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Sample records for lada terra v-56

  1. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2009-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationship) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  2. Geologic map of the Lada Terra quadrangle (V-56), Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W.

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides a geological map of Lada Terra quadrangle (V–56), a portion of the southern hemisphere of Venus that extends from lat 50° S. to 70° S. and from long 0° E. to 60° E. V–56 is bordered by Kaiwan Fluctus (V–44) and Agnesi (V–45) quadrangles in the north and by Mylitta Fluctus (V–61), Fredegonde (V–57), and Hurston (V–62) quadrangles in the west, east, and south, respectively. The geological map of V–56 quadrangle reveals evidence for tectonic, volcanic, and impact processes in Lada Terra in the form of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, and volcanic plains. In addition, the map also shows relative age relations such as overlapping or cross-cutting relations between the mapped geologic units. The geology observed within this quadrangle addresses (1) how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts and (2) how tesserae, regional plains, and impact craters, which are also significant geological units observed in Lada Terra quadrangle, were formed.

  3. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus: A Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2008-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationships) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  4. Spatial and temporal relations between coronae and extensional belts, northern Lada Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Gidon; Schubert, Gerald; Bindschadler, Duane L.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary studies of the distribution of coronae and volcanic rises on Venus show that many of these features tend to cluster along zones of rifting and extension. The plains north of Lada Terra are crossed by two such extensional belts. Each belt is composed of grabens, ridges, faults, volcanic flows, coronae and coronalike features. The longer and more prominent belt is the NW trending Alpha-Lada extensional belt, which is over 6000 km long and 50-200 km wide, and includes the coronae Eve, Tamfana, Carpo, Selu, Derceto, Otygen, and an unnamed corona south of Otygen. The second belt is the NNE trending Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt, which is about 2000 km long and in places over 300 km wide, and includes the coronae Sarpanitum, Eithinoha, and Quetzalpetlatl. The two belts intersect at the 1600 x 600 km wide Derceto volcanic plateau. It is apparent that deformation along the two belts overlapped in time, though deformation along the Alpha-Lada extensional belt probably continued after the deformation along the Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt terminated. In certain areas, volcanism originated in grabens within the extensional belts, whereas in other areas, such as in Eve, Selu, Derceto, and Quetzalpetlatl, volcanism originated in the coronae and flowed into the lower parts of the extensional belts. Regional extension has affected the evolution of all the coronae at some stage of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha and after the initiation of Carpo, Tamfana, Otygen, and Sarpanitum. It is thus unlikely that coronae formation along the belts is solely a consequence of the regional extension, and it is also unlikely that regional extension has been caused solely by the coronae. No corona along the belts was formed subsequent to the cessation of the regional extension. We therefore suggest that

  5. Spatial and temporal relations between coronae and extensional belts, northern Lada Terra, Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, G.; Schubert, G.; Bindschadler, D. L.; Stofan, E. R.

    1994-04-01

    Preliminary studies of the distribution of coronae and volcanic rises on Venus show that many of these features tend to cluster along zones of rifting and extension. The plains north of Lada Terra are crossed by two such extensional belts. Each belt is composed of grabens, ridges, faults, volcanic flows, coronae and coronalike features. The longer and more prominent belt is the NW trending Alpha-Lada extensional belt, which is over 6000 km long and 50-200 km wide, and includes the coronae Eve, Tamfana, Carpo, Selu, Derceto, Otygen, and an unnamed corona south of Otygen. The second belt is the NNE trending Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt, which is about 2000 km long and in places over 300 km wide, and includes the coronae Sarpanitum, Eithinoha, and Quetzalpetlatl. The two belts intersect at the 1600 x 600 km wide Derceto volcanic plateau. It is apparent that deformation along the two belts overlapped in time, though deformation along the Alpha-Lada extensional belt probably continued after the deformation along the Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt terminated. In certain areas, volcanism originated in grabens within the extensional belts, whereas in other areas, such as in Eve, Selu, Derceto, and Quetzalpetlatl, volcanism originated in the coronae and flowed into the lower parts of the extensional belts. Regional extension has affected the evolution of all the coronae at some stage of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha and after the initiation of Carpo, Tamfana, Otygen, and Sarpanitum. It is thus unlikely that coronae formation along the belts is solely a consequence of the regional extension, and it is also unlikely that regional extension has been caused solely by the coronae. No corona along the belts was formed subsequent to the cessation of the regional extension. We therefore suggest that

  6. The role of rifting in the generation of melt: Implications for the origin and evolution of the Lada Terra-Lavinia Planitia region of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Kari P.; Head, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A rift over 6000 km in total length runs along the border of Lada Terra, a highland in the southern hemisphere of Venus, and Lavinia Planitia, a basin that has been interpreted as a site of early-stage mantle downwelling. Along the length of the rift are a number of volcanic centers of widely varying morphology and volcanic output. These include coronae, radially fractured domes, and large flow fields similar in scale to terrestrial flood basalts. We develop a model for the origin of extension related to passive rifting in response to stresses created by the adjacent downwelling. Volcanism and extension at other rifts on Venus, such as Devana Chasma, have been attributed to deep-seated mantle plume activity. In contrast, we interpret the origin of extension and volcanism along the Lada rift to be linked to upwelling and decompression melting of mantle material due to rifting and, possibly, to counterflow associated with downwelling. Extension occurred generally prior to the formation of volcanic centers and the eruption of large-scale flow fields, although most of the volcanic centers have been fractured by continued extension along the rift. Current debate over the formation of terrestrial flood basalts centers on the necessity of preexisting extension and stretched and thinned lithosphere to produce enhanced decompression melting within a large plume head or mantle thermal anomaly. Our studies of large-scale flow fields associated with the Lada rift and coronae on Venus indicate that extension is a prerequisite for the formation of the majority of large-scale flow units on Venus.

  7. TERRA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Kirsty

    1997-01-01

    TERRA (Teaching Ecological Responsibility, Recreation, and Adventure) is an integrated, one-semester, four-course program in environmental science, environmental English, independent geography, and outdoor education for grades 11 and 12 in New Liskeard, Ontario. Program activities include outdoor adventure, environmental research projects,…

  8. Venus southern hemisphere - Geologic character and age of terrains in the Themis-Alpha-Lada region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Senske, D. A.; Head, J. W.; Fisher, P. C.; Hine, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    Arecibo high-resolution radar images of the southern hemisphere of Venus extending to 78 deg S show that the surface of the Themis-Alpha-Lada region is characterized by linear deformation zones with volcanoes and corona-like features and by regional volcanic deposits (primarily plains, small shields, and large edifices). Large-scale areal deformation is limited to the tessera of Alpha Regio. Lada Terra, in the southern high latitudes, contains several large coronae, in contrast to Ishtar Terra in the northern high latitudes. The density of craters of possible impact origin is somewhat lower than that observed in the Venera 15 and 16 coverage; these data extend to 43 percent of the areas of the surface of Venus with ages of less than about 1 billion years.

  9. [Type LADA diabetes--interrogation points].

    PubMed

    Otto-Buczkowska, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Type LADA diabetes is a form of autoimmune-mediated diabetes in adults. The progression of beta-cell failure is slower than in childhood type 1 diabetes. Patients with LADA present with more preserved beta cell function than those with classic type l diabetes. The diagnosis of LADA according to Immunology Diabetes Society is based on three features: age over 35 years, the presence at least one of four circulating autoantibodies to pancreatic islet cell antigens and lack of requirement for insulin at least 6 month after diagnosis. The level of C-peptide secretion after stimulation with intravenous glucagon administration helped to diagnosis. The optimal treatment of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is not established. Consider that early insulin treatment would result in better preservation of beta-cell function and metabolic control.

  10. Altered regulatory T cell phenotype in latent autoimmune diabetes of the adults (LADA).

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, M; Silver, C; Arvastsson, J; Lynch, K; Lernmark, Å; Harris, R A; Agardh, C-D; Cilio, C M

    2016-10-01

    Latent autoimmune diabetes of the adults (LADA) accounts for up to 12% of all patients with diabetes. Initially the disease resembles type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the typical presence of β cell autoantibodies indicates an autoimmune basis of LADA. While dysfunctional regulatory T cells (Tregs ) have been implicated in autoimmune diabetes, these cells have been scarcely studied in LADA. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and phenotype of circulating Tregs in LADA patients early during disease progression. Flow cytometric analysis was performed on whole blood and peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients diagnosed with LADA prior to insulin deficiency (n = 39) and from healthy volunteers (n = 20). Overall, we found the frequency and activation status of peripheral putative Tregs to be altered in LADA patients compared to healthy controls. While total T cells and CD4(+) T cells expressing high levels of CD25 (CD4(+) CD25(hi) ) were unchanged, the frequency and total numbers of CD4(+) T cells expressing an intermediate level of CD25 (CD4(+) CD25(int) ) were decreased in LADA patients. Interestingly, the expression of the Treg -specific marker forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), as well as the activation and memory makers CD69, cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), CCR4 and CD45RO were increased in CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells of the patients. Our data depict phenotypical changes in T cells of LADA patients that may reflect a derangement in peripheral immune regulation contributing to the slow process leading to insulin-dependent diabetes in these patients.

  11. Altered regulatory T cell phenotype in latent autoimmune diabetes of the adults (LADA).

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, M; Silver, C; Arvastsson, J; Lynch, K; Lernmark, Å; Harris, R A; Agardh, C-D; Cilio, C M

    2016-10-01

    Latent autoimmune diabetes of the adults (LADA) accounts for up to 12% of all patients with diabetes. Initially the disease resembles type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the typical presence of β cell autoantibodies indicates an autoimmune basis of LADA. While dysfunctional regulatory T cells (Tregs ) have been implicated in autoimmune diabetes, these cells have been scarcely studied in LADA. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and phenotype of circulating Tregs in LADA patients early during disease progression. Flow cytometric analysis was performed on whole blood and peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients diagnosed with LADA prior to insulin deficiency (n = 39) and from healthy volunteers (n = 20). Overall, we found the frequency and activation status of peripheral putative Tregs to be altered in LADA patients compared to healthy controls. While total T cells and CD4(+) T cells expressing high levels of CD25 (CD4(+) CD25(hi) ) were unchanged, the frequency and total numbers of CD4(+) T cells expressing an intermediate level of CD25 (CD4(+) CD25(int) ) were decreased in LADA patients. Interestingly, the expression of the Treg -specific marker forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), as well as the activation and memory makers CD69, cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), CCR4 and CD45RO were increased in CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells of the patients. Our data depict phenotypical changes in T cells of LADA patients that may reflect a derangement in peripheral immune regulation contributing to the slow process leading to insulin-dependent diabetes in these patients. PMID:27357431

  12. Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image is from a region called Terra Sirenum in Mars' southern hemisphere. This region was named in 1958 for the Sea of the Sirens from Greek Mythology. This is not a sea, however, but a relatively dusty, high albedo region of Mars. There are numerous dust devil tracks that are apparent in the center- left of the image. The dust devils act like vacuum cleaners and lift dust off of the surface leaving a less dusty and relatively lower albedo surface behind. Dust devils are very common on Mars and are thought to be the primary mechanism for constantly lifting the dust into the atmosphere. Dust is constantly present in the Martian atmosphere in greater abundances than typically seen on Earth. The Martian dust is one of the main factors that affect the present Martian climate and clearly displays the relationship between Mars' geology and atmosphere.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California

  13. InfoTerra/TerraSAR initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Manfred W.

    2004-01-01

    The overarching goal of the InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative is to establish a self-sustaining operational/commercial business built on Europe"s know-how and experience in space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, in SAR data processing as well as in SAR applications. InfoTerra stands for a new business concept based on supplying innovative geo-information products and services. TerraSAR is a space and ground system conceived to consist of an initial deployment and operation of 2 Radar satellites (one in X- and one in L-band) flying in a tandem configuration in the same orbit. The design of TerraSAR is driven by the market and is user-oriented. TerraSAR is key to capturing a significant proportion of the existing market and to opening new market opportunities, when it becomes operational. The InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative has evolved gradually. It started in 1997 as a joint venture between German (DSS) and British (MMS-UK) space industry, strongly supported by both space agencies, DLR and BNSC. In early 2001, DLR and BNSC submitted to ESA the Formal Programme Proposal for InfoTerra/TerraSAR to become an essential element of ESA"s Earth Watch Programme. In summer 2001, when it became evident that there was not yet sufficient support from the ESA Member States to allow immediate start entering into TerraSAR Phase C/D, it has been decided to implement first a TerraSAR consolidation phase. In early 2002, in order to avoid further delays, a contract was signed between DLR and Astrium GmbH on the development of one component of TerraSAR, the TerraSAR-X, in the frame of a national programme, governed by a Public Private Partnership Agreement. Even if now the different launch dates for TerraSAR-X and TerraSAR-L are narrowing down the window of common data acquisition, it is a reasonable starting point, but it should always be kept in mind that the utmost goal for the longterm is to achieve self sustainability by supplying geo-information products and services

  14. Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 28 June 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image illustrates the complex terrains within Terra Meridiani. This general region is one of the more complex on Mars, with a rich array of sedimentary, volcanic, and impact surfaces that span a wide range of martian history. This image lies at the eastern edge of a unique geologic unit that was discovered by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Science Team to have high concentrations of a unique mineral called grey (crystalline) hematite. As discussed by the TES Science Team, this mineral typically forms by processes associated with water, and this region appears to have undergone alteration by hydrothermal (hot water) or other water-related processes. As a result of this evidence for water activity, this region is a leading candidate for further exploration by one of NASA's upcoming Mars Exploration Rovers. The brightness and texture of the surface varies remarkably throughout this image. These differences are associated with different rock layers or ?units?, and can be used to map the occurrence of these layers. The number of layers indicates that extensive deposition by volcanic and sedimentary processes has occurred in this region. Since that time, however, extensive erosion has occurred to produce the patchwork of different layers exposed across the surface. Several distinct layers can be seen within the 20 km diameter crater at the bottom (south) of the image, indicating that this crater once contained layers of sedimentary material that has since been removed. THEMIS infrared images of this region show that many of these rock layers have distinctly different temperatures, indicating that the physical properties vary from layer to layer. These differences suggest that the environment and the conditions under which these layers were deposited or solidified varied through time as these layers were formed. The Story Mars exploration

  15. Morphometric and genetics properties of pea crops grown in space greenhouse Lada"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, M.; Sychev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Gostimsky, S.; Bingham, G.

    Results of the experiments with higher plants performed in greenhouse Svet aboard the MIR space station in 1996-1999 made it evident that the main biological characteristics of plants growth development reproduction and metabolism did not undergo modifications in consequence of microgravity It was shown that at least two ontogenetic cycles of plants could pass in the normal way in this environment However the initial experimental data was insufficient for fiducial conclusions on the delayed effects of cultivating a sequence of plant generations on the background of spaceflight factors Hence these investigations are given precedence in the space life sciences research programs In the period from March 2003 to April 2005 we fulfilled five experimental cultivations of genetically marked dwarf pea species in greenhouse Lada installed in the Russian segment of the International space station The purpose of this series of experiments was to make morphologic and genetic analysis of pea plants grown in successive generations According to our results pea growth and development over the full cycle of ontogenesis from seed to seed taking place in space greenhouse Lada were not different as compared with the ground control plants In addition four successive pea crops gathered in space flight did not loose their reproductive functions and formed viable seeds Genetic analysis of the plants grown from the space and ground seeds produced by the first to fourth successive crops was performed using the methods of

  16. Terra Harvest software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humeniuk, Dave; Klawon, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Under the Terra Harvest Program, the DIA has the objective of developing a universal Controller for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) community. The mission is to define, implement, and thoroughly document an open architecture that universally supports UGS missions, integrating disparate systems, peripherals, etc. The Controller's inherent interoperability with numerous systems enables the integration of both legacy and future UGS System (UGSS) components, while the design's open architecture supports rapid third-party development to ensure operational readiness. The successful accomplishment of these objectives by the program's Phase 3b contractors is demonstrated via integration of the companies' respective plug-'n'-play contributions that include controllers, various peripherals, such as sensors, cameras, etc., and their associated software drivers. In order to independently validate the Terra Harvest architecture, L-3 Nova Engineering, along with its partner, the University of Dayton Research Institute, is developing the Terra Harvest Open Source Environment (THOSE), a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) running on an embedded Linux Operating System. The Use Cases on which the software is developed support the full range of UGS operational scenarios such as remote sensor triggering, image capture, and data exfiltration. The Team is additionally developing an ARM microprocessor-based evaluation platform that is both energy-efficient and operationally flexible. The paper describes the overall THOSE architecture, as well as the design decisions for some of the key software components. Development process for THOSE is discussed as well.

  17. EOS Terra Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update presentation will discuss brief history of Terra EOM work; lifetime fuel estimates; baseline vs. proposed plan origin; resultant exit orbit; baseline vs. proposed exit plan; long term orbit altitude; revised lifetime proposal and fallback options.

  18. Comparing Crustal Magnetism of Terra Meridiani and Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Terra Meridiani displays remanent crustal magnetization, roughly symmetric and coherent over long distances, that has been interpreted by some workers as resulting from seafloor spreading. A detailed magnetization map of this region, located at 0º, 0º ±20º, will be compared with that of Terra Cimmeria (-40º, 180º) which hosts Mars' most intense and continuous magnetization. Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer (MGS MAG) data from mapping altitude (~400km) was downward continued to the surface. Data from the MGS aerobraking phase contains tracks in Terra Meridiani at altitudes between 110-190 km, revealing localized persistent Br signatures between -268 and 278 nT, with standard deviations of 24 and 17 nT, respectively. These signatures coincide with areas of strongest magnetization on the downward continued map at corresponding altitudes. However, several uncorrelated small-scale pockets of magnetization that appear in the aerobraking dataset may be attributed to shorter wavelength signals or noise. Positive and negative sources in Terra Meridiani show comparable decay with altitude. Similarly, sources in Terra Cimmeria resemble this decay. By extrapolating into the subsurface, we estimate the source depths for both regions and observe that Terra Meridiani has shallower sources than Terra Cimmeria. The strongest magnetization in Terra Meridiani lies along the 4,600 km diameter outer ring of the Chryse basin. A similar association occurs in Terra Cimmeria along the outer rings of the Sirenum basin. The decay of magnetization intensity with altitude, crustal composition, and crustal thickness estimates will be used to create simple models of magnetic sources for Terra Meridiani.

  19. The prevalence and characteristics of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and its relation with chronic complications in a clinical department of a university hospital in Korea.

    PubMed

    Roh, Mi-Oh; Jung, Chan-Hee; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Mok, Ji-Oh; Kim, Chul-Hee

    2013-04-01

    Few studies were performed to evaluate the prevalence of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and the difference of chronic complications between LADA, T1DM, and T2DM in Korean. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of LADA in a diabetic clinic of Soonchunhyang University hospital and to compare the phenotypic characteristics according to DM classification based on positivity of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA). Also, another important point concerns the occurrence of diabetes chronic microvascular complications in LADA. 323 patients who were checked GADA among diabetic patients admitted at Soonchunhyang University hospital were recruited. Twenty-eight patients (8.7%) were identified as positive for GADA. 11.5% (n = 37) were diagnosed with T1DM and 5.3% (n = 17) were diagnosed with LADA. GADA titer showed significant negative correlation with age of onset, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), fasting C-peptide, stimulated C-peptide, BMI, and positive correlation with HbA1C and HDL-C. Compared with those that tested negative for GADA, patients with GADA positive had lower values of onset age, BMI, TC, TG, LDL-C, fasting, and stimulated C-peptide levels and higher values of HbA1C. A significant gradual increase of values was observed for the onset age, BMI, SBP, DBP, fasting, and stimulated C-peptide across the T1DM, LADA, and T2DM subgroups. Concerning the chronic complications there was no difference in prevalence of retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy between three groups. Of LADA patients, 12 patients were receiving insulin treatment and mean time to insulin initiation was about 37 months. In conclusion, because our study suggests LADA subgroups in Korea appear to have a faster decline in C-peptide levels, it is worth detecting the patients with LADA early and effort to preserve beta cell function. Furthermore, our results showed that the prevalence of microvascular complication was comparable between the

  20. NAD⁺-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (xdhA) and L-arabitol-4-dehydrogenase (ladA) deletion mutants of Aspergillus oryzae for improved xylitol production.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, A; Hattori, K; Hongwen, C; Kitamoto, N; Suzuki, T; Nakamura, K; Takamizawa, K

    2013-05-01

    Xylitol dehydrogenase (XDHA) and L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LADA) are two key enzymes in xylan metabolism catalyzing the oxidation of xylitol to D-xylulose and arabitol to L-xylulose, respectively. In Aspergillus oryzae, XDHA and LADA are encoded by xdhA and ladA. We deleted xdhA and ladA and xdhA-ladA to generate mutants with decreased dehydrogenase activities and increased xylitol production. The mutants were constructed by homologous transformation into A. oryzae P4 (∆pyrG) using pyrG as a selectable marker. The xylitol productivity of the mutants was measured using D-xylose as the sole carbohydrate source. xdhA, ladA, and the double-deletion mutant produced, respectively, 12.4 g xylitol/l with a yield of 0.24 g/g D-xylose, 12.4 g/l with a yield of 0.33 g/g D-xylose, and 8.6 g/l at a yield of 0.26 g/g D-xylose.

  1. Bilateral symmetry across Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Campbell, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    There are three main highland areas on Venus: Beta Regio, Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra. The latter is least known and the least mapped, yet existing analyses of Aphrodite Terra based on available Pioneer-Venus orbiter data suggest that it may be the site of extensive rifting. Some of the highest resolution (30 km) PV data (SAR) included most of the western half of Aphrodite Terra. Recent analysis of the SAR data together with Arecibo range-doppler topographic profiling (10 X 100 km horizontal and 10 m vertical resolution) across parts of Aphrodite, further characterized the nature of possible tectonic processes in the equatorial highlands. The existence of distinct topographic and radar morphologic linear discontinuities across the nearly east-west strike of Aphrodite Terra is indicated. Another prominent set of linear features is distinctly parallel to and orthogonal to the ground tracks of the PV spacecraft and are not included because of the possibility that they are artifacts. Study of the northwest trending cross-strike discontinuities (CSD's) and the nature of topographic and morphologic features along their strike suggest the presence of bilateral topographic and morphologic symmetry about the long axis of Aphrodite Terra.

  2. Terra Cimmeria Crater Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The landslide in this VIS image is located inside an impact crater in the Terra Cimmeria region of Mars. The unnamed crater hosting this image is just east of Molesworth Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -27.7, Longitude 152 East (208 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. TERRA and the state of the telomere.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Karsten; Luke, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Long noncoding telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been implicated in telomere maintenance in a telomerase-dependent and a telomerase-independent manner during replicative senescence and cancer. TERRA's proposed activities are diverse, thus making it difficult to pinpoint the critical roles that TERRA may have. We propose that TERRA orchestrates different activities at chromosome ends in a manner that depends on the state of the telomere.

  4. Science Writers' Guide to TERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The launch of NASA's Terra spacecraft marks a new era of comprehensive monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and continents from a single space-based platform. Data from the five Terra instruments will create continuous, long-term records of the state of the land, oceans, and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. The science objectives of NASAs Earth Observing System (EOS) program are to provide global observations and scientific understanding of land cover change and global productivity, climate variability and change, natural hazards, and atmospheric ozone. Observations by the Terra instruments will: provide the first global and seasonal measurements of the Earth system, including such critical functions as biological productivity of the land and oceans, snow and ice, surface temperature, clouds, water vapor, and land cover; improve our ability to detect human impacts on the Earth system and climate, identify the "fingerprint" of human activity on climate, and predict climate change by using the new global observations in climate models; help develop technologies for disaster prediction, characterization, and risk reduction from wildfires, volcanoes, floods, and droughts, and start long-term monitoring of global climate change and environmental change.

  5. TerraSAR-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werninghaus, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  6. Breaking new ground: digging into TERRA function.

    PubMed

    Maicher, André; Lockhart, Arianna; Luke, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Despite the fact that telomeres carry chromatin marks typically associated with silent heterochromatin, they are actively transcribed into TElomeric Repeat containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA transcription is conserved from yeast to man, initiates in the subtelomeric region and proceeds through the telomeric tract of presumably each individual telomere. TERRA levels are increased in yeast survivors and in cancer cells employing ALT as a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM). Thus, TERRA may be a promising biomarker and potential target in anti-cancer therapy. Interestingly, several recent publications implicate TERRA in regulatory processes including telomere end protection and the establishment of the heterochromatic state at telomeres. A picture is emerging whereby TERRA acts as a regulator of telomere length and hence the associated onset of replicative senescence in a cell. In this review we will summarize the latest results regarding TERRA transcription, localization and related function. A special focus will be set on the potential role of TERRA in the regulation of telomere length and replicative senescence. Possible implications of increased TERRA levels in yeast survivors and in ALT cancer cells will be discussed.

  7. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  8. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres remains elusive. Mounting evidence suggests that the long noncoding telomeric RNA TERRA renders ALT telomeres recombinogenic by forming RNA:DNA hybrids with the telomeric C-rich strand. TERRA and telomeric hybrids act in concert with a number of other factors, including the RNA endoribonuclease RNaseH1 and the single stranded DNA binding protein RPA. The functional interaction network built upon these different players seems indispensable for ALT telomere maintenance, and digging into the molecular details of this previously unappreciated network might open the way to novel avenues for cancer treatments.

  9. Telomere functions grounding on TERRA firma.

    PubMed

    Azzalin, Claus M; Lingner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding telomeric repeat-containing RNAs - TERRAs - are transcribed in a regulated manner from telomeres throughout eukaryotes. TERRA molecules consist of chromosome end-specific subtelomeric sequences and telomeric repeats at their 3' ends. Recent work suggests that TERRA sustains several important functions at chromosome ends. TERRA can regulate telomere length through modulation of exonuclease 1 and telomerase, it may promote recruitment of chromatin modifiers to damaged telomeres and thereby enable DNA end-processing, and it may promote telomere protein composition changes during cell cycle progression. Furthermore, telomere transcription regulates chromosome-end mobility within the nucleus. We review how TERRA, by regulated expression and by providing a molecular scaffold for various protein enzymes, can support a large variety of vital functions.

  10. ES4 Terra-Xtrk Ed3

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-12

    ... Temporal Resolution:  Monthly, Daily, Monthly Hourly File Format:  HDF Tools:  ... for Terra and Aqua; Edition2 for TRMM) are approved for science publications.  Additional Info:  b SCAR-B ...

  11. EOS Terra: Mission Status Constellation MOWG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Mission Status Constellation MOWG will discuss mission summary; spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities; inclination adjust maneuvers, conjunction history, propellant usage and lifetime estimate; and end of mission plan.

  12. Xanthe Terra Landslide in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This is a daytime IR image of a chaos region within Xanthe Terra. As with earlier images, the landslide in this image is caused by the failure of steep slopes releasing material to form the landslide deposit.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.1, Longitude 309.7 East (50.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Sand Dunes in Noachis Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    11 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-toned sand dunes in a crater in eastern Noachis Terra. Most big martian dunes tend to be dark, as opposed to the more familiar light-toned dunes of Earth. This difference is a product of the composition of the dunes; on Earth, most dunes contain abundant quartz. Quartz is usually clear (transparent), though quartz sand grains that have been kicked around by wind usually develop a white, frosty surface. On Mars, the sand is mostly made up of the darker minerals that comprise iron- and magnesium-rich volcanic rocks--i.e., like the black sand beaches found on volcanic islands like Hawaii. Examples of dark sand dunes on Earth are found in central Washington state and Iceland, among other places. This picture is located near 49.0oS, 326.3oW. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  15. Small Volcano in Terra Cimmeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 26 June 2002) The Science This positive relief feature (see MOLA context) in the ancient highlands of Mars appears to be a heavily eroded volcanic center. The top of this feature appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. Light-toned streaks are visible, trending northeast to southwest, and may be caused by scouring of the terrain, or they may be dune forms moving sand. The northeast portion of the caldera area looks as though a layer of material is being removed to expose a slightly lighter-toned surface underneath. The flanks of this feature are slightly less cratered than the surrounding terrain, which could be explained in two ways: 1) this feature may be younger than the surrounding area, and has had less time to accumulate meteorite impacts, or 2) the slopes that are observed today may be so heavily eroded that the original, cratered surfaces are now gone, exposing relatively uncratered rocks. Although most of Terra Cimmeria has low albedo, some eastern portions, such as shown in this image, demonstrate an overall lack of contrast that attests to the presence of a layer of dust mantling the surface. This dust, in part, is responsible for the muted appearance and infill of many of the craters at the northern and southern ends of this image The Story This flat-topped volcano pops out from the surface, the swirls of its ancient lava flows running down onto the ancient highlands of Mars. Its smooth top appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. How can you tell? Click on the image above for a close-up look. You'll see some light-toned streaks that run in a northeast-southwest direction. They are caused either by the scouring of the terrain or dunes of moving sand. Either way, the wind likely plays upon the volcano's surface. Look also for the subtle, nearly crescent shaped feature at the northeast portion of the volcano's cap. It looks as if a layer of material has been removed by the wind, exposing

  16. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution smaller than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have some first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra: MODIS - 1.37 microns cirrus channel; 250 m daily cover for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - Global CO maps and CH4 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  17. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  18. TERRA: Building New Communities for Advanced Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Cornelius, Joe; Mockler, Todd; Tuinstra, Mitch

    2016-07-12

    ARPA-E’s Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture (TERRA) program is bringing together top experts from different disciplines – agriculture, robotics and data analytics – to rethink the production of advanced biofuel crops. ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Joe Cornelius discusses the TERRA program and explains how ARPA-E’s model enables multidisciplinary collaboration among diverse communities. The video focuses on two TERRA projects—Donald Danforth Center and Purdue University—that are developing and integrating cutting-edge remote sensing platforms, complex data analytics tools and plant breeding technologies to tackle the challenge of sustainably increasing biofuel stocks.

  19. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  20. DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND TYPICAL TERRA COTTA WINDOW SILL. CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. Terra Nova breaks new ground for alliances

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiselin, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of alliances to help develop the Terra Nova oil and gas field in the offshore Atlantic areas of Canada. Largely attributed to BP, the strategic alliance concept got its start in the North Sea and on the North Slope of Alaska. BP saw it as the best way to take advantage of economy-of-scale, mitigate risk, and achieve outsourcing goals while retaining their core competencies. This paper reviews the methods of developing the alliances, the developing of a development plan for the Terra Nova field, and how the alliance plans to maximize the profittability of the operation for all involved.

  2. Scaling the Pipe: NASA EOS Terra Data Systems at 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    Standard products from the five sensors on NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Terra satellite are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper describes the evolution of the Terra data systems over the last decade in which the distributed systems that produce, archive and distribute high quality Terra data products were scaled by two orders of magnitude.

  3. Slope Streaks in Terra Sabaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This HiRISE image shows the rim of a crater in the region of Terra Sabaea in the northern hemisphere of Mars.

    The subimage (figure 1) is a close-up view of the crater rim revealing dark and light-toned slope streaks. Slope streak formation is among the few known processes currently active on Mars. While their mechanism of formation and triggering is debated, they are most commonly believed to form by downslope movement of extremely dry sand or very fine-grained dust in an almost fluidlike manner (analogous to a terrestrial snow avalanche) exposing darker underlying material.

    Other ideas include the triggering of slope streak formation by possible concentrations of near-surface ice or scouring of the surface by running water from aquifers intercepting slope faces, spring discharge (perhaps brines), and/or hydrothermal activity.

    Several of the slope streaks in the subimage, particularly the three longest darker streaks, show evidence that downslope movement is being diverted around obstacles such as large boulders. Several streaks also appear to originate at boulders or clumps of rocky material.

    In general, the slope streaks do not have large deposits of displaced material at their downslope ends and do not run out onto the crater floor suggesting that they have little reserve kinetic energy. The darkest slope streaks are youngest and can be seen to cross cut and superpose older and lighter-toned streaks. The lighter-toned streaks are believed to be dark streaks that have lightened with time as new dust is deposited on their surface.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_001808_1875 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Dec-2006. The complete image is centered at 7.4 degrees latitude, 47.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 272.1 km

  4. Seasonal Frost in Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0918 UTC (4:18 a.m. EST) on Nov. 25, 2006, near 38.9 degrees south latitude, 195.9 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across.

    At this time, Mars' southern hemisphere was experiencing mid-winter. During Martian southern winter, the southern polar cap is covered and surrounded by carbon dioxide frost and water frost. This is unlike Earth, whose frozen winter precipitation is made up of only one volatile -- water. The carbon dioxide frost evaporates, or sublimates, at a lower temperature than water frost. So, during spring, the carbon dioxide ice evaporates first and leaves a residue of water frost, which later sublimates as well.

    The image shown here covers part of a crater rim, which is illuminated from the upper left. North is at the top. The topography creates a cold microenvironment on the south side of the rim that is partially protected from solar illumination. That cold surface contains an outlier of the southern seasonal frost about 15 degrees of latitude closer to the equator than the average edge of the frost at this season.

    The top image was constructed from three infrared wavelengths that highlight the bluer color of frost than the background rock and soil. Note that the frost occurs both on sunlit and shaded surfaces on the south side of the rim. The shaded areas are still visible because they are illuminated indirectly by the Martian sky.

    The bottom image was constructed by measuring the depths of spectral absorption bands due to water frost and carbon dioxide frost, and displaying the results in image form. Blue shows strength of an absorption due to water frost near 1.50 micrometers, and green shows strength of an absorption due to carbon dioxide frost near 1.45 micrometers. Red shows

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Gordonia terrae 3612

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Daniel A.; Guerrero Bustamante, Carlos A.; Garlena, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Gordonia terrae 3612, also known by the strain designations ATCC 25594, NRRL B-16283, and NBRC 100016. The genome sequence reveals it to be free of prophage and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), and it is an effective host for the isolation and characterization of Gordonia bacteriophages. PMID:27688316

  6. Terra--A School's Venture into Interdependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashjian, Michi; And Others

    1979-01-01

    To create a feeling of school unity and to reinforce the concept of human interdependence, the teachers of Friends' Central School planned Project Terra, a six-week school-wide activity. With the school viewed as a mythical planet, classes designed their own cultures and interacted as nations. (SJL)

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Gordonia terrae 3612.

    PubMed

    Russell, Daniel A; Guerrero Bustamante, Carlos A; Garlena, Rebecca A; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Gordonia terrae 3612, also known by the strain designations ATCC 25594, NRRL B-16283, and NBRC 100016. The genome sequence reveals it to be free of prophage and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), and it is an effective host for the isolation and characterization of Gordonia bacteriophages. PMID:27688316

  8. Sedimentary Rocks and Methane - Southwest Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to land the Mars Science Laboratory in southwest Arabia Terra to study two key aspects of martian history the extensive record of sedimentary rocks and the continuing release of methane. The results of this exploration will directly address the MSL Scientific Objectives regarding biological potential, geology and geochemistry, and past habitability.

  9. Terra in K-16 formal education settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.

    2009-12-01

    Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.

  10. Terra Populus and DataNet Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugler, T.; Ruggles, S.; Fitch, C. A.; Clark, P. D.; Sobek, M.; Van Riper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Terra Populus, part of NSF's new DataNet initiative, is developing organizational and technical infrastructure to integrate, preserve, and disseminate data describing changes in the human population and environment over time. Terra Populus will incorporate large microdata and aggregate census datasets from the United States and around the world, as well as land use, land cover, climate and other environmental datasets. These data are widely dispersed, exist in a variety of data structures, have incompatible or inadequate metadata, and have incompatible geographic identifiers. Terra Populus is developing methods of integrating data from different domains and translating across data structures based on spatio-temporal linkages among data contents. The new infrastructure will enable researchers to identify and merge data from heterogeneous sources to study the relationships between human behavior and the natural world. Terra Populus will partner with data archives, data producers, and data users to create a sustainable international organization that will guarantee preservation and access over multiple decades. Terra Populus is also collaborating with the other projects in the DataNet initiative - DataONE, the DataNet Federation Consortium (DFC) and Sustainable Environment-Actionable Data (SEAD). Taken together, the four projects address aspects of the entire data lifecycle, including planning, collection, documentation, discovery, integration, curation, preservation, and collaboration; and encompass a wide range of disciplines including earth sciences, ecology, social sciences, hydrology, oceanography, and engineering. The four projects are pursuing activities to share data, tools, and expertise between pairs of projects as well as collaborating across the DataNet program on issues of cyberinfrastructure and community engagement. Topics to be addressed through program-wide collaboration include technical, organizational, and financial sustainability; semantic

  11. Geologic Mapping in Southern Margaritifer Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III; Grant, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Margaritifer Terra records a complex geologic history [1-5], and the area from Holden crater through Ladon Valles, Ladon basin, and up to Morava Valles is no exception [e.g., 6-13]. The 1:500,000 geologic map of MTM quadrangles -15027, -20027, -25027, and -25032 (Figs. 1 and 2 [14]) identifies a range of units that delineate the history of water-related activity and regional geologic context.

  12. Resurfacing history of Tempe Terra and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.V. ); Grant, T.D. )

    1990-08-30

    The resurfacing history of the Tempe Terra region is determined using the Neukum and Hiller technique of breaking cumulative frequency curves into separate branches where the curves depart from a standard production curve. We find four surfaces recorded in the heavily cratered portions of Tempe Terra, with crater retention ages N(1) = (242,100), (95,700), (20,800), and (5,500). This is interpreted to indicate three major resurfacing events occurred in this region, ending at N(1) = (95,700), (20,800), and (5,500). The ridged plains on the Tempe Terra plateau have an oldest recorded surface age of (20,400), identical to that of the second resurfacing event recorded in the heavily cratered areas. A single resurfacing of the ridged plains (which may have been a second episode of ridged plains volcanism) occurred at N(1) = (7,800). The knobby plains to the north west and east of Tempe Terra also show a resurfacing at (20,000) and additional events at (5,400) and perhaps (1,600). Mottled plains to the northeast record surfaces with crater retention age (7,500), (5,000), and (3,900), where the first age is determined by a single surviving crater. It appears that the Lunae Planum Age (LPA) (at N(1) = (20,000)) resurfacing event seen elsewhere on mars was widespread and effective in this region. A second widespread event appears to have ended at N(1) = (5,000). The authors estimate the thickness of the resurfacing materials corresponding to the LPA event to be less than 90 m in the heavily cratered areas but 300-500 m in the ridged plains themselves. Later resurfacing materials were generally thicker farther north in the mottled plains (300 m) than in the knobby plains (200 m).

  13. Is Ishtar Terra a thickened basaltic crust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar

    1992-01-01

    The mountain belts of Ishtar Terra and the surrounding tesserae are interpreted as compressional regions. The gravity and surface topography of western Ishtar Terra suggest a thick crust of 60-110 km that results from crustal thickening through tectonic processes. Underthrusting was proposed for the regions along Danu Montes and Itzpapalotl Tessera. Crustal thickening was suggested for the entire Ishtar Terra. In this study, three lithospheric models with total thicknesses of 40.75 and 120 km and initial crustal thicknesses of 3.9 and 18 km are examined. These models could be produced by partial melting and chemical differentiation in the upper mantle of a colder, an Earth-like, and a hotter Venus having temperatures of respectively 1300 C, 1400 C, and 1500 C at the base of their thermal boundary layers associated with mantle convection. The effects of basalt-granulite-eclogite transformation (BGET) on the surface topography of a thickening basaltic crust is investigated adopting the experimental phase diagram and density variations through the phase transformation.

  14. Terra Mission Operations: Launch to the Present (and Beyond)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita; Moyer, Eric; Mantziaras, Dimitrios; Case, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The Terra satellite, flagship of NASA's long-term Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, continues to provide useful earth science observations well past its 5-year design lifetime. This paper describes the evolution of Terra operations, including challenges and successes and the steps taken to preserve science requirements and prolong spacecraft life. Working cooperatively with the Terra science and instrument teams, including NASA's international partners, the mission operations team has successfully kept the Terra operating continuously, resolving challenges and adjusting operations as needed. Terra retains all of its observing capabilities (except Short Wave Infrared) despite its age. The paper also describes concepts for future operations. This paper will review the Terra spacecraft mission successes and unique spacecraft component designs that provided significant benefits extending mission life and science. In addition, it discusses special activities as well as anomalies and corresponding recovery efforts. Lastly, it discusses future plans for continued operations.

  15. Mars Express OMEGA Observations over Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Wolff, M.; Gendrin, A.; Morris, R. V.; Freeman, J. J.; Bellucci, G.

    2005-01-01

    The OMEGA hyperspectral imager (0.35 to 5.08 micrometers) covered the hematite-bearing plains and underlying etched terrains of Terra Meridiani during several orbits with spatial resolutions ranging from several hundred meters to approximately 2 km. We extracted and analyzed surface reflectance spectra from OMEGA data for the approximately 864,000 square kilometers surrounding the Opportunity site. In this paper we focus on analysis of OMEGA orbit 485 data for the plains and etched terrains located to the northeast of the Opportunity landing site.

  16. Volcanism in Northwest Ishtar Terra, Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddis, L.R.; Greeley, R. )

    1990-10-01

    Evidence is presented for a previously undocumented volcanic complex in the highlands of NW Ishtar Terra (74 deg N, 313 deg E). The proposed valcanic center is in mountainous banded terrain thought to have been formed by regional compression. Data used include Soviet Venera 15/16 radar images and topography (Fotokarta Veneri B-4, 1987). An attempt is made to assess the place of this feature in the framework of known volcanic landforms of the Lakshmi Planum and to examine the relationships between volcanism and tectonism in this region. 38 refs.

  17. Radar Scattering Properties of Terra Meridiani, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Haldemann, A. F.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    A series of fourteen radar observations of Mars were made during the 2001 opposition. Four of these observation tracks passed over Terra Meridiani, a prime candidate landing site for one of the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover missions. Observations were conducted using X-band (3.5 centimeter wavelength) radar transmitted with a pseudo-random binary phase encoding which, combined with the frequency resolution of the processing FFT, yields a maximum spatial resolution of approximately five kilometers. Actual spatial resolution is coarser than this (between five and twenty kilometers) due to signal-to-noise considerations that predicated longer integration times as well as greater planetary ranges for the off-opposition observations. We have processed the Terra Meridiani data in stages, beginning with one-dimensional sub-radar track profiles and culminating with four-station interferometry. Not all observations were amendable to the full four-station interferometry, due to technical issues, but were processed with a minimum of two stations to remove the spatial ambiguities inherent to radar observations. Our processing yields one- and two-dimensional maps of the surface reflectivity along the radar track. We extract scattering data for points along the sub-radar track, where the angle in incidence varies most, and model the scattering function. The multi-station reflectivity data is also modeled according to the Hagfors scattering model to extract two-dimensional maps of RMS roughness and dielectric constant. The RMS roughness data for the Terra Meridiani landing sites shows the local surface slopes to be less than 3 degrees, on the scale of tens of wavelengths. An enhanced dielectric constant is apparent over Terra Meridiani that is spatially correlated with the MGS detected hematite deposits. The level of the enhancement is consistent with the inclusion of 10-15 percent hematite, according to a weighted dielectric or PVL model. Integral to our processing, and new to

  18. Results of Statewide TerraNova Testing, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.

    This summary provides key findings about state, district, and school level performance on the TerraNova examinations (CTB/McGraw Hill) in Nevada in 1998-1999. The TerraNova tests are used to assess students in grades 4, 8, and 10 as stipulated by Nevada law. Within this summary, a description of performance as measured by national percentile…

  19. Role of TERRA in the Regulation of Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caiqin; Zhao, Li; Lu, Shiming

    2015-01-01

    Telomere dysfunction is closely associated with human diseases such as cancer and ageing. Inappropriate changes in telomere length and/or structure result in telomere dysfunction. Telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent, but it was recently demonstrated that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA, a long non-coding RNA, participates in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and heterochromatinization. The correct regulation of telomere length may be crucial to telomeric homeostasis and functions. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of TERRA in the maintenance of telomere length, with focus on the variety of mechanisms by which TERRA is involved in the regulation of telomere length. This review aims to enable further understanding of how TERRA-targeted drugs can target telomere-related diseases. PMID:25678850

  20. Role of TERRA in the regulation of telomere length.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caiqin; Zhao, Li; Lu, Shiming

    2015-01-01

    Telomere dysfunction is closely associated with human diseases such as cancer and ageing. Inappropriate changes in telomere length and/or structure result in telomere dysfunction. Telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent, but it was recently demonstrated that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA, a long non-coding RNA, participates in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and heterochromatinization. The correct regulation of telomere length may be crucial to telomeric homeostasis and functions. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of TERRA in the maintenance of telomere length, with focus on the variety of mechanisms by which TERRA is involved in the regulation of telomere length. This review aims to enable further understanding of how TERRA-targeted drugs can target telomere-related diseases.

  1. Validation of CERES/TERRA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Wieliski, Bruce A.; Smith, G. Louis; Lee, Robert B.; Priestley, Kory J.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Kratz, David P.

    2000-01-01

    There are 2 CERES scanning radiometer instruments aboard the TERRA spacecraft, one for mapping the solar radiation reflected from the Earth and the outgoing longwave radiation and the other for measuring the anisotropy of the radiation. Each CERES instrument has on-board calibration devices, which have demonstrated that from ground to orbit the broadband total and shortwave sensor responses maintained their ties to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 at precisions approaching radiances have been validated in orbit to +/- 0.3 % (0.3 W/sq m sr). Top of atmosphere fluxes are produced by use of the CERES data alone. By including data from other instruments, surface radiation fluxes and radiant fluxes within the atmosphere and at its top, shortwave and longwave, for both up and down components, are derived. Validation of these data products requires ground and aircraft measurements of fluxes and of cloud properties.

  2. Bilateral topographic symmetry patterns across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Topographic profiles have been obtained across Aphrodite Terra to test for bilateral symmetry of the type associated with thermal boundary layer topography at divergent plate boundaries on earth. In addition to a broad bilateral symmetry at a range of angles across Aphrodite Terra, detailed bilateral symmetry is noted within domains between linear discontinuities in directions parallel to the strike of the discontinuities. The results suggest that western Aphrodite Terra is similar to terrestrial oceanic divergent plate boundary environments, and that the cross-strike discontinuities are analogous to oceanic fracture zones rather than strike-slip faults.

  3. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres.

  4. Detail of terra cotta ornament on southwest corner pier, first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of terra cotta ornament on southwest corner pier, first story. Photograph taken 1973. - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  5. 3. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION ON LOWER END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION ON LOWER END OF EXPRESSED COLUMN, JUST BELOW SECOND FLOOR ON SOUTH FRONT FACADE - John D. Van Allen & Son Store, South Fifth Avenue & Second Street, Clinton, Clinton County, IA

  6. Detail of secondstory bay with terra cotta ornament on east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of second-story bay with terra cotta ornament on east façade. Photograph taken April 1973 - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  7. Completion and Submission of the Terra Sirenum Map Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S.; Schroeder, J.

    2016-06-01

    We have completed and plan to submit a detailed 1:5,000,000-scale geologic map of the Terra Sirenum region, which includes mapping stratigraphic units and identifying tectonic, erosional, depositional, and impact structures.

  8. 4. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION AT TOP OF EXPRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION AT TOP OF EXPRESSED COLUMN, JUST ABOVE FOURTH FLOOR WINDOWS ON SOUTH FRONT FACADE - John D. Van Allen & Son Store, South Fifth Avenue & Second Street, Clinton, Clinton County, IA

  9. 4. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL SHOWING TERRA COTTA ROUND ARCH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL SHOWING TERRA COTTA ROUND ARCH AND STRING COURSE AT FOURTH FLOOR LEVEL AND FRIEZE AT FIFTH FLOOR LEVEL - West Lexington Street, Number 308 (Commercial Building), 308 West Lexington Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. Identification of chromatin marks at TERRA promoter and encoding region.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Yutaka; Kawaji, Hideya; Minoda, Aki; Usui, Kengo

    2015-11-27

    TERRA is a long non-coding RNA that is essential for telomere integrity. Although it is transcribed from subtelomeres and telomeres, how it is expressed in heterochromatic region is currently unknown. In this study, we focused our analysis on TERRA-encoding region TelBam3.4 and TelBam3.4-like sequences, and determined their transcription start sites, as well as enrichment of RNA polymerase II and histone modifications. We found that H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 are present at TERRA promoters, whereas H3K27ac and H3K9me3 are present at telomeric repeats. Consistently, we show that presence of active histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K27ac are correlated to TERRA expression. These results mark an important step towards understanding telomere maintenance and transcription.

  11. Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved columns, north rear. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. Functional characterization of the TERRA transcriptome at damaged telomeres.

    PubMed

    Porro, Antonio; Feuerhahn, Sascha; Delafontaine, Julien; Riethman, Harold; Rougemont, Jacques; Lingner, Joachim

    2014-10-31

    Telomere deprotection occurs during tumorigenesis and aging upon telomere shortening or loss of the telomeric shelterin component TRF2. Deprotected telomeres undergo changes in chromatin structure and elicit a DNA damage response (DDR) that leads to cellular senescence. The telomeric long noncoding RNA TERRA has been implicated in modulating the structure and processing of deprotected telomeres. Here, we characterize the human TERRA transcriptome at normal and TRF2-depleted telomeres and demonstrate that TERRA upregulation is occurring upon depletion of TRF2 at all transcribed telomeres. TRF2 represses TERRA transcription through its homodimerization domain, which was previously shown to induce chromatin compaction and to prevent the early steps of DDR activation. We show that TERRA associates with SUV39H1 H3K9 histone methyltransferase, which promotes accumulation of H3K9me3 at damaged telomeres and end-to-end fusions. Altogether our data elucidate the TERRA landscape and defines critical roles for this RNA in the telomeric DNA damage response.

  13. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  14. Terra - 15 Years as the Earth Observing System Flagship Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Terra marks its 15th year on orbit with an array of accomplishments and the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to make its data more valuable by creating a record length to examine interannual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The power of Terra is in the high quality of the data calibration, sensor characterization, and the complementary nature of the instruments covering a range of scientific measurements as well as scales. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, "How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?" Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National

  15. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) constitutes a nucleoprotein component of extracellular inflammatory exosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Deng, Zhong; Dahmane, Nadia; Tsai, Kevin; Wang, Pu; Williams, Dewight R; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Showe, Louise C; Zhang, Rugang; Huang, Qihong; Conejo-Garcia, José R; Lieberman, Paul M

    2015-11-17

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been identified as a telomere-associated regulator of chromosome end protection. Here, we report that TERRA can also be found in extracellular fractions that stimulate innate immune signaling. We identified extracellular forms of TERRA in mouse tumor and embryonic brain tissue, as well as in human tissue culture cell lines using RNA in situ hybridization. RNA-seq analyses revealed TERRA to be among the most highly represented transcripts in extracellular fractions derived from both normal and cancer patient blood plasma. Cell-free TERRA (cfTERRA) could be isolated from the exosome fractions derived from human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) culture media. cfTERRA is a shorter form (∼200 nt) of cellular TERRA and copurifies with CD63- and CD83-positive exosome vesicles that could be visualized by cyro-electron microscopy. These fractions were also enriched for histone proteins that physically associate with TERRA in extracellular ChIP assays. Incubation of cfTERRA-containing exosomes with peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated transcription of several inflammatory cytokine genes, including TNFα, IL6, and C-X-C chemokine 10 (CXCL10) Exosomes engineered with elevated TERRA or liposomes with synthetic TERRA further stimulated inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that exosome-associated TERRA augments innate immune signaling. These findings imply a previously unidentified extrinsic function for TERRA and a mechanism of communication between telomeres and innate immune signals in tissue and tumor microenvironments.

  16. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) constitutes a nucleoprotein component of extracellular inflammatory exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Deng, Zhong; Dahmane, Nadia; Tsai, Kevin; Wang, Pu; Williams, Dewight R.; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Showe, Louise C.; Zhang, Rugang; Huang, Qihong; Conejo-Garcia, José R.; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been identified as a telomere-associated regulator of chromosome end protection. Here, we report that TERRA can also be found in extracellular fractions that stimulate innate immune signaling. We identified extracellular forms of TERRA in mouse tumor and embryonic brain tissue, as well as in human tissue culture cell lines using RNA in situ hybridization. RNA-seq analyses revealed TERRA to be among the most highly represented transcripts in extracellular fractions derived from both normal and cancer patient blood plasma. Cell-free TERRA (cfTERRA) could be isolated from the exosome fractions derived from human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) culture media. cfTERRA is a shorter form (∼200 nt) of cellular TERRA and copurifies with CD63- and CD83-positive exosome vesicles that could be visualized by cyro-electron microscopy. These fractions were also enriched for histone proteins that physically associate with TERRA in extracellular ChIP assays. Incubation of cfTERRA-containing exosomes with peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated transcription of several inflammatory cytokine genes, including TNFα, IL6, and C-X-C chemokine 10 (CXCL10) Exosomes engineered with elevated TERRA or liposomes with synthetic TERRA further stimulated inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that exosome-associated TERRA augments innate immune signaling. These findings imply a previously unidentified extrinsic function for TERRA and a mechanism of communication between telomeres and innate immune signals in tissue and tumor microenvironments. PMID:26578789

  17. BOOK REVIEW: European Perceptions of Terra Australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-12-01

    Terra Australis - the southern land - has been one of the most widespread concepts in European geography from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. This book comprises a set of 14 interdisciplinary scholarly contributions that deal with personal perceptions of Terra Australis by cartographers and explorers, and with putting these perceptions in their historical and cultural environments. This book seems, at a first glance, to be very remote from astronomy - and even from the history of astronomy - however, as it also offers an excellent background to Captain James Cook's second voyage to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from Tahiti, it definitely is a work of truly interdisciplinary character. Cook's voyages, in fact, became a model in which key scientists of many nationalities and disciplines traveled together on ships. In these voyages, art, science, technology and political power were centralised and united. The chapters range across history, the visual arts, literature, popular culture, technology, politics and science. Issues of scientific reasoning are raised in the description of how people did think about the south before there even existed a perception of the unknown land - quite comparable to how ancient and early-modern astronomers had their thought about cosmology even before any observational data were available. Several early map systems - like the zonal and T-O maps (medieval world maps with the letter T inside an O representing the lands inside a circle of oceans) - are described, and the description of Roman geography shows the amazing fact that theory and practice were not unified, and existed independently of each other insofar that a real paradox between theory and observation had persisted for a very long time. The maps and charts also exemplify the long-lasting consequences of early modern copy-paste practice: navigators copied original sketch charts of coasts that were previously unknown to them, herewith committing many translation and

  18. Geological Time on Display in Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This scene from the dust covered plains of eastern Arabia Terra portrays a range of geological time. Three craters at the center of the image capture some of this range. Two have the classic bowl-shape of small, relatively recent craters while the one just to the north has seen much more history. Its rim has been scoured away by erosion and its floor has been filled in by material likely of a sedimentary nature. The channels that wind through the scene may be the oldest features present while the relatively dark streaks scattered about could have been produced in the past few years or even months as winds remove a layer of dust to reveal darker material below.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Synergism of MODIS Aerosol Remote Sensing from Terra and Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2003-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors, aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites, are showing excellent competence at measuring the global distribution and properties of aerosols. Terra and Aqua were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002 respectively, with daytime equator crossing times of approximately 10:30 am and 1:30 pm respectively. Several aerosol parameters are retrieved at 10-km spatial resolution from MODIS daytime data over land and ocean surfaces. The parameters retrieved include: aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.47, 0.55 and 0.66 micron wavelengths over land, and at 0.47, 0.55, 0.66, 0.87, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.1 microns over ocean; Angstrom exponent over land and ocean; and effective radii, and the proportion of AOT contributed by the small mode aerosols over ocean. Since the beginning of its operation, the quality of Terra-MODIS aerosol products (especially AOT) have been evaluated periodically by cross-correlation with equivalent data sets acquired by ground-based (and occasionally also airborne) sunphotometers, particularly those coordinated within the framework of the AErosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET). Terra-MODIS AOT data have been found to meet or exceed pre-launch accuracy expectations, and have been applied to various studies dealing with local, regional, and global aerosol monitoring. The results of these Terra-MODIS aerosol data validation efforts and studies have been reported in several scientific papers and conferences. Although Aqua-MODIS is still young, it is already yielding formidable aerosol data products, which are also subjected to careful periodic evaluation similar to that implemented for the Terra-MODIS products. This paper presents results of validation of Aqua-MODIS aerosol products with AERONET, as well as comparative evaluation against corresponding Terra-MODIS data. In addition, we show interesting independent and synergistic applications of MODIS aerosol data from

  20. Effect of MODIS Terra radiometric calibration improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue aerosol products: Validation and Terra/Aqua consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by ˜0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and ˜0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by ˜10% and ˜5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  1. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  2. Identification of New Genomospecies in the Mycobacterium terrae Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wong, Yan Ling; Tan, Joon Liang; Hong, Kar Wai; Ng, Hien Fuh; Ong, Bee Lee; Chan, Kok Gan

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Mycobacterium terrae complex are slow-growing, non-chromogenic acid-fast bacilli found in the natural environment and occasionally in clinical material. These genetically closely-related members are difficult to differentiate by conventional phenotypic and molecular tests. In this paper we describe the use of whole genome data for the identification of four strains genetically similar to Mycobacterium sp. JDM601, a newly identified member of the M. terrae complex. Phylogenetic information from the alignment of genome-wide orthologous genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms show consistent clustering of the four strains together with M. sp. JDM601 into a distinct clade separate from other rapid and slow growing mycobacterial species. More detailed inter-strain comparisons using average nucleotide identity, tetra-nucleotide frequencies and analysis of synteny indicate that our strains are closely related to but not of the same species as M. sp. JDM601. Besides the 16S rRNA signature described previously for the M. terrae complex, five more hypothetical proteins were found that are potentially useful for the rapid identification of mycobacterial species belonging to the M. terrae complex. This paper illustrates the versatile utilization of whole genome data for the delineation of new bacterial species and introduces four new genomospecies to add to current members in the M. terrae complex. PMID:25830768

  3. Thermal Performance of Capillary Pumped Loops Onboard Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Butler, Charles D.; Swanson, Theodore; Thies, Diane

    2004-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft is the flagship of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. It provides global data on the state of atmosphere, land and oceans, as well as their interactions with solar radiation and one another. Three Terra instruments utilize Capillary Pumped Heat Transport System (CPHTS) for temperature control: Each CPHTS, consisting of two capillary pumped loops (CPLs) and several heat pipes and electrical heaters, is designed for instrument heat loads ranging from 25W to 264W. The working fluid is ammonia. Since the launch of the Terra spacecraft, each CPHTS has been providing a stable interface temperature specified by the instrument under all modes of spacecraft and instrument operations. The ability to change the CPHTS operating temperature upon demand while in service has also extended the useful life of one instrument. This paper describes the design and on-orbit performance of the CPHTS thermal systems.

  4. Day And Night In Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 11 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Terra Meridiani region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 1.3, Longitude 0.5 East (359.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  5. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas.

  6. Sol-Terra - AN Operational Space Weather Forecasting Model Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Lawrence, G.; Pidgeon, A.; Reid, S.; Hapgood, M. A.; Bogdanova, Y.; Byrne, J.; Marsh, M. S.; Jackson, D.; Gibbs, M.

    2015-12-01

    The SOL-TERRA project is a collaboration between RHEA Tech, the Met Office, and RAL Space funded by the UK Space Agency. The goal of the SOL-TERRA project is to produce a Roadmap for a future coupled Sun-to-Earth operational space weather forecasting system covering domains from the Sun down to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere and neutral atmosphere. The first stage of SOL-TERRA is underway and involves reviewing current models that could potentially contribute to such a system. Within a given domain, the various space weather models will be assessed how they could contribute to such a coupled system. This will be done both by reviewing peer reviewed papers, and via direct input from the model developers to provide further insight. Once the models have been reviewed then the optimal set of models for use in support of forecast-based SWE modelling will be selected, and a Roadmap for the implementation of an operational forecast-based SWE modelling framework will be prepared. The Roadmap will address the current modelling capability, knowledge gaps and further work required, and also the implementation and maintenance of the overall architecture and environment that the models will operate within. The SOL-TERRA project will engage with external stakeholders in order to ensure independently that the project remains on track to meet its original objectives. A group of key external stakeholders have been invited to provide their domain-specific expertise in reviewing the SOL-TERRA project at critical stages of Roadmap preparation; namely at the Mid-Term Review, and prior to submission of the Final Report. This stakeholder input will ensure that the SOL-TERRA Roadmap will be enhanced directly through the input of modellers and end-users. The overall goal of the SOL-TERRA project is to develop a Roadmap for an operational forecast-based SWE modelling framework with can be implemented within a larger subsequent activity. The SOL-TERRA project is supported within

  7. Terra firma-forme dermatosis: Case Series and dermoscopic features.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Razek, Moheb M; Fathy, Hanan

    2015-10-16

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) is characterized by dirt-like skin lesions that disappear after rubbing with alcohol. We describe the dermoscopic features of TFFD before and after alcohol swabbing in six patients. All patients showed similar dermoscopic appearance with large polygonal plate-like brown scales arranged together giving a mosaic pattern. These features disappear completely after isopropyl alcohol swabbing of the lesions. In conclusion dermoscopy can assist in the evaluation of terra firma-forme dermatosis and the dermoscopic evaluation of other dirty dermatoses is recommended in the future to compare findings with TFFD.

  8. Atypical presentations of terra firma-forme dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard Scott; Collins, Jeffrey; Young, Russel John; Bohlke, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis is a benign dermatologic condition that presents as dirt-colored patches and plaques, mainly affecting children and adolescents. It is resistant to conventional washing with soap and water but is easily treated with isopropyl alcohol. Clinical awareness of this condition provides a quick, simple resolution. Here we present two cases involving 14-year-old girls with uncommon presentations of terra firma-forme dermatosis. One case involved an upper extremity and the other presented with a history of knee brace occlusion. After diagnosis, both patients were successfully treated with weekly isopropyl alcohol applications.

  9. Quantitative interaction screen of telomeric repeat-containing RNA reveals novel TERRA regulators.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Marion; Arnoult, Nausica; Kappei, Dennis; Buchholz, Frank; Decottignies, Anabelle; Butter, Falk; Mann, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Telomeres are actively transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), which has been implicated in the regulation of telomere length and heterochromatin formation. Here, we applied quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to obtain a high-confidence interactome of TERRA. Using SILAC-labeled nuclear cell lysates in an RNA pull-down experiment and two different salt conditions, we distinguished 115 proteins binding specifically to TERRA out of a large set of background binders. While TERRA binders identified in two previous studies showed little overlap, using quantitative mass spectrometry we obtained many candidates reported in these two studies. To test whether novel candidates found here are involved in TERRA regulation, we performed an esiRNA-based interference analysis for 15 of them. Knockdown of 10 genes encoding candidate proteins significantly affected total cellular levels of TERRA, and RNAi of five candidates perturbed TERRA recruitment to telomeres. Notably, depletion of SRRT/ARS2, involved in miRNA processing, up-regulated both total and telomere-bound TERRA. Conversely, knockdown of MORF4L2, a component of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex, reduced TERRA levels both globally and for telomere-bound TERRA. We thus identified new proteins involved in the homeostasis and telomeric abundance of TERRA, extending our knowledge of TERRA regulation.

  10. Knobby terrain in Northern Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 25 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a region in northern Arabia Terra near 44o N, 322o W (38o E). Knobby or 'scabby' plains units that mantle and modify a pre-existing cratered surface dominate the unusual landscape in this region. Several large (5-8 km diameter) impact craters seen in the upper left of the image have been extensively modified since their initial formation. The rims of these craters can still be seen, but the ejecta deposits and the surrounding plains have been buried by a layer of material. This mantling layer has itself been modified to produce a pitted, knobby surface. Circular depressions of all sizes, presumably the remnants of impact craters, are filled with smooth deposits. In some places large regions have been covered by this smooth material; an example can be seen in the lower right portion of this image. In many cases the impact craters have been extensively modified prior to their being filled. This modification indicates an erosion process that has removed material from the walls to produce shapes that vary from circular with crisp rims, to circular with no rims, to oblong and elliptical forms, and finally to irregular shapes whose initial circular outline can barely be detected. The slope of the channel at the top of the image has an unusual deposit of material that occurs preferentially on the cold, north-facing slope. Similar deposits are seen frequently at mid-northern and southern latitudes on Mars, and have a characteristic, rounded boundary that typically occurs at approximately the same distance below the ridge crest. It has been suggested that these deposits once draped the entire surface and have since been removed from all but the cold north-facing slopes. The presence and removal of ground ice may play an important role in the formation of this layer, as well as the knobby terrain and unusual features seen in this image. The StoryThere's no way these impact craters are in their original

  11. Widespread Layers in Arabia Terra: Implications for Martian Geologic History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venechuk, Elizabeth M.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Layered rocks in Arabia Terra have been the focus of several recent papers. Studies have focused on the layers found in crater basins located in the southwest portion of the region. However, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have identified layered deposits across the region. Terrestrial layered rocks are usually sedimentary, and often deposited in water. Thus extensive layered sequences in Arabia Terra may indicate locations of past, major depositional basins on Mars. Other mechanisms can also create layered rocks, or the appearance of layered rocks, including volcanism (both lava flows and ash falls), wind-blown deposits, and wave-cut terraces at shorelines. By identifying where in the region layers occur, and classifying the layers according to morphology and albedo, past depositional environments may be identified. Arabia Terra is characterized by heavily cratered Noachian plains, as well as a rise from -4000 m in the northwest to 4000 m in the southeast (Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter [MOLA] datum). This slope may have provided a constraint on sediment deposition and thus layer formation. While most of the region is Noachian in age, a significant percentage of the area is identified as Hesperian. Although the history of the Arabia Terra initially seems to be straightforward cratered plains with several younger units atop them analysis of high-resolution imagery may reveal a more complex history.

  12. Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System: Applications Analysis Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the Terra Vac in situ vacuum extraction system and its applicability as a treatment method for waste site cleanup. This report analyzes the results from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program’s 56-day demonstration at t...

  13. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Anderson, Kaitlyn C; Arora, Charu; Bortz, Michael E; Burnet, George; Conover, David H; D'Incau, Gina M; Ghobrial, Jonathan A; Jonas, Audrey L; Migdal, Emily J; Rote, Nicole L; German, Brian A; McDonnell, Jill E; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E; Thompson, Paige K; Ulbrich, Megan C; Yu, Victor J; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-08-18

    Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2 were isolated from soil from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, using host Gordonia terrae 3612. The Phinally and Vivi2 genomes are 59,265 bp and 59,337 bp, respectively, and share sequence similarity with each other and with GTE6. Fewer than 25% of the 87 to 89 putative genes have predictable functions.

  14. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  15. Telomeric Repeat Containing RNA (TERRA): Aging and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonam; Shukla, Samriddhi; Khan, Sajid; Farhan, Mohammad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Meeran, Syed Musthapa

    2015-01-01

    Telomeric repeat containing RNAs (TERRA) are small RNA molecules synthesized from telomeric regions which were previously considered as silent genomic domains. In normal cells, these RNAs are transcribed in a direction from subtelomeric region towards the chromosome ends, but in case of cancer cells, their expression remains limited or absent. Telomerase is a rate limiting enzyme for cellular senescence, cancer and aging. Most of the studies deal with the manipulation of telomerase enzyme in cancer and aging either by synthetic oligonucleotide or by natural phytochemicals. Here, we collected evidences and discussed intensely about the bio-molecular structure of TERRA, naturally occurring ligands of telomerase, and their genetic and epigenetic regulations in aging associated diseases. Due to their capability to act as naturally occurring ligands of telomerase, these RNAs can overcome the limitations possessed by synthetic oligonucleotides, which are aimed against telomerase. Drugs specifically targeting TERRA molecules could modulate telomerase-mediated telomere lengthening. Thus, targeting TERRA-mediated regulation of telomerase would be a promising therapeutic strategy against cancer and age-associated diseases.

  16. Bilateral topographic symmetry patterns across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Crumpler, L.S.; Head, J.W.

    1988-01-10

    Western Aphrodite Terra, Venus, is characterized by a series of parallel linear structural discontinuities 2000--4000 km in length and 100--200 km wide, which strike at high angles to the general topographic trend of the Aphrodite Terra highlands. The broad chracteristics of the cross-strike discontinuities (CSDs) are similar to both strike-slip fault zones and terrestrial oceanic fracture zones. In an effort to distinguish between these two hypotheses, topographic profiles were taken across Aphrodite Terra to test for bilateral symmetry of the type associated with thermal boundary layer topography at divergent plate boundaries on Earth. In addition to a broad bilateral symmetry at a range of angles across Aphrodite Terra, detailed bilateral symmetry is observed within domains between linear discontinuities in directions generally parallel to the strike of the discontinuities. In addition, within a domain the centers of symmetry of several profiles define a linear rise crest that is oriented normal to the bounding CSDs and terminates against them.

  17. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Benczkowski14 and Katyusha.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Benczkowski, Matthew S; Green, Daryn E; Hwang, Melina; Kennedy, Bryan; Kocak, Bradley; Kruczek, Ellen; Lin, Leon; Moretti, Matthew L; Onelangsy, Faith L; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A; Toner, Chelsea L; Thompson, Paige K; Ulbrich, Megan C; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Katyusha and Benczkowski14 are newly isolated phages that infect Gordonia terrae 3612. Both have siphoviral morphologies with isometric heads and long tails (500 nm). The genomes are 75,380 bp long and closely related, and the tape measure genes (9 kbp) are among the largest to be identified. PMID:27340062

  18. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Benczkowski14 and Katyusha

    PubMed Central

    Benczkowski, Matthew S.; Green, Daryn E.; Hwang, Melina; Kennedy, Bryan; Kocak, Bradley; Kruczek, Ellen; Lin, Leon; Moretti, Matthew L.; Onelangsy, Faith L.; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A.; Toner, Chelsea L.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Katyusha and Benczkowski14 are newly isolated phages that infect Gordonia terrae 3612. Both have siphoviral morphologies with isometric heads and long tails (500 nm). The genomes are 75,380 bp long and closely related, and the tape measure genes (9 kbp) are among the largest to be identified. PMID:27340062

  19. Multitemporal observations of sugarcane by TerraSAR-X images.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  20. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  1. Telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is induced by telomere shortening to nucleate telomerase molecules at short telomeres.

    PubMed

    Cusanelli, Emilio; Romero, Carmina Angelica Perez; Chartrand, Pascal

    2013-09-26

    Elongation of a short telomere depends on the action of multiple telomerase molecules, which are visible as telomerase RNA foci or clusters associated with telomeres in yeast and mammalian cells. How several telomerase molecules act on a single short telomere is unknown. Herein, we report that the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is involved in the nucleation of telomerase molecules into clusters prior to their recruitment at a short telomere. We find that telomere shortening induces TERRA expression, leading to the accumulation of TERRA molecules into a nuclear focus. Simultaneous time-lapse imaging of telomerase RNA and TERRA reveals spontaneous events of telomerase nucleation on TERRA foci in early S phase, generating TERRA-telomerase clusters. This cluster is subsequently recruited to the short telomere from which TERRA transcripts originate during S phase. We propose that telomere shortening induces noncoding RNA expression to coordinate the recruitment and activity of telomerase molecules at short telomeres.

  2. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  3. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  4. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars. PMID:24091975

  5. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  6. Surface Albedo/BRDF Parameters (Terra/Aqua MODIS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trishchenko, Alexander

    2008-01-15

    Spatially and temporally complete surface spectral albedo/BRDF products over the ARM SGP area were generated using data from two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. A landcover-based fitting (LBF) algorithm is developed to derive the BRDF model parameters and albedo product (Luo et al., 2004a). The approach employs a landcover map and multi-day clearsky composites of directional surface reflectance. The landcover map is derived from the Landsat TM 30-meter data set (Trishchenko et al., 2004a), and the surface reflectances are from MODIS 500m-resolution 8-day composite products (MOD09/MYD09). The MOD09/MYD09 data are re-arranged into 10-day intervals for compatibility with other satellite products, such as those from the NOVA/AVHRR and SPOT/VGT sensors. The LBF method increases the success rate of the BRDF fitting process and enables more accurate monitoring of surface temporal changes during periods of rapid spring vegetation green-up and autumn leaf-fall, as well as changes due to agricultural practices and snowcover variations (Luo et al., 2004b, Trishchenko et al., 2004b). Albedo/BRDF products for MODIS on Terra and MODIS on Aqua, as well as for Terra/Aqua combined dataset, are generated at 500m spatial resolution and every 10-day since March 2000 (Terra) and July 2002 (Aqua and combined), respectively. The purpose for the latter product is to obtain a more comprehensive dataset that takes advantages of multi-sensor observations (Trishchenko et al., 2002). To fill data gaps due to cloud presence, various interpolation procedures are applied based on a multi-year observation database and referring to results from other locations with similar landcover property. Special seasonal smoothing procedure is also applied to further remove outliers and artifacts in data series.

  7. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kaitlyn C.; Arora, Charu; Bortz, Michael E.; Burnet, George; Conover, David H.; D’Incau, Gina M.; Ghobrial, Jonathan A.; Jonas, Audrey L.; Migdal, Emily J.; Rote, Nicole L.; German, Brian A.; McDonnell, Jill E.; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Yu, Victor J.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2 were isolated from soil from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, using host Gordonia terrae 3612. The Phinally and Vivi2 genomes are 59,265 bp and 59,337 bp, respectively, and share sequence similarity with each other and with GTE6. Fewer than 25% of the 87 to 89 putative genes have predictable functions. PMID:27540050

  8. Terra MODIS Band 27 Electronic Crosstalk Effect and Its Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December, 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, covering a wavelength range from 0.4 micron to 14.4 micron. MODIS band 27 (6.72 micron) is a water vapor band, which is designed to be insensitive to Earth surface features. In recent Earth View (EV) images of Terra band 27, surface feature contamination is clearly seen and striping has become very pronounced. In this paper, it is shown that band 27 is impacted by electronic crosstalk from bands 28-30. An algorithm using a linear approximation is developed to correct the crosstalk effect. The crosstalk coefficients are derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations. They show that the crosstalk is strongly detector dependent and the crosstalk pattern has changed dramatically since launch. The crosstalk contributions are positive to the instrument response of band 27 early in the mission but became negative and much larger in magnitude at later stages of the mission for most detectors of the band. The algorithm is applied to both Black Body (BB) calibration and MODIS L1B products. With the crosstalk effect removed, the calibration coefficients of Terra MODIS band 27 derived from the BB show that the detector differences become smaller. With the algorithm applied to MODIS L1B products, the Earth surface features are significantly removed and the striping is substantially reduced in the images of the band. The approach developed in this report for removal of the electronic crosstalk effect can be applied to other MODIS bands if similar crosstalk behaviors occur.

  9. Eastern Ishtar Terra: Tectonic evolution derived from recognized features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous analyses have recognized several styles and orientations of compressional deformation, crustal convergence, and crustal thickening in Eastern Ishtar Terra. An east to west sense of crustal convergence through small scale folding, thrusting, and buckling is reflected in the high topography and ridge-and-valley morphology of Maxwell Montes and the adjacent portion of Fortuna Tessera. This east to west convergence was accompanied by up to 1000 km of lateral motion and large scale strike-slip faulting within two converging shear zones which has resulted in the present morphology of Maxwell Montes. A more northeast to southwest sense of convergence through large scale buckling and imbrication is reflected in large, northwest-trending scarps along the entire northern boundary of Ishtar Terra, with up to 2 km of relief present at many of the scarps. It was previously suggested that both styles of compression have occurred at the expense of pre-existing tessera regions which have then been overprinted by the latest convergence event. The difference in style is attributed mostly to differences in the properties of the crust converging with the tessera blocks. If one, presumably thick, tessera block converges with another tessera region, then the widespread, distributed style of deformation occurs, as observed in western Fortuna Tessera. However, if relatively thin crust (such as suggested for the North Polar Plains converges with thicker tessera regions, then localized deformation occurs, as reflected in the scarps along Northern Ishtar Terra. The purpose is to identify the types of features observed in Eastern Ishtar Terra. Their potential temporal and spatial relationships, is described, possible origins for them is suggested, and how the interpretation of some of these features has led to the multiple-style tectonic evolution model described is shown.

  10. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Anderson, Kaitlyn C; Arora, Charu; Bortz, Michael E; Burnet, George; Conover, David H; D'Incau, Gina M; Ghobrial, Jonathan A; Jonas, Audrey L; Migdal, Emily J; Rote, Nicole L; German, Brian A; McDonnell, Jill E; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E; Thompson, Paige K; Ulbrich, Megan C; Yu, Victor J; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2 were isolated from soil from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, using host Gordonia terrae 3612. The Phinally and Vivi2 genomes are 59,265 bp and 59,337 bp, respectively, and share sequence similarity with each other and with GTE6. Fewer than 25% of the 87 to 89 putative genes have predictable functions. PMID:27540050

  11. 15 Years of Terra, 14 Years of Application Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Davies, D.; Fu, G.; Gunnoe, T.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; Ilavajhala, S.; Jackson, M.; King, J.; McGann, M.; Murphy, K. J.; Roberts, J. T.; Thompson, C. K.; Ye, G.

    2014-12-01

    The instruments onboard the Terra spacecraft were designed for long-term Earth science research but not long after launch it became apparent that this data and imagery could be made available in near real-time for applications users. During the year 2000 fire season in the western United States, the US Forest Service approached NASA with a request to expedite MODIS fire detections. The Rapid Response system was created to generate fire detections as well as true color imagery in both swath and geo-referenced formats. This imagery was used by a wide variety of applications, such as NASA's AERONET program, the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Antarctic resupply shipping, flood mapping for relief agencies, Deepwater Horizon monitoring, volcanic ash monitoring, as well as print, televised, and Internet media. From 2004, the University of Maryland's Web Fire Mapper helped distribute fire detection information in a variety of formats. However, the applications community expressed the need for near-real time access to the underlying data. This requirement led to the development of the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) in 2009. To achieve the latency requirements, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems had to be made more efficient. In addition, products that require ancillary data were modified to use alternate inputs. Forty Terra MODIS data products are currently available from LANCE. LANCE also includes data from other instruments including AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, and OMI. To help near-real time users navigate this large data offering, a new imagery service was begun in 2011 - Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). This service provides very responsive viewing using the Web Map Tile Service protocol. These programs will continue to support and expand the use of Terra data for near-real time applications well into the future.

  12. Braided alluvial fan in the Terra Sirenum region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Platz, T.; Fawdon, P.; Jaumann, R.

    2015-10-01

    Here we report the presence of an Amazonian-aged outflow channel located on the rim of the Ariadnes Colles basin (37°S/178°E) that has an alluvial fan on its downstream part. The study area is located in the Noachian highlands of Terra Sirenum, the site of a large hypothesized paleolake [3]. This so-called Eridania lake existed during the Late Noachian -Early Hesperian and drained into Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys on Mars. The Ariadnes Colles basin was part of the Eridania paleolake and hosted later a closed lake.

  13. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  14. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  15. Mechanochemical properties of individual human telomeric RNA (TERRA) G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Yangyuoru, Philip M; Zhang, Amy Y Q; Shi, Zhe; Koirala, Deepak; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Mao, Hanbin

    2013-10-11

    Potential functions: By following the unfolding and refolding of individual human RNA telomeric (TERRA) G-quadruplexes (GQs) in laser tweezers, the mechanical stability and transition kinetics of RNA GQs are obtained. Comparison between TERRA and DNA GQs suggests their different regulatory capacities for processes associated with human telomeres.

  16. The crosstalk of telomere dysfunction and inflammation through cell-free TERRA containing exosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Lieberman, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    Telomeric repeats-containing RNA (TERRA) are telomere-derived non-coding RNAs that contribute to telomere function in protecting chromosome ends. We recently identified a cell-free form of TERRA (cfTERRA) enriched in extracellular exosomes. These cfTERRA-containing exosomes stimulate inflammatory cytokines when incubated with immune responsive cells. Here, we report that cfTERRA levels were increased in exosomes during telomere dysfunction induced by the expression of the dominant negative TRF2. The exosomes from these damaged cells also enriched with DNA damage marker γH2AX and fragmented telomere repeat DNA. Purified cfTERRA stimulated inflammatory cytokines, but the intact membrane-associated nucleoprotein complexes produced a more robust cytokine activation. Therefore, we propose cfTERRA-containing exosomes transport a telomere-associated molecular pattern (TAMP) and telomere-specific alarmin from dysfunctional telomeres to the extracellular environment to elicit an inflammatory response. Since cfTERRA can be readily detected in human serum it may provide a useful biomarker for the detection of telomere dysfunction in the early stage of cancers and aging-associated inflammatory disease. PMID:27351774

  17. The crosstalk of telomere dysfunction and inflammation through cell-free TERRA containing exosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Lieberman, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    Telomeric repeats-containing RNA (TERRA) are telomere-derived non-coding RNAs that contribute to telomere function in protecting chromosome ends. We recently identified a cell-free form of TERRA (cfTERRA) enriched in extracellular exosomes. These cfTERRA-containing exosomes stimulate inflammatory cytokines when incubated with immune responsive cells. Here, we report that cfTERRA levels were increased in exosomes during telomere dysfunction induced by the expression of the dominant negative TRF2. The exosomes from these damaged cells also enriched with DNA damage marker γH2AX and fragmented telomere repeat DNA. Purified cfTERRA stimulated inflammatory cytokines, but the intact membrane-associated nucleoprotein complexes produced a more robust cytokine activation. Therefore, we propose cfTERRA-containing exosomes transport a telomere-associated molecular pattern (TAMP) and telomere-specific alarmin from dysfunctional telomeres to the extracellular environment to elicit an inflammatory response. Since cfTERRA can be readily detected in human serum it may provide a useful biomarker for the detection of telomere dysfunction in the early stage of cancers and aging-associated inflammatory disease.

  18. Identification of TERRA locus unveils a telomere protection role through association to nearly all chromosomes.

    PubMed

    López de Silanes, Isabel; Graña, Osvaldo; De Bonis, Maria Luigia; Dominguez, Orlando; Pisano, David G; Blasco, Maria A

    2014-09-03

    Telomeric RNAs (TERRAs) are UUAGGG repeat-containing RNAs that are transcribed from the subtelomere towards the telomere. The precise genomic origin of TERRA has remained elusive. Using a whole-genome RNA-sequencing approach, we identify novel mouse transcripts arising mainly from the subtelomere of chromosome 18, and to a lesser extend chromosome 9, that resemble TERRA in several key aspects. Those transcripts contain UUAGGG-repeats and are heterogeneous in size, fluctuate in abundance in a TERRA-like manner during the cell cycle, are bound by TERRA RNA-binding proteins and are regulated in a manner similar to TERRA in response to stress and the induction of pluripotency. These transcripts are also found to associate with nearly all chromosome ends and downregulation of the transcripts that originate from chromosome 18 causes a reduction in TERRA abundance. Interestingly, downregulation of either chromosome 18 transcripts or TERRA results in increased number of telomere dysfunction-induced foci, suggesting a protective role at telomeres.

  19. Two MODIS Aerosol Products Over Ocean on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSF Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Loeb, Norman; Wielicki, Bruce; Miller, Walter; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Tanre, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika

    2004-01-01

    Over ocean, two aerosol products are reported on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSFs. Both are derived from MODIS, but using different sampling and aerosol algorithms. This study briefly summarizes these products, and compares using 2 weeks of global Terra data from 15-21 December 2000, and 1-7 June 2001.

  20. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, showing extensive, brownish smoke. The imaged area ... Center. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image Credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team ...

  1. Seasonal Surface Spectral Emissivity Derived from Terra MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Young, DavidF.; Smith, William J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) Project is measuring broadband shortwave and longwave radiances and deriving cloud properties form various images to produce a combined global radiation and cloud property data set. In this paper, simultaneous data from Terra MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) taken at 3.7, 8.5, 11.0, and 12.0 m are used to derive the skin temperature and the surface emissivities at the same wavelengths. The methodology uses separate measurements of clear sky temperature in each channel determined by scene classification during the daytime and at night. The relationships between the various channels at night are used during the day when solar reflectance affects the 3.7- m radiances. A set of simultaneous equations is then solved to derive the emissivities. Global monthly emissivity maps are derived from Terra MODIS data while numerical weather analyses provide soundings for correcting the observed radiances for atmospheric absorption. These maps are used by CERES and other cloud retrieval algorithms.

  2. Status of Terra MODIS Operation, Calibration, and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Wu, A.; Angal, A.; Geng, X.; Chen, H.; Dodd, J.; Link, D.; Madhavan, S.; Chen, N.; Li, Y.; Iacangelo, S.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, Terra MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 15 years, making continuous observations. Data products derived from MODIS observations have significantly contributed to a wide range of studies of key geophysical parameters of the earth's eco-system of land, ocean, and atmosphere, and their changes over time. The quality of MODIS data products relies on the dedicated effort to monitor and sustain instrument health and operation, to calibrate and update sensor parameters and properties, and to improve calibration algorithms. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are primarily calibrated by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27- 36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and implementation strategies. It presents and summarizes sensor on-orbit performance using nearly 15 years of data from its telemetry, on-board calibrators, and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain MODIS level 1B (L1B) data quality, and efforts for future improvements.

  3. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra bulged craters (Mars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, R.; Massironi, M.; Rossi, A. P.; Sauro, F.; Carli, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Cremonese, G.

    2015-10-01

    Impact craters within Arabia Terra region,on Mars,display a large central bulge, sometimes showing a well-preserved stratification (light albedo layered deposits). In craters like Crommelin or an unnamed crater (that is numbered 12000088) located a few hundreds kilometers on the East some unusual landforms and structures among the layered deposits were observed. In particular, on Crommelin's bulge and its surroundings we found fold systems with axis parallel to the bulge perimeter. The fold sets are typical compressional structure often associated to diapiric rise on Earth[1]. In addition on top of 12000088 crater's bulge the evidence of sulfate signatures was detected as well as the presence of small bowl-shaped depressions. Several fluid-carved channels that depart radially from the bulge are cut by a ring of normal faults,thus suggesting a collapse of the bulge summit. Thus, on the basis of the previous observations it is possible to hypothesize that diapiric rise could have been responsible for central bulging both on Crommelin and 12000088 craters and likely on other bulged craters on Arabia Terra.

  4. A fully automated TerraSAR-X based flood service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinis, Sandro; Kersten, Jens; Twele, André

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a fully automated processing chain for near real-time flood detection using high resolution TerraSAR-X Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is presented. The processing chain including SAR data pre-processing, computation and adaption of global auxiliary data, unsupervised initialization of the classification as well as post-classification refinement by using a fuzzy logic-based approach is automatically triggered after satellite data delivery. The dissemination of flood maps resulting from this service is performed through an online service which can be activated on-demand for emergency response purposes (i.e., when a flood situation evolves). The classification methodology is based on previous work of the authors but was substantially refined and extended for robustness and transferability to guarantee high classification accuracy under different environmental conditions and sensor configurations. With respect to accuracy and computational effort, experiments performed on a data set of 175 different TerraSAR-X scenes acquired during flooding all over the world with different sensor configurations confirm the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed flood mapping service. These promising results have been further confirmed by means of an in-depth validation performed for three study sites in Germany, Thailand, and Albania/Montenegro.

  5. Meteorological impact of realistic Terra Nova Bay polynyas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    The energy exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Antarctic marginal sea ice zone is influenced by the extent of sea-ice cover. In areas of open water, a direct contact is established and intense energy exchanges occur, due to the large difference of temperature between the water and the air above it. This implies that the polynyas are areas where the ocean exchanges energy with the atmosphere and as a result they have an effect on the polar meteorology/climate. The work presented here concerns real polynya events in the region of Terra Nova Bay (TNB), Antarctica, where a recurring coastal polynya occurs nearby the Italian Antarctic Base. The aim is the study of the impact of polynyas on the atmosphere by three-dimensional numerical simulations. The ETA model (Mesinger et al., 2006) was used and ECMWF and NCEP data provided the initial and boundary conditions. The model had already been successfully used in the Antarctic area (Casini and Morelli, 2007) A polynya of realistic size (as observed by satellite image) was included in the initial conditions for the simulations and a study of the air circulation during the events is found in Morelli et al. (2007), Morelli and Casini (2008), Morelli et al. (2009). The Eta Model reproduced the evolution of upper and mod-level conditions in good agreement with AVHRR observations (Morelli, 2008, Morelli and Parmiggiani, 2009). Also, the simulated 10 m wind was well correlated with the observed extension of the polynya. In order to isolate the effect of the presence of the open water area on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and on the atmospheric circulation, further simulations were performed without the presence of the polynya, i.e. with its extent covered with sea ice. The numerical simulations show that the polynyas act to increase the speed of the air above them and generate strong heat fluxes that warm the air. The effects are found over and downwind the sea ice free area. Results from the Eta

  6. Summary of Aqua, Aura, and Terra High Interest Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Single-obs tracking Sparsely tracked objects are an unfortunate reality of CARA operations Terra vs. 32081: new track with bad data was included in OD solution for secondary object and risk became high CARA and JSpOC discussed tracking and OSAs threw out the bad data. Event no longer presented high risk based on new OD Improvement: CARA now sends JSpOC a flag indicating when a single obs is included, so OSAs can evaluate if manual update to OD is required. Missing ASW OCMsAura vs. 87178, TCA: 317 at 08:04 UTC. Post-maneuver risk (conjunction was identified in OO results)CARA confirmed with JSpOC that ASW OCMs should have been received in addition to OO OCMsJSpOC corrected the manual error in their script that prevented the data from being delivered to CARAJSpOC QAd their other scripts to ensure this error did not exist in other places.

  7. Tests of crustal divergence models for Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1989-09-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of Aphrodite Terra, the highland region of Venus which is considered to be a likely site of mantle upwelling, active volcanism, and extensional tectonics, and examines the relation of these features to three alternative kinematic models for the interaction of mantle convection with the surface. These the 'vertical tectonics' model, in which little horizontal surface displacement results from mantle flow; the 'plate divergence' model, in which shear strain from large horizontal displacements is accommodated only in narrow zones of deformation; and the 'distributed deformation' model, in which strain from large horizontal motions is broadly accommodated. No convincing observational evidence was found to support the rigid-plate divergence, while the evidence of large-scale horizontal motions of Aphrodite argues against purely vertical tectonics. A model is proposed, involving a broad disruption of a thin lithosphere. In such a model, lineaments are considered to be surface manifestations of mantle convective flow.

  8. A case for ancient springs in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Carlton C; Oehler, Dorothy Z

    2008-12-01

    Based on new image data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), a case can be made that several structures in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra are ancient springs. This interpretation is based on comprehensive geomorphologic analysis coupled with assessment of multiple hypotheses. The structures identified extend across several kilometers and are exceptional in that nothing with their detail and scale has been reported from Mars. The deposits are associated with an extensive fracture system that may have facilitated upward flow of warm fluids. Several additional spring-like features occur in Vernal Crater, and it is possible that these are part of a major province of spring activity. Since springs are environments where life could have evolved on Mars, where that life could have found refuge as the climate became colder and drier, and where signatures of that life may be preserved, Vernal Crater may be a site of major astrobiological importance. PMID:19093802

  9. Atlantis basin, Sirenum Terrae, Mars: geological setting and astrobiological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, Miguel A.; Fairén, Alberto G.

    2004-07-01

    The accomplishment of detailed geomorphological studies is a prerequisite for the location of regions in which the prevailing conditions in the past, or at present, may allow the development of possible life forms. The Atlantis basin, located in Sirenum Terrae, Southern hemisphere of Mars, is one of these astrobiologically interesting regions, where the existence of geological features such as ancient volcanic edifices, sedimentary deposits of an ancient lake and recent gullies seem to indicate the long-term presence of a thermal source and a water reservoir deep and stable enough to sustain biological processes. Here we describe the most relevant topographic and geomorphologic features in the region, highlighting the possibility for liquid water to have been present in the basin and outskirts in different moments of Mars' history. We also apply this analysis to an initial discussion of the influence of the hydrogeological evolution of the region in the putative development and/or survival of life forms in Atlantis basin.

  10. A case for ancient springs in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Carlton C; Oehler, Dorothy Z

    2008-12-01

    Based on new image data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), a case can be made that several structures in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra are ancient springs. This interpretation is based on comprehensive geomorphologic analysis coupled with assessment of multiple hypotheses. The structures identified extend across several kilometers and are exceptional in that nothing with their detail and scale has been reported from Mars. The deposits are associated with an extensive fracture system that may have facilitated upward flow of warm fluids. Several additional spring-like features occur in Vernal Crater, and it is possible that these are part of a major province of spring activity. Since springs are environments where life could have evolved on Mars, where that life could have found refuge as the climate became colder and drier, and where signatures of that life may be preserved, Vernal Crater may be a site of major astrobiological importance.

  11. Prospecting for Methane in Arabia Terra, Mars - First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dotoyhy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Methane has been measured in the Martian atmosphere at concentrations of approx. 10 ppb. Since the photochemical lifetime of this gas is approx. 300 years, it is likely that methane is currently being released from the surface. Possible sources for the methane include 1) hydrothermal activity, 2) serpentinization of basalts and other water-rock interactions, 3) thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter, and 4) metabolism of living bacteria. Any such discovery would revolutionize our understanding of Mars. Longitudinal variations in methane concentration, as measured by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on Mars Express, show the highest values over Arabia Terra, Elysium Planum, and Arcadia-Memnonia, suggesting localized areas of methane release. We are using orbital data and methodologies derived from petroleum exploration in an attempt to locate these release points.

  12. TERRA Battery Thermal Control Anomaly - Simulation and Corrective Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The TERRA spacecraft was launched in December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, becoming the flagship of NASA's Earth Observing System program to gather data on how the planet's processes create climate. Originally planned as a 5 year mission, it still provides valuable science data after nearly 10 years on orbit. On October 13th, 2009 at 16:23z following a routine inclination maneuver, TERRA experienced a battery cell failure and a simultaneous failure of several battery heater control circuits used to maintain cell temperatures and gradients within the battery. With several cells nearing the minimum survival temperature, preventing the electrolyte from freezing was the first priority. After several reset attempts and power cycling of the control electronics failed to reestablish control authority on the primary side of the controller, it was switched to the redundant side, but anomalous performance again prevented full heater control of the battery cells. As the investigation into the cause of the anomaly and corrective action continued, a battery thermal model was developed to be used in determining the control ability remaining and to simulate and assess corrective actions. Although no thermal model or detailed reference data of the battery was available, sufficient information was found to allow a simplified model to be constructed, correlated against pre-anomaly telemetry, and used to simulate the thermal behavior at several points after the anomaly. It was then used to simulate subsequent corrective actions to assess their impact on cell temperatures. This paper describes the rapid development of this thermal model, including correlation to flight data before and after the anomaly., along with a comparative assessment of the analysis results used to interpret the telemetry to determine the extent of damage to the thermal control hardware, with near-term corrective actions and long-term operations plan to overcome the anomaly.

  13. Preliminary Operational Results of the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) for the Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramling, Cheryl; Lorah, John; Santoro, Ernest; Work, Kevin; Chambers, Robert; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Terra spacecraft was launched on December 18, 1999, to provide data for the characterization of the terrestrial and oceanic surfaces, clouds, radiation, aerosols, and radiative balance. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (ONS) (TONS) flying on Terra provides the spacecraft with an operational real-time navigation solution. TONS is a passive system that makes judicious use of Terra's communication and computer subsystems. An objective of the ONS developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation and Control Center is to provide autonomous navigation with minimal power, weight, and volume impact on the user spacecraft. TONS relies on extracting tracking measurements onboard from a TDRSS forward-link communication signal and processing these measurements in an onboard extended Kalman filter to estimate Terra's current state. Terra is the first NASA low Earth orbiting mission to fly autonomous navigation which produces accurate results. The science orbital accuracy requirements for Terra are 150 meters (m) (3sigma) per axis with a goal of 5m (1 sigma) RSS which TONS is expected to meet. The TONS solutions are telemetered in real-time to the mission scientists along with their science data for immediate processing. Once set in the operational mode, TONS eliminates the need for ground orbit determination and allows for a smooth flow from the spacecraft telemetry to planning products for the mission team. This paper will present the preliminary results of the operational TONS solution available from Terra.

  14. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    Arabia Terra is a region of Mars located at the boundary between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands and classically dominated by heavily cratered terrain. Unlike the rest of the topographic dichotomy on the planet, in Arabia Terra the elevation transition is very gentle, falling of 4 km over a distance of 2500 km (average slope = 0.0016°). Most of the impact craters within the region display a central bulge, bearing a well preserved stratification and a wide range of smaller morphologies like pitted cones, mounds and knobs (Franchi et al. 2013). Images acquired by HiRISE and CTX cameras on board MRO provided a comprehensive dataset in which also these small features can be easily recognized. These are tens of meters of diameter and tens of meters high, and many of them show an apical orifice. They are interpreted to have worked as pathways for subsurface fluid flow (e.g. Pondrelli et al., 2011; Rossi et al., 2008). Indeed an active underground fluid flow activity in Arabia Terra It has been recently hypothesized (e.g. Andrews-Hanna et al, 2011) , being crater central bulges a place of sulfate precipitation, due to local water table emergence (e.g. Franchi et al., 2013). To date, there is no clear explanation for occurrence of central bulges surrounded by prominent depressions in Arabia craters. In addition, in Firsoff and Crommelin craters it is possible to recognize folds and outward dipping strata on the central bulges and their surroundings. Interestingly, a few craters with a prominent bulged floor elsewhere in Arabia Terra do not display stratification and are not explainable as impact related structures as their expected pristine central peak derived by hydrocode modelling is ~2km lower and one third the diameter than the actual topography (Pozzobon et al., 2013). All these evidences are not consistent with a typical lacustrine stratigraphic environment, whether interested by sulfate precipitation or not, and suggest active deformation after or

  15. Technology Demonstration Summary: Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System, Groveland, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra Vac Inc's vacuum extraction system was demonstrated at the Valley Manufactured Products Company, Inc., site in Groveland, Massachusetts. The property is part of the Groveland Wells Superfund site and is contaminated mainly by trichloroethylene (TCE). Vacuum extraction...

  16. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes     View Larger Image ... This unique design allows it to measure the height of smoke plumes using stereoscopic techniques. This MISR image, acquired Aug. 23, ...

  17. Identifying the Pre-Tharsis Structures Associated with the Terra Sirenum Region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S.; Schroeder, J.

    2014-07-01

    The Terra Sirenum region contains some of the oldest stratigraphic units found on Mars. Examination of the structures and units provides an excellent window into clarifying the processes that influenced the early geologic evolution of Mars.

  18. Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, and VIIRS SNPP: Calibration Focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana; Sawyer, Virginia; Kleidman, Richard; Patadia, Falguni; Zhou, Yaping; Gupta, Pawan; Shi, Yingxi; Remer, Lorraine; Holz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    MODIS-DT Collection 6 - Aqua/Terra level 2, 3; entire record processed - "Trending" issues reduced - Still a 15% or 0.02 Terra vs Aqua offset. - Terra/Aqua convergence improved with C6+, but bias remains. - Other calibration efforts yield mixed results. VIIRS-­-DT in development - VIIRS is similar, yet different then MODIS - With 50% wider swath, VIIRS has daily coverage - Ensures algorithm consistency with MODIS. - Currently: 20% NPP vs Aqua offset over ocean. - Only small bias (%) over land (2012-­-2016) - Can VIIRS/MODIS create aerosol CDR? Calibration for MODIS - VIIRS continues to fundamentally important. It's not just Terra, or just Aqua, or just NPP-­-VIIRS, I really want to push synergistic calibration.

  19. Provenance determination of Vinica terra cotta icons using self-organising maps.

    PubMed

    Tanevska, Vinka; Kuzmanovski, Igor; Grupce, Orhideja

    2007-07-01

    In the Vinica Fortress, Republic of Macedonia, 50 undamaged terra cotta icons and 100 fragments, all dated 6th-7th century, were found. In order to determine the provenance of these unique terra cotta icons, the mass fractions of 19 different chemical elements were previously determined in ten fragments of the terra cotta icons and thirty three samples of clays from eight different sites from the region. Due to the dimensionality and complexity of the experimental data, the archaeometric results were treated with self-organising maps (SOM). The results obtained using SOM were compared with the ones obtained using principal component analysis. Both chemometric methods revealed that Vinica terra cotta icons were made from clay from Grncarka, 2.5 km South-East from the Vinica Fortress.

  20. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) and telomerase are components of telomeres during mammalian gametogenesis.

    PubMed

    Reig-Viader, Rita; Vila-Cejudo, Marta; Vitelli, Valerio; Buscà, Rafael; Sabaté, Montserrat; Giulotto, Elena; Caldés, Montserrat Garcia; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2014-05-01

    Telomeres are ribonucleoprotein structures at the end of chromosomes composed of telomeric DNA, specific-binding proteins, and noncoding RNA (TERRA). Despite their importance in preventing chromosome instability, little is known about the cross talk between these three elements during the formation of the germ line. Here, we provide evidence that both TERRA and the telomerase enzymatic subunit (TERT) are components of telomeres in mammalian germ cells. We found that TERRA colocalizes with telomeres during mammalian meiosis and that its expression progressively increases during spermatogenesis until the beginning of spermiogenesis. While both TERRA levels and distribution would be regulated in a gender-specific manner, telomere-TERT colocalization appears to be regulated based on species-specific characteristics of the telomeric structure. Moreover, we found that TERT localization at telomeres is maintained throughout spermatogenesis as a structural component without affecting telomere elongation. Our results represent the first evidence of colocalization between telomerase and telomeres during mammalian gametogenesis.

  1. Tectonics and volcanism of Eastern Aphrodite Terra, Venus - No subduction, no spreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Vicki L.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Aphrodite Terra, a deformed region with high topographic relief on Venus, has been interpreted as analogous to a terrestrial extensional or convergent plate boundary. However, analysis of geological and structural relations indicates that the tectonics of eastern Aphrodite Terra is dominated by blistering of the crust by magma diapirs. The findings imply that, within this region, vertical tectonism dominates over horizontal tectonism and, consequently, that this region is neither a divergent nor a convergent plate boundary.

  2. TerraFERMA: Harnessing Advanced Computational Libraries in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M.; van Keken, P.

    2012-12-01

    Many important problems in Earth sciences can be described by non-linear coupled systems of partial differential equations. These "multi-physics" problems include thermo-chemical convection in Earth and planetary interiors, interactions of fluids and magmas with the Earth's mantle and crust and coupled flow of water and ice. These problems are of interest to a large community of researchers but are complicated to model and understand. Much of this complexity stems from the nature of multi-physics where small changes in the coupling between variables or constitutive relations can lead to radical changes in behavior, which in turn affect critical computational choices such as discretizations, solvers and preconditioners. To make progress in understanding such coupled systems requires a computational framework where multi-physics problems can be described at a high-level while maintaining the flexibility to easily modify the solution algorithm. Fortunately, recent advances in computational science provide a basis for implementing such a framework. Here we present the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler (TerraFERMA), which leverages several advanced open-source libraries for core functionality. FEniCS (fenicsproject.org) provides a high level language for describing the weak forms of coupled systems of equations, and an automatic code generator that produces finite element assembly code. PETSc (www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc) provides a wide range of scalable linear and non-linear solvers that can be composed into effective multi-physics preconditioners. SPuD (amcg.ese.ic.ac.uk/Spud) is an application neutral options system that provides both human and machine-readable interfaces based on a single xml schema. Our software integrates these libraries and provides the user with a framework for exploring multi-physics problems. A single options file fully describes the problem, including all equations, coefficients and solver options. Custom compiled applications are

  3. Automated inundation monitoring using TerraSAR-X multitemporal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, S.; Huth, J.; Wehrmann, T.; Schettler, I.; Künzer, C.; Schmidt, M.; Dech, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Mekong Delta in Vietnam offers natural resources for several million inhabitants. However, a strong population increase, changing climatic conditions and regulatory measures at the upper reaches of the Mekong lead to severe changes in the Delta. Extreme flood events occur more frequently, drinking water availability is increasingly limited, soils show signs of salinization or acidification, species and complete habitats diminish. During the Monsoon season the river regularly overflows its banks in the lower Mekong area, usually with beneficial effects. However, extreme flood events occur more frequently causing extensive damage, on the average once every 6 to 10 years river flood levels exceed the critical beneficial level X-band SAR data are well suited for deriving inundated surface areas. The TerraSAR-X sensor with its different scanning modi allows for the derivation of spatial and temporal high resolved inundation masks. The paper presents an automated procedure for deriving inundated areas from TerraSAR-X Scansar and Stripmap image data. Within the framework of the German-Vietnamese WISDOM project, focussing the Mekong Delta region in Vietnam, images have been acquired covering the flood season from June 2008 to November 2008. Based on these images a time series of the so called watermask showing inundated areas have been derived. The product is required as intermediate to (i) calibrate 2d inundation model scenarios, (ii) estimate the extent of affected areas, and (iii) analyze the scope of prior crisis. The image processing approach is based on the assumption that water surfaces are forward scattering the radar signal resulting in low backscatter signals to the sensor. It uses multiple grey level thresholds and image morphological operations. The approach is robust in terms of automation, accuracy, robustness, and processing time. The resulting watermasks show the seasonal flooding pattern with inundations starting in July, having their peak at the end

  4. Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) in Northern Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) on Mars are part of a growing inventory of post-Noachian landforms that may be related to late, widespread aqueous activity that occurred during a period once thought to be less favorable for precipitation and runoff. Constraining the source, magnitude, timing and duration of FSVs will provide insight into the mechanism and extent of fluvial activity on Mars and the geologic and climatic environments in which they formed. Unlike the older Noachian-Hesperian valleys that are characterized by integrated, dissected and degraded networks that cover large spatial extents, FSVs are typically narrow, short or discontinuous valleys with low drainage densities. They are generally incised no more than a few decameters, slightly degraded at multi-meter scales, and cluster in the mid-latitudes (35-50° in both hemispheres). A high concentration of FSVs occurs in Northern Arabia Terra (~33°N, 8°E), a Noachian-aged landscape characterized by broad, irregular depressions. Many of the FSVs in this region are 150+ km long and some appear to cross depressions that were likely filled with ice or water at the time of formation. Examples of broad, flat floored FSVs with incised channels could either indicate a complex history of a single flow event or multiple flow events. The occurrence of "pollywogs," fairly fresh, small (typically 2-10 km in diameter) craters with a single channel extending from the rim outward, implies overflow of the crater, the presence of a deep lake and the involvement of artesian groundwater flow. Roughly 25% of the FSVs in our northern Arabia Terra study region occur on relatively fresh crater ejecta, which may be related to formation age, topography, surface materials and (or) substrate. Ejecta with dense concentrations of FSVs average 25.5 km in diameter, have more degraded crater interiors, and well developed petal-like ejecta. Ejecta with sparse or no FSVs have radial ejecta with less distinct petals and are associated with

  5. Cold-Climate Geomorphology of Tempe Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Hauber, Ernst; Rossi, Angelo-Pio; Dumke, Alexander; Neukum, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    The fretted terrain at the Martian dichotomy boundary hosts an abundance of landforms related to the creep of mountain debris and ice which have become known as so-called lobate debris aprons and units of lineated valley fills and concentric crater fills. Although such features are related to different morphologic settings, there is a general consensus that these features are in principle genetically connected to the process of ice-assisted creep. We here investigate lobate debris aprons in the Tempe Terra/Mareotis Fossae region of Mars on the basis of high resolution imagery and topographic data and focus on the emplacement and degradational history and on a mantling deposit which indicates the past and/or present existence of near surface ice. According to our observations we propose a multi-stage model for landscape evolution in the Tempe Terra region, which needs further verification in other areas of the dichotomy boundary. We have currently no observational basis for assumptions on the formation of remnant massifs in the near-escarpment region of the highland-lowland boundary which means that all we can say about the emplacement and distribution of remnant massifs is that they are either autochthonous, i.e., erosional remnants of highland material or uplifted crustal material as suggested for the southern hemispheric circum-Hellas and Argyre Planitiae remnants. Remnants have undergone erosional processes, be it by fluvial erosion, or be it by gravitational processes, such as landsliding and mass wasting as well as deflation and denudation. Additionally, cyclic obliquity changes as proposed for Mars and cyclic loss and redeposition of volatiles and dust produced a record of ice-poor and ice-rich landforms, respectively, that subsequently intermixed through degradational processes where the ice/dust-rich mantling deposit either covered the remnant completely or was remobilized gravitationally by downslope movement and revealed the underlying topography. Apron

  6. A three-state model for the regulation of telomerase by TERRA and hnRNPA1.

    PubMed

    Redon, Sophie; Zemp, Ivo; Lingner, Joachim

    2013-10-01

    Telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a large non-coding RNA, which forms an integral part of telomeric heterochromatin. In vitro, naked TERRA molecules are efficient inhibitors of human telomerase, base-pairing via their 5'-UUAGGG-3' repeats with the template sequence of telomerase RNA, in addition to contacting the telomerase reverse transcriptase protein subunit. In vivo, however, TERRA-mediated inhibition of telomerase can be prevented by unknown mechanisms. Also, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) has been implicated in telomere length control. In vivo, TERRA is partially associated with hnRNPA1, and hnRNPA1 is also detected at telomeres. We demonstrate that on binding of TERRA, hnRNPA1 can alleviate the TERRA-mediated inhibition of telomerase. However, when in excess over TERRA, hnRNPA1 becomes itself an inhibitor of telomere extension, on binding of the telomeric DNA substrate. Yet, hnRNPA1 has no notable direct effects on the telomerase catalysis. Our in vitro results suggest that TERRA-mediated telomerase inhibition may be prevented by hnRNPA1 in vivo. Telomere extension by telomerase may require balanced levels of TERRA and hnRNPA1 at telomeres. Thus, TERRA and hnRNPA1 can function as a bimolecular regulator to turn telomerase and the telomere on and off.

  7. From Soup to Nuts: How Terra has enabled the growth of NASA Earth science communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Allen, J.; Voiland, A.; Przyborski, P.

    2014-12-01

    The birth of NASA's Earth Observatory website in 1999 closely mirrored the launch of Terra and over the years its growth has paralleled that of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. With the launch of Terra, NASA gained an extraordinary platform that not only promised new science capabilities but gave us the data and imagery for telling the stories behind the science. The Earth Observatory Group was founded to communicate these stories to the public. We will present how we have used the capabilities of all the Terra instruments over the past 15 years to expand the public's knowledge of NASA Earth science. The ever-increasing quantity and quality of Terra data, combined with technological improvements to data availability and services has allowed the Earth Observatory and, as a result, the greater science-aware media, to greatly expand the visibility of NASA data and imagery. We will offer thoughts on best practices in using these multi-faceted instruments for public communication and we will share how we have worked with Terra science teams and affiliated systems to see the potential stories in their data and the value of providing the data in a timely fashion. Terra has allowed us to tell the stories of our Earth today like never before.

  8. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA TERRA: a noncoding RNA connecting telomere biology to genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Cusanelli, Emilio; Chartrand, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are dynamic nucleoprotein structures that protect the ends of chromosomes from degradation and activation of DNA damage response. For this reason, telomeres are essential to genome integrity. Chromosome ends are enriched in heterochromatic marks and proper organization of telomeric chromatin is important to telomere stability. Despite their heterochromatic state, telomeres are transcribed giving rise to long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) called TERRA (telomeric repeat-containing RNA). TERRA molecules play critical roles in telomere biology, including regulation of telomerase activity and heterochromatin formation at chromosome ends. Emerging evidence indicate that TERRA transcripts form DNA-RNA hybrids at chromosome ends which can promote homologous recombination among telomeres, delaying cellular senescence and sustaining genome instability. Intriguingly, TERRA RNA-telomeric DNA hybrids are involved in telomere length homeostasis of telomerase-negative cancer cells. Furthermore, TERRA transcripts play a role in the DNA damage response (DDR) triggered by dysfunctional telomeres. We discuss here recent developments on TERRA's role in telomere biology and genome integrity, and its implication in cancer.

  9. Structure of human telomeric RNA (TERRA): stacking of two G-quadruplex blocks in K(+) solution.

    PubMed

    Martadinata, Herry; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-04-01

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNAs (TERRA) are transcription products of the telomeres. Human TERRA sequences containing UUAGGG repeats can form parallel-stranded G-quadruplexes. The stacking interaction of such structures was shown to be important for ligand targeting and higher-order arrangement of G-quadruplexes in long TERRA sequences. Here we report on the first high-resolution structure of a stacked G-quadruplex formed by the 10-nucleotide human TERRA sequence r(GGGUUAGGGU) in potassium solution. This structure comprises two dimeric three-layer parallel-stranded G-quadruplex blocks, which stack on each other at their 5'-ends. The adenine in each UUA loop is nearly coplanar with the 5'-end G-tetrad forming an A·(G·G·G·G)·A hexad, thereby increasing the stacking contacts between the two blocks. Interestingly, this stacking and loop conformation is different from all structures previously reported for the free human TERRA but resembles the structure previously determined for a complex between a human TERRA sequence and an acridine ligand. This stacking conformation is a potential target for drugs that recognize or induce the stacking interface.

  10. Surface Current Measurements In Terra Nova Bay By Hf Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, D.; Falco, P.; Wadhams, P.; Spezie, G.

    We present the preliminary results of a field experiment carried out within frame- work of the CLIMA project of the Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research (PNRA) and in cooperation with the Scott Polar Research Institute of Cambridge. Dur- ing the second period (02/12/1999-23/01/2000) of the XV Italian expedition a coastal radar was used to characterize the current field in the area of Terra Nova Bay (TNB). One of the aims of the CLIMA (Climatic Long-term Interactions for the Mass balance in Antarctica) project is to determine the role of the polynya in the sea ice mass bal- ance, water structure and local climate. The OSCR-II experiment was planned in order to provide surface current measurements in the area of TNB polynya, one of the most important coastal polynya of the Ross Sea. OSCR (Ocean Surface Current Radar) is a shore based, remote sensing system designed to measure sea surface currents in coastal waters. Two radar sites (a master and a slave) provide with radial current mea- surements; data combined from both sites yield the total current vector. Unfortunately the master and slave stations did not work together throughout the whole period of the experiment. A description of the experiment and a discussion of the results, will be proposed.

  11. Variations in effective compensation depth across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, R.R.; Hall, S.A. ); Bills, B.G.

    1989-06-01

    Aphrodite Terra is the largest elevated terrain on Venus and it serves as a focal point in current discussions of global tectonic style. Using the topography and gravity data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) the authors have estimated an effective depth of Airy compensation for each of 75 orbital arcs that provide fairly uniform areal coverage of the entire province. The most pronounced pattern that emerges is a general increase in compensation depth to the east. The most rapid change occurs near 135{degree}; the average west of there is 70 km, while the average to the east is 230 km. Superimposed on this larger trend are five distinctive regional patterns, four well defined peaks and one interval of widely scattered and poorly constrained depths. The maxima in compensation depth are well correlated with regional topographic highs. While these observations are easily reconciled with the general notion that Aphrodite is a region of crustal divergence, the great depth of compensation is difficult to accord with the more specific suggestion that Aphrodite is a terrestrial type divergent plate margin. The alternative suggestion that Aphrodite, and the other equatorial highlands on Venus, are surface manifestations of hot upwelling mantle plumes is consistent both with the great depths of compensation and with the pattern of regional peaks and intervening troughs. The broader scale increase in effective depth of compensation from west to east is more enigmatic, but it might reflect an age progression of the plumes.

  12. Amazonian thermokarst in Danielson crater, Arabia Terra region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, Davide; Murana, Alessio; Tramontana, Mario

    2014-12-01

    This paper describe the possible ice-related landforms observed within Danielson crater which is centered at about 8°N and 353°E, in the region of southwestern Arabia Terra about 800 km south of Becquerel crater. A morphological survey of the study area through an analysis of the available Mars images was performed. The features of the landforms were investigated through an integrated analysis of Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) data. Landforms interpreted as due to thermokarst processes, resembling similarly ice-related landforms found both in the cold-climate non-glacial regions of Earth, and putatively in other areas of Mars, was observed. These landforms are attributed to the presence of ground ice/ice-melting processes reflect significant climatic changes and different climatic conditions than those existing now. Moreover, they appear to display young erosional age, suggesting that are probably young, probably of Amazonian age.

  13. Estimating terra MODIS polarization effect using ocean data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Andrew; Brinkmann, Jake; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Jack

    2016-05-01

    Terra MODIS has been known since pre-launch to have polarization sensitivity, particularly in shortest-wavelength bands 8 and 9. On-orbit reflectance trending of pseudo-invariant sites show a variation in reflectance as a function of band and scan mirror angle of incidence consistent with time-dependent polarization effects from the rotating doublesided scan mirror. The MODIS Characterization Support Team [MCST] estimates the Mueller matrix trending from this variation as observed from a single desert site, but this effect is not included in Collection 6 [C6] calibration. Here we extend the MCST's current polarization sensitivity monitoring to two ocean sites distributed over latitude to help estimate the uncertainties in the derived Mueller matrix. The Mueller matrix elements derived for polarization-sensitive Band 8 for a given site are found to be fairly insensitive to surface brdf modeling. The site-to-site variation is a measure of the uncertainty in the Mueller estimation. Results for band 8 show that the polarization correction reduces mirror-side striping by up to 50% and reduces the instrument polarization effect on reflectance time series of an ocean target.

  14. Geology of Terra Nova oil field, Grand Banks, Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, J.D.; Sullivan, G.W.; Park, J.

    1986-05-01

    Oil was discovered at the Petro-Canada et al Terra Nova K-08 well in May 1984. The well was drilled in the Jeanne d'Arc subbasin, 340 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland, and 35 km southeast of the giant Hibernia oil field. Follow-up wells provided log correlations and core data that have been used with a three-dimensional seismic survey to construct a geologic model. Mapping the field demonstrated a combination structural-stratigraphic trap. The reservoir is within the lower part of the Jeanne d'Arc sequence (Upper Jurassic). This conglomeratic sandstone is interpreted as having been deposited in a nearshore to fluvial setting by basinward, northward progradation of fan-delta systems. The reservoir has a depositional limit updip to the south, and is overstepped and sealed by transgressive shales of the upper Jeanne d'Arc. Oil source is from the underlying Egret (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) argillaceous limestones. The geologic model and seismic interpretation have been tested by appraisal drilling.

  15. Aoutomatic Oil Spill Detection Using TerraSAR-X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulipiye, Kaiyoumu; Balik Sanli, Fusun

    2016-07-01

    Oil release into the ocean may affect marine ecosystems and cause environmental pollution. Thus, oil spill detection and identification becomes critical important. Characterized by synoptic view over large regions, remote sensing has been proved to be a reliable tool for oil spill detection. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows returned signal that clearly distinguish oil from oil-free surface under optimal wind conditions, which makes it the most frequent used remote sensing technique in oil spill detection. Algorithms of automatic oil spill detection has already been developed for different SAR sensors, including RADARSAT and ENVISAT. In this study, we want to apply automatic oil spill detection algorithms on TerraSAR-X data which is previously developed for ASAR data. The applied methodology includes two steps as segmentation and classification. First segmentation algorithms compiled by C# have been applied under a Bayesian framework adopting a multi-level logistic. After segmentation different classification methods such as feature selection, filter, and embedded selection have been applied. As a result the used classifiers for oil spill detection will be compared, and the complete processing chain will be evaluated.

  16. Terra and Aqua: new data for epidemiology and public health.

    PubMed

    Tatem, Andrew J; Goetz, Scott J; Hay, Simon I

    2004-11-01

    Earth-observing satellites have only recently been exploited for the measurement of environmental variables of relevance to epidemiology and public health. Such work has relied on sensors with spatial, spectral and geometric constraints that have allowed large-area questions associated with the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases to be addressed. Moving from pretty maps to pragmatic control tools requires a suite of satellite-derived environmental data of higher fidelity, spatial resolution, spectral depth and at similar temporal resolutions to existing meteorological satellites. Information derived from sensors onboard the next generation of moderate-resolution Earth-observing sensors may provide the key. The MODIS and ASTER sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua platforms provide substantial improvements in spatial resolution, number of spectral channels, choices of bandwidths, radiometric calibration and a much-enhanced set of pre-processed and freely available products. These sensors provide an important advance in moderate-resolution remote sensing and the data available to those concerned with improving public health.

  17. Bringing Terra Science to the People: 10 years of education and public outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.; Yuen, K.; Herring, D.

    2009-12-01

    The default image on Apple's iPhone is a blue, white, green and tan globe: the Blue Marble. The iconic image was produced using Terra data as part of the mission's education and public outreach efforts. As far-reaching and innovative as Terra science has been over the past decade, Terra education and public outreach efforts have been equally successful. This talk will provide an overview of Terra's crosscutting education and public outreach projects, which have reached into educational facilities—classrooms, museums, and science centers, across the Internet, and into everyday life. The Earth Observatory web site was the first web site designed for the public that told the unified story of what we can learn about our planet from all space-based platforms. Initially conceived as part of Terra mission outreach in 1999, the web site has won five Webby awards, the highest recognition a web site can receive. The Visible Earth image gallery is a catalogue of NASA Earth imagery that receives more than one million page views per month. The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web site and WMS (web mapping service) tool serves global data sets to museums and science centers across the world. Terra educational products, including the My NASA Data web service and the Students' Cloud Observations Online (S'COOL) project, bring Terra data into the classroom. Both projects target multiple grade levels, ranging from elementary school to graduate school. S'COOL uses student observations of clouds to help validate Terra data. Students and their parents have puzzled over weekly "Where on Earth" geography quizzes published on line. Perhaps the most difficult group to reach is the large segment of the public that does not seek out science information online or in a science museum or classroom. To reach these people, EarthSky produced a series of podcasts and radio broadcasts that brought Terra science to more than 30 million people in 2009. Terra imagery, including the Blue Marble, have

  18. Formation of telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) foci in highly proliferating mouse cerebellar neuronal progenitors and medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhong; Wang, Zhuo; Xiang, Chaomei; Molczan, Aliah; Baubet, Valérie; Conejo-Garcia, Jose; Xu, Xiaowei; Lieberman, Paul M; Dahmane, Nadia

    2012-09-15

    Telomeres play crucial roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and control of cellular senescence. Most eukaryotic telomeres can be transcribed to generate a telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) that persists as a heterogeneous nuclear RNA and can be developmentally regulated. However, the precise function and regulation of TERRA in normal and cancer cell development remains poorly understood. Here, we show that TERRA accumulates in highly proliferating normal and cancer cells, and forms large nuclear foci, which are distinct from previously characterized markers of DNA damage or replication stress. Using a mouse model for medulloblastoma driven by chronic Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, TERRA RNA was detected in tumor, but not adjacent normal cells using both RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and northern blotting. RNA FISH revealed the formation of TERRA foci (TERFs) in the nuclear regions of rapidly proliferating tumor cells. In the normal developing cerebellum, TERRA aggregates could also be detected in highly proliferating zones of progenitor neurons. SHH could enhance TERRA expression in purified granule progenitor cells in vitro, suggesting that proliferation signals contribute to TERRA expression in responsive tissue. TERRA foci did not colocalize with γH2AX foci, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) or Cajal bodies in mouse tumor tissue. We also provide evidence that TERRA is elevated in a variety of human cancers. These findings suggest that elevated TERRA levels reflect a novel early form of telomere regulation during replication stress and cancer cell evolution, and the TERRA RNA aggregates may form a novel nuclear body in highly proliferating mammalian cells.

  19. Chromatin remodeling of human subtelomeres and TERRA promoters upon cellular senescence: commonalities and differences between chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Peter E; Tobi, Elmar W; Balog, Judit; Schouten, Suzanne G; Kremer, Dennis; El Bouazzaoui, Fatiha; Henneman, Peter; Putter, Hein; Eline Slagboom, P; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2013-05-01

    Subtelomeres are patchworks of evolutionary conserved sequence blocks and harbor the transcriptional start sites for telomere repeat containing RNAs (TERRA). Recent studies suggest that the interplay between telomeres and subtelomeric chromatin is required for maintaining telomere function. To further characterize chromatin remodeling of subtelomeres in relation to telomere shortening and cellular senescence, we systematically quantified histone modifications and DNA methylation at the subtelomeres of chromosomes 7q and 11q in primary human WI-38 fibroblasts. Upon senescence, both subtelomeres were characterized by a decrease in markers of constitutive heterochromatin, suggesting relative chromatin relaxation. However, we did not find increased levels of markers of euchromatin or derepression of the 7q VIPR2 gene. The repressed state of the subtelomeres was maintained upon senescence, which could be attributed to a rise in levels of facultative heterochromatin markers at both subtelomeres. While senescence-induced subtelomeric chromatin remodeling was similar for both chromosomes, chromatin remodeling at TERRA promoters displayed chromosome-specific patterns. At the 7q TERRA promoter, chromatin structure was co-regulated with the more proximal subtelomere. In contrast, the 11q TERRA promoter, which was previously shown to be bound by CCCTC-binding factor CTCF, displayed lower levels of markers of constitutive heterochromatin that did not change upon senescence, whereas levels of markers of facultative heterochromatin decreased upon senescence. In line with the chromatin state data, transcription of 11q TERRA but not 7q TERRA was detected. Our study provides a detailed description of human subtelomeric chromatin dynamics and shows distinct regulation of the TERRA promoters of 7q and 11q upon cellular senescence.

  20. Kaistia terrae sp. nov., isolated from a wetland in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Yi-Seul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Park, In-Cheol; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2010-04-01

    An ivory-coloured bacterium, designated strain 5YN7-3(T), was isolated from a wetland, Yongneup, Korea. Cells of the strain were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and short rods. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that strain 5YN7-3(T) belongs to the order Rhizobiales of the class Alphaproteobacteria and is closely related to Kaistia soli 5YN9-8(T) (97.8 %), Kaistia granuli Ko04(T) (97.6 %) and Kaistia adipata Chj404(T) (97.4 %). Strain 5YN7-3(T) showed DNA-DNA hybridization values of 28, 22 and 35 % with K. granuli Ko04(T), K. soli 5YN9-8(T) and K. adipata Chj404(T), respectively. The major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c (51.2 %), C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c (25.0 %), C(18 : 0) (12.9 %) and C(16 : 0) (10.8 %) (>10 % of total fatty acids). Ubiquinone-10 was the major isoprenoid quinone and the DNA G+C content was 66.5 mol%. The phenotypic characteristics in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization data clearly define strain 5YN7-3(T) as a novel species of the genus Kaistia, for which the name Kaistia terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 5YN7-3(T) (=KACC 12910(T) =DSM 21341(T)).

  1. Hymenobacter terrae sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Jae-Jin; Park, Kyoung Ryun; Park, Se-Hee; Jung, Hee-Young; Kim, Myung Kyum

    2015-05-01

    A Gram-negative, UV tolerant bacterial strain, DG7A(T), was isolated from soil samples collected in Seoul city, South Korea. The cells were grown on R2A agar at 25 °C and were pink to red in color. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain DG7A was 63.5 mol%. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that the strains contain the major fatty acids iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, and summed feature 3 (16:1 ω7c/16:1 ω6c), with phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipid. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DG7A(T) formed a distinct phylogenetic line along with Hymenobacter soli PB17(T), and they shared approximately 98.35 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. However, these two strains shared only 5.3 % pairwise similarity (reciprocal analysis, 36.3 %) in their genomic DNA. The next highest degree of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity after H. soli PB17(T) was found with H. glaciei VUG-A130(T) (96.78 %), H. antarcticus VUG-A42aa(T) (96.66 %), and H. saemangeumensis GSR0100(T) (96.57 %). Based on the phylogenetic analysis and analysis of the physiological and biochemical characteristics, this isolate was considered to represent a novel species, for which we propose the name Hymenobacter terrae sp. nov., with type strain DG7A(T) (= KCTC 32554(T) = KEMB 9004-164(T )= JCM 30007(T)). PMID:25572492

  2. MOPITT Mechanisms 16 Years In-Orbit Operation on TERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Andrew S.; Nichitiu, Florian; Caldwell, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    The 16th anniversary of the launch of NASA's Terra Spacecraft was marked on December 18, 2015, with the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument being a successful contributor to the NASA EOS flagship. MOPITT has been enabled by a large suite of mechanisms, allowing the instrument to perform long-duration monitoring of atmospheric carbon monoxide, providing global measurements of this important greenhouse gas for 16 years. Mechanisms have been successfully employed for scanning, cooling of detectors, and to optically modulate the gas path length within the instrument by means of pressure and gas cell length variation. The instrument utilizes these devices to perform correlation spectroscopy, enabling measurements with vertical resolution from the nadir view, and has thereby furthered understanding of source and global transport effects of carbon monoxide. Given the design requirement for a 5.25-year lifetime, the stability and performance of the majority of mechanisms have far surpassed design goals. With 16 continuously operating mechanisms in service on MOPITT, including 12 rotating mechanisms and 4 with linear drive elements, the instrument was an ambitious undertaking. The long life requirements combined with demands for cleanliness and optical stability made for difficult design choices including that of the selection of new lubrication processes. Observations and lessons learned with regards to many aspects of the mechanisms and associated monitoring devices are discussed here. Mechanism behaviors are described, including anomalies, long-term drive current/power, fill pressure, vibration and cold-tip temperature trends. The effectiveness of particular lubrication formulations and the screening method implemented is discussed in relation to continuous rotating mechanisms and stepper motors, which have exceeded 15 billon rotations and 2.5 billion steps respectively. Aspects of gas cell hermeticity, optical cleanliness, heater problems

  3. Toxicity assessment in marine sediment for the Terra Nova environmental effects monitoring program (1997-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, Sandra A.; Paine, Michael D.; Wells, Trudy A.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses toxicity test results on sediments from the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland (Canada). The amphipod (Rhepoxynius abronius) survival and solid phase luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, or Microtox) assays were conducted on sediment samples collected from approximately 50 stations per program year around Terra Nova during baseline (1997), prior to drilling, and in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 after drilling began. The frequency of toxic responses in the amphipod toxicity test was low. Of the ten stations that were toxic in environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years, only one (station 30(FE)) was toxic in more than one year and could be directly attributed to Terra Nova project activities. In contrast, 65 (18%) of 364 EEM samples were toxic to Microtox. Microtox toxicity in EEM years was not related to distance from Terra Nova drill centres or concentrations of >C10-C21 hydrocarbons or barium, the primary constituents of the synthetic-based drill muds used at Terra Nova. Of the variables tested, fines and strontium levels showed the strongest (positive) correlations with toxicity. Neither fines nor strontium levels were affected by drill cuttings discharge at Terra Nova, except at station 30(FE) (and that station was not toxic to Microtox). Benthic macro-invertebrate abundance, richness and diversity were greater in toxic than in non-toxic sediments. Therefore, Microtox responses indicating toxicity were associated with positive biological responses in the field. This result may have been an indirect function of the increased abundance of most invertebrate taxa in less sandy sediments with higher gravel content, where fines and strontium levels and, consequently, toxicity to Microtox were high; or chemical substances released by biodegradation of organic matter, where invertebrates are abundant, may be toxic to Microtox. Given

  4. TERRA-reinforced association of LSD1 with MRE11 promotes processing of uncapped telomeres.

    PubMed

    Porro, Antonio; Feuerhahn, Sascha; Lingner, Joachim

    2014-02-27

    Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being recognized as sites of DNA damage. Upon telomere shortening or telomere uncapping induced by loss of telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2), telomeres elicit a DNA-damage response leading to cellular senescence. Here, we show that following TRF2 depletion, the levels of the long noncoding RNA TERRA increase and LSD1, which binds TERRA, is recruited to telomeres. At uncapped telomeres, LSD1 associates with MRE11, one of the nucleases implicated in the processing of 3' telomeric G overhangs, and we show that LSD1 is required for efficient removal of these structures. The LSD1-MRE11 interaction is reinforced in vivo following TERRA upregulation in TRF2-deficient cells and in vitro by TERRA-mimicking RNA oligonucleotides. Furthermore, LSD1 enhances the nuclease activity of MRE11 in vitro. Our data indicate that recruitment of LSD1 to deprotected telomeres requires MRE11 and is promoted by TERRA. LSD1 stimulates MRE11 catalytic activity and nucleolytic processing of uncapped telomeres.

  5. TerraLook: GIS-Ready Time-Series of Satellite Imagery for Monitoring Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    TerraLook is a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a goal of providing satellite images that anyone can use to see changes in the Earth's surface over time. Each TerraLook product is a user-specified collection of satellite images selected from imagery archived at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Images are bundled with standards-compliant metadata, a world file, and an outline of each image's ground footprint, enabling their use in geographic information systems (GIS), image processing software, and Web mapping applications. TerraLook images are available through the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (http://glovis.usgs.gov).

  6. Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Spacecraft 120 Volt Power Subsystem: Requirements, Development and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Denney J.

    2000-01-01

    Built by the Lockheed-Martin Corporation, the Earth Observing System (EOS) TERRA spacecraft represents the first orbiting application of a 120 Vdc high voltage spacecraft electrical power system implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The EOS TERRA spacecraft's launch provided a major contribution to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth program while incorporating many state of the art electrical power system technologies to achieve its mission goals. The EOS TERRA spacecraft was designed around five state-of-the-art scientific instrument packages designed to monitor key parameters associated with the earth's climate. The development focus of the TERRA electrical power system (EPS) resulted from a need for high power distribution to the EOS TERRA spacecraft subsystems and instruments and minimizing mass and parasitic losses. Also important as a design goal of the EPS was maintaining tight regulation on voltage and achieving low conducted bus noise characteristics. This paper outlines the major requirements for the EPS as well as the resulting hardware implementation approach adopted to meet the demands of the EOS TERRA low earth orbit mission. The selected orbit, based on scientific needs, to achieve the EOS TERRA mission goals is a sun-synchronous circular 98.2degree inclination Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with a near circular average altitude of 705 kilometers. The nominal spacecraft orbit is approximately 99 minutes with an average eclipse period of about 34 minutes. The scientific goal of the selected orbit is to maintain a repeated 10:30 a.m. +/- 15 minute descending equatorial crossing which provides a fairly clear view of the earth's surface and relatively low cloud interference for the instrument observation measurements. The major EOS TERRA EPS design requirements are single fault tolerant, average orbit power delivery of 2, 530 watts with a defined minimum lifetime of five years (EOL). To meet

  7. Euripus Mons - Landform Evolution and Climate Constraints in Promethei Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Kim, Jungrack; Baik, Hyun-Seob

    2016-04-01

    The Promethei Terra region of Mars exhibits a variety of geomorphic landforms indicative of ice-assisted creep of debris and ice, similar to features and processes found at the Martian dichotomy boundary in Deuteronilus, Protonilus and Nilosyrtis Mensae. Despite only little doubt about the fact that ice played an integral role in the formation of these features, it is still disputed if these features were formed by glacial processes, requiring precipitation of ice and snow and exhibiting glacial deformation and basal sliding, or if these landforms are a product of periglacial denudation and subject to different deformation regimes. As information about past climate conditions on Mars is sparse, the proper assessment of landform types today allows to put constraints on their environmental conditions in the past. Due to limited knowledge about the internal physical and thermal structure of these landforms, it remains impossible to unambiguously determine their origin [1]. A variety of geomorphic and model-based indicators need to be taken into account when putting constraints on their history and when trying to reconstruct their evolution. For selected features on Mars it has been shown by SHARAD radar observations that the ice content might be relatively high [2], and that some of them might be composed of pure ice, protected from sublimation by a thin debris cover. One of such examples, Euripus Mons, is a 80 km remnant feature with an associated circumferential talus deposit that shows indicators for deformation by downslope movement, i.e. debris apron morphology. Recent modelling assuming glacial deformation helped to reconstruct some internal structural properties [3]. Despite these attempts, Euripus Mons shows clear geomorphic signatures of classical periglacial denudation which do not fit into the concept of glacial-only evolution. Denudation rates as well as ages are similar to those reported from other locations on Mars for which hyperarid climate conditions

  8. Terra e Arte Project: Soils connecting Art and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Rozenberg, Bianca; de Cássia Francisco, Talita; Gramacho de Oliveira, Elisa

    2015-04-01

    The "Terra e Arte" project was designed to combine science and art by approaching soil contents in basic education schools in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The project was developed to awake, sensitize and create awareness about soils and their importance to life and environment within school communities. It was proposed and realized by the Earth Sciences Museum Alexis Dorofeef (MCTAD) of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV), as part of the celebrations of its 20th anniversary. Since all the schools of the town visit the museum at least once a year and most of them have received and carried out pedagogic projects on soil themes in the last 20 years, it was proposed to them to develop a soil subject with any of their groups and combine it with painting using soil materials. Each group interested in joining the project received a basic set of material to produce soil paints. They were expected to develop a soil theme and its contents for a few weeks and to finalize it with a figurative and textual collective creation that synthetized their learning. 16 of the 24 visited schools joined the project and realized it for an average of two months. During this time, the school groups visited the museum and/or borrowed the itinerant exposition on soils from the museum to work with in in the school community. At the end of the projects, the productions were presented at the Knowledge Market (Feira do Conhecimento) that happens every year in the central square of the town, as part of the National Week of Science and Technology. At the event, 58 works were presented by 14 schools, involving directly 700 pupils and their teachers. They approached themes from soil formation and properties to agroecology and urban occupation and impacts on the soils. 30 of the works were selected for a commemorative exposition and 12 were chosen for a table calendar 2014. The movement created around the project mobilized many people and had strong impact on the school communities, especially

  9. Fifteen Years of ASTER Data on NASA's Terra Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five instruments operating on NASA's Terra platform. Launched in 1999, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and US NASA. Data processing and distribution are done by both organizations; a joint science team helps to define mission priorities. ASTER acquires ~550 images per day, with a 60 km swath width. A daytime acquisition is three visible bands and a backward-looking stereo band with 15 m resolution, six SWIR bands with 30 m resolution, and 5 TIR bands with 90 m resolution. Nighttime TIR-only data are routinely collected. The stereo capability has allowed the ASTER project to produce a global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) data set, covering the earth's land surfaces from 83 degrees north to 83 degrees south, with 30 m data postings. This is the only (near-) global DEM available to all users at no charge; to date, over 28 million 1-by-1 degree DEM tiles have been distributed. As a general-purpose imaging instrument, ASTER-acquired data are used in numerous scientific disciplines, including: land use/land cover, urban monitoring, urban heat island studies, wetlands studies, agriculture monitoring, forestry, etc. Of particular emphasis has been the acquisition and analysis of data for natural hazard and disaster applications. We have been systematically acquiring images for 15,000 valley glaciers through the USGS Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space Project. The recently published Randolph Glacier Inventory, and the GLIMS book, both relied heavily on ASTER data as the basis for glaciological and climatological studies. The ASTER Volcano Archive is a unique on-line archive of thousands of daytime and nighttime ASTER images of ~1500 active glaciers, along with a growing archive of Landsat images. ASTER was scheduled to target active volcanoes at least 4 times per year, and more frequently for

  10. TERRA: a computer code for simulating the transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1984-11-01

    TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location.

  11. Cross-calibration of the Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) with Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Kumar, A. Senthil; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-05-01

    The Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) sensor on-board the Oceansat-2 spacecraft has been operational since its launch in September, 2009. The Oceansat 2 OCM primary design goal is to provide continuity to Oceansat-1 OCM to obtain information regarding various ocean-colour variables. OCM acquires Earth scene measurements in eight multi-spectral bands in the range from 402 to 885 nm. The MODIS sensor on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft has been successfully operating for over a decade collecting measurements of the earth's land, ocean surface and atmosphere. The MODIS spectral bands, designed for land and ocean applications, cover the spectral range from 412 to 869 nm. This study focuses on comparing the radiometric calibration stability of OCM using near-simultaneous TOA measurements with Terra and Aqua MODIS acquired over the Libya 4 target. Same-day scene-pairs from all three sensors (OCM, Terra and Aqua MODIS) between August, 2014 and September, 2015 were chosen for this analysis. On a given day, the OCM overpass is approximately an hour after the Terra overpass and an hour before the Aqua overpass. Due to the orbital differences between Terra and Aqua, MODIS images the Libya 4 site at different scan-angles on a given day. Some of the high-gain ocean bands for MODIS tend to saturate while viewing the bright Libya 4 target, but bands 8-10 (412 nm - 486 nm) provide an unsaturated response and are used for comparison with the spectrally similar OCM bands. All the standard corrections such as bidirectional reflectance factor (BRDF), relative spectral response mismatch, and impact for atmospheric water-vapor are applied to obtain the reflectance differences between OCM and the two MODIS instruments. Furthermore, OCM is used as a transfer radiometer to obtain the calibration differences between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands.

  12. TERRA, hnRNP A1, and DNA-PKcs Interactions at Human Telomeres.

    PubMed

    Le, Phuong N; Maranon, David G; Altina, Noelia H; Battaglia, Christine L R; Bailey, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of telomeres, repetitive elements at eukaryotic chromosomal termini, and the end-capping structure and function they provide, are imperative for preserving genome integrity and stability. The discovery that telomeres are transcribed into telomere repeat containing RNA (TERRA) has revolutionized our view of this repetitive, rather unappreciated region of the genome. We have previously shown that the non-homologous end-joining, shelterin associated DNA dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) participates in mammalian telomeric end-capping, exclusively at telomeres created by leading-strand synthesis. Here, we explore potential roles of DNA-PKcs and its phosphorylation target heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) in the localization of TERRA at human telomeres. Evaluation of co-localized foci utilizing RNA-FISH and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction strategies provided evidence that both inhibition of DNA-PKcs kinase activity and siRNA depletion of hnRNP A1 result in accumulation of TERRA at individual telomeres; depletion of hnRNP A1 also resulted in increased frequencies of fragile telomeres. These observations are consistent with previous demonstrations that decreased levels of the nonsense RNA-mediated decay factors SMG1 and UPF1 increase TERRA at telomeres and interfere with replication of leading-strand telomeres. We propose that hTR mediated stimulation of DNA-PKcs and subsequent phosphorylation of hnRNP A1 influences the cell cycle dependent distribution of TERRA at telomeres by contributing to the removal of TERRA from telomeres, an action important for progression of S-phase, and thereby facilitating efficient telomere replication and end-capping.

  13. 75 FR 1052 - Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC; New York Canyon, LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC; New York Canyon, LLC; Notice of Filing December 30, 2009. Take notice that on December 24, 2009, Terra-Gen...

  14. Genome sequence of the Verrucomicrobium Opitutus terrae PB90-1, an abundant inhabitant of rice paddy soil ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Mark W.J.; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; Copeland, A; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Pitluck, Sam; Goltsman, Eugene; Clum, Alicia; Hui, Sun; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mikhailova, Natalia; Richardson, Paul; Janssen, Peter H.; De Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke

    2011-01-01

    Opitutus terrae PB90-1 is a member of the deeply branching bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia. Bacteria in this phylum are only rarely cultured, but common in metagenomic libraries from aquatic, terrestrial and intestinal environments. O. terrae is a numerically abundant anaerobe capable of propionate production from plant-derived polysaccharides.

  15. Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and Around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, J. G.; Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between three temporally distinct indicators of water on Mars: ancient craters with fluidized ejecta, relatively more recent gullies inside those craters, and current abundance of near surface hydrogen around those craters. We find an association between gully occurrence and large-scale geologic features; analysis indicates unique depth/diameter ratios for gullied craters in Sirenum Terra. Numerical comparisons of fluidized and non-fluidized, gullied and non-gullied craters suggest that the Argyre region could have had a near-surface water table that receded before recent times, while Sirenum Terra may have had an ancient water table that persists to this day.

  16. The TERRA framework: conceptualizing rural environmental health inequities through an environmental justice lens.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia; Postma, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The deleterious consequences of environmentally associated diseases are expressed differentially by income, race, and geography. Scientists are just beginning to understand the consequences of environmental exposures under conditions of poverty, marginalization, and geographic isolation. In this context, we developed the TERRA (translational environmental research in rural areas) framework to explicate environmental health risks experienced by the rural poor. Central to the TERRA framework is the premise that risks exist within physical-spatial, economic-resources, and cultural-ideologic contexts. In the face of scientific and political uncertainty, a precautionary risk reduction approach has the greatest potential to protect health. Conceptual and technical advances will both be needed to achieve environmental justice.

  17. Terra Pretas: Charcoal Amendments Influence on Relict Soils and Modern Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricigliano, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Most soils found in the Amazon region are characterized by highly weathered profiles that are incapable of longterm agricultural production. However, small patches of highly fertile relict soil referred to as Terra Pretas, are also found in the Amazon region, and have maintained their integrity for thousands of years. These soils were…

  18. A Paradigm for Operant Conditioning in Blow Flies ("Phormia Terrae Novae" Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Disma, Gerald; Abramson, Charles I.

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly ("Protophormia terrae novae") is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole…

  19. TerraKids: An Interactive Web Site where Kids Learn about Saving the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Whatever adults might accomplish on the green behavior change front, any sustained success in combating climate change will require the help of the world's more than 2.2 billion children. In "TerraKids," Janet Twyman describes a possible Web site where kids learn about their family's carbon footprint and what they can do to help reduce it.…

  20. FIELD EVALUATION OF TERRA THERM IN SITU THERMAL DESTRUCTION (ISTD) TREATMENT OF HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluation of the In Situ Thermal Destruction (ISTD) technology, developed by others, was refined by TerraTherm, Inc. The demonstration was designed to ...

  1. Thermal Inertia, Albedo, and MOLA-derived Roughness for Terrains in the Terra Meridiani Area, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Deal, K.; Hynek, B. M.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Snider, N. O.; Mellon, M. T.; Garvin, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Surface properties of layered deposits draped on dissected, cratered terrain in the Terra Meridiani area are analyzed using remote sensing data. The etched plains are cemented and differentially eroded, and the hematite plains are loose and drifting. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Fluvial channels in the north-western part of Noachis Terra, Mars: Implications for tectonic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Dasgupta, N.; Kundu, A.; Chauhan, P.

    2015-10-01

    Palaeochannels in the western part of Noachis Terra are mapped to understand their origin and also the control on their courses. Relation to impact craters, trends and cross- correlations between their paths indicates to impact-related origin and tectonic lineament controlled courses for the rivers.

  3. Adjustments to the MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration and Polarization Sensitivity in the 2010 Reprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra provides global coverage of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances that have been successfully used for terrestrial and atmospheric research. The MODIS Terra ocean color products, however, have been compromised by an inadequate radiometric calibration at the short wavelengths. The Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) at NASA has derived radiometric corrections using ocean color products from the SeaWiFS sensor as truth fields. In the R2010.0 reprocessing, these corrections have been applied to the whole mission life span of 10 years. This paper presents the corrections to the radiometric gains and to the instrument polarization sensitivity, demonstrates the improvement to the Terra ocean color products, and discusses issues that need further investigation. Although the global averages of MODIS Terra ocean color products are now in excellent agreement with those of SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua, and image quality has been significantly improved, the large corrections applied to the radiometric calibration and polarization sensitivity require additional caution when using the data.

  4. Assessment of the Collection 6 Terra and Aqua MODIS bands 1 and 2 calibration performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, A.; Chen, X.; Angal, A.; Li, Y.; Xiong, X.

    2015-09-01

    MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key sensor aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands and generates over 40 data products for land, atmosphere, cryosphere and oceans. MODIS bands 1 and 2 have nadir spatial resolution of 250 m, compared with 500 m for bands 3 to 7 and 1000 m for all the remaining bands, and their measurements are crucial to derive key land surface products. This study evaluates the calibration performance of the Collection-6 L1B for both Terra and Aqua MODIS bands 1 and 2 using three vicarious approaches. The first and second approaches focus on stability assessment using data collected from two pseudo-invariant sites, Libya 4 desert and Antarctic Dome C snow surface. The third approach examines the relative stability between Terra and Aqua in reference to a third sensor from a series of NOAA 15-19 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The comparison is based on measurements from MODIS and AVHRR Simultaneous Nadir Overpasses (SNO) over a thirteen-year period from 2002 to 2015. Results from this study provide a quantitative assessment of Terra and Aqua MODIS bands 1 and 2 calibration stability and the relative calibration differences between the two sensors.

  5. TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE program. The technology which was demonstrated was a solvent extraction technology developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group. Inc. to remove organic contaminants from soil. The technology employs...

  6. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TerraNova Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills/5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joseph J.; Zvoch, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the internal validity of scores on the TerraNova Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills/5 using samples from a southwestern school district and standardization samples reported by the publisher. One of the strengths claimed for battery-type achievement tests is provision of reliable and valid samples…

  7. Solvent extraction of PCB-contaminated soils using the Terra-Kleen system

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, S.W.; Kosco, B.; Cash, A.; Meckes, M.

    1994-12-31

    Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions which have made implementing a cost-effective PCB soil treatment system difficult. The Terra-Kleen system uses a proprietary solvent to extract organic contaminants from soils. This batch process operates at ambient temperatures and employs a solvent regeneration system which concentrates the extracted contaminants and permits reuse of the extraction solvent. Following treatment, the treatment soils are returned to the land, and concentrated contaminant is removed off site for disposal. Terra-Kleen demonstrated the technology during a treatability study in October 1993 and a pilot-scale demonstration in May 1994. In October 1993, PRC obtained 1-ton batches of soil from each of three PCB-contaminated sites and shipped them to Terra-Kleen`s testing facility in Okmulgee, Oklahoma. Two sites were located at Naval Air Station North Island (NASNI) near San Diego, California. The third site was located in Anchorage, Alaska. Analysis of all demonstration soils revealed that Aroclor 1260 was the only PCB mixture present. Successful removal of PCBs below target treatment levels during the treatability study lead to a pilot-scale demonstration in May 1994 at NASNI.

  8. Overcoming Terra Nullius: Aboriginal Perspectives in Schools as a Site of Philosophical Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kathy

    2000-01-01

    Examines the philosophical basis of "Terra Nullius" as a justification for colonialism and racism directed at indigenous peoples, and its persistence as a pervasive mindset that impedes true equality and reconciliation in Australia. Discusses problems that arise when biased teachers or those with little cross-cultural experience attempt to present…

  9. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Attis and SoilAssassin.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Biery, Daniel N; Huff, Zachary T; Huynh, Amy B; McFadden, William M; Mouat, Julia S; Schneiderman, Scott E; Song, Hannah; Szpak, Leah E; Umbaugh, Melanie S; German, Brian A; McDonnell, Jill E; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E; Thompson, Paige K; Ulbrich, Megan C; Yu, Victor J; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-01-01

    Attis and SoilAssassin are two closely related bacteriophages isolated on Gordonia terrae 3612 from separate soil samples in Pittsburgh, PA. The Attis and SoilAssassin genomes are 47,881 bp and 47,880 bp, respectively, and have 74 predicted protein-coding genes, including toxin-antitoxin systems, but no tRNAs. PMID:27365347

  10. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Attis and SoilAssassin

    PubMed Central

    Biery, Daniel N.; Huff, Zachary T.; Huynh, Amy B.; McFadden, William M.; Mouat, Julia S.; Schneiderman, Scott E.; Song, Hannah; Szpak, Leah E.; Umbaugh, Melanie S.; German, Brian A.; McDonnell, Jill E.; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Yu, Victor J.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Attis and SoilAssassin are two closely related bacteriophages isolated on Gordonia terrae 3612 from separate soil samples in Pittsburgh, PA. The Attis and SoilAssassin genomes are 47,881 bp and 47,880 bp, respectively, and have 74 predicted protein-coding genes, including toxin-antitoxin systems, but no tRNAs. PMID:27365347

  11. Environmental effects monitoring at the Terra Nova offshore oil development (Newfoundland, Canada): Program design and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Tracy, Ellen; Janes, G. Gregory; Crowley, Roger D.; Wells, Trudy A.; Williams, Urban P.; Paine, Michael D.; Mathieu, Anne; Kilgour, Bruce W.

    2014-12-01

    An environmental effects monitoring (EEM) program was developed by Suncor (formerly Petro-Canada) in 1997/98 to assess effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil and gas development on the receiving environment. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland (Canada), at approximately 100 m water depth. The EEM program was developed with guidance from experts in government, academia and elsewhere, and with input from the public. The EEM program proposed by Suncor was accepted by Canadian regulatory agencies and the program was implemented in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010, with pre-development sampling in 1997. The program continues to be implemented every two years. EEM includes an assessment of alterations in sediment quality through examination of changes in sediment chemistry, particle size, toxicity and benthic invertebrate community structure. A second component of the program examines potential effects on two species of commercial fishing interest: Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica) and American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides). Chemical body burden for these two species is examined and taste tests are performed to assess the presence of taint in edible tissues. Effects on American plaice bioindicators are also examined. A final component of the program assesses potential effects of the Terra Nova development on water quality and examines water column chemistry, chlorophyll concentration and physical properties. The papers presented in this collection focus on effects of drill cuttings and drilling muds on the seafloor environment and, as such, report results on sediment quality and bioaccumulation of drilling mud components in Iceland scallop and American plaice. This paper provides information on drilling discharges, an overview of the physical oceanography at the Terra Nova Field, and an overview of the field program designed to assess environmental effects of drilling at Terra Nova.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds as Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18,1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24,2000 for Terra and June 24,2002 for Aqua. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for cloud masking and the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties has been developed by members of the MODIS atmosphere science team. The archived products from these algorithms have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, and fundamental atmospheric research. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Over the last year, extensive improvements and enhancements in the global cloud products have been implemented, and reprocessing of all MODIS data on Terra has commenced since first light in February 2000. In the cloud mask algorithm, the most extensive improvements were in distinguishing clouds at nighttime, including the challenging polar darkness regions of the world. Additional improvements have been made to properly distinguish sunglint from clouds in the tropical ocean regions, and to improve the identification of clouds from snow during daytime in Polar Regions. We will show global monthly mean cloud fraction for both Terra and Aqua, and show how similar the global daytime cloud fraction is from these morning and afternoon orbits, respectively. We will also show the zonal distribution of cloud fraction over land and ocean regions for both Terra and Aqua, and show the time series of global cloud fraction from July 2002 through June 2006.

  13. Web-based Dissemination of TRMM Data via TerraFly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rishe, N. D.; Teng, B.; Rui, H.; Graham, S. C.; Gutierrez, M. E.

    2004-12-01

    Florida International University's High Performance Database Research Center (FIU HPDRC) is collaborating with the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center's Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC) to provide an easy-to-use and powerful Web-based interface to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and other satellite data from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The collaboration uses FIU's TerraFly data dissemination tools to make TRMM and other data available to a wider audience of users. TerraFly is a Web-enabled system (http://terrafly.fiu.edu) designed to aid in the visualization of spatial and remote sensed imagery. This system allows one to "fly" over the Earth's surface and explore spatial data such as aerial photography, satellite imagery, street maps, and locale information. Internet capability allows the system to access numerous data sets without the installation of any specialized GIS programs. Designed for users of all levels and unlike other geographic information systems, TerraFly runs via standard Web browsers, with no need to download software or data prior to visualization. TerraFly can be delivered as a standalone application or a Web-based tool. FIU's technology of streaming incremental tiles to a Java applet allows the user to "fly" even via modem connections. While "flying" over imagery in TerraFly, the user can see various overlays, such as road names, application-relevant points that are hyperlinked to more information, and shaded zones that depict thematic map layers. The user can also view multi-spectral data by assigning bands to the RGB display and by visualizing the application of various algorithms and filters on multiple spectral bands or multiple data sets. The user can thus compare imagery of the same area acquired at different times or different imagery of the same area acquired concurrently and apply advanced visualization algorithms to the data. The FIU-GES DISC DAAC project aims to make TRMM

  14. The role of groundwater in the origin of the indurated layered deposits of Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Wiseman, S. M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    Indurated layered deposits of likely sedimentary origin are widely distributed across the Arabia Terra region of Mars. In situ observations by the MER Opportunity rover of one such deposit in Meridiani Planum have been interpreted to represent grains composed of dirty evaporites that have been extensively reworked by fluvial and aeolian processes in a playa environment and diagenetically modified by a fluctuating water table. Stratigraphic relationships, morphological similarities, and spectral evidence suggest a related origin for the many layered deposits throughout Arabia Terra. Isolated intra-crater deposits, erosional outliers, and pedestal craters suggest that the Arabia Terra deposits were once thicker and more widespread than their current extent. We investigate the origin of these sedimentary deposits using global and regional hydrological models, in which groundwater flow is driven by evaporation where the water table intersects the surface and redistribution of that water as low-latitude precipitation. These models predict focused groundwater upwelling and evaporation in Arabia Terra during the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian, driven by its unique topography relative to the adjacent southern highlands and northern lowlands. This hydrological cycle would have brought a steady flux of groundwater to the surface, which upon evaporation, would concentrate any dissolved solutes as a cementing salt that would indurate aeolian material and allow buildup of thick sedimentary deposits. Groundwater upwelling would first be limited to the large craters in the region, resulting in rapid sedimentary infilling by a combination of evaporites and evaporite-cemented clastic material. As the craters were filled, groundwater upwelling would spread out over broad regions of Arabia Terra, producing widespread deposits covering much of the inter-crater plains. The observed distribution and thickness of the deposits agrees with the predictions from the hydrological models

  15. Assessment of the Visible Channel Calibrations of the TRMM VIRS and MODIS on Aqua and Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Doelling, David R.; Nguyen, Louis; Miller, Walter F.; Chakrapani, Venketesan

    2007-01-01

    Several recent research satellites carry self-calibrating multispectral imagers that can be used for calibrating operational imagers lacking complete self-calibrating capabilities. In particular, the visible (VIS, 0.65 m) channels on operational meteorological satellites are generally calibrated before launch, but require vicarious calibration techniques to monitor the gains and offsets once they are in orbit. To ensure that the self-calibrating instruments are performing as expected, this paper examines the consistencies between the VIS channel (channel 1) reflectances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites and the Version 5a and 6 reflectances of the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission using a variety of techniques. These include comparisons of Terra and Aqua VIS radiances with coincident broadband shortwave radiances from the well-calibrated Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES), time series of deep convective cloud (DCC) albedos, and ray-matching intercalibrations between each of the three satellites. Time series of matched Terra and VIRS data, Aqua and VIRS data, and DCC reflected fluxes reveal that an older version (Version 5a, ending in early 2004) of the VIRS calibration produced a highly stable record, while the latest version (Version 6) appears to overestimate the sensor gain change by approx.1%/y as the result of a manually induced gain adjustment. Comparisons with the CERES shortwave radiances unearthed a sudden change in the Terra MODIS calibration that caused a 1.17% decrease in the gain on 19 November 2003 that can be easily reversed. After correction for these manual adjustments, the trends in the VIRS and Terra channels are no greater than 0.1%/y. Although the results were more ambiguous, no statistically significant trends were found in the Aqua MODIS channel-1 gain. The Aqua radiances are 1% greater, on average, than their

  16. Constraints on crustal rheology and age of deformation from models of gravitational spreading in Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Soloman, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Gravitational spreading is expected to lead to rapid relaxation of high relief due to the high surface temperature and associated weak crust on Venus. In this study, we use new Magellan radar and altimetry data to determine the extent of gravitational relaxation in Ishtar Terra, which contains the highest relief on Venus as well as areas of extremely high topographic slope. Within Ishtar Terra the only mountain belts found on Venus, Akna, Danu, Freyja, and Maxwell Montes, nearly encircle the smooth, high (3-4 km) plateau of Lakshmi Planum. Finite-element models of this process give expected timescales for relaxation of relief and failure at the surface. From these modeling results we attempt to constrain the strength of the crust and timescales of deformation in Ishtar Terra. Below we discuss observational evidence for gravitational spreading in Ishtar Terra, results from the finite-element modeling, independent age constraints, and implications for the rheology and timing of deformation.

  17. Dual binding of an antibody and a small molecule increases the stability of TERRA G-quadruplex.

    PubMed

    Yangyuoru, Philip M; Di Antonio, Marco; Ghimire, Chiran; Biffi, Giulia; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Mao, Hanbin

    2015-01-12

    In investigating the binding interactions between the human telomeric RNA (TERRA) G-quadruplex (GQ) and its ligands, it was found that the small molecule carboxypyridostatin (cPDS) and the GQ-selective antibody BG4 simultaneously bind the TERRA GQ. We previously showed that the overall binding affinity of BG4 for RNA GQs is not significantly affected in the presence of cPDS. However, single-molecule mechanical unfolding experiments revealed a population (48%) with substantially increased mechanical and thermodynamic stability. Force-jump kinetic investigations suggested competitive binding of cPDS and BG4 to the TERRA GQ. Following this, the two bound ligands slowly rearrange, thereby leading to the minor population with increased stability. Given the relevance of G-quadruplexes in the regulation of biological processes, we anticipate that the unprecedented conformational rearrangement observed in the TERRA-GQ-ligand complex may inspire new strategies for the selective stabilization of G-quadruplexes in cells.

  18. Probe development for detection of TERRA 1 intramolecular G-quadruplex formation using a fluorescent adenosine derivative.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Sun; Seo, Young Jun

    2014-03-15

    We developed a probing system to detect the intramolecular G-quadruplex of telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA 1). We used a fluorescent adenosine derivative rA(py) as a fluorophore and incorporated it into the dangling position of the parallel-type G-quadruplex sequence of TERRA 1. The rA(py)-modified G-quadruplex structure exhibited a strong fluorescence emission signal, while the emission signals of the single-strand and duplex structures were much lower.

  19. MICROSCANNING XRF, XANES, AND XRD STUDIES OF THEDECORATED SURFACE OF ROMAN TERRA SIGILLATA CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mirguet, C.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Mehta, A.; Pianetta, P.; Liu, Z.; Tamura, N.

    2008-10-24

    Different microscanning synchrotron techniques were used to better understand the elaboration process and origins of Terra Sigillata potteries from the Roman period. A mixture Gallic slip sample cross-section showing red and yellow colors was studied. The small (micron) size of the X-ray beam available at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) and Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron sources, coupled with the use of a sample scanning stage allowed us to spatially resolve the distribution of the constitutive mineral phases related to the chemical composition. Results show that red color is a result of iron-rich hematite crystals and the yellow part is a result of the presence of Ti-rich rutile-type phase (brookite). Volcanic-type clay is at the origin of these marble Terra Sigillata.

  20. Local ionospheric corrections derived from GNSS - A case study with TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisinger, Christoph; Balss, Ulrich; Cong, Xiao Ying; Steigenberger, Peter; Eineder, Michael; Pail, Roland; Hugentobler, Urs

    2013-04-01

    Germany's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X belong to the latest generation of radar satellites which have moved radar remote sensing to a new level. Besides being an all weather and all day imaging system, radar remote sensing offers various advanced methods like SAR interferometry or persistent scatterer interferometry that exploit magnitude and phase information of the radar signal. In order to achieve centimeter to millimeter accuracy with these advanced methods, all occurring error contributions (internal signal delay, orbit, troposphere, ionosphere, solid earth tides, loading effects, ...) have to be taken into account by applying appropriate corrections. Within the project DLR@Uni funded by the German Helmholtz Association HGF, an experimental framework at Wettzell station has been set up to perform a detailed analysis of all the corrections required for high resolution radar satellites and to achieve the goal of a 1cm precision level for absolute radar coordinates. This framework involves a 1.5 meter corner reflector (CR), a 1.5 year series of data takes from TerraSAR-X, and it makes use of the multi-sensor environment of Wettzell station. Besides Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) for orbit assessment and the local geodetic network to control the CR reference coordinates, the Wettzell GNSS receivers are used for generating tropospheric and ionospheric corrections. By comparing the reference radar times (range and azimuth) available from geodetic survey with those from the TerraSAR-X data takes, the quality of the corrections can be investigated. Although often being considered negligible for X-band observations, the conducted experiment has clearly shown the necessity for ionospheric corrections, if the capabilities of current SAR satellites are to be fully exploited. For every TerraSAR-X data take, the ionospheric impact was derived from the geometry-free linear combination of the GNSS measurements and modeled in terms of

  1. Estimation of Atmospheric Path Delays in TerraSAR-X Data using Models vs. Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Jehle, Michael; Perler, Donat; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Meier, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements of the Earth's surface depend on electromagnetic waves that are subject to atmospheric path delays, in turn affecting geolocation accuracy The atmosphere influences radar signal propagation by modifying its velocity and direction, effects which can be modeled. We use TerraSAR-X (TSX) data to investigate improvements in the knowledge of the scene geometry. To precisely estimate atmospheric path delays, we analyse the signal return of four corner reflectors with accurately surveyed positions (based on differential GPS), placed at different altitudes yet with nearly identical slant ranges to the sensor. The comparison of multiple measurements with path delay models under these geometric conditions also makes it possible to evaluate the corrections for the atmospheric path delay made by the TerraSAR processor and to propose possible improvements.

  2. Geologic Map of the MTM-20272 and-25272 Quadrangles, Tyrrhena Terra Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) -20272 and -25272 quadrangles (lat 17.5?-27.5? S., long 270?-275? W.) cover part of the highlands of Tyrrhena Terra north of Hellas Planitia. The surface of the Tyrrhena Terra region records a complex history of impact cratering and modification by fluvial and eolian activity. The map area consists primarily of intercrater plains, impact crater material, and crater floor material. An extensive valley network, Vichada Valles, as well as several smaller networks, dissects the northern part of the map area. The abundance and widespread nature of fluvial features within the map area have significant implications for past Martian environmental conditions. The degraded terrains surrounding Hellas Planitia provide constraints on the role and timing of volatile-driven activity in the evolution of the highlands. The geologic history of this area may have been influenced not only by the presence of Hellas Planitia but also by other buried impact basins.

  3. Architecture of orogenic belts and convergent zones in Western Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1989-01-01

    Linear mountain belts in Ishtar Terra were recognized from Pioneer-Venus topography, and later Arecibo images showed banded terrain interpreted to represent folds. Subsequent analyses showed that the mountains represented orogenic belts, and that each had somewhat different features and characteristics. Orogenic belts are regions of focused shortening and compressional deformation and thus provide evidence for the nature of such deformation, processes of crustal thickening (brittle, ductile), and processes of crustal loss. Such information is important in understanding the nature of convergent zones on Venus (underthrusting, imbrication, subduction), the implications for rates of crustal recycling, and the nature of environments of melting and petrogenesis. The basic elements of four convergent zones and orogenic belts in western Ishtar Terra are identified and examined, and then assess the architecture of these zones (the manner in which the elements are arrayed), and their relationships. The basic nomenclature of the convergent zones is shown.

  4. Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer on Terra platform.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Ewa J; Franz, Bryan A; Meister, Gerhard; McClain, Charles R; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2008-12-20

    Ocean-color applications require maximum uncertainties in blue-wavelength water-leaving radiances in oligotrophic ocean of approximately 5%. Water-leaving radiances from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite, however, exhibit temporal drift of the order of 15% as well as sensor changes in response versus scan and polarization sensitivity, which cannot be tracked by onboard calibrators. This paper introduces an instrument characterization approach that uses Earth-view data as a calibration source. The approach models the top of the atmosphere signal over ocean that the instrument is expected to measure, including its polarization, with water-leaving radiances coming from another well-calibrated global sensor. The cross calibration allows for significant improvement in derived MODIS-Terra ocean-color products, with largest changes in the blue wavelengths.

  5. Using Lunar Observations to Assess Terra MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chen, Hongda

    2010-01-01

    MODIS collects data in both the reflected solar and thermal emissive regions using 36 spectral bands. The center wavelengths of these bands cover the3.7 to 14.24 micron region. In addition to using its on-board calibrators (OBC), which include a full aperture solar diffuser (SD) and a blackbody (BB), lunar observations have been scheduled on a regular basis to support both Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization. This paper provides an overview of MODIS lunar observations and their applications for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and thermal emissive bands (TEB) with an emphasis on potential calibration improvements of MODIS band 21 at 3.96 microns. This spectral band has detectors set with low gains to enable fire detection. Methodologies are proposed and examined on the use of lunar observations for the band 21 calibration. Also presented in this paper are preliminary results derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations and remaining challenging issues.

  6. A new Holocene relative sea-level curve for Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Carlo; Hall, Brenda L.

    2004-05-01

    More than 100 radiocarbon dates of penguin guano and remains, shells and seal skin afford ages for raised beaches adjacent to Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. These dates permit construction of a new relative sea-level curve that bears on the timing of deglaciation. Recession of the Ross Sea ice-sheet grounding line from Terra Nova Bay occurred no earlier than 7200 14C yr (8000 cal. yr) BP. Retreat along the Victoria Land coast may have been rapid, possibly contributing to eustatic sea-level rise centred at ca. 7600 cal. yr BP. The presence of a significant amount of ice remaining in the Ross Sea Embayment in Holocene time lessens the chance that Antarctica contributed significantly to meltwater pulse 1A several thousand years earlier. Copyright

  7. Observations of the atmosphere and surface state over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, using unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, John J.; Seefeldt, Mark W.; Palo, Scott; Knuth, Shelley L.; Bradley, Alice C.; Herrman, Paul D.; Kernebone, Peter A.; Logan, Nick J.

    2016-03-01

    In September 2012 five Aerosonde unmanned aircraft were used to make measurements of the atmospheric state over the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica, to explore the details of air-sea ice-ocean coupling. A total of 14 flights were completed in September 2012. Ten of the flight missions consisted of two unmanned aerial systems (UAS) sampling the atmosphere over Terra Nova Bay on 5 different days, with one UAS focusing on the downwind evolution of the air mass and a second UAS flying transects roughly perpendicular to the low-level winds. The data from these coordinated UAS flights provide a comprehensive three-dimensional data set of the atmospheric state (air temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind) and surface skin temperature over Terra Nova Bay. The remaining UAS flights during the September 2012 field campaign included two local flights near McMurdo Station for flight testing, a single UAS flight to Terra Nova Bay, and a single UAS flight over the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea polynya. A data set containing the atmospheric and surface data as well as operational aircraft data have been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC, http://www.usap-data.org/) for free access (http://gcmd.nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657, doi:10.15784/600125).

  8. Discrimination of crop types with TerraSAR-X-derived information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonobe, Rei; Tani, Hiroshi; Wang, Xiufeng; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Shimamura, Hideki

    Although classification maps are required for management and for the estimation of agricultural disaster compensation, those techniques have yet to be established. This paper describes the comparison of three different classification algorithms for mapping crops in Hokkaido, Japan, using TerraSAR-X (including TanDEM-X) dual-polarimetric data. In the study area, beans, beets, grasslands, maize, potatoes and winter wheat were cultivated. In this study, classification using TerraSAR-X-derived information was performed. Coherence values, polarimetric parameters and gamma nought values were also obtained and evaluated regarding their usefulness in crop classification. Accurate classification may be possible with currently existing supervised learning models. A comparison between the classification and regression tree (CART), support vector machine (SVM) and random forests (RF) algorithms was performed. Even though J-M distances were lower than 1.0 on all TerraSAR-X acquisition days, good results were achieved (e.g., separability between winter wheat and grass) due to the characteristics of the machine learning algorithm. It was found that SVM performed best, achieving an overall accuracy of 95.0% based on the polarimetric parameters and gamma nought values for HH and VV polarizations. The misclassified fields were less than 100 a in area and 79.5-96.3% were less than 200 a with the exception of grassland. When some feature such as a road or windbreak forest is present in the TerraSAR-X data, the ratio of its extent to that of the field is relatively higher for the smaller fields, which leads to misclassifications.

  9. Observations of the atmosphere and surface state over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica using unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, J. J.; Seefeldt, M. W.; Palo, S.; Knuth, S. L.; Bradley, A. C.; Herrman, P. D.; Kernebone, P. A.; Logan, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2012 five Aerosonde unmanned aircraft were used to make measurements of the atmospheric state over the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica, to explore the details of air - sea ice - ocean coupling. A total of 14 flights were completed in September 2012. Ten of the flight missions consisted of two unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) sampling the atmosphere over Terra Nova Bay on five different days, with one UAS focusing on the downwind evolution of the air mass and a second UAS flying transects roughly perpendicular to the low level winds. The data from these coordinated UAS flights provide a comprehensive three-dimensional data set of the atmospheric state (air temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind) and surface skin temperature over Terra Nova Bay. The remaining UAS flights during the September 2012 field campaign included two local flights near McMurdo Station for flight testing, a single UAS flight to Terra Nova Bay, and a single UAS flight over the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea polynya. A dataset containing the atmospheric and surface data as well as operational aircraft data has been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC, http://www.usap-data.org/) for free access (http://gcmd.nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657, doi:10.15784/600125).

  10. Long-term drift induced by the electronic crosstalk in Terra MODIS Band 29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Menghua

    2015-10-01

    Terra MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key sensors in the NASA's Earth Observing System, which has successfully completed 15 years of on-orbit operation. Terra MODIS continues to collect valuable information of the Earth's energy radiation from visible to thermal infrared wavelengths. The instrument has been well characterized over its lifetime using onboard calibrators whose calibration references are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology standards. In this paper, we focus on the electronic crosstalk effect of Terra MODIS band 29, a thermal emissive band (TEB) whose center wavelength is 8.55 µm. Previous works have established the mechanism to describe the effect of the electronic crosstalk in the TEB channels of Terra MODIS. This work utilizes the established methodology to apply to band 29. The electronic crosstalk is identified and characterized using the regularly scheduled lunar observations. The moon being a near-pulse-like source allowed easy detection of extraneous signals around the actual Moon surface. First, the crosstalk-transmitting bands are identified along with their amplitudes. The crosstalk effect then is characterized using a moving average mechanism that allows a high fidelity of the magnitude to be corrected. The lunar-based analysis unambiguously shows that the crosstalk contamination is becoming more severe in recent years and should be corrected in order to maintain calibration quality for the affected spectral bands. Finally, two radiometrically well-characterized sites, Pacific Ocean and Libya 1 desert, are used to assess the impact of crosstalk effect. It is shown that the crosstalk contamination induces a long-term upward drift of 1.5 K in band 29 brightness temperature of MODIS Collection 6 L1B, which could significantly impact the science products. The crosstalk effect also induces strong detector-to-detector differences, which result in severe stripping in the Earth view

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingopyxis terrae Strain 203-1 (NBRC 111660), a Polyethylene Glycol Degrader

    PubMed Central

    Nonoyama, Shouta; Nagata, Yuji; Numata, Mitsuru; Tsuchikane, Keiko; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Tsuda, Masataka; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Sphingopyxis terrae strain 203-1, which is capable of growing on polyethylene glycol, was determined. The genome consisted of a chromosome with a size of 3.98 Mb and a plasmid with a size of 4,328 bp. The strain was deposited to the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (Tokyo, Japan) under the number NBRC 111660. PMID:27284143

  12. TERRA Expression Levels Do Not Correlate with Telomere Length and Radiation Sensitivity in Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Alexandra; Gamba, Riccardo; Khoriauli, Lela; Vitelli, Valerio; Nergadze, Solomon G; Giulotto, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian telomeres are transcribed into long non-coding telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) molecules that seem to play a role in the maintenance of telomere stability. In human cells, CpG-island promoters drive TERRA transcription and are regulated by methylation. It was suggested that the amount of TERRA may be related to telomere length. To test this hypothesis we measured telomere length and TERRA levels in single clones isolated from five human cell lines: HeLa (cervical carcinoma), BRC-230 (breast cancer), AKG and GK2 (gastric cancers), and GM847 (SV40 immortalized skin fibroblasts). However, these two parameters did not correlate with each other. Moreover, cell survival to γ-rays did not show a significant variation among the clones, suggesting that, in this cellular system, the intra-population variability in telomere length and TERRA levels does not influence sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This conclusion was supported by the observation that in a cell line in which telomeres were greatly elongated by the ectopic expression of telomerase, TERRA expression levels and radiation sensitivity were similar to the parental HeLa cell line.

  13. Thenature of marbled Terra Sigillata slips: a combined mu XRF and mu XRD investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, Yoanna; Sciau, Philippe; Goudeau, Philippe; Tamura, Nobumichi; Webb, Sam; Mehta, Apurva

    2009-01-31

    In addition to the red terra sigillata production, the largest Gallic workshop (La Graufesenque) made a special type of terra sigillata, called 'marbled' by the archaeologists. Produced exclusively on this site, this pottery is characterized by a surface finish made of a mixture of yellow and red slips. Because the two slips are intimately mixed, it is difficult to obtain the precise composition of one of the two constituents without contamination by the other. In order to obtain very precise correlation at the appropriate scale between the color aspect and the element and mineralogical phase distributions in the slip, combined electron microprobe, x-ray micro spectroscopies and micro diffraction on cross sectional samples were performed. The aim is to discover how potters were able to produce this unique type of terra sigillata and especially this slip showing an intense yellow color. Results show that the yellow component of marbled sigillata was made from a titanium-rich clay preparation. The color is related to the formation of a pseudobrookite (TiFe2O5) phase in the yellow part of the slip, the main characteristics of that structure being considered nowadays as essential for the fabrication of stable yellow ceramic pigments. Its physical properties such as high refractive indices and a melting point higher than that of most silicates widely used as ceramic colorants are indeed determinant for this kind of applications. Finally, the red parts have a similar composition (elementary and mineralogical) to the one of standard red slip.

  14. Fusion of TerraSAR-x and Landsat ETM+ data for protected area mapping in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otukei, John Richard; Blaschke, Thomas; Collins, Michael

    2015-06-01

    TerraSAR-X satellite acquires very high spatial resolution data with potential for detailed land cover mapping. A known problem with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is the lack of spectral information. Fusion of SAR and multispectral data provides opportunities for better image interpretation and information extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the fusion between TerraSAR-X and Landsat ETM+ for protected area mapping using high pass filtering (HPF), principal component analysis with band substitution (PCA) and principal component with wavelet transform (WPCA). A total of thirteen land cover classes were identified for classification using a non-parametric C 4.5 decision tree classifier. Overall classification accuracies of 74.99%, 83.12% and 85.38% and kappa indices of 0.7220, 0.8100 and 0.8369 were obtained for HPF, PCA and WPCA fusion approaches respectively. These results indicate a high potential for a combined use of TerraSAR-X and Landsat ETM+ data for protected area mapping in Uganda.

  15. The Unique Geomorphology and Physical Properties of the Vestalia Terra Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buczkowski, D.L.; Wyrick, D.Y.; Toplis, M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Mest, S.; Kneissl, T.; Scully, J. E. C.; Nathues, A.; DeSanctis, M. C.; LeCorre, L.; Reddy, V.; Hoffmann, M.; Ammannito, E.; Frigeri, A.; Tosi, F.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    We produced a geologic map of the Av-9 Numisia quadrangle of asteroid Vesta using Dawn spacecraft data to serve as a tool to understand the geologic relations of surface features in this region. These features include the plateau Vestalia Terra, a hill named Brumalia Tholus, and an unusual "dark ribbon" material crossing the majority of the map area. Stratigraphic relations suggest that Vestalia Terra is one of the oldest features on Vesta, despite a model crater age date similar to that of much of the surface of the asteroid. Cornelia, Numisia and Drusilla craters reveal bright and dark material in their walls, and both Cornelia and Numisia have smooth and pitted terrains on their floors suggestive of the release of volatiles during or shortly after the impacts that formed these craters. Cornelia, Fabia and Teia craters have extensive bright ejecta lobes. While diogenitic material has been identified in association with the bright Teia and Fabia ejecta, hydroxyl has been detected in the dark material within Cornelia, Numisia and Drusilla. Three large pit crater chains appear in the map area, with an orientation similar to the equatorial troughs that cut the majority of Vesta. Analysis of these features has led to several interpretations of the geological history of the region. Vestalia Terra appears to be mechanically stronger than the rest of Vesta. Brumalia Tholus may be the surface representation of a dike-fed laccolith. The dark ribbon feature is proposed to represent a long-runout ejecta flow from Drusilla crater.

  16. Divergent plate boundaries and crustal spreading on Venus: Evidence from Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    The modes of lithospheric heat transfer and the tectonic styles may differ between Earth and Venus, depending on how the high surface temperature (700 K = 430 C), dense and opaque atmosphere (approx. 10 MPa = 100 bars), lack of water oceans, and the other known ways in which Venus differs from Earth, influence basic lithospheric processes, thermal gradient, upper mantle temperature, thermal and chemical evolution, and convection. A fundamental question is whether the lithosphere of Venus is horizontally stable, like the other terrestrial planets, or is mobile like that on Earth. The variety of characteristics, their integrated relationships, and their predictable behavior throughout Western Aphrodite Terra are similar to those features known to occur in association with the terrestrial seafloor at spreading centers and divergent plate boundaries. It is concluded that Western Aphrodite Terra represents the site of crustal spreading centers and divergent plate boundaries. The extent of similar characteristics and processes elsewhere on Venus outside of the 13,000 km long Western and Eastern Aphrodite Terra rise is unknown at the present, but their presence in other areas of the equatorial highlands, suggested from recent analysis, may be tested with forthcoming Magellan data.

  17. TerraSAR-X Small Baseline interferometry of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Zeeuw van Dalfsen, Elske; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Popocatepetl is an active 5426 m high stratovolcano, with a steep-walled, 400 by 600 m wide crater. It is located 70 km southeast of Mexico city, and its activity potentially influences up to 25 million people. More than 15 major eruptions occurred in historic times, the last one in 1947. The year 2012 has been a highly active one, with numerous ash plumes in mid-April, and explosions during July-October. We have acquired TerraSAR-X images of Popocatepetl, and the surrounding area, using strip and spot mode, covering this period. We have created small baseline interferograms from TerraSAR-X strip mode images, using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) software. Of the resulting interferograms, several show medium to good coherence on the lower and upper flanks of the volcano and some are even coherent in the crater area. We further analysed the data that cover the time period from 27 march 2012 to 22 october 2012. During this time period the volcano has been very active, displaying on and off: gas and ash plumes, explosions injecting incandescent fragments up to 1 km from the crater and even ashfall in municipalities up to 50 km away. The short revisit time of TerraSAR-X of 11 days increases the chances of a coherent image during such active periods. We present the preliminary results from this unique data set.

  18. Elevated cadmium accumulation in marine organisms from Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica)

    SciTech Connect

    Bargagli, R.; Nelli, L.; Ancora, S.; Focardi, S.

    1996-08-01

    As a contribution towards identification of the principal environmental factors involved in cadmium accumulation in Antarctic marine organisms and the establishment of a baseline near the Italian Antarctic Station {open_quotes}Baia Terra Nova{close_quotes}, surface sediments, plankton and benthic organisms were studied in coastal waters of Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea). The cadmium content of sediments was similar to that regarded as background in most marine coastal areas, whereas in surface water, phyto- and zooplankton it was similar to values measured in areas of enhanced upwelling. Algal and animal taxa dominating benthic associations had a higher cadmium content than related species from other seas. Very high concentrations of the metal were found in sponges (10-80 {mu}g/g dw) and in the digestive gland of molluscs (up to 345 {mu}g/g in Neobuccinum eatoni). The rapid regeneration of cadmium and its natural occurrence and bioavailability in highly productive coastal waters seem to be responsible for cadmium accumulation in the tissues of marine organisms near the {open_quotes}Baia Terra Nova{close_quotes} station. 45 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Monitoring on Xi'an ground fissures deformation with TerraSAR-X data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, W.; Lu, Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the fine resolution of TerraSAR-X data provided since 2007, this paper applied 6 TerraSAR data (strip mode) during 3rd Dec. 2009 to 23rd Mar. 2010 to detect and monitor the active fissures over Xi'an region. Three themes have been designed for high precision detection and monitoring of Xi'an-Chang'an fissures, as small baseline subsets (SBAS) to test the atmospheric effects of differential interferograms pair stepwise, 2-pass differential interferogram with very short baseline perpendicular to generate the whole deformation map with 44 days interval, and finally, corner reflector (CR) technique was used to closely monitor the relative deformation time series between two CRs settled crossing two ground fissures. Results showed that TerraSAR data are a good choice for small-scale ground fissures detection and monitoring, while special considerations should be taken for their great temporal and baseline decorrelation. Secondly, ground fissures in Xi'an were mostly detected at the joint section of stable and deformable regions. Lastly, CR-InSAR had potential ability to monitor relative deformation crossing fissures with millimeter precision.

  20. Corrections to MODIS Terra Calibration and Polarization Trending Derived from Ocean Color Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Robert E.; Franz, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed ocean color products require highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances, on the order of 0.5% or better. Due to incidents both prelaunch and on-orbit, meeting this requirement has been a consistent problem for the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, especially in the later part of the mission. The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) has developed an approach to correct the TOA radiances of MODIS Terra using spatially and temporally averaged ocean color products from other ocean color sensors (such as the SeaWiFS instrument on Orbview-2 or the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite). The latest results suggest that for MODIS Terra, both linear polarization parameters of the Mueller matrix are temporally evolving. A change to the functional form of the scan angle dependence improved the quality of the derived coefficients. Additionally, this paper demonstrates that simultaneously retrieving polarization and gain parameters improves the gain retrieval (versus retrieving the gain parameter only).

  1. Results and Lessons from a Decade of Terra MODIS On-Orbit Spectral Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Che, N.; Wang, Z.; Dodd, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since its launch in December 1999, the NASA EOS Terra MODIS has successfully operated for more than a decade. MODIS makes observations in 36 spectral bands from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR) and at three nadir spatial resolutions: 250m (2 bands), 500m (5 bands), and 1km (29 bands). In addition to its on-board calibrators designed for the radiometric calibration, MODIS was built with a unique device, called the spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). It can be configured in three different modes: radiometric, spatial, and spectral. When it is operated in the spectral modes, the SRCA can monitor changes in Sensor spectral performance for the VIS and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. For more than 10 years, the SRCA operation has continued to provide valuable information for MODIS on-orbit spectral performance. This paper briefly describes SRCA on-orbit operation and calibration activities; it presents decade-long spectral characterization results for Terra MODIS VIS and NIR spectral bands in terms of chances in their center wavelengths (CW) and bandwidths (BW). It is shown that the SRCA on-orbit wavelength calibration capability remains satisfactory. For most spectral bands, the changes in CW and BW are less than 0.5 and 1 nm, respectively. Results and lessons from Terra MODIS on-orbit spectral characterization have and will continue to benefit its successor, Aqua MODIS, and other future missions.

  2. Validation of MODIS Terra and Aqua Ice Surface Temperatures at Summit, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Shuman, C. A.; Xiong, X.; Wenny, B. N.; DiGirolamo, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Ice-surface temperature (IST) is used in many studies, for example for validation of model output and for detection of leads and thin ice in sea ice. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites are useful for mapping IST of sea ice and the Greenland ice sheet (Hall et al., 2012), and validation of the ISTs derived from MODIS has been an ongoing effort (e.g., Koenig & Hall, 2010; Shuman et al., 2014). Recent results call into question the calibration of the MODIS-derived ISTs at very cold temperatures that are characteristic of the Greenland ice sheet high interior during winter (Shuman et al., 2014). In the present work, we investigate the calibration of MODIS IR bands 31 (10.780 - 11.280 µm) and 32 (11.770 - 12.270 µm) under very cold conditions. MODIS IR bands are calibrated using a quadratic algorithm. In Collection 6 (C6), the offset and nonlinear calibration coefficients are computed from data collected during the blackbody cool-down vs the warm-up data used in Collection 5 (C5). To improve the calibration accuracy for low-temperature scenes, the offset terms are set to 0. In general, Aqua MODIS bands 31 and 32 perform better than Terra MODIS bands 31 and 32. One of the reasons is that the Aqua bands have a lower saturation temperature (~340 K) than the Terra (~380 K) bands, and lower saturation or smaller dynamic range means better resolution. As compared to ~2-m NOAA air temperatures (TA) at Summit, Greenland, Shuman et al. (2014) show a small (~0.5°C) offset in Terra MODIS-derived IST vs TA near 0°C, and an increasingly larger offset (up to ~5°C) as TA drops to -60°C. To investigate this further, we compare Terra and Aqua C5 and C6 ISTs with TA data from Summit. This work will document the calibration of bands 31 and 32 at very low temperatures in C5 and C6. Hall, D.K., et al., 2012: Satellite-Derived Climate-Quality Data Record of the Clear-Sky Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

  3. Web-based Hierarchical Ordering Mechanism (WHOM) tool for MODIS data from Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, M. S.; Eaton, P.; Leptoukh, G.; McCrimmon, N.; Zhou, B.

    2001-05-01

    At the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), we have substantially enhanced the popular Web-based Hierarchical Ordering Mechanism (WHOM) to include data from the Earth Observing System (EOS). The GES DAAC archives unprecedented volumes of remotely sensed data and large number of geophysical products derived from the MODIS instrument on board Terra satellite, and distributes them to the world scientific and applications user community. These products are currently divided into three groups: Radiometric and Geolocation, Atmosphere, and Ocean data products. The so-called Terra-WHOM (http://acdisx.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/dataset/MODIS/index.html) is a GES DAAC developed search and order user interface which is a smaller segment of the WHOM interface that provides access to all other GES DAAC data holdings. Terra-WHOM specifically provides user access to MODIS data archived at the GES DAAC. It allows users to navigate through all the available data products and submit a data request with minimal effort. The WHOM modular design and hierarchical architecture makes this tool unique, user-friendly, and very efficient to complete the search and order. The main principle of WHOM is that it advertises the available data products, so, users always know what they can get. The WHOM design includes: simple point & click, flexible, web pages generated from templates, consistent look and feel throughout interface, and easy configuration management due to contents being encapsulated and separated from software. Modular search algorithms provide dynamic Spatial and Temporal search capability and return the search results as html pages using CGI scripts. In Terra-WHOM, calendar pages show the actual number of data granules archived for each day for high-resolution local scenes, and from there the user can go to a page showing the geo-coverage for every granule for a given day. This feature significantly optimizes user's effort for selecting data. The

  4. TerraFERMA: The Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for multi-physics problems in the solid Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Van Keken, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    We announce the release of a new software infrastructure, TerraFERMA, the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for the exploration and solution of coupled multi-physics problems. The design of TerraFERMA is driven by two overarching computational needs in Earth sciences. The first is the need for increased flexibility in both problem description and solution strategies for coupled problems where small changes in model assumptions can often lead to dramatic changes in physical behavior. The second is the need for software and models that are more transparent so that results can be verified, reproduced and modified in a manner such that the best ideas in computation and earth science can be more easily shared and reused. TerraFERMA leverages three advanced open-source libraries for scientific computation that provide high level problem description (FEniCS), composable solvers for coupled multi-physics problems (PETSc) and a science neutral options handling system (SPuD) that allows the hierarchical management of all model options. TerraFERMA integrates these libraries into an easier to use interface that organizes the scientific and computational choices required in a model into a single options file, from which a custom compiled application is generated and run. Because all models share the same infrastructure, models become more reusable and reproducible. TerraFERMA inherits much of its functionality from the underlying libraries. It currently solves partial differential equations (PDE) using finite element methods on simplicial meshes of triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (3D). The software is particularly well suited for non-linear problems with complex coupling between components. We demonstrate the design and utility of TerraFERMA through examples of thermal convection and magma dynamics. TerraFERMA has been tested successfully against over 45 benchmark problems from 7 publications in incompressible and compressible convection, magmatic solitary waves

  5. Possible ancient giant basin and related water enrichment in the Arabia Terra province, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Barlow, N.G.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Miyamoto, H.; Ferris, J.C.; Strom, R.G.; Taylor, G.J.; Fairen, A.G.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Keller, J.M.; Kerry, K.; Janes, D.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Hare, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A circular albedo feature in the Arabia Terra province was first hypothesized as an ancient impact basin using Viking-era information. To test this unpublished hypothesis, we have analyzed the Viking era-information together with layers of new data derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions. Our analysis indicates that Arabia Terra is an ancient geologic province of Mars with many distinct characteristics, including predominantly Noachian materials, a unique part of the highland-lowland boundary, a prominent paleotectonic history, the largest region of fretted terrain on the planet, outflow channels with no obvious origins, extensive exposures of eroded layered sedimentary deposits, and notable structural, albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures. The province also is marked by special impact crater morphologies, which suggest a persistent volatile-rich substrate. No one characteristic provides definitive answers to the dominant event(s) that shaped this unique province. Collectively the characteristics reported here support the following hypothesized sequence of events in Arabia Terra: (1) an enormous basin, possibly of impact origin, formed early in martian history when the magnetic dynamo was active and the lithosphere was relatively thin, (2) sediments and other materials were deposited in the basin during high erosion rates while maintaining isostatic equilibrium, (3) sediments became water enriched during the Noachian Period, and (4) basin materials were uplifted in response to the growth of the Tharsis Bulge, resulting in differential erosion exposing ancient stratigraphic sequences. Parts of the ancient basin remain water-enriched to the present day. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Centimeter range measurement using amplitude data of TerraSAR-X imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaldo, P.; Fratarcangeli, F.; Nascetti, A.; Mazzoni, A.; Porfiri, M.; Crespi, M.

    2014-09-01

    The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery are largely used for the environmental, structures and infrastructures monitoring. In particular, Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a well known technique that allows producing spatially dense displacement maps with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. The SAR signal is characterized by phase and amplitude value and the DInSAR remote sensing technique allows to analyse deformation phenomena affecting both extended natural areas and localized man-made structures, by exploiting the phase difference of SAR image pairs. New SAR satellite sensors such as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X and PAZ offer the capability to achieve positioning in a global reference frame accuracies in the meter range and even better, thanks to the higher image resolution (up to 0.20 m pixel resolution in the Staring SpotLight mode for TerraSAR-X and PAZ) and to the use of on board dual frequency GPS receivers, which allows to determine the satellite orbit with an accuracy at few centimetres level. The goal of this work is to exploit the slant-range measurements reaching centimetre accuracies using only the amplitude information of SAR images acquired by TerraSAR-X satellite sensor. The leading idea is to evaluate the positioning accuracy of well identifiable and stable natural and man-made Persistent Scatterers (PS's) along the SAR line of sight. The preliminary results, obtained on the Berlin area (Germany), shown that it is possible achieve a slant-range positioning accuracy with a bias well below 10 cm and a standard deviation of about 3 cm; the results are encouraging for applications of high resolution SAR imagery amplitude data in land and infrastructures monitoring.

  7. Columbus crater and other possible groundwater-fed paleolakes of Terra Sirenum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wray, J.J.; Milliken, R.E.; Dundas, C.M.; Swayze, G.A.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Baldridge, A.M.; Chojnacki, M.; Bishop, J.L.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Murchie, S.L.; Clark, R.N.; Seelos, F.P.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Columbus crater in the Terra Sirenum region of the Martian southern highlands contains light-toned layered deposits with interbedded sulfate and phyllosilicate minerals, a rare occurrence on Mars. Here we investigate in detail the morphology, thermophysical properties, mineralogy, and stratigraphy of these deposits; explore their regional context; and interpret the crater's aqueous history. Hydrated mineral-bearing deposits occupy a discrete ring around the walls of Columbus crater and are also exposed beneath younger materials, possibly lava flows, on its floor. Widespread minerals identified in the crater include gypsum, polyhydrated and monohydrated Mg/Fe-sulfates, and kaolinite; localized deposits consistent with montmorillonite, Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, jarosite, alunite, and crystalline ferric oxide or hydroxide are also detected. Thermal emission spectra suggest abundances of these minerals in the tens of percent range. Other craters in northwest Terra Sirenum also contain layered deposits and Al/Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, but sulfates have so far been found only in Columbus and Cross craters. The region's intercrater plains contain scattered exposures of Al-phyllosilicates and one isolated mound with opaline silica, in addition to more common Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates with chlorides. A Late Noachian age is estimated for the aqueous deposits in Columbus, coinciding with a period of inferred groundwater upwelling and evaporation, which (according to model results reported here) could have formed evaporites in Columbus and other craters in Terra Sirenum. Hypotheses for the origin of these deposits include groundwater cementation of crater-filling sediments and/or direct precipitation from subaerial springs or in a deep (???900 m) paleolake. Especially under the deep lake scenario, which we prefer, chemical gradients in Columbus crater may have created a habitable environment at this location on early Mars. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Earth System Science Research Using Datra and Products from Terra, Aqua, and ACRIM Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    2007-01-01

    The report describes the research conducted at CSR to extend MODIS data and products to the applications required by users in the State of Texas. This research presented in this report was completed during the timeframe of August 2004 - December 31, 2007. However, since annual reports were filed in December 2005 and 2006, results obtained during calendar year 2007 are emphasized in the report. The stated goals of the project were to complete the fundamental research needed to create two types of new, Level 3 products for the air quality community in Texas from data collected by NASA s EOS Terra and Aqua missions.

  9. A paradigm for operant conditioning in blow flies (Phormia terrae novae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830).

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Disma, Gérald; Abramson, Charles I

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly (Protophormia terrae novae) is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole decreases. Control procedures revealed that rate of responding is not a simple overall result of feeding or of aging. The flies entered into the hole only if the response was required to obtain the food.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched aboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have enabled over twelve years of continuous observations of cloud properties from Terra and over nine years from Aqua. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as latitudinal distributions of cloud top pressure and cloud top temperature. MODIS finds the cloud fraction, as derived by the cloud mask, is nearly identical during the day and night, with only modest diurnal variation. Globally, the cloud fraction derived by the MODIS cloud mask is approx.67%, with somewhat more clouds over land during the afternoon and less clouds over ocean in the afternoon, with very little difference in global cloud cover between Terra and Aqua. Overall, cloud fraction over land is approx.55%, with a distinctive seasonal cycle, whereas the ocean cloudiness is much higher, around 72%, with much reduced seasonal variation. Cloud top pressure and temperature have distinct spatial and temporal patterns, and clearly reflect our understanding of the global cloud distribution. High clouds are especially prevalent over the northern hemisphere continents between 30 and 50 . Aqua and Terra have comparable zonal cloud top pressures, with Aqua having somewhat higher clouds (cloud top pressures lower by 100 hPa) over land due to

  11. Micro scanning X-ray diffraction study of Gallo-Roman Terra Sigillata ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Dooryhee, E.

    2006-05-01

    The red glaze (slip) that characterizes the Terra Sigillata potteries, greatly contributed to their success during the Roman period. This feature can in fact be partially explained by the microstructure (crystalline phases and grain sizes) and the physico-chemistry (compositions) of the ceramics. In this paper, we describe how the technique of synchrotron micro scanning X-raydiffraction could contribute to the understanding of the elaboration process and origins of these ceramics. The small (micron) size of the X-raybeam coupled with the use of a sample scanning stage allows one to spatially resolve the distribution and other characteristics of the constitutive mineral phases.

  12. Extensive phyllosilicate-bearing layer identified in northwestern Noachis Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D.; Seelos, K. D.; Murchie, S. L.; Seelos, F. P.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.

    2009-12-01

    Noachis Terra is a highland cratered plain on Mars, extending from 20°S to 80°S latitude and 55°W to 30°E longitude. Evidence for a widespread phyllosilicate-bearing layer has been identified in a distinct region in northwest Noachis Terra, bound by Coprates and Eos Chasma to the north, Thaumasia Planum to the west and the Argyre basin to the south. Uzboi Vallis, a major Martian valley system, cuts through Noachis Terra and is the eastern boundary of our region of interest. In northwest Argyre a laterally extensive phyllosilicate-bearing deposit has been identified directly below a thin cap-rock. A layer of similar composition has been identified in the walls of eastern Coprates Chasma, although at significantly greater depth. It has been suggested that these outcrops represent the same material unit. If so, then the same phyllosilicate-bearing layer should be observable in the walls of valley systems and craters in the intervening Noachis Terra region, increasing with depth towards the north. Two small valley systems incise NW Noachis: Her Desher Vallis and Nirgal Vallis. Nirgal Vallis is a tributary of Uzboi Vallis, joining the larger system to the south of Holden crater. Her Desher Vallis is an isolated valley that does not seem to connect to any craters or larger valleys. CRISM multispectral mapping observations (mosaicked at ~230 m/pixel) indicate that a phyllosilicate-bearing layer is exposed along the length of both valley systems and in the interior rims of many craters in the region. Phyllosilicates have been positively identified in 20-40 m/pixel resolution CRISM hyperspectral targeted observations of the walls of Her Desher Valles and Nirgal Vallis; as indicated by the mapping data, there is a distinct phyllosilicate-bearing layer located only a few meters below the surface volcanics and extending laterally along the walls. A similar phyllosilicate-bearing layer is also identified running laterally in the interior walls of some nearby craters

  13. Consistency of Global Modis Aerosol Optical Depths over Ocean on Terra and Aqua Ceres SSF Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Miller, Walter F.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Remer, Lorraine

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals over ocean from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua platforms are available from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets generated at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two aerosol products are reported side-by-side. The primary M product is generated by sub-setting and remapping the multi-spectral (0.47-2.1 micrometer) MODIS produced oceanic aerosol (MOD04/MYD04 for Terra/Aqua) onto CERES footprints. M*D04 processing uses cloud screening and aerosol algorithms developed by the MODIS science team. The secondary AVHRR-like A product is generated in only two MODIS bands 1 and 6 (on Aqua, bands 1 and 7). The A processing uses the CERES cloud screening algorithm, and NOAA/NESDIS glint identification, and single-channel aerosol retrieval algorithms. The M and A products have been documented elsewhere and preliminarily compared using 2 weeks of global Terra CERES SSF Edition 1A data in which the M product was based on MOD04 collection 3. In this study, the comparisons between the M and A aerosol optical depths (AOD) in MODIS band 1 (0.64 micrometers), tau(sub 1M) and tau(sub 1A) are re-examined using 9 days of global CERES SSF Terra Edition 2A and Aqua Edition 1B data from 13 - 21 October 2002, and extended to include cross-platform comparisons. The M and A products on the new CERES SSF release are generated using the same aerosol algorithms as before, but with different preprocessing and sampling procedures, lending themselves to a simple sensitivity check to non-aerosol factors. Both tau(sub 1M) and tau(sub 1A) generally compare well across platforms. However, the M product shows some differences, which increase with ambient cloud amount and towards the solar side of the orbit. Three types of comparisons conducted in this study - cross-platform, cross-product, and cross-release confirm the previously made observation that the major area for

  14. Active aeolian processes on Mars: A regional study in Arabia and Meridiani Terrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D. A.; Fenton, L. K.; Geissler, P. E.

    2011-10-01

    We present evidence of widespread aeolian activity in the Arabia Terra/Meridiani region (Mars), where different kinds of aeolian modifications have been detected and classified. Passing from the regional to the local scale, we describe one particular dune field in Meridiani Planum, where two ripple populations are distinguished by means of different migration rates. Moreover, a consistent change in the ripple pattern is accompanied by significant dune advancement (between 0.4-1 meter in one Martian year) that is locally triggered by large avalanche features. This suggests that dune advancement may be common throughout the Martian tropics.

  15. Terra and Aqua MODIS Design, Radiometry, and Geometry in Support of Land Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Vermote, Eric; Saleous, Nazmi; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) mission includes the construction and launch of two nearly identical Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. The MODIS proto-flight model (PFM) is onboard the EOS Terra satellite (formerly EOS AM-1) launched on December 18, 1999 and hereafter referred to as Terra MODIS. Flight model-1 (FM1) is onboard the EOS Aqua satellite (formerly EOS PM-1) launched on May 04, 2002 and referred to as Aqua MODIS. MODIS was developed based on the science community s desire to collect multiyear continuous datasets for monitoring changes in the Earth s land, oceans and atmosphere, and the human contributions to these changes. It was designed to measure discrete spectral bands, which includes many used by a number of heritage sensors, and thus extends the heritage datasets to better understand both long- and short-term changes in the global environment (Barnes and Salomonson 1993; Salomonson et al. 2002; Barnes et al. 2002). The MODIS development, launch, and operation were managed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. The sensors were designed, built, and tested by Raytheon/ Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Goleta, California. Each MODIS instrument offers 36 spectral bands, which span the spectral region from the visible (0.41 m) to long-wave infrared (14.4 m). MODIS collects data at three different nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25, 0.5, and 1 km. Key design specifications, such as spectral bandwidths, typical scene radiances, required signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or noise equivalent temperature differences (NEDT), and primary applications of each MODIS spectral band are summarized in Table 7.1. These parameters were the basis for the MODIS design. More details on the evolution of the NASA EOS and development of the MODIS instruments are provided in Chap. 1. This chapter focuses on the MODIS sensor design, radiometry, and geometry as they apply to land remote sensing. With near

  16. Active aeolian processes on Mars: A regional study in Arabia and Meridiani Terrae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.A.; Fenton, L.K.; Geissler, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence of widespread aeolian activity in the Arabia Terra/Meridiani region (Mars), where different kinds of aeolian modifications have been detected and classified. Passing from the regional to the local scale, we describe one particular dune field in Meridiani Planum, where two ripple populations are distinguished by means of different migration rates. Moreover, a consistent change in the ripple pattern is accompanied by significant dune advancement (between 0.4-1 meter in one Martian year) that is locally triggered by large avalanche features. This suggests that dune advancement may be common throughout the Martian tropics. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Ten Years of MISR Observations from Terra: Looking Back, Ahead, and in Between

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Braverman, Amy J.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Chopping, Mark J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Davies, Roger; Di Girolamo, Larry; Kahn, Ralph A.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Liu, Yang; Marchand, Roger; Martonchik, John V.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Nolin, Anne W.; Pinty, Bernard; Verstraete, Michel M.; Wu, Dong L.; Garay, Michael J.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Davis, Anthony B.; Davis, Edgar S.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been collecting global Earth data from NASA's Terra satellite since February 2000. With its nine along-track view angles, four visible/near-infrared spectral bands, intrinsic spatial resolution of 275 m, and stable radiometric and geometric calibration, no instrument that combines MISR's attributes has previously flown in space. The more than 10-year (and counting) MISR data record provides unprecedented opportunities for characterizing long-term trends in aerosol, cloud, and surface properties, and includes 3-D textural information conventionally thought to be accessible only to active sensors.

  18. Early season monitoring of corn and soybeans with TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNairn, H.; Kross, A.; Lapen, D.; Caves, R.; Shang, J.

    2014-05-01

    Early and on-going crop production forecasts are important to facilitate food price stability for regions at risk, and for agriculture exporters, to set market value. Most regional and global efforts in forecasting rely on multiple sources of information from the field. With increased access to data from spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), these sensors could contribute information on crop acreage. But these acreage estimates must be available early in the season to assist with production forecasts. This study acquired TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 data over a region in eastern Canada dominated by economically important corn and soybean production. Using a supervised decision tree classifier, results determined that either sensor was capable of delivering highly accurate maps of corn and soybeans at the end of the growing season. Accuracies far exceeded 90%. Spatial and multi-temporal filtering approaches were compared and small improvements in accuracies were found by applying the multi-temporal filter to the RADARSAT-2 data. Of significant interest, this study determined that by using only three TerraSAR-X images corn could be accurately identified by the end of June, a mere six weeks after planting and at a vegetative growth stage (V6 - sixth leaf collar developed). However, soybeans required additional acquisitions given the variance in planting densities and planting dates in this region of Canada. In this case, accurate soybean classification required TerraSAR-X images until early August at the start of the reproductive stage (R5 - seed development is beginning). Also important, by applying a multi-temporal filter accurate mapping (close to 90%) of corn and soybeans from RADARSAT-2 could occur five weeks earlier (by August 19) than if a spatial filter was used. Thus application of this filtering approach could accelerate delivery of a crop inventory for this region of Canada. Corn and soybeans are important commodities both globally and within Canada. This

  19. Direct Geolocation of TerraSAR-X Spotlight Mode Image and Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao; Zeng, Qiming; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Jingfa; Gong, Lixia

    2013-01-01

    The research dealt with direct geolocation of spaceborne high-resolution SAR image. The TerraSAR-X spotlight mode image was chosen as the study object. The mathematical model of SAR geolocation is Range-Doppler (RD) model. Its resolving algorithms had been studied and the ASF algorithm was chosen because of its high accuracy. The focus of this research laid on the error sources and their correction method which could affect the geolocation accuracy, such as the orbit errors, azimuth timing errors and range timing errors. At last, the accuracy of this method was verified by the experiment results.

  20. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    en que vive es el planeta Tierra y que, probablemente por ese motivo, distingue con precisión, dentro de los limites de comprensión de la edad y madurez asociada, la tierra y la Tierra. O presente artigo analisa uma entrevista livre enquanto uma menina de quatro anos e quatro meses, matriculada na educação infantil, desenhava a Terra. A entrevista se realizou fora do ambiente escolar e sem qualquer outra pessoa por perto que pudesse interferir. De acordo com Ferreira & Silva (2004), para que o pesquisador conheça realmente o que uma criança põe no papel através de grafismos e/ou desenhos, é necessário ouvi-la durante o processo de criação do desenho. A menina apresenta, em relação à Terra, o tradicional desenho plano com o 'céu' paralelo ao solo, conforme já apresentaram Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Mas quando solicitada a desenhar o Mundo - palavra empregada em um trabalho por Butterworth et al. (2002), com intenção de não provocar 'confusões' desnecessárias para seus pesquisados - o representa de forma circular, colocando-se sobre sua superfície. Seus desenhos levaram à conclusão que esta criança ainda não tem conhecimento de que o Mundo em que vive é o Planeta Terra e que, provavelmente por este motivo, diferencia com precisão, dentro dos limites impostos por sua idade e consequente maturidade, a terra e a Terra.

  1. TERRA Education and Public Outreach: Bringing Earth Science Resources to the Public, Students, Educators, and Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, N.; Thome, K. J.; Bounoua, L.; Owen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Leaping advances in the capability to accurately measure global atmospheric and surficial conditions from space have created an abundance of educationally relevant images, discoveries, and products. In attempt to fully utilize these abundant resources, TERRA has allocated a portion of its mission toward education and public outreach. From highly interactive websites allowing users to view the latest satellite images and discoveries, to partnerships with museums encouraging enhanced primary and secondary scholastic experiences, TERRA has successfully applied a multifaceted range of tools to aid in the furthering of education for students, educators, scientists, and the general public. This presentation aims to increase publicity regarding these many methods of outreach, and to highlight particular outreach success stories. With the increasing emphasis on STEM education in current school systems, the invaluable resources and opportunities that TERRA provides for young scientists have become a necessity and will continue to help inspire the next generation of Earth Scientists.

  2. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  3. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  4. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  5. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  6. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  7. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  8. Non-invasive methods to establish the diagnosis of terra firma-forme dermatosis: The SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation and dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis may mimic a variety of hyper pigmented dermatoses.  The diagnosis can be characterized using dermoscopy and confirmed with the SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation.  When terra firma-forme dermatosis (Duncan's dirty dermatosis) is clinically suspected, clearance of the dermatosis follows rubbing the affected skin with 70% isopropyl alcohol. PMID:27617614

  9. Non-invasive methods to establish the diagnosis of terra firma-forme dermatosis: The SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation and dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-06-15

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis may mimic a variety of hyper pigmented dermatoses.  The diagnosis can be characterized using dermoscopy and confirmed with the SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation.  When terra firma-forme dermatosis (Duncan's dirty dermatosis) is clinically suspected, clearance of the dermatosis follows rubbing the affected skin with 70% isopropyl alcohol.

  10. The Island of Terra: A Computer-Aided Simulation of World Resources Problems Designed for Lower-Achieving Secondary School Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Describes the computer-assisted environmental-educational game TERRA, which is designed to encourage lower-ability high school students to think at their own level about the future of their world. Based on "The Limits to Growth" (Meadows et al., 1972), the game comprises four programs: Terra Firma, Terradactyl, Inflation, and Doubles. (EAO)

  11. Draft genome sequence of the soil bacterium Burkholderia terrae strain BS001, which interacts with fungal surface structures.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Rashid; Hansen, Martin A; Sørensen, Søren; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-08-01

    Burkholderia terrae BS001 is a soil bacterium which was originally isolated from the mycosphere of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria proxima. It exhibits a range of fungus-interacting traits which reveal its propensity to actively interact at fungal interfaces. Here, we present the approximately 11.5-Mb (G+C content, 61.52%) draft genome sequence of B. terrae BS001 with the aim of providing insight into the genomic basis of its ecological success in fungus-affected soil settings. PMID:22843604

  12. Related magma-ice interactions: Possible origins of chasmata, chaos, and surface materials in Xanthe, Margaritifer, Meridiani Terrae, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    We examine here the close spatial and temporal associations among several unique features of Xanthe and Margaritifer Terrae, specifically the Valles Marineris troughs or chasmata and their interior deposits, chaotic terrain, the circum-Chryse outflow channels, and the subdued cratered material that covers Xanthe, Margaritifer, and Meridiani Terrae. Though previous hypotheses have attempted to explain the origin of individual features or subsets of these, we suggest that they may all be related. All of these features taken together present a consistent scenario that includes the processes of sub-ice volcanism and other magma/ice interactions, results of intrusive events during Late Noachian to Early Amazonian times. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  13. The 'Terra Preta' phenomenon: a model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Bruno; Haumaier, Ludwig; Guggenberger, Georg; Zech, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Many soils of the lowland humid tropics are thought to be too infertile to support sustainable agriculture. However, there is strong evidence that permanent or semi-permanent agriculture can itself create sustainably fertile soils known as 'Terra Preta' soils. These soils not only contain higher concentrations of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium, but also greater amounts of stable soil organic matter. Frequent findings of charcoal and highly aromatic humic substances suggest that residues of incomplete combustion of organic material (black carbon) are a key factor in the persistence of soil organic matter in these soils. Our investigations showed that 'Terra Preta' soils contained up to 70 times more black carbon than the surrounding soils. Due to its polycyclic aromatic structure, black carbon is chemically and microbially stable and persists in the environment over centuries. Oxidation during this time produces carboxylic groups on the edges of the aromatic backbone, which increases its nutrient-holding capacity. We conclude that black carbon can act as a significant carbon sink and is a key factor for sustainable and fertile soils, especially in the humid tropics.

  14. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale will be used to characterize geologic processes that have shaped the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary will provide the ability to: 1) further test original dichotomy formation hypotheses, 2) constrain ancient paleoenvironments and climate conditions, and 3) evaluate various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The result will be two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  15. Selection of putative Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar mutants obtained by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Reis, R V; Amorim, E P; Ledo, C A S; Pestana, R K N; Gonçalves, Z S; Borém, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select putative Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar mutants obtained by gamma radiation, with good agronomic traits and short height. A total of 315 buds were irradiated in vitro with gamma rays in doses of 20 Gy and were subcultivated and evaluated in the field over 2 production cycles. The clones were evaluated to select the best 10% of the plants. Cultivation was undertaken at a spacing of 3 x 4 m, and fertilization was carried out according to the technical recommendations for the crop. A total of 111 irradiated plants and 41 controls were evaluated in the field. Among the irradiated plants selected, genotypes that exhibited reduced height were observed. The genotypes Irra 04, Irra 13, Irra 19, and Irra 21 exhibited a height of 3.6 m, which was below the mean value of the controls selected. Other irradiated genotypes selected such as Irra 14 and Irra 16, with a height of 3.65 m, are promising because, in addition to reduced height, they exhibited good bunch weight and shorter period to flowering in relation to the mean value of the controls, which is a significant factor for the next stages in breeding. These results confirm the possibility of inducing mutations in Terra type banana plants to obtain desirable agronomic traits and short height. PMID:25966243

  16. First In-Orbit Experience of TerraSAR-X Flight Dynamics Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, R.; Kazeminejad, B.; Kirschner, M.; Yoon, Y.; Kiehling, R.; D'Amico, S.

    2007-01-01

    TerraSAR-X is an advanced synthetic aperture radar satellite system for scientific and commercial applications that is realized in a public-private partnership between the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Astrium GmbH. TerraSAR-X was launched at June 15, 2007 on top of a Russian DNEPR-1 rocket into a 514 km sun-synchronous dusk-dawn orbit with an 11-day repeat cycle and will be operated for a period of at least 5 years during which it will provide high resolution SAR-data in the X-band. Due to the objectives of the interferometric campaigns the satellite has to comply to tight orbit control requirements, which are formulated in the form of a 250 m toroidal tube around a pre-flight determined reference trajectory (see [1] for details). The acquisition of the reference orbit was one of the main and key activities during the Launch and Early Orbit Phase (LEOP) and had to compensate for both injection errors and spacecraft safe mode attitude control thruster activities. The paper summarizes the activities of GSOC flight dynamics team during both LEOP and early Commissioning Phase, where the main tasks have been 1) the first-acquisition support via angle-tracking and GPS-based orbit determination, 2) maneuver planning for target orbit acquisition and maintenance, and 3) precise orbit and attitude determination for SAR processing support. Furthermore, a presentation on the achieved results and encountered problems will be addressed.

  17. Western Aphrodite Terra, tectonics, geology, and line-of-sight gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, John E.; Morgan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Aphrodite Terra is the largest area of high-standing topography on Venus, and isostatic considerations strongly suggest that this high topography is supported at least in part by thickened crust. Previous studies of line-of-sight gravity data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter indicate rapidly changing apparent depths of compensation across Aphrodite Terra. Magellan imaging data provide the first detailed images of this region, and we are mapping the region along Pioneer Venus orbit 440 to investigate whether the changing apparent depths of compensation correlate with changes in surficial tectonics. Preliminary mapping of geological features on Magellan images along the path of Pioneer Venus orbit 440 do not indicate a first-order correlation among surface features and changes in the apparent depth of compensation of line-of-sight gravity data. The apparent depth of compensation appears to be most variable in regions dominated by tessera, but not all areas of tessera have distinct gravity signatures. There is a weak correlation among areas in which impact craters are relatively common and areas in which the observed and predicted gravity anomalies are poorly correlated.

  18. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components. A viewgraph presentation is attached that outlines the same information as the paper and includes more images of the Terra Spacecraft and its components.

  19. Cross-Calibration of Earth Observing System Terra Satellite Sensors MODIS and ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissive and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) are two of the five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite. These sensors share many similar spectral channels while having much different spatial and operational parameters. ASTER is a tasked sensor and sometimes referred to a zoom camera of the MODIS that collects a full-earth image every one to two days. It is important that these sensors have a consistent characterization and calibration for continued development and use of their data products. This work uses a variety of test sites to retrieve and validate intercalibration results. The refined calibration of Collection 6 of the Terra MODIS data set is leveraged to provide the up-to-date reference for trending and validation of ASTER. Special attention is given to spatially matching radiance measurements using prelaunch spatial response characterization of MODIS. Despite differences in spectral band properties and spatial scales, ASTER-MODIS is an ideal case for intercomparison since the sensors have nearly identical views and acquisitions times and therefore can be used as a baseline of intercalibration performance of other satellite sensor pairs.

  20. Selection of putative Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar mutants obtained by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Reis, R V; Amorim, E P; Ledo, C A S; Pestana, R K N; Gonçalves, Z S; Borém, A

    2015-05-11

    The aim of this study was to select putative Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar mutants obtained by gamma radiation, with good agronomic traits and short height. A total of 315 buds were irradiated in vitro with gamma rays in doses of 20 Gy and were subcultivated and evaluated in the field over 2 production cycles. The clones were evaluated to select the best 10% of the plants. Cultivation was undertaken at a spacing of 3 x 4 m, and fertilization was carried out according to the technical recommendations for the crop. A total of 111 irradiated plants and 41 controls were evaluated in the field. Among the irradiated plants selected, genotypes that exhibited reduced height were observed. The genotypes Irra 04, Irra 13, Irra 19, and Irra 21 exhibited a height of 3.6 m, which was below the mean value of the controls selected. Other irradiated genotypes selected such as Irra 14 and Irra 16, with a height of 3.65 m, are promising because, in addition to reduced height, they exhibited good bunch weight and shorter period to flowering in relation to the mean value of the controls, which is a significant factor for the next stages in breeding. These results confirm the possibility of inducing mutations in Terra type banana plants to obtain desirable agronomic traits and short height.

  1. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  2. Terra and Aqua MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands On-Orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian N.; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong; Chen, Na; Barnes, William L.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2015-01-01

    Since launch, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have operated successfully for more than 14 and 12 years, respectively. A key instrument for National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System missions, MODIS was designed to make continuous observations for studies of Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and to extend existing data records from heritage Earth observing sensors. The 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs) (3.75-14.24 micrometers) are calibrated on orbit using a temperature controlled blackbody (BB). Both Terra and Aqua MODIS BBs have displayed minimal drift over the mission lifetime, and the seasonal variations of the BB temperature are extremely small in Aqua MODIS. The long-term gain and noise equivalent difference in temperature performance of the 160 TEB detectors on both MODIS instruments have been well behaved and generally very stable. Small but noticeable variations of Aqua MODIS bands 33-36 (13.34-14.24 micrometer) response in recent years are primarily due to loss of temperature control margin of its passive cryoradiative cooler. As a result, fixed calibration coefficients, previously used by bands when the BB temperature is above their saturation temperatures, are replaced by the focal-plane-temperature-dependent calibration coefficients. This paper presents an overview of the MODIS TEB calibration, the on-orbit performance, and the challenging issues likely to impact the instruments as they continue operating well past their designed lifetime of six years.

  3. Terra Maneuvers

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-12

    ... 00:00:15 2013/044/14:05:24 Drag Makeup Maneuver #71 69991 002 ... 00:00:30 2012/032/14:55:00 Drag Makeup Maneuver #65 64486 229 ... 00:00:30 2012/096/15:00:00 Drag Makeup Maneuver #66 65418 229 ...

  4. Terra Satellite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... at nine widely spaced angles, MISR provides ongoing global coverage with high spatial detail. Its imagery is carefully calibrated ... new types of information for scientists studying Earth's climate, such as the partitioning of energy and carbon between the land surface ...

  5. Fluvial Interpretation of Ridged Units, Northern Sinus Meridiani/Southwest Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, J.; Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2007-12-01

    THEMIS, MOC, and HiRISE imagery shows features at various scales that suggest fluvial emplacement of the ridge-forming rock units exposed in northern Sinus Meridiani and southwestern Arabia Terra. The study area -- 10 N to 2 S latitude and 10 W to 8 E longitude -- spans the interface from the southern highlands to the northern plains. Numerous, linear ridges of varying width, orientation and sinuosity (mainly lower sinuosity) are suggestive of fluvial channels. Sets of features can be interpreted as braided channel reaches. Cross-cutting relationships, a common feature of channels on terrestrial fluvial plains, are ubiquitous. Many sinuous features appear as twinned parallel lines, suggesting preferential cementing of coarser channel-bank sediments. A few examples exist of features that can be interpreted as scroll bars and channel augmentation in locally narrow reaches. Layering and internal discontinuities of the Meridiani rocks are consistent with a fluvial interpretation. The regional setting of study-area units accords closely with many terrestrial basins which are occupied by fluvially emplaced sediment bodies known as megafans. Contiguous megafan surfaces (characterized by numerous channel traces, of varied orientation) cover large areas -- 1.25 million sq. km. in S. America -- with radii of hundreds of km. Megafans characteristically lie at the foot of a backing highland, from which rivers supply sediment. The ridged units on Mars lie at the foot of the southern highlands from which numerous river valleys have drained towards Meridiani Planum/southwest Arabia Terra. Further, the present regional slope is apparently away from the highlands, with downslope dimensions of hundreds of km. The low slopes of the northern Meridiani units mirror the typically low regional slopes of terrestrial megafans. Low slopes are conducive to the development of water bodies, which are numerous on some terrestrial megafans. The lacustrine model for the formation of the hematite

  6. Linking TERRA and DRex to relate mantle convection and seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Andrew; Davies, Huw; Davies, Rhodri; Wookey, James

    2015-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy caused by flow induced alignment of the olivine crystals in Earth's upper mantle provides a powerful way to test our ideas of mantle convection. We have been working to directly combine computer simulations of mantle dynamics, using fluid mechanics at the continuum scale, with models of rock deformation to capture fabric evolution at the grain scale. By combining models of deformation at these two scales we hope to be able to rigorously test hypothesis linking mantle flow to seismic anisotropy in regions as diverse as subduction zones, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and the transition zone. We also intend to permit feedback, for example via geometrical softening, from the model of fabric development into the material properties used in the convection simulation. We are building a flexible framework for this approach which we call Theia. Our initial implementation uses the TERRA convection code (Baumgardner, J. Stat. Phys. 39:501-511, 1985; Davies et al. Geosci. Model Dev. 6:1095-1107, 2013) to drive DRex (Kaminski et al. Geophys. J. Int. 158:744-752, 2004), which is used to predict the evolution of crystallographic preferred orientation in the upper mantle. Here we describe our current implementation which makes use of the ability of TERRA to track markers, or particles, through the evolving flow field. These tracers have previously been used to track attributes such as the bulk chemical composition or trace element ratios. Our modification is to use this technology to track a description of the current state of the texture and microstructure (encompassing an orientation distribution function, grain size parameters and dislocation density) such that we can advance models of polycrystalline deformation for many simultaneous DRex instances alongside and in sync with models of mantle convection. We will also describe initial results from our first use of the Theia framework where we are investigating the effect of asthenospheric viscosity

  7. Case study of climatic changes in Martian fluvial systems at Xanthe Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Akos

    2014-06-01

    An unnamed valley system was analyzed in Xanthe Terra south of Havel Vallis on Mars where three separate episodes of fluvial activity could be identified with different morphology, water source and erosional processes, inferring formation under different climatic conditions. The oldest scattered valleys (1. group) form interconnecting network and suggest areally distributed water source. Later two valley types formed from confined water source partly supported by possible subsurface water. The smaller upper reaches (2. group) with three separate segments and also a similar aged but areal washed terrain suggest contribution from shallow subsurface inflow. These valleys fed the main channel (3. group), which morphology (wide, theater shaped source, few tributaries, steep walls) is the most compatible with the subsurface sapping origin. While the first valley group formed in the Noachian, the other two, more confined groups are younger. Their crater density based age value is uncertain, and could be only 1200 million years. After these three fluvial episodes etch pitted, heavily eroded terrain formed possibly by ice sublimation driven collapse. More recently (60-200 million years ago) dunes covered the bottom of the valleys, and finally the youngest event took place when mass movements produced debris covered the valleys' slopes with sediments along their wall around 5-15 million years ago, suggesting wind activity finished earlier than the mass movements in the region. This small area represents the sequence of events probably appeared on global scale: the general cooling and drying environment of Mars. Comparing the longitudinal profiles here to other valleys in Xanthe Terra, convex shaped valley profiles are usually connected to steep terrains. The location of erosional base might play an important role in their formation that can be produced convex shapes where the erosional base descended topographically (by deep impact crater or deep outflow channel formation

  8. Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

  9. Recent Results From The Nasa Earth Science Terra Mission and Future Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Earth Sciences Enterprise has made some remarkable strides in recent times in using developing, implementing, and utilizing spaceborne observations to better understand how the Earth works as a coupled, interactive system of the land, ocean, and atmosphere. Notable examples include the Upper Atmosphere Research (UARS) Satellite, the Topology Ocean Experiment (TOPEX) mission, Landsat-7, SeaWiFS, the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM), Quickscatt, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and, quite recently, the Terra'/Earth Observing System-1 mission. The Terra mission, for example, represents a major step forward in providing sensors that offer considerable advantages and progress over heritage instruments. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissions and Reflections (ASTER) radiometer, and the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiometer are the instruments involved. Early indications in March indicate that each of these instruments are working well and will be augmenting data bases from heritage instruments as well as producing new, unprecedented observations of land, ocean, and atmosphere features. Several missions will follow the Terra mission as the Earth Observing mission systems complete development and go into operation. These missions include EOS PM-1/'Aqua', Icesat, Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL), Jason/TOPEX Follow-on, the Chemistry mission, etc. As the Earth Observing systems completes its first phase in about 2004 a wealth of data enabling better understanding of the Earth and the management of its resources will have been provided. Considerable thought is beginning to be placed on what advances in technology can be implemented that will enable further advances in the early part of the 21st century; e.g., in the time from of 2020. Concepts such as

  10. Classification and monitoring of reed belts using dual-polarimetric TerraSAR-X time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Iris; Jagdhuber, Thomas; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2016-04-01

    The shorelines of lakes in northeastern Germany are often covered by reed. These reed belts fulfill an important function as erosion protection, biotope for animals, carbon storage, and as cleaning filter for lake water. However, despite their importance for the limnic ecosystem, reed vegetation in northeastern Germany is not regularly monitored. In this research study we investigate the potential of synthetic aperture radar polarimetry (PolSAR) for seasonal monitoring of reed vegetation. SAR imagery enables sunlight- and (almost) weather-independent monitoring. Polarimetric decomposition techniques allow the physical characterization of the scattering scenario and the involved scatterers. Our study is based on 19 dual-polarimetric (HH/VV) TerraSAR-X images acquired between August 2014 and May 2015. We calculated different polarimetric indices comprising the HH and VV intensities, the dual-polarimetric coherency matrix with dominant and mean alpha scattering angles, entropy and anisotropy (normalized eigen-value difference) as well as combinations of entropy and anisotropy for the analysis of the scattering scenarios. The reed areas in the TerraSAR-X images were classified using a random forest algorithm and validated with high-resolution digital orthophotos. The time series analysis of the reed belts revealed significant seasonal changes in the double bounce sensitive parameters (intensity ratio HH/VV and intensity difference HH-VV, the co-polarimetric coherence phase and the dominant and mean alpha scattering angles). Additionally, the dual-polarimetric coherence (amplitude), anisotropy, entropy, and anisotropy-entropy-combinations showed seasonal changes of reed. In summer, the reed areas are characterized within the X-band SAR data by volume scattering, whereas in winter double-bounce scattering dominates. The volume scattering in summer is caused predominantly by reed leaves. In autumn, the leaves start to wither and fall off, so that in winter predominately

  11. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Aerosols from Collection 6 Aqua and Terra MODIS e-Deep Blue Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettenhausen, C.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Sayer, A. M.; Lee, J.; Carletta, N.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols continue to attract a significant amount of attention from researchers worldwide due to their extensive effects on Earth's climate, ecology, public health, and even energy production. In order to truly understand these effects, a long, stable, and well-calibrated data record is required. Since 2000 and 2002, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites together with the e-Deep Blue aerosol retrieval algorithm have been providing such a data record. After a multi-year development effort, the production of both Aqua and Terra MODIS Collection 6 (C6) atmosphere products successfully completed earlier this year and the data was released to the public shortly thereafter. The C6 Deep Blue products (now enhanced Deep Blue or e-Deep Blue) have been significantly improved over the previous Collection 5.1 version. In this poster we provide an overview of the latest C6 e-Deep Blue products and the improvements implemented since the previous collection including coverage over dark surfaces and updates to the Terra calibration. Validation results utilizing Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data are also summarized. We then use the C6 e-Deep Blue products from both Aqua and Terra to explore the spatial characteristics in addition to the seasonal and inter-annual variability of aerosols on both regional and global scales. We also use this as an opportunity to compare these results and investigate any differences found between the two instruments.

  12. 75 FR 5780 - Green Borders Geothermal, LLC, Complainant, v. Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC, Respondent; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Borders Geothermal, LLC, Complainant, v. Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC, Respondent; Notice of Complaint January 28, 2010. Take notice that on January 25, 2010, Green Borders Geothermal, LLC (Green Borders) filed...

  13. Arsenic Encapsulation Using Portland Cement With Ferrous Sulfate/Lime And Terra-BondTM Technologies - Microcharacterization And Leaching Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-BondTM, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials treated we...

  14. Ground Displacement Measurement of the 2013 Balochistan Earthquake with interferometric TerraSAR-X ScanSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yague-Martinez, N.; Fielding, E. J.; Haghshenas-Haghighi, M.; Cong, X.; Motagh, M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will address the 24 September 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan Earthquake in western Pakistan from the point of view of interferometric processing algorithms of wide-swath TerraSAR-X ScanSAR images. The algorithms are also valid for TOPS acquisition mode, the operational mode of the Sentinel-1A ESA satellite that was successfully launched in April 2014. Spectral properties of burst-mode data and an overview of the interferometric processing steps of burst-mode acquisitions, emphasizing the importance of the co-registration stage, will be provided. A co-registration approach based on incoherent cross-correlation will be presented and applied to seismic scenarios. Moreover geodynamic corrections due to differential atmospheric path delay and differential solid Earth tides are considered to achieve accuracy in the order of several centimeters. We previously derived a 3D displacement map using cross-correlation techniques applied to optical images from Landsat-8 satellite and TerraSAR-X ScanSAR amplitude images. The Landsat-8 cross-correlation measurements cover two horizontal directions, and the TerraSAR-X displacements include both horizontal along-track and slant-range (radar line-of-sight) measurements that are sensitive to vertical and horizontal deformation. It will be justified that the co-seismic displacement map from TerraSAR-X ScanSAR data may be contaminated by postseismic deformation due to the fact that the post-seismic acquisition took place one month after the main shock, confirmed in part by a TerraSAR-X stripmap interferogram (processed with conventional InSAR) covering part of the area starting on 27 September 2013. We have arranged the acquisition of a burst-synchronized stack of TerraSAR-X ScanSAR images over the affected area after the earthquake. It will be possible to apply interferometry to these data to measure the lower magnitude of the expected postseismic displacements. The processing of single interferograms will be discussed. A

  15. Comparison of observed and predicted gravity profiles over Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Black, M.T. ); Zuber, M.T. ); McAdoo, D.C. )

    1991-01-10

    The authors compare observed Pioneer Venus orbiter (PVO) gravity profiles over Aphrodite Terra to profiles predicted from models of thermal isostasy, mantle convection, and Airy compensation. Similar approaches are used in order to investigate how well the models can be distinguished with the PVO data. Topography profiles across Aphrodite are compared to model spreading ridge profiles in order to further assess this model. Airy compensation depths and convection layer thicknesses are greater under eastern Aphrodite than western Aphrodite. Compensation depths in the east are greater than most estimates of lithospheric thickness, suggesting that this part of the ridge is dynamically supported. In parts of western Aphrodite, the spreading ridge model gravity provides a better fit to the data than either Airy compensation or mantle convection. Best-fit spreading rates are between 0.3 and 1.6 cm/yr. Airy compensation and mantle convection cannot be distinguished in most places using only PVO data.

  16. Classification of agricultural fields using time series of dual polarimetry TerraSAR-X images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.; Nooryazdan, M.

    2014-10-01

    Due to its special imaging characteristics, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has become an important source of information for a variety of remote sensing applications dealing with environmental changes. SAR images contain information about both phase and intensity in different polarization modes, making them sensitive to geometrical structure and physical properties of the targets such as dielectric and plant water content. In this study we investigate multi temporal changes occurring to different crop types due to phenological changes using high-resolution TerraSAR-X imagers. The dataset includes 17 dual-polarimetry TSX data acquired from June 2012 to August 2013 in Lorestan province, Iran. Several features are extracted from polarized data and classified using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Training samples and different features employed in classification are also assessed in the study. Results show a satisfactory accuracy for classification which is about 0.91 in kappa coefficient.

  17. Assessing the Success of Postfire Reseeding in Semiarid Rangelands Using Terra MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fang; Weber, Keith T.; Scbnase, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Successful postfire reseeding efforts can aid rangeland ecosystem recovery by rapidly establishing a desired plant community and thereby reducing the likelihood of infestation by invasive plants. Although the success of postfire remediation is critical, few efforts have been made to leverage existing geospatial technologies to develop methodologies to assess reseeding success following a fire. In this study, Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data were used to improve the capacity to assess postfire reseeding rehabilitation efforts, with particular emphasis on the semiarid rangelands of Idaho. Analysis of MODIS data demonstrated a positive effect of reseeding on rangeland ecosystem recovery, as well as differences in vegetation between reseeded areas and burned areas where no reseeding had occurred (P,0.05). We conclude that MODIS provides useful data to assess the success of postfire reseeding.

  18. A new perspective on ancient martian volcanism: evidence for supervolcanoes in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Bleacher, J. E.; Wright, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    While many Hesperian and Amazonian volcanic constructs on Mars are easily recognizable from their shield morphologies, significantly less is known about ancient (Noachian and earliest Hesperian) martian volcanism. Yet, heat flow in the martian crust was higher in the Noachian and therefore the planet was likely more magmatically active [1]. It is possible that Noachian volcanic constructs have largely escaped detection because higher erosion rates on ancient Mars destroyed geomorphological evidence for their existence. However, another possibility exists: some ancient volcanoes on Mars might have been of a fundamentally different character compared to well known, younger shield volcanoes because of an explosive nature of the more ancient ones. We present evidence for ancient supervolcanoes within the Arabia Terra region of Mars. Several large (~20-70 km-diameter) craters within Arabia Terra display little or no evidence for impact origins and exhibit various degrees of evidence for volcanism. These structures, which we term 'plains style caldera complexes,' show no evidence for preserved ejecta, raised rims, inverted stratigraphy, or central peaks that could be attributed to meteor impact-related processes. While it is possible that any evidence for impact origins was removed by erosion, we consider this unlikely because crater degradation generally leads to lower depth-diameter ratios [2] and these structures have high depth-diameter ratios, comparable to values for unmodified craters [3]. In fact, erosion has been low enough to preserve various pieces of evidence for volcanism associated with the structures, such as association with ridged plains lavas, possible vent structures, evidence for lava lakes in some cases, and association with sagging crust possibly related to magma migration or withdrawal. Taken together, these structures represent a newly recognized type of volcanism on Mars dominated by explosive volcanism and structural collapse. They occur within

  19. The structure of the Ishtar Terra central and eastern parts and some tectonic problems of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazilevskiy, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Moving from the Maxwell Montes to the eastern edge of Ishtar Terra there is a gradual shift in submeridional meandering folded ranges in the western section of the area to straight intersecting disjunctive systems of connected faults and sublatitudinal shifts. These disjunctive systems evidently transform older structures; the major axis of the stresses created by them is primarily oriented sublatitudinally. Relative to younger structures, in the western they occupy a higher hypsometric position. The reason for the formation of this entire system may be a large astenospheric flow wihch rise in the region of Lakashmi Planum and Maxwell Montes and which spreads and plunges in an easterly direction, taking with it deformed blocks of the lithosphere.

  20. Wave observation in the marginal ice zone with the TerraSAR-X satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Claus; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Gemmrich, Johannes; Lehner, Susanne; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Rosenthal, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    This article investigates the penetration of ocean waves into the marginal ice zone (MIZ), observed by satellite, and likewise provides a basis for the future cross-validation of respective models. To this end, synthetic aperture radar images from the TerraSAR-X satellite (TS-X) and numerical simulations of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are used. The focus is an event of swell waves, developed during a storm passage in the Atlantic, penetrating deeply into the MIZ off the coast of Eastern Greenland in February 2013. The TS-X scene which is the basis for this investigation extends from the ice-free open ocean to solid ice. The variation of the peak wavelength is analysed and potential sources of variability are discussed. We find an increase in wavelength which is consistent with the spatial dispersion of deep water waves, even within the ice-covered region.

  1. Nitrogen dioxide monitoring with an automatic DOAS station at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Kostadinov, Ivan K.; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    1998-08-01

    During the last few years UV-Vis spectrometers were developed at the FISBAT Institute and are used for application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy method to detect many atmospheric trace gases playing important roles in the stratospheric chemistry. After several test both in laboratory and in Antarctic region, one of the spectrometers, called GASCOD2/2, was modified in collaboration with ENEA for unattended and automatic measurement in extreme high-latitude environment. The instrument was installed in December 1995 in the Italian Station at Terra Nova Bay. The aim of this research is to study the dentrification processes during the formation of the so-called ozone hole over the Antarctic region. The preliminary results for the first year of nitrogen dioxide measurement are presented and discussed.

  2. Possible karst landforms in two unnamed craters in Tyrrhena Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, Davide; Tramontana, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tyrrhena Terra, an area in the cratered highlands south of the Martian equator, contains two unnamed craters. The mineralogical composition of light-toned deposits (LTDs) within these craters is unknown. We performed morphologic and morphometric analyses of the surfaces of these LTDs through an integrated study of images available through the Reconnaissance Mars Orbiter High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Our analysis revealed that the Martian landforms contain dolines of polygenetic origin. These dolines are similar to karst landforms observed in different karst terrains on Earth and other regions on Mars. The observed karst landforms might highlight the possible evaporitic origin of these materials, suggesting a climatic change and the presence of liquid water caused by ice melting during the Amazonian age.

  3. Terra, Aqua, and Aura Direct Broadcast - Providing Earth Science Data for Realtime Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Case, Warren F.; Franklin, Ameilia

    2010-01-01

    The need for realtime data to aid in disaster management and monitoring has been clearly demonstrated for the past several years, e.g., during the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004, the hurricane Katrina in 2005, fires, etc. Users want (and often require) the means to get earth observation data for operational regional use as soon as they are generated by satellites. This is especially true for events that can cause loss of human life and/or property. To meet this need, NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, Terra and Aqua, provide realtime data useful to disaster management teams. This paper describes the satellites, their Direct Broadcast (DB) capabilities, the data uses, what it takes to deploy a DB ground station, and the future of the DB.

  4. Longwave Radiative Forcing of Saharan Dust Aerosols Estimated from MODIS, MISR and CERES Observations on Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jiang-Long; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2003-01-01

    Using observations from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments onboard the Terra satellite; we present a new technique for studying longwave (LW) radiative forcing of dust aerosols over the Saharan desert for cloud-free conditions. The monthly-mean LW forcing for September 2000 is 7 W/sq m and the LW forcing efficiency' (LW(sub eff)) is 15 W/sq m. Using radiative transfer calculations, we also show that the vertical distribution of aerosols and water vapor are critical to the understanding of dust aerosol forcing. Using well calibrated, spatially and temporally collocated data sets, we have combined the strengths of three sensors from the same satellite to quantify the LW radiative forcing, and show that dust aerosols have a "warming" effect over the Saharan desert that will counteract the shortwave "cooling effect" of aerosols.

  5. Comparing wavelengths simulated by the coastal wave model CWAM and TerraSAR-X satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Claus; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Rosenthal, Wolfgang; Lehner, Susanne; Hoffmann, Peter; Kieser, Jens; Bruns, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The accuracy of the high resolution coastal wave forecast model CWAM is validated on the basis of sea state information from satellite images of TerraSAR-X (TS-X). At the same time, the performance of the satellite retrieval of sea state parameters is demonstrated. Employing 2-dimensional spatial Fourier Transformation, image spectra are derived from TS-X and locally varying patterns of the peak wavelength are provided using state-of-the-art satellite retrieval. Subsequently, wavelength comparisons are performed between a typical set of TS-X scenes acquired in December 2013 over the German Bight and the model hindcasts. The results are mostly in reasonable agreement. Potential shortcomings of the wave model are discussed as well.

  6. Using MODIS Terra 250 m Imagery to Map Concentrations of Total Suspended Matter in Coastal Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; McKee, Brent A.

    2004-01-01

    High concentrations of suspended particulate matter in coastal waters directly effect or govern numerous water column and benthic processes. The concentration of suspended sediments derived from bottom sediment resuspension or discharge of sediment-laden rivers is highly variable over a wide range of time and space scales. Although there has been considerable effort to use remotely sensed images to provide synoptic maps of suspended particulate matter, there are limited routine applications of this technology due in-part to the low spatial resolution, long revisit period, or cost of most remotely sensed data. In contrast, near daily coverage of medium-resolution data is available from the MODIS Terra instrument without charge from several data distribution gateways. Equally important, several display and processing programs are available that operate on low cost computers.

  7. Amazonian-aged fluvial system and associated ice-related features in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten; Le Deit, Laetitia; Platz, Thomas; Fawdon, Peter; Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The Martian climate throughout the Amazonian is widely believed to have been cold and hyper-arid, very similar to the current conditions. However, ubiquitous evidence of aqueous and glacial activity has been recently reported, including channels that can be tens to hundreds of kilometres long, alluvial and fluvial deposits, ice-rich mantles, and glacial and periglacial landforms. Here we study a ∼340 km-long fluvial system located in the Terra Cimmeria region, in the southern mid-latitudes of Mars. The fluvial system is composed of an upstream catchment system with narrow glaciofluvial valleys and remnants of ice-rich deposits. We observe depositional features including fan-shaped deposits, and erosional features such as scour marks and streamlined islands. At the downstream section of this fluvial system is an outflow channel named Kārūn Valles, which displays a unique braided alluvial fan and terminates on the floor of the Ariadnes Colles basin. Our observations point to surface runoff of ice/snow melt as the water source for this fluvial activity. According to our crater size-frequency distribution analysis the entire fluvial system formed during early to middle Amazonian, between ∼ 1.8-0.2+0.2 Ga to 510-40+40 Ma. Hydraulic modelling indicates that the Kārūn Valles and consequently the alluvial fan formation took place in geologically short-term event(s). We conclude that liquid water was present in Terra Cimmeria during the early to middle Amazonian, and that Mars during that time may have undergone several episodic glacial-related events.

  8. Influence of biochar and terra preta substrates on wettability and erodibility of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetanova, A.; Dotterweich, M.; Diehl, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fohrer, N.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar (BC) and terra preta substrates (TPS) have recently been promoted as soil amendments suitable for soil stabilization, soil amelioration and long-term carbon sequestration. BC is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material. TPS is composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including BC, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Their effect on wettability, soil erodibility and nutrient discharge through overland flow was studied by laboratory experiments. At water contents between 0 and 100% BC is water repellent, while TPS changes from a wettable into a repellent state. The 5 and 10 vol % mixtures of BC and 10 and 20 vol% mixtures of TPS with sand remain mainly wettable during drying but repellency maxima are shifted to higher water contents with respect to pure sand and are mainly of subcritical nature. The runoff response was dominated by infiltration properties of the substrates rather than their wettability.Only one mixtures (20% TPS) produced more runoff than sandy-loamy soil on a 15% slope at an intensity of 25 mm•h-1. The 10% BC decreased runoff by up to 40%. At higher rainfall intensities (45 and 55 mm•h-1) the 10% TPS7 was up to 35% less erodible than 10% BC. Despite the TPS containing more nutrients, nutrient discharge varied between types of nutrients, slopes, rainfall intensities and mixtures. The application of a 1 cm layer onto the soil surface instead of 10% mixtures is not recommended due to high nutrient concentrations in the runoff and the wettability of pure substrates. The usage of 10% BC in lowland areas with low frequency and low-intensity precipitation and 10% TPS7 in areas with higher rainfall intensities appears to be appropriate and commendable according to current results. However, together with reversibility of repellency, it needs to undergo further examination in the field under different environmental and land use conditions Key words: biochar, terra preta substrate, wettability

  9. Partially-Exhumed Crater in Northern Terra Meridiani: Stereo Anaglyph of overlapping coverage in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-316, 8 August 2002 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have shown time and again that the geology and history of Mars is complex. These two pictures show different views of a circular feature in northern Terra Meridiani at 2.3oN, 356.6oW. The first is a mosaic of 3 MOC narrow angle images acquired in August 1999, November 2000, and June 2002. The black area is a gap in coverage resulting from data lost after transmission from Mars to Earth. The second picture is a stereo ('3-D') anaglyph of a portion of the same circular feature. It has been rotated 90o clockwise to show the stereo effect that results from combining the August 1999 image, which was taken while the spacecraft was pointed nadir (straight down) and the June 2002 image, taken with the spacecraft pointing backwards about 16o (i.e., MGS Relay-16 orientation). The anaglyph should be viewed with '3-D' glasses (red in left eye, blue in the right). The circular feature was once an impact crater. The crater was 2.6 km (1.6 mi) across, about 2.6 times larger than the famous Meteor Crater in northern Arizona. Terra Meridiani, like northern Arizona, is a region of vast exposures of layered sedimentary rock. Like the crater in Arizona, this one was formed by a meteor that impacted a layered rock substrate. Later, this crater was filled and completely buried under more than 100 m (more than 327 ft) of additional layered sediment. The sediment hardened to become rock. Later still, the rock was eroded away--by processes unknown (perhaps wind)--to re-expose the buried crater. The crater today remains mostly filled with sediment, its present rim standing only about 40 m (130 ft) above its surroundings.

  10. Sustainable land-use by regional energy and material flow management using "Terra-Preta-Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friede, K.; Rößler, K.; Terytze, K.; Vogel, I.; Worzyk, F.; Schatten, R.; Wagner, R.; Haubold-Rosar, M.; Rademacher, A.; Weiß, U.; Weinfurtner, K.; Drabkin, D.; Zundel, S.; Trabelsi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary joint research project seeks innovative system solutions for resource efficiency, climate protection and area revaluation by means of an integrative approach. The project's fundament is set by implementing the zero-emission-strategy, launching a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. As the centrepiece of optimised regional biogenic material flows Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) contains biochar shall be utilised exemplarily in model regions. In regional project 1 (state of Brandenburg, county Teltow-Fläming) TPS shall be used on military conversion areas, which are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil hydrocarbons. It will be examined, whether the use of TPS causes accelerated pollutant reduction and whether this area is available for renewable raw material production. In regional project 2 (Western Lusatia, county Oberspreewald-Lusatia) reclamation and renaturation of post-mining-landscapes is first priority. In this case, the project seeks for an upgrade of devastated soils for plant production as well as for restoration of soil functions and setup of organic soil substances. In regional project 3 (state of North Rhine-Westphalia, city of Schmallenberg) reforestations of large scale windbreakage areas shall be supported by using TPS. Soil stabilisation, increased growth and survival of young trees and decreased nutrient losses are desired achievements. The crop production effectiveness and environmental compatibility of TPS will be determined by tests in laboratories, by lysimeter and open land taking into account chemical and physical as well as biological parameters. Currently diverse chemical, physical and biological examinations are performed. First results will be presented. The focus will be set on the use of TPS on military conversion areas to reduce specific organic contaminations.

  11. Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Thermoactinomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, En-Min; Yu, Tian-Tian; Liu, Lan; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Dong, Lei; Tseng, Min; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580, two novel Gram-staining-positive, filamentous bacterial isolates, were recovered from the Rehai geothermal field, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Good growth was observed at 50-55 °C and pH 7.0. Aerial mycelium was absent on all media tested. Substrate mycelium was well-developed, long and moderately flexuous, and formed abundant, single, warty, ornamented endospores. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains indicated that they belong to the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. Similarity levels between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains and those of type strains of members of the Thermoactinomycetaceae were 88.33-93.24 %; the highest sequence similarity was with Hazenella coriacea DSM 45707(T). In both strains, the predominant menaquinone was MK-7, the diagnostic diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, unidentified polar lipids and unidentified phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580 were 45.5 and 44.2 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness data suggest that the two isolates represent a single species. Based on phylogenetic analyses and physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that the two strains represent a single novel species in a new genus, Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Geothermomicrobium terrae is YIM 77562(T) ( = CCTCC AA 2011022(T) = JCM 18057(T)).

  12. Tectonics and volcanism of Eastern Aphrodite Terra: No subduction, no spreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Vicki L.; Keep, Myra; Herrick, Robert R.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    Eastern Aphrodite Terra is approximately equal in size to the western North American Cordillera, from Mexico to Alaska. Its size and unique landforms make it an important area for understanding the tectonics of Venus, yet models for its formation are diametrically opposed. This region is part of the Equatorial Highlands, which was proposed as a region of lithospheric thinning, isostatic uplift, and attendant volcanism. Eastern Aphrodite Terra is dominated by circular structures within which deformation and volcanism are intimately related. These structures are marked by radial and concentric fractures, and volcanic flows that emanate from a central vent, as well as from concentric fracture sets. Cross-cutting relations between flows and concentric fracture sets indicate that outer concentric fracture sets are younger than inner fracture sets. The circular structures are joined by regional northeast- to east-trending fractures that dominantly postdate formation of the circular structures. We propose that the circular structures 'grow' outward with time. Although these structures probably represent addition of crust to the lithosphere, they do not represent significant lithospheric spreading or convergence, and the region does not mark the boundary between two distinct tectonic plates. This region is not easily explained by analogy with either terrestrial midocean rifts or subduction zones. It is perhaps best explained by upwelling of magma diapirs that blister the surface, but do not cause significant lithospheric spreading. Further study of the structural and volcanic evolution of this region using Magellan altimetry and SAR data should lead to better understanding of the tectonic evolution of this region.

  13. Mapping slope movements in Alpine environments using TerraSAR-X interferometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboux, Chloé; Strozzi, Tazio; Delaloye, Reynald; Wegmüller, Urs; Collet, Claude

    2015-11-01

    Mapping slope movements in Alpine environments is an increasingly important task in the context of climate change and natural hazard management. We propose the detection, mapping and inventorying of slope movements using different interferometric methods based on TerraSAR-X satellite images. Differential SAR interferograms (DInSAR), Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), Short-Baseline Interferometry (SBAS) and a semi-automated texture image analysis are presented and compared in order to determine their contribution for the automatic detection and mapping of slope movements of various velocity rates encountered in Alpine environments. Investigations are conducted in a study region of about 6 km × 6 km located in the Western Swiss Alps using a unique large data set of 140 DInSAR scenes computed from 51 summer TerraSAR-X (TSX) acquisitions from 2008 to 2012. We found that PSI is able to precisely detect only points moving with velocities below 3.5 cm/yr in the LOS, with a root mean squared error of about 0.58 cm/yr compared to DGPS records. SBAS employed with 11 days summer interferograms increases the range of detectable movements to rates up to 35 cm/yr in the LOS with a root mean squared error of 6.36 cm/yr, but inaccurate measurements due to phase unwrapping are already possible for velocity rates larger than 20 cm/year. With the semi-automated texture image analysis the rough estimation of the velocity rates over an outlined moving zone is accurate for rates of "cm/day", "dm/month" and "cm/month", but due to the decorrelation of yearly TSX interferograms this method fails for the observation of slow movements in the "cm/yr" range.

  14. Geologic Map of MTM -20012 and -25012 Quadrangles, Margaritifer Terra Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S.A.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Clark, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) -20012 and -25012 quadrangles (lat 17.5 deg - 27.5 deg S., long 345 deg - 350 deg E.) cover a portion of Margaritifer Terra near the east end of Valles Marineris. The map area consists of a diverse assemblage of geologic surfaces including isolated knobs of rugged mountainous material, heavily cratered and dissected ancient highland material, a variety of plains materials, chaotic terrain materials, and one of the highest densities of preserved valleys and their associated deposits on the planet (Saunders, 1979; Baker, 1982; Phillips and others, 2000, 2001). The map area is centered on a degraded, partially filled, ~200-km-diameter impact structure (lat 22 deg S., long 347.5 deg E.), informally referred to as Parana basin, located between Parana Valles to the east and Loire Valles to the west. Parana Valles is a network of multidigitate, mostly east-west-oriented valleys that flowed west and discharged into Parana basin (Grant, 1987, 2000; Grant and Parker, 2002). Loire Valles, broadly comparable in length to the Grand Canyon on Earth, has a deeply incised channel within the map area that originates at the west-northwest edge of Erythraeum Chaos within Parana basin (Grant, 1987, 2000; Grant and Parker, 2002; Strom and others, 2000). Parana and Loire Valles, combined with Samara Valles to the west, form one of the most laterally extensive, well-integrated valley networks on Mars (Grant, 2000) and record a long history of modification by fluvial processes. The origin and morphology of the valley networks, therefore, provide insight into past environmental conditions, whereas their relation with other landforms helps constrain the timing and role of fluvial processes in the evolution and modification of the Margaritifer Terra region.

  15. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of chloride salt deposits in Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Glotch, T. D.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chloride salt-bearing deposits have been identified throughout the southern highlands of Mars [1] based on the lack of diagnostic spectral features of anhydrous chlorides in both the visible near infrared (VNIR) and middle infrared (MIR) wavelength ranges [1,2]. A puzzling aspect of martian chloride deposits is the apparent lack of other weathering or evaporite phases associated with most of the deposits. A global analysis over the chloride salt sites conducted by [3] found that only ~9% of the deposits they analyzed were associated with minerals such as phyllosilicates. Most of these occurrences are in Terra Sirenum where [4] noted that salt-bearing deposits lie stratigraphically above Noachian phyllosilicates. Although a variety of formation mechanisms have been proposed for these intriguing deposits, detailed geologic mapping by [5] suggests that surface water and evaporation played a dominant role. On Earth, evaporative settings are often characterized by a multitude of evaporite and phyllosilicate phases including carbonates, sulfates, and nitrates. [6] evaluated chemical divides and brine evolution for martian systems and their results indicate three pathways wherein late-stage brines favor chloride precipitation. In each case the pathway to chloride formation includes precipitation of carbonates (calcite, siderite, and/or magnesite) and sulfates (gypsum, melanterite, and/or epsomite). Here, we present the results of our detailed and systematic spectroscopic study to identify additional evaporite phases associated with salt/silicate mixtures in Terra Sirenum. [1] Osterloo et al. (2008) Science, 319, [2] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2013) Lunar and Planet. Sci. XLIV, abstract #1549 [3] Ruesch, O. et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, E00J13 [4] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2010) Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L16202, [5] Osterloo, M. M. and B. M Hynek (2015) Lunar and Planet. Sci XLVI. Abstract #1054 [6] Tosca, N. J. and S. M. McLennan (2006), Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 241.

  16. Subsidence and Collapse Activity in Arabia Terra, Mars: Which Link with Magmatic Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, N.; Howard, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Collapsed terrains have been observed using Viking images in the northern part of Arabia Terra from Ismenius Lacus to Deuteronilus Mensae. Recent interpretations of some of these depressions as explosive volcanoes (Michalski and Bleacher, 2013) have renewed the interest for this region. However, recent observations also show the discovery in this region of a series of outflow channels named Okavango Valles (Mangold and Howard, 2013). These channels formed in the Hesperian through catastrophic flows having deposited sediments as deltas in ephemeral lakes. The source area of these channels takes place in a region of widespread depressions and local collapse pits. A continuum of landforms exists from broad depressions (~100 km in length and 100s m in depth) and sharper collapse structures (<100 km in diameter). Given the link between these depressions and the presence of outflow channels, we interpret the collapse structures as resulting from a specific lithology with volatile-rich sediments (or megaregolith) buried at depth. Collapse may be due either to the melting of subsurface ice, or subsurface flows triggered by a change in the groundwater table, or the (less likely) dissolution of buried chemical sediments. Magmatic activity is not excluded: a regionally enhanced thermal flux during the Hesperian could have triggered ground ice melting, and could have initiated subsidence subsequently, but explosive volcanism at the surface is not necessary to explain the presence of large collapsed terrains. Michalski, J. and J. Bleacher, 2013. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars, Nature, doi:10.1038/nature12482 Mangold N., and A. D. Howard, 2013. Outflow channels with deltaic deposits in Ismenius Lacus, Mars, Icarus, doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2013.05.040

  17. Analysis of crater valleys, Noachis Terra, Mars: Evidence of fluvial and glacial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, S. W.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Paull, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    The precise mechanism for the formation and evolution of crater valley networks in the Martian southern highlands remains under debate, with precipitation, groundwater flow, and melting induced by impact being suggested. We studied valley networks within four craters of the Noachis Terra highlands that were representative of similar features in Noachis Terra and where orbital data existed for analysis in order to characterise their morphology and infer possible processes involved in their formation and evolution. We found evidence for valleys carved by liquid water and ice-related processes. This included strong evidence of liquid water-based valley formation through melting of ice-rich deposits throughout our study area, suggesting an alternative to previously suggested rainfall or groundwater-based scenarios. The location of these valleys on steeply sloping crater walls, as opposed to the shallow slopes of the highlands where Martian valleys are typically found, suggested that our 'fluvial' valleys had not evolved a more structured fluvial morphology as valley networks found on the Martian plains. Our studied valleys' association with ice-rich material and abundant evidence for erosion caused by downslope flow of ice-rich material are consistent with a cold, wet Mars hypothesis where accumulation, flow, and melting of ice have been dominant factors in eroding crater valleys. Additionally, analysis of valley morphology with slope and aspect suggested a greater dependence on local geology and presence of volatiles than larger valley networks, though ice-related valleys were consistently wider for their length than valleys assessed as fluvial carved. We assessed that local conditions such as climate, geology, and availability of ice-rich material played a major role in the erosion of crater valleys at our study site.

  18. Possible crater-based karstic and lacustrine terrain in Tyrrhena Terra, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, Davide; Soare, Richard

    2015-04-01

    We have identified two craters in Tyrrhena Terra, Mars (19.560 S, 67.480 E, 18.500 S, 68.340 E), where crater-floor deposits display traits that are consistent with formation by karst-driven processes. Tyrrhena Terra is located in the cratered highlands of the southern Martian hemisphere, immediately to the northeast of Hellas Planitia and to the southeast of Isidis Planitia. Crater diameters in the region vary widely, from metres to 100km. Most of these craters are moderately to highly degraded and many show bright deposits on their floors. Here, we present some of the key characteristics associated with these bright deposits and explain why a "karstic" formation hypothesis is reasonable. First and foremost amongst these characteristics are depressions that are ubiquitous within the bright deposits. They display a variety of plan forms ranging from rounded, circular, elongated, polygonal and drop-like to elliptical. Moreover, they display strong morphometric (sizes) and morphologic (shapes, bottoms, walls) similarities with the karst depressions that are common on limestone and evaporite terrains on the Earth. Some depression morphologies - rounded/elongate - could be the result of formation by coalescence. We infer that the depressions are dolines, karstic features formed polygenetically by corrosion and solution-related intra-crater processes; we also demonstrate why the formation of the depressions by aeolian, periglacial, volcanic or impact-related processes seems less plausible by karst-related ones. Interestingly, polygonal cracks whose morphology points to an origin by dessication often cross-cut the bright deposits; as such, their crater floor presence could be an important co-marker of ponded or running liquid water within the craters where they are observed.

  19. Multiyear On-orbit Calibration and Performance of Terra MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Wu, Aisheng; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Salomonson, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, Terra MODIS has been making continuous Earth observations for more than seven years. It has produced a broad range of land, ocean, and atmospheric science data products for improvements in studies of global climate and environmental change. Among its 36 spectral bands, there are 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). MODIS thermal emissive bands cover the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions with wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4pm. They are calibrated on-orbit using an on-board blackbody (BB) with its temperature measured by a set of thermistors on a scan-by-scan basis. This paper will provide a brief overview of MODIS TEB calibration and characterization methodologies and illustrate on-board BB functions and TEB performance over more than seven years of on-orbit operation and calibration. Discussions will be focused on TEB detector short-term stability and noise characterization, and changes in long-term response (or system gain). Results show that Terra MODIS BB operation has been extremely stable since launch. When operated at its nominal controlled temperature of 290K, the BB temperature variation is typically less than +0.30mK on a scan-by-scan basis and there has been no time-dependent temperature drift. In addition to excellent short-term stability, most TEB detectors continue to meet or exceed their specified noise characterization requirements, thus enabling calibration accuracy and science data product quality to be maintained. Excluding the noisy detectors identified pre-launch and those that occurred post-launch, the changes in TEB responses have been less than 0.7% on an annual basis. The optical leak corrections applied to bands 32-36 have been effective and stable over the entire mission

  20. Mars Eolian Geology at Airphoto Scales: The Large Wind Streaks of Western Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    More than 27,000 pictures at aerial photograph scales (1.5-12 m/pixel) have been acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) since September 1997. The pictures are valuable for testing hypotheses about geologic history and processes of Mars. Of particular interest are eolian features connected to surface albedo patterns. This work is focused on low-albedo wind streaks, some over 100 km long, in western Arabia Terra. Each streak is widest where it originates at an impact crater (typically 25-150 km diameter). The streaks taper downwind. Within the associated craters there is a lower-albedo surface that, in nearly all observed cases, includes barchan dunes indicative of transport in the same direction as the wind streaks. Upwind of the dunes there is usually an outcrop of layered material that might have served as a source for dune sand. MOC images show that the west Arabia streaks consist of a smooth-surfaced, multiple-meters-thick, mantle (smooth at 1.5 m/pixel) that appears to be superposed on local surfaces. No dunes are present, indicating that down-streak transport of sediment via saltation and traction have not occurred. Two models might explain the observed properties: (1) the streaks consist of dark silt- and clay-sized grains deflated from the adjacent crater interiors and deposited from suspension or (2) they are remnants (protected in the lee of impact crater rims) of a formerly much larger, regional covering of low albedo, smooth-surfaced mantle. The latter hypothesis is based on observation of low albedo mantled surfaces occurring south of west Arabia in Terra Meridiani. For reasons yet unknown, a large fraction of the martian equatorial regions are covered by low albedo, mesa-forming material that lies unconformably atop eroded layered and cratered terrain. Both hypotheses are being explored via continued selective targeting of new MOC images as well as analyses of the new data.

  1. Atmospheric response to a realistic coastal polynya in Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica) simulated by ETA model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, S.; Casini, G.; Parmiggiani, F.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal polynyas are areas of open water (and/or very thin ice) which form adjacent to coasts or blocking feature in polar regions during the wintertime, when the sea water is expected to be ice covered. They are thought to be maintained by strong offshore winds blowing over these area and/or by ocean currents. Sea ice is removed as it forms and drifted offshore. In polynya areas a direct contact is established between the relatively warm sea water and the cold, dry atmosphere. As a consequence, the physical characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer change. The work presented here concerns a real polynya event in the region of Terra Nova Bay (TNB), Antarctica, where a recurring coastal polynya occurs nearby the Italian Antarctic Base. The aim is the study of atmospheric response to the presence of a open water area of realistic size by three-dimensional numerical simulations. Atmospheric numerical modelling is a fundamental tool for the study of air - polynya interactions in the remote polar regions, where observational data are difficult. The numerical model used for the simulations is a recent version of ETA model (Mesinger et al., 2006), with the addition of a piecewise linear advection for the wind field. ECMWF and NCEP data provided the initial and boundary conditions. A previous version of the model had already been successfully used in the Antarctic area (De Carolis et al, 2006, Casini and Morelli, 2007). As a first step to analyze the polynya event, numerical simulation was performed for the period from 12 to 17 July 2006 in order to study the development of the katabatic wind (Morelli and Casini, 2008; Morelli, 2008). Daily satellite images, concerning the period, display that a sea ice free area formed on 15 and 16 July, reaching its maximum extension of about 4000 km2 on 16 July (Morelli et al.,2007). In order to gain insight on the atmospheric response to open water area within a sea ice field, ETA model runs were carried out from 15 to 17 July

  2. State of the scientific knowledge on properties and genesis of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in Central Amazonia (terra preta de Índio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are highly important for the global climate regulation and for global biodiversity. However, these ecosystems are characterized by nutrient-poor and highly weathered soils and by high turnover rates of organic matter. Thus, they are fragile ecosystems prone to loss of ecosystem services when anthropogenically disturbed. Currently, the major threat to these ecosystems is deforestation leading to irreversible destruction of rainforests. Surprising and not expected is that within these ecosystems small patches of highly fertile soils occur which are known as Anthropogenic Dark Earths or terra preta de Índio (terra preta). These soils exhibit high nutrient and soil organic matter stocks and allow sustainable agriculture. Frequent occurrence of pot-sherds of pre-Columbian origin and further evidence for settlement activities clearly demonstrate that terra preta is of anthropogenic origin. In recent years, the terra preta phenomenon has gained increasing interest because it is assumed that terra preta could act as a model for promoting sustainable agricultural practices in the humid tropics and because terra preta is an example for long-term CO2 sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems with additional positive benefits for ecosystem services. These potentials of terra preta initiated a great number of studies but also stimulated fantasy about their genesis. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the scientific knowledge about terra preta properties and to discuss their genesis. From our own and literature data it is evident that terra preta is the product of inorganic [e.g. ash, bones (esp. fish)] and organic (e.g. biomass wastes, manure, excrements, urine, and biochar) amendments to infertile Ferralsols. These ingredients were microbially metabolized and stabilized by humification in soil, fungi playing a bigger role in this process compared to bacteria in surrounding ecosystems. Biochar is a key component for this process due to its

  3. Layered Sediments, Rampart Craters, and Potential Fluvio-Lacustrine Activity in S.W. Arabia Terra, Mars: Support for a History of Aqueous Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; Venechuk, E. M.; Paris, K. N.

    2007-01-01

    Arabia Terra is a unique area on Mars in that it is the only major, equatorial region characterized by high abundances of near-surface water (as measured by gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy). Vernal Crater is a 55 km-diameter structure in southwest Arabia Terra, centered at 6 N, 355.5 E. The crater includes layered sediments, potential remnants of fluvio-lacustrine activity, and indications of aeolian processes. Regional considerations, along with new THEMIS and MOC data, are being assessed to gain insight into the significance of the geomorphic units within Vernal Crater and the geologic history of SW Arabia Terra.

  4. Implications for the Daily Variation and the Low Value of Thermal Inertia at Arabia Terra on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, T.; Saruya, T.; Kurita, K.

    2010-12-01

    Active nature of the Martian surface is considered to be responsible for various styles of the atmosphere-surface interaction. Here, we propose an idea to interpret the daily variation and the low value of thermal inertia at Arabia Terra on Mars. Thermal inertia calculated with the surface temperature obtained by remote sensing exhibits daily variation and seasonal variation. Putzig and Mellon [1] suggested that horizontal or vertical heterogeneity may yield apparent thermal inertia which varies with time of day and season. However, their interpretation couldn’t completely explain the extent and the phase of the temporal variation of thermal inertia at Arabia Terra. We would like to propose another possibility to explain the characteristics of the thermal inertia at Arabia Terra. In addition, the value of thermal inertia is extremely low at Arabia Terra. Daytime thermal inertia at Arabia Terra is as low as 20 tiu [1,2], which is lower than the value of thermal inertia of 1 micron dust aggregates ( 61 tiu [3]). To explain these characteristics of Arabia Terra, we proposed an idea that condensation and sublimation of water ice at the granular surface cause the daily variation and the low value of the thermal inertia at Arabia Terra. At nighttime, water vapor condenses at the surface. Immediately after sunrise, water ice at the surface sublimates. Electric force and sublimating gas pressure could affect the porosity of the surface. We suppose that the daily variation of the thermal inertia is caused by presence of deposition/removal of water ice and the low value of the thermal inertia is caused by the higher value of the bulk porosity than random close packing. To substantiate the above model, there remain four main questions to be answered. 1) Is there sufficient water vapor at the atmosphere above Arabia Terra?, 2) Does the sufficient amount of water condense at the surface during the night?, 3) Can water vapor and other factors make the surface porosity higher

  5. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, San Antonio, TX, 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Kelley, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Geologic Mapping of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) Region of Venus: A Progress Report; Geologic Map of the Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle (V-1): Implications for Tectonic and Volcanic History of the North Polar Region of Venus; Preliminary Geological Map of the Fortuna Tessera (V-2) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of V-19; Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle; Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schr dinger Basin; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars; Geologic Mapping Investigations of the Northwest Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars; Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007; Geologic Mapping of Holden Crater and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava Outflow System; Mapping Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabaca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along the Coprates Rise; Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: Second Year Results and Third Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done; New Geologic Map of the Scandia Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus; Volcanism on Io: Insights from Global Geologic Mapping; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009.

  6. Environmental effects of offshore drilling in a cold ocean ecosystem: A 10-year monitoring program at the Terra Nova offshore oil development off the Canadian east coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Jerry; Lee, Kenneth; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    The collection of papers that follows is based on results of the Terra Nova Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program from baseline sampling (1997) to 2010. The objective of this multi-year EEM program is to assess the effects of the Terra Nova Offshore Oil Field on the surrounding marine environment.The Terra Nova Field was discovered in 1984 by Suncor (formerly Petro-Canada) and is located approximately 350 km southeast of St. John's Newfoundland, off Canada's east coast, at approximately 100 m water depth (Fig. 1). This collection of papers focuses on environmental effects of drilling mud and cuttings discharges from 34 development wells drilled between 2000 and 2009 in five drill centres at the Terra Nova Field.

  7. Check-Up of Planet Earth at the Turn of the Millennium: Contribution of EOS-Terra to a New Phase in Earth Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram

    1999-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. In 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution of few kilometers on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical developments that brought to the Terra mission, its objectives and example of application to biomass burning.

  8. Assessment of diverse algorithms applied on MODIS Aqua and Terra data over land surfaces in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glantz, P.; Tesche, M.

    2012-04-01

    Beside an increase of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) human activities (for instance fossil fuel and biomass burning) have lead to perturbation of the atmospheric content of aerosol particles. Aerosols exhibits high spatial and temporal variability in the atmosphere. Therefore, aerosol investigation for climate research and environmental control require the identification of source regions, their strength and aerosol type, which can be retrieved based on space-borne observations. The aim of the present study is to validate and evaluate AOT (aerosol optical thickness) and Ångström exponent, obtained with the SAER (Satellite AErosol Retrieval) algorithm for MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra calibrated level 1 data (1 km horizontal resolution at ground), against AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) observations and MODIS Collection 5 (c005) standard product retrievals (10 km), respectively, over land surfaces in Europe for the seasons; early spring (period 1), mid spring (period 2) and summer (period 3). For several of the cases analyzed here the Aqua and Terra satellites passed the investigation area twice during a day. Thus, beside a variation in the sun elevation the satellite aerosol retrievals have also on a daily basis been performed with a significant variation in the satellite-viewing geometry. An inter-comparison of the two algorithms has also been performed. The validation with AERONET shows that the MODIS c005 retrieved AOT is, for the wavelengths 0.469 and 0.500 nm, on the whole within the expected uncertainty for one standard deviation of the MODIS retrievals over Europe (Δτ = ±0.05 ± 0.15τ). The SAER estimated AOT for the wavelength 0.443 nm also agree reasonable well with AERONET. Thus, the majority of the SAER AOT values are within the MODIS expected uncertainty range, although somewhat larger RMSD (root mean square deviation) occurs compared to the results obtained with the

  9. Layered Deposits of Arabia Terra and Meridiani Planum: Keys to the Habitability of Ancient Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Paris, Kristen N.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the habitability of ancient Mars is a key goal in the exploration of that planet. Evidence for conditions favorable to early life must be sought in ancient sedimentary rocks, such as those of Arabia Terra and Meridiani Planum. Arabia Terra, the northernmost extension of the ancient highlands, is dominated by cratered plains and minor ridged units. These plains extend south into the adjacent Meridiani Planum. The Opportunity rover landed in northern Meridiani, close to the border with Arabia. High resolution MOC images reveal extensive layered sequences across much of the Arabia and Meridiani region. These layers have been interpreted as eroded remnants of sedimentary rock deposits (Edgett, 2005). The layered sequences are concentrated in the SW quadrant of Arabia and in northern Meridiani. Preliminary mapping by Edgett (2005) distinguished four large scale layered sequences in the Arabia and Meridiani region. These have dimensions of hundreds to more than 1,000 km. MOLA altimetry shows that each of the sequences can attain a thickness of 200 to 400 m, with a total thickness greater than 1 km. The sequences are generally flat lying, with regional slopes of a few degrees. Much finer layering is evident within a number of craters. The plains and ridged units of the Arabia and Meridiani region were originally mapped as Noachian based on crater statistics, particularly the number of large craters (Scott and Carr, 1978). The layered sequences in the current study postdate many, but not all, of these large craters. The layered sequences have partially or totally filled a number of craters with diameters ranging from 20 to over 50 km. The topmost layered sequence, as well as the lower two sequences, have intermediate thermal inertia, as derived from THEMIS, indicative of moderate induration. The TES spectra from the lower sequences include features indicative of basalt. Some areas of the topmost sequence, which includes the Opportunity landing site, have TES

  10. Multitemporal cross-calibration of GF-1 WFV and Terra MODIS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Shi, Tingting; Han, Qijin; Zhang, Xuewen

    2014-11-01

    The Gao Fen-1(GF-1) satellite with WFV sensors onboard was launched on April 26, 2013, as part of Gao Fen earth observing system. The Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has been operational for more than a decade. With its high accuracy onboard calibration system, the data from MODIS has become a critical component of numerous applications. Cross-calibration between the sensors is critical to bring the measurements from different sensors to a common radiometric scale. Because of the differences in the spectral reflectance function (SRF), the measured physical quantities can be significantly different while observing the same target. This paper focuses on evaluation the radiometric calibration agreement between GF-1/WFV and Terra/MODIS using the near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs over Dun huang pseudo-invariant calibration site in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The SRF differences of the analogous WFV and MODIS spectral bands provide the opportunity to explore, understand, quantify, and compensate for the measurement differences between these two sensors. Assuming that the ground target is spectrally and temporally stable, a typical reflectance spectrum over the Dun huang site obtained by in-situ measurements was used to compute spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) for the cross-calibration. No BRDF correction was applied to reduce the seasonal oscillations since the analysis were restricted to only near-nadir images. The cross-calibration was initially performed by comparing the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance between the two sensors. WFV band 4 has the presence of the water vapor and oxygen absorption features which is absent from the corresponding MODIS band 2 which made the WFV measured TOA reflectance lower than the MODIS's. Overall, the average percent differences were consistent to within 7%. The long-term cross-calibration results reflected that WFV sensor is stable since launch. Although the

  11. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and

  12. Retrieval of Both Soil Moisture and Texture Using one configuration TerraSAR-X radar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zribi, M., Sr.; Gorrab, A.; Baghdadi, N.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a methodology combing multi-temporal X-band SAR images (TerraSAR-X) with continuous ground thetaprobe measurements, for the retrieval of surface soil moisture and texture at a high spatial resolution. Our analysis is based on seven radar images acquired at a 36° incidence angle in the HH polarization, over a semi-arid site in Tunisia (North Africa). All ground measurements of surface soil parameters were carried out over several bare soil reference fields located at the Kairouan site. Between November 2013 and January 2014 (three months), ground campaigns were carried out at the same time as the seven satellite acquisitions. The soil moisture estimations are based on an empirical change detection approach using TerraSAR-X data and ground auxiliary thetaprobe network measurements. Two assumptions were tested: (1) roughness variations during the three-month radar acquisition campaigns were not accounted for; (2) a simple correction for temporal variations in roughness was included. For the two considered approaches, the soil moisture estimations were validated using ground measurements acquired over fifteen test fields, under different moisture conditions. These comparisons lead to a volumetric moisture RMSE equal to 3.8% and 3.3%, and a bias equal to 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively. By considering the estimated temporal dynamics of soil moisture, a methodology is proposed for the retrieval of clay and sand content (expressed as percentages) in soil. Two empirical relationships were established between the mean moisture values retrieved from the seven acquired radar images and the two soil texture components over 36 test fields. Validation of the proposed approach was carried out over a second set of 34 fields, showing that highly accurate clay estimations can be achieved. For clay and sand, we retrieve an rms error equal to 10.8% (equivalent to 108 g/kg) and 18.6% (equivalent to 186 g/kg), respectively. Maps of soil moisture, clay

  13. Visual analytics for semantic queries of TerraSAR-X image content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Alonso, Kevin; Datcu, Mihai

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous image product acquisition of satellite missions, the size of the image archives is considerably increasing every day as well as the variety and complexity of their content, surpassing the end-user capacity to analyse and exploit them. Advances in the image retrieval field have contributed to the development of tools for interactive exploration and extraction of the images from huge archives using different parameters like metadata, key-words, and basic image descriptors. Even though we count on more powerful tools for automated image retrieval and data analysis, we still face the problem of understanding and analyzing the results. Thus, a systematic computational analysis of these results is required in order to provide to the end-user a summary of the archive content in comprehensible terms. In this context, visual analytics combines automated analysis with interactive visualizations analysis techniques for an effective understanding, reasoning and decision making on the basis of very large and complex datasets. Moreover, currently several researches are focused on associating the content of the images with semantic definitions for describing the data in a format to be easily understood by the end-user. In this paper, we present our approach for computing visual analytics and semantically querying the TerraSAR-X archive. Our approach is mainly composed of four steps: 1) the generation of a data model that explains the information contained in a TerraSAR-X product. The model is formed by primitive descriptors and metadata entries, 2) the storage of this model in a database system, 3) the semantic definition of the image content based on machine learning algorithms and relevance feedback, and 4) querying the image archive using semantic descriptors as query parameters and computing the statistical analysis of the query results. The experimental results shows that with the help of visual analytics and semantic definitions we are able to explain

  14. Synergistic Use of Satellite Volcano Detection and Science: A Fifteen Year Perspective of ASTER on Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The success of Terra-based observations using the ASTER instrument of active volcanic processes early in the mission gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER observations following an eruption and validate the satellite data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER VNIR/TIR data are being acquired at numerous erupting volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many targets, the URP has increased the observational frequency over active eruptions by as much 50%. The data have been used for operational response to new eruptions, longer-term scientific studies such as capturing detailed changes in lava domes/flows, pyroclastic flows and lahars. These data have also been used to infer the emplacement of new lava lobes, detect endogenous dome growth, and interpret hazardous dome collapse events. The emitted TIR radiance from lava surfaces has also been used effectively to model composition, texture and degassing. Now, this long-term archive of volcanic image data is being mined to provide statistics on the expectations of future high-repeat TIR data such as that proposed for the NASA HyspIRI mission. In summary, this operational/scientific program utilizing the unique properties of ASTER and the Terra mission has shown the potential for

  15. Arsenic encapsulation using Portland cement with ferrous sulfate/lime and Terra-Bond™ technologies - Microcharacterization and leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Randall, Paul M

    2012-03-15

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-Bond™, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials included: chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood materials; scorodite-rich mine tailings from the La Trinidad Mine in California; and a soil/smelter dust mixture from the Anaconda Superfund site spiked with monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) to simulate an organoarsenic soil material. SEM/EDS and XRD spectra of PFL treated samples showed similarity across all three waste materials while Terra-Bond treated samples showed predominance of elemental sulfur. SEM/EDS of PFL treated samples showed that calcium was imbedded in the structure while micrographs of Terra-Bond treated samples showed the appearance of an epoxy material on the surface. The epoxy material appears to be responsible for encapsulating and reducing the leachability of arsenic. XANES spectra for the PFL treatment of CCA-containing samples showed that arsenic has a predominant pentavalent form (As +5), and the PFL treatment process did not alter the arsenic oxidation state. But, distinct differences were observed for XANES spectra of untreated and PFL treated scorodite-rich mine tailing which changed the arsenic coordination structure from a mixture of As (+3/+5) to exclusively As (+5). Both S/S techniques reduced the amount of arsenic released in the leaching tests. Most cases show lower amounts of arsenic released from wastes treated by the Terra-Bond™ technique when compared to the PFL technique. The pH of the solution significantly affected the leachability, with the amount of arsenic released increasing with pH. Sequential extraction results indicate that sodium hydroxide was favorable in releasing arsenic in the mine tailings. This is due to ligand displacement reactions of hydroxyl ions with arsenic species and high pH conditions that

  16. The genome of the fungal-interactive soil bacterium Burkholderia terrae BS001-a plethora of outstanding interactive capabilities unveiled.

    PubMed

    Haq, Irshad Ul; Graupner, Katharina; Nazir, Rashid; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-07-01

    Burkholderia terrae strain BS001, obtained as an inhabitant of the mycosphere of Laccaria proxima (a close relative of Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten), actively interacts with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. We here summarize the remarkable ecological behavior of B. terrae BS001 in the mycosphere and add key data to this. Moreover, we extensively analyze the approximately 11.5-Mb five-replicon genome of B. terrae BS001 and highlight its remarkable features. Seventy-nine regions of genomic plasticity (RGP), that is, 16.48% of the total genome size, were found. One 70.42-kb RGP, RGP76, revealed a typical conjugal element structure, including a full type 4 secretion system. Comparative analyses across 24 related Burkholderia genomes revealed that 95.66% of the total BS001 genome belongs to the variable part, whereas the remaining 4.34% constitutes the core genome. Genes for biofilm formation and several secretion systems, under which a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were found, which is consistent with the hypothesis that T3SSs play a role in the interaction with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. The high number of predicted metabolic pathways and membrane transporters suggested that strain BS001 can take up and utilize a range of sugars, amino acids and organic acids. In particular, a unique glycerol uptake system was found. The BS001 genome further contains genetic systems for the degradation of complex organic compounds. Moreover, gene clusters encoding nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and hybrid polyketide synthases/NRPS were found, highlighting the potential role of secondary metabolites in the ecology of strain BS001. The patchwork of genetic features observed in the genome is consistent with the notion that 1) horizontal gene transfer is a main driver of B. terrae BS001 adaptation and 2) the organism is very flexible in its ecological behavior in soil. PMID:24923325

  17. Precise Determination of the Baseline Between the TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Rolf; Rothacher, Markus; Michalak, Grzegorz; Moon, Yongjin

    TerraSAR-X, launched on June 15, 2007, and TanDEM-X, to be launched in September 2009, both carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) category A payload instrument package. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), for precise orbit determination and atmospheric sounding and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) serving as target for the global Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) ground station network. The TOR is supplied by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ) Germany, and the Center for Space Research (CSR), Austin, Texas. The objective of the German/US collaboration is twofold: provision of atmospheric profiles for use in numerical weather predictions and climate studies from the occultation data and precision SAR data processing based on precise orbits and atmospheric products. For the scientific objectives of the TanDEM- X mission, i.e., bi-static SAR together with TerraSAR-X, the dual-frequency GPS receiver is of vital importance for the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts. The paper discusses the feasibility of generating millimeter baselines by the example of GRACE, where for validation the distance between the two GRACE satellites is directly available from the micrometer-level intersatellite link measurements. The distance of the GRACE satellites is some 200 km, the distance of the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X formation will be some 200 meters. Therefore the proposed approach is then subject to a simulation of the foreseen TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X formation. The effect of varying space environmental conditions, of possible phase center variations, multi path, and of varying center of mass of the spacecrafts are evaluated and discussed.

  18. The Raman spectrum of hematite: possible indicator for a compositional or firing distinction among Terra Sigillata wares.

    PubMed

    Zoppi, Angela; Lofrumento, Cristiana; Castellucci, Emilio Mario; Migliorini, Maria Grazia

    2005-01-01

    The Raman spectrum of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) is here discussed as a distinctive feature for Terra Sigillata sample wares. The broadening of the Raman lines and the appearance and increasing of the disorder band at 660 cm(-1), while moving from the external slip to the inner body, are proposed as valuation parameters for the study of the mineralogical composition and firing process of pottery productions.

  19. On the Relative Stability of CERES Reflected Shortwave and MISR and MODIS Visible Radiance Measurements During the Terra Satellite Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbett, J. G.; Loeb, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen years of visible, near-infrared, and broadband shortwave radiance measurements from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on board NASA's Terra satellite are analyzed in order to assess their long-term relative stability for climate purposes. A regression-based approach between CERES, MODIS, and MISR (An camera only) reflectances is used to calculate the bias between the different reflectances relative to a reference year. When compared to the CERES shortwave broadband reflectance, relative drift between the MISR narrowbands is within 1%/decade. Compared to the CERES shortwave reflectance, the MODIS narrowband reflectances show a relative drift of less than -1.33%/decade. When compared to MISR, the MODIS reflectances show a relative drift of between -0.36%/decade and -2.66%/decade. We show that the CERES Terra SW measurements are stable over the time period relative to CERES Aqua. Using this as evidence that CERES Terra may be absolutely stable, we suggest that the CERES, MISR, and MODIS instruments meet the radiometric stability goals for climate applications set out in Ohring et al. (2005).

  20. Spatially extensive uniform stress fields on Venus inferred from radial dike swarm geometries: The Aphrodite Terra example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosfils, Eric B.; Head, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The high resolution and near global coverage of Magellan radar images is facilitating attempts to systematically investigate the stresses that have deformed the venusian crust. Here we continue earlier efforts to utilize approximately 170 large, radially lineated structures interpreted as dike swarms to assess the orientation of the regional maximum horizontal compressive stress (MHCS) which existed in their vicinities during emplacement. Examination of swarms near the equator reveals a link to broad scale regional structures, such as Aphrodite Terra, across distances in excess of 1000 km, suggesting the existence of first order stress fields which affect areas of more than 10(exp 6) sq km in a uniform fashion. Focusing further upon the Aphrodite Terra region, the MHCS field in the surrounding lowlands inferred from radial swarms is oriented approximately normal to the slope of the highland topography. This stress configuration appears, at a simple level, to be incompatible with that expected during either upwelling or downwelling construction of the highlands. In addition, the relatively undeformed geometry of the radial structures within the highlands implies that these dike swarm features formed more recently than their highly deformed surroundings. We conclude that the differential stresses which existed during emplacement of the dike swarms within and adjacent to the Aphrodite Terra highlands are related to the gravitational relaxation of pre-existing topography.

  1. Impacts of Cross-Platform Vicarious Calibration on the Deep Blue Aerosol Retrievals for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aboard Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hsu, N. Christina; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Franz, Bryan A.; Meister, Gerhard; Salustro, Clare E.

    2012-01-01

    The retrieval of aerosol properties from spaceborne sensors requires highly accurate and precise radiometric measurements, thus placing stringent requirements on sensor calibration and characterization. For the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spedroradiometer (MODIS), the characteristics of the detectors of certain bands, particularly band 8 [(B8); 412 nm], have changed significantly over time, leading to increased calibration uncertainty. In this paper, we explore a possibility of utilizing a cross-calibration method developed for characterizing the Terral MODIS detectors in the ocean bands by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ocean Biology Processing Group to improve aerosol retrieval over bright land surfaces. We found that the Terra/MODIS B8 reflectance corrected using the cross calibration method resulted in significant improvements for the retrieved aerosol optical thickness when compared with that from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, Aqua/MODIS, and the Aerosol Robotic Network. The method reported in this paper is implemented for the operational processing of the Terra/MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products.

  2. Discovery of selective ligands for telomeric RNA G-quadruplexes (TERRA) through 19F-NMR based fragment screening.

    PubMed

    Garavís, Miguel; López-Méndez, Blanca; Somoza, Alvaro; Oyarzabal, Julen; Dalvit, Claudio; Villasante, Alfredo; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-07-18

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) is a novel and very attractive antitumoral target. Here, we report the first successful application of (19)F-NMR fragment-based screening to identify chemically diverse compounds that bind to an RNA molecule such as TERRA. We have built a library of 355 fluorinated fragments, and checked their interaction with a long telomeric RNA as a target molecule. The screening resulted in the identification of 20 hits (hit rate of 5.6%). For a number of binders, their interaction with TERRA was confirmed by (19)F- and (1)H NMR as well as by CD melting experiments. We have also explored the selectivity of the ligands for RNA G-quadruplexes and found that some of the hits do not interact with other nucleic acids such as tRNA and duplex DNA and, most importantly, favor the propeller-like parallel conformation in telomeric DNA G-quadruplexes. This suggests a selective recognition of this particular quadruplex topology and that different ligands may recognize specific sites in propeller-like parallel G-quadruplexes. Such features make some of the resulting binders promising lead compounds for fragment based drug discovery.

  3. Terra-Preta-Technology as an innovative system component to create circulation oriented, sustainable land use systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, M.; Böttcher, J.; Krieger, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents current research and application projects on innovative system solutions which are based on the implementation of a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) is a recently developed substance composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including biochar, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Based on their properties, positive effects on water and nutrient retention, soil microbiological activity, and cation-exchange capacity are expected and currently investigated by different projects. TPS further sequesters carbon and decreases NO2 emissions from fertilized soils as observed by the use of biochar. The production of TPS is based on a circulation oriented organic waste management system directly adapted to the local available inputs and desired soil amendment properties. The production of TPS is possible with simple box systems for subsistence farming but also on a much larger scale as modular industrial plants for farmers or commercial and municipal waste management companies in sizes from 500 and 50,000 m3. The Terra-Preta-Technology enhances solutions to soil conservation, soil amelioration, humic formation, reduced water consumption, long term carbon sequestration, nutrient retention, containment binding, and to biodiversity on local to a regional scale. The projects also involve research of ancient land management systems to enhance resource efficiency by means of an integrative and transdisciplinary approach.

  4. Highly heterogeneous soil bacterial communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mincheol; Cho, Ahnna; Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment.

  5. Determining the Location and Radiative Impact of Thin Cirrus Clouds using Terra data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thin cirrus clouds (with optical depth tau much less than 1) play a potentially important role in the Earth atmosphere. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra satellite has a channel at 1.375 microns that is specifically designed to detect these clouds. During two three-day periods from December 2000 and June 2001, I show that thin cirrus clouds are ubiquitous throughout the tropics. These thin cirrus generally have optical depths below 0.05 and appear with greater frequency and optical depth near deep convection. Regressing top-of-atmosphere outgoing longwave flux data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) against optical depth, we calculate that these thin clouds decrease outgoing longwave flux by approx. 1 W/sq m/(0.01 tau). This translates into longwave forcing of several W/sq m near convection and zero away from convection. Averaging over the whole tropics, these thin cirrus decrease average longwave forcing is approx. 1.4 W/sq m.

  6. Spatially Complete Surface Albedo Data Sets: Value-Added Products Derived from Terra MODIS Land Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, E. G.; King, M. D.; Platnick, S.; Schaaf, C. B.; Gao, F.

    2004-01-01

    Spectral land surface albedo is an important parameter for describing the radiative properties of the Earth. Accordingly it reflects the consequences of natural and human interactions, such as anthropogenic, meteorological, and phenological effects, on global and local climatological trends. Consequently, albedos are integral parts in a variety of research areas, such as general circulation models (GCMs), energy balance studies, modeling of land use and land use change, and biophysical, oceanographic, and meteorological studies. The availability of global albedo data over a large range of spectral channels and at high spatial resolution has dramatically improved with the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft in December 1999. However, lack of spatial and temporal coverage due to cloud and snow effects can preclude utilization of official products in production and research studies. We report on a technique used to fill incomplete MOD43 albedo data sets with the intention of providing complete value-added maps. The technique is influenced by the phenological concept that within a certain area, a pixel s ecosystem class should exhibit similar growth cycle events over the same time period. The shape of an area s phenological temporal curve can be imposed upon existing pixel-level data to fill missing temporal points. The methodology will be reviewed by showcasing 2001 global and regional results of complete albedo and NDVl data sets.

  7. Cellulomonas terrae sp. nov., a cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterium isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    An, Dong-Shan; Im, Wan-Taek; Yang, Hee-Chan; Kang, Myung Suk; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Jin, Long; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2005-07-01

    A bacterial strain (DB5(T)), with polysaccharide-degrading activities, was isolated from garden soil in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. The cells were Gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-motile straight rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this strain belongs to the genus Cellulomonas and that it is most closely related to Cellulomonas xylanilytica LMG 21723(T) and Cellulomonas humilata ATCC 25174(T) (98.0 and 97.9% similarity, respectively). Chemotaxonomic data also supported the classification of strain DB5(T) in the genus Cellulomonas, i.e. L-ornithine as the cell-wall diamino acid, anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:0) as the major fatty acids, MK-9(H(4)) as the predominant menaquinone and the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides in the polar lipid profile. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization in combination with chemotaxonomic and physiological data demonstrated that strain DB5(T) (=KCTC 19081(T)=NBRC 100819(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species within the genus Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas terrae sp. nov. is proposed.

  8. A study on rational function model generation for TerraSAR-X imagery.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Akram; Saadatseresht, Mohammad; Motagh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    The Rational Function Model (RFM) has been widely used as an alternative to rigorous sensor models of high-resolution optical imagery in photogrammetry and remote sensing geometric processing. However, not much work has been done to evaluate the applicability of the RF model for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image processing. This paper investigates how to generate a Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) for high-resolution TerraSAR-X imagery using an independent approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the RFM obtained using the independent approach fits the Range-Doppler physical sensor model with an accuracy of greater than 10-3 pixel. Because independent RPCs indicate absolute errors in geolocation, two methods can be used to improve the geometric accuracy of the RFM. In the first method, Ground Control Points (GCPs) are used to update SAR sensor orientation parameters, and the RPCs are calculated using the updated parameters. Our experiment demonstrates that by using three control points in the corners of the image, an accuracy of 0.69 pixels in range and 0.88 pixels in the azimuth direction is achieved. For the second method, we tested the use of an affine model for refining RPCs. In this case, by applying four GCPs in the corners of the image, the accuracy reached 0.75 pixels in range and 0.82 pixels in the azimuth direction. PMID:24021971

  9. Genetic Analysis of Benzothiophene Biodesulfurization Pathway of Gordonia terrae Strain C-6

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Kehui; Zhang, Yue; Tian, Huimei; Ji, Kaihua; Li, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur can be removed from benzothiophene (BT) by some bacteria without breaking carbon-carbon bonds. However, a clear mechanism for BT desulfurization and its genetic components have not been reported in literatures so far. In this study, we used comparative transcriptomics to study differential expression of genes in Gordonia terrae C-6 cultured with BT or sodium sulfate as the sole source of sulfur. We found that 135 genes were up-regulated with BT relative to sodium sulfate as the sole sulfur source. Many of these genes encode flavin-dependent monooxygenases, alkane sulfonate monooxygenases and desulfinase, which perform similar functions to those involved in the 4S pathway of dibenzothiophene (DBT) biodesulfurization. Three of the genes were found to be located in the same operon, designated bdsABC. Cell extracts of pET28a-bdsABC transfected E. coli Rosetta (DE3) converted BT to a phenolic compound, identified as o-hydroxystyrene. These results advance our understanding of enzymes involved in the BT biodesulfurization pathway. PMID:24367657

  10. Assessment of the short-term radiometric stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chander, Gyanesh; Angal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Short-term radiometric stability was evaluated using continuous ETM+ scenes within a single orbit (contact period) and the corresponding MODIS scenes for the four matching solar reflective visible and near-infrared (VNIR) band pairs between the two sensors. The near-simultaneous earth observations were limited by the smaller swath size of ETM+ (183 km) compared to MODIS (2330 km). Two sets of continuous granules for Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ were selected and mosaicked based on pixel geolocation information for noncloudy pixels over the African continent. The matching pixel pairs were resampled from a fine to a coarse pixel resolution, and the at-sensor spectral radiance values for a wide dynamic range of the sensors were compared and analyzed, covering various surface types. The following study focuses on radiometric stability analysis from the VNIR band-pairs of ETM+ and MODIS. The Libya-4 desert target was included in the path of this continuous orbit, which served as a verification point between the short-term and the long-term trending results from previous studies. MODTRAN at-sensor spectral radiance simulation is included for a representative desert surface type to evaluate the consistency of the results.

  11. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components.

  12. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyoungsig; Hong, Seunghwan; Kim, Sangmin; Park, Hyokeun; Park, Ilsuk; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-09-16

    A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1) a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2) co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm; and (3) a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm.

  13. A possible synoptic source of water for alluvial fan formation in southern Margaritifer Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, John A.; Wilson, Sharon A.

    2012-11-01

    The morphometry and occurrence of crater-bound fans in southern Margaritifer Terra that were active from around the Hesperian-Amazonian boundary into the Early Amazonian is consistent with emplacement related to synoptic precipitation. Precipitation, possibly occurring as snow, may have been locally influenced by topography and (or) orbital variations. It is not known how much of the total sediment inventory in the fans relates to this late activity versus possible earlier events where water may have been available from alternate sources such as impact-related melting of ground ice. Winds may have concentrated late occurring precipitation into existing relief and (or) preexisting alcoves that facilitated physical weathering to produce fine sediments later incorporated into fans. Two of the craters containing fan deposits, Holden and Eberswalde, were finalists for the MSL landing site. Results suggest that exposed and accessible fan sediments at both crater sites may record a late period of colder, drier conditions relative to early Mars that was punctuated by ephemeral water-driven activity.

  14. Mapping chlorophyll-a through in-situ measurements and Terra ASTER satellite data.

    PubMed

    Nas, Bilgehan; Karabork, Hakan; Ekercin, Semih; Berktay, Ali

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents an application of water quality mapping through real-time satellite and ground data. The Lake Beysehir which is the largest freshwater lake and drinking water reservoir in Turkey was selected as the study area. Terra ASTER satellite image is used as remote sensing data source for water quality mapping in addition to simultaneously performed in-situ measurements. Ground data is collected simultaneously with the ASTER overpass on June 09, 2005 over the Lake Beysehir. The spatial distribution map is developed by using multiple regression (MR) technique for water quality parameter, which is chlorophyll-a (chl-a). The results indicate that simultaneous ground and satellite remote sensing data are highly correlated (R (2) > 0.86). In the image processing step, geometric correction, image filtering and development of water quality map procedures are performed with the ERDAS Imagine and ArcGIS 9.0 software. The trophic status of Lake Beysehir is considered to be oligotrophic with an average 1.55 microg/l chl-a concentration.

  15. A study on rational function model generation for TerraSAR-X imagery.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Akram; Saadatseresht, Mohammad; Motagh, Mahdi

    2013-09-09

    The Rational Function Model (RFM) has been widely used as an alternative to rigorous sensor models of high-resolution optical imagery in photogrammetry and remote sensing geometric processing. However, not much work has been done to evaluate the applicability of the RF model for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image processing. This paper investigates how to generate a Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) for high-resolution TerraSAR-X imagery using an independent approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the RFM obtained using the independent approach fits the Range-Doppler physical sensor model with an accuracy of greater than 10-3 pixel. Because independent RPCs indicate absolute errors in geolocation, two methods can be used to improve the geometric accuracy of the RFM. In the first method, Ground Control Points (GCPs) are used to update SAR sensor orientation parameters, and the RPCs are calculated using the updated parameters. Our experiment demonstrates that by using three control points in the corners of the image, an accuracy of 0.69 pixels in range and 0.88 pixels in the azimuth direction is achieved. For the second method, we tested the use of an affine model for refining RPCs. In this case, by applying four GCPs in the corners of the image, the accuracy reached 0.75 pixels in range and 0.82 pixels in the azimuth direction.

  16. TERRA/MOPITT Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Distributions in Support of INTEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Ziskin, D.

    2005-01-01

    Interaction with the ongoing satellite measurements programs was an important goal of INTEX- A. The Terra/MOPITT instrument had been making global measurements of the tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distribution for 4 years, and was in a unique position to provide valuable support during the field campaign. Remote sensing of CO directly addressed the scientific questions motivating the IXTEX-A strategy and deployment, and measurement of this gas was rated as being mission critical. CO is an important trace gas in tropospheric chemistry due to its role in determining the atmospheric oxidizing capacity, as an ozone precursor, and as an indicator and tracer of both natural and anthropogenic pollution arising from incomplete combustion. The satellite perspective provided the more general temporal and spatial context to the aircraft and ground-based measurements during the subsequent scientific analysis. We proposed to build on the experience of supplying MOPITT data to previous field campaigns, such as TRACE-P. We provided expedited MOPITT data processing in near real-time, along with basic analysis of the measurements to indicate, where possible, the origin of the CO plumes that impacted the regions of flight operations and other in situ measurement activities. To ensure maximum exploitation of the satellite information, we will also had a scientist in the field to present and interpret the MOPITT data for the INTEX team, and to help ensure its utility in flight planning.

  17. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  18. Geologic map of MTM -15027, -20027, -25027, and -25032 quadrangles, Margaritifer Terra region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Grant, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) quadrangles −15027, −20027, −25027, and −25032 (lat 12.5°−28° S., long 330°−335° E. and lat 22.5°−28° S., long 324.5°−330° E.) in southwestern Margaritifer Terra include diverse erosional landforms, sedimentary deposits, and tectonic structures that record a long geologic and geomorphic history. The northeastern regional slope of the pre-Noachian crustal dichotomy (as expressed along the Chryse trough) and structures of the informally named Middle Noachian or older Holden and Ladon impact basins dominate the topography of the map area. A series of mesoscale outflow channels, Uzboi, Ladon, and Morava Valles, integrated these formerly enclosed basins by overflow and incision around the Noachian/Hesperian transition, although some flooding may have occurred earlier. The area includes excellent examples of Late Noachian to Hesperian valley networks, dissected crater rims, alluvial fans, deltas, and light-toned layered deposits, particularly in Holden and Eberswalde craters. Structural forms include Tharsis-radial grabens, Hesperian wrinkle ridges, floor-fractured impact craters, and severely disrupted chaotic terrains. These well-preserved landforms and sedimentary deposits represent multiple erosional epochs and discrete flooding events, which provide significant insight into the geomorphic processes and climate change on early Mars.

  19. Assessment of the Short-Term Radiometric Stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaxiong; Chander, G.; Angal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor was launched on April 15th, 1999 and has been in operation for over nine years. It has six reflective solar spectral bands located in the visible and shortwave infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.5 - 2.5 micron) at a spatial resolution of 30 m. The on-board calibrators are used to monitor the on-orbit sensor system changes. The ETM+ performs solar calibrations using on-board Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The Internal Calibrator Lamp (IC) lamps, a blackbody and shutter optics constitute the on-orbit calibration mechanism for ETM+. On 31 May 2003, a malfunction of the scan-line corrector (SLC) mirror assembly resulted in the loss of approximately 22% of the normal scene area. The missing data affects most of the image with scan gaps varying in width from one pixel or less near the centre of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges of the image, creating a wedge-shaped pattern. However, the SLC failure has no impacts on the radiometric performance of the valid pixels. On December 18, 1999, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Proto-Flight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft. Terra MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 micron and collects data over a wide field of view angle (+/-55 deg) at three nadir spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 in 1 km for bands 1 to 2, 3 to 7, and 8 to 36, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with spectral wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The RSB radiometric calibration is performed by using on-board solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), space-view (SV), and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Through the SV port, periodic lunar observations are used to track radiometric response changes at different angles of incidence (AOI) of the scan mirror. As a part of the AM

  20. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273

  1. Monitoring of rapid land cover changes in eastern Japan using Terra/MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, I.; Hara, K.; Park, J.; Asanuma, I.; Tomita, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Short, K.; Fujihara, M.,

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation and land cover in Japan are rapidly changing. Abandoned farmland in 2010, for example, was 396,000 ha, or triple that of 1985. Efficient monitoring of changes in land cover is vital to both conservation of biodiversity and sustainable regional development. The Ministry of Environment is currently producing 1/25,000 scale vegetation maps for all of Japan, but the work is not yet completed. Traditional research is time consuming, and has difficulty coping with the rapid nature of change in the modern world. In this situation, classification of various scale remotely sensed data can be of premier use for efficient and timely monitoring of changes in vegetation.. In this research Terra/MODIS data is utilized to classify land cover in all of eastern Japan. Emphasis is placed on the Tohoku area, where large scale and rapid changes in vegetation have occurred in the aftermath of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Large sections of coastal forest and agricultural lands, for example, were directly damaged by the earthquake or inundated by subsequent tsunami. Agricultural land was also abandoned due to radioactive contamination from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The classification results are interpreted within the framework of a Landscape Transformation Sere model developed by Hara et al (2010), which presents a multi-staged pattern for tracking vegetation changes under successively heavy levels of human interference. The results of the research will be useful for balancing conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems with the needs for regional redevelopment.

  2. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyoungsig; Hong, Seunghwan; Kim, Sangmin; Park, Hyokeun; Park, Ilsuk; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-01-01

    A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1) a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2) co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm; and (3) a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm. PMID:26389918

  3. Assessment of the Short-Term Radiometric Stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaxiong; Chander, G.; Angal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor was launched on April 15th, 1999 and has been in operation for over nine years. It has six reflective solar spectral bands located in the visible and shortwave infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.5 - 2.5 micron) at a spatial resolution of 30 m. The on-board calibrators are used to monitor the on-orbit sensor system changes. The ETM+ performs solar calibrations using on-board Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The Internal Calibrator Lamp (IC) lamps, a blackbody and shutter optics constitute the on-orbit calibration mechanism for ETM+. On 31 May 2003, a malfunction of the scan-line corrector (SLC) mirror assembly resulted in the loss of approximately 22% of the normal scene area. The missing data affects most of the image with scan gaps varying in width from one pixel or less near the centre of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges of the image, creating a wedge-shaped pattern. However, the SLC failure has no impacts on the radiometric performance of the valid pixels. On December 18, 1999, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Proto-Flight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft. Terra MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 micron and collects data over a wide field of view angle (+/-55 deg) at three nadir spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 in 1 km for bands 1 to 2, 3 to 7, and 8 to 36, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with spectral wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The RSB radiometric calibration is performed by using on-board solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), space-view (SV), and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Through the SV port, periodic lunar observations are used to track radiometric response changes at different angles of incidence (AOI) of the scan mirror. As a part of the AM

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HARPS-TERRA project. I. (Anglada-Escude+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglada-Escude, G.; Butler, R. P.

    2012-07-01

    Doppler spectroscopy has uncovered or confirmed all the known planets orbiting nearby stars. Two main techniques are used to obtain precision Doppler measurements at optical wavelengths. The first approach is the gas cell method, which consists of least-squares matching of the spectrum of iodine imprinted on the spectrum of the star. The second method relies on the construction of a stabilized spectrograph externally calibrated in wavelength. The most precise stabilized spectrometer in operation is the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS), operated by the European Southern Observatory in La Silla Observatory, Chile. The Doppler measurements obtained with HARPS are typically obtained using the cross-correlation function (CCF) technique. This technique consists of multiplying the stellar spectrum by a weighted binary mask and finding the minimum of the product as a function of the Doppler shift. It is known that CCF is suboptimal in exploiting the Doppler information in the stellar spectrum. Here we describe an algorithm to obtain precision radial velocity measurements using least-squares matching of each observed spectrum to a high signal-to-noise ratio template derived from the same observations. This algorithm is implemented in our software HARPS-TERRA (Template-Enhanced Radial velocity Re-analysis Application). New radial velocity measurements on a representative sample of stars observed by HARPS are used to illustrate the benefits of the proposed method. We show that, compared with CCF, template matching provides a significant improvement in accuracy, especially when applied to M dwarfs. (5 data files).

  5. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyoungsig; Hong, Seunghwan; Kim, Sangmin; Park, Hyokeun; Park, Ilsuk; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-01-01

    A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1) a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2) co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm; and (3) a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm. PMID:26389918

  6. Regional and local land subsidence at the Venice coastland by TerraSAR-X PSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, L.; Strozzi, T.; Da Lio, C.; Teatini, P.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence occurred at the Venice coastland over the 2008-2011 period has been investigated by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using a stack of 90 TerraSAR-X stripmap images with a 3 m resolution and a 11-day revisiting time. The regular X-band SAR acquisitions over more than three years coupled with the very-high image resolution has significantly improved the monitoring of ground displacements at regional and local scales, e.g., the entire lagoon, especially the historical palaces, the MoSE large structures under construction at the lagoon inlets to disconnect the lagoon from the Adriatic Sea during high tides, and single small structures scattered within the lagoon environments. Our results show that subsidence is characterized by a certain variability at the regional scale with superimposed important local displacements. The movements range from a gentle uplift to subsidence rates of up to 35 mm yr-1. For instance, settlements of 30-35 mm yr-1 have been detected at the three lagoon inlets in correspondence of the MoSE works, and local sinking bowls up to 10 mm yr-1 connected with the construction of new large buildings or restoration works have been measured in the Venice and Chioggia historical centers. Focusing on the city of Venice, the mean subsidence of 1.1 ± 1.0 mm yr-1 confirms the general stability of the historical center.

  7. Terra and Aqua moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer collection 6 level 1B algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toller, Gary; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian N.; Geng, Xu; Kuyper, James; Angal, Amit; Chen, Hongda; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wu, Aisheng

    2013-01-01

    The moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was launched on the Terra spacecraft on Dec.18, 1999 and on Aquaon May 4, 2002. The data acquired by these instruments have contributed to the long-term climate data record for more than a decade and represent a key component of NASA's Earth observing system. Each MODIS instrument observes nearly the whole Earth each day, enabling the scientific characterization of the land, ocean, and atmosphere. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) algorithms input uncalibrated geo-located observations and convert instrument response into calibrated reflectance and radiance, which are used to generate science data products. The instrument characterization needed to run the L1B code is currently implemented using time-dependent lookup tables. The MODIS characterization support team, working closely with the MODIS Science Team, has improved the product quality with each data reprocessing. We provide an overview of the new L1B algorithm release, designated collection 6. Recent improvements made as a consequence of on-orbit calibration, on-orbit analyses, and operational considerations are described. Instrument performance and the expected impact of L1B changes on the collection 6 L1B products are discussed.

  8. Social vulnerability and climate variability in southern Brazil: a TerraPop case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, S. B.; Fitch, C. A.; Kugler, T.; Doxsey-Whitfield, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is an inherent characteristic of the Earth's climate, including but not limited to climate change. It affects and impacts human society in different ways, depending on the underlying socioeconomic vulnerability of specific places, social groups, households and individuals. This differential vulnerability presents spatial and temporal variations, and is rooted in historical patterns of development and relations between human and ecological systems. This study aims to assess the impact of climate variability on livelihoods and well-being, as well as their changes over time and across space, and for rural and urban populations. The geographic focus is Southern Brazil-the states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul-- and the objectives include (a) to identify and map critical areas or hotspots of exposure to climate variability (temperature and precipitation), and (b) to identify internal variation or differential vulnerability within these areas and its evolution over time (1980-2010), using newly available integrated data from the Terra Populus project. These data include geo-referenced climate and agricultural data, and data describing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, households and places.

  9. Implications for hydrologic processes on Mars from extensive bedrock outcrops throughout Terra Meridiani.

    PubMed

    Hynek, Brian M

    2004-09-01

    Grey haematite was recently detected in the Terra Meridiani region of Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The formation of haematite on Earth often requires liquid water to be present for long periods of time, making this an important target for deciphering the history of water on Mars. The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed in Meridiani early in 2004 and has since discovered light-toned bedrock outcrops rich in chemical and textural signatures of long-term water interaction locally at the landing site. Here I use remote sensing data to show that the light-toned outcrops at the landing site are not a local phenomenon. Instead, they are observable throughout the haematite-bearing plains in both visible and thermal infrared remote sensing data. Moreover, the light-toned material outcrops around much of the margin and is mappable for hundreds of kilometres to the north, east and west of the plains. I infer that 3 x 10(5) km(2) of this material is exposed over 20 degrees of longitude, indicating the extended presence of surface or near-surface water over a large region of Mars.

  10. Terra@15, S'Cool@18: A Long-Running Student and Citizen Science Campaign for Validating Cloud Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Crecelius, S.; Rogerson, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    As Terra marks its 15th anniversary, the Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project celebrates an 18 year milestone. S'COOL is the education and public outreach arm of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, which has two instruments on Terra. It developed from an initial conversation between scientists and educators in December 1996 before the launch of the first CERES instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Since January 1997, S'COOL has engaged students and citizen scientists with this NASA research by inviting them to make ground truth observations of clouds and related Earth system parameters. Since the project began, more than 127,000 cloud observations have been reported from more than 70 countries around the world. While observations are accepted at any time, more than half of those reported correspond to a CERES satellite retrieval matched in time (+/-15 minutes) and space. Nearly 1% of the reports, from locations at higher latitudes, can be compared to both Terra and Aqua to shed light on view angle effects. More than 3% of observations are for Terra night-time overpasses. About 10% of reports are for locations with snow on the ground - an ongoing challenge for cloud detection from space. S'COOL draws very loyal and unique participants: a school in Pennsylvania alone has reported more than 11,000 observations (including more than 2,500 night-time reports for Terra). In Central and South America, 3 schools in Colombia and one in Nicaragua have each reported more than 2,500 observations. The addition of the S'COOL Rover program, added in 2007 to simplify participation for citizen scientists, enabled reports from the Around the Americas sailing ship that circumnavigated North and South America in 2009-10, Roz Savage, a UK woman who has rowed solo across all the world's oceans, and a few observations from the MAGIC campaign of instrumented cargo ships transiting from Long Beach to Hawaii. A middle

  11. Geologic map transecting the highland/lowland boundary zone, Arabia Terra, Mars; quadrangles 30332, 35332, 40332, and 45332

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGill, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Arabia Terra is a large region of cratered terrane extending from about 20° W. longitude eastward across the prime meridian to about 300° W. longitude for an average east-west width of about 5,000 km. The northern boundary ranges from 40° N. to 45° N.; the southern boundary is a poorly defined zone at about 0° N. Thus, the north-south width is about 2,500 km. Except for the westernmost part, Arabia Terra has an albedo higher than surrounding terranes. The four quadrangles mapped (30332, 35332, 40332, 45332) provide a north-south strip from highland terrane in the south to lowland terrane in the north. The northern portion of Arabia Terra is the type region for both fretted terrane and fretted valleys and, along with the immediately adjacent northern plains, is also the site of some of the best examples of putative flow deposits present as aprons around isolated knobs and mesas or as deposits on the floors of fretted valleys and on the lowland surface. Mass wasting, eolian erosion or deposition, glacial scouring, fluvial or shoreline erosion, deposition from an ocean, hydrovolcanism, plateau volcanism, and faulting have all been proposed to account for the topography and crater characteristics in northern Arabia Terra. Although underlain by what appears to be typical highland terrane, Arabia Terra is anomalously low, with elevations generally below the planetary reference. Probably the most important question concerning the global-scale tectonic history of Mars is the origin of the crustal dichotomy. The northern lowland is not only several kilometers lower than the southern highland, it also is surfaced by materials that are significantly younger than surface materials in the southern highland. The young surface materials in the lowland rest unconformably on basement material having an age comparable to the exposed ancient highland terrane to the south. The age of the dichotomy continues to be controversial, as does the mechanism for its formation, as reviewed

  12. Mycobacterium icosiumassiliensis sp. nov., a New Member in the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Isolated from Surface Water in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Djouadi, Lydia N; Levasseur, Anthony; Khalil, Jacques Bou; Blanc-Taileur, Caroline; Asmar, Shady; Ghiloubi, Wassila; Natèche, Farida; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-08-01

    An acid-fast, rapidly growing, rod-shaped microorganism designated 8WA6 was isolated from a lake in Algiers, Algeria. The lake water was characterized by a temperature of 18 °C, a pH of 7.82, a copper concentration of 8.6 µg/L, and a cadmium concentration of 0.6 µg/L. First-line molecular identification confirmed the 8WA6 isolate to be a member of the Mycobacterium terrae complex, sharing 99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with M. arupense AR-30097, 98.2 % partial hsp65 gene sequence similarity with M. terrae 28K766, and 97.1 % partial rpoB gene sequence similarity with Mycobacterium sp. FI-05396. Its 4.89-Mb genome exhibits a 66.8 GC % and an average nucleotide identity of 64.5 % with M. tuberculosis, 70.5 % with M. arupense, and 75 % with M. asiaticum. In the M. terrae complex, Mycobacterium 8WA6 was unique in exhibiting growth at 42 °C, negative reaction for nitrate reduction, urease activity and Tween 80 hydrolysis, and a positive reaction for α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase. Its protein profile determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed a unique spectrum similar to M. arupense and M. terrae, exhibiting eleven specific peaks at 3787.791, 4578.019, 6349.630, 6855.638, 7202.310, 8149.608, 8775.257, 10,224.588, 10,484.116, 12,226.379, and 12,636.871 m/z. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for antibiotics, determined by microdilution, indicated a broad spectrum resistance, except for rifabutin (MIC, 0.5 g/L) and cefoxitin (MIC, 16 g/L). We concluded that the 8WA6 isolate is a representative isolate of a previously undescribed species in the M. terrae complex, which was named M. icosiumassiliensis sp. nov. with strain 8WA6 (Collection de Souches de l'Unité des Rickettsies, CSUR P1561, Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen, DSM 100711) as the type strain. PMID:27154465

  13. Comparison of Plains Volcanism in the Tempe Terra Region of Mars to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho with Implications for Geochemical Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weren, S. L.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Hughes, S. S.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plains (ESRP) in Idaho have long been considered a terrestrial analog for the plains volcanism like that evident in Syria Planum and Tempe Terra, Mars. Both the ESRP and Tempe Terra are sediment-blanketed volcanic fields in areas with significant extensional faulting. Similar volcanic features can be observed throughout both study areas using field analysis and DEMs of the ESRP and the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data from Mars. These features include flow fields, low shields, shields with steep summits, and fissure eruptions. A few other volcanic features, such as cinder cones, which suggest variable compositions, volatile interactions, and multiple volcanic events can be seen in both areas. The eruptions in both the ESRP and Tempe Terra generally originate from the fissures creating elongate, multi-vent shields as well as isolated or aligned single vent shields. Many of these show evidence of radial flow patterns from summit craters as well as lava tube fed flows. The volcanoes of Tempe Terra display some of the global latitudinal parameter trends of small volcanoes on Mars. Some of these trends may be explained by the variation of volatile content and compositional variation across Mars. However, within Tempe Terra no significant local latitudinal trends can be seen in edifice attributes and not all variations are explained by global trends. This study builds upon previous studies of the Tempe Terra region and the ESRP in order to develop a more detailed representation of features and topographic data. Using these data we attempt to help constrain the composition and eruptive style of the Tempe Terra volcanoes by correlating them with the similar and quantified ESRP variations.

  14. Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium heraklionense, and a Newly Proposed Species, "Mycobacterium virginiense" sp. nov., but Not Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, as Species of the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Causing Tenosynovitis and Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wengenack, Nancy L; Eke, Uzoamaka A; Benwill, Jeana L; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Mycobacterium terrae complex has been recognized as a cause of tenosynovitis, with M. terrae and Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum reported as the primary etiologic pathogens. The molecular taxonomy of the M. terrae complex causing tenosynovitis has not been established despite approximately 50 previously reported cases. We evaluated 26 isolates of the M. terrae complex associated with tenosynovitis or osteomyelitis recovered between 1984 and 2014 from 13 states, including 5 isolates reported in 1991 as M. nonchromogenicum by nonmolecular methods. The isolates belonged to three validated species, one new proposed species, and two novel related strains. The majority of isolates (20/26, or 77%) belonged to two recently described species: Mycobacterium arupense (10 isolates, or 38%) and Mycobacterium heraklionense (10 isolates, or 38%). Three isolates (12%) had 100% sequence identity to each other by 16S rRNA and 99.3 to 100% identity by rpoB gene region V sequencing and represent a previously undescribed species within the M. terrae complex. There were no isolates of M. terrae or M. nonchromogenicum, including among the five isolates reported in 1991. The 26 isolates were susceptible to clarithromycin (100%), rifabutin (100%), ethambutol (92%), and sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70%). The current study suggests that M. arupense, M. heraklionense, and a newly proposed species ("M. virginiense" sp. nov.; proposed type strain MO-233 [DSM 100883, CIP 110918]) within the M. terrae complex are the major causes of tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis in the United States, with little change over 20 years. Species identification within this complex requires sequencing methods. PMID:26962085

  15. MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare: an interactive and multidisciplinary approach to Geosphere sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Fanelli, Emanuela; Furia, Stefania; Garau, Daniela; Merlino, Silvia; Musacchio, Gemma; Carla Centineo, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that Earth and Marine Sciences are not properly treated in scholastic programs and in textbooks are included in a superficial way. These topics are interdisciplinary and experimental (biology, ecology, oceanography and geology) and the recent advance in these fields is strictly linked to technologic improvement. School cannot keep up with the huge advances of knowledge experimented in the last 20 years, also for the lack of didactic laboratories sufficiently updated to support experimental activities. In this context, in 2014-15 three Italian Research Institutes (INGV, ISMAR-CNR and ENEA-CRAM) have decided to support the Unified School District "ISA 10"of Lerici (Liguria, Italy) - comprehensive of kindergartner, primary and middle schools - to develop the project MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare (Planet Earth and Sea). The acronym MATER (MARe and TERra) has also a gender value, as people involved in the projects were women, mostly researchers and teachers, which have worked side by side with other women belonging to environmental and cultural associations of the territory. This heterogeneous group has a common objective: to promote the diffusion of a scientific culture and to sensitize students from 3 to 14 years towards problems occurring in marine and terrestrial environments, fostering the settlement of a sustainable attitude to the exploitation of natural resources and consciousness to natural hazards, such as earthquakes and floods, quite common in the Ligurian region. MATER has been considered as one of the best projects funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research) inside the Dissemination of Scientific and Technological Culture call for the year 2014. Natural hazards (Planet Earth) and the chemical-physical aspects and resources of the marine environment (Planet Sea) were the two modules of the project. Planet Earth developed through Piovono Idee! (Cloudy with a chance of Ideas!), an interactive exhibition on

  16. Equatorial Layered Deposits in Arabia Terra, Mars: Facies and Process Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondrelli, M.; Rossi, A.; van Gasselt, S.; Le Deit, L.; Glamoclija, M.; Cavalazzi, B.; Franchi, F.; Fueten, F.; Hauber, E.; Zegers, T.

    2012-12-01

    Genetic mechanisms proposed to explain Equatorial Layered Deposits (ELDs) formation include subglacial volcanism, aeolian/airfall, lacustrine, lacustrine/volcanic and spring-fed deposition. ELDs have been frequently shown to consist of sulfates (e.g. Gendrin et al., 2005) that might form as a response to evaporation in a playa environment (Hoefen et al., 2003) or during spring precipitation (e.g. Allen and Oehler, 2008; Rossi et al., 2008). The importance of groundwater-dominated hydrological systems was proposed to explain the formation of light-toned deposits in Meridiani Planum and Arabia Terra (e.g. Andrews-Hanna et al. 2007). Additionally, fluid expulsion processes have been invoked to explain the formation of mounds within the light-toned deposits in Arabia Terra (Allen and Oehler, 2008; Rossi et al., 2008; Pondrelli et al., 2011). Potential for habitable conditions of both playa and spring-related settings (Cavalazzi et al., 2007; Glamoclija et al., 2011) coupled with the high preservation potential within sulfates (Panieri et al., 2010), make these deposits a good candidate to understand the potential past habitability of the planet. In order to investigate ELDs genesis, an area in the vicinity of Firsoff crater, where ELDs are present within and outside the craters, was selected for geological mapping and analysis of the landforms and their association using the available dataset, including CRISM in order to infer ELDs composition. Within Firsoff crater, ELDs form a bulge that can be estimated to be at least a few hundred meters thick, while, outside the craters, ELDs form flat-lying deposits. Although heavily eroded by wind and carved by yardangs, several morphologies within the ELDs in the craters seem to be depositional, which would exclude that the entire Firsoff basin had been originally filled by ELDs. Within craters, ELDs consist of roughly meter thick layers draping and onlapping the substratum. They appear affected by polygonal patterns with no

  17. Biochemical and microbial features of shallow marine sediments along the Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Franco; Marchetto, Davide; Pini, Francesco; Fani, Renato; Michaud, Luigi; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Berto, Daniela; Giani, Michele

    2010-09-01

    Shallow marine sediments were collected from seven stations (three of which located at Gerlache Inlet, two at Tethys Bay, one at Adelie Cove and one just beneath the Italian Research Base) along the Terra Nova Bay coast (Ross Sea, Antarctica). Their chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties were studied in order to provide further insights in the knowledge of this Antarctic benthic ecosystem. Overall, the organic carbon (OC) represented the major fraction of total carbon (TC) and displayed concentrations similar to or slightly lower than those previously measured in Antarctic bottom sediments. The biopolymeric carbon within OC ranged from 4.1% to 19.9% and showed a wide trophic range (65-834 μg g -1 d.w.). Proteins (PRT) represented on average the main biochemical class contributing to labile organic carbon, followed by lipids (LIP) and carbohydrates (CHO). The activity of aminopeptidase, β- D-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase and esterase was checked, giving the highest values at Tethys Bay and at the deepest water sediments. The principal component analysis, which was computed considering physical, chemical (elemental and biochemical sedimentary composition) and microbiological parameters (including bacterial abundance, ectoenzymatic activities, T-RFs richness and diversity indices), allowed to obtain two main clusters ("Tethys Bay" and "other stations"). Based on data obtained, two representative 16S rRNA clone libraries using samples from Tethys Bay and Gerlache Inlet were constructed. The sequences of 171 clones were compared to those available in public databases to determine their approximate phylogenetic affiliations. Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were disclosed, with the majority of them affiliated with the Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria. The occurrence of strictly anaerobic bacteria suggests that sediments might also undergo anoxic conditions that, in turn, could favor the accumulation of PRT in respect

  18. Global Retrieval of Roughness Length from EOS-Terra Satellite Products and Limited Field Study Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaudt, K. J.; Dickinson, R. E.

    2003-12-01

    Global and regional retrievals, which illustrate the seasonality, of roughness length will be presented. Roughness length is a key factor in estimating the sensible and latent heat fluxes in climate models. In the past the lack of observations made it necessary for most climate models to use relatively crude estimates for roughness length. Typically the roughness length was assigned a constant value for each of the land cover classifications. In reality roughness length depends upon the average height, shape, density and Leaf Area Index (LAI) of the vegetation present. The retrievals presented here depend on these four variables, and they represent a significant improvement over past approaches. The parameterization of roughness length in terms of the four variables (average height, shape, density and LAI) is based on the work of Raupach and Lindroth. The roughness length is formulated in such a way that roughness length can be found either by remote sensing or by variables used in climate models with interactive canopies. The EOS-Terra satellite products used are the overstory plant density and LAI for the seven treed IGBP land cover classes (evergreen and deciduous needle-leaf, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaf and mixed forests, savannah and woody savannah). The tree crown shape (the canopy height-to-width ratio) is based on field studies; it depends on the tree's basic shape (conical or elliptical) and on latitude. At present, the height is of all the vegetation is the average height for the various land cover classifications found in numerous field studies. Limitations of the current retrieval and future improvements will be discussed.

  19. Aquamicrobium terrae sp. nov., isolated from the polluted soil near a chemical factory.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Fang; Gu, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Yin-Ping; Yang, Zong-Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Xin

    2014-06-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile bacterial strain hun6(T) isolated from the polluted soil near a chemical factory in northern Nanjing, China was investigated to clarify its taxonomic position. Growth of strain hun6(T) occurred between 10 and 45 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and between pH 6.0 and 8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). No growth occurred at NaCl concentrations greater than 5 % (w/v). The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain hun6(T) belongs to the genus Aquamicrobium. The sequence similarities of strain hun6(T) to other type strains of Aquamicrobium genus were all below 98.5 %. The presence of ubiquinone-10, the predominant fatty acid summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c) and C19:0 cyclo ω8c, a polar lipid pattern with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phophatidylmonomethylethanoamine were in accord with the characteristics of the genus Aquamicrobium. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 63.5 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests and chemotaxonomic properties allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain hun6(T) from all known Aquamicrobium species. Therefore, strain hun6(T) can be assigned to a new species of this genus for which the name Aquamicrobium terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is hun6(T) (= CICC 10733(T) = DSM 27865(T)). PMID:24788880

  20. Blueberries on Earth and Mars: Correlations Between Concretions in Navajo Sandstone and Terra Meridiani on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Milner, M. W.; Netoff, D.; Dohm, J.; Kalm, V.; Krinsley, D.; Sodhi, R. N.; Anderson, R. C.; Boccia, S.; Malloch, D.; Kapran, B.; Havics, A.

    2008-12-01

    Concretionary Fe-Mn-rich nodular authigenic constituents of Jurassic Navajo sandstone (moki marbles) bear a certain relationship to similar concretionary forms ('blueberries') observed on Mars. Their origin on Earth is considered to invoke variable redox conditions with underground fluids penetrating porous quartz-rich sandstone leading to precipitation of hematite and goethite-rich material from solution, generally forming around a central nucleus of fine particles of quartz and orthoclase, recently verified by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. At the outer rim/inner nucleus boundary, bulbous lobes of fine-grained quartz often invade and fracture the outer rim armored matrix. The bulbous forms are interpreted to result from fluid explusion from the inner concretionary mass, a response to pressure changes accompanying overburden loading. Moki marbles, harder than enclosing rock, often weather out of in situ sandstone outcrops that form a surface lag deposit of varnished marbles that locally resemble desert pavement. The marbles appear morphologically similar to 'blueberries' identified on the martian surface in Terra Meridiani through the MER-1 Opportunity rover. On Earth, redox fluids responsible for the genesis of marbles may have emanated from deep in the crust (often influenced by magmatic processes). These fluids, cooling to ambient temperatures, may have played a role in the genesis of the cemented outer rim of the concretions. The low frequency of fungi filaments in the marbles, contrasts with a high occurrence in Fe-encrusted sands of the Navajo formation [1], indicating that microbial content is of secondary importance in marble genesis relative to the fluctuating influx of ambient groundwater. Nevertheless, the presence of filaments in terrestrial concretions hints at the possibility of discovering fossil/extant life on Mars, and thus should be considered as prime targets for future reconnaissance missions to Mars. 1] Mahaney, W.C., et al. (2004), Icarus, 171, 39-53.

  1. Age-Dating Drainage Basins in Sabae and Arabia Terrae, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, S.; Craddock, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The precise timing of drainage basins is critical to understanding the climate history on Mars. One of the obvious problems with age-dating valley networks is the fact that they are small, linear features that are easily destroyed by large impact craters, thus counting craters on valley networks themselves is difficult at best. We proposed a new global study dating 27 drainage basins and subbasins in Sabaea and Arabia Terrae with the basin age-dating technique. Valley networks are contained within drainage basins, which is defined as the area that contributes water to a particular channel or set of channels . For our study, we used THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System) visible images with a spatial resolution of 100 m/pixel which allow us to count craters with diameter of 1 km and larger. A digital elevation model (DEM) using 1/128 gridded Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) helped us to extract the 26 basins and sub-basins drainage divides From these measurements, our study shows: (1) that all the drainages basins of a large region seem to cease their main fluvial activity at the same time at the end of the Early Hesperian epoch (~3.54 Gyr); (2) that the basin technique is the most reliable technique to do global age-dating; and (3) that there is a possible correlation between the degradation rate and the elevation. Our conclusions suggest that the main fluvial activity ceased because of a global climate change. We suppose that most of valley networks on Mars we observed today formed during the Early Hesperian and post-dated the early and late Noachian topographic features.

  2. Aquamicrobium terrae sp. nov., isolated from the polluted soil near a chemical factory.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Fang; Gu, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Yin-Ping; Yang, Zong-Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Xin

    2014-06-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile bacterial strain hun6(T) isolated from the polluted soil near a chemical factory in northern Nanjing, China was investigated to clarify its taxonomic position. Growth of strain hun6(T) occurred between 10 and 45 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and between pH 6.0 and 8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). No growth occurred at NaCl concentrations greater than 5 % (w/v). The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain hun6(T) belongs to the genus Aquamicrobium. The sequence similarities of strain hun6(T) to other type strains of Aquamicrobium genus were all below 98.5 %. The presence of ubiquinone-10, the predominant fatty acid summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c) and C19:0 cyclo ω8c, a polar lipid pattern with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phophatidylmonomethylethanoamine were in accord with the characteristics of the genus Aquamicrobium. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 63.5 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests and chemotaxonomic properties allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain hun6(T) from all known Aquamicrobium species. Therefore, strain hun6(T) can be assigned to a new species of this genus for which the name Aquamicrobium terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is hun6(T) (= CICC 10733(T) = DSM 27865(T)).

  3. Monitoring ice break-up on the Mackenzie River, Canada, from MODIS Aqua and Terra observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, P.; Duguay, C. R.; Kang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring the response of river ice phenology to variability and changes in high-latitude climate conditions is critical for improving our understanding of northern hydrology and related impacts on geochemical and biological processes. Shorter ice cover duration, thinner ice, and earlier break-up also influence the winter road season, thereby influencing industrial development and the delivery of goods to northern communities. Increased upstream temperatures over the Mackenzie River Basin have caused shorter ice cover seasons, consequently changing the timing and severity of river ice flow in this high-latitude region. This study involves the analysis of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 3 500-m snow products (Aqua and Terra), complemented with 250-m Level 1b data, to monitor ice cover during the break-up period on the Mackenzie River over the 2001-2013 period. Results from the analysis of 10 ice seasons (2003-2012) show that first day ice-off was observed between day of year (DY) 115-125 and ended between DY 145-155, resulting in average melt durations of about 30-40 days. Additional ice-on and ice-off days observed during 2003-2012 resulted from northern flowing entrained river ice that extended the break-up season until DY 155-163. Floating ice flowing northbound could therefore generate multiple periods of ice-cover and ice-free days at the same geographic location. During the ice break-up seasons from 2003-2012, ice melt was initiated by in situ melt over drainage basin (thermodynamic), especially between 61-62o N. However, ice break-up above the 62o N was more dynamically driven. In addition, ice jams were found to be largely controlled by river morphology.

  4. Regional Stream Temperature Estimation Using Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Images From Terra - ASTER And Ground Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Burges, S. J.; Kay, J. E.; Handcock, R. N.; Gillespie, A.; Booth, D. B.

    2001-12-01

    Stream temperature is a significant water quality concern in the Pacific Northwest, where warm water can be lethal for indigenous fish species and cold water refugia are essential for the survival of threatened and endangered salmon. This necessitates regional-scale assessments of water temperature for compliance monitoring. These assessments have, however, been limited by sparse sampling in both space and time using submerged temperature-recording sensors. In the Puget Sound region, for example, the State of Washington relied on periodic data collected at 76 stations to assess water quality conditions for 12,721 km of streams and rivers (i.e., one station for 167 km of stream). We are evaluating the utility of remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) and visible images of streams and stream corridors for increasing the data coverage for stream temperature analysis and assessment. If stream temperatures can be estimated from images with known and acceptable levels of confidence, then regional temperature assessments will be less sensitive to the uncertainty associated with sampling temperature at a relatively small number of ground stations. Stream temperatures, energy and water fluxes are monitored to evaluate their significance to the stream energy balance using a ground-based network of temperature data loggers, stream gauging stations, and meteorological observations. Radiant ("skin") temperatures of streams and rivers are recorded with point measurements to evaluate the relationship between the kinetic and the "skin" temperature of the water in various conditions. TIR images from Terra - ASTER of parts of the Green River basin, Washington State, are processed and analyzed to obtain spatially extensive "skin" water temperature, and to identify the types of stream that are amenable to satellite thermal infrared remote temperature monitoring.

  5. Implementation of electronic crosstalk correction for terra MODIS PV LWIR bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xu; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Chen, Na; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the fleet of NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS) in space. Terra MODIS has completed 15 years of operation far exceeding its design lifetime of 6 years. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) processing is the first in the process chain for deriving various higher level science products. These products are used mainly in understanding the geophysical changes occurring in the Earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere. The L1B code is designed to carefully calibrate the responses of all the detectors of the 36 spectral bands of MODIS and provide accurate L1B radiances (also reflectances in the case of Reflective Solar Bands). To fulfill this purpose, Look Up Tables (LUTs), that contain calibration coefficients derived from both on-board calibrators and Earth-view characterized responses, are used in the L1B processing. In this paper, we present the implementation mechanism of the electronic crosstalk correction in the Photo Voltaic (PV) Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) bands (Bands 27-30). The crosstalk correction involves two vital components. First, a crosstalk correction modular is implemented in the L1B code to correct the on-board Blackbody and Earth-View (EV) digital number (dn) responses using a linear correction model. Second, the correction coefficients, derived from the EV observations, are supplied in the form of LUTs. Further, the LUTs contain time stamps reflecting to the change in the coefficients assessed using the Noise Equivalent difference Temperature (NEdT) trending. With the algorithms applied in the MODIS L1B processing it is demonstrated that these corrections indeed restore the radiometric balance for each of the affected bands and substantially reduce the striping noise in the processed images.

  6. Preliminary data on formaldehyde content in seawater samples from Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea - Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largiuni, O.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2003-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a key reactive intermediate in the methane oxidation chain. To date, only a few measurements of HCHO in surface seawater have been reported, suggesting a net flux of HCHO from the atmosphere to the ocean surface. Ocean is considered as a sink for atmospheric HCHO, but it cannot be excluded that marine areas characterized by high biogenic activity constitute a source of HCHO to atmosphere. Indeed, laboratory experiments carried out on seawater microlayer show HCHO production by photo-oxidation of dissolved organic matter. To date no measurements on deep seawater samples were performed. A sensitive method for the formaldehyde determination in aqueous sample by Flow Injection Analysis has been applied to seawater samples analysis. The method has a detection limit of 55 ng/l and a reproducibility of 2.5% at 1 ug/l level (5 % in sea water samples). The detector response is linear in the range 0.1 - 3000 ug/l. In the framework of the Italian Research Programme in Antarctica (PNRA), 20 samples were collected in two stations in the Gerlache Inlet (Terra Nova Bay, Western Ross Sea) during the 2001/2002 field campaign (November 2001 to February 2002). The samples were collected through a hole in the sea-ice, along the water column, using a Go-Flo type bottle. Usually, just sub-pack and 30 and 50 m depth fractions were collected. For each depth profile, temperature, salinity and chlorophyll fluorescence signal were measured. Formaldehyde concentrations range from 4.5 to 40 ppb. The relationship between HCHO content and other measured parameters is discussed. The sampling repetition in time at the same sites allowed evaluating the seasonal changes in the formaldehyde concentration/depth profiles.

  7. TerraSAR-X dual-pol time-series for mapping of wetland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betbeder, Julie; Rapinel, Sébastien; Corgne, Samuel; Pottier, Eric; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    Mapping vegetation formations at a fine scale is crucial for assessing wetland functions and for better landscape management. Identification and characterization of vegetation formations is generally conducted at a fine scale using ecological ground surveys, which are limited to small areas. While optical remotely sensed imagery is limited to cloud-free periods, SAR time-series are used more extensively for wetland mapping and characterization using the relationship between distribution of vegetation formations and flood duration. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal number and key dates of SAR images to be classified to map wetland vegetation formations at a 1:10,000 scale. A series of eight dual-polarization TerraSAR-X images (HH/VV) was acquired in 2013 during dry and wet seasons in temperate climate conditions. One polarimetric parameter was extracted first, the Shannon entropy, which varies with wetland flooding status and vegetation roughness. Classification runs of all the possible combinations of SAR images using different k (number of images) subsets were performed to determine the best combinations of the Shannon entropy images to identify wetland vegetation formations. The classification runs were performed using Support Vector Machine techniques and were then analyzed using the McNemar test to investigate significant differences in the accuracy of all classification runs based on the different image subsets. The results highlight the relevant periods (i.e. late winter, spring and beginning of summer) for mapping vegetation formations, in accordance with ecological studies. They also indicate that a relationship can be established between vegetation formations and hydrodynamic processes with a short time-series of satellite images (i.e. 5 dates). This study introduces a new approach for herbaceous wetland monitoring using SAR polarimetric imagery. This approach estimates the number and key dates required for wetland management (e

  8. Summer snowmelt patterns in the South Shetlands using TerraSAR-X imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, C.; Jimenez, J. J.; Catalao Fernades, J.; Ferreira, A.; David, A.; Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.

    2014-12-01

    Snow plays an important role in controlling ground thermal regime and thus influencing permafrost distribution in the lower areas of the South Shetlands archipelago, where late lying snowpatches protect the soil from summer warming. However, summer snow distribution is complex in the mountainous environments of the Maritime Antarctica and it is very difficult to obtain accurate mapping products of snow cover extent and also to monitor snowmelt. Field observations of snow cover in the region are currently based on: i) thickness data from a very scarce network of meteorological stations, ii) temperature poles allowing to estimate snow thickness, iii) and time-lapse cameras allowing for assessing snow distribution over relatively small areas. The high cloudiness of the Maritime Antarctic environment limits good mapping results from the analysis of optical remote sensing imagery such as Landsat, QuickBird or GeoEye. Therefore, microwave sensors provide the best imagery, since they are not influenced by cloudiness and are sensitive to wet-snow, typical of the melting season. We have acquired TerraSAR-X scenes for Deception and Livingston Islands for January-March 2014 in spotlight (HH, VV and HH/VV) and stripmap modes (HH) and analyse the radar backscattering for determining the differences between wet-snow, dry-snow and bare soil aiming at developing snow melt pattern maps. For ground truthing, snowpits were dug in order to characterize snow stratigraphy, grain size, grain type and snow density and to evaluate its effects on radar backscattering. Time-lapse cameras allow to identify snow patch boundaries in the field and ground surface temperatures obtained with minloggers, together with air temperatures, allow to identify the presence of snow cover in the ground. The current research is conducted in the framework of the project PERMANTAR-3 (Permafrost monitoring and modelling in Antarctic Peninsula - PTDC/AAG-GLO/3908/2012 of the FCT and PROPOLAR).

  9. Aerosol-cloud interactions in ship tracks using Terra MODIS/MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Christensen, Matthew W.; Diner, David J.; Garay, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    Simultaneous ship track observations from Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) have been compiled to investigate how ship-injected aerosols affect marine warm boundary layer clouds for different cloud types and environmental conditions. By taking advantage of the high spatial resolution multiangle observations available from MISR, we utilized the retrieved cloud albedo, cloud top height, and cloud motion vectors to examine cloud property responses in ship-polluted and nearby unpolluted clouds. The strength of the cloud albedo response to increased aerosol level is primarily dependent on cloud cell structure, dryness of the free troposphere, and boundary layer depth, corroborating a previous study by Chen et al. (2012) where A-Train satellite data were utilized. Under open cell cloud structure the cloud properties are more susceptible to aerosol perturbations as compared to closed cells. Aerosol plumes caused an increase in liquid water amount (+38%), cloud top height (+13%), and cloud albedo (+49%) for open cell clouds, whereas for closed cell clouds, little change in cloud properties was observed. Further capitalizing on MISR's unique capabilities, the MISR cross-track cloud speed was used to derive cloud top divergence. Statistically averaging the results from the identified plume segments to reduce random noise, we found evidence of cloud top divergence in the ship-polluted clouds, whereas the nearby unpolluted clouds showed cloud top convergence, providing observational evidence of a change in local mesoscale circulation associated with enhanced aerosols. Furthermore, open cell polluted clouds revealed stronger cloud top divergence as compared to closed cell clouds, consistent with different dynamical mechanisms driving their responses. These results suggest that detailed cloud responses, classified by cloud type and environmental conditions, must be accounted for in global climate modeling

  10. NASA A-Train and Terra Observations of the 2010 Russian Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; DaSilva, A.; Torres, O.; Levy, R.; Duncan, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    Wildfires raged throughout western Russia and parts of Eastern Europe during a persistent heat wave in the summer of 2010. Anomalously high surface temperatures (35 - 41 C) and low relative humidity (9 - 25 %) from mid- June to mid-August 2010 shown by analysis of radiosonde data from multiple sites in western Russia were ideal conditions for the wildfires to thrive. Measurements of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) over western Russian indicate persistent subsidence during the heat wave. Daily three-day back-trajectories initiated over Moscow reveal a persistent anticyclonic circulation for 18 days in August, coincident with the most intense period of fire activity observed by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This unfortunate meteorological coincidence allowed transport of polluted air from the region of intense fires to Moscow and the surrounding area. We demonstrate that the 2010 Russian wildfires are unique in the record of observations obtained by remote-sensing instruments on-board NASA satellites: Aura and Aqua (part of the A-Train Constellation) and Terra. Analysis of the distribution of MODIS fire products and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), UV aerosol index (AI) and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and total column carbon monoxide (CO) from Aqua s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) show that the region in the center of western Russia surrounding Moscow (52-58 deg N, 33 -43 deg E) is most severely impacted by wildfire emissions. Over this area, AIRS CO, OMI AI, and MODIS AOT are significantly enhanced relative to the historical satellite record during the first 18 days in August when the anti-cyclonic circulation persisted. By mid-August, the anti-cyclonic circulation was replaced with westerly transport over Moscow and vicinity. The heat wave

  11. Drought monitoring of Shandong province in late 2010 using data acquired by Terra MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingzhi; Huang, He; Liu, Suihua; Yan, Lei

    2011-12-01

    Drought has been a frequently happened type of disaster in China, and it has caused massive losses to people's lives. Especially the drought happened in Shandong province in the late 2010, which was recognized as the severest in the past five hundred years in some areas. Evaluation must be done in order to make proper rescue plans. Instead of collecting data site by site, remote sensing is an efficient way to acquire data in a large area, which is very helpful for drought identification. Some normal ways in remote sensing for drought analysis are explained and compared in this paper, and then the VSWI method is chosen to evaluation the drought in Shandong province. Because of its free data policy and wide availability, the data sets acquired by Terra-MODIS are chosen to identify the drought severity in Shandong province. From the drought severity level images we can see that almost the whole area of Shandong province was lack of water except the Weishan Lake and eastern coastline regions where large area of water exists. The southwest region, including Heze and Jining, is in moderate drought condition, where it is used to be an important grain-producing area. This drought condition will inevitably put a negative effect on its grain production. The central and southern areas were in severe drought condition, but fortunately these areas are of hills and mountains, so the drought will only affect the lives of residents. The northern parts, including Dezhou and Bingzhou areas, were also in severe drought condition, and these regions are also important for grain-producing, so the severe drought disaster will lead to a sharp grain output cut. This analysis results will not only shed light on the rescue process, but also give the government some clues on how to maintain the grain supply safety.

  12. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Ship Tracks Using Terra MODIS/MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. C.; Christensen, M.; Diner, D. J.; Garay, M. J.; Nelson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous ship track observations from Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) have been compiled to investigate how ship-injected aerosols affect marine warm boundary layer clouds under different cloud types and environmental conditions. Taking advantage of the high spatial resolution multiangle observations uniquely available from MISR, we utilized the retrieved cloud albedo, cloud top height, and cloud motion vectors to examine the cloud property responses in ship-polluted and nearby unpolluted clouds. The strength of cloud albedo response to increased aerosol level is primarily dependent on cloud cell structure, dryness of the free troposphere, and boundary layer depth, corroborating a previous study by Chen et al. (2012) where A-Train satellite data were applied. Under open cell cloud structure, the cloud properties are more susceptible to aerosol perturbations as compared to closed cells. Aerosol plumes caused an increase in liquid water amount (+27%), cloud top height (+11%), and cloud albedo (+40%) for open cell clouds, whereas under closed cell clouds, little changes in cloud properties were observed. Further capitalizing on MISR's unique capabilities, the MISR cross-track cloud speed has been used to derive cloud top divergence. Statistically averaging the results from many plume segments to reduce random noise, we have found that in ship-polluted clouds there is stronger cloud top divergence, and in nearby unpolluted clouds, convergence occurs and leads to downdrafts, providing observational evidence for cloud top entrainment feedback. These results suggest that detailed cloud responses, classified by cloud type and environmental conditions, must be accounted for in global climate modeling studies to reduce uncertainties of aerosol indirect forcing. Reference: Chen, Y.-C. et al. Occurrence of lower cloud albedo in ship tracks, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8223-8235, doi:10.5194/acp-12

  13. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  14. Dust Transport and Deposition Observed from the Terra-MODIS Space Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Koren, I.; Remer, L. A.; Tanre, D.; Fan, Ginoux; Fan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Meteorological observations, in situ data and satellite images of dust episodes were used already in the 1970s to estimate that 100 tg of dust are transported from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean every year between June and August and deposited in the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas. Desert dust is a main source of nutrients to oceanic biota and the Amazon forest, but deteriorates air quality and caries pathogens as shown for Florida. Dust affects the Earth radiation budget, thus participating in climate change and feedback mechanisms. There is an urgent need for new tools for quantitative evaluation of the dust distribution, transport and deposition. The Terra spacecraft launched at the dawn of the last millennium provides first systematic well calibrated multispectral measurements from the MODIS instrument, for daily global analysis of aerosol. MODIS data are used here to distinguish dust from smoke and maritime aerosols and evaluate the African dust column concentration, transport and deposition. We found that 230+/-80 tg of dust are transported annually from Africa to the Atlantic Ocean, 30 tg return to Africa and Europe, 70 tg reach the Caribbean, 45 tg fertilize the Amazon Basin, 4 times as previous estimates thus explaining a paradox regarding the source of nutrition to the Amazon forest, and 120+/-40 tg are deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. The results are compared favorably with dust transport models for particle radius less than or equal to 12 microns. This study is a first example of quantitative use of MODIS aerosol for a geophysical study.

  15. Dust Transport and Deposition Observed from the Terra-Moderate Image Spectrometer (MODIS) Space Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Meteorological observations, in situ data and satellite images of dust episodes were used already in the 1970s to estimate that 100 tg of dust are transported from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean every year between June and August and deposited in the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas. Desert dust is a main source of nutrients to oceanic biota and the Amazon forest, but deteriorates air quality and caries pathogens as shown for Florida. Dust affects the Earth radiation budget, thus participating in climate change and feedback mechanisms. There is an urgent need for new tools for quantitative evaluation of the dust distribution, transport and deposition. The Terra spacecraft launched at the dawn of the last millennium provides first systematic well calibrated multispectral measurements from the MODIS instrument, for daily global analysis of aerosol. MODIS data are used here to distinguish dust from smoke and maritime aerosols and evaluate the African dust column concentration, transport and deposition. We found that 230 plus or minus 80 tg of dust are transported annually from Africa to the Atlantic Ocean, 30 tg return to Africa and Europe, 70 tg reach the Caribbean, 45 tg fertilize the Amazon Basin, 4 times as previous estimates thus explaining a paradox regarding the source of nutrition to the Amazon forest, and 120 plus or minus 40 tg are deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. The results are compared favorably with dust transport models for particle radius less than or equal to 12 microns. This study is a first example of quantitative use of MODIS aerosol for a geophysical study.

  16. Tyrrhena Terra: hydrated lobates ejecta and plains, as seen by OMEGA/MEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Bouley, S.; Mangold, N.; Meresse, S.; Costard, F.; Poulet, F.; Ansan, V.; Le Mouelic, S.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.

    2009-04-01

    Tyrrhena Terra was reported [2; 1; 3; 4] as one of the Martian region displaying outcrops rich in hydrated miner-als, by the identification of a weak 1.9 µm absorption band on spectra acquired by OMEGA, the imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express. The region is located in cratered Noachian highlands in the southern hemisphere, south of Isidia Planitia and north of Hellas basin. It displays highland terrains partially dissected by fluvial valleys and several intercrater plains. Hydrated minerals are identified in two types of terrains in Tyrrhena Terra: on lobate ejecta blankets and in some plains. About 20 ejecta blankets showing hydrated minerals were identified with OMEGA in the studied area. The pres-ence of the 2.3 µm absorption band, together with the 1.93 µm band, indicates the possible presence of phyllosili-cates. Most of these ejecta blankets are located on the eastern, higher part of the studied region, above 2000 m in altitude. Their diameter varies from 2 to 26 km. They are well delimited and are contrasted compared to the rest of the highlands on THEMIS IR night imagery. The other, non-hydrated, ejecta blankets of the region do not show such a contrast. As the dust cover is very low throughout the region, the difference in the THEMIS IR nighttime imagery would come from a difference in the ejecta material or preservation [3]. The hydration as seen by OMEGA appears preferentially on the surrounding ejecta and not inside the crater. Py-roxene is also detected on the ejecta blankets. On another hand, most ejecta are devoid of olivine as detected by OMEGA, although it is detected on many intercrater plains of the region. In addition, CRISM observes phyllosilicates associated with crater ejecta blankets and in mounds and knobs on crater floors [5; 6]. We also identified with OMEGA around 10 areas showing outcrops of hydrated minerals in the studied region, not associated to crater ejecta. They generally correspond to plains at the end of valley

  17. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Terra Satellite. Part 1; Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Loukachine, K.; Smith, N. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides coincident global cloud and aerosol properties together with reflected solar, emitted terrestrial longwave and infrared window radiative fluxes. These data are needed to improve our understanding and modeling of the interaction between clouds, aerosols and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, surface, and within the atmosphere. This paper describes the approach used to estimate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from instantaneous CERES radiance measurements on the Terra satellite. A key component involves the development of empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that account for the angular dependence of Earth's radiation field at the TOA. The CERES Terra ADMs are developed using 24 months of CERES radiances, coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMA0) s Goddard Earth Observing System DAS (GEOS-DAS V4.0.3) product. Scene information for the ADMs is from MODIS retrievals and GEOS-DAS V4.0.3 properties over ocean, land, desert and snow, for both clear and cloudy conditions. Because the CERES Terra ADMs are global, and far more CERES data is available on Terra than was available from CERES on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the methodology used to define CERES Terra ADMs is different in many respects from that used to develop CERES TRMM ADMs, particularly over snow/sea-ice, under cloudy conditions, and for clear scenes over land and desert.

  18. High Fidelity Non-Gravitational Force Models for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination of TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, Stefan; Montenbruck, Oliver; Steigenberger, -Peter; Eineder, Michael; Gisinger, Christoph

    Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on sophisticated validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. Basically, the precise reconstruction of the satellite’s trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency receiver onboard the spacecraft. The Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for the gravitational and non-gravitational forces. Following a proper analysis of the orbit quality, systematics in the orbit products have been identified, which reflect deficits in the non-gravitational force models. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). Due to the dusk-dawn orbit configuration of TerraSAR-X, the satellite is almost constantly illuminated by the Sun. Therefore, the direct SRP has an effect on the lateral stability of the determined orbit. The indirect effect of the solar radiation principally contributes to the Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). The resulting force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface in the visible, and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed within the presentation. The presentation highlights the influence of non-gravitational force and satellite macro models on the orbit quality of TerraSAR-X.

  19. Using Remote Sensing Techniques to Assess the Geologic Context of Olivine-Bearing Materials within Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M.; Osterloo, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding olivine-bearing materials in Terra Sirenum provides insight into the magmatic and hydrologic processes that shaped the Southern Highlands of Mars. Our study addresses two questions: "What is the geologic context of olivine compositions in the study area?" and "What does olivine abundance, composition, and geologic context suggest about the magmatic and weathering processes in our study area?" To answer these questions, we mapped olivine deposits within a region of Terra Sirenum using JMARS [1]. We used Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data to map the extent of olivine deposits and to understand their degree of consolidation. To investigate olivine composition, we used the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) global maps of Forsterite/Fayalite compositions [2]. We found that the olivine compositions vary from most iron-rich types (Fo01) to the most magnesium-rich (Fo91), with the vast majority identified as Fo68. The results of our study are consistent with those implied by the magma overturn model [3], which explains the compositional changes in Martian magmas over time. In addition, the extent of olivine-bearing deposits within our study area suggests that mechanical weathering (e.g., aeolian and gravity-driven processes) is more likely to dominate the sedimentary record in recent geologic time over water-driven processes. We will present our results, which detail the present-day surface geology of our study area in Terra Sirenum. Our results have implications for Martian magma evolution as well as the extent water has played in shaping the surface of the planet. [1] Gorelick, N., et al. (2003), Lunar and Planetary Science, XXXIV. [2] Koeppen, W.C., et al. (2008), Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, E002984. [3] Elkins-Tanton, L.T., et al. (2003), Meteorites & Planetary Science, 38, tb00013.

  20. Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiner, J. A., Jr.; Rogers, A. D.; Seelos, K. D.

    2009-01-01

    The highland-lowland boundary (HLB) of Mars is interpreted to be a complex tectonic and erosional transition that may hold evidence for past geologic processes and environments. The HLB-abutting margin of the Libya Montes and the interbasin plains of northern Tyrrhena Terra display an exceptional view of the earliest to middle history of Mars that has yet to be fully characterized. This region contains some of the oldest exposed materials on the Martian surface as well as aqueous mineral signatures that may be potential chemical artifacts of early highland formational processes. However, a full understanding of the regions geologic and stratigraphic evolution is remarkably lacking. Some outstanding questions regarding the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra in-clude: Does combining geomorphology and composition advance our understanding of the region s evolution? Can highland materials be subdivided into stratigraphically discrete rock and sediment sequences? What do major physiographic transitions imply about the balanced tectonism, climate change, and erosion? Where is the erosional origin and what is the post-depositional history of channel and plains units? When and in what types of environments did aqueous mineral signatures arise? This abstract introduces the geologic setting, science rationale, and first year work plan of a recently-funded 4-year geologic mapping proposal (project year = calendar year). The objective is to delineate the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra at 1:1M scale using both classical geomorphological and compositional mapping techniques. The funded quadrangles are MTMs 00282, -05282, -10282, 00277, -05277, and -10277.

  1. On-orbit performance and calibration improvements for the reflective solar bands of Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Hongda; Geng, Xu; Link, Daniel; Li, Yonghong; Wald, Andrew; Brinkmann, Jake

    2016-05-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is the keystone instrument for NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua missions, designed to extend and improve heritage sensor measurements and data records of the land, oceans and atmosphere. The reflective solar bands (RSB) of MODIS covering wavelengths from 0.41 μm to 2.2 μm, are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD), with its on-orbit bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) changes tracked using a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). MODIS is a scanning radiometer using a two-sided paddle-wheel mirror to collect earth view (EV) data over a range of +/-55° off instrument nadir. In addition to the solar calibration provided by the SD and SDSM system, lunar observations at nearly constant phase angles are regularly scheduled to monitor the RSB calibration stability. For both Terra and Aqua MODIS, the SD and lunar observations are used together to track the on-orbit changes of RSB response versus scan angle (RVS) as the SD and SV port are viewed at different angles of incidence (AOI) on the scan mirror. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) Collection 6 (C6) algorithm incorporated several enhancements over its predecessor Collection 5 (C5) algorithm. A notable improvement was the use of the earth-view (EV) response trends from pseudo-invariant desert targets to characterize the on-orbit RVS for select RSB (Terra bands 1-4, 8, 9 and Aqua bands 8, 9) and the time, AOI, and wavelength-dependent uncertainty. The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) has been maintaining and enhancing the C6 algorithm since its first update in November, 2011 for Aqua MODIS, and February, 2012 for Terra MODIS. Several calibration improvements have been incorporated that include extending the EV-based RVS approach to other RSB, additional correction for SD degradation at SWIR wavelengths, and alternative approaches for on-orbit RVS characterization. In addition to the on-orbit performance of the MODIS RSB, this paper also discusses in

  2. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-3) Range Biases and Momentum Unload Modeling for Terra (EOS-AMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Douglas T.

    2001-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) reports its performance in meeting Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) predicted ephemeris accuracy requirements with TDRS-3. The Terra (Earth Observing System AM-1) satellite has 3-sigma TDRS requirements of 75 m for total position accuracy predicted over one day onboard. The study sample includes selected cases over 21 months after Guam Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) support started in June 1998. For daily solutions with a 1.5-day prediction span, predicted results of the study were below the Terra requirement by at least 12 m. Refined range bias estimation and modeled momentum unloads are needed to meet Terra's requirements for TDRS-3. Maintained at 275 W longitude over the zone of exclusion, TDRS-3 is analyzed separately from other TDRSs because of its unique tracking data. Only the Bilateration Ranging Transponder (BRT) at Alice Springs (ALS), Australia, and the Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) system at Guam are used for routine operational tracking data for TDRS-3. Simultaneous batch orbit solutions with three TDRSs and either the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) or Terra were done with the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) to periodically refine the TT&C and BRT System (BRTS) range biases. As new biases were determined, significant changes were made in estimating the absolute position. FDF achieved similar results using a sequential filter with all operational TDRSs and four user satellites. Definitive accuracy (3-sigma) is expected to be below 50 m. The White Sands Complex (WSC) performs momentum unloads to maintain three-axis stabilized attitude of TDRSs. The relationship between velocity changes (delta-V) and reaction wheel speed changes was empirically determined for roll/yaw unloads. A theoretical relationship was verified and used for pitch unloads. Modeling both pitch and roll/yaw momentum unloads is necessary to meet the 75-m requirement. Moving the orbit solution epoch an hour before a

  3. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  4. Model developments in TERRA_URB, the upcoming standard urban parametrization of the atmospheric numerical model COSMO(-CLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Blahak, Ulrich; Helmert, Jürgen; Raschendorfer, Matthias; Demuzere, Matthias; Fay, Barbara; Trusilova, Kristina; Mironov, Dmitrii; Reinert, Daniel; Lüthi, Daniel; Machulskaya, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    In order to address urban climate at the regional scales, a new efficient urban land-surface parametrization TERRA_URB has been developed and coupled to the atmospheric numerical model COSMO-CLM. Hereby, several new advancements for urban land-surface models are introduced which are crucial for capturing the urban surface-energy balance and its seasonal dependency in the mid-latitudes. This includes a new PDF-based water-storage parametrization for impervious land, the representation of radiative absorption and emission by greenhouse gases in the infra-red spectrum in the urban canopy layer, and the inclusion of heat emission from human activity. TERRA_URB has been applied in offline urban-climate studies during European observation campaigns at Basel (BUBBLE), Toulouse (CAPITOUL), and Singapore, and currently applied in online studies for urban areas in Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Helsinki, Singapore, and Melbourne. Because of its computational efficiency, high accuracy and its to-the-point conceptual easiness, TERRA_URB has been selected to become the standard urban parametrization of the atmospheric numerical model COSMO(-CLM). This allows for better weather forecasts for temperature and precipitation in cities with COSMO, and an improved assessment of urban outdoor hazards in the context of global climate change and urban expansion with COSMO-CLM. We propose additional extensions to TERRA_URB towards a more robust representation of cities over the world including their structural design. In a first step, COSMO's standard EXTernal PARarameter (EXTPAR) tool is updated for representing the cities into the land cover over the entire globe. Hereby, global datasets in the standard EXTPAR tool are used to retrieve the 'Paved' or 'sealed' surface Fraction (PF) referring to the presence of buildings and streets. Furthermore, new global data sets are incorporated in EXTPAR for describing the Anthropogenic Heat Flux (AHF) due to human activity, and optionally the

  5. TerraLook: Providing easy, no-cost access to satellite images for busy people and the technologically disinclined

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geller, G.N.; Fosnight, E.A.; Chaudhuri, Sambhudas

    2007-01-01

    Access to satellite images has been largely limited to communities with specialized tools and expertise, even though images could also benefit other communities. This situation has resulted in underutilization of the data. TerraLook, which consists of collections of georeferenced JPEG images and an open source toolkit to use them, makes satellite images available to those lacking experience with remote sensing. Users can find, roam, and zoom images, create and display vector overlays, adjust and annotate images so they can be used as a communication vehicle, compare images taken at different times, and perform other activities useful for natural resource management, sustainable development, education, and other activities. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  6. TerraLook: Providing easy, no-cost access to satellite images for busy people and the technologically disinclined

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geller, G.N.; Fosnight, E.A.; Chaudhuri, Sambhudas

    2008-01-01

    Access to satellite images has been largely limited to communities with specialized tools and expertise, even though images could also benefit other communities. This situation has resulted in underutilization of the data. TerraLook, which consists of collections of georeferenced JPEG images and an open source toolkit to use them, makes satellite images available to those lacking experience with remote sensing. Users can find, roam, and zoom images, create and display vector overlays, adjust and annotate images so they can be used as a communication vehicle, compare images taken at different times, and perform other activities useful for natural resource management, sustainable development, education, and other activities. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  7. Light-Toned, Layered Outcrops of Northern Terra Meridiani Mars: Viking, Phobos 2, and Mars Global Surveyor Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2002-01-01

    Locating outcrops of sedimentary rock on Mars is an important step toward deciphering the planet's geologic and climatologic record. Sedimentary rock representing the earliest martian environments, are of particular interest in this context. This is a report about a vast exposure of material proposed to be martian sedimentary rock. The outcrops cover an area (approximately sq 300,000 km) roughly the size of the Colorado Plateau in North America (approximately 260,000 sq km). The materials occur in northern Terra Meridiani, near of one of the four sites being considered for a 2004 NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing. The landing ellipse, centered at deg S, deg W, lies in a region exhibiting smooth and rough (at meter scale) dark-toned surfaces, with scattered light-toned patches. Stratigraphically, the dark-toned materials at the MER site lie unconformably on top of a previously-eroded, light-toned surface; the light-toned patches in the landing ellipse are geologic windows down to this lower stratigraphic unit. North of the landing ellipse, the light-toned materials are well-exposed because the darker materials have been removed, stranding outlier remnants in a few locations. The light-toned materials are layered, vertically heterogeneous, and exhibit lateral continuity over hundreds of kilometers. Eroded layers produce cliffs; some outcrops are expressed as mesas, buttes, and spires; and impact craters ranging in diameter from a few meters to tens of kilometers are interbedded with the layers. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of greater than 6 years of photogeologic investigation into the nature of the light-toned outcrops of northern Terra Meridiani. The work is a 'snapshot' of progress made toward eventual geologic mapping and establishment of the stratigraphic sequence for the materials through 30 September 2002, a day prior to the first release of Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data to the NASA Planetary Data

  8. Stratigraphy, structure, and graptolites of an Ordovician and Silurian sequence in the Terra Cotta Mountains, Alaska Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churkin, Michael; Carter, Claire

    1996-01-01

    The geology and graptolite faunas of the Terra Cotta Mountains in south-central Alaska are described. Three new formations of Paleozoic age are named and described; they include graptolitiferous argillaceous rocks, sandstones, and limestones of the Dillinger Terrane. The structure and tectonics of the mapped area arc also discussed. Ninety-five species of Ordovician and Silurian graptolites, including four new species, are described and illustrated. The faunal succession is divided into nine Ordovician and ten Silurian biostratigraphic zones and is correlated with graptolite faunas found elsewhere.

  9. Relation between "terra rossa" from the Apulia aquifer of Italy and the radon content of groundwater: Experimental results and their applicability to radon occurrence in the aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadolini, T.; Spizzico, M.

    The radon-222 (222Rn) activity in groundwater of the Apulian karstic aquifer in southern Italy is as great as 500 Becquerel per liter (Bq/L) locally. Normal radium-226 (226Ra) activity in the limestone and calcareous dolomites of the aquifer is not enough to explain such a high level. Laboratory investigations identified high 226Ra activity in the "terra rossa," the residuum occupying fissures and cavities in the bedrock, and also the relation between (1) 226Ra-bearing bedrock and "terra rossa" and (2) 222Rn in water. The "terra rossa" is the primary source of the radon in the groundwater. The experimental results show the need to characterize the "terra rossa" of Apulia on the basis of 226Ra activity and also to study the distribution and variations in 222Rn activity over time in the aquifer. Résumé L'activité du radon-222 (222Rn) dans les eaux souterraines de l'aquifère karstique des Pouilles, dans le sud de l'Italie, atteint localement 500 Becquerel par litre (Bq/L). L'activité normale du radium-226 (226Ra) dans les calcaires et dans les calcaires dolomitiques de l'aquifère n'est pas assez élevée pour expliquer des valeurs aussi élevées. Des analyses de laboratoire ont mis en évidence une forte activité en 226Ra dans la terra rossa, remplissage de fissures et de cavités de la roche, ainsi qu'une relation entre (1) la roche et la terra rossa contenant du 226Ra et (2) le 222Rn dans l'eau. La terra rossa est la source primaire de radon dans l'eau souterraine. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent qu'il est nécessaire de caractériser la terra rossa des Pouilles par son activité en 226Ra et d'étudier la distribution et les variations de l'activité en 222Rn au cours du temps dans l'aquifère. Resumen La actividad del radon-222 (222Rn) en el agua subterránea del acuífero cárstico de Apulia, al sur de Italia, alcanza localmente los 500Bq/L. La actividad normal del radio-226 (226Ra) en las calcitas y dolomitas del acuífero no es suficiente para

  10. Nocardiopsis terrae sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from saline soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Tang, Shu-Kun; Liu, Zhu-Xiang; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Li-Xin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2010-06-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, obligately aerobic, filamentous actinomycete strain, designated YIM 90022(T), was isolated from saline soil collected from the Qaidam Basin, north-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate was a member of the genus Nocardiopsis and the sequence similarities between the isolate and the type strains of members of the genus Nocardiopsis were in the range of 95.1-98.7%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties of this organism also indicated that strain YIM 90022(T) was a member of the genus Nocardiopsis. The strain grew well on most of the media tested, producing yellow-white to deep brown substrate mycelium and white aerial mycelium. Light gray to deep brown diffusible pigments were produced. The substrate mycelium was well developed and fragmented with age; the aerial mycelium produced long, straight to flexuous spore chains with non-motile, smooth-surfaced, rod-shaped spores on them. The strain grew in the presence of 1-15% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 3-5%) and at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 8.5) and 10-45 degrees C (optimum, 30 degrees C). Whole-cell hydrolysates of strain YIM 90022(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and no diagnostic sugars. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H(4)), MK-9(H(8)), MK-10(H(6)) and MK-10(H(8)). Polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylmethylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0), anteiso-C(17:0), 10-methyl-C(18:0) and 10-methyl-C(17:0). The DNA G + C content of strain YIM 90022(T) was 71.5 mol%. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the suggestion that strain YIM 90022(T) represents a new species of the genus Nocardiopsis, for which the name Nocardiopsis terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is

  11. Change analysis at Stuttgart airport using TerraSAR-X imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldt, Markus; Thiele, Antje; Cadario, Erich; Schulz, Karsten; Hinz, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Change detection based on remote sensing imagery is a topic highly on demand with various fields of application. Probably, disaster management is the best known, where it is crucial to get fast and reliable results to enable a suitable supply of the affected region. Another important issue, for example in city or land-use planning, is the regular monitoring of specific regions of interest. For both scenarios, it would be significant to have information about the type or category of the detected changes. Since High-Resolution (HR) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is in opposite to optical sensors an active technique, it is well-capable for all change detection topics where a regular monitoring is intended. SAR sensors illuminate the investigated scene by their own microwave radiation and most applied microwave wavelengths make SAR nearly independent from atmospheric effects like dust, fog, and clouds. Moreover, the time of day makes no difference using SAR sensors. Acquired in HR SpotLight mode 300 (HS300) by the German satellite TerraSAR-X (TSX), images have a resolution of better than one meter, which allows to separate small objects placed close together. In this paper, a concept of change analysis focusing on small-sized areas is presented. Those change areas can be caused by man-made objects (e.g. vehicles, small construction sites) or natural events like phenologically based changes of the vegetation. Since the presented change analysis concept deals with the analysis of time series imagery, other seasonal also man-made caused changes (e.g. agriculture) can be detected. Furthermore, the concept comprises the categorization of the detected changes, which separates it from many of the existing change detection approaches. It includes five central components given by the change detection itself, the pre-categorization of change pixels, the feature extraction for change blobs, the analysis of their spatial context, and the final decision making forming a

  12. Uses of Terra, Landsat 7, and Other Satellite Data Sets for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Owensby, P.; Chellis, C.; Lo, J.

    2001-05-01

    One of the basic requirements of those who provide information products in support of disaster managers is to have rapid access to current image data at a uniform spatial resolution over the entire geographic region of interest. This is particularly true for the Pacific Disaster Center (PDC), which is focused generating information products for many different types of natural disaster (e.g., hurricanes, floods, fires, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and earthquakes), and a wide range of users in many countries. The PDC provides support to emergency managers via the timely distribution of information products and services for all natural events in and around the Pacific and Indian Oceans. All phases of emergency management (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) fall under the objective. The PDC fuses science (physics-based numerical models), new data sources (e.g., satellite images), and advanced information and communication technologies (e.g., on-line interactive GIS map production) to provide operational support to a diverse range of disaster managers. We have been working to demonstrate the value to disaster managers of Landsat 7 mosaics derived from multiple scenes of the same area, and to make the generation of browse versions of new mosaics available over the web in real-time. We are using full-resolution Landsat mosaics in the analysis of population growth in areas of the Big Island, Hawaii, at greatest risk from new volcanic eruptions, and the production of baseline images for parts of the Western Pacific where few high resolution maps are available. However, greater utility is believed to lie in combining Landsat data with other types of satellite data sets in order to meet a broader range of disaster manager needs. Observations from the Terra spacecraft (ASTER), as well as commercial data (Ikonos), allow new aspects of disaster management to be addressed. Much of our current work is focused on cities that are at great risk from earthquakes

  13. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars: Gullies in Crater Wall, Noachis Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater in Noachis Terra. This high resolution view (top left) from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) shows channels and associated aprons of debris that are interpreted to have formed by groundwater seepage, surface runoff, and debris flow. The lack of small craters superimposed on the channels and apron deposits indicates that these features are geologically young. It is possible that these gullies indicate that liquid water is present within the martian subsurface today.

    The MOC image was acquired on September 28, 1999. The scene covers an area approximately 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 6.7 km (4.1 mi) high (note, the aspect ratio is 1.5 to 1.0). Sunlight illuminates this area from the upper left. The image is located near 54.8oS, 342.5oW. The context image (above) shows the location of the MOC image on the south-facing wall of an impact crater approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. The context picture was obtained by the Viking 1 orbiter in 1980 and is illuminated from the upper left. The large mound on the floor of the crater in the context view is a sand dune field. The Mars Orbiter Camera high resolution images are taken black-and-white (grayscale); the color seen here has been synthesized from the colors of Mars observed by the MOC wide angle cameras and by the Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s.

    A brief description of how the color was generated: The MOC narrow angle camera only takes grayscale (black and white) pictures. To create the color versions seen here, we have taken much lower resolution red and blue images acquired by the MOC's wide angle cameras, and by the Viking Orbiter cameras in the 1970s, synthesized a green image by averaging red and blue, and created a pallette of colors that represent the range of colors on Mars. We then use a relationship that correlates color and brightness to assign a color to

  14. Hydraulic Inferences for Mars From Geologic Mapping in Margaritifer Terra, Mars and Measurements of Terrestrial Analogs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Williams, K. K.; Springer, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    Past hydrogeologic models of Mars have focused primarily on exploring a link between large scale groundwater systems and the Martian outflow channels. These groundwater models have generally given only slight consideration to the occurrence of smaller-scale valley network that dissect much of the southern highlands. Ongoing geologic and geomorphic mapping in 6 Mars Transverse Mercator 1:500K quadrangles (17.5ºS - 27.5ºS and 345ºE - 360ºE) in southeast Margaritifer Terra, Mars, shows valley networks are often associated with the internal and external slopes of the impact basin but are absent on the basin floor. We propose a sequence of ponding in the basin followed by infiltration into the subsurface, transmission down the regional slope and sapping valleys forming on the crater flanks. The Martian valley morphologies are analogous with morphologies of terrestrial spring-fed sapping processes (i.e., amphitheater-shaped heads, stubby tributaries, steep walls, and U-shaped valleys that maintain consistent width-depth ratios along their length). Flow measurements from spring-fed channels in the Navajo Sandstone near Escalante, Utah supply data from areas actively forming sapping valleys and provide insight into the interaction between surface-water and groundwater. Measurements taken during pre-monsoon and post-snow melt run-off and planned post- monsoonal measurements will provide a range of discharge values furnishing data to model the interaction of subsurface- and surface-water flow on Mars. Published stratigraphic models of Mars postulate that the upper kilometer of material is ejecta related well-mixed unsorted debris ranging from meter sized blocks down to dust sized particles overlying fractured bedrock. Detailed mapping using high resolution datasets allows for accurate characterization of surficial material properties on a local scale which will help to better understand influences on hydrologic variables (i.e. permeability, hydraulic conductivity, etc

  15. New Mineralogic Diversity in the Noachian Crust of Tyrrhena Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Viviano-Beck, C.; Murchie, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The cratered Noachian highlands region of Mars is host to hundreds to thousands of exposures of hydrated minerals. Areas of the highlands that are relatively free of dust, such as Tyrrhena Terra, have been previously examined using Mars Express/OMEGA and MRO/CRISM visible/near-IR reflectance data. The inferred alteration mineralogy is consistent with formation under low water to rock ratio, relatively low T/P and shallow crustal conditions. The vast majority of occurrences are associated with impact craters with a wide range of diameters, and within not only central peaks, but also rims and ejecta. This implies that most outcrops are a result of the excavation of pre-existing mineralology, not formation in-situ by post-impact hydrothermalism. Types of minerals reported include, most commonly, Fe/Mg phyllosilicates (smectite, chlorite, mixed-layer clays, prehnite, serpentine, illite), and less commonly, Al-phyllosilicates (e.g., kaolinite), carbonates, zeolites (e.g., analcime), and hydrated silica. Here we document and characterize the occurrence of an additional class of mineralogy in Noachian terrain: hydrated sulfates. Hydrated sulfates are observed in the central peaks and (in one case) the proximal ejecta of 3 craters dispersed across the region. In each crater, a diverse assemblage of other hydrated alteration minerals is also apparent and includes prehnite, carbonate, zeolite, Fe/Mg smectite, and chlorite. Two of the three craters are approximately 10 km in diameter, with resulting sulfate exhumation depths in the central peaks approaching 1 km. The third crater has a diameter of 25 km; however, uplift and ejecta from several pre-existing impacts reduce the possible sulfate excavation depth to 1.3 km. CRISM spectra are consistent with a poly-hydrated sulfate, with major absorptions centered at 1.45, 1.95, and 2.4 micrometers - similar to, but distinct from, many zeolites. While mono-hydrated and poly-hydrated sulfates are not uncommon to other areas of Mars

  16. Impact of drought on surface albedo in Canadian Prairie observed from Terra- MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Trishchenko, A. P.; Wang, S.; Khlopenkov, K. V.

    2009-05-01

    A new technology was developed at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) for generating Canada wide clear-sky surface albedo data based on observations from MODIS sensor onboard TERRA satellite. The data include all seven MODIS land bands (B1-B7) mapped at 250m spatial resolution and 10-day temporal interval from year 2000 through 2008. The new product presents an important spatial enhancement as well as an improved retrieval of water fraction and snow characteristics relative to the standard MODIS archival products. The regional data for the entire Canadian Prairie region are extracted and aggregated for different ecozones, such as north to south, the boreal transition, aspen parkland, moist mixed grassland, and mixed grassland etc. The preliminary results indicate that in comparison to normal summer conditions (2006-2008), the albedo for the drought years (2000-2003) summer increases up to 20 percent in the visible band (B1) and decreases as low as 10 percent in the near infrared band (B2). In the shortwave infrared band (B6) where a large absorption by leaf water occurs, the albedo increases as much as 15 percent for the drought years due to less leaf water content. The derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which represents a density of healthy vegetation, drops dramatically (up to 30 percent) for the drought period of 2000-2003. Among the different ecozones, the grassland shows the largest response to droughts while the boreal zone shows the least. Further applications of this product include mapping of snow cover (fraction and grain size), the fraction of absorbed photo-synthetically active radiation (fAPAR), ecosystem productivity, water and energy budget, as well as impact of various disturbances, such as wildfires, and long term climate induced trends. This work was conducted at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS), Earth Sciences Sector of the Department of Natural Resources Canada as part of the Project J35 of the Program on

  17. Chemotaxis and adherence to fungal surfaces are key components of the behavioral response of Burkholderia terrae BS001 to two selected soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Haq, Irshad Ul; Calixto, Renata Oliveira da Rocha; Yang, Pu; Dos Santos, Giulia Maria Pires; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-11-01

    Burkholderia terrae BS001 has previously been proposed to be a 'generalist' associate of soil fungi, but its strategies of interaction have been largely ignored. Here, we studied the chemotactic behavior of B. terrae BS001 towards Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and Trichoderma asperellum 302 and the role of fungal surface molecules in their physical interaction with the bacteria. To assess the involvement of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), wild-type strain BS001 and T3SS mutant strain BS001-ΔsctD were used in the experiments. First, the two fungi showed divergent behavior when confronted with B. terrae BS001 on soil extract agar medium. Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten revealed slow growth towards the bacterium, whereas T. asperellum 302 grew avidly over it. Both on soil extract and M9 agar, B. terrae BS001 and BS001-ΔsctD moved chemotactically towards the hyphae of both fungi, with a stronger response to Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten than to T. asperellum 302. The presence of a progressively increasing glycerol level in the M9 agar enhanced the level of movement. Different oxalic acid concentrations exerted varied effects, with a significantly raised chemotactic response at lower, and a subdued response at higher concentrations. Testing of the adherence of B. terrae BS001 and BS001-ΔsctD to Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and to cell envelope-extracted ceramide monohexosides (CMHs) revealed that CMHs in both conidia and hyphae could bind strain BS001 cells. As BS001-ΔsctD adhered significantly less to the CMHs than BS001, the T3SS was presumed to have a role in the interaction. In contrast, such avid adherence was not detected with T. asperellum 302. Thus, B. terrae BS001 shows a behavior characterized by swimming towards Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and T. asperellum 302 and attachment to the CMH moiety in the cell envelope, in particular of the former.

  18. Terra Preta sanitation: re-discovered from an ancient Amazonian civilisation - integrating sanitation, bio-waste management and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Factura, H; Bettendorf, T; Buzie, C; Pieplow, H; Reckin, J; Otterpohl, R

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of the bio-waste and excreta treatment of a former civilisation in the Amazon reveals the possibility of a highly efficient and simple sanitation system. With the end product that was black soil they converted 10% of former infertile soil of the region: Terra Preta do Indio (black soil of the Indians). These soils are still very fertile 500 years after this civilisation had disappeared. Deriving from these concepts, Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS) has been re-developed and adopted. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Natural formation processes are employed to transform excreta into lasting fertile soil that can be utilised in urban agriculture. The authors studied the lacto-fermentation of faecal matter with a minimum of 4 weeks followed by vermicomposting. The results showed that lactic-acid fermentation with addition of a charcoal mixture is a suitable option for dry toilets as the container can be closed after usage. Hardly any odour occured even after periods of several weeks. Lactic-acid fermentation alone without addition of bulking agents such as paper and sliced-cut wood to raise the C/N ratio is creating a substrate that is not accepted by worms. PMID:20453341

  19. Extremely low-temperature properties of silicone compound used for thermal coupling in cryostat of SWIR/ASTER on TERRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Akao, Hiroshi; Akagi, Shigeki; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tatsumi, Kenji; Kawada, Masakuni

    2014-07-01

    The SWIR(Short Wave-length Infrared Radiometer) is one of the optical sensors in ASTER(Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). ASTER is installed in the EOS(Earth Observing System) TERRA spacecraft of NASA. TERRA was launched on December18, 1999, and is employed still on the orbit for 14 years in January, 2014, The detector of SWIR is cooled at temperature 77K by cryocooler with the optimum sensitivity. SWIR had continued to take the numerous image data for more than five years of the mission period on orbit, and the cryocooler is still operating normally. However, a gradual rise in temperature of the detector has been seen after launch. Silicone compound have been used in order to achieve heat transfer between the detector and the cryocooler. On investigation, we have found that thermal conductivity of the silicone compound has been gradually reduced. We evaluated the low temperature properties (such as thermal conductivity, strength etc.) of the silicone compound. In addition, we analyzed the temperature conditions and the thermal stress values of cryostat in the orbit. As a result, the silicone compound solidified at low temperature shows a behavior similar to adhesive. Depending on the thermal stress generated at a low temperature, there is a possibility that destruction such as peeling occurs.

  20. Low Albedo Surfaces and Eolian Sediment: Mars Orbiter Camera Views of Western Arabia Terra Craters and Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    High spatial resolution (1.5 to 12 m/pixel) Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera images obtained September 1997 through June 2001 indicate that the large, dark wind streaks of western Arabia Terra each originate at a barchan dune field on a crater floor. The streaks consist of a relatively thin coating of sediment deflated from the dune fields and their vicinity. This sediment drapes a previous mantle that more thickly covers nearly all of western Arabia Terra. No dunes or eolian bedforms are found within the dark wind streaks, nor do any of the intracrater dunes climb up crater walls to provide sand to the wind streaks. The relations between dunes, wind streak, and subjacent terrain imply that dark-toned grains finer than those which comprise the dunes are lifted into suspension and carried out of the craters to be deposited on the adjacent terrain. Such grains are most likely in the silt size range (3.9-62.5 micrometers). The streaks change in terms of extent, relative albedo, and surface pattern over periods measured in years, but very little evidence for recent eolian activity (dust plumes, storms, dune movement) has been observed.

  1. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua Mission Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS: Science and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomnson, Vincent V.

    2003-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Mission began to produce data in February 2000. The EOS Aqua mission was launched successfully May 4,2002 with another MODIS on it and "first light" observations occurred on June 24,2002. The Terra MODIS is in a sun-synchronous orbit going north to south in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at about 1030 hours local time. The Aqua spacecraft operates in a sun-synchronous orbit going south to north in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at approximately 1330 hours local time. The spacecraft, instrument, and data systems for both MODIS instruments are performing well and are producing a wide variety of data products useful for scientific and applications studies in relatively consistent fashion extending from November 2000 to the present. Within the approximately 40 MODIS data products, several are new and represent powerful and exciting capabilities such the ability to provide observations over the globe of fire occurrences, microphysical properties of clouds and sun-stimulated fluorescence from phytoplankton in the surface waters of the ocean. The remainder of the MODIS products exceeds or, at a minimum, matches the capabilities of products from heritage sensors such as, for example, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Efforts are underway to provide data sets for the greater Earth science community and to improve access to these products at the various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) or through Direct Broadcast (DB) stations.

  2. Detection and context of hydrated mineralogy in the Tyrrhena Terra region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Haan, J.; Zegers, T. E.; van Ruitenbeek, F. J. A.; van der Werff, H. M. A.; Rossi, A.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The discovery of phyllosilicates on Mars [1] has had major implications on the perceived geologic and climatologic evolution of Mars [2]. Not only do phyllosilicates represent a `wet' period on Mars, they might also represent a potentially favorable environment for life. The phyllosilicates have so far exclusively been found in or close to ancient Noachian highland terrain. Those phyllosilicate deposits studied (e.g. [3]) show a clear association between hydrated mineralogy and heavily eroded and crater-saturated outcrops. Phyllosilicates on Earth are associated with a wide variety of geological processes (volcanism, metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, sedimentation). The occurrence of phyllosilicates on Mars may be equally diverse in nature. To be able to place constraints on the early Martian environment, the processes by which these phyllosilicates formed need to be reconstructed. To derive this information from individual phyllosilicate deposits, it is necessary to interpret their composition in relation to their geological context and relative time relationships. We conducted such an integrated hyperspectral and geological study of the Tyrrhena Terra region. Data products ad methods HRSC data products (both image at 12 m/pixel and stereo-derived DTMs) are used for examining geologic cross-cutting relationships, geomorphologic landforms and visual determination of unit boundaries. Odyssey THEMIS nighttime TIR images are analyzed for spatial variations in thermal inertia. Where available, HRSC is supplemented by higher-resolution visible observations of CTX or MOC. Hyperspectral analysis is conducted using data from the OMEGA hyperspectral instrument. In order to batch-process large amounts of OMEGA data, an IDL/ENVI tool was developed on top of the existing SOFT04, distributed by PSA. The applied atmospheric correction assumes that atmospheric contributions are multiplicative, and follow a power-law distribution with altitude [4]. The ratio of

  3. Evaluation of monthwise and overall trends of AOD over Indian cities using MODIS Aqua and Terra retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subhasis; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been shown to have profound impact on climate system and human health. Regular and systematic monitoring of ambient air is thus necessary in order to asses its impact. There are several ground based stations worldwide employed in this service but still their numbers are inadequate and it is even almost impossible to have such stations at difficult geographical terrains and take measurement throughout the year. Aerosol optical depth or AOD, which is a measure of extinction of incoming solar radiation, serves as proxy to atmospheric aerosol loading. Various sensors onboard different satellites take routine measurement of AOD throughout the year. Satellite based AOD is used in many studies due to their wide coverage and availability for a longer time period. Satellite measures reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Column integrated value of aerosol are routinely estimated from those measurements using suitable inversion algorithms. MODIS instrument onboard Aqua and Terra satellites of Earth Observing System takes routine measurement in wide spectral range. We used those data to evaluate trend of AOD over almost fifty Indian cities having population more than a million. The cities we have chosen spread over almost entire length and breadth of the country. Few such studies have already been conducted using MODIS data. They typically used level 3 data. Since Level 3 data comes in 1x 1 degree gridded form they provide average value over a vast geographical region. We used level 2 dataset to enable us taking smaller region(1/2 x 1/2 degree here) centering the region of our interest . We used seasonal Mann-Kendall (M-K) statistics coupled with Sen's non-parametric slope estimation procedure to estimate monthwise and overall(i.e., yearly trend taking seasonality into account) AOD trend. We used median AOD for each month of every year to discard very high AOD's which we often get due to cloud contamination. Seasonal M-K test takes

  4. Falling in love with minerals terra mineralia - a journey to the most beautiful minerals of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anna, D.

    2013-12-01

    Is it possible to make people fall in love with minerals? Yes, it is. And it happens daily at terra mineralia, a permanent exhibition displaying a collection of 3500 rare and beautiful minerals, precious stones and meteorites in Freiberg/Saxony. The exhibits are part of one of the world's largest private collections of minerals and have been given to the TU Bergakademie Freiberg on permanent loan by Dr. Erika Pohl-Ströher. The exquisite pieces stem from sites on every continent, and as such, allow the visitor to virtually journey around the world to the world's most beautiful minerals - an amazing and unexpected experience. The specimen are so unique in quality and aesthetical appearance that scientists and private collectors from all over the world are overwhelmed by their display. However, the exhibition is less targeted towards the specialist or collector. Due to the close ties of the terra mineralia to its parent organization, the TU Bergakademie Freiberg, which is one of the leading universities dedicated to the geo-sciences, it has been primarily designed to attract young visitors, school children and students. It is the expressed goal of the University and Dr. Erika Pohl-Ströher to give young people the opportunity to discover the fascinating aspects natural sciences have to offer. Therefore, the efforts of the museums educational service focus on raising awareness and enticing the young 'scientists' to be. Why not continue a live of learning where the interest in natural sciences had been nurtured in first place - at the TU Bergakademie in Freiberg, for example with studies in the fields of mineralogy, geology or mining? And while you are at it, come back to terra mineralia as a student to help form and train the next generation of young talents. So, does it work? Yes, even if it is still too early to see the young enrolled in the University. What we already see, is a tremendous amount of positive feed back from the young, their parents and educators

  5. Radar data sensitivity to crops using TerraSAR-X, Radarsat-2 and Alos satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieuzal, R.; Baup, F.; Marais-Sicre, C.

    2012-04-01

    In a changing climate context, the understanding of the different processes involved in the surface-atmosphere interactions in anthropized area is fundamental. On agricultural ecosystems, this issue is reinforced by the obligation to combine sufficient productivity and durability of the resources from local to regional scales. The objective of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of multi-frequency (at X-, C- and L-bands) and multi-polarization (HH, VV, HV and VH at C-band) radar backscatter signatures during the growing season (i.e. from sowing to harvest) of different crops (e.g. corn, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and wheat). Optical data are used as references for the analyses. The study is in the framework of the MCM'10 experiment (http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/fr/mcm.html), carried out over an agricultural area located in the South West of France, in Midi-Pyrénées region. The aim of the experiment is to improve knowledge on agrosystems functioning, combining ground measurements and high resolution satellite images acquired in optical, thermal and radar domains. In microwave domain acquisitions are performed quasi-synchronously by TerraSAR-X, Radarsat-2 and Alos. Optical images are acquired by Formosat-2 and Spot 4/5 satellites. In addition to meteorological stations, ground measurements are collected the closest to each satellite acquisitions. They consist in qualitative (e.g. observations upon land use, agricultural practices…) and quantitative (e.g. crop height, crop biomass…) measurements. Overview of the experiment is given in Baup et al., 2012 presented in this conference. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) are computed from optical data. Backscattering coefficients are derived from microwave data following different steps: (i) a radiometric calibration is applied, (ii) all images are geo-referenced using aerial ortho-photos, (iii) an angular correction is performed at X- and C-bands (at L

  6. Combining TerraSAR-X and SPOT-5 data for object-based landslide detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, B.; Hölbling, D.; Füreder, P.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide detection and classification is an essential requirement in pre- and post-disaster hazard analysis. In earlier studies landslide detection often was achieved through time-consuming and cost-intensive field surveys and visual orthophoto interpretation. Recent studies show that Earth Observation (EO) data offer new opportunities for fast, reliable and accurate landslide detection and classification, which may conduce to an effective landslide monitoring and landslide hazard management. To ensure the fast recognition and classification of landslides at a regional scale, a (semi-)automated object-based landslide detection approach is established for a study site situated in the Huaguoshan catchment, Southern Taiwan. The study site exhibits a high vulnerability to landslides and debris flows, which are predominantly typhoon-induced. Through the integration of optical satellite data (SPOT-5 with 2.5 m GSD), SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data (TerraSAR-X Spotlight with 2.95 m GSD) and digital elevation information (DEM with 5 m GSD) including its derived products (e.g. slope, curvature, flow accumulation) landslides may be examined in a more efficient way as if relying on single data sources only. The combination of optical and SAR data in an object-based image analysis (OBIA) domain for landslide detection and classification has not been investigated so far, even if SAR imagery show valuable properties for landslide detection, which differ from optical data (e.g. high sensitivity to surface roughness and soil moisture). The main purpose of this study is to recognize and analyze existing landslides by applying object-based image analysis making use of eCognition software. OBIA provides a framework for examining features defined by spectral, spatial, textural, contextual as well as hierarchical properties. Objects are derived through image segmentation and serve as input for the classification process, which relies on transparent rulesets, representing knowledge

  7. The impact of rise of the Andes and Amazon landscape evolution on diversification of lowland terra-firme forest birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction (the easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting ~10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, which apparently extended in series progressively eastward from Andean sources. The effects on drainage patterns are apparent from the location of axial rivers such as the Negro / Orinoco and Madeira which lie at the distal ends of major megafan ramparts at cratonic margins furthest from the Andes. Megafan extension plausibly explains the progressive extinction of the original Pebas wetland of west-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces where

  8. UAVSAR and TerraSAR-X Based InSAR Detection of Localized Subsidence in the New Orleans Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, R. G.; An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Latini, D.

    2014-12-01

    Vulnerability of the US Gulf coast to inundation has received increased attention since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Compounding effects of sea level rise, wetland loss, and regional and local subsidence makes flood protection a difficult challenge, and particularly for the New Orleans area. Key to flood protection is precise knowledge of elevations and elevation changes. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements show surprising complexity, including locations subsiding more rapidly than considered during planning of hurricane protection and coastal restoration projects. Combining traditional, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations can provide geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We use two InSAR capable systems, the L- band (24 cm wavelength) airborne JPL/NASA UAVSAR, and the DLR/EADS Astrium spaceborne TerraSAR X-band (3 cm wavelength), and compare results. First, we are applying pair-wise InSAR to the longer wavelength UAVSAR data to detect localized elevation changes potentially impacting flood protection infrastructure from 2009 - 2014. We focus on areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify changes indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage. The Spaceborne TerraSAR X-band SAR system has relatively frequent observations, and dense persistent scatterers in urban areas, enabling measurement of very small displacements. We compare L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period. Thus we can evaluate results from the different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Preliminary results indicate subsidence features potentially of a variety of causes, including ground water

  9. Burkholderia terrae BS001 migrates proficiently with diverse fungal hosts through soil and provides protection from antifungal agents

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Rashid; Tazetdinova, Diana I.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Soil bacteria can benefit from co-occurring soil fungi in respect of the acquisition of carbonaceous nutrients released by fungal hyphae and the access to novel territories in soil. Here, we investigated the capacity of the mycosphere-isolated bacterium Burkholderia terrae BS001 to comigrate through soil along with hyphae of the soil fungi Trichoderma asperellum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, F. oxysporum pv lini, Coniochaeta ligniaria, Phanerochaete velutina, and Phallus impudicus. We used Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten as the reference migration-inciting fungus. Bacterial migration through presterilized soil on the extending fungal hyphae was detected with six of the seven test fungi, with only Phallus impudicus not showing any bacterial transport. Much like with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten, intermediate (106–108 CFU g-1 dry soil) to high (>108 CFU g-1 dry soil) strain BS001 cell population sizes were found at the hyphal migration fronts of four fungi, i.e., T. asperellum, Rhizoctonia solani, F. oxysporum and F. oxysporum pv lini, whereas for two fungi, Coniochaeta ligniaria and Phanerochaete velutina, the migration responses were retarded and population sizes were lower (103–106 CFU g-1 dry soil). Consistent with previous data obtained with the reference fungus, migration with the migration-inciting fungi occurred only in the direction of the hyphal growth front. Remarkably, Burkholderia terrae BS001 provided protection from several antifungal agents to the canonical host Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. Specifically, this host was protected from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 metabolites, as well as from the anti-fungal agent cycloheximide. Similar protection by strain BS001was observed for T. asperellum, and, to a lower extent, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. The protective effect may be related to the consistent occurrence of biofilm-like cell layers or agglomerates at the surfaces of the protected fungi. The current study represents

  10. The Origin of the Terra Meridiani Sediments: Volatile Transport and the Formation of Sulfate Bearing Layered Deposits on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    The chemistry, sedimentology, and geology of the Meridiani sedimentary deposits are best explained by eolian reworking of the sublimation residue of a large scale ice/dust deposit. This large ice deposit was located in close proximity to Terra Meridiani and incorporated large amounts of dust, sand, and SO2 aerosols generated by impacts and volcanism during early martian history. Sulfate formation and chemical weathering of the initial igneous material is hypothesized to have occurred inside of the ice when the darker mineral grains were heated by solar radiant energy. This created conditions in which small films of liquid water were created in and around the mineral grains. This water dissolved the SO2 and reacted with the mineral grains forming an acidic environment under low water/rock conditions. Subsequent sublimation of this ice deposit left behind large amounts of weathered sublimation residue which became the source material for the eolian process that deposited the Terra Meridiani deposit. The following features of the Meridiani sediments are best explained by this model: The large scale of the deposit, its mineralogic similarity across large distances, the cation-conservative nature of the weathering processes, the presence of acidic groundwaters on a basaltic planet, the accumulation of a thick sedimentary sequence outside of a topographic basin, and the low water/rock ratio needed to explain the presence of very soluble minerals and elements in the deposit. Remote sensing studies have linked the Meridiani deposits to a number of other martian surface features through mineralogic similarities, geomorphic similarities, and regional associations. These include layered deposits in Arabia Terra, interior layered deposits in the Valles Marineris system, southern Elysium/Aeolis, Amazonis Planitia, and the Hellas basin, Aram Chaos, Aureum Chaos, and Ioni Chaos. The common properties shared by these deposits suggest that all of these deposits share a common

  11. TERRA mimicking ssRNAs prevail over the DNA substrate for telomerase in vitro due to interactions with the alternative binding site.

    PubMed

    Azhibek, Dulat; Skvortsov, Dmitry; Andreeva, Anna; Zatsepin, Timofei; Arutyunyan, Alexandr; Zvereva, Maria; Dontsova, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase is a key component of the telomere length maintenance system in the majority of eukaryotes. Telomerase displays maximal activity in stem and cancer cells with high proliferative potential. In humans, telomerase activity is regulated by various mechanisms, including the interaction with telomere ssDNA overhangs that contain a repetitive G-rich sequence, and with noncoding RNA, Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), that contains the same sequence. So these nucleic acids can compete for telomerase RNA templates in the cell. In this study, we have investigated the ability of different model substrates mimicking telomere DNA overhangs and TERRA RNA to compete for telomerase in vitro through a previously developed telomerase inhibitor assay. We have shown in this study that RNA oligonucleotides are better competitors for telomerase that DNA ones as RNA also use an alternative binding site on telomerase, and the presence of 2'-OH groups is significant in these interactions. In contrast to DNA, the possibility of forming intramolecular G-quadruplex structures has a minor effect for RNA binding to telomerase. Taking together our data, we propose that TERRA RNA binds better to telomerase compared with its native substrate - the 3'-end of telomere DNA overhang. As a result, some specific factor may exist that participates in switching telomerase from TERRA to the 3'-end of DNA for telomere elongation at the distinct period of a cell cycle in vivo. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Terra Cognita: Graduate Students in the Archives. A Retrospective on the CLIR Mellon Fellowships for Dissertation Research in Original Sources. CLIR Publication No. 170

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Terra Cognita" surveys the current landscape of archival research and the experiences of emerging scholars seeking to navigate it. Drawing on data from the Council on Library and Information Resources' (CLIR's) Mellon Fellowships for Dissertation Research in Original Sources, the report takes an in-depth look at how the conditions and…

  13. Etiological Misidentification by Routine Biochemical Tests of Bacteremia Caused by Gordonia terrae Infection in the Course of an Episode of Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Sande, E.; Brun-Otero, M.; Campo-Cerecedo, F.; Esteban, E.; Aguilar, L.; García-de-Lomas, J.

    2006-01-01

    Gordonia terrae has been reported to be a rare cause of bacteremia. We report the first case of bacteremia associated with acute cholecystitis. Commercial biochemical testing was not able to identify the strain at the genus level, classifying it instead as Rhodococcus sp. Definitive identification was obtained by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. PMID:16825404

  14. Alterations in bottom sediment physical and chemical characteristics at the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the grand banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes sediment composition at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, at an approximate water depth of 100 m. Surface sediment samples (upper 3 cm) were collected for chemical and particle size analyses at the site pre-development (1997) and in 2000-2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations have been sampled in each program year, with stations extending from less than 1 km to a maximum of 20 km from source (drill centres) along five gradients, extending to the southeast, southwest, northeast, northwest and east of Terra Nova. Results show that Terra Nova sediments were contaminated with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium-the two main constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site. Highest levels of contamination occurred within 1 to 2 km from source, consistent with predictions from drill cuttings dispersion modelling. The strength of distance gradients for >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, and overall levels, generally increased as drilling progressed but decreased from 2006 to 2010, coincident with a reduction in drilling. As seen at other offshore oil development sites, metals other than barium, sulphur and sulphide levels were elevated and sediment fines content was higher in the immediate vicinity (less than 0.5 km) of drill centres in some sampling years; but there was no strong evidence of project-related alterations of these variables. Overall, sediment contamination at Terra Nova was spatially limited and only the two major constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site, >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, showed clear evidence of project-related alternations.

  15. Near real time monitoring of platform sourced pollution using TerraSAR-X over the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Singha, Suman; Velotto, Domenico; Lehner, Susanne

    2014-09-15

    Continuous operational monitoring by means of remote sensing contributes significantly towards less occurrence of oil spills over European waters however, operational activities show regular occurrence of accidental and deliberate oil spills over the North Sea, particularly from offshore platform installations. Since the areas covered by oil spills are usually large and scattered over the North Sea, satellite remote sensing particularly Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) represents an effective tool for operational oil spill detection. This paper describes the development of a semi-automated approach for oil spill detection, optimized for near real time offshore platform sourced pollution monitoring context. Eight feature parameters are extracted from each segmented dark spot. The classification algorithm is based on artificial neural network. An initial evaluation of this methodology has been carried out on 156 TerraSAR-X images. Wind and current history information also have been analyzed for particular cases in order to evaluate their influences on spill trajectory.

  16. A Fully Automated Multi-Scale Flood Monitoring System Based On MODIS And TerraSAR-X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinis, Sandro; Kersten, Jens; Twele, Andre; Eberle, Jonas; Strobl, Christian; Stein, Enrico

    2013-12-01

    In this contribution, a fully automated multi-scale flood monitoring system is presented. The monitoring component of the system systematically detects the extent of inundations on a continental scale with medium spatial resolution using daily acquired data of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In case a user-defined threshold for flooded areas over an area of interest has been reached, the crisis component of the system is triggered to derive flood information at higher spatial detail using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) based satellite mission (TerraSAR-X). The automatic processing chains of both components include data pre-processing, computation and adaption of global auxiliary data, thematic classification and a subsequent dissemination of flood maps using an interactive web-client. The performance of the flood monitoring system is demonstrated for a flood event in Russia in May 2013.

  17. Mineralogy, chemistry and palaeoenvironmental significance of an Early Tertiary Terra Rossa from Northern Ireland: A preliminary review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. J.; McAlister, J. J.

    1995-04-01

    Early Tertiary basalts of the Antrim Plateau have preserved palaeosols developed on late Cretaceous limestone. These palaeosols include dark red clays and clays with flints that are rich in silica and contain a complex clay mineral assemblage of 2:1 lattice clays, kaolinite and sepiolite. They occur in infilled solution hollows and joints, can be associated with a rudimentary tower karst and are similar in appearance and composition to present-day Mediterranean terra rossa soils. Elsewhere, grey flint-rich clay-sized material dominated by silica and kaolinite developed on an undulating landscape, sometimes now capped by a lignite horizon. Deposits and the palaeolandscape suggest a humid tropical to sub-tropical environment contrary to previous published inferences of arid conditions, but corresponding to humid tropical conditions proposed for the formation of overlying inter-basaltic soils.

  18. Dome growth at Mount Cleveland, Aleutian Arc, quantified by time-series TerraSAR-X imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Teng; Poland, Michael; Lu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar imagery is widely used to study surface deformation induced by volcanic activity; however, it is rarely applied to quantify the evolution of lava domes, which is important for understanding hazards and magmatic system characteristics. We studied dome formation associated with eruptive activity at Mount Cleveland, Aleutian Volcanic Arc, in 2011–2012 using TerraSAR-X imagery. Interferometry and offset tracking show no consistent deformation and only motion of the crater rim, suggesting that ascending magma may pass through a preexisting conduit system without causing appreciable surface deformation. Amplitude imagery has proven useful for quantifying rates of vertical and areal growth of the lava dome within the crater from formation to removal by explosive activity to rebirth. We expect that this approach can be applied at other volcanoes that host growing lava domes and where hazards are highly dependent on dome geometry and growth rates.

  19. Regional scale net radiation estimation by means of Landsat and TERRA/AQUA imagery and GIS modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, J.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.; Poyatos, R.

    2009-04-01

    Net radiation (Rn) is one of the most important variables for the estimation of surface energy budget and is used for various applications including agricultural meteorology, climate monitoring and weather prediction. Moreover, net radiation is an essential input variable for potential as well as actual evapotranspiration modeling. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute net radiation at regional scales in a feasible way. In this study we present a regional scale estimation of the daily Rn on clear days, (Catalonia, NE of the Iberian Peninsula), using a set of 22 Landsat images (17 Landsat-5 TM and 5 Landsat-7 ETM+) and 171 TERRA/AQUA images MODIS from 2000 to 2007 period. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected three different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily Rn: daily LST product, daily calibrated reflectances product and daily atmospheric water vapour product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital Elevation Model, obtaining an RMS less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994), which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009) and the land surface emissivity computed by means of the methodology proposed by Sobrino and Raissouni (2000). Rn has been estimated through the

  20. TerraSAR-X Staring Spotlight Monitoring of a Highway Bridge in the Czech Republic (Preliminary Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacova, Ivana; Kolomaznik, Jan; Halounova, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Highway bridge in the southern part of Prague, Czech republic, is the longest bridge in the Czech republic and it is architectonically unique in Europe. It was built above the valley with confluence of two big rivers, Vltava and Berounka, in an area of frequent floods. On top, there is a five-lane highway with an important, circle-shape crossroad, and both ends of the bridge end up in a tunnel. During construction, steel was partially replaced by concrete in comparison to the plan, and first cracks arose just after opening of the bridge in September 2010, and are progressively getting bigger. We try to monitor this bridge using the InSAR technique with 22 TerraSAR-X scenes, acquired in the Staring Spotlight mode with a resolution of approximately 0.3 meters during June 2014 - February 2015 (11 days interval).

  1. Near real time monitoring of platform sourced pollution using TerraSAR-X over the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Singha, Suman; Velotto, Domenico; Lehner, Susanne

    2014-09-15

    Continuous operational monitoring by means of remote sensing contributes significantly towards less occurrence of oil spills over European waters however, operational activities show regular occurrence of accidental and deliberate oil spills over the North Sea, particularly from offshore platform installations. Since the areas covered by oil spills are usually large and scattered over the North Sea, satellite remote sensing particularly Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) represents an effective tool for operational oil spill detection. This paper describes the development of a semi-automated approach for oil spill detection, optimized for near real time offshore platform sourced pollution monitoring context. Eight feature parameters are extracted from each segmented dark spot. The classification algorithm is based on artificial neural network. An initial evaluation of this methodology has been carried out on 156 TerraSAR-X images. Wind and current history information also have been analyzed for particular cases in order to evaluate their influences on spill trajectory. PMID:25063509

  2. Floristic and phytosociology in dense "terra firme" rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lemos, D A N; Ferreira, B G A; Siqueira, J D P; Oliveira, M M; Ferreira, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense "Terra Firme" rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1), distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94), Araceae (65) and Arecaceae (43), comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41), Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50) and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28) showed the highest importance values (IV). The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%). The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition.

  3. The sedimentology and dynamics of crater-affiliated wind streaks in western Arabia Terra, Mars and Patagonia, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Yamamoto, A.; Berman, D.C.; Zimbelman, J.R.; Kargel, J.S.; Sasaki, S.; Jinguo, Y.; Miyamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    Wind streaks comprise recent aeolian deposits that have been extensively documented on Venus, Earth and Mars. Martian wind streaks are among the most abundant surface features on the planet and commonly extend from the downwind margins of impact craters. Previous studies of wind streaks emerging from crater interior deposits suggested that the mode of emplacement was primarily related to the deposition of silt-sized particles as these settled from plumes. We have performed geologic investigations of two wind streaks clusters; one situated in western Arabia Terra, a region in the northern hemisphere of Mars, and another in an analogous terrestrial site located in southern Patagonia, Argentina, where occurrences of wind streaks emanate from playas within maar craters. In both these regions we have identified bedforms in sedimentary deposits on crater floors, along wind-facing interior crater margins, and along wind streaks. These observations indicate that these deposits contain sand-sized particles and that sediment migration has occurred via saltation from crater interior deposits to wind streaks. In Arabia Terra and in Patagonia wind streaks initiate from crater floors that contain lithic and evaporitic sedimentary deposits, suggesting that the composition of wind streak source materials has played an important role in development. Spatial and topographic analyses suggest that regional clustering of wind streaks in the studied regions directly correlates to the areal density of craters with interior deposits, the degree of proximity of these deposits, and the craters' rim-to-floor depths. In addition, some (but not all) wind streaks within the studied clusters have propagated at comparable yearly (Earth years) rates. Extensive saltation is inferred to have been involved in its propagation based on the studied terrestrial wind streak that shows ripples and dunes on its surface and the Martian counterpart changes orientation toward the downslope direction where it

  4. Differential geodetic stereo SAR with TerraSAR-X by exploiting small multi-directional radar reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisinger, Christoph; Willberg, Martin; Balss, Ulrich; Klügel, Thomas; Mähler, Swetlana; Pail, Roland; Eineder, Michael

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the direct positioning of small multi-directional radar reflectors, so-called octahedrons, with the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite TerraSAR-X. Its highest resolution imaging mode termed staring spotlight enables the use of such octahedron reflectors with a dimension of only half a meter, but still providing backscatter equivalent to 1-2 cm observation error. Four octahedrons were deployed at Wettzell geodetic observatory, and observed by TerraSAR-X with 12 acquisitions in three different geometries. By applying our least squares stereo SAR algorithm already tested with common trihedral corner reflectors (CRs), and introducing a novel differential extension using one octahedron as reference point, the coordinates of the remaining octahedrons were directly retrieved in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Contrary to our standard processing, the differential approach does not require external corrections for the atmospheric path delays and the geodynamic displacements, rendering it particularly useful for joint geodetic networks employing SAR and GNSS. In this paper, we present and discuss both methods based on results when applying them to the aforementioned Wettzell data set of the octahedrons. The comparison with the independently determined reference coordinates confirms the positioning accuracy with 2-5 cm for the standard approach, and 2-3 cm for the differential processing. Moreover, we present statistical uncertainty estimates of the observations and the positioning solutions, which are additionally provided by our parameter estimation algorithms. The results also include our 1.5 m CR available at Wettzell, and the outcomes clearly demonstrate the advantage of the multi-directional octahedrons over conventional CRs for global positioning applications with SAR.

  5. Radiometric cross-calibration of the Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ using an invariant desert site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, T.; Angal, A.; Chander, G.; Xiong, X.

    2008-01-01

    A methodology for long-term radiometric cross-calibration between the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors was developed. The approach involves calibration of near-simultaneous surface observations between 2000 and 2007. Fifty-seven cloud-free image pairs were carefully selected over the Libyan desert for this study. The Libyan desert site (+28.55??, +23.39??), located in northern Africa, is a high reflectance site with high spatial, spectral, and temporal uniformity. Because the test site covers about 12 kmx13 km, accurate geometric preprocessing is required to match the footprint size between the two sensors to avoid uncertainties due to residual image misregistration. MODIS Level IB radiometrically corrected products were reprojected to the corresponding ETM+ image's Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid projection. The 30 m pixels from the ETM+ images were aggregated to match the MODIS spatial resolution (250 m in Bands 1 and 2, or 500 m in Bands 3 to 7). The image data from both sensors were converted to absolute units of at-sensor radiance and top-ofatmosphere (TOA) reflectance for the spectrally matching band pairs. For each band pair, a set of fitted coefficients (slope and offset) is provided to quantify the relationships between the testing sensors. This work focuses on long-term stability and correlation of the Terra MODIS and L7 ETM+ sensors using absolute calibration results over the entire mission of the two sensors. Possible uncertainties are also discussed such as spectral differences in matching band pairs, solar zenith angle change during a collection, and differences in solar irradiance models.

  6. Fresh Shallow Valleys in Northern Arabia Terra: Evidence for a Late, Widespread Period of Aqueous Activity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Grant, J. A., III

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of fresh shallow valleys (FSVs) on Mars occur between ~30-45° in both hemispheres as well as near the equator (e.g., Gale crater and vicinity). FSVs in the northern hemisphere occur along the dichotomy boundary, with the highest concentration in northern Arabia Terra from 35-40°N between 0-20ºE. In this region, FSVs developed both on and away from ejecta of relatively fresh craters, making the direct association between impact processes and formation less likely. Crater statistics and cross-cutting relationships indicate the formation of FSVs terminated prior to about 1.4 Ga, suggesting they may be contemporaneous with alluvial fan and delta formation in the equatorial and mid-latitudes. Many FSV systems are 150+ km long, and in several cases appear to cross depressions that were likely filled with ice or water during FSV formation. Most FSV systems could have formed from a single episode of erosion but incision of the main channel in some locations may imply episodic formation. One long valley system in N. Arabia Terra with an incised channel (100 m wide, up to 10 m deep) yields formative discharges in the range of 100-200 m3/s assuming sand sized particles and a flow depth of 0.25 m, consistent with formation via snowmelt. The grain size is unknown, therefore discharges could range from 10s m3/s for active transport of fine sand to 1000 m3/s for gravel sized grains. Approximately 25 small craters (diameters ranging from ~2-10 km) have single channels extending outward from their rim, implying overflow of the crater and the possible presence of a deep lake. Widespread occurrence of FSVs, their similar morphology, and modest state of degradation is consistent with most forming during one or more global intervals of favorable climate, likely through snowmelt from surface or sub-ice flows during the Hesperian.

  7. Evaluation of Surface Slope Effects on Ripple Orientations Observed on Sand Dunes in the Terra Tyrrhena Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Johnson, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) has revealed abundant wind ripples on sand dunes across Mars. Ripple orientations have been documented using HiRISE images of sand dunes at 24 widely distributed sites across Mars, in order to identify the last significant wind directions at these locations. Howard (GSAB, 1977) gives a mathematical expression for how surface slopes on a sand dune can affect the orientation of ripples with respect to the formative winds. In order to evaluate this mechanism for measured ripple orientations on Mars, quantitative data for surface slopes on the sand dunes is required. Stereo pairs of HiRISE images are used to generate Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) with postings of one meter. In June 2014 we produced a DTM of sand dunes in the Terra Tyrrhena region of Mars (14.55° S, 97.77° E) using SOCET SET at the Astrogeology Branch, USGS-Flagstaff. Typically it is difficult for feature matching software to work well on sand dunes, but our stereo images (ESP_022609_1655 and ESP_026675_1655) were obtained only six Earth days apart under excellent illumination conditions. The Terra Tyrrhena DTM had remarkably few artifacts on the sand dunes (except at slip faces, where the average slope between slip face crest and base was interpolated) and excellent control from irregular terrain exposed in interdune areas. Slopes on the stoss sides of sand dunes are generally <10°; the Howard equation indicates ripple deflection angles should be <17° with respect to the actual surface wind direction. We are adjusting documented ripple orientations to account for surface slopes utilizing the DTM data, and so far we do not see major changes to inferred surface wind directions that would be derived directly from the ripple orientations.

  8. Potential uses of TerraSAR-X for mapping herbaceous halophytes over salt marsh and tidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoon-Kyung; Park, Jeong-Won; Choi, Jong-Kuk; Oh, Yisok; Won, Joong-Sun

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a method and application results of mapping different halophytes over tidal flats and salt marshes using high resolution space-borne X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been rarely used for salt marsh mapping. Halophytes in a salt marshes are sensitive to sea-level changes, sedimentation, and anthropogenic modifications. The alteration of the demarcations among halophyte species is an indicator of sea level and environmental changes within a salt marsh. The boundary of an herbaceous halophyte patch is, however, difficult to determine using remotely sensed data because of its sparseness. We examined the ecological status of the halophytes and their distribution changes using TerraSAR-X and optical data. We also determined the optimum season for halophyte mapping. An annual plant, Suaeda japonica (S. japonica), and a typical perennial salt marsh grass, Phragmites australis (P. australis), were selected for halophyte analysis. S. japonica is particularly sensitive to sea level fluctuation. Seasonal variation for the annual plant was more significant (1.47 dB standard deviation) than that for the perennial grass, with a pattern of lower backscattering in winter and a peak in the summer. The border between S. japonica and P. australis was successfully determined based on the distinctive X-band radar backscattering features. Winter is the best season to distinguish between the two different species, while summer is ideal for analyzing the distribution changes of annual plants in salt marshes. For a single polarization, we recommend using HH polarization, because it produces maximum backscattering on tidal flats and salt marshes. Our results show that high resolution SAR, such as TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-SkyMed, is an effective tool for mapping halophyte species in tidal flats and monitoring their seasonal variations.

  9. Urban remote sensing in areas of conflict: TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1 change detection in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapete, Deodato; Cigna, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    Timely availability of images of suitable spatial resolution, temporal frequency and coverage is currently one of the major technical constraints on the application of satellite SAR remote sensing for the conservation of heritage assets in urban environments that are impacted by human-induced transformation. TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1A, in this regard, are two different models of SAR data provision: very high resolution on-demand imagery with end user-selected acquisition parameters, on one side, and freely accessible GIS-ready products with intended regular temporal coverage, on the other. What this means for change detection analyses in urban areas is demonstrated in this paper via the experiment over Homs, the third largest city of Syria with an history of settlement since 2300 BCE, where the impacts of the recent civil war combine with pre- and post-conflict urban transformation . The potential performance of Sentinel-1A StripMap scenes acquired in an emergency context is simulated via the matching StripMap beam mode offered by TerraSAR-X. Benefits and limitations of the different radar frequency band, spatial resolution and single/multi-channel polarization are discussed, as a proof-of-concept of regular monitoring currently achievable with space-borne SAR in historic urban settings. Urban transformation observed across Homs in 2009, 2014 and 2015 shows the impact of the Syrian conflict on the cityscape and proves that operator-driven interpretation is required to understand the complexity of multiple and overlapping urban changes.

  10. Multiple Episodes of Recent Gully Activity Indicated by Gully Fan Stratigraphy in Eastern Promethei Terra, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon, S.; Head, J.; Fassett, C.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Gullies are considered among the youngest geomorphic features on Mars based upon their stratigraphic relationships, superposition on steep slopes and distinctive morphology in unconsolidated sediment. Multiple formation hypotheses have been proposed, which can be divided into three broad classes: entirely dry mechanisms (e.g., [1,2]), wet mechanisms invoking groundwater or ground ice (e.g., [3,4]) and wet mechanisms invoking surficial meltwater (e.g., [5,6,7,8]). It has been difficult to differentiate between these hypotheses based upon past observations and it remains possible that gullies are polygenetic landforms. This study presents stratigraphic relationships in the depositional fan of a crater wall gully system that suggest: (1) multiple episodes of alluvial fan-style deposition, (2) very recent depositional activity that is younger than a newly recognized rayed crater, and (3) surficial snowmelt as the most likely source of these multiple episodes of recent gully activity. Gully-Fan Stratigraphy In Eastern Promethei Terra an ~5 km-diameter crater is observed with a well-developed gully system (Fig. 1) and several smaller gullies in its northnortheast wall. The large gully system (composed of a small western gully and larger eastern gully) shows evidence for incision into the crater wall country rock and has multiple contributory sub-alcoves and channels. The depositional fan associated with this gully system is bounded on its western side by a small arcuate ridge swell that is not observed on the eastern side of the fan. This ridge is interpreted as a moraine-like structure that may have bounded a glacially-formed depression into which the fan is deposited [8]. Similar depressions with bounding ridges are commonly observed in this latitude band (~30-50°S) in association with deeply incised gully alcoves [9,10,11]. This gully fan is composed of multiple lobes with distinct lobe contacts, incised channels, and cut-andfill deposits - all features

  11. Chemotaxis and adherence to fungal surfaces are key components of the behavioral response of Burkholderia terrae BS001 to two selected soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Haq, Irshad Ul; Calixto, Renata Oliveira da Rocha; Yang, Pu; Dos Santos, Giulia Maria Pires; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-11-01

    Burkholderia terrae BS001 has previously been proposed to be a 'generalist' associate of soil fungi, but its strategies of interaction have been largely ignored. Here, we studied the chemotactic behavior of B. terrae BS001 towards Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and Trichoderma asperellum 302 and the role of fungal surface molecules in their physical interaction with the bacteria. To assess the involvement of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), wild-type strain BS001 and T3SS mutant strain BS001-ΔsctD were used in the experiments. First, the two fungi showed divergent behavior when confronted with B. terrae BS001 on soil extract agar medium. Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten revealed slow growth towards the bacterium, whereas T. asperellum 302 grew avidly over it. Both on soil extract and M9 agar, B. terrae BS001 and BS001-ΔsctD moved chemotactically towards the hyphae of both fungi, with a stronger response to Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten than to T. asperellum 302. The presence of a progressively increasing glycerol level in the M9 agar enhanced the level of movement. Different oxalic acid concentrations exerted varied effects, with a significantly raised chemotactic response at lower, and a subdued response at higher concentrations. Testing of the adherence of B. terrae BS001 and BS001-ΔsctD to Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and to cell envelope-extracted ceramide monohexosides (CMHs) revealed that CMHs in both conidia and hyphae could bind strain BS001 cells. As BS001-ΔsctD adhered significantly less to the CMHs than BS001, the T3SS was presumed to have a role in the interaction. In contrast, such avid adherence was not detected with T. asperellum 302. Thus, B. terrae BS001 shows a behavior characterized by swimming towards Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and T. asperellum 302 and attachment to the CMH moiety in the cell envelope, in particular of the former. PMID:27495244

  12. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  13. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-09-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  14. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  15. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  16. Aram Dorsum, Candidate ExoMars Rover Landing Site: a Noachian Inverted Fluvial Channel System in Arabia Terra Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, Matthew; Grindrod, Peter; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Davis, Joel; Gupta, Sanjeev; Fawdon, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Much of Mars' Noachian-aged southern highlands is dissected by systems of fluvial channels and valleys > 3.7 Ga in age. Arabia Terra, lying between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands, is similarly ancient, yet apparently has few valley networks. This regional lack of valley networks only matches Noachian precipitation predictions from climate models if the Noachian climate was dry and cold [1]. In this scenario, highlands dissection was caused by transient flows of meltwater from large, regionally restricted ice-bodies. However, new results [2,3] show that Arabia Terra is not as poorly dissected as previously thought, and in fact there are extensive networks of inverted channel systems. Here, we describe an example of such a system - Aram Dorsum - which has been studied extensively as an ExoMars Rover candidate landing site. Aram Dorsum is an ~100 km long, 1-2 km wide, branching, flat-topped ridge system, in western Arabia Terra. We have mapped the system using CTX images, DEMs and other data. We interpret the ridge system to be fluvial in origin, preserved in positive relief due to infill and differential erosion; this working hypothesis is used as a conceptual framework for the study. Aram Dorsum is a branching, multi-level, contributory network, set in surrounding floodplains-like material. This demonstrates that it was a relatively long-lived, aggradational fluvial system, rather than an erosional outflow or bedrock-carved fluvial channel. Interestingly, the system shows little evidence for unconfined lateral channel migration, so there must have been significant bank stability. Aram Dorsum was therefore probably once a sizable river and, as just one example of many similar systems, is an exemplar for the middle part of a regional sediment transport system that could have extended from the southern highlands to the northern lowlands. Like Aram Dorsum, many of these other recently-recognized fluvial systems have an origin more consistent with

  17. The Impact of Rise of the Andes and Amazon Landscape Evolution on Diversification of Lowland terra-firme Forest Birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aleixo, Alexandre; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2011-01-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction. (The easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). For the suboscine passerines, maximum-likelihood estimates of rates of diversification point to an overall constant rate over the past 5 my (up to a significant downturn at 300,000 y ago). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting approximately 10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, that may have extended progressively and in series eastward from Andean sources. This process plausibly explains the progressive extinction of original Pebas wetland of western-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces of a more terra-firme type

  18. Evaluation of Detector-to-Detector and Mirror Side Differences for Terra MODIS Reflective Solar Bands Using Simultaneous MISR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Barnes, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the five Earth-observing instruments on-board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth-Observing System(EOS) Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. It has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.4 mm and collects data at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25 km for 2 bands with 40 detectors each, 0.5 km for 5 bands with 20 detectors each and 1 km for the remaining 29 bands with 10 detectors each. MODIS bands are located on four separate focal plane assemblies (FPAs) according to their spectral wavelengths and aligned in the cross-track direction. Detectors of each spectral band are aligned in the along-track direction. MODIS makes observations using a two-sided paddle-wheel scan mirror. Its on-board calibrators (OBCs) for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) include a solar diffuser (SD), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) and a spectral-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Calibration is performed for each band, detector, sub-sample (for sub-kilometer resolution bands) and mirror side. In this study, a ratio approach is applied to MODIS observed Earth scene reflectances to track the detector-to-detector and mirror side differences. Simultaneous observed reflectances from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), also onboard the Terra spacecraft, are used with MODIS observed reflectances in this ratio approach for four closely matched spectral bands. Results show that the detector-to-detector difference between two adjacent detectors within each spectral band is typically less than 0.2% and, depending on the wavelengths, the maximum difference among all detectors varies from 0.5% to 0.8%. The mirror side differences are found to be very small for all bands except for band 3 at 0.44 mm. This is the band with the shortest wavelength among the selected matching bands, showing a time-dependent increase for the mirror side difference. This

  19. Cross-calibration of the reflective solar bands of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus over PICS using different approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Mishra, Nischal; Link, Daniel; Xiong, Xiaoxiong J.; Helder, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    Both Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) have been successfully operating for over 15 years to collect valuable measurements of the earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere. The land-viewing bands of both sensors are widely used in several scientific products such as surface reflectance, normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index etc. A synergistic use of the multi-temporal measurements from both sensors can greatly benefit the science community. Previous effort from the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) was focused on comparing the top-of-atmosphere reflectance of the two sensors over Libya 4 desert target. Uncertainties caused by the site/atmospheric BRDF, spectral response mismatch, and atmospheric water-vapor were also characterized. In parallel, an absolute calibration approach based on empirical observation was also developed for the Libya 4 site by the South Dakota State University's (SDSU) Image Processing Lab. Observations from Terra MODIS and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion were used to model the Landsat ETM+ TOA reflectance. Recently, there has been an update to the MODIS calibration algorithm, which has resulted in the newly reprocessed Collection 6 Level 1B calibrated products. Similarly, a calibration update to some ETM+ bands has also resulted in long-term improvements of its calibration accuracy. With these updates, calibration differences between the spectrally matching bands of Terra MODIS and L7 ETM+ over the Libya 4 site are evaluated using both approaches.

  20. An easy to use ArcMap based texture analysis program for extraction of flooded areas from TerraSAR-X satellite image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Hagemann, Ulrike; Shafapour Tehrany, Mahyat; Prechtel, Nikolas

    2014-02-01

    Extraction of the flooded areas from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and especially TerraSAR-X data is one of the most challenging tasks in the flood management and planning. SAR data due to its high spatial resolution and its capability of all weather conditions makes a proper choice for tropical countries. Texture is considered as an effective factor in distinguishing the classes especially in SAR imagery which records the backscatters that carry information of kind, direction, heterogeneity and relationship of the features. This paper put forward a computer program for texture analysis for high resolution radar data. Texture analysis program is introduced and discussed using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). To demonstrate the ability and correctness of this program, a test subset of TerraSAR-X imagery from Terengganu area, Malaysia was analyzed and pixel-based and object-based classification were attempted. The thematic maps derived by pixel-based method could not achieve acceptable visual interpretation and for that reason no accuracy assessment was performed on them. The overall accuracy achieved by object-based method was 83.63% with kappa coefficient of 0.8. Results on image texture classification showed that the proposed program is capable for texture analysis in TerraSAR-X image and the obtained textural analysis resulted in high classification accuracy. The proposed texture analysis program can be used in many applications such as land use/cover (LULC) mapping, hazard studies and many other applications.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities along a pedo-hydrological gradient in a Central Amazonian terra firme forest.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Freitas, Rejane; Buscardo, Erika; Nagy, Laszlo; dos Santos Maciel, Alex Bruno; Carrenho, Rosilaine; Luizão, Regina C C

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to plant mutualistic interactions in the Amazon rainforest, and the general pattern of occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these ecosystems is largely unknown. This study investigated AMF communities through their spores in soil in a 'terra firme forest' in Central Amazonia. The contribution played by abiotic factors and plant host species identity in regulating the composition, abundance and diversity of such communities along a topographic gradient with different soils and hydrology was also evaluated. Forty-one spore morphotypes were observed with species belonging to the genera Glomus and Acaulospora, representing 44 % of the total taxa. Soil texture and moisture, together with host identity, were predominant factors responsible for shaping AMF communities along the pedo-hydrological gradient. However, the variability within AMF communities was largely associated with shifts in the relative abundance of spores rather than changes in species composition, confirming that common AMF species are widely distributed in plant communities and all plants recruited into the forest are likely to be exposed to the dominant sporulating AMF species. PMID:23754540

  2. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Tropospheric Clouds and Aerosols Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-01-01

    Remote sensing of cloud and aerosol optical properties is routinely obtained using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Instruments that are being used to enhance our ability to characterize the global distribution of cloud and aerosol properties include well-calibrated multispectral radiometers that measure in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared. The availability of thermal channels to enhance detection of cloud when estimating aerosol properties is an important improvement. In this paper, we describe the radiative properties of clouds as currently determined from satellites (cloud fraction, optical thickness, cloud top pressure, and cloud particle effective radius) and highlight the global/regional cloud microphysical properties currently available for assessing climate variability and forcing. These include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties of both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius for selected geographical locations around the world. In addition, we will illustrate the radiative and microphysical properties of aerosol particles (in cloud free regions) that are currently available from space-based observations, and show the latitudinal distribution of aerosol optical properties over both land and ocean surfaces.

  3. Global, Multi-Year Analysis of Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Terra Observations and Radiative Transfer Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, T. P.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Coleman, L. H.; Caldwell, T.; Zentz, S.

    2005-01-01

    An extended record of the Terra Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) computed by CERES (Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System) is produced in gridded form, facilitating an investigation of global scale direct aerosol forcing. The new gridded version (dubbed FSW) has a spacing of 1 at the Equator. A companion document (Rutan et al. 2005) focuses on advances to (and validation of) the ungridded, footprint scale calculations (dubbed CRS), primarily in clear-sky conditions. While mainly intended to provide observations of fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA), CERES (Wielicki et al. 1996) includes a program to also compute the fluxes at TOA, within the atmosphere and at the surface, and also to validate the results with independent ground based measurements (Charlock and Alberta 1996). ARM surface data has been a focus for this component of CERES. To permit the user to infer cloud forcing and direct aerosol forcing with the computed SARB, CERES includes surface and TOA fluxes that have been computed for cloud-free (clear) and aerosol free (pristine) footprints; this accounts for aerosol effects (SW scattering and absorption, and LW scattering, absorption and emission) to both clear and cloudy skies.

  4. TerraSAR-X time-series interferometry detects human-induce subsidence in the Historical Centre of Hanoi, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Tuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Nguyen, Xuan

    2016-04-01

    Hanoi was the capital of 12 Vietnamese dynasties, where the most historical relics, archaeological ruins and ancient monuments are located over Vietnam. However, those heritage assets are threatened by the land subsidence process occurred in recent decades, which mainly triggered by massive groundwater exploitation and construction activities. In this work, we use a set of high resolution TerraSAR-X images to map small-scale land subsidence patterns in the Historical Centre of Hanoi from April 2012 to November 2013. Images oversampling is integrated into the Small Baseline InSAR processing chain in order to enlarge the monitoring coverage by increasing the point-wise measurements, maintaining the monitoring scale of single building and monument. We analyzed over 2.4 million radar targets on 13.9 km2 area of interest based on 2 main sites: The Citadel, the Old Quarter and French Quarter. The highest subsidence rate recorded is -14.2 mm/year. Most of the heritage assets are considered as stable except the Roman Catholic Archdiocese and the Ceramic Mosaic Mural with the subsidence rates are -14.2 and -13.7 mm/year, respectively. Eventually, optical image and soil properties map are used to determine the causes of subsidence patterns. The result shows the strong relationships between the existing construction sites, the component of sediments and land subsidence processes that occurred in the study site.

  5. Multi-agent gully processes: Evidence from the Monaro Volcanic Province, Australia and in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, S. W.; Paull, D. J.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Roach, Ian C.

    2016-03-01

    Comparison of the similarities and differences between terrestrial and Martian hillside gullies promotes understanding of how surface processes operate on both planets. Here we tested the viability of subsurface flow of water as a process affecting gully evolution. We compared gullies within the Monaro Volcanic Province near Cooma, New South Wales, Australia, to gullies possessing strong structural control near Gasa Crater, Terra Cimmeria, Mars. Although cursory examination of the Monaro gullies initially suggested strong evidence for aquifer erosion, detailed field surveys showed the evidence to be ambiguous. Instead a complex regime of erosion dependent on multiple conditions and processes such as local geology, surface runoff, dry mass wasting, and animal activity emerged. We found the morphology of gullies near Gasa Crater to be consistent with erosion caused by liquid water, while also being heavily influenced by the local environment, including slope and geology. Additionally, erosion at the Martian site was not consistent with evidence of subsequent, smaller scale erosion and channel modification by dry mass wasting. Local conditions thus play an important role in gully evolution, further highlighting that processes forming Martian gullies may be more diverse than initially thought.

  6. Ground-based vicarious radiometric calibration of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Terra MODIS using an automated test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Leisso, N.

    2010-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has operated the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada, since 2004. It is an approach to ground-based vicarious calibration that does not require on-site personnel to make surface and atmospheric measurements during a satellite overpass. It was originally developed in 2002 in an attempt to increase the amount of data collected throughout the year while maintaining the accuracy of in-situ measurements. RadCaTS currently consists of four ground-viewing radiometers to measure surface reflectance, a Cimel sun photometer to make atmospheric measurements, and a weather station to measure ambient conditions. The data from these instruments are used in MODTRAN 5 to determine the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance for a given overpass time, and the results are compared to the sensor under test. The work presented here describes the RadCaTS instrumentation suite and automated processing scheme used to determine the surface reflectance and TOA spectral radiance. The instruments used to measure surface and atmospheric properties are presented, followed by a discussion of their spatial layout and their radiometric calibration. The RadCaTS ground-based results are compared to those from Aqua and Terra MODIS overpasses in 2008, and Landsat 7 ETM+ overpasses in 2009.

  7. Bryophytes in fragments of Terra Firme forest on the great curve of the Xingu River, Pará state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, A C C; Ilkiu-Borges, A L; Tavares-Martins, A C C; Garcia, E T

    2015-08-01

    Microclimatic conditions of tropical forest favour the high richness of bryophytes, which by being sensitive to environmental changes, are important indicators of habitat conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the richness and species composition of the bryophyte flora in fragments of terra firme forest on the great curve of the Xingu River, Pará state, Brazil. The collections were made in August and September 2012 in 14 fragments, in which were installed two plots per fragment, one at the edge and one inside, measuring 10 × 10 m each. The results showed 77 species in 45 genera and 18 families. Lejeunea setiloba Spruce and Marchesinia brachiata (Sw.) Schiffn. are new records for Pará state. The richness families in this study were the ones typically found in tropical forest surveys. A high richness of rare species in comparison to common ones, a pattern usually observed for plants in tropical forests was not reported in this study, probably due to historical fragmentation and disturbance in the area. The richness and species composition were determined mainly by the physiognomic characteristics of the studied forest fragments.

  8. Taxonomic characterisation of Proteus terrae sp. nov., a N2O-producing, nitrate-ammonifying soil bacterium.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Augustin, Jürgen; Spröer, Cathrin; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Schumann, Peter; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    In the context of studying the influence of N-fertilization on N2 and N2O flux rates in relation to the soil bacterial community composition in fen peat grassland, a group of bacterial strains was isolated that performed dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and concomitantly produced N2O. The amount of nitrous oxide produced was influenced by the C/N ratio of the medium. The potential to generate nitrous oxide was increased by higher availability of nitrate-N. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and the rpoB gene sequences demonstrated that the investigated isolates belong to the genus Proteus, showing high similarity with the respective type strains of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus penneri. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed differences at the species level. These differences were substantiated by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and several distinct physiological characteristics. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the soil isolates represent a novel species for which the name Proteus terrae sp. nov. (type strain N5/687(T) =DSM 29910(T) =LMG 28659(T)) is proposed. PMID:26437638

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities along a pedo-hydrological gradient in a Central Amazonian terra firme forest.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Freitas, Rejane; Buscardo, Erika; Nagy, Laszlo; dos Santos Maciel, Alex Bruno; Carrenho, Rosilaine; Luizão, Regina C C

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to plant mutualistic interactions in the Amazon rainforest, and the general pattern of occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these ecosystems is largely unknown. This study investigated AMF communities through their spores in soil in a 'terra firme forest' in Central Amazonia. The contribution played by abiotic factors and plant host species identity in regulating the composition, abundance and diversity of such communities along a topographic gradient with different soils and hydrology was also evaluated. Forty-one spore morphotypes were observed with species belonging to the genera Glomus and Acaulospora, representing 44 % of the total taxa. Soil texture and moisture, together with host identity, were predominant factors responsible for shaping AMF communities along the pedo-hydrological gradient. However, the variability within AMF communities was largely associated with shifts in the relative abundance of spores rather than changes in species composition, confirming that common AMF species are widely distributed in plant communities and all plants recruited into the forest are likely to be exposed to the dominant sporulating AMF species.

  10. Geology of Holden Crater and the Holden and Ladon Multi-Ring Impact Basins, Margaritifer Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III; Grant, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping at 1:500K scale of Mars quads 15s027, 20s027, 25s027, and 25s032 (Fig. 1) is in progress to constrain the geologic and geomorphic history of southwestern Margaritifer Terra. This work builds on earlier maps at 1:5M [1] and 1:15M scales [2], recent to concurrent 1:500Kscale mapping of adjacent areas to the east [3-5], and studies of drainage basin evolution along the Uzboi-Ladon-M (ULM; the third valley in the sequence has no formal name) Valles basin overflow system and nearby watersheds [6-9]. Two of the six landing sites under consideration for the Mars Science Laboratory rover are in this map area, targeting finely layered, phyllosilicate-rich strata and alluvial fans in Holden crater [10-12] (26degS, 34degW, 150 km diameter) or deposits southeast of a likely delta in Eberswalde crater [13-16] (24degS, 33degW, 50 km in diameter). Diverse processes including larger and smaller impacts, a wide range in fluvial activity, and local to regional structural influences have all affected the surface morphology.

  11. Bryophytes in fragments of Terra Firme forest on the great curve of the Xingu River, Pará state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, A C C; Ilkiu-Borges, A L; Tavares-Martins, A C C; Garcia, E T

    2015-08-01

    Microclimatic conditions of tropical forest favour the high richness of bryophytes, which by being sensitive to environmental changes, are important indicators of habitat conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the richness and species composition of the bryophyte flora in fragments of terra firme forest on the great curve of the Xingu River, Pará state, Brazil. The collections were made in August and September 2012 in 14 fragments, in which were installed two plots per fragment, one at the edge and one inside, measuring 10 × 10 m each. The results showed 77 species in 45 genera and 18 families. Lejeunea setiloba Spruce and Marchesinia brachiata (Sw.) Schiffn. are new records for Pará state. The richness families in this study were the ones typically found in tropical forest surveys. A high richness of rare species in comparison to common ones, a pattern usually observed for plants in tropical forests was not reported in this study, probably due to historical fragmentation and disturbance in the area. The richness and species composition were determined mainly by the physiognomic characteristics of the studied forest fragments. PMID:26691097

  12. β-Cyclodextrin Production by Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase from an Alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 Using Different Starch Substrates.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Kiransinh N; Patel, Kamlesh C; Trivedi, Ujjval B

    2016-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an important member of α-amylase family which can degrade the starch and produce cyclodextrins (CDs) as a result of intramolecular transglycosylation (cyclization). β-Cyclodextrin production was carried out using the purified CGTase enzyme from an alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 with different starches in raw as well as gelatinized form. Cyclodextrin production was confirmed using thin layer chromatography. Six different starch substrates, namely, soluble starch, potato starch, sago starch, corn starch, corn flour, and rice flour, were tested for CD production. Raw potato starch granules were found to be the best substrate giving 13.46 gm/L of cyclodextrins after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Raw sago starch gave 12.96 gm/L of cyclodextrins as the second best substrate. To achieve the maximum cyclodextrin production, statistical optimization using Central Composite Design (CCD) was carried out with three parameters, namely, potato starch concentration, CGTase enzyme concentration, and incubation temperature. Cyclodextrin production of 28.22 (gm/L) was achieved with the optimized parameters suggested by the model which are CGTase 4.8 U/L, starch 150 gm/L, and temperature 55.6°C. The suggested optimized conditions showed about 15% increase in β-cyclodextrin production (28.22 gm/L) at 55.6°C as compared to 24.48 gm/L at 60°C. The degradation of raw potato starch granules by purified CGTase was also confirmed by microscopic observations. PMID:27648307

  13. Monitoring of "urban villages" in Shenzhen, China from high-resolution GF-1 and TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chunzhu; Blaschke, Thomas; Taubenböck, Hannes

    2015-10-01

    Urban villages comprise mainly low-rise and congested, often informal settlements surrounded by new constructions and high-rise buildings whereby structures can be very different between neighboring areas. Monitoring urban villages and analyzing their characteristics are crucial for urban development and sustainability research. In this study, we carried out a combined analysis of multispectral GaoFen-1 (GF-1) and high resolution TerraSAR-X radar (TSX) imagery to extract the urban village information. GF-1 and TSX data are combined with the Gramshmidt spectral sharpening method so as to provide new input data for urban village classification. The Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) approach was also applied to four directions to provide another four types (all, 0°, 90°, 45° directions) of TSX-based inputs for urban village detection. We analyzed the urban village mapping performance using the Random Forest approach. The results demonstrate that the best overall accuracy and the best producer accuracy of urban villages reached with the GLCM 90° dataset (82.33%, 68.54% respectively). Adding single polarization TSX data as input information to the optical image GF-1 provided an average product accuracy improvement of around 7% in formal built-up area classification. The SAR and optical fusion imagery also provided an effective means to eliminate some layover, shadow effects, and dominant scattering at building locations and green spaces, improving the producer accuracy by 7% in urban area classification. To sum up, the added value of SAR information is demonstrated by the enhanced results achievable over built-up areas, including formal and informal settlements.

  14. Evidence for Noachian flood volcanism in Noachis Terra, Mars, and the possible role of Hellas impact basin tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. D.; Nazarian, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    Spectral and imaging data sets from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey, as well as spectral and topographic data from Mars Global Surveyor, are used to understand the origin of in-place rock units found in the intercrater plains and Hellas circumferential graben floors of Noachis Terra, Mars. The rocky units are interpreted as effusive volcanic plains on the basis of broad areal extent, structural competence, association with topographic lows, distinct mineralogy from regolith, and lack of sedimentary textures or minerals associated with aqueous processes. Some rocky expanses contain at least two compositionally distinct units. The relatively light-toned unit exhibits a higher plagioclase/pyroxene ratio than the lower, dark-toned unit. Both units exhibit ~10% olivine enrichment compared to surrounding regolith. These units are heavily degraded and exhibit crater model ages between ~3.80 and 4.0 Ga, making these some of the oldest preserved volcanic plains accessible by remote sensing. They are found in association with Hellas ring structures, where the westward extent of these rocky units is limited to the outermost ring structure. Fracturing associated with the Hellas impact may have enabled magmas to ascend from the base of the crust in the circum-Hellas region. Identification of these units as volcanic materials extends previous estimates for volume of outgassed volatiles. Though the estimated volcanic volume increase is minor, the local effects could have been significant. The role of multi-ring impact basins in providing a spatial control on Martian highlands volcanism and subsurface mineralization may have been underestimated in the past.

  15. β-Cyclodextrin Production by Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase from an Alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 Using Different Starch Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Ujjval B.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an important member of α-amylase family which can degrade the starch and produce cyclodextrins (CDs) as a result of intramolecular transglycosylation (cyclization). β-Cyclodextrin production was carried out using the purified CGTase enzyme from an alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 with different starches in raw as well as gelatinized form. Cyclodextrin production was confirmed using thin layer chromatography. Six different starch substrates, namely, soluble starch, potato starch, sago starch, corn starch, corn flour, and rice flour, were tested for CD production. Raw potato starch granules were found to be the best substrate giving 13.46 gm/L of cyclodextrins after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Raw sago starch gave 12.96 gm/L of cyclodextrins as the second best substrate. To achieve the maximum cyclodextrin production, statistical optimization using Central Composite Design (CCD) was carried out with three parameters, namely, potato starch concentration, CGTase enzyme concentration, and incubation temperature. Cyclodextrin production of 28.22 (gm/L) was achieved with the optimized parameters suggested by the model which are CGTase 4.8 U/L, starch 150 gm/L, and temperature 55.6°C. The suggested optimized conditions showed about 15% increase in β-cyclodextrin production (28.22 gm/L) at 55.6°C as compared to 24.48 gm/L at 60°C. The degradation of raw potato starch granules by purified CGTase was also confirmed by microscopic observations.

  16. Cloud Detection and Clearing for the Earth Observing System Terra Satellite Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) Experiment.

    PubMed

    Warner, J X; Gille, J C; Edwards, D P; Ziskin, D C; Smith, M W; Bailey, P L; Rokke, L

    2001-03-10

    The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, which was launched aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft on 18 December 1999, is designed to measure tropospheric CO and CH(4) by use of a nadir-viewing geometry. The measurements are taken at 4.7 mum in the thermal emission and absorption for the CO mixing ratio profile retrieval and at 2.3 and 2.2 mum in the reflected solar region for the total CO column amount and CH(4) column amount retrieval, respectively. To achieve the required measurement accuracy, it is critical to identify and remove cloud contamination in the radiometric signals. We describe an algorithm to detect cloudy pixels, to reconstruct clear column radiance for pixels with partial cloud covers, and to estimate equivalent cloud top height for overcast conditions to allow CO profile retrievals above clouds. The MOPITT channel radiances, as well as the first-guess calculations, are simulated with a fast forward model with input atmospheric profiles from ancillary data sets. The precision of the retrieved CO profiles and total column amounts in cloudy atmospheres is within the expected ?10% range. Validations of the cloud-detecting thresholds with the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer airborne simulator data and MOPITT airborne test radiometer measurements were performed. The validation results showed that the MOPITT cloud detection thresholds work well for scenes covered with more than 5-10% cloud cover if the uncertainties in the model input profiles are less than 2 K for temperature, 10% for water vapor, and 5% for CO and CH(4). PMID:18357114

  17. Cloud Detection and Clearing for the Earth Observing System Terra Satellite Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) Experiment.

    PubMed

    Warner, J X; Gille, J C; Edwards, D P; Ziskin, D C; Smith, M W; Bailey, P L; Rokke, L

    2001-03-10

    The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, which was launched aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft on 18 December 1999, is designed to measure tropospheric CO and CH(4) by use of a nadir-viewing geometry. The measurements are taken at 4.7 mum in the thermal emission and absorption for the CO mixing ratio profile retrieval and at 2.3 and 2.2 mum in the reflected solar region for the total CO column amount and CH(4) column amount retrieval, respectively. To achieve the required measurement accuracy, it is critical to identify and remove cloud contamination in the radiometric signals. We describe an algorithm to detect cloudy pixels, to reconstruct clear column radiance for pixels with partial cloud covers, and to estimate equivalent cloud top height for overcast conditions to allow CO profile retrievals above clouds. The MOPITT channel radiances, as well as the first-guess calculations, are simulated with a fast forward model with input atmospheric profiles from ancillary data sets. The precision of the retrieved CO profiles and total column amounts in cloudy atmospheres is within the expected ?10% range. Validations of the cloud-detecting thresholds with the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer airborne simulator data and MOPITT airborne test radiometer measurements were performed. The validation results showed that the MOPITT cloud detection thresholds work well for scenes covered with more than 5-10% cloud cover if the uncertainties in the model input profiles are less than 2 K for temperature, 10% for water vapor, and 5% for CO and CH(4).

  18. Use of MODIS Terra Imagery to Estimate Surface Water Quality Standards, Using Lake Thonotosassa, Florida, as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Thonotosassa is a highly eutrophied lake located in an area with rapidly growing population in the Tampa Bay watershed, Florida. The Florida Administrative Code has designated its use for "recreation, propagation and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife." Although this lake has been the subject of efforts to improve water quality since 1970, overall water quality has remained below the acceptable state standards, and has a high concentration of nutrients. This condition is of great concern to public health since it has favored episodic blooms of Cyanobacteria. Some Cyanobacterial species release toxins that can reach humans through drinking water, fish consumption, and direct contact with contaminated water. The lake has been historically popular for fishing and water sports, and its overflow water drains into the Hillsborough River, the main supply of municipal water for the City of Tampa, this explains why it has being constantly monitored in situ for water quality by the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County (EPC). Advances in remote sensing technology, however, open the possibility of facilitating similar types of monitoring in this and similar lakes, further contributing to the implementation of surveillance systems that would benefit not just public health, but also tourism and ecosystems. Although traditional application of this technology to water quality has been focused on much larger coastal water bodies like bays and estuaries, this study evaluates the feasibility of its application on a 46.6 km2 freshwater lake. Using surface reflectance products from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, this study evaluates associations between remotely sensed data and in situ data from the EPC. The parameters analyzed are the surface water quality standards used by the State of Florida and general indicators of trophic status.

  19. Analysis of regional gullies within Noachis Terra, Mars: A complex relationship between slope, surface material and aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, S. W.; Paull, D. J.; Clarke, J. D. A.

    2015-04-01

    The precise mechanisms by which martian hillside gullies erode and their dependence on the local environment remain subjects of debate. We studied three sharp rimmed craters in Noachis Terra and 37 gully profiles using Context Camera (CTX), Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) data. We analysed the gully topographic profiles of seven gullies and nine dry ravines. We measured slope properties using HRSC elevation data and used thermal inertia to infer material types of the gully sites. We compared these with three nearby Noachian age craters possessing crater wall slope angles within the range of previously observed gully formations. In-line with previous findings on individual gullies, we found that the slope angles of gullies in our study area consistently reflect the inherited slope angles of the host escarpment, suggesting that traditional slope-based evidence of fluvial activity in martian gullies needs to be placed in context of its local environment. We also observed a direct relationship between gully morphology and local composition of surface units. Martian gully features, and possibly method of erosion appeared heavily influenced by changes in underlying geology and presence of erodible sediment. Examples included gully shape changing in accordance with type of erodible sediment. We suggest that the degraded rims of gully-free Noachian craters precluded slope angles high enough to trigger creation of precursors to alcoves through mass wasting. Lack of these hollows has probably prevented the accumulation of enough ice-rich sediment for gullies to form in. Our analysis reveals that there is a complex interdependence between slope processes and the local environment, and global martian gully models may not work at the local scale.

  20. β-Cyclodextrin Production by Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase from an Alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 Using Different Starch Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Ujjval B.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an important member of α-amylase family which can degrade the starch and produce cyclodextrins (CDs) as a result of intramolecular transglycosylation (cyclization). β-Cyclodextrin production was carried out using the purified CGTase enzyme from an alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 with different starches in raw as well as gelatinized form. Cyclodextrin production was confirmed using thin layer chromatography. Six different starch substrates, namely, soluble starch, potato starch, sago starch, corn starch, corn flour, and rice flour, were tested for CD production. Raw potato starch granules were found to be the best substrate giving 13.46 gm/L of cyclodextrins after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Raw sago starch gave 12.96 gm/L of cyclodextrins as the second best substrate. To achieve the maximum cyclodextrin production, statistical optimization using Central Composite Design (CCD) was carried out with three parameters, namely, potato starch concentration, CGTase enzyme concentration, and incubation temperature. Cyclodextrin production of 28.22 (gm/L) was achieved with the optimized parameters suggested by the model which are CGTase 4.8 U/L, starch 150 gm/L, and temperature 55.6°C. The suggested optimized conditions showed about 15% increase in β-cyclodextrin production (28.22 gm/L) at 55.6°C as compared to 24.48 gm/L at 60°C. The degradation of raw potato starch granules by purified CGTase was also confirmed by microscopic observations. PMID:27648307

  1. Measuring Variable Scales of Surface Deformation in and around the Yellowstone Caldera with TerraSAR-X Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, C. W., Jr.; Dzurisin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Utilizing three years of TerraSAR-X (TSX) Stripmap data covering the Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming, we identify several examples showing the benefits of the high spatial and temporal resolution TSX data. Although the Stripmap footprints are small, compared to those of past SAR satellites, we are nonetheless able to track subsidence/uplift cycles of the ~50 x 80 km Yellowstone caldera using multiple strips. The Stripmap data are also useful for measuring deformation associated with the area of the North Rim anomaly, an area of repeated uplift and subsidence, ~30 km in diameter near the intersection of the north caldera rim, north-trending Mammoth-Norris Corridor, and west-northwest trending seismic belt east of Hebgen Lake. We measured ~45 mm of uplift associated with an episode that occurred mostly during the winter of 2013-2014 (as verified by GPS), and ~15 mm of subsequent subsidence in the early summer of 2014. The TSX Stripmap data have also proven effective at measuring small-scale deformation features. Because of the high-resolution of the TSX Stripmap data, we have also been able to measure many small-scale deforming features in Yellowstone National Park that are associated with apparent aquifer discharge/recharge cycles, unstable slope movement, geyser basin deformation, and deformation related to other hydrothermal features. We present an example of ~3 cm of seasonal deformation likely resulting from water movement in and out of an aquifer along the southwest caldera rim. We also document subsidence of ~1 cm/yr in a circular area nearly 0.5 km across near the vent from the Pitchstone Plateau, a thick rhyolite flow that erupted nearly 70 ka. TSX data are instrumental in identifying the seasonal variation found in some of these features, and in measuring the small spatial areas of deformation associated with other features.

  2. TerraSAR-X high-resolution radar remote sensing: an operational warning system for Rift Valley fever risk.

    PubMed

    Vignolles, Cécile; Tourre, Yves M; Mora, Oscar; Imanache, Laurent; Lafaye, Murielle

    2010-11-01

    In the vicinity of the Barkedji village (in the Ferlo region of Senegal), the abundance and aggressiveness of the vector mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever (RVF) are strongly linked to rainfall events and associated ponds dynamics. Initially, these results were obtained from spectral analysis of high-resolution (~10 m) Spot-5 images, but, as a part of the French AdaptFVR project, identification of the free water dynamics within ponds was made with the new high-resolution (down to 3-meter pixels), Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite (TerraSAR-X) produced by Infoterra GmbH, Friedrichshafen/Potsdam, Germany. During summer 2008, within a 30 x 50 km radar image, it was found that identified free water fell well within the footprints of ponds localized by optical data (i.e. Spot-5 images), which increased the confidence in this new and complementary remote sensing technique. Moreover, by using near real-time rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), NASA/JAXA joint mission, the filling-up and flushing-out rates of the ponds can be accurately determined. The latter allows for a precise, spatio-temporal mapping of the zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes capable of revealing the variability of pond surfaces. The risk for RVF infection of gathered bovines and small ruminants (~1 park/km(2)) can thus be assessed. This new operational approach (which is independent of weather conditions) is an important development in the mapping of risk components (i.e. hazards plus vulnerability) related to RVF transmission during the summer monsoon, thus contributing to a RVF early warning system. PMID:21080318

  3. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Flagstaff, AZ, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L. (Editor); Kelley, Michael S. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Merging of the USGS Atlas of Mercury 1:5,000,000 Geologic Series; Geologic Mapping of the V-36 Thetis Regio Quadrangle: 2008 Progress Report; Structural Maps of the V-17 Beta Regio Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of Isabella Quadrangle (V-50) and Helen Planitia, Venus; Renewed Mapping of the Nepthys Mons Quadrangle (V-54), Venus; Mapping the Sedna-Lavinia Region of Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Guinevere Planitia Quadrangle of Venus; Geological Mapping of Fortuna Tessera (V-2): Venus and Earth's Archean Process Comparisons; Geological Mapping of the North Polar Region of Venus (V-1 Snegurochka Planitia): Significant Problems and Comparisons to the Earth's Archean; Venus Quadrangle Geological Mapping: Use of Geoscience Data Visualization Systems in Mapping and Training; Geologic Map of the V-1 Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle: Progress Report; The Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus: Characterization of the Venus Midlands; Formation and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological Mapping; Geologic Map of the Meskhent Tessera Quadrangle (V-3), Venus: Evidence for Early Formation and Preservation of Regional Topography; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus: A Progress Report; Geology of the Lachesis Tessera Quadrangle (V-18), Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Juno Chasma Quadrangle, Venus: Establishing the Relation Between Rifting and Volcanism; Geologic Mapping of V-19, V-28, and V-53; Lunar Geologic Mapping Program: 2008 Update; Geologic Mapping of the Marius Quadrangle, the Moon; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report; New Geologic Map of the Argyre Region of Mars; Geologic Evolution of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002, and -25007; Mapping Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region, Mars; Geology of Holden Crater and the Holden and Ladon Multi

  4. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF ( CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  5. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2006-09-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  6. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  7. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  8. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  9. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  10. Effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil development on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years of development drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Michael D.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Pocklington, Patricia; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes effects of drilling with water and synthetic-based drilling muds on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. As such, the paper provides insight on the effects of relatively new synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs), and makes an important contribution to our understanding of the long-term chronic effects of drilling on benthic communities. The Terra Nova Field is located approximately 350 km offshore on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada). Sediment and invertebrate samples were collected in 1997 (baseline) prior to drilling, and subsequently in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations were sampled in each year at distances of less than 1 to approximately 20 km from drill centres. Summary benthic invertebrate community measures examined were total abundance, biomass, richness, diversity and multivariate measures of community composition based on non-Metric Dimensional Scaling (nMDS). Decreases in abundance, biomass and richness were noted at one station located nearest (0.14 km) to a drill centre in some environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years. These decreases coincided with higher levels of tracers of drill muds in sediments (barium and >C10-C21 hydrocarbons). Abundances of selected individual taxa were also examined to help interpret responses when project-related effects on summary measures occurred. Enrichment effects on some tolerant taxa (e.g., the polychaete family Phyllodocidae and the bivalve family Tellinidae) and decreased abundances of sensitive taxa (e.g., the polychaete families Orbiniidae and Paraonidae) were detected to within approximately 1-2 km from discharge source. Lagged responses three to five years after drilling started were noted for Phyllodocidae and Tellinidae, suggesting chronic or indirect effects. Overall, results of benthic community analyses at Terra Nova indicate that effects on summary measures of community composition were

  11. Analysis of drought events in a Mediterranean semi-arid region, Using SPOT-VGT and TERRA-MODIS satellite products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Dridi, Ghofrane; Amri, Rim; Lili-Chabaane, Zohra

    2015-04-01

    In semi-arid regions, and northern Africa in particular, the scarcity of rainfall and the occurrence of long periods of drought, represent one of the main environmental factors having a negative effect on agricultural productivity. This is the case in Central Tunisia, where the monitoring of agricultural and water resources is of prime importance. Vegetation cover is a key parameter to analyse this problem. Remote sensing has shown in the last decades a high potential to estimate these surface parameters. This study is based on two satellite products: SPOT-VGT (1998-2012) and TERRA-MODIS (2001-2012) NDVI products. They are used to study the dynamics of vegetation and land use. Different behaviors linked to drought periods have been observed. A strong agreement is observed between products proposed by the two sensors. Low spatial resolution SPOT-VGT and TERRA-MODIS NDVI images were used to map the land into three characteristic classes: olive trees, annual agriculture and pastures. An analysis of vegetation behaviour for dry years is proposed using the Windowed Fourier Transform (WTF). The Fourier Transform is able to analyze the frequency content of a signal in the time domain by decomposing the signal as the superposition of sine and cosine basis functions. Analysis for annual agricultural areas demonstrates a combined effect between climate and farmers behaviours. In these areas, bare soils show a high increasing for drought years. Highest percent of bare soil is retrieved with TERRA-MODIS than with SPOT-VGT. This could be explained by the spatial resolution of the two sensors. The temporal series of optical images are finally used to calculate a drought index, namely the VAI (Vegetation Anomaly Index), on the plain of Kairouan (Amri et al., 2011). This index shows a high correlation with precipitation statistics.

  12. Use of EO-1 Hyperion data to calculate spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) between the L7 ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, Gyanesh; Mishra, N.; Helder, Dennis L.; Aaron, D.; Choi, T.; Angal, A.; Xiong, X.

    2010-01-01

    Different applications and technology developments in Earth observations necessarily require different spectral coverage. Thus, even for the spectral bands designed to look at the same region of the electromagnetic spectrum, the relative spectral responses (RSR) of different sensors may be different. In this study, spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) are derived using hyperspectral Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Hyperion measurements to adjust for the spectral band differences between the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance measurements from 2000 to 2009 over the pseudo-invariant Libya 4 reference standard test site.

  13. Ten years of ASTER thermal infrared data from Terra: Discoveries, lessons learned, and insights into future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M. S.; Dehn, J.; Duda, K.; Hughes, C. G.; Lee, R.; Rose, S.; Scheidt, S. P.; Wessels, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Soon after its launch in December 1999, the ASTER sensor on the NASA Terra satellite began acquiring infrared data of dynamic surface processes around the world. For the first time in history, well calibrated, relatively high spatial resolution thermal infrared (TIR) data was being collected in more than two spectral bands. These data began a new era in Earth science from space allowing us to examine such diverse topics as the compositional mapping of eolian systems, the accurate detection of subpixel thermal heterogeneities, the relationship between emitted energy from glassy materials and the volcanic processes that formed them, and the thermophysical behavior of the land surface. The TIR subsystem of ASTER has maintained very good radiometric accuracy over the last decade, which is double the original design life. The diligence of the ASTER Science Team to maintain this quality and expand the data through programs such as the night time TIR global map will provide a scientific dataset utilized for many years in the future. For example, one such program started in 2003 was a new collaboration between the ASTER project and the U.S. Geological Survey to help better monitor the explosive volcanoes of the northern Pacific region. The rapid response mode of the instrument has now been automated and linked to a larger-scale and more rapid monitoring alert system operated by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. ASTER TIR data collected under this project are commonly the first detailed views of new activity at these remote volcanoes, with over 1400 TIR images having been acquired for the five most active Kamchatka volcanoes. This presentation will focus on an overview of the science and operational results over the last decade using data from the ASTER TIR sensor. ASTER has the capability to acquire high spatial resolution data from the visible to the TIR wavelength region. Those data, in conjunction with its ability to generate digital elevation models (DEM’s), makes the

  14. Comparing MODIS-Terra and GOES surface albedo for New York City NY, Baltimore MD and Washington DC for 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubenga, K.; Hoff, R.; McCann, K.; Chu, A.; Prados, A.

    2006-05-01

    The NOAA GOES Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP) is a product displaying the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over the United States. The GASP retrieval involves discriminating the upwelling radiance from the atmosphere from that of the variable underlying surface. Unlike other sensors with more visible and near- infrared spectral channels such as MODIS, the sensors on GOES 8 through 12 only have one visible and a several far infrared channels. The GASP algorithm uses the detection of the second-darkest pixel from the visible channel over a 28-day period as the reference from which a radiance look-up table gives the corresponding AOD. GASP is reliable in capturing the AOD during large events. As an example, GASP was able to precisely show the Alaska and British Columbia smoke plume advecting from Alaska to the northeastern U.S. during the summer of 2004. Knapp et al. (2005) has shown that the AOD retrieval for GOES- 8 is within +/-0.13 of AERONET ground data with a coefficient of correlation of 0.72. Prados (this meeting) will update that study. However, GASP may not be as reliable when it comes to observing smaller AOD events in the northeast where the surface brightness is relatively high. The presence of large cities, such as New York, increases the surface albedo and produces a bright background against which it may be difficult to deduce the AOD. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua platforms provides an independent measurement of the surface albedo at a resolution greater than available on GOES. In this research, the MODIS and GOES surface albedo product for New York, Washington and Baltimore are compared in order to see how we can improve the AOD retrieval in urban areas for air quality applications. Ref: K. Knapp et al. 2005. Toward aerosol optical depth retrievals over land from GOES visible radiances: determining surface reflectance. Int.Journal of Remote Sensing 26, 4097-4116

  15. One year observations of atmospheric reactive gases (O3, CO, NOx, SO2) at Jang Bogo base in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siek Rhee, Tae; Seo, Sora

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica is a remote area surrounded by the Southern Ocean and far from the influence of human activities, giving us unique opportunity to investigate the background variation of trace gases which are sensitive to the human activities. Korean Antarctic base, Jang Bogo, was established as a unique permanent overwintering base in Terra Nova Bay in February, 2014. One year later, we installed a package of instruments to monitor atmospheric trace gases at the base, which includes long-lived greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, and N2O, and reactive gases, O3, CO, NOx, and SO2. The atmospheric chemistry observatory, where these scientific instruments were installed, is located ca. 1 km far from the main building and power plant, minimizing the influence of pollution that may come from the operation of the base. Here we focus on the reactive gases measured in-situ at the base; O3 displays a typical seasonal variation with high in winter and low in summer with seasonal amplitude of ~18 ppb, CO was high in September at ~56 ppb, probably implying the invasion of lower latitude air mass with biomass burning, and low in late summer due to photochemical oxidation. NO did not show clear seasonal variation, but SO2 reveals larger values in summer than in winter. We will discuss potential atmospheric processes behind these first observations of reactive gases in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica.

  16. Isolation, Screening, and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from Natural Reserves in the Subtropical Region of China and Optimization of Cellulase Production by Paenibacillus terrae ME27-1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Min; Wu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    From different natural reserves in the subtropical region of China, a total of 245 aerobic bacterial strains were isolated on agar plates containing sugarcane bagasse pulp as the sole carbon source. Of the 245 strains, 22 showed hydrolyzing zones on agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose after Congo-red staining. Molecular identification showed that the 22 strains belonged to 10 different genera, with the Burkholderia genus exhibiting the highest strain diversity and accounting for 36.36% of all the 22 strains. Three isolates among the 22 strains showed higher carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity, and isolate ME27-1 exhibited the highest CMCase activity in liquid culture. The strain ME27-1 was identified as Paenibacillus terrae on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as well as physiological and biochemical properties. The optimum pH and temperature for CMCase activity produced by the strain ME27-1 were 5.5 and 50°C, respectively, and the enzyme was stable at a wide pH range of 5.0–9.5. A 12-fold improvement in the CMCase activity (2.08 U/mL) of ME27-1 was obtained under optimal conditions for CMCase production. Thus, this study provided further information about the diversity of cellulose-degrading bacteria in the subtropical region of China and found P. terrae ME27-1 to be highly cellulolytic. PMID:25050355

  17. Genetic dissimilarity and selection of putative mutants of Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar using the Ward-MLM strategy.

    PubMed

    Reis, R V; Amorim, E P; Amorim, V B O; Ferreira, C F; Pestana, R K N; Ledo, C A S; Gonçalves, Z; Borém, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate genetic variability and select putative mutants of Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar (AAB genome) subjected to gamma radiation based on agronomic data and inter simple sequence repeat molecular marker profiles using the Ward-MLM strategy. A total of 233 irradiated plants and 41 controls were assessed. The agronomic and molecular data were subjected to the Ward-MLM statistical algorithm in the SAS program. Cluster analysis was performed by the average distance method (UPGMA), based on the distance matrix of the Gower algorithm, and the cophenetic correlation coefficient calculated using the R software. The distance between the putative mutants ranged from 0.321 to 0.524, with an average distance of 0.426, and a cophenetic correlation coefficient of 0.79. Three putative mutants, which were selected based on the best agronomic traits and low height, will undergo further evaluation in the next stages of the banana breeding program at Embrapa. These results describe the first attempt of using combined data of Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar for the purpose of selecting mutants and assessing genetic variability. PMID:26634499

  18. Genetic dissimilarity and selection of putative mutants of Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar using the Ward-MLM strategy.

    PubMed

    Reis, R V; Amorim, E P; Amorim, V B O; Ferreira, C F; Pestana, R K N; Ledo, C A S; Gonçalves, Z; Borém, A

    2015-11-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate genetic variability and select putative mutants of Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar (AAB genome) subjected to gamma radiation based on agronomic data and inter simple sequence repeat molecular marker profiles using the Ward-MLM strategy. A total of 233 irradiated plants and 41 controls were assessed. The agronomic and molecular data were subjected to the Ward-MLM statistical algorithm in the SAS program. Cluster analysis was performed by the average distance method (UPGMA), based on the distance matrix of the Gower algorithm, and the cophenetic correlation coefficient calculated using the R software. The distance between the putative mutants ranged from 0.321 to 0.524, with an average distance of 0.426, and a cophenetic correlation coefficient of 0.79. Three putative mutants, which were selected based on the best agronomic traits and low height, will undergo further evaluation in the next stages of the banana breeding program at Embrapa. These results describe the first attempt of using combined data of Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar for the purpose of selecting mutants and assessing genetic variability.

  19. Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: First Year Results and Second Year Work Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Rogers, A. D.; Seelos, K. D.

    2010-01-01

    The Libya Montes-Tyrrhena Terra highland-lowland transitional zone of Mars is a complex tectonic and erosional region that contains some of the oldest exposed materials on the Martian surface as well as aqueous mineral signatures that may be potential chemical artifacts of early highland formational processes. Our 1:1M scale mapping project includes the geologic materials and landforms contained within MTMs 00282, -05282, -10282, 00277, - 05277, and -10277, which cover the highland portion of the transitional zone. The map region extends from the Libya Montes southward into Tyrrhena Terra and to the northern rim of Hellas basin and includes volcanic rocks of Syrtis Major Planum and a broad lowlying plain (palus) that forms a topographic divide between Isidis and Hellas basins. The objective of this project is to describe the geologic history of regional massif and plains materials by combining geomorphological and compositional mapping observations. This abstract summarizes the technical approaches and interim scientific results of Year 1 efforts and the expected work plan for Year 2 efforts.

  20. Overview of NASA Earth Observing Systems Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Instrument Calibration Algorithms and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Barnes, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Since launch, the Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments have successfully operated on-orbit for more than 9 and 6.5 years, respectively. Iv1ODIS, a key instrument for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) missions, was designed to make continuous observations for studies of Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and to extend existing data records from heritage earth-observing sensors. In addition to frequent global coverage, MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering both solar reflective and thermal emissive spectral regions. Nearly 40 data products are routinely generated from MODIS' observations and publicly distributed for a broad range of applications. Both instruments have produced an unprecedented amount of data in support of the science community. As a general reference for understanding sensor operation and calibration, and thus science data quality, we ;provide an overview of the MODIS instruments and their pre-launch calibration and characterization, and describe their on-orbit calibration algorithms and performance. On-orbit results from both Terra and Aqua MODIS radiometric, spectral, and "spatial calibration are discussed. Currently, both instruments, including their on-board calibration devices, are healthy and are expected to continue operation for several }rears to come.

  1. Modelling Vegetation Cover Dynamics of the Niger Floodplain in Mali, Westafrica, Using Multitemporal MERIS Full Resolution and TERRA -ASTER Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Ralf

    This presentation aims at showing the potential of a combined use of multi-temporal data from two different sensors (MERIS and TERRA ASTER) for an analysis of vegetation cover changes in semi-arid environments. While MERIS data mainly provide information about the vegetation cover density, ASTER data were used to analyse soil properties -especially soil brightness and soil wetness. An algorithm is proposed that uses atmospherically corrected surface reflectance values from MERIS and ASTER measurements. These values are subsequently splitted into a signal component that is caused by the vegetation cover and the background component (triggered by soil properties) using a linear spectral unmixing approach. Vegetation cover then is described by Vegetation Indices (MGVI, NDVI / SAVI) that were calculated from the vegetation signal component. Finally, these vegetation parameter were classified for all multi-temporal MERIS data using the EM algorithm to derive the temporal behaviour of vegetation pattern at the Inland Delta. The algorithm provides, as results, a fractional vegetation cover, a vegetation density value and information on the soil type. A detailed mapping of the spatio-temporal vegetation cover patterns for the Niger Inland Delta during the period of 2002 -2005 is another outcome of this study in addition to an in-depth evaluation of the applicability of the used VIs for environments with sparse vegetation covers. Located in the western Sahel of Africa, (1330' N -17 N and 230' W -530' W), the Niger Inland Delta is one of the largest floodplains in the world. The geographic term "Niger Inland Delta" represents a vast, extremely flat area of around 40.000 km extend, which is annually inundated by water of the Niger -Bani riversystem. In contrast to its semi -arid surrounding, the delta's ecology can be described as a mosaic of permanent, periodical and episodically flooded areas. Their extend varies both in scale and time due to irregularities of amount as

  2. Terra: The Evolution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author offers pieces of advice for those who are considering developing an integrated program. He stresses how important it is to let one's program evolve. Another emphasis for him is to bring skills, passion, and experience to what a program becomes. The key is to find the right curriculum connections that allow these…

  3. Spaceborne Autonomous and Ground Based Relative Orbit Control for the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardaens, J. S.; D'Amico, S.; Kazeminejad, B.; Montenbruck, O.; Gill, E.

    2007-01-01

    TerraSAR-X (TSX) and TanDEM-X (TDX) are two advanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites flying in formation. SAR interferometry allows a high resolution imaging of the Earth by processing SAR images obtained from two slightly different orbits. TSX operates as a repeat-pass interferometer in the first phase of its lifetime and will be supplemented after two years by TDX in order to produce digital elevation models (DEM) with unprecedented accuracy. Such a flying formation makes indeed possible a simultaneous interferometric data acquisition characterized by highly flexible baselines with range of variations between a few hundreds meters and several kilometers [1]. TSX has been successfully launched on the 15th of June, 2007. TDX is expected to be launched on the 31st of May, 2009. A safe and robust maintenance of the formation is based on the concept of relative eccentricity/inclination (e/i) vector separation whose efficiency has already been demonstrated during the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) [2]. Here, the satellite relative motion is parameterized by mean of relative orbit elements and the key idea is to align the relative eccentricity and inclination vectors to minimize the hazard of a collision. Previous studies have already shown the pertinence of this concept and have described the way of controlling the formation using an impulsive deterministic control law [3]. Despite the completely different relative orbit control requirements, the same approach can be applied to the TSX/TDX formation. The task of TDX is to maintain the close formation configuration by actively controlling its relative motion with respect to TSX, the leader of the formation. TDX must replicate the absolute orbit keeping maneuvers executed by TSX and also compensate the natural deviation of the relative e/i vectors. In fact the relative orbital elements of the formation tend to drift because of the secular non-keplerian perturbations acting on both satellites

  4. Observation of high-resolution wind fields and offshore wind turbine wakes using TerraSAR-X imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Tobias; Jacobsen, Sven; Lehner, Susanne; Pleskachevsky, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    1. Introduction Numerous large-scale offshore wind farms have been built in European waters and play an important role in providing renewable energy. Therefore, knowledge of behavior of wakes, induced by large wind turbines and their impact on wind power output is important. The spatial variation of offshore wind turbine wake is very complex, depending on wind speed, wind direction, ambient atmospheric turbulence and atmospheric stability. In this study we demonstrate the application of X-band TerraSAR-X (TS-X) data with high spatial resolution for studies on wind turbine wakes in the near and far field of the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus, located in the North Sea. Two cases which different weather conditions and different wake pattern as observed in the TS-X image are presented. 2. Methods The space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a unique sensor that provides two-dimensional information on the ocean surface. Due to their high resolution, daylight and weather independency and global coverage, SARs are particularly suitable for many ocean and coastal applications. SAR images reveal wind variations on small scales and thus represent a valuable means in detailed wind-field analysis. The general principle of imaging turbine wakes is that the reduced wind speed downstream of offshore wind farms modulates the sea surface roughness, which in turn changes the Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS, denoted by σ0) in the SAR image and makes the wake visible. In this study we present two cases at the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus to investigate turbine-induced wakes and the retrieved sea surface wind field. Using the wind streaks, visible in the TS-X image and the shadow behind the offshore wind farm, induced by turbine wake, the sea surface wind direction is derived and subsequently the sea surface wind speed is calculated using the latest generation of wind field algorithm XMOD2. 3. Case study alpha ventus Alpha Ventus is located approximately 45 km from the

  5. Synoptic snowfall as a possible source of water for late alluvial fan activity in southern Margaritifer Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Alluvial deposits on Mars provide an important record of the environmental conditions enabling their formation. A recent study of alluvial fans within large craters in southern Margaritifer Terra showed that deposition of exposed surfaces occurred late in Martian history, within the latest Hesperian or well into the early Amazonian. These fans typically display well developed alcoves and fan surfaces preserve distributary channels standing ~10-15 m in relief (via inversion of topography). Understanding whether the water responsible for fan emplacement was related to a local source (e.g., impact-related melting of ground ice) versus regional or global synoptic climatic events has implications for the nature of late water activity and potential habitability of Mars. Water released during and after impact events may be sufficient to cause runoff within and around newly formed craters and could contribute to late valley and fan formation without requiring changes in climate. For example, the impact forming the Amazonian-aged Hale crater (35.7S, 323.6E) produced valleys, but was not likely responsible for the alluvial fans because 1) alluvial fans occur in craters up to 700-800 km away from Hale; 2) craters with fans occur at a range of azimuths from Hale (and may not be consistent with downwind transport of volatiles under prevailing winds); and 3) many craters bearing older floor deposits and mantling deposits are closer to Hale than those containing fans. The impact forming the Hesperian-aged Holden crater (26.1S, 326E) is another possible local source of water, but like Hale, craters hosting fans occur at a range of azimuths and up to hundreds of km away from Holden. Moreover, at least six degraded craters on the relatively high relief rim of Holden suggest a gap in time between the Holden impact and the fluvial modification of these near-rim craters and the simultaneous fan