tensile test conducted on an isolated sample of annular tissue in order to enhance future studies of intervertebral disc failure. An annulus tissue sample was biaxial strained to 10%. High-resolution images captured the tissue surface throughout testing. Three test conditions were evaluated: submerged, non-submerged and marker. Surface strains were calculated for the two non-marker conditions based on motion of virtual tracking points. Tracking algorithm parameters (grid resolution and template size) were varied to determine the effect on estimated strains. Accuracy of point tracking was assessed through a comparison of the non-marker conditions to a condition involving markers placed on tissue surface. Grid resolution had a larger effect on local strain than template size. Average local strain error ranged from 3% to 9.25% and 0.1% to 2.0%, for the non-submerged and submerged conditions, respectively. Local strain estimation has a relatively high potential for error. Submerging the tissue provided superior strain estimates.

  2. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  3. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... L. Goldstein, MD, MMSc (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  4. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the ...

  5. Ultrasound strain elastography in assessment of cortical mechanical behavior in acute renal vein occlusion: in vivo animal model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; He, Wen; Cheng, Ling-Gang; Li, Xiao-Ya; Zhang, Xiou-Ru; Juluru, Krishna; Al Khori, Noor; Coya, Adrienne; Min, Robert

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of quantitative ultrasound strain parameters with the severity of cortical edema in renal vein occlusion, we prospectively performed ultrasound strain elastography on a canine acute renal vein occlusion model prior to and following 10, 20, and 40min of renal vein ligation. Strain and strain relaxation time representing the deformation and relaxation of the renal cortices and reference soft tissue were produced by the external compression with the ultrasound transducer and estimated using commercially available 2-D speckle tracking software. Cortical thickness was additionally measured. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the difference in cortical thickness, strain ratio (mean cortical strain divided by mean reference tissue strain), and strain relaxation time ratio (cortical relaxation time divided by reference tissue relaxation time) prior to and after renal vein ligation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to test the relationship between strain parameters and the time of the renal vein ligation. There was a strong positive correlation between the duration of renal vein ligation and strain (R(2)=0.97) and strain relaxation time (R(2)=0.98) ratios. Significant differences in strain and strain relaxation time ratios were found at all measured timepoints (all P≪.001). Cortical thickness, however, showed no significant difference between timepoints (P=.065). Our result suggest that strain and strain relaxation time ratios may be used as quantitative markers for the assessment of the renal cortical mechanical behavior in subclinical acute renal vein occlusion.

  6. Engineering of human tracheal tissue with collagen-enforced poly-lactic-glycolic acid non-woven mesh: a preliminary study in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Feng, Xue; Mao, Tianqiu; Feng, Xinghua; Ouyang, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Guifang; Chen, Fulin

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the current study is to fabricate tissue engineered trachea with poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) non-woven mesh enforced by collagen type I. PLGA fibres coated with collagen solution were put together and fabricated into the shape of a human trachea, after drying and cross-linking treatment, a non-woven mesh with "C" shape formed. Chondrocytes from sheep nasal septum cartilage were expanded in vitro and seeded into PLGA/collagen non-woven mesh in the density of 5.0 x 10(7)mL(-1). After 5 days of in vitro incubation, six Cell-PLGA/collagen composites were implanted subcutaneously into the back of 6 nude mice to prefabricate a tissue engineering trachea. Eight weeks later, the cartilage formation was observed by gross inspection and histological examination. Cartilage-like tissue in the shape of the initial PLGA/collagen scaffold had been regenerated successfully without obvious inflammatory response. The tissue engineered trachea cartilage consisted of evenly spaced lacunae embedded in matrix stained red with safranin-O staining. The amount of GAGs in tissue engineered trachea cartilage reached 71.42% of normal value in native cartilage. This study demonstrated that collagen-enforced PLGA non-woven mesh facilitated the adhesion and proliferation of chondrocytes, it also owned adequate mechanical strength to serve as an ideal scaffold for trachea tissue engineering without internal support.

  7. PHB/PHBHHx scaffolds and human adipose-derived stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuan; Hu, Ping; Ma, Min-Xian; Xiang, Yang; Liu, Ri-Guang; Shang, Xian-Wen

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)/poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) (PHB/PHBHHx) to produce neocartilage upon seeding with differentiated human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). hASCs were grown on a three-dimensional PHB/PHBHHx scaffold in vitro with or without chondrogenic media for 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy showed that differentiated cells produced abundant extracellular matrices with increasing culture time. No cytotoxicity was observed by the live/dead cell viability assay. GAG and total collagen content in the differentiated cells increased significantly with in vitro culture time. After 14 days of in vitro culture, the differentiated cells grown on the (PHB/PHBHHx) scaffold (differentiated cells/(PHB/PHBHHx)) were implanted into the subcutaneous layer nude mice for 12 or 24 weeks, non-differentiated cells/(PHB/PHBHHx) were implanted as the control group. The differentiated cells/(PHB/PHBHHx) implants formed cartilage-like tissue after 24 weeks of implantation, and stained positive for collagen type II, safranin O, and toluidine blue. In addition, typical cartilage lacuna was observed, and there were no remnants of PHB/PHBHHx. Collagen type II was detected by Western blot at 12 and 24 weeks of implantation. In the control group, no cartilage formation was observed. This study demonstrated that PHB/PHBHHx is a suitable material for cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Effects of Estrogens and Estrogenic Disrupting Compounds on Fish Mineralized Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Patricia I. S.; Estêvão, Maria D.; Power, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens play well-recognized roles in reproduction across vertebrates, but also intervene in a wide range of other physiological processes, including mineral homeostasis. Classical actions are triggered when estrogens bind and activate intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), regulating the transcription of responsive genes, but rapid non-genomic actions initiated by binding to plasma membrane receptors were recently described. A wide range of structurally diverse compounds from natural and anthropogenic sources have been shown to interact with and disrupt the normal functions of the estrogen system, and fish are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these compounds are frequently discharged or run-off into waterways. The effect of estrogen disruptors in fish has mainly been assessed in relation to reproductive endpoints, and relatively little attention has been given to other disruptive actions. This review will overview the actions of estrogens in fish, including ER isoforms, their expression, structure and mechanisms of action. The estrogen functions will be considered in relation to mineral homeostasis and actions on mineralized tissues. The impact of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues will be reviewed, and the potential adverse outcomes of exposure to such compounds will be discussed. Current lacunae in knowledge are highlighted along with future research priorities. PMID:25196834

  9. Effects of estrogens and estrogenic disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Patricia I S; Estêvão, Maria D; Power, Deborah M

    2014-08-15

    Estrogens play well-recognized roles in reproduction across vertebrates, but also intervene in a wide range of other physiological processes, including mineral homeostasis. Classical actions are triggered when estrogens bind and activate intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), regulating the transcription of responsive genes, but rapid non-genomic actions initiated by binding to plasma membrane receptors were recently described. A wide range of structurally diverse compounds from natural and anthropogenic sources have been shown to interact with and disrupt the normal functions of the estrogen system, and fish are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these compounds are frequently discharged or run-off into waterways. The effect of estrogen disruptors in fish has mainly been assessed in relation to reproductive endpoints, and relatively little attention has been given to other disruptive actions. This review will overview the actions of estrogens in fish, including ER isoforms, their expression, structure and mechanisms of action. The estrogen functions will be considered in relation to mineral homeostasis and actions on mineralized tissues. The impact of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues will be reviewed, and the potential adverse outcomes of exposure to such compounds will be discussed. Current lacunae in knowledge are highlighted along with future research priorities.

  10. Wall tissue remodeling regulates longitudinal tension in arteries.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Zane S; Gotlieb, Avrum I; Langille, B Lowell

    2002-05-03

    Changes in blood pressure or flow induce arterial remodeling that normalizes mechanical loads that are imposed on arterial tissue. Arteries are also under substantial longitudinal stretch (axial strain) that may be altered by growth or atrophy of tissues to which they are attached. We therefore tested whether axial strain is also regulated in a negative feedback manner through arterial remodeling. Axial strain in rabbit carotid arteries was increased from 62+/-2% to 97+/-2% without altering other mechanical loads on wall tissues. Strain was reduced within 3 days and completely normalized by 7 days. Remodeling involved tissue elaboration, endothelial cell replication rates were increased by >50-fold and smooth muscle cell replication rates were increased by >15-fold, and substantially elevated DNA, elastin, and collagen contents were recorded. Also, increased rates of apoptosis were indicated by degradation of DNA into oligonucleosomes, and matrix remodeling was reflected in enlarged fenestrae in the internal elastic lamina and increased expression and activation of gelatinases, especially matrix metalloproteinase-2. Intriguingly, reduced axial strain was not normalized, presumably because remodeling processes, apart from cell contraction, are ineffective in decreasing strain, and arterial smooth muscle orientation precludes large effects of contraction on axial strain.

  11. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  12. Strain avalanches in plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argon, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Plastic deformation at the mechanism level in all solids occurs in the form of discrete thermally activated individual stress relaxation events. While there are clear differences in mechanisms between dislocation mediated events in crystalline solids and by individual shear transformations in amorphous metals and semiconductors, such relaxation events interact strongly to form avalanches of strain bursts. In all cases the attendant distributions of released energy as amplitudes of acoustic emissions, or in serration amplitudes in flow stress, the levels of strain bursts are of fractal character with fractal exponents in the range from -1.5 to -2.0, having the character of phenomena of self-organized criticality, SOC. Here we examine strain avalanches in single crystals of ice, hcp metals, the jerky plastic deformations of nano-pillars of fcc and bcc metals deforming in compression, those in the plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses, all demonstrating the remarkable universality of character of plastic relaxation events.

  13. Strain gauge installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Conard, L.M.

    1998-06-16

    A tool and a method are disclosed for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maintaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool. 6 figs.

  14. Radio frequency strain monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor); Holben, Jr., Milford S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A radio frequency strain monitor includes a voltage controlled oscillator for generating an oscillating signal that is input into a propagation path. The propagation path is preferably bonded to the surface of a structure to be monitored and produces a propagated signal. A phase difference between the oscillating and propagated signals is detected and maintained at a substantially constant value which is preferably a multiple of 90.degree. by changing the frequency of the oscillating signal. Any change in frequency of the oscillating signal provides an indication of strain in the structure to which the propagation path is bonded.

  15. Cartilage-specific matrix protein, chondromodulin-I (ChM-I), is a strong angio-inhibitor in endochondral ossification of human neonatal vertebral tissues in vivo: relationship with angiogenic factors in the cartilage.

    PubMed

    Kusafuka, Kimihide; Hiraki, Yuji; Shukunami, Chisa; Kayano, Teruo; Takemura, Tamiko

    2002-01-01

    Although cartilage contains many angiogenic factors during endochondral ossification, it is an avascular tissue. The cartilage-specific non-collagenous matrix protein chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) has been shown to be a strong angio-inhibitor. To elucidate whether ChM-I plays an essential role in angio-inhibition during endochondral ossification in man, we investigated the expression and localization of ChM-I in comparison with those of angiogenic factors and the endothelial cell marker CD34 in human neonatal vertebral tissues. Although invasion of CD34-positive endothelial cells was observed in primary subchondral spongiosa, expression of the marker of endothelial cells, CD34, was not found in neonatal vertebral cartilage matrix. Type II collagen was deposited in all matrices during endochondral ossification, whereas aggrecan was deposited in the matrix of hypertrophic cartilage, especially around lacunae. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is known to be a strong angiogenic factor, was localized in chondrocytes in mature to hypertrophic cartilage and also in bone marrow. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; basic fibroblast growth factor), which is also known to be a strong angiogenic factor, was localized in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes of mature cartilage in human vertebral cartilage tissues. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has been reported to have many functions including angiogenesis, and TGF-beta1 was also localized in mature chondrocytes in endochondral tissues undergoing ossification. On the other hand, the novel cartilage-specific matrix protein ChM-I was localized in interterritorial regions of the matrix in mature to hypertrophic cartilage, especially around lacunae. In conclusion, these observations indicate that ChM-I may serve as a barrier against the angiogenic properties of VEGF, FGF-2 and TGF-beta1 during endochondral ossification, and this matrix molecule may play an essential role in determining the avascular nature of cartilage

  16. Self-assembling peptide nanofibers coupled with neuropeptide substance P for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Hee; Hur, Woojune; Kim, Ji Eun; Min, Hye Jeong; Kim, Sukwha; Min, Hye Sook; Kim, Byeung Kyu; Kim, Soo Hyun; Choi, Tae Hyun; Jung, Youngmee

    2015-04-01

    The number of patients requiring flat bone transplantation continues to increase worldwide. Cell transplantation has been successfully applied clinically; however, it causes another defect site and the time requirements to harvest cells and expand them are considerable. In this study, KLD12/KLD12-SP (KLD12+KLD12-substance P [SP]) was designed to mimic endogenous tissue-healing processes. The structures of KLD12, KLD12-SP, and KLD12/KLD12-SP were observed by transmission electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectra. KLD12/KLD12-SP nanofibers (5-10 nm) were created under physiological conditions by formation of a β-sheet structure. The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to recruit KLD12/KLD12-SP was observed by using an in vivo fluorescence imaging system. Labeled human bone marrow stromal cells supplied via an intravenous injection were recruited to the scaffold containing KLD12/KLD12-SP. Polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLA/β-TCP) scaffolds filled with KLD12/KLD12-SP were applied to repair calvarial defects. The composite constructs (groups: defect, PLA/β-TCP, PLA/β-TCP/KLD12, and PLA/β-TCP/KLD12/KLD12-SP) were implanted into rat defect sites. Bone tissue regeneration was evaluated by observing gross morphology by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining at 12 and 24 weeks after surgery. Gross morphology showed that the defect site was filled with new tissue that was integrated with host tissue in the KLD12/KLD12-SP group. In addition, from the staining data, cells were recruited to the defect site and lacunae structures formed in the KLD12/KLD12-SP group. From these results, the PLA/β-TCP+KLD12/KLD12-SP composite construct was considered for enhancement of bone tissue regeneration without cell transplantation.

  17. Measurement of the uniaxial mechanical properties of rat skin using different stress-strain definitions.

    PubMed

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M

    2015-05-01

    The mechanical properties of skin tissue may vary according to the anatomical locations of a body. There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented to measure the mechanical properties of skin at different anatomical locations. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are employed to determine the mechanical properties of skin tissue at back and abdomen locations of a rat body. The back and abdomen skins of eight rats are excised and subjected to a series of tensile tests. The elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain of skin tissues are measured using three stress definitions and four strain definitions. The results show that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements of the back skin is significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus and maximum strain. No significant effects are observed on the elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain measurements of abdomen skin by varying the stress definition. In the true stress-strain diagram, the maximum stress (20%), and elastic modulus (35%) of back skin are significantly higher than that of abdomen skin. The true stress-strain definition is favored to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue since it gives more accurate measurements of the skin's response using the instantaneous values. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Viscoelastic Properties of Human Tracheal Tissues.

    PubMed

    Safshekan, Farzaneh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Abdouss, Majid; Shadmehr, Mohammad B

    2017-01-01

    The physiological performance of trachea is highly dependent on its mechanical behavior, and therefore, the mechanical properties of its components. Mechanical characterization of trachea is key to succeed in new treatments such as tissue engineering, which requires the utilization of scaffolds which are mechanically compatible with the native human trachea. In this study, after isolating human trachea samples from brain-dead cases and proper storage, we assessed the viscoelastic properties of tracheal cartilage, smooth muscle, and connective tissue based on stress relaxation tests (at 5% and 10% strains for cartilage and 20%, 30%, and 40% for smooth muscle and connective tissue). After investigation of viscoelastic linearity, constitutive models including Prony series for linear viscoelasticity and quasi-linear viscoelastic, modified superposition, and Schapery models for nonlinear viscoelasticity were fitted to the experimental data to find the best model for each tissue. We also investigated the effect of age on the viscoelastic behavior of tracheal tissues. Based on the results, all three tissues exhibited a (nonsignificant) decrease in relaxation rate with increasing the strain, indicating viscoelastic nonlinearity which was most evident for cartilage and with the least effect for connective tissue. The three-term Prony model was selected for describing the linear viscoelasticity. Among different models, the modified superposition model was best able to capture the relaxation behavior of the three tracheal components. We observed a general (but not significant) stiffening of tracheal cartilage and connective tissue with aging. No change in the stress relaxation percentage with aging was observed. The results of this study may be useful in the design and fabrication of tracheal tissue engineering scaffolds.

  19. Ultrasound strain imaging using Barker code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hui; Tie, Juhong; Guo, Dequan

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound strain imaging is showing promise as a new way of imaging soft tissue elasticity in order to help clinicians detect lesions or cancers in tissues. In this paper, Barker code is applied to strain imaging to improve its quality. Barker code as a coded excitation signal can be used to improve the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) in ultrasound imaging system. For the Baker code of length 13, the sidelobe level of the matched filter output is -22dB, which is unacceptable for ultrasound strain imaging, because high sidelobe level will cause high decorrelation noise. Instead of using the conventional matched filter, we use the Wiener filter to decode the Barker-coded echo signal to suppress the range sidelobes. We also compare the performance of Barker code and the conventional short pulse in simulation method. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the Wiener filter is much better than the matched filter, and Baker code achieves higher elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe) than the short pulse in low eSNR or great depth conditions due to the increased eSNR with it.

  20. Binding of fibronectin to Staphylococcus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Switalski, L M; Rydén, C; Rubin, K; Ljungh, A; Höök, M; Wadström, T

    1983-01-01

    Fibronectin, a major protein component of plasma and loose connective tissue has previously been shown to bind to several strains of Staphylococcus aureus. We examined a large number of strains of different species of Staphylococcus with respect to their ability to bind fibronectin. The relative numbers of strains defined as fibronectin-binders among the different species were as follows: S. aureus (22 of 23), S. haemolyticus (5 of 5), S. warneri (8 of 11), S. hyicus (5 of 6), S. hominis (13 of 17), S. saprophyticus (11 of 20), S. epidermidis (4 of 7), and S. simulans (8 of 10). Only three species showed a predominance of nonbinders over binders: S. capitis (4 of 14), S. xylosus (0 of 4), and S. cohnii (3 of 11). These data indicate that staphylococcal species isolated from soft tissue infections frequently have the ability to bind fibronectin and suggest that the ability to bind to this protein may contribute to the virulence of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:6315582

  1. A bilinear stress-strain relationship for arteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2007-02-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of blood vessels is essential for vascular physiology, pathophysiology and tissue engineering. A well-known approach to study the elasticity of blood vessels is to postulate a strain energy function such as the exponential or polynomial forms. It is typically difficult to fit experimental data to derive material parameters for blood vessels, however, due to the highly nonlinear nature of the stress-strain relation. In this work, we generalize the strain definition to absorb the elastic nonlinearity and then propose a two-dimensional bilinear stress-strain relation between second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and the new strain measure. The model is found to represent the Fung's exponential model very well. The novel linearized constitutive relation simplifies the determination of material constants by reducing the nonlinearity and provides a clearer physical interpretation of the model parameters. The limitations of the constitutive model and its implications for vascular mechanics are discussed.

  2. Skeletal muscle transverse strain during isometric contraction at different lengths.

    PubMed

    van Donkelaar, C C; Willems, P J; Muijtjens, A M; Drost, M R

    1999-08-01

    An important assumption in 2D numerical models of skeletal muscle contraction involves deformation in the third dimension of the included muscle section. The present paper studies the often used plane strain description. Therefore, 3D muscle surface deformation is measured from marker displacements during isometric contractions at various muscle lengths. Longitudinal strains at superficial muscle fibers ( - 14 +/- 2.6% at L0, n = 57) and aponeurosis (0.8 +/- 0.9% at L0) decrease with increasing muscle length. The same holds for transverse muscle surface strains in superficial muscle fibers and aponeurosis, which are comparable at intermediate muscle length, but differ at long and short muscle length. Because transverse strains during isometric contraction change with initial muscle length, it is concluded that the effect of muscle length on muscle deformation cannot be studied in plane strain models. These results do not counteract the use of these models to study deformation in contractions with approximately - 9 % longitudinal muscle fiber strain, as transverse strain in superficial muscle fibers and in aponeurosis tissue is minimal in that case. Aponeurosis surface area change decreases with increasing initial muscle length, but muscle fiber surface area change is - 11%, independent of muscle length. Assuming incompressible muscle material, this means that strain perpendicular to the muscle surface equals 11%. Taking the relationship between transverse and longitudinal muscle fiber strain into account, it is hypothesized that superficial muscle fibers flatten during isometric contractions.

  3. A continuous growth model for plant tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozorg, Behruz; Krupinski, Pawel; Jönsson, Henrik

    2016-12-01

    Morphogenesis in plants and animals involves large irreversible deformations. In plants, the response of the cell wall material to internal and external forces is determined by its mechanical properties. An appropriate model for plant tissue growth must include key features such as anisotropic and heterogeneous elasticity and cell dependent evaluation of mechanical variables such as turgor pressure, stress and strain. In addition, a growth model needs to cope with cell divisions as a necessary part of the growth process. Here we develop such a growth model, which is capable of employing not only mechanical signals but also morphogen signals for regulating growth. The model is based on a continuous equation for updating the resting configuration of the tissue. Simultaneously, material properties can be updated at a different time scale. We test the stability of our model by measuring convergence of growth results for a tissue under the same mechanical and material conditions but with different spatial discretization. The model is able to maintain a strain field in the tissue during re-meshing, which is of particular importance for modeling cell division. We confirm the accuracy of our estimations in two and three-dimensional simulations, and show that residual stresses are less prominent if strain or stress is included as input signal to growth. The approach results in a model implementation that can be used to compare different growth hypotheses, while keeping residual stresses and other mechanical variables updated and available for feeding back to the growth and material properties.

  4. Two-dimensional simulations of displacement accumulation incorporating shear strain

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Matthew; Hall, Timothy J.; Neves, Lucio P.; Carneiro, A. A. O.

    2015-01-01

    Using ultrasound images to track large tissue deformations usually requires breaking up the deformation into steps and then summing the resulting displacement estimates. The accumulated displacement estimation error therefore depends on the error in each step, but also on the statistical relationships between estimation steps. These relationships have not been thoroughly studied. Building on previous work with one-dimensional simulations, the work reported here measured error variance for single-step and accumulated displacement estimates using two-dimensional numerical simulations of ultrasound echo signals, subjected to both normal and axial shear strain as well as electronic noise. Previous results were confirmed, showing that errors due to electronic noise are negatively correlated between steps and accumulate slowly, while errors due to strain are positively correlated and accumulate quickly. These properties hold for both normal and axial shear strain. A general comparison of tracking performance for tissue under normal and axial shear strain was also performed. Under axial shear strain error variance tends to increase with larger lateral kernel sizes but decrease for larger axial kernel sizes; the opposite relationship holds under normal strain. A combination of these two types of strain limits the practical kernel size in both dimensions. PMID:24275539

  5. Novel B19' strain glass with large recoverable strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qianglong; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jian; Ji, Yuanchao; Ding, Xiangdong; Wang, Yu; Ren, Xiaobing; Wang, Yunzhi

    2017-08-01

    We report a strain glass state (B19' strain glass) in a Ni-rich TiNi shape memory alloy produced by cold rolling. As compared to previously reported strain glasses, this strain glass state has outstanding properties including quasilinear superelasticity with a large recoverable strain (˜4%), and slim hysteresis and high strength (˜1.0 GPa) over a wide temperature range (˜200 K). The existence of the B19' strain glass state is confirmed by (i) frequency dispersion of storage modulus, (ii) continuous decrease of electrical resistivity, and (iii) continuous growth of B19' nanodomains upon cooling. This study proves that the effect of defect strength on the creation of a strain glass state is in parallel to the effect of cooling rate on the creation of a structural glass, e.g., any strain crystal (i.e., martensite) can be turned into a strain glass if strong enough defects could be engineered.

  6. ConStrains identifies microbial strains in metagenomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengwei; Knight, Rob; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short reads to faithfully recover the original strain-level genotypes, which have highly similar sequences. We present ConStrains, an open-source algorithm that identifies conspecific strains from metagenomic sequence data and reconstructs the phylogeny of these strains in microbial communities. The algorithm uses single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns in a set of universal genes to infer within-species structures that represent strains. Applying ConStrains to simulated and host-derived datasets provides insights into microbial community dynamics.

  7. Peculiarities of the bone tissue resorption under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, N.; Oganov, V.; Polkovenko, O.; Nitsevich, T.

    The actual problem - peculiarities of resorptive processes in the spongiose of thingbones - we studied with the use of tranmissive electron microscopy in experiments on rats (American space station SLS-2) and on monkeys Macaca mulatt? (BION-11). Animals were onboard during 2 weeks. There was established, that the resorption happen with osteoclasts participation. They can create groups of cells. In the osteoclasts population we indicated not typical for the control (ground experiment) "giant" cells, which have on ultrathin sections 5-6 nuclei, many lysosomes, well developed "light" zone and "brush-border". The destruction of minera lized matrix in bone lacunas also happens by the way of osteolytic activity of osteocytes. Lysosome ferments of osteocytes are secreted by the eczocytosis. The osteocytic osteolysis, as well as the osteoclastic one can be seen as a physiological, gormon-dependent mechanism of resorption. The presence of a considerable number of neutrophiles, which enter in some zones of resorption is also typical. When these neutrophiles destruct, they release lysosomic ferments that dissolve the bone matrix. In some zones of resorption we noted the presence of the row from collagen fibrils, which loosed crystals , on mineralized matrix borders. The cell detritus is noted in zones of surface dissolving among crystallic conglomerates. It certificates the processes of osteogenic cells destruction that happen here. So, under the microgravity conditions in zones of adaptive remodeling of the spongiose the processes of the bone tissue resorption happen by some ways, namely: by the functional activization of osteoclasts; by the osteocytic osteolysis increasing; as a result of hydrolytic activity of neutrophiles, entering in these zones, and also by the local demineralization and further destruction of bone matrix surface zones.

  8. Repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, S T

    2001-05-01

    Repetitive strain injury is a group of musculoskeletal disorders affecting muscles, tendons, nerves and blood vessels. These disorders could be attributed to occupational causes; however non-occupational causes should be excluded. The management of these cases required a multidisciplinary team approach.

  9. Strain gage barometric transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viton, P.

    1977-01-01

    A strain gage barometric transmitter for measuring the atmospheric pressure in severe environmental conditions is described. This equipment specifications are presented and its performance assessed. It is shown that this barometric sensor can measure the atmospheric pressure with a precision of 0.5 mb during a 6 month period.

  10. Sadovskii vortex in strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Sadovskii vortices are patches of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. They were first constructed as models for wakes behind bluff objects. We investigate the Sadovskii vortex in a straining field and examine limiting cases to validate our computational method. One limit is the patch vortex in strain (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971), where there is no vortex sheet. We solve this as a free-boundary problem, and show that a simple method using the Biot-Savart law quickly gives solutions for stable shapes. When used for the more elongated (stronger straining field) situations, the method also leads to new vortex shapes. In the hollow vortex case, where there is no vortex patch and the circulation is entirely due to the vortex sheet (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691 2012), we use the Birkhoff-Rott equation to calculate the velocity of the fluid on the vortex boundary. The combination of these two methods can then be used to calculate the shape and velocity field of the Sadovksii vortex in strain.

  11. Balloon film strain measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, James L.

    In order to understand the state of stress in scientific balloons, a need exists for the measurement of film deformation in flight. The results of a flight test program are reported where material strain was measured for the first time during the inflation, launch, ascent and float of a typical natural shape, zero pressure scientific balloon.

  12. Bacillus cereus strain MCN as a debriding agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, H. P.; Haynes, B. W.; Stone, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Biologically active means are effective for rapidly removing scar tissue caused by burns or corrosive agents. Specially selected strain of bacteria applied to injury site releases enzymes which are active against eschar. These bacteria tend to locate between eschar and unburned tissue, thus providing optimal cell surface area arrangement for enzyme dispersal. Procedure may prove especially useful in treatment of disaster casualties under relatively primitive conditions.

  13. Bacillus cereus strain MCN as a debriding agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, H. P.; Haynes, B. W.; Stone, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Biologically active means are effective for rapidly removing scar tissue caused by burns or corrosive agents. Specially selected strain of bacteria applied to injury site releases enzymes which are active against eschar. These bacteria tend to locate between eschar and unburned tissue, thus providing optimal cell surface area arrangement for enzyme dispersal. Procedure may prove especially useful in treatment of disaster casualties under relatively primitive conditions.

  14. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Green, David W

    2008-09-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.

  15. Surgery for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Targeted Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment of Soft Tissue Sarcomas, by Stage ... Cancer Information Cancer Prevention & Detection Cancer Basics ...

  16. Composite morphology of the bone and associated support-tissue interfaces to osseointegrated dental implants: TEM and HVEM analyses.

    PubMed

    Steflik, D E; Corpe, R S; Lake, F T; Sisk, A L; Parr, G R; Hanes, P J; Buttle, K

    1997-01-01

    Correlated transmission electron and high-voltage electron microscopic analyses examined the undecalcified bone and associated support tissues of 60 endosseous titanium blade and titanium and ceramic root-form implants in dogs. The implants supported fixed partial dentures for up to 2 years. Data obtained from this investigation suggest that a range of tissues, both mineralized and unmineralized, support osseointegrated dental implants. This study examined the tissues apposing not just isolated aspects of the implant surface, but the entire length of the implant, and found that mineralized and unmineralized tissues existed concurrently. Much of the implant surface was apposed by mandibular bone, and both root-form and blade implants osseointegrated. The densely mineralized collagen fibril matrix was often separated from the implant by only a 20-nm to 50-nm electron-dense, ruthenium-positive deposit. High-voltage electron microscope stereology demonstrated that cellular processes extended directly to the implant from underlying osteocytes. In the same implants, areas containing an unmineralized collagen matrix interposed between the bone and implant surface were observed. In this region osteoblasts interacted with this matrix, and Howship's lacunae, containing vascular elements and osteoclasts, were also observed. The remodeling activities appear to be a homeostasis of catabolic activity (osteoclasts) and metabolic activity (osteoblasts). The apex of the implant was often apposed by a fibrofatty stroma. The support tissue response appears to be the result of the interrelations of osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in association with vascular elements. Therefore, the support tissue response to osseointegrated implants is a dynamic activity that involves the healthy interaction of these cells and tissues along the entire length of the implant.

  17. Long-Term Morphological and Microarchitectural Stability of Tissue-Engineered, Patient-Specific Auricles In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Benjamin Peter; Hooper, Rachel C.; Puetzer, Jennifer L.; Nordberg, Rachel; Asanbe, Ope; Hernandez, Karina A.; Spector, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    Current techniques for autologous auricular reconstruction produce substandard ear morphologies with high levels of donor-site morbidity, whereas alloplastic implants demonstrate poor biocompatibility. Tissue engineering, in combination with noninvasive digital photogrammetry and computer-assisted design/computer-aided manufacturing technology, offers an alternative method of auricular reconstruction. Using this method, patient-specific ears composed of collagen scaffolds and auricular chondrocytes have generated auricular cartilage with great fidelity following 3 months of subcutaneous implantation, however, this short time frame may not portend long-term tissue stability. We hypothesized that constructs developed using this technique would undergo continued auricular cartilage maturation without degradation during long-term (6 month) implantation. Full-sized, juvenile human ear constructs were injection molded from high-density collagen hydrogels encapsulating juvenile bovine auricular chondrocytes and implanted subcutaneously on the backs of nude rats for 6 months. Upon explantation, constructs retained overall patient morphology and displayed no evidence of tissue necrosis. Limited contraction occurred in vivo, however, no significant change in size was observed beyond 1 month. Constructs at 6 months showed distinct auricular cartilage microstructure, featuring a self-assembled perichondrial layer, a proteoglycan-rich bulk, and rounded cellular lacunae. Verhoeff's staining also revealed a developing elastin network comparable to native tissue. Biochemical measurements for DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and hydroxyproline content and mechanical properties of aggregate modulus and hydraulic permeability showed engineered tissue to be similar to native cartilage at 6 months. Patient-specific auricular constructs demonstrated long-term stability and increased cartilage tissue development during extended implantation, and offer a potential tissue-engineered solution for

  18. Biomedical advances from tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Tetsuji; Sato, J Denry; Barnes, David W; Sato, Gordon H

    2013-12-01

    The demonstration that the "dedifferentiation" of cells commonly observed in the early days of tissue culture was due to selective overgrowth of fibroblasts led to enrichment culture techniques (alternate animal and culture passage) designed to give a selective advantage to functionally differentiated tumor cells. These experiments resulted in the derivation of a large number of functionally differentiated clonal strains of a range of cell types. These results gave rise to the hypothesis that cells in culture accurately represent cells in vivo but without the complex in vivo environment. This concept has been strengthened with the development of hormonally defined culture media in combination with functionally differentiated clonal cell lines, which have augmented the potential of tissue culture studies. The use of hormonally defined media in place of serum-supplemented media demonstrates that hormonal responses and dependencies can be discovered in culture. Discoveries of hormonal dependencies of cancer cells has led to therapies targeting intracellular signaling pathways while discoveries of hormonal responses of pluripotent cells are helping to identify the potential application of stem cells. In these and other ways tissue culture technology will continue to contribute to solving problems of human health.

  19. Highly stretchable miniature strain sensor for large dynamic strain measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Yao, Shurong; Nie, Xu; Yu, Xun; Blecke, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of highly stretchable strain sensor was developed to measure large strains. The sensor was based on the piezo-resistive response of carbon nanotube (CNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite thin films. The piezo-resistive response of CNT composite gives accurate strain measurement with high frequency response, while the ultra-soft PDMS matrix provides high flexibility and ductility for large strain measurement. Experimental results show that the CNT/PDMS sensor measures large strains (up to 8 %) with an excellent linearity and a fast frequency response. The new miniature strain sensor also exhibits much higher sensitivities than the conventional foil strain gages, as its gauge factor is 500 times of that of the conventional foil strain gages.

  20. Highly stretchable miniature strain sensor for large dynamic strain measurement

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Bo; Yao, Shurong; Nie, Xu; ...

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of highly stretchable strain sensor was developed to measure large strains. The sensor was based on the piezo-resistive response of carbon nanotube (CNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite thin films. The piezo-resistive response of CNT composite gives accurate strain measurement with high frequency response, while the ultra-soft PDMS matrix provides high flexibility and ductility for large strain measurement. Experimental results show that the CNT/PDMS sensor measures large strains (up to 8 %) with an excellent linearity and a fast frequency response. The new miniature strain sensor also exhibits much higher sensitivities than the conventional foil strain gages,more » as its gauge factor is 500 times of that of the conventional foil strain gages.« less

  1. Passive mechanical properties of ovine rumen tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Stephen J.; Cater, John E.; Walker, Cameron G.; Amirapu, Satya; Waghorn, Garry C.; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical and structural properties of ovine rumen tissue have been determined using uniaxial tensile testing of tissue from four animals at five rumen locations and two orientations. Animal and orientation did not have a significant effect on the stress-strain response, but there was a significant difference between rumen locations. Histological studies showed two orthogonal muscle layers in all regions except the reticulum, which has a more isotropic structure. A quasi-linear viscoelastic model was fitted to the relaxation stage for each region. Model predictions of the ramp stage had RMS errors of 13-24% and were within the range of the experimental data.

  2. Strain patterns and strain accumulation along plate margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of strain accumulation along plate margins in Japan, New Zealand, and the United States indicate that: (1) a typical maximum rate of secular strain accumulation is on the order of 0.3 ppm/a, (2) a substantial part of the strain accumulation process can be attributed to slip at depth on the major plate boundary faults, and (3) some plastic deformation in a zone 100 km or more in width is apparently involved in the strain accumulation process.

  3. High temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A ceramic strain gage based on reactively sputtered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films is used to monitor the structural integrity of components employed in aerospace propulsion systems operating at temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the thick ITO sensors reveals a partially sintered microstructure comprising a contiguous network of submicron ITO particles with well defined necks and isolated nanoporosity. Densification of the ITO particles was retarded during high temperature exposure with nitrogen thus stabilizing the nanoporosity. ITO strain sensors were prepared by reactive sputtering in various nitrogen/oxygen/argon partial pressures to incorporate more nitrogen into the films. Under these conditions, sintering and densification of the ITO particles containing these nitrogen rich grain boundaries was retarded and a contiguous network of nano-sized ITO particles was established.

  4. Novel strained superjunction VDMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naugarhiya, Alok; Dubey, Shashank; Kondekar, Pravin N.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we have proposed novel strained superjunction (s-SJ) vertical double diffused MOS (VDMOS). Through channel engineering, we have introduced strain effects in s-SJ device using thin separate p-type silicon-germanium (p-SiGe) layer over silicon p-pillar. Further, we have designed process flow for the possible fabrication of s-SJ VDMOS. The proposed s-SJ devices fitted with less input capacitance (Cin) and 1.2∼3 times higher output current density than conventional SJ VDMOS. Therefore, 40% less gate charge (Qg) is required to turn-on the s-SJ VDMOS and Ron A is optimized in between 12% and 46%.

  5. Engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2012-11-14

    Tissue engineering has emerged at the intersection of numerous disciplines to meet a global clinical need for technologies to promote the regeneration of functional living tissues and organs. The complexity of many tissues and organs, coupled with confounding factors that may be associated with the injury or disease underlying the need for repair, is a challenge to traditional engineering approaches. Biomaterials, cells, and other factors are needed to design these constructs, but not all tissues are created equal. Flat tissues (skin); tubular structures (urethra); hollow, nontubular, viscus organs (vagina); and complex solid organs (liver) all present unique challenges in tissue engineering. This review highlights advances in tissue engineering technologies to enable regeneration of complex tissues and organs and to discuss how such innovative, engineered tissues can affect the clinic.

  6. Tissue oxygen measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, Babs R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A device and method in accordance with the invention for determining the oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2) of a tissue by irradiating the tissue with optical radiation such that the light is emitted from the tissue, and by collecting the reflected or transmitted light from the tissue to form an optical spectrum. A spectral processor determines the PO.sub.2 level in tissue by processing this spectrum with a previously-constructed spectral calibration model. The tissue may, for example, be disposed underneath a covering tissue, such as skin, of a patient, and the tissue illuminated and light collected through the skin. Alternatively, direct tissue illumination and collection may be effected with a hand-held or endoscopic probe. A preferred system also determines pH from the same spectrum, and the processor may determine critical conditions and issue warnings based on parameter values.

  7. Fabrication of injectable high strength hydrogel based on 4-arm star PEG for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqi; Zhang, Fengjie; Tsang, Wing Pui; Wan, Chao; Wu, Chi

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogels prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are widely applied in tissue engineering, especially those derived from a combination of functional multi-arm star PEG and linear crosslinker, with an expectation to form a structurally ideal network. However, the poor mechanical strength still renders their further applications. Here we examined the relationship between the dynamics of the pre-gel solution and the mechanical property of the resultant hydrogel in a system consisting of 4-arm star PEG functionalized with vinyl sulfone and short dithiol crosslinker. A method to prepare mechanically strong hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering is proposed. It is found that when gelation takes place at the overlap concentration, at which a slow relaxation mode just appears in dynamic light scattering (DLS), the resultant hydrogel has a local maximum compressive strength ∼20 MPa, while still keeps ultralow mass concentration and Young's modulus. Chondrocyte-laden hydrogel constructed under this condition was transplanted into the subcutaneous pocket and an osteochondral defect model in SCID mice. The in vivo results show that chondrocytes can proliferate and maintain their phenotypes in the hydrogel, with the production of abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) components, formation of typical chondrocyte lacunae structure and increase in Young's modulus over 12 weeks, as indicated by histological, immunohistochemistry, gene expression analyses and mechanical test. Moreover, newly formed hyaline cartilage was observed to be integrated with the host articular cartilage tissue in the defects injected with chondrocytes/hydrogel constructs. The results suggest that this hydrogel is a promising candidate scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Dynamics of Dual Infection with Campylobacter jejuni Strains in Chickens Reveals Distinct Strain-to-Strain Variation in Infection Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Wigley, Paul; Humphrey, Suzanne; Kemmett, Kirsty; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Humphrey, Tom; Williams, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Although multiple genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni may be isolated from the same commercial broiler flock, little is known about the infection dynamics of different genotypes within individuals or their colonization sites within the gut. Single experimental infections with C. jejuni M1 (sequence type 137, clonal complex 45) and C. jejuni 13126 (sequence type 21, clonal complex 21) revealed that 13126 colonized the ceca at significantly higher levels. The dissemination and colonization sites of the two C. jejuni strains then were examined in an experimental broiler flock. Two 33-day-old broiler chickens were infected with M1 and two with 13126, and 15 birds were left unchallenged. Cloacal swabs were taken postinfection to determine the colonization and shedding of each strain. By 2 days postinfection (dpi), 8/19 birds were shedding M1 whereas none were shedding 13126. At 8 dpi, all birds were shedding both strains. At 18 dpi, liver and cecal levels of each isolate were quantified, while in 10 birds they also were quantified at nine sites throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. 13126 was found throughout the GI tract, while M1 was largely restricted to the ceca and colon. The livers of 7/19 birds were culture positive for 13126 only. These data show that 13126 has a distinctly different infection biology than strain M1. It showed slower colonization of the lower GI tract but was more invasive and able to colonize at a high level throughout the GI tract. The finding that C. jejuni strains have markedly different infection ecologies within the chicken has implications for control in the poultry industry and suggests that the contamination risk of edible tissues is dependent on the isolate involved. PMID:25107966

  9. Strain Gage Signal Interpretation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    blades and vanes in many engines have been collected, played back and examined. The engine types encompass GE’s stable of turbine engines from the small...aeromechanical engineer . 1.3 SUMMARY OF RESULTS Strain gage signals from vibrating rotor blades and vanes were collected, examined, classified, and generalized...turboprops, to turbojets and to the large high bypass turbofan engines . Test conditions include all the phases that are investigated

  10. Strained Ring Energetic Binders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-27

    polyhomobenzvalene ( PHBV ). PHBV was not found to have the mechanical instability problems of PBV, but was still thermally unstable (Tonset - 660C, Tmax - 1090C...DISCUSSION 4 Polybenzvalene (PBV) 4 Polyhomobenzvalene ( PHBV ) 6 Chain-Transfer Studies 11 CONCLUSIONS 15 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES 16 .F 4E 19 APPENDICES A...strained ring polymers similar to PBV are known. The investigation of one of these polymers, polyhomobenzvalene ( PHBV ), is also described in this report

  11. Strain Measurement - Unidirectional.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-20

    a ballpoint pen or a rounded piece of brass rod. If critical alignment is not necessary, gage lines may be located outside the immediate gage location...supplemented as needed by tabulated values. If the test design includes specification limits for the values, they should be included on the plots. Plots of...enough baseline before the event to allow estimation of the noise and stability. If the strain is to be correlated to specific events, the events should

  12. Method for obtaining simple shear material properties of the intervertebral disc under high strain rates.

    PubMed

    Ott, Kyle A; Armiger, Robert S; Wickwire, Alexis C; Carneal, Catherine M; Trexler, Morgana M; Lennon, Andrew M; Zhang, Jiangyue; Merkle, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    Predicting spinal injury under high rates of vertical loading is of interest, but the success of computational models in modeling this type of loading scenario is highly dependent on the material models employed. Understanding the response of these biological materials at high strain rates is critical to accurately model mechanical response of tissue and predict injury. While data exists at lower strain rates, there is a lack of the high strain rate material data that are needed to develop constitutive models. The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) has been used for many years to obtain properties of various materials at high strain rates. However, this apparatus has mainly been used for characterizing metals and ceramics and is difficult to apply to softer materials such as biological tissue. Recently, studies have shown that modifications to the traditional SHPB setup allow for the successful characterization of mechanical properties of biological materials at strain rates and peak strain values that exceed alternate soft tissue testing techniques. In this paper, the previously-reported modified SHPB technique is applied to characterize human intervertebral disc material under simple shear. The strain rates achieved range from 5 to 250 strain s-1. The results demonstrate the sensitivity to the disc composition and structure, with the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus exhibiting different behavior under shear loading. Shear tangent moduli are approximated at varying strain levels from 5 to 20% strain. This data and technique facilitates determination of mechanical properties of intervertebral disc materials under shear loading, for eventual use in constitutive models.

  13. Symmetry in strain engineering of nanomembranes: making new strained materials.

    PubMed

    Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Scott, Shelley A; Savage, Donald E; Celler, George K; Lagally, Max G

    2011-07-26

    Strain in a material changes the lattice constant and thereby creates a material with new properties relative to the unstrained, but chemically identical, material. The ability to alter the strain (its magnitude, direction, extent, periodicity, symmetry, and nature) allows tunability of these new properties. A recent development, crystalline nanomembranes, offers a powerful platform for using and tuning strain to create materials that have unique properties, not achievable in bulk materials or with conventional processes. Nanomembranes, because of their thinness, enable elastic strain sharing, a process that introduces large amounts of strain and unique strain distributions in single-crystal materials, without exposing the material to the formation of extended defects. We provide here prescriptions for making new strained materials using crystal symmetry as the driver: we calculate the strain distributions in flat nanomembranes for two-fold and four-fold elastically symmetric materials. We show that we can controllably tune the amount of strain and the asymmetry of the strain distribution in elastically isotropic and anisotropic materials uniformly over large areas. We perform the experimental demonstration with a trilayer Si(110)/Si((1-x))Ge(x)(110)/Si(110) nanomembrane: an elastically two-fold symmetric system in which we can transfer strain that is biaxially isotropic. We are thus able to make uniformly strained materials that cannot be made any other way.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Type Strain LMG 22219

    PubMed Central

    Abouelkhair, Mohamed A.; Riley, Matthew C.; Bemis, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report the first complete genome sequence of LMG 22219 (=ON 86T = CCUG 49543T), the Staphylococcus pseudintermedius type strain isolated from feline lung tissue. This sequence information will facilitate phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level. PMID:28209834

  15. Recent results in nonlinear strain and modulus imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Timothy J.; Barbone, Paul; Oberai, Assad A.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Dord, Jean Francois; Goenezen, Sevan; Fisher, Ted G.

    2012-01-01

    We report a summary of recent developments and current status of our team’s efforts to image and quantify in vivo nonlinear strain and tissue mechanical properties. Our work is guided by a focus on applications to cancer diagnosis and treatment using clinical ultrasound imaging and quasi-static tissue deformations. We review our recent developments in displacement estimation from ultrasound image sequences. We discuss cross correlation approaches, regularized optimization approaches, guided search methods, multiscale methods, and hybrid methods. Current implementations can return results of high accuracy in both axial and lateral directions at several frames per second. We compare several strain estimators. Again we see a benefit from a regularized optimization approach. We then discuss both direct and iterative methods to reconstruct tissue mechanical property distributions from measured strain and displacement fields. We review the formulation, discretization, and algorithmic considerations that come into play when attempting to infer linear and nonlinear elastic properties from strain and displacement measurements. Finally we illustrate our progress with example applications in breast disease diagnosis and tumor ablation monitoring. Our current status shows that we have demonstrated quantitative determination of nonlinear parameters in phantoms and in vivo, in the context of 2D models and data. We look forward to incorporating 3D data from 2D transducer arrays to noninvasively create calibrated 3D quantitative maps of nonlinear elastic properties of breast tissues in vivo. PMID:22754425

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Type Strain LMG 22219.

    PubMed

    Abouelkhair, Mohamed A; Riley, Matthew C; Bemis, David A; Kania, Stephen A

    2017-02-16

    We report the first complete genome sequence of LMG 22219 (=ON 86(T) = CCUG 49543(T)), the Staphylococcus pseudintermedius type strain isolated from feline lung tissue. This sequence information will facilitate phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.

  17. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  18. Measuring tissue oxygenation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  19. Multilocus sequence typing reveals that Bacillus cereus strains isolated from clinical infections have distinct phylogenetic origins.

    PubMed

    Barker, Margaret; Thakker, Bishan; Priest, Fergus G

    2005-04-01

    Eight strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from bacteremia and soft tissue infections were assigned to seven sequence types (STs) by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Two strains from different locations had identical STs. The concatenated sequences of the seven STs were aligned with 65 concatenated sequences from reference STs and a neighbor-joining tree was constructed. Two strains were distantly related to all reference STs. Three strains were recovered in a clade that included Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and rare Bacillus thuringiensis strains while the other three strains were assigned to two STs that were more closely affiliated to most of the B. thuringiensis STs. We conclude that invasive B. cereus strains do not form a single clone or clonal complex of highly virulent strains.

  20. Spiral waves on a contractile tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesin, L.; Ambrosi, D.

    2011-02-01

    In a healthy cardiac tissue, electric waves propagate in the form of a travelling pulse, from the apex to the base, and activate the contraction of the heart. Defects in the propagation can destabilize travelling fronts and originate possible new periodic solutions, as spiral waves. Spiral waves are quite stable, but the interplay between currents and strain can distort the periodic pattern, provided the coupling is strong enough. In this paper we investigate the stability of spiral waves on a contractile medium in a non-standard framework, in which the electrical potential dictates the active strain (not stress) of the muscle. The role of conducting and contracting fibers is included in the model and periodic boundary conditions are adopted. A correlation analysis allows to evaluate numerically the range of stability of the parameters for the spiral waves, depending on the strain of the contracted fibers and on the magnitude of the stretch activated current.

  1. Strain measurement based battery testing

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  2. Multilevel finite element modeling for the prediction of local cellular deformation in bone.

    PubMed

    Deligianni, D D; Apostolopoulos, C A

    2008-04-01

    The underlying mechanisms by which bone cells respond to mechanical stimuli or how mechanical loads act on osteocytes housed in lacunae in bone are not well understood. In this study, a multilevel finite element (FE) approach is applied to predict local cell deformations in bone tissue. The local structure of the matrix dictates the local mechanical environment of an osteocyte. Cell deformations are predicted from detailed linear FE analysis of the microstructure, consisting of an arrangement of cells embedded in bone matrix material. This work has related the loads applied to a whole femur during the stance phase of the gait cycle to the strain of a single lacuna and of canaliculi. The predicted bone matrix strains around osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi were nonuniform and differed significantly from the macroscopically measured strains. Peak stresses and strains in the walls of the lacuna were up to six times those in the bulk extracellular matrix. Significant strain concentrations were observed at sites where the process meets the cell body.

  3. Prion Transport to Secondary Lymphoreticular System Tissues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Desbruslais, M., Luthert, P.J., & Collinge, J. (2001). Tissue Distribution of protease resistant prion protein in variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease ...examine the disease development of a prion strain (DY TME) that does not replicate in the spleen of hamsters. This system will provide details into the...gender specific responses to intraperitoneal DY TME inoculation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prion diseases , macrophage, complement 16. SECURITY

  4. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopata, R. G. P.; Nillesen, M. M.; Verrijp, C. N.; Singh, S. K.; Lammens, M. M. Y.; van der Laak, J. A. W. M.; van Wetten, H. B.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2010-02-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  5. Multiplexed lasing in tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Qiushu; Fan, Xudong

    2017-02-01

    Biolasers are an emerging technology for next generation biochemical detection and clinical applications. Progress has recently been made to achieve lasing from biomolecules and single living cells. Tissues, which consist of cells embedded in extracellular matrix, mimic more closely the actual complex biological environment in a living body and therefore are of more practical significance. Here, we developed a highly versatile tissue laser platform, in which tissues stained with fluorophores are sandwiched in a high-Q Fabry-Pérot microcavity. Distinct lasing emissions from muscle and adipose tissues stained respectively with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY), and hybrid muscle/adipose tissue with dual-staining were achieved with a threshold of only 10 μJ/mm2. Additionally, we investigated how tissue structure/geometry, tissue thickness, and staining dye concentration affect the tissue laser. It is further found that, despite large fluorescence spectral overlap between FITC and BODIPY in tissues, their lasing emissions could be clearly distinguished and controlled due to their narrow lasing bands and different lasing thresholds, thus enabling highly multiplexed detection. Our tissue laser platform can be broadly applicable to various types of tissues/diseases. It provides a new tool for a wide range of biological and biomedical applications, such as diagnostics/screening of tissues and identification/monitoring of biological transformations in tissue engineering.

  6. Unexpected strain-stiffening in crystalline solids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Srinivasan, Srivilliputhur G

    2013-04-18

    Strain-stiffening--an increase in material stiffness at large strains--is a vital mechanism by which many soft biological materials thwart excessive deformation to protect tissue integrity. Understanding the fundamental science of strain-stiffening and incorporating this concept into the design of metals and ceramics for advanced applications is an attractive prospect. Using cementite (Fe3C) and aluminium borocarbide (Al3BC3) as prototypes, here we show via quantum-mechanical calculations that strain-stiffening also occurs, surprisingly, in simple inorganic crystalline solids and confers exceptionally high strengths to these two solids, which have anomalously low resistance to deformation near equilibrium. For Fe3C and Al3BC3, their ideal shear strength to shear modulus ratios attain remarkably high values of 1.14 and 1.34 along the (010)[001] and slip systems, respectively. These values are more than seven times larger than the original Frenkel value of 1/2π (refs 4, 5) and are the highest yet reported for crystalline solids. The extraordinary stiffening of Fe3C arises from the strain-induced reversible 'cross-linking' between weakly coupled edge- and corner-sharing Fe6C slabs. This new bond formation creates a strong, three-dimensional covalent bond network that resists large shear deformation. Unlike Fe3C, no new bond forms in Al3BC3 but stiffening still occurs because strong repulsion between Al and B in a compressed Al-B bond unsettles the existing covalent bond network. These discoveries challenge the conventional wisdom that large shear modulus is a reliable predictor of hardness and strength of materials, and provide new lessons for materials selection and design.

  7. Relationships between tissue dilatation and differentiation in distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Elise F; Longaker, Michael T; Carter, Dennis R

    2006-03-01

    Mechanical factors modulate the morphogenesis and regeneration of mesenchymally derived tissues via processes mediated by the extracellular matrix (ECM). In distraction osteogenesis, large volumes of new bone are created through discrete applications of tensile displacement across an osteotomy gap. Although many studies have characterized the matrix, cellular and molecular biology of distraction osteogenesis, little is known about relationships between these biological phenomena and the local physical cues generated by distraction. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to characterize the local physical environment created within the osteotomy gap during long bone distraction osteogenesis. Using a computational approach, we quantified spatial and temporal profiles of three previously identified mechanical stimuli for tissue differentiation-pressure, tensile strain and fluid flow-as well as another candidate stimulus-tissue dilatation (volumetric strain). Whereas pressure and fluid velocity throughout the regenerate decayed to less than 31% of initial values within 20 min following distraction, tissue dilatation increased with time, reaching steady state values as high as 43% strain. This dilatation created large reductions and large gradients in cell and ECM densities. When combined with previous findings regarding the effects of strain and of cell and ECM densities on cell migration, proliferation and differentiation, these results indicate two mechanisms by which tissue dilatation may be a key stimulus for bone regeneration: (1) stretching of cells and (2) altering cell and ECM densities. These results are used to suggest experiments that can provide a more mechanistic understanding of the role of tissue dilatation in bone regeneration.

  8. Mechanisms of strain-mediated mesenchymal stem cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kearney, E M; Prendergast, P J; Campbell, V A

    2008-12-01

    Mechanical conditioning of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been adopted widely as a biophysical signal to aid tissue engineering applications. The replication of in vivo mechanical signaling has been used in in vitro environments to regulate cell differentiation, and extracellular matrix synthesis, so that both the chemical and mechanical properties of the tissue-engineered construct are compatible with the implant site. While research in these areas contributes to tissue engineering, the effects of mechanical strain on MSC apoptosis remain poorly defined. To evaluate the effects of uniaxial cyclic tensile strain on MSC apoptosis and to investigate mechanotransduction associated with strain-mediated cell death, MSCs seeded on a 2D silicone membrane were stimulated by a range of strain magnitudes for 3 days. Mechanotransduction was investigated using the stretch-activated cation channel blocker gadolinium chloride, the L-type voltage-activated calcium channel blocker nicardipine, the c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) blocker D-JNK inhibitor 1, and the calpain inhibitor MDL 28170. Apoptosis was assessed through DNA fragmentation using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated-UTP-end nick labeling method. Results demonstrated that tensile strains of 7.5% or greater induce apoptosis in MSCs. L-type voltage-activated calcium channels coupled mechanical stress to activation of calpain and JNK, which lead to apoptosis through DNA fragmentation. The definition of the in vitro boundary conditions for tensile strain and MSCs along with a proposed mechanism for apoptosis induced by mechanical events positively contributes to the development of MSC biology, bioreactor design for tissue engineering, and development of computational methods for mechanobiology.

  9. Connective Tissue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

  10. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue ... it harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back. The advantage of breast reconstruction with ...

  11. Laser/tissue interaction.

    PubMed

    Dederich, D N

    1991-01-01

    When laser light impinges on tissue, it can reflect, scatter, be absorbed, or transmit to the surrounding tissue. Absorption controls to a great degree the extent to which reflection, scattering and transmission occur, and wavelength is the primary determinant of absorption. The CO2 laser is consistently absorbed by most materials and tissues and the Nd-YAG laser wavelength is preferentially absorbed in pigmented tissues. The factors which determine the initial tissue effect include the laser wavelength, laser power, laser waveform, tissue optical properties, and tissue thermal properties. There are almost an infinite number of combinations of these factors possible, many of which would result in unacceptable damage to the tissues. This underscores the need to thoroughly test any particular combination of these factors on the conceptual, in-vitro, and in-vivo level before a treatment is offered.

  12. Tissue banking in australia.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  13. Does subcutaneous adipose tissue behave as an (anti-)thixotropic material?

    PubMed

    Geerligs, Marion; Peters, Gerrit W M; Ackermans, Paul A J; Oomens, Cees W J; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2010-04-19

    Although subcutaneous adipose tissue undergoes large deformations on a daily basis, there is no adequate mechanical model to describe the transfer of mechanical load from the skin throughout the tissue to deeper layers. In order to develop such a non-linear model, a set of experimental data is required. Accordingly, this study examines the long term behavior of adipose tissue under small strain and its response to various large strain profiles. The results show that the shear modulus dramatically increases to about an order of magnitude after a loading period between 250 and 1250 s, but returns to its initial value within 3 h of recovery from loading. In addition, it was observed that the stress-strain responses for various large strain history sequences are reproducible up to a strain of 0.15. For increasing strains, the stress decreases for subsequent loading cycles and, above 0.3 strain, tissue structure changes such that the stress becomes independent of the applied strain. From the results, it can be concluded that adipose tissue likely behaves as an (anti-) thixotropic material and that a Mooney-Rivlin model might be appropriate to simulate behavior at physiologically relevant high strains. However, before the model is developed more fully, further experimental research is needed to ratify that the material is (anti-)thixotropic. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interstitial Growth and Remodeling of Biological Tissues: Tissue Composition as State Variables

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kristin; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and remodeling of biological tissues involves mass exchanges between soluble building blocks in the tissue’s interstitial fluid and the various constituents of cells and the extracellular matrix. As the content of these various constituents evolves with growth, associated material properties, such as the elastic modulus of the extracellular matrix, may similarly evolve. Therefore, growth theories may be formulated by accounting for the evolution of tissue composition over time in response to various biological and mechanical triggers. This approach has been the foundation of classical bone remodeling theories that successfully describe Wolff’s law by establishing a dependence between Young’s modulus and bone apparent density and by formulating a constitutive relation between bone mass supply and the state of strain. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that adding tissue composition as state variables in the constitutive relations governing the stress-strain response and the mass supply represents a very general and straightforward method to model interstitial growth and remodeling in a wide variety of biological tissues. The foundation for this approach is rooted in the framework of mixture theory, which models the tissue as a mixture of multiple solid and fluid constituents. A further generalization is to allow each solid constituent in a constrained solid mixture to have its own reference (stress-free) configuration. Several illustrations are provided, ranging from bone remodeling to cartilage tissue engineering and cervical remodeling during pregnancy. PMID:23562499

  15. Tissue identification by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H.; Heyser, R. C.; Gammell, P. M.; Wilson, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic properties of animal and human soft tissue were measured over the frequency range of 1.5 to 10.0 MHz. The method employed a swept-frequency, coherent technique known as time delay spectrometry. Measurements of attenuation versus frequency on liver, backfat, kidney, pancreas, spleen, breast, and other tissue were made. Considerable attention was paid to tissue handling and in determining the effects of fixing on the attenuation of ultrasound in the tissue.

  16. Formation of in vivo tissue engineered human hyaline cartilage in the shape of a trachea with internal support.

    PubMed

    Ruszymah, Binti Haji Idrus; Chua, Kienhui; Latif, Mazlyzam Abdul; Hussein, Fuzina Nor; Saim, Aminuddin Bin

    2005-11-01

    Treatment and management of congenital as well as post-traumatic trachea stenosis remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. The aim of this study was to reconstruct a trachea with human nasal septum chondrocytes by using the combination of biodegradable hydrogel and non-biodegradable high-density polyethylene (HDP) as the internal predetermined shape scaffold. Human nasal septum cartilage was harvested as excessive tissue after elective septoplasty and digested in 0.6% collagenase II. Chondrocytes were cultured in an equal volume mix of Ham's F12 medium and Dulbecco's modified eagle medium added with 10% fetal bovine serum and basic fibroblast growth factor. After two passages, the cultured chondrocytes were trypsinized and mixed with biodegradable hydrogel Pluronic F127. The chondrocytes-hydrogel admixture was then painted over the HDP as the internal support in a predetermined trachea shape. The composite was then implanted subcutaneously in athymic mice. After 8 weeks of in vivo implantation, the tissue engineered trachea constructs were harvested. Macroscopic appearance of the tissue engineered trachea constructs demonstrated that the HDP were 80-90% covered with yellowish glistering cartilage like tissue without any sign of inflammation. The tissue engineered trachea cartilage consisted of evenly spaced lacunae embedded in basophilic matrix and stained red with Safranin-O staining denoting abundant proteoglycans production. Type II collagen gene which was expressed in native cartilage was highly expressed in this tissue engineered trachea cartilage. We have successfully reconstructed a trachea in vivo with human nasal septum chondrocytes using HDP as the internal support. This construct has the advantage of bio-inert and strength in which both are important properties in tracheal reconstruction.

  17. Development of tissue bank.

    PubMed

    Narayan, R P

    2012-05-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.

  18. Development of tissue bank

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  19. Mimicking biological stress-strain behaviour with synthetic elastomers.

    PubMed

    Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, Mohammad; Daniel, William F M; Everhart, Matthew H; Pandya, Ashish A; Liang, Heyi; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Dobrynin, Andrey V; Sheiko, Sergei S

    2017-09-28

    Despite the versatility of synthetic chemistry, certain combinations of mechanical softness, strength, and toughness can be difficult to achieve in a single material. These combinations are, however, commonplace in biological tissues, and are therefore needed for applications such as medical implants, tissue engineering, soft robotics, and wearable electronics. Present materials synthesis strategies are predominantly Edisonian, involving the empirical mixing of assorted monomers, crosslinking schemes, and occluded swelling agents, but this approach yields limited property control. Here we present a general strategy for mimicking the mechanical behaviour of biological materials by precisely encoding their stress-strain curves in solvent-free brush- and comb-like polymer networks (elastomers). The code consists of three independent architectural parameters-network strand length, side-chain length and grafting density. Using prototypical poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomers, we illustrate how this parametric triplet enables the replication of the strain-stiffening characteristics of jellyfish, lung, and arterial tissues.

  20. Effect of microstructure on micromechanical performance of dry cortical bone tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Ling; Venkatesan, Sudharshan; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar; Qin Qinghua

    2009-12-15

    The mechanical properties of bone depend on composition and structure. Previous studies have focused on macroscopic fracture behavior of bone. In the present study, we performed microindentation studies to understand the deformation properties and microcrack-microstructure interactions of dry cortical bone. Dry cortical bone tissues from lamb femurs were tested using Vickers indentation with loads of 0.245-9.8 N. We examined the effect of bone microstructure on deformation and crack propagation using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the significant effect of cortical bone microstructure on indentation deformation and microcrack propagation. The indentation deformation of the dry cortical bone was basically plastic at any applied load with a pronounced viscoelastic recovery, in particular at lower loads. More microcracks up to a length of approximately 20 {mu}m occurred when the applied load was increased. At loads of 4.9 N and higher, most microcracks were found to develop from the boundaries of haversian canals, osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi. Some microcracks propagated from the parallel direction of the longitudinal interstitial lamellae. At loads 0.45 N and lower, no visible microcracks were observed.

  1. Tissue engineering of reproductive tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may soon offer new hope for patients with serious injuries and end-stage reproductive organ failure. Scientists are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured reproductive tissues. In addition, the stem cell field is advancing, and new discoveries in this field will lead to new therapeutic strategies. For example, newly discovered types of stem cells have been retrieved from uterine tissues such as amniotic fluid and placental stem cells. The process of therapeutic cloning and the creation of induced pluripotent cells provide still other potential sources of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors that make use of autologous adult cells have already entered the clinic. This article discusses these tissue engineering strategies for various organs in the male and female reproductive tract.

  2. Direct noninvasive measurement and numerical modeling of depth-dependent strains in layered agarose constructs.

    PubMed

    Griebel, A J; Khoshgoftar, M; Novak, T; van Donkelaar, C C; Neu, C P

    2014-06-27

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in the growth, regulation, and maintenance of engineered biomaterials and tissues. While physical factors (e.g. applied mechanical strain) can accelerate regeneration, and knowledge of tissue properties often guide the design of custom materials with tailored functionality, the distribution of mechanical quantities (e.g. strain) throughout native and repair tissues is largely unknown. Here, we directly quantify distributions of strain using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) throughout layered agarose constructs, a model system for articular cartilage regeneration. Bulk mechanical testing, giving both instantaneous and equilibrium moduli, was incapable of differentiating between the layered constructs with defined amounts of 2% and 4% agarose. In contrast, MRI revealed complex distributions of strain, with strain transfer to softer (2%) agarose regions, resulting in amplified magnitudes. Comparative studies using finite element simulations and mixture (biphasic) theory confirmed strain distributions in the layered agarose. The results indicate that strain transfer to soft regions is possible in vivo as the biomaterial and tissue changes during regeneration and maturity. It is also possible to modulate locally the strain field that is applied to construct-embedded cells (e.g. chondrocytes) using stratified agarose constructs.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of a Taxonomically Unique Acinetobacter Clinical Strain with Proteolytic and Hemolytic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Traglia, German Matías; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Montaña, Sabrina; Schramm, Sareda T. J.; Enriquez, Brandi; Mussi, María Alejandra; Vay, Carlos; Iriarte, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. strain