Science.gov

Sample records for lade teruo nakai

  1. 48 CFR 801.670-1 - Issuing bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Issuing bills of lading... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-1 Issuing bills of lading. The authority to issue bills of lading... employee may issue a bill of lading or otherwise procure transportation services for goods unless...

  2. 48 CFR 801.670-1 - Issuing bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Issuing bills of lading... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-1 Issuing bills of lading. The authority to issue bills of lading... employee may issue a bill of lading or otherwise procure transportation services for goods unless...

  3. 48 CFR 1852.247-73 - Bills of Lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bills of Lading. 1852.247... 1852.247-73 Bills of Lading. As prescribed in 1847.305-70(b), insert a clause substantially as follows: Bills of Lading (JUN 2002) The purpose of this clause is to define when a commercial bill of lading or...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.247-73 - Bills of Lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bills of Lading. 1852.247... 1852.247-73 Bills of Lading. As prescribed in 1847.305-70(b), insert a clause substantially as follows: Bills of Lading (JUN 2002) The purpose of this clause is to define when a commercial bill of lading or...

  5. 48 CFR 801.670-1 - Issuing bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuing bills of lading... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-1 Issuing bills of lading. The authority to issue bills of lading... employee may issue a bill of lading or otherwise procure transportation services for goods unless...

  6. 48 CFR 801.670-1 - Issuing bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Issuing bills of lading... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-1 Issuing bills of lading. The authority to issue bills of lading... employee may issue a bill of lading or otherwise procure transportation services for goods unless...

  7. LADEE Science Results and Implications for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; M. Horanyi; Colaprete, A.; Benna; Mahaffy, P.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Halekas, J. S.; Hurley, D. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Saratos, M.; Kempf, S.; Poppe, A.; Szalay, J.; Sternovsky, Z.; Cooke, A. M.; Wooden, D. H.; Glenar, D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, LADEE, concluded a fully successful investigation of the Moon's tenuous gas and dust atmosphere on April 18, 2014. LADEE hosted three science instruments to address atmospheric and dust objectives, and a technology demonstration of deep-space optical communication. The three science instruments were an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UVS), a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), and a lunar dust experiment (LDEX). All data acquired by these instruments have been submitted to the Planetary Data System. A mission overview and science instrument descriptions are readily available. LADEE inserted into a low-altitude, retrograde lunar orbit optimized for observations at the sunrise terminator, where surface temperatures rise abruptly. LADEE also carried out observations over a wide range of local times and altitudes. Here we describe some of the initial results.

  8. Attitude Design for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galal, Ken; Nickel, Craig; Sherman, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) satellite successfully completed its 148-day science investigation in a low-altitude, near-equatorial lunar orbit on April 18, 2014. The LADEE spacecraft was built, managed and operated by NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC). The Mission Operations Center (MOC) was located at Ames and was responsible for activity planning, command sequencing, trajectory and attitude design, orbit determination, and spacecraft operations. The Science Operations Center (SOC) was located at Goddard Space Flight Center and was responsible for science planning, data archiving and distribution. This paper details attitude design and operations support for the LADEE mission. LADEE's attitude design was shaped by a wide range of instrument pointing requirements that necessitated regular excursions from the baseline one revolution per orbit "Ram" attitude. Such attitude excursions were constrained by a number of flight rules levied to protect instruments from the Sun, avoid geometries that would result in simultaneous occlusion of LADEE's two star tracker heads, and maintain the spacecraft within its thermal and power operating limits. To satisfy LADEE's many attitude requirements and constraints, a set of rules and conventions was adopted to manage the complexity of this design challenge and facilitate the automation of ground software that generated pointing commands spanning multiple days of operations at a time. The resulting LADEE Flight Dynamics System (FDS) that was developed used Visual Basic scripts that generated instructions to AGI's Satellite Tool Kit (STK) in order to derive quaternion commands at regular intervals that satisfied LADEE's pointing requirements. These scripts relied heavily on the powerful "align and constrain" capability of STK's attitude module to construct LADEE's attitude profiles and the slews to get there. A description of the scripts and the attitude modeling they embodied is provided. One particular

  9. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading? 102-117.85 Section 102-117.85 Public... Services § 102-117.85 What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading? (a) A Government bill of lading (GBL), Optional Forms 1103 or 1203, is a controlled document...

  10. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading? 102-117.85 Section 102-117.85 Public... Services § 102-117.85 What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading? (a) A Government bill of lading (GBL), Optional Forms 1103 and 1203, is a controlled document...

  11. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial bills of..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5003 Commercial bills of lading. (a) DOE's cost-type contractors using commercial bills of lading in...

  12. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial bills of..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5003 Commercial bills of lading. (a) DOE's cost-type contractors using commercial bills of lading in...

  13. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial bills of..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5003 Commercial bills of lading. (a) DOE's cost-type contractors using commercial bills of lading in...

  14. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial bills of..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5003 Commercial bills of lading. (a) DOE's cost-type contractors using commercial bills of lading in...

  15. 19 CFR 191.156 - Bill of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bill of lading. 191.156 Section 191.156 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Merchandise Exported From Continuous Customs Custody § 191.156 Bill of lading. (a) Filing. In order to complete the claim for drawback under this subpart, a bill of lading covering...

  16. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial bills of..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5003 Commercial bills of lading. (a) DOE's cost-type contractors using commercial bills of lading in...

  17. 19 CFR 191.156 - Bill of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bill of lading. 191.156 Section 191.156 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Merchandise Exported From Continuous Customs Custody § 191.156 Bill of lading. (a) Filing. In order to complete the claim for drawback under this subpart, a bill of lading covering...

  18. 19 CFR 191.156 - Bill of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... produce the bill of lading and such evidence of exportation and of his right to make the drawback entry as... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bill of lading. 191.156 Section 191.156 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Merchandise Exported From Continuous Customs Custody § 191.156 Bill of lading....

  19. 19 CFR 191.156 - Bill of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... produce the bill of lading and such evidence of exportation and of his right to make the drawback entry as... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bill of lading. 191.156 Section 191.156 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Merchandise Exported From Continuous Customs Custody § 191.156 Bill of lading....

  20. 19 CFR 191.156 - Bill of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... produce the bill of lading and such evidence of exportation and of his right to make the drawback entry as... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bill of lading. 191.156 Section 191.156 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Merchandise Exported From Continuous Customs Custody § 191.156 Bill of lading....

  1. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  2. A Conversation with Native Flutist R. Carlos Nakai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1992-01-01

    R. Carlos Nakai discusses his personal development as a musician, his interest in keeping the Native flute tradition alive in a modern way, his ethic of service, the purpose of higher education for Indian students, the relation of education to life, and the role of Indian people in the sciences. (SV)

  3. Flight Software for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Howard N.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft was launched on September 6, 2013, and completed its mission on April 17, 2014 with a directed impact to the Lunar Surface. Its primary goals were to examine the lunar atmosphere, measure lunar dust, and to demonstrate high rate laser communications. The LADEE mission was a resounding success, achieving all mission objectives, much of which can be attributed to careful planning and preparation. This paper discusses some of the highlights from the mission, and then discusses the techniques used for developing the onboard Flight Software. A large emphasis for the Flight Software was to develop it within tight schedule and cost constraints. To accomplish this, the Flight Software team leveraged heritage software, used model based development techniques, and utilized an automated test infrastructure. This resulted in the software being delivered on time and within budget. The resulting software was able to meet all system requirements, and had very problems in flight.

  4. LADEE Satellite Modeling and Simulation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael; Cannon, Howard; Frost, Chad

    2011-01-01

    As human activity on and around the Moon increases, so does the likelihood that our actions will have an impact on its atmosphere. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), a NASA satellite scheduled to launch in 2013, will orbit the Moon collecting composition, density, and time variability data to characterize the current state of the lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also test the concept of the "Modular Common Bus" spacecraft architecture, an effort to reduce both development time and cost by designing reusable, modular components for use in multiple missions with similar requirements. An important aspect of this design strategy is to both simulate the spacecraft and develop the flight code in Simulink, a block diagram-style programming language that allows easy algorithm visualization and performance testing. Before flight code can be tested, however, a realistic simulation of the satellite and its dynamics must be generated and validated. This includes all of the satellite control system components such as actuators used for force and torque generation and sensors used for inertial orientation reference. My primary responsibilities have included designing, integrating, and testing models for the LADEE thrusters, reaction wheels, star trackers, and rate gyroscopes.

  5. 27 CFR 28.262 - Delay in lading at port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delay in lading at port..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Proceedings at Ports of Export § 28.262 Delay in lading at port. If, on arrival of a shipment withdrawn for export without payment of tax or free of...

  6. 27 CFR 28.262 - Delay in lading at port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Delay in lading at port..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Proceedings at Ports of Export § 28.262 Delay in lading at port. If, on arrival of a shipment withdrawn for export without payment of tax or free of...

  7. 41 CFR 109-40.5004 - Government bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government bills of..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5004 Government bills of lading. In those instances where DOE cost-type contractors are authorized to...

  8. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379. ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373... BILLS Motor Carrier Receipts and Bills § 373.101 Motor carrier bills of lading. Every motor...

  9. 41 CFR 109-40.5004 - Government bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government bills of..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5004 Government bills of lading. In those instances where DOE cost-type contractors are authorized to...

  10. 41 CFR 109-40.5004 - Government bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government bills of..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5004 Government bills of lading. In those instances where DOE cost-type contractors are authorized to...

  11. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379. ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373... BILLS Motor Carrier Receipts and Bills § 373.101 Motor carrier bills of lading. Every motor...

  12. 41 CFR 109-40.5004 - Government bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government bills of... Government bills of lading. In those instances where DOE cost-type contractors are authorized to use Government bills of lading, specific employees of cost-type contractors will be authorized by the...

  13. 41 CFR 109-40.5004 - Government bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government bills of... Government bills of lading. In those instances where DOE cost-type contractors are authorized to use Government bills of lading, specific employees of cost-type contractors will be authorized by the...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. A Appendix A to Part 1035—Uniform Straight Bill of Lading Uniform Straight Bill of Lading...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. A Appendix A to Part 1035—Uniform Straight Bill of Lading Uniform Straight Bill of Lading...

  16. 27 CFR 28.252 - Air express or freight bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bills of lading. 28.252 Section 28.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Bills of Lading § 28.252 Air express or freight bills of lading. Where the exportation is made by air express or air freight, a bill of lading issued by the conveying airline is considered for...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. A Appendix A to Part 1035—Uniform Straight Bill of Lading Uniform Straight Bill of Lading...

  18. 27 CFR 28.252 - Air express or freight bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bills of lading. 28.252 Section 28.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Bills of Lading § 28.252 Air express or freight bills of lading. Where the exportation is made by air express or air freight, a bill of lading issued by the conveying airline is considered for...

  19. 27 CFR 28.252 - Air express or freight bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bills of lading. 28.252 Section 28.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Bills of Lading § 28.252 Air express or freight bills of lading. Where the exportation is made by air express or air freight, a bill of lading issued by the conveying airline is considered for...

  20. 27 CFR 28.252 - Air express or freight bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bills of lading. 28.252 Section 28.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Bills of Lading § 28.252 Air express or freight bills of lading. Where the exportation is made by air express or air freight, a bill of lading issued by the conveying airline is considered for...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. A Appendix A to Part 1035—Uniform Straight Bill of Lading Uniform Straight Bill of Lading...

  2. 27 CFR 28.252 - Air express or freight bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bills of lading. 28.252 Section 28.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Bills of Lading § 28.252 Air express or freight bills of lading. Where the exportation is made by air express or air freight, a bill of lading issued by the conveying airline is considered for...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. A Appendix A to Part 1035—Uniform Straight Bill of Lading Uniform Straight Bill of Lading...

  4. LADEE Propulsion System Cold Flow Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter; Chapman, Jack M.; Trinh, Hau, P.; Bell, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a NASA mission that will orbit the Moon. Its main objective is to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The spacecraft development is being led by NASA Ames Research Center and scheduled for launch in 2013. The LADEE spacecraft will be operated with a bi-propellant hypergolic propulsion system using MMH and NTO as the fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The propulsion system utilizes flight-proven hardware on major components. The propulsion layout is composed of one 100-lbf main thruster and four 5-lbf RCS thrusters. The propellants are stored in four tanks (two parallel-connected tanks per propellant component). The propellants will be pressurized by regulated helium. A simulated propulsion system has been built for conducting cold flow test series to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes, such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. Propellant drainage differential between propellant tanks will also be assessed. Since the oxidizer feed line system has a higher flow demand than the fuel system does, the cold flow test focuses on the oxidizer system. The objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the LADEE propulsion fluid flow operation through water cold flow test and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. The test activities, including the simulated propulsion test article, cold flow test, and analytical modeling, are being performed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. At the time of the abstract submission, the test article checkout is being performed. The test series will be completed by November, 2012

  5. 48 CFR 1852.247-73 - Bills of Lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses... bills of lading (GBLs). As used in this clause, “domestic overseas” means non-continental United...

  6. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Turner, Mark; Caffrey, Robert T.; Hine, Butler Preston

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a Lunar science orbiter mission currently under development to address the goals of the National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) [1] report to study the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment prior to significant human activities. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. LADEE employs a high heritage science instrument payload including a neutral mass spectrometer, ultraviolet spectrometer, and dust sensor. In addition to the science payloads, LADEE will fly a laser communications system technology demonstration that could provide a building block for future space communications architectures. LADEE is an important component in NASA's portfolio of near-term lunar missions, addressing objectives that are currently not covered by other U.S. or international efforts, and whose observations must be conducted before large-scale human or robotic activities irrevocably perturb the tenuous and fragile lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost, rapid-development program utilizing a modular bus design launched on the new Minotaur V launch vehicle. Once proven, this capability could enable future lunar missions in a highly cost constrained environment. This paper describes the LADEE objectives, mission design, and technical

  7. Interferon-mediated antiviral activities of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its active components.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Prasanna; Uddin, Md Bashir; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Hongik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Angelica tenuissima Nakai is a widely used commodity in traditional medicine. Nevertheless, no study has been conducted on the antiviral and immune-modulatory properties of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, an effective dose of Angelica tenuissima Nakai markedly inhibited the replication of Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Coxsackie virus, and Enterovirus (EV-71) on epithelial (HEK293T/HeLa) and immune (RAW264.7) cells. Such inhibition can be described by the induction of the antiviral state in cells by antiviral, IFNrelated gene induction and secretion of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated BALB/c mice displayed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3, and H9N2). We also found that Angelica tenuissima Nakai can induce the secretion of IL-6, IFN-λ, and local IgA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated mice, which correlating with the observed prophylactic effects. In HPLC analysis, we found the presence of several compounds in the aqueous fraction and among them; we evaluated antiviral properties of ferulic acid. Therefore, an extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its components, including ferulic acid, play roles as immunomodulators and may be potential candidates for novel anti-viral/anti-influenza agents.

  8. 19 CFR 113.69 - Production of bills of lading bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Production of bills of lading bond conditions. 113...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.69 Production of bills of lading bond conditions. A bond to produce a bill of lading shall contain the conditions listed in this section and...

  9. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Receipts and bills of lading for freight... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of...

  10. 49 CFR 1035.1 - Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING § 1035.1 Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading. (a) All common carriers, except express companies,...

  11. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Receipts and bills of lading for freight... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of...

  12. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If the person desiring to make entry is unable to present a bill of lading, air waybill, or other evidence...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-1 - Commercial Bill of Lading Notations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial Bill of Lading....247-1 Commercial Bill of Lading Notations. As prescribed in 47.104-4, insert the following clause: Commercial Bill of Lading Notations (FEB 2006) When the Contracting Officer authorizes supplies to be...

  14. 48 CFR 53.247 - Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading). 53.247 Section 53.247 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Bill of Lading). The commercial bill of lading is the preferred document for the transportation...

  15. 19 CFR 113.69 - Production of bills of lading bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production of bills of lading bond conditions. 113...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.69 Production of bills of lading bond conditions. A bond to produce a bill of lading shall contain the conditions listed in this section and...

  16. 49 CFR 1035.1 - Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING § 1035.1 Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading. (a) All common carriers, except express companies,...

  17. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If the person desiring to make entry is unable to present a bill of lading, air waybill, or other evidence...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-1 - Commercial Bill of Lading Notations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial Bill of Lading....247-1 Commercial Bill of Lading Notations. As prescribed in 47.104-4, insert the following clause: Commercial Bill of Lading Notations (FEB 2006) When the Contracting Officer authorizes supplies to be...

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-1 - Commercial Bill of Lading Notations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial Bill of Lading....247-1 Commercial Bill of Lading Notations. As prescribed in 47.104-4, insert the following clause: Commercial Bill of Lading Notations (FEB 2006) When the Contracting Officer authorizes supplies to be...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-1 - Commercial Bill of Lading Notations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial Bill of Lading....247-1 Commercial Bill of Lading Notations. As prescribed in 47.104-4, insert the following clause: Commercial Bill of Lading Notations (FEB 2006) When the Contracting Officer authorizes supplies to be...

  1. 19 CFR 113.69 - Production of bills of lading bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Production of bills of lading bond conditions. 113...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.69 Production of bills of lading bond conditions. A bond to produce a bill of lading shall contain the conditions listed in this section and...

  2. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipts and bills of lading for freight... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of...

  3. 49 CFR 1035.2 - Modification of front of uniform bill of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modification of front of uniform bill of lading... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING § 1035.2 Modification of front of uniform bill of lading. Notwithstanding any other provision of § 1035.1(a),...

  4. 19 CFR 113.69 - Production of bills of lading bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production of bills of lading bond conditions. 113...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.69 Production of bills of lading bond conditions. A bond to produce a bill of lading shall contain the conditions listed in this section and...

  5. 48 CFR 53.247 - Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading). 53.247 Section 53.247 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Bill of Lading). The commercial bill of lading is the preferred document for the transportation...

  6. 48 CFR 52.247-1 - Commercial Bill of Lading Notations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial Bill of Lading....247-1 Commercial Bill of Lading Notations. As prescribed in 47.104-4, insert the following clause: Commercial Bill of Lading Notations (FEB 2006) When the Contracting Officer authorizes supplies to be...

  7. 19 CFR 113.69 - Production of bills of lading bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Production of bills of lading bond conditions. 113...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.69 Production of bills of lading bond conditions. A bond to produce a bill of lading shall contain the conditions listed in this section and...

  8. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Receipts and bills of lading for freight... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of...

  9. 48 CFR 53.247 - Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading). 53.247 Section 53.247 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Bill of Lading). The commercial bill of lading is the preferred document for the transportation...

  10. 49 CFR 1035.2 - Modification of front of uniform bill of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modification of front of uniform bill of lading... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING § 1035.2 Modification of front of uniform bill of lading. Notwithstanding any other provision of § 1035.1(a),...

  11. 48 CFR 53.247 - Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading). 53.247 Section 53.247 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Bill of Lading). The commercial bill of lading is the preferred document for the transportation...

  12. 49 CFR 1035.1 - Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING § 1035.1 Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading. (a) All common carriers, except express companies,...

  13. 48 CFR 53.247 - Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading). 53.247 Section 53.247 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Bill of Lading). The commercial bill of lading is the preferred document for the transportation...

  14. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Receipts and bills of lading for freight... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of...

  15. 49 CFR 1035.2 - Modification of front of uniform bill of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modification of front of uniform bill of lading... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING § 1035.2 Modification of front of uniform bill of lading. Notwithstanding any other provision of § 1035.1(a),...

  16. 49 CFR 1035.2 - Modification of front of uniform bill of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modification of front of uniform bill of lading... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING § 1035.2 Modification of front of uniform bill of lading. Notwithstanding any other provision of § 1035.1(a),...

  17. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bills of lading required..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Shipment or Delivery for Export Bills of...

  18. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bills of lading required..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Shipment or Delivery for Export Bills of...

  19. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bills of lading required..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Shipment or Delivery for Export Bills of...

  20. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bills of lading required..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Shipment or Delivery for Export Bills of...

  1. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bills of lading required..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Shipment or Delivery for Export Bills of...

  2. 48 CFR 801.670-1 - Issuing bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuing bills of lading. 801.670-1 Section 801.670-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  3. 48 CFR 1852.247-73 - Bills of Lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... supported by the paid freight receipts. If paid receipts in support of the invoice are not obtainable, a... have been paid by (company name), and paid freight or comparable receipts are not obtainable. Contract or Order Number: Destination: ”. (b) Government Bills of Lading. (1) International (export)...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.247-73 - Bills of Lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... supported by the paid freight receipts. If paid receipts in support of the invoice are not obtainable, a... have been paid by (company name), and paid freight or comparable receipts are not obtainable. Contract or Order Number: ___ Destination: ___”. (b) Government Bills of Lading. (1) International...

  5. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379. ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR...

  6. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379. ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR...

  7. NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Hine, Butler; McClard, Steven; Grayzeck, Edwin; Boroson, Don

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 40 years have passed since the last Apollo missions investigated the mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. The most important questions remain: what is the composition, structure and variability of the tenuous lunar exosphere? What are its origins, transport mechanisms, and loss processes? Is lofted lunar dust the cause of the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor missions and Apollo astronauts? How does such levitated dust arise and move, what is its density, and what is its ultimate fate? The US National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) reports have identified studies of the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment as among the leading priorities for future lunar science missions. These measurements have become particularly important since recent observations by the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission point to significant amounts of water and other volatiles sequestered within polar lunar cold traps. Moreover Chandrayaan/M3, EPOXI and Cassini/VIMS have identified molecular water and hydroxyl on lunar surface regolith grains. Variability in concentration suggests these species are likely to be present in the exosphere, and thus constitute a source for the cold traps. NASA s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is currently under development to address these goals. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. LADEE s results are relevant to surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, will address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and will have

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-11-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, α-pinene, camphene, α-limonene, β-eudesmol, α-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  9. Generation of Simulated Tracking Data for LADEE Operational Readiness Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodburn, James; Policastri, Lisa; Owens, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Operational Readiness Tests were an important part of the pre-launch preparation for the LADEE mission. The generation of simulated tracking data to stress the Flight Dynamics System and the Flight Dynamics Team was important for satisfying the testing goal of demonstrating that the software and the team were ready to fly the operational mission. The simulated tracking was generated in a manner to incorporate the effects of errors in the baseline dynamical model, errors in maneuver execution and phenomenology associated with various tracking system based components. The ability of the mission team to overcome these challenges in a realistic flight dynamics scenario indicated that the team and flight dynamics system were ready to fly the LADEE mission. Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment.

  10. Comparative mapping in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai].

    PubMed

    Sandlin, Katherine; Prothro, Jason; Heesacker, Adam; Khalilian, Nelly; Okashah, Rebecca; Xiang, Wenwen; Bachlava, Eleni; Caldwell, David G; Taylor, Chris A; Seymour, Danelle K; White, Victoria; Chan, Eva; Tolla, Greg; White, Cathy; Safran, Dolores; Graham, Elaine; Knapp, Steven; McGregor, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    The first single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai] were constructed and compared. Three populations were developed from crosses between two elite cultivars, Klondike Black Seeded × New Hampshire Midget (KBS × NHM), an elite cultivar and wild egusi accession, Strain II × PI 560023 (SII × Egusi) and an elite cultivar and a wild citron accession, ZWRM50 × PI 244019 (ZWRM × Citroides). The SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides F(2) populations consisted of 187 and 182 individuals respectively while the KBS × NHM recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisted of 164 lines. The length of the genetic maps were 1,438, 1,514 and 1,144 cM with average marker distances of 3.8, 4.2, and 3.4 cM for the KBS × NHM, SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides populations, respectively. Shared markers were used to align the three maps so that the linkage groups (LGs) represented the 11 chromosomes of the species. Marker segregation distortion were observed in all three populations, but was highest (12.7 %) in the ZWRM × Citroides population, where Citroides alleles were favored. The three maps were used to construct a consensus map containing 378 SNP markers with an average distance of 5.1 cM between markers. Phenotypic data was collected for fruit weight (FWT), fruit length (FL), fruit width (FWD), fruit shape index (FSI), rind thickness (RTH) and Brix (BRX) and analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with these traits. A total of 40 QTL were identified in the three populations, including major QTL for fruit size and shape that were stable across genetic backgrounds and environments. The present study reports the first SNP maps for Citrullus and the first map constructed using two elite parents. We also report the first stable QTL associated with fruit size and shape in Citrullus lanatus. These maps, QTL and SNPs should be useful for the watermelon community and represent a significant step towards the

  11. LADEE Search for a Dust Exosphere: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Elphic, R.

    2014-01-01

    The LADEE search for exospheric dust is strongly motivated by putative detections of forward-scattered sunlight from exospheric dust grains which were observed during the Apollo era. This dust population, if it exists, has been associated with charging and transport of dust near the terminators. It is likely that the concentration of these dust grains is governed by a saltation mechanism originated by micrometeoroid impacts, which are the source of the more tenuous ejecta cloud.

  12. Epimedium koreanum Nakai displays broad spectrum of antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo by inducing cellular antiviral state.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-20

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant's known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakai markedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans.

  13. 49 CFR 1035.2 - Modification of front of uniform bill of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of front of uniform bill of lading... Modification of front of uniform bill of lading. Notwithstanding any other provision of § 1035.1(a), with respect to the information called for, the front portion only (appendix A to this part) of a bill...

  14. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If...

  15. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If...

  16. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If...

  17. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Must I write up a bill of lading? 375.505 Section... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of Household Goods Before Loading § 375.505 Must I write up a bill of lading? (a) You must issue a bill...

  18. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Must I write up a bill of lading? 375.505 Section... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of Household Goods Before Loading § 375.505 Must I write up a bill of lading? (a) You must issue a bill...

  19. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Must I write up a bill of lading? 375.505 Section... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of Household Goods Before Loading § 375.505 Must I write up a bill of lading? (a) You must issue a bill...

  20. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Must I write up a bill of lading? 375.505 Section... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of Household Goods Before Loading § 375.505 Must I write up a bill of lading? (a) You must issue a bill...

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carriage. (b) A GBL is used only for international shipments. (c) A bill of lading, sometimes referred to... tender (see § 102-117.75 and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”)....

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... carriage. (b) A GBL is used only for international shipments. (c) A bill of lading, sometimes referred to... tender (see § 102-117.75 and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”)....

  3. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carriage. (b) A GBL is used only for international shipments. (c) A bill of lading, sometimes referred to... tender (see § 102-117.75 and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”)....

  4. Metabolites profiling of Chrysanthemum pacificum Nakai parts using UPLC-PDA-MS coupled to chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Farag, Nermeen F; Farag, Mohamed A; Abdelrahman, Enas H; Azzam, Shadia M; El-Kashoury, El-Sayeda A

    2015-01-01

    Methanol-soluble constituents from the flowers, non-flowering aerial parts and roots of Chrysanthemum pacificum Nakai were analysed via high resolution UPLC-PDA-qTOF-MS followed by chemometrics. Forty-seven chromatographic peaks belonging to various metabolite classes were detected. Most metabolite classes showed qualitative and quantitative differences across parts, with luteolin conjugates being mostly enriched in flowers whereas non-flowering aerial parts contained mostly quercetin and methoxylated flavone conjugates. Root sample ranked the lowest for all flavones and dicaffeoylquinic acids. In contrast, 1,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid levels were found at high levels in flowers and aerial parts reaching 3145 and 1390 μg/g, respectively, suggesting that C. pacificum could serve as a natural resource of this well-recognised anti-hepatotoxic phenolic. Principal component analysis was further used for organs classification in an untargeted manner. This study provides the first map of secondary metabolites distribution in C. pacificum Nakai organs.

  5. The Use of Standards on the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a small explorer class mission that launched Sept 7, 2013 and successfully de-orbited and impacted the moon's surface on April 17, 2014. The spacecraft was the first to launch from a Minotaur 5 and was the first deep space mission to launch from the Wallops flight facility. Figure 1 shows the famous image of a frog unlucky enough to be launched from the facility at the same time as LADEE. The science mission for the spacecraft was to determine the density, composition and variability of the lunar exosphere. In addition, it performed a first-of-a-kind demonstration of laser-based communications from deep space that exhibited a record downlink rate of 622 megabits per second from the moon. In order to perform the lunar dust surveys, the spacecraft was placed in a retrograde equatorial orbit with periapsis between 20 and 60 kilometers. The mission was granted an extension in which final science surveys were performed at altitudes as low as 2 kilometers over the moon's surface. The cadence for spacecraft operations was demanding: the moon's highly inhomogeneous gravity field distorted the orbit, the regular maneuvers were subject to strict payload-induced pointing requirements, and there were periodic attitude changes to keep the spacecraft thermally safe. This led to a need for high reliability in the operation of the spacecraft while obeying strict budget and schedule guidelines.

  6. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Displays Broad Spectrum of Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inducing Cellular Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant’s known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakaimarkedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  7. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a nearperfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a higheccentricity geocentric orbit. The launch, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, was visible from much of the eastern seaboard. Over the next 30 days, LADEE performed three phasing orbits, with near-perfect maneuvers that placed apogee at ever higher altitudes in preparation for rendezvous with the Moon. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any.

  8. 49 CFR 1035.1 - Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading. (a) All common carriers, except express companies, engaged in the transportation of property other than livestock and wild animals, by rail or by water...

  9. Preliminary results from LADEE's Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benna, Mehdi; Mahaffy, Paul; Hodges, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is a high sensitivity quadrupole mass spectrometer designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The instrument has been observing the lunar exosphere since 10/17/2013, initially from a near circular 250 km altitude orbit and since 11/11/2013 from an elliptical orbit that reaches to 30-60 km altitude near the sunrise terminator. During its first four months in orbit, the NMS instrument successfully detected exospheric helium, argon and neon and mapped their spatial and temporal variability. Furthermore, the NMS instrument was able to establish new upper limits for many other exospheric species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface. This talk will summarize these preliminary results from the NMS measurements.

  10. What We Have Learned from the LADEE Mission (So Far)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Cook, Amanda; Stubbs, Timothy; Colaprete, Anthony; Delory, Gregory; Glenar, David; Wooden, Diane; Szalay, Jamey; Hurley, Dana; Halekas, Jasper; Poppe, Andrew; Mahaffy, Paul; Hodges, Richard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kempf, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, LADEE, concluded a fully successful investigation of the Moon's tenuous gas and dust atmosphere on April 18, 2014. LADEE hosted three science instruments to address atmospheric and dust objectives. The three science instruments were an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UVS), a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), and a lunar dust experiment (LDEX). A mission overview and science instrument descriptions are available. LADEE entered a low-altitude, retrograde lunar orbit optimized for observations at the sunrise terminator, where surface temperatures rise abruptly. LADEE carried out observations over a wide range of local times and altitudes. Here we describe some of the initial results. LDEX measurements have revealed the presence of a tenuous but persistent "cloud" of small dust grains, from <0.3 to >0.7 μm in radius. The number density of these grains maximizes over the morning side of the Moon, the hemisphere on the "upstream" side of the Moon's motion about the sun. The cloud, with observed densities ranging between 0.4 - 4 x 10 ^{-3} m ^{-3}, is made up of ballistic ejecta from micrometeoroidal impacts on the lunar surface. The cloud density increases as the Earth-Moon system passes through known meteoroid streams, such as the Geminids, which are derived from cometary debris trails. LDEX data show no evidence for an electrostatically-lofted dust component. LADEE's NMS instrument immediately detected helium ( ^{4}He) in the lunar atmosphere during high altitude commissioning. At lower altitudes it also measured neon ( ^{20}Ne) and argon ( ^{40}Ar). NMS measurements revealed systematic variations in density and scale height for these three noble gas species. The diurnal variation of helium, neon and argon are largely controlled by surface temperature. Helium density closely tracks the input of He ^{++} from the solar wind; loss is by way of thermal escape. ^{ 20}Ne is a minor solar wind constituent, but it has a

  11. What We Have Learned from the LADEE Mission (So Far)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Cook, Amanda; Stubbs, Timothy; Colaprete, Anthony; Delory, Gregory; Glenar, David; Wooden, Diane; Szalay, Jamey; Hurley, Dana; Halekas, Jasper; Poppe, Andrew; Mahaffy, Paul; Hodges, Richard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kempf, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, LADEE, concluded a fully successful investigation of the Moon's tenuous gas and dust atmosphere on April 18, 2014. LADEE hosted three science instruments to address atmospheric and dust objectives. The three science instruments were an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UVS), a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), and a lunar dust experiment (LDEX). A mission overview and science instrument descriptions are available. LADEE entered a low-altitude, retrograde lunar orbit optimized for observations at the sunrise terminator, where surface temperatures rise abruptly. LADEE carried out observations over a wide range of local times and altitudes. Here we describe some of the initial results. LDEX measurements have revealed the presence of a tenuous but persistent "cloud" of small dust grains, from <0.3 to >0.7 μm in radius. The number density of these grains maximizes over the morning side of the Moon, the hemisphere on the "upstream" side of the Moon's motion about the sun. The cloud, with observed densities ranging between 0.4 - 4 x 10 ^{-3} m ^{-3}, is made up of ballistic ejecta from micrometeoroidal impacts on the lunar surface. The cloud density increases as the Earth-Moon system passes through known meteoroid streams, such as the Geminids, which are derived from cometary debris trails. LDEX data show no evidence for an electrostatically-lofted dust component. LADEE's NMS instrument immediately detected helium ( ^{4}He) in the lunar atmosphere during high altitude commissioning. At lower altitudes it also measured neon ( ^{20}Ne) and argon ( ^{40}Ar). NMS measurements revealed systematic variations in density and scale height for these three noble gas species. The diurnal variation of helium, neon and argon are largely controlled by surface temperature. Helium density closely tracks the input of He ^{++} from the solar wind; loss is by way of thermal escape. ^{ 20}Ne is a minor solar wind constituent, but it has a

  12. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M; Mahaffy, Paul; Boroson, D.; Delory, G.; Noble, s; Hine, B; Salute, J.

    2013-01-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250- kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30 days in the event of contingencies. Following commissioning, the 100-day Science Phase is

  13. Genetic Authentication of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai by Improved RAPD-Derived DNA Markers.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Boxu; Wei, Chunli; Cheng, Jingliang; Imani, Saber; Chen, Hanchun; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-01-01

    The evergreen shrub, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai is one of the most popular garden-plants, with significant ornamental importance. Here, we have cloned improved random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) derived fragments into T-vector, and developed sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. These markers have been deposited in GenBank database with the accession numbers KP641310, KP641311, KP641312 and KP641313 respectively. The BLAST search of database confirmed the novelty of these markers. The four SCAR markers, namely ZZH11, ZZH31, ZZH41 and ZZH51 can specifically recognize the genetic materials of G. jasminoides from other plant species. Moreover, SCAR marker ZZH31 can be used to distinguish G. jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai from other G. jasminoides on the market. Together, this study has developed four stably molecular SCAR markers by improved RAPD-derived DNA markers for the genetic identification and authentication, and for ecological conservation of medicinal and ornamental plant G. jasminoides. PMID:26569205

  14. Purification, characterization and anti-proliferation activities of polysaccharides extracted from Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yangyang; Zhao, Min

    2016-09-20

    Three polysaccharides, VCP1, VCP2 and VCP3 were isolated from Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai using DEAE-cellulose chromatography. VCP1 (32KDa) was composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and mannose, while VCP2 (280KDa) and VCP3 (21KDa) were consisted of glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, mannose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. The optical rotation was measured at 20+1°C. The characteristic absorptive bands of purified fraction were determined by FT-IR. (13)C NMR spectroscopy analysis showed that VCP1 was a neutral polysaccharide, and VCP2 and VCP3 were RG-I type pectin. The linkage patterns of VCP2 were evaluated by methylation analysis: 1,5-linked Araf, 1,4-linked Galp, 1,2-linked Rhap, and 1,2,4-linked Rhap. The degree of esterification was 50%. The anti-proliferation ability against HepG2 cells and HepG2.2.15 cells of VCP2 was stronger than VCP1 and VCP3. So the polysaccharides from Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai could be used as potential natural sources with inhibiting tumor cells proliferation. PMID:27261737

  15. LADES: a software for constructing and analyzing longitudinal designs in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Alcocer, Alan; Garzón-Cortes, Daniel Ladislao; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important steps in biomedical longitudinal studies is choosing a good experimental design that can provide high accuracy in the analysis of results with a minimum sample size. Several methods for constructing efficient longitudinal designs have been developed based on power analysis and the statistical model used for analyzing the final results. However, development of this technology is not available to practitioners through user-friendly software. In this paper we introduce LADES (Longitudinal Analysis and Design of Experiments Software) as an alternative and easy-to-use tool for conducting longitudinal analysis and constructing efficient longitudinal designs. LADES incorporates methods for creating cost-efficient longitudinal designs, unequal longitudinal designs, and simple longitudinal designs. In addition, LADES includes different methods for analyzing longitudinal data such as linear mixed models, generalized estimating equations, among others. A study of European eels is reanalyzed in order to show LADES capabilities. Three treatments contained in three aquariums with five eels each were analyzed. Data were collected from 0 up to the 12th week post treatment for all the eels (complete design). The response under evaluation is sperm volume. A linear mixed model was fitted to the results using LADES. The complete design had a power of 88.7% using 15 eels. With LADES we propose the use of an unequal design with only 14 eels and 89.5% efficiency. LADES was developed as a powerful and simple tool to promote the use of statistical methods for analyzing and creating longitudinal experiments in biomedical research. PMID:24983945

  16. Validation and Verification of LADEE Models and Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission will orbit the moon in order to measure the density, composition and time variability of the lunar dust environment. The ground-side and onboard flight software for the mission is being developed using a Model-Based Software methodology. In this technique, models of the spacecraft and flight software are developed in a graphical dynamics modeling package. Flight Software requirements are prototyped and refined using the simulated models. After the model is shown to work as desired in this simulation framework, C-code software is automatically generated from the models. The generated software is then tested in real time Processor-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop test beds. Travelling Road Show test beds were used for early integration tests with payloads and other subsystems. Traditional techniques for verifying computational sciences models are used to characterize the spacecraft simulation. A lightweight set of formal methods analysis, static analysis, formal inspection and code coverage analyses are utilized to further reduce defects in the onboard flight software artifacts. These techniques are applied early and often in the development process, iteratively increasing the capabilities of the software and the fidelity of the vehicle models and test beds.

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading? 102-118.140 Section 102-118... governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading? The mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading are: (a) Unless otherwise permitted by statute and approved by the agency, the...

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading? 102-118.140 Section 102-118... governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading? The mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading are: (a) Unless otherwise permitted by statute and approved by the agency, the...

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading? 102-118.140 Section 102-118... governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading? The mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading are: (a) Unless otherwise permitted by statute and approved by the agency, the...

  20. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  1. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  2. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  3. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  4. 41 CFR 102-118.135 - Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading? 102-118.135 Section 102-118.135 Public... the use of bills of lading? The mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of...

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.135 - Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading? 102-118.135 Section 102-118.135 Public... the use of bills of lading? The mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of...

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.135 - Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading? 102-118.135 Section 102-118.135 Public... the use of bills of lading? The mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of...

  7. 41 CFR 102-118.135 - Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading? 102-118.135 Section 102-118.135 Public... the use of bills of lading? The mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of...

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.135 - Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading? 102-118.135 Section 102-118.135 Public... the use of bills of lading? The mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of...

  9. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  10. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  11. Observations of Titanium, Aluminum and Magnesium in the Lunar Exosphere by LADEE UVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Wooden, D.; Cook, A.; Shirley, M.; Sarantos, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was an orbital lunar science mission designed to address the goals of the 2003 National Research Council decadal survey, the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group Roadmap, and the "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) report, and has been recommended for execution by the 2011 Planetary Missions Decadal Survey. The LADEE mission goal was to determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. It will monitor variations in known gasses, such as sodium, potassium, argon and helium, and will search for other, as-yet-undetected gasses of both lunar and extra-lunar origin. Another goal of LADEE was to determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability.

  12. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the LADEE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a contingency trajectory analysis performed for the Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission in the event of a missed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver by the LADEE spacecraft. The effects of varying solar perturbations in the vicinity of the weak stability boundary (WSB) in the Sun-Earth system on the trajectory design are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that geocentric recovery trajectory options existed for the LADEE spacecraft, depending on the spacecraft's recovery time to perform an Earth escape-prevention maneuver after the hypothetical LOI maneuver failure and subsequent path traveled through the Sun-Earth WSB. If Earth-escape occurred, a heliocentric recovery option existed, but with reduced science capacapability for the spacecraft in an eccentric, not circular near-equatorial retrograde lunar orbit.

  13. Comm for Small Sats: The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Communications Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuroda, Vanessa M.; Allard, Mark R.; Lewis, Brian; Lindsay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    September 6, 2013 through April 21, 2014 marked the mission lifecycle of the highly successful LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) mission that orbited the moon to gather detailed information about the thin lunar atmosphere. This paper will address the development, risks, and lessons learned regarding the specification, selection, and deployment of LADEE's unique Radio Frequency based communications subsystem and supporting tools. This includes the Electronic Ground Support Equipment (EGSE), test regimes, and RF dynamic link analysis environment developed to meet mission requirements for small, flexible, low cost, high performance, fast turnaround, and reusable spacecraft communication capabilities with easy and reliable application to future similar low cost small satellite missions over widely varying needs for communications and communications system complexity. LADEE communication subsystem key components, architecture, and mission performance will be reviewed toward applicability for future mission planning, design, and utilization.

  14. Influence of Meteoroid Streams on the Lunar Environment: Results from LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wang, Y.; Sarantos, M.; Hermalyn, B.; Colaprete, A.; Wooden, D. H.; Benna, M.; Elphic, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Impacts on the lunar surface from meteoroid streams encountered by the Earth-Moon system can result in measurable enhancements in both the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. Here we describe the annual meteoroid streams incident at the Moon during the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, and discuss their effects on the lunar environment. The LADEE science payload consisted of three instruments: the Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS); the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX); and the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). All three instruments detected the effects of encounters with meteoroid streams. During its time in lunar orbit, the LADEE mission coincided with 18 out of 35 IAU established annual streams. As stream meteoroids move on near-parallel trajectories we expect to observe asymmetries in their effects on the lunar environment. Based on predicted incident meteoroid mass fluxes at the Moon, one might expect the Geminids and Quadrantids to have had the most significant effect on the lunar environment during the mission. While a substantial exospheric response was clearly observed by the LADEE instruments during the Geminids, the apparent response during the Quadrantids was more subdued. One contribution to this difference was likely due to the location of the stream radiant on the lunar surface relative to LADEE's orbit. The Geminids radiant was predicted to be very close to LADEE's equatorial orbit, whereas the Quadrantids radiant was much farther poleward. This could explain the diminished exospheric activity and suggests that the response of the lunar environment to meteoroid streams could be relatively localized in some instances. Both short-term and long-term variations observed in the lunar sodium exosphere could be attributed to the instantaneous and cumulative effects of meteoroid stream bombardment. These and other effects will be discussed.

  15. The Impact of Meteoroid Streams on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment During the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wang, Y.; Hermalyn, B.; Sarantos, M.; Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are: (1) determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling distribution and variability - sources, sinks, and surface interactions; and (2) characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure spatial and temporal variability, and influences on the lunar atmosphere. Impacts on the lunar surface from meteoroid streams encountered by the Earth-Moon system are anticipated to result in enhancements in the both the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. Here we describe the annual meteoroid streams expected to be incident at the Moon during the LADEE mission, and their anticipated effects on the lunar environment.

  16. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activity of Cultivated and Wild Angelica gigas Nakai Extracts Prepared Using Different Extraction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Bo-Young; Lee, Hye-Jin; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Kim, Hyun-Ku

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological activities of cultivated Angelica gigas Nakai (CAG) and wild Angelica gigas Nakai (WAG) extracts prepared by extraction with water, 30% ethanol, 60% ethanol, or 90% ethanol. The electron donating ability of the WAG extracts was higher than that of the CAG extracts and 0.1% and 1.0% solutions of the comparative substance, L-ascorbic acid. The superoxide dismutase-like activity of the CAG extracts was higher than that of WAG extracts. Superoxide dismutase-like activity was highest (33.95%) in the CAG water extract. The total polyphenol content was highest in the 60% ethanol extracts of WAG. The nitrite scavenging ability of the CAG and WAG extracts was highest at a pH of 1.2. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect was highest (43.72%) in the water extract of WAG. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity was highest (83.84%) in the 60% ethanol extract of WAG. The results of the present study will be useful for understanding the antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of Angelica gigas Nakai extracts. PMID:25580391

  17. Ethanol extract of Chaenomeles speciosa Nakai induces apoptosis in cancer cells and suppresses tumor growth in mice

    PubMed Central

    YAO, GENDONG; LIU, CHAOQI; HUO, HONGQI; LIU, AIMIN; LV, BAIRUI; ZHANG, CAN; WANG, HAIDONG; LI, JINNONG; LIAO, LIANMING

    2013-01-01

    Chaenomeles speciosa Nakai is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for a variety of health-promoting effects. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of Chaenomeles speciosa Nakai. The tumor-inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract of Chaenomeles speciosa Nakai (EEC) was evaluated by in vitro growth assays of tumor cells and in vivo H22 tumor formation assays in mice. Mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA ladder assays were used to detect tumor cell apoptosis in the presence of EEC. To investigate the cellular targets of EEC, the immunomodulatory genes PD-L1, Foxp3 and TGF-β were detected in the tumor tissue using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immune responses were determined by hemolysis and lymphocyte proliferation assays. EEC markedly inhibited the proliferation of the H22 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, it induced DNA fragmentation and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. In vivo, EEC inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the immune responses in mice, while the expression of PD-L1, Foxp3 and TGF-β was inhibited in the tumor tissue. These results provide the first evidence that EEC may inhibit tumor growth by directly killing tumor cells and enhancing immune function. Thus, it is a natural source for safe anticancer medicine. PMID:23946814

  18. Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd T.; Hodges, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission currently scheduled for launch in early 2013 aboard a Minotaur V will orbit the moon at a nominal periselene of 50 km to characterized the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. The science instrument payload includes a neutral mass spectrometer as well as an ultraviolet spectrometer and a dust detector. Although to date only He, Ar-40, K, Na and Rn-222 have been firmly identified in the lunar exosphere and arise from the solar wind (He), the lunar regolith (K and Na) and the lunar interior (Ar-40, Rn-222), upper limits have been set for a large number of other species, LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) observations will determine the abundance of several species and substantially lower the present upper limits for many others. Additionally, LADEE NMS will observe the spatial distribution and temporal variability of species which condense at nighttime and show peak concentrations at the dawn terminator (e,g, Ar-40), possible episodic release from the lunar interior, and the results of sputtering or desorption processes from the regolith. In this presentation, we describe the LADEE NMS hardware and the anticipated science results.

  19. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  20. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of Household Goods Before Loading § 375.505 Must I write up a bill of lading? (a) You must issue a bill of... household goods that are lost, damaged, destroyed, or otherwise not delivered to the final destination....

  1. Metallic species, oxygen and silicon in the lunar exosphere: Upper limits and prospects for LADEE measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; Glenar, David A.; Benna, Mehdi; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2012-03-01

    The only species that have been so far detected in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar, and He. However, models for the production and loss of species derived from the lunar regolith through micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering, and photon-stimulated desorption, predict that a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere. Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape, photoionization, and recycling to the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to published upper limits for the Moon. Only for Ca do modeled abundances clearly exceed the available measurements. This result suggests the relevance of some loss processes that were not included in the model, such as the possibility of gas-to-solid phase condensation during micrometeoroid impacts or the formation of stable metallic oxides. Our simulations and the recalculation of efficiencies for resonant light scattering show that models for other species studied are not well constrained by existing measurements. This fact underlines the need for improved remote and in situ measurements of the lunar exosphere such as those planned by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. Our simulations of the LADEE neutral mass spectrometer and visible/ultraviolet spectrometer indicate that LADEE measurements promise to provide definitive observations or set stringent upper limits for all regolith-driven exospheric species. We predict that observations by LADEE will constrain assumed model parameters for the exosphere of the Moon.

  2. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Boroson, D.; Hine, B.; Salute, J.

    2013-12-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon depends on the launch date, but with the Sept. 6 launch date it should arrive at the Moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250-kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30

  3. Predictions for Joint LADEE/ARTEMIS Observing Campaigns of the Lunar Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantos, M.; Hartle, R. E.; Killen, R. M.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The only species that have been so far detected in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar, and He. However, models for the production and loss of species derived from the lunar regolith predict that a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere. This fact underlines the need for improved remote and in situ measurements of the lunar exosphere such as those planned by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. The composition of neutral constituents in the lunar exosphere can also be determined through measurements of pickup ions, more recently obtained by the Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) spacecraft. Although we can model the exosphere and many of its expected properties on the basis of laboratory measurements that constrain the rates and ejection energies of the expected processes, the neutral exosphere descriptions can be much improved if both neutrals and ions are measured simultaneously, a situation that is envisioned to occur late in 2013 when LADEE and ARTEMIS will both orbit the Moon. Our simulations of the LADEE neutral mass spectrometer (NMS) and visible/ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) indicate that LADEE measurements promise to provide definitive observations or set stringent upper limits for all regolith-driven exospheric species. ARTEMIS will not only measure ions from the exosphere, but also constrain surface ion sources, and provide properties of the plasma environment that is driving the lunar exosphere. Thus, ARTEMIS will enable the study of long-hypothesized correlations of the exosphere and its plasma, and help answer questions such as: are magnetospheric plasma sheet ions responsible for heating the exosphere during passages of the Moon through the terrestrial magnetotail? We predict that observations by LADEE and ARTEMIS will constrain assumed model parameters for the exosphere of the Moon.

  4. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26061361

  6. The effects of meteoroid streams on the lunar environment: Observations from the LADEE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, Timothy; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Wang, Yongli; Benna, Mehdi; Elphic, Richard; Sarantos, Menelaos; Kempf, Sascha; Colaprete, Anthony; Hurley, Dana; Delory, Gregory; Glenar, David; Hermalyn, Brendan; Wooden, Diane; Szalay, Jamey

    The scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are: (1) determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling distribution and variability - sources, sinks, and surface interactions; and (2) characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure spatial and temporal variability, and influences on the lunar atmosphere. Impacts on the lunar surface from meteoroid streams encountered by the Earth-Moon system can result in measurable enhancements in both the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. Here we describe the annual meteoroid streams incident at the Moon during the LADEE mission and their effects on the environment. The LADEE science payload consists of three instruments: the Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) for measuring emission lines from exospheric species and scattered light from exospheric dust; the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) for in situ measurement of exospheric dust; and the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) for in situ measurement of exospheric species. All three instruments are capable of detecting the effects of an encounter with a meteoroid stream. LADEE nominally has a 100-day science mission in which its retrograde equatorial orbit (inclination ≈157(°) ) will take it below 50 km altitude at periapsis near lunar sunrise. Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) occurred on 6 October 2013 and the current End-of-Mission (EOM) is planned for around 21 April 2014 following the lunar eclipse on 15 April 2014. The Earth-Moon system frequently encounters debris trails from comets and asteroids, which are referred to as meteoroid streams. The meteoroids in these streams have similar velocities and are on near-parallel trajectories, so when they enter the Earth's atmosphere the resulting shower of meteors appears to be emanating from a virtual point on the sky called the radiant. Meteor (and meteoroid) rates vary as a function of the Earth's position in its orbit, with an

  7. Antinociceptive profiles of crude extract from roots of Angelica gigas NAKAI in various pain models.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Soo; Han, Ki-Jung; Lee, Han-Kyu; Han, Eun-Jung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2003-09-01

    To characterize the antinociceptive profiles of Angelica gigas NAKAI (ANG; Korean angelica), methanol extract from the dried roots of ANG was made and mice were administered orally at the various doses (from 0.25 to 3 g/kg). ANG produced the increased latencies of the tail-flick and hot-plate paw-licking responses in a dose-dependent manner. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, ANG dose-dependently decreased writhing numbers. Moreover, the cumulative response time of nociceptive behaviors induced by intraplantar formalin injection was reduced during both the 1st and the 2nd phases in a dose-dependent manner in ANG-treated mice. Furthermore, oral administration of ANG did not cause licking, scratching and biting responses induced by TNF-alpha (100 pg), IFN-gamma (100 pg) or IL-1beta (100 pg) injected intrathecally (i.t.), especially at higher dose (3 g/kg). Additionally, in ANG treated mice, the cumulative nociceptive response time for i.t. administration of substance P or capsaicin was dose-dependently diminished. Finally, nociceptive responses elicited by i.t. injection of glutamate (20 microg), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (60 ng), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (13 ng) or kainic acid (12 ng) were decreased by oral administration of ANG. Our results suggest that ANG produces antinociception via acting on the central nervous system and shows antinociceptive profiles in various pain models, especially inflammatory pain.

  8. Identification of QTLs controlling harvest time and fruit skin color in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Nishio, Sogo; Onoue, Noriyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Inoue, Eiichi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Itai, Akihiro; Saito, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Using an F1 population from a cross between Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars ‘Akiakari’ and ‘Taihaku’, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seven fruit traits (harvest time, fruit skin color, flesh firmness, fruit weight, acid content, total soluble solids content, and preharvest fruit drop). The constructed simple sequence repeat-based genetic linkage map of ‘Akiakari’ consisted of 208 loci and spanned 799 cM; that of ‘Taihaku’ consisted of 275 loci and spanned 1039 cM. Out of significant QTLs, two QTLs for harvest time, one for fruit skin color, and one for flesh firmness were stably detected in two successive years. The QTLs for harvest time were located at the bottom of linkage group (LG) Tai3 (nearest marker: BGA35) and at the top of LG Tai15 (nearest markers: PPACS2 and MEST050), in good accordance with results of genome-wide association study. The PPACS2 gene, a member of the ACC synthase gene family, may control harvest time, preharvest fruit drop, and fruit storage potential. One major QTL associated with fruit skin color was identified at the top of LG 8. QTLs identified in this study would be useful for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs. PMID:25914590

  9. Identification of QTLs controlling harvest time and fruit skin color in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Nishio, Sogo; Onoue, Noriyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Inoue, Eiichi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Itai, Akihiro; Saito, Toshihiro

    2014-12-01

    Using an F1 population from a cross between Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars 'Akiakari' and 'Taihaku', we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seven fruit traits (harvest time, fruit skin color, flesh firmness, fruit weight, acid content, total soluble solids content, and preharvest fruit drop). The constructed simple sequence repeat-based genetic linkage map of 'Akiakari' consisted of 208 loci and spanned 799 cM; that of 'Taihaku' consisted of 275 loci and spanned 1039 cM. Out of significant QTLs, two QTLs for harvest time, one for fruit skin color, and one for flesh firmness were stably detected in two successive years. The QTLs for harvest time were located at the bottom of linkage group (LG) Tai3 (nearest marker: BGA35) and at the top of LG Tai15 (nearest markers: PPACS2 and MEST050), in good accordance with results of genome-wide association study. The PPACS2 gene, a member of the ACC synthase gene family, may control harvest time, preharvest fruit drop, and fruit storage potential. One major QTL associated with fruit skin color was identified at the top of LG 8. QTLs identified in this study would be useful for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs. PMID:25914590

  10. Evaluation of the Mutagenic Properties of Two Lignans from Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chang-Eui

    2013-01-01

    Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai, a well known traditional herb grown in Jeju Island, South of Korea, has been used as a tonic and sedative agent, as well as in the treatment of diabetes and immune diseases. Mutagenicity of two lignans, syringaresinol and tortoside A isolated from A. koreanum, was assessed using Salmonella/microsome (Ames) test. Tester strains used were Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The mutagenic activity was determined both in the absence or presence of S9 mixture. As a result, tortoside A did not cause any increase in the number of his+ revertants in S. typhimurium and E. coli WP2uvrA strains in the presence or absence of S9 mix, compared to the controls. Similarly, low concentrations of syringaresinol (750 and 1,500 μg/plate) did not show any mutagenic properties in all bacterial strains, in the presence or absence of S9 mixture. However, in the high concentration of syringaresinol (3,000 μg/plate), the number of revertants were increased in TA1535 strains, in the absence of S9 metabolic activation. Therefore, in vivo experiments such as comet assay are needed to further determine the genotoxic/carciogenic potential of syringaresinol isolated from A. koreanum. PMID:24578798

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids incorporated colloidal systems for the delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae Young; Lee, Song Yi; Yoon, In-Soo; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fish oil-enriched colloidal systems were developed for the oral delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) extract (ext). By constructing a pseudo-ternary phase diagram, the composition of oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion (ME) systems based on ω-3 (oil), Labrasol (surfactant), and water was determined. AGN ext was dissolved into the ME system and d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was added to the ME formulation in order to enhance the mucosal absorption of the pharmacologically active ingredients in the AGN ext. The droplet size of AGN-loaded MEs was 205-277 nm and their morphology was spherical. The release of major components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), from ME formulations in pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffers was significantly greater (P<0.05) than that from the AGN suspension group. The pharmacokinetic properties of AGN-loaded MEs in rats were evaluated by measuring decursinol (DOH) concentrations in plasma after oral administration. TPGS-included ME (F2) resulted in significantly greater (P<0.05) systemic exposure of DOH than that with ME without TPGS (F1), AGN ext+TPGS, and AGN in suspension. Severe toxicity of F1 and F2 on the intestinal epithelium was not observed by histological staining. The colloidal carriers described herein are promising delivery systems for oral administration of AGN ext.

  12. Candidate Resistant Genes of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) to Alternaria alternata Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Hu, Hongju; Yu, Dazhao; Sun, Zhonghai; He, Xiujuan; Zhang, Jingguo; Chen, Qiliang; Tian, Rui; Fan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear.

  13. Identification of QTLs controlling harvest time and fruit skin color in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Nishio, Sogo; Onoue, Noriyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Inoue, Eiichi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Itai, Akihiro; Saito, Toshihiro

    2014-12-01

    Using an F1 population from a cross between Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars 'Akiakari' and 'Taihaku', we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seven fruit traits (harvest time, fruit skin color, flesh firmness, fruit weight, acid content, total soluble solids content, and preharvest fruit drop). The constructed simple sequence repeat-based genetic linkage map of 'Akiakari' consisted of 208 loci and spanned 799 cM; that of 'Taihaku' consisted of 275 loci and spanned 1039 cM. Out of significant QTLs, two QTLs for harvest time, one for fruit skin color, and one for flesh firmness were stably detected in two successive years. The QTLs for harvest time were located at the bottom of linkage group (LG) Tai3 (nearest marker: BGA35) and at the top of LG Tai15 (nearest markers: PPACS2 and MEST050), in good accordance with results of genome-wide association study. The PPACS2 gene, a member of the ACC synthase gene family, may control harvest time, preharvest fruit drop, and fruit storage potential. One major QTL associated with fruit skin color was identified at the top of LG 8. QTLs identified in this study would be useful for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs.

  14. Decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai Inhibits B16F10 Melanoma Growth Through Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Hyobin; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Bae, Sang Mun; Son, Hye-Nam; Lee, Yoon Jeong; Ryu, Sungpil; Park, Rang-Woon; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Decursin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai (danggwi), has shown preclinical anticancer efficacy in various cancer models. However, the antitumor effect of decursin in melanoma models remains undefined. The antitumor activities of decursin were investigated in B16F10 cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that treatment with decursin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells, but not in normal cells. Decursin also induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells, as determined by annexin V-staining assay and transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining assay. Decursin increased the phosphorylation of p38 as well as the expression of Bax while decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and the expression of Bcl-2 in B16F10 cells. Moreover, decursin activated caspase-3 in B16F10 cells and xenograft tumor tissue. Together, these findings support further investigations into the potential use of decursin in the treatment of melanoma cells. PMID:26336081

  15. Decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai Inhibits B16F10 Melanoma Growth Through Induction of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Hyobin; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Bae, Sang Mun; Son, Hye-Nam; Lee, Yoon Jeong; Ryu, Sungpil; Park, Rang-Woon; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2015-10-01

    Decursin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai (danggwi), has shown preclinical anticancer efficacy in various cancer models. However, the antitumor effect of decursin in melanoma models remains undefined. The antitumor activities of decursin were investigated in B16F10 cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that treatment with decursin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells, but not in normal cells. Decursin also induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells, as determined by annexin V-staining assay and transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining assay. Decursin increased the phosphorylation of p38 as well as the expression of Bax while decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and the expression of Bcl-2 in B16F10 cells. Moreover, decursin activated caspase-3 in B16F10 cells and xenograft tumor tissue. Together, these findings support further investigations into the potential use of decursin in the treatment of melanoma cells. PMID:26336081

  16. Candidate Resistant Genes of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) to Alternaria alternata Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoping; Hu, Hongju; Yu, Dazhao; Sun, Zhonghai; He, Xiujuan; Zhang, Jingguo; Chen, Qiliang; Tian, Rui; Fan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear. PMID:26292286

  17. Decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai Inhibits B16F10 Melanoma Growth Through Induction of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Hyobin; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Bae, Sang Mun; Son, Hye-Nam; Lee, Yoon Jeong; Ryu, Sungpil; Park, Rang-Woon; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2015-10-01

    Decursin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai (danggwi), has shown preclinical anticancer efficacy in various cancer models. However, the antitumor effect of decursin in melanoma models remains undefined. The antitumor activities of decursin were investigated in B16F10 cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that treatment with decursin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells, but not in normal cells. Decursin also induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells, as determined by annexin V-staining assay and transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining assay. Decursin increased the phosphorylation of p38 as well as the expression of Bax while decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and the expression of Bcl-2 in B16F10 cells. Moreover, decursin activated caspase-3 in B16F10 cells and xenograft tumor tissue. Together, these findings support further investigations into the potential use of decursin in the treatment of melanoma cells.

  18. Implementation the NASA Planetary Data System PDS4 Providing Access to LADEE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, Reta F.; Huber , Lyle; Neakrase, Lynn; Reese, Shannon; Crichton, Daniel; Hardman, Sean; Delory, Gregory; Neese, Carol

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for archiving all planetary data acquired by robotic missions, and observational campaigns with ground/space-based observatories. PDS has moved to version 4 of its archive system. PDS4 uses XML to enhance search and retrieval capabilities. Although the efforts are system wide, the Atmospheres Node has acted as the lead node and is presenting a preliminary users interface for retrieval of LADEE data. LADEE provides the first opportunity to test out the end-to-end process of archiving data from an active mission into the new PDS4 architecture. The limited number of instruments, with simple data structures, is an ideal test of PDS4. XML uses schema (analogous to blueprints) to control the structure of the corresponding XML labels. In the case of PDS4, these schemas allow management of the labels and their content by forcing validation dictated by the underlying Information Model (IM). The use of a central IM is a vast improvement over PDS3 because of the uniformity it provides across all nodes. PDS4 has implemented a product-centric approach for archiving data and supplemental documentation. Another major change involves the Central Registry, where all products are registered and accessible to search engines. Under PDS4, documents, data, and other ancillary data are all products that are registered in the system. Together with the XML implementation, the Registry allows the search routines to be more complex and inclusive than they have been in the past. For LADEE, the PDS nodes and LADEE instrument teams worked together to identify data products that LADEE would produce. Documentation describing instruments and data products were produced by the teams and peer reviewed by PDS. XML label templates were developed by the PDS and provided to the instrument teams to integrate into their pipelines. Data from the primary mission (100 days) have been certified and harvested into the registry and are accessible through the

  19. Understanding temporal and spatial variability of the lunar helium atmosphere using simultaneous observations from LRO, LADEE, and ARTEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Cook, Jason C.; Benna, Mehdi; Halekas, Jasper S.; Feldman, Paul D.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Hodges, R. Richard; Grava, Cesare; Mahaffy, Paul; Gladstone, G. Randall; Greathouse, Thomas; Kaufmann, David E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stern, S. Alan

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous measurements of helium in the exosphere of the Moon are made from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) through the entire 5-month span of the LADEE mission. In addition, the ARTEMIS mission monitored the solar wind alpha particle flux to the Moon. Modeling the lunar helium exosphere, we relate the LAMP polar observations to the LADEE equatorial observations. Further, using the ARTEMIS alpha flux in the Monte Carlo model reproduces the temporal variations in helium density. Comparing the LAMP data to the LADEE data shows excellent agreement. Comparing those with the ARTEMIS data reveals that the solar wind alpha flux is the primary driver to variability in the helium exosphere throughout the LADEE mission. Using a decay time for exospheric helium of 5 days, we determine that the solar wind contributes 64 ± 5% of the helium to the lunar exosphere. The remaining 36 ± 5% is presumed to come from outgassing of radiogenic helium from the interior of the Moon. Furthermore, the model reproduces the measurements if 63 ± 6% of the incident alpha particles are converted to thermalized helium atoms through the interaction between the alphas and the lunar surface. However, these values are dependent on both inferred source rates from LAMP and LADEE observations and on the assumed time constant of the exospheric decay rate.

  20. LADEE/LDEX observations of lunar pickup ion distribution and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Szalay, J. R.; Horányi, M.; Levin, Z.; Kempf, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report fortuitous observations of low-energy lunar pickup ion fluxes near the Moon while in the solar wind by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). We describe the method of observation and the empirical calibration of the instrument for ion observations. LDEX observes several trends in the exospheric ion production rate, including a scale height of approximately 100 km, a positive, linear correlation with solar wind flux, and evidence of a slight enhancement near 7-8 h local time. We compare the LDEX observations to both LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer ion mode observations and theoretical models. The LDEX data are best fit by total exospheric ion production rates of ≈6 × 103 m-3 s-1 with dominant contributions from Al+, CO+, and Ar+, although the LDEX data suggest that the aluminum neutral density and corresponding ion production rate are lower than predicted by recent models.

  1. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2011-05-20

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cm{sup 3}. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  2. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cu cm. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  3. Inhibition effects of isolated compounds from Artemisia rubripes Nakai of the classical pathway on the complement system.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from isolated compounds from Artemisia rubripes Nakai from South Korea on the classical pathway. In the previous works, Artemisia rubripes chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system. The chromatographic separation of a chloroform chloride extract of Artemisia rubripes led to the isolation of three compounds. Their structures were characterized to be scopoletin (1), 11,(13)-triene-6,12-olide (2), and 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene (3) by spectroscopic data. This is the first report of anticomplement activity of isolated compounds from Artemisia rubripes.

  4. Metallic Species, Oxygen and Silicon in the Lunar Exosphere: Upper Limits and Prospects for LADEE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary Margaret; Glenar, David A.; Benna, Mehdi; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The only species that have been so far detected in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar,and He. However, models for the production and loss of species derived from the lunarregolith through micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering, and photon-stimulateddesorption, predict that a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere.Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape, photoionization, and recyclingto the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to publishedupper limits for the Moon. Only for Ca do modeled abundances clearly exceed theavailable measurements. This result suggests the relevance of some loss processes thatwere not included in the model, such as the possibility of gas-to-solid phasecondensation during micrometeoroid impacts or the formation of stable metallic oxides.Our simulations and the recalculation of efficiencies for resonant light scattering showthat models for other species studied are not well constrained by existingmeasurements. This fact underlines the need for improved remote and in situmeasurements of the lunar exosphere such as those planned by the Lunar Atmosphereand Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. Our simulations of the LADEEneutral mass spectrometer and visibleultraviolet spectrometer indicate that LADEE measurements promise to provide definitive observations or set stringent upper limitsfor all regolith-driven exospheric species. We predict that observations by LADEE willconstrain assumed model parameters for the exosphere of the Moon.

  5. Overview of the LADEE Ultraviolet-visible Spectrometer: Design, Performance and Planned Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.; Landis, D.; Karcz, J.; Osetinsky, L.; Shirley, M.; Vargo, K.; Wooden, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an orbital lunar science mission currently under development to address the goals of the 2003 National Research Council decadal survey, the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group Roadmap, and the "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) report, and has been recommended for execution by the 2011 Planetary Missions Decadal Survey. The mission s focus is to study the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment prior to possible lunar exploration activities by countries, including the United States, China, India, and Japan, among others. Activity on the lunar surface has the potential of altering the tenuous lunar atmosphere, but changing the type and concentration of gases in the atmosphere. Before these activities occur it is important to make measurements of the current lunar atmosphere in its unmodified state. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. It will monitor variations in known gases, such as sodium, potassium, argon and helium, and will search for other, as-yet-undetected gases of both lunar and extra-lunar origin. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. Launch is planned for August, 2013.

  6. Metallic Species, Oxygen and Silicon in the Lunar Exosphere: Upper Limits and Prospects for LADEE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; Glenar, David A.; Benna, Mehdi; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    The only species that have been continued in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar, and He. Models for the production and loss of lunar regolith-derived exospheric species from source processes including micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering. and, for Na and K, photon-stimulated desorption, predict a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere. Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape and recycling to the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to published upper limits from the Moon and to detected abundances from Mercury. Only for Ca do the available measurements show a clear deficiency compared to the model estimates. This result suggests the importance of loss processes not included in the model, such as the possibility of gas-to-solid phase condensation during micrometeoroid impacts or the formation of stable metallic oxides, and underlines the need for improved spectroscopic measurements of the lunar exosphere. Simulations of the neutral mass (NMS) and visible/ultraviolet spectrometry (UVS) investigations planned by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft are presented. Our calculations indicate that LADEE measurements promise to make definitive observations or set stringent upper limits for all regolith-driven exospheric species. Our models, along with LADEE observations, will constrain assumed model parameters for the Moon, such as sticking coefficients, source processes. and velocity distributions.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) flower buds transitioning through endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Ito, Akiko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-07-01

    The transcriptomes of endodormant and ecodormant Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai 'Kosui') flower buds were analyzed using RNA-seq technology and compared. Among de novo assembly of 114,191 unigenes, 76,995 unigenes were successfully annotated by BLAST searches against various databases. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that oxidoreductases were enriched in the molecular function category, a result consistent with previous observations of notable changes in hydrogen peroxide concentration during endodormancy release. In the GO categories related to biological process, the abundance of DNA methylation-related gene transcripts also significantly changed during endodormancy release, indicating the involvement of epigenetic regulation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis also showed the changes in transcript abundance of genes involved in the metabolism of various phytohormones. Genes for both ABA and gibberellin biosynthesis were down-regulated, whereas the genes encoding their degradation enzymes were up-regulated during endodormancy release. In the ethylene pathway, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), a gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme for ethylene biosynthesis, was induced towards endodormancy release. All of these results indicated the involvement of phytohormones in endodormancy release. Furthermore, the expression of dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes was down-regulated concomitant with endodormancy release, although changes in the abundance of these gene transcripts were not as significant as those identified by transcriptome analysis. Consequently, characterization of the Japanese pear transcriptome during the transition from endormancy to ecodormancy will provide researchers with useful information for data mining and will facilitate further experiments on endodormancy especially in rosaceae fruit trees.

  8. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Rosa taiwanensis Nakai in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Der-Shiang; Huang, Mei-Hsuen; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shuang; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Lin, Yen-Chang; Wu, Lung-Yuan; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a 70% ethanol extract from Rosa taiwanensis Nakai (RTEtOH). The analgesic effect was determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of RTEtOH was examined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the paw edema tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver tissue. The betulinic acid and oleanolic acid contents of RTEtOH were assayed by HPLC. The results showed that RTEtOH decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses (1.0 g/kg) and the late phase of the formalin-induced licking time (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg). In the anti-inflammatory models, RTEtOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4, and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be due to the decreased levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as the inhibition of NO and MDA levels through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd. The contents of two active compounds, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid, were quantitatively determined. This study demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of RTEtOH and provided evidence to support its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases.

  9. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Rosa taiwanensis Nakai in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Der-Shiang; Huang, Mei-Hsuen; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shuang; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a 70% ethanol extract from Rosa taiwanensis Nakai (RTEtOH). The analgesic effect was determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of RTEtOH was examined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the paw edema tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver tissue. The betulinic acid and oleanolic acid contents of RTEtOH were assayed by HPLC. The results showed that RTEtOH decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses (1.0 g/kg) and the late phase of the formalin-induced licking time (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg). In the anti-inflammatory models, RTEtOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4, and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be due to the decreased levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as the inhibition of NO and MDA levels through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd. The contents of two active compounds, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid, were quantitatively determined. This study demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of RTEtOH and provided evidence to support its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25494361

  10. Molecular Characterization of FT and FD Homologs from Eriobotrya deflexa Nakai forma koshunensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yu, Hao; Lin, Shunquan; Gao, Yongshun

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, regulation of flowering is a vital process for successful reproduction. To date, the molecular mechanism of flowering is well-studied in the model plant, Arabidopsis, in which key genes such as FLOWERING LOCUST (FT) or FD have been identified to regulate flowering. However, the flowering mechanisms are still largely unknown in fruit trees like loquat. To this end, we first cloned one FT- and two FD-like genes from the loquat (Eriobotrya deflexa Nakai f. koshunensis) and referred to as EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 are conserved during the evolution process. EdFT is mainly expressed in reproductive tissues (e.g., flower buds, flowers, and fruits), while EdFD1 and EdFD2 are mainly expressed in apical buds including leaf buds and flower buds. EdFT is localized in the whole cell, while EdFD1 or EdFD2 is localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 in Arabidopsis results in early flowering. In addition, we have also revealed that the EdFT interacts with both EdFD1 and EdFD2. Overall, these data suggest that the EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 are the functional homologs of FT and FD, respectively, which might act together to regulate loquat flowering through a similar mechanism found in Arabidopsis. PMID:26834775

  11. Hybridization Between Natural Extract of Angelica gigas Nakai and Inorganic Nanomaterial of Layered Double Hydroxide via Reconstruction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Choi, Ae-Jin; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2016-01-01

    We have hybridized layered double hydroxide (LDH) with Angelica gigas Nakai root extract (AGNR) through reversible dehydration-rehydration reaction which is known as reconstruction. LDHs having well-ordered hydrotalcite-like crystal structure and average size 250 ± 20 nm were prepared by hydrothermal method. The root of Angelica gigas Nakai, which has been utilized in the treatment of female disorders as herbal medicine, was treated with methanol to obtain extract. Pristine LDHs were calcined at 400 °C for 8 hours to obtain layered double oxide (LDO), which was further dispersed into extract solution with various AGNR/LDO weight ratios, 0.11, 0.21 and 0.43. The extract content in each hybrid increased in proportion to initial AGNR/LDO ratio, showing the highest content of ~12%. The zeta potential of LDH shifted from +44 mV to +20 mV upon hybridization with extract, which was attributed to the adsorption of negatively charged organic moieties in AGNR on LDH surface. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results exhibited that the random stacking of LDH nanolayers resulted in LDH-AGNR hybrid with house-of-cards structure, of which inter-particle cavity serves nano-reservoir for natural extract. According to quantitative analyses, it was revealed that the content of active components in AGNR increased when they were hybridized with LDHs compared with those in AGNR alone.

  12. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice modulates oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray in mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Zakaria, Ainul Mardhiyah; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  13. Comparative studies on antioxidant activities of extracts and fractions from the leaves and stem of Epimedium koreanum Nakai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Haixia; Wang, Zhaoshuai; Lan, Gaoshuang; Zhang, Likang

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant potency of various extracts and fractions from the leaves and stem of Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated using three esteblished methods, specifically the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radica-scavenging activity assay, the inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate (MDA) assay and the ferric reducing power (FRP) assay. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extracts and fractions were determined by spectrophotometric methods and the content of icariin was determined by HPLC. The results showed that all the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities at different magnitudes of potency. The leaf extract and fractions demonstrated superior antioxidant activity in most of the assays. The decreasing order of antioxidant activities among the extracts/fractions assayed through the three methods were found to be n-BuOH fraction>ethyl acetate fraction>ethanol extract>petroleum ether fraction>water fraction. A positive correlation was found between the amounts of total phenolics, total flavonoids and icariin and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R(2) = 0.9935, 0.9944 and 0.9997, respectively) and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation (R(2) = 0.9987, 0.9830 and 0.9886, respectively). The results suggested that Icariin was one of the main constituents contribute to the antioxidant activity of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and the n-BuOH fractions of leaf extract might be valuable antioxidant natural sources. PMID:24426024

  14. Hybridization Between Natural Extract of Angelica gigas Nakai and Inorganic Nanomaterial of Layered Double Hydroxide via Reconstruction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Choi, Ae-Jin; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2016-01-01

    We have hybridized layered double hydroxide (LDH) with Angelica gigas Nakai root extract (AGNR) through reversible dehydration-rehydration reaction which is known as reconstruction. LDHs having well-ordered hydrotalcite-like crystal structure and average size 250 ± 20 nm were prepared by hydrothermal method. The root of Angelica gigas Nakai, which has been utilized in the treatment of female disorders as herbal medicine, was treated with methanol to obtain extract. Pristine LDHs were calcined at 400 °C for 8 hours to obtain layered double oxide (LDO), which was further dispersed into extract solution with various AGNR/LDO weight ratios, 0.11, 0.21 and 0.43. The extract content in each hybrid increased in proportion to initial AGNR/LDO ratio, showing the highest content of ~12%. The zeta potential of LDH shifted from +44 mV to +20 mV upon hybridization with extract, which was attributed to the adsorption of negatively charged organic moieties in AGNR on LDH surface. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results exhibited that the random stacking of LDH nanolayers resulted in LDH-AGNR hybrid with house-of-cards structure, of which inter-particle cavity serves nano-reservoir for natural extract. According to quantitative analyses, it was revealed that the content of active components in AGNR increased when they were hybridized with LDHs compared with those in AGNR alone. PMID:27398576

  15. Effects of high temperatures on UV-B/visible irradiation induced postharvest anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Yunhongli No. 1’ (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) have seen increased cultivation in China in recent years, prized for their attractive market value and nutritional benefits. However, poor fruit coloration has been a noticeable problem. Postharvest ultraviolet-B (UV-B)/visible irradiation has been used...

  16. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the Government bill of lading (GBL) only for international shipments (including domestic offshore shipments)....

  17. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the Government bill of lading (GBL) only for international shipments (including domestic offshore shipments)....

  18. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the Government bill of lading (GBL) only for international shipments (including domestic offshore shipments)....

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the Government bill of lading (GBL) only for international shipments (including domestic offshore shipments)....

  20. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Loucks, Michael; Carrico, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this extended abstract is to present results from a failed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver contingency analysis for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. The LADEE spacecrafts nominal trajectory implemented multiple sub-lunar phasing orbits centered at Earth before eventually reaching the Moon (Fig. 1) where a critical LOI maneuver was to be performed [1,2,3]. If this LOI was missed, the LADEE spacecraft would be on an Earth-escape trajectory, bound for heliocentric space. Although a partial mission recovery is possible from a heliocentric orbit (to be discussed in the full paper), it was found that an escape-prevention maneuver could be performed several days after a hypothetical LOI-miss, allowing a return to the desired science orbit around the Moon without leaving the Earths sphere-of-influence (SOI).

  1. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We have learned it is conceivable that the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on board the Lunarr Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) could measure gases from surface-reflected Attitude Control System (ACS) thruster plume. At minimum altitude, the measurement would be maximized, and gravitational influence minimized ("short" time-of-flight (TOF) situation) Could use to verify aspects of thruster plume modeling Model the transient disturbance to NMS measurements due to ACS gases reflected from lunar surface Observe evolution of various model characteristics as measured by NMS Species magnitudes, TOF measurements, angular distribution, species separation effects

  2. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  3. Meteoritic influence on sodium and potassium abundance in the lunar exosphere measured by LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály; Colaprete, Anthony; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometer (UVS), and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). Here we compare coincident LDEX measurements of meteoritic influx to exospheric column densities of Na and K derived by UVS. We report a strong correlation of exospheric potassium and meteoroid ejecta during the Geminids meteoroid shower, exhibiting a much stronger response than sodium. With the exception of the Geminids, we find a weak correlation between the sporadic meteoroid influx as measured by LDEX and exospheric density as measured by UVS.

  4. Lunar meteoritic gardening rate derived from in situ LADEE/LDEX measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-05-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). LDEX was uniquely equipped to characterize the current rate of lunar impact gardening as it measured the very particles taking part in this process. By deriving an average lunar dust density distribution, we calculate the rate at which exospheric dust rains back down onto the lunar surface. Near the equatorial plane, we find that approximately 40 μm/Myr of lunar regolith, with a cumulative size distribution index of 2.7, is redistributed due to meteoritic bombardment, a process which occurs predominantly on the lunar apex hemisphere.

  5. Caffeoyl triterpenes from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) fruit peels and their antioxidative activities against oxidation of rat blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Chan Mi; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong-An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-05-15

    Six triterpenes, including three caffeoyl triterpenes, were purified and isolated from pear fruit ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuwhangbae) peel extracts using various column chromatography techniques with a guided 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. The isolated compounds were identified as betulinic aldehyde (1), lupeol (2), betulinic acid (3), 3-O-cis-caffeoylbetulinic acid (4), 3-O-trans-caffeoylbetulinic acid (5), and 3-O-trans-caffeoyloleanolic acid (6) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four compounds (1, 4-6) were identified from Asian pear fruit for the first time. In addition, compounds 4-6, containing a caffeic acid moiety, showed higher DPPH radical-scavenging and suppression effects against copper ion-induced oxidation of rat blood plasma than other compounds without a caffeic acid moiety.

  6. LADEE UVS Observations of Solar Occulation by Exospheric Dust above the Lunar Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane; Cook, Amanda Marie; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M. H.; Vargo, K. E.; Elphic, R. C.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a lunar orbiter launched in September 2012 that investigates the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. The primary goals of the mission are to characterize the pristine gas and dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. To address this goal, the LADEE instrument suite includes an Ultraviolet/ Visible Spectrometer (UVS), which searches for dust, Na, K, and trace gases such as OH, H2O, Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Ti, Fe, as well as other previously undetected species. UVS has two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar viewing telescope. The solar viewer is equipped with a diffuser (see Figure 1a) that allows UVS to stare directly at the solar disk as the Sun starts to set (or rise from) behind the lunar limb. Solar viewer measurements generally have very high signal to noise (SNR>500) for 20-30 ms integration times. The 1-degree solar viewer field of view subtends a diameter of 8 km at a distance of 400-450 km

  7. LADEE UVS Observations of Solar Occultation by Exospheric Dust Above the Lunar Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Cook, A. M.; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M. H.; Vargo, K. E.; Elphic, R. C.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a lunar orbiter launched in September 2012 that investigates the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. The primary goals of the mission are to characterize the pristine gas and dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. To address this goal, the LADEE instrument suite includes an Ultraviolet/ Visible Spectrometer (UVS), which searches for dust, Na, K, and trace gases such as OH, H2O, Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Ti, Fe, as well as other previously undetected species. UVS has two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar viewing telescope. The solar viewer is equipped with a diffuser (see Figure 1a) that allows UVS to stare directly at the solar disk as the Sun starts to set (or rise from) behind the lunar limb. Solar viewer measurements generally have very high signal to noise (SNR greater than 500) for 20-30 ms integration times. The 1-degree solar viewer field of view subtends a diameter of approximately 8 km at a distance of 400-450 km.

  8. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annotating the bill of lading, air... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements § 30.7 Annotating the...

  9. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annotating the bill of lading, air... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements § 30.7 Annotating the...

  10. 41 CFR 102-118.200 - Can a TSP demand advance payment for the transportation charges submitted on a bill of lading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118.200 Can a TSP...

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.200 - Can a TSP demand advance payment for the transportation charges submitted on a bill of lading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118.200 Can a TSP...

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.200 - Can a TSP demand advance payment for the transportation charges submitted on a bill of lading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118.200 Can a TSP...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.200 - Can a TSP demand advance payment for the transportation charges submitted on a bill of lading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118.200 Can a TSP...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.200 - Can a TSP demand advance payment for the transportation charges submitted on a bill of lading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118.200 Can a TSP...

  15. LADEE UVS Observations of Atoms and Dust in the Lunar Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Colaprete, Anthony; Cook, Amanda M.; Shirley, Mark H.; Vargo, Kara E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a lunar orbiter launched in September 2013 that investigated the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. A major goal of the mission was to characterize the dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. The Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard LADEE addresses this goal, utilizing two sets of optics: a limbviewing telescope, and a solar-viewing telescope. We report on spectroscopic (approximately 280 - 820 nm) observations viewing down the lunar wake or along the 'lunar tail' from lunar orbit. Prior groundbased studies have observed the emission from neutral sodium atoms extended along the lunar tail, so often this region is referred to as the lunar sodium tail. UVS measurements were made on the dark side of the moon, with the UVS limb-viewing telescope pointed outward in the direction of the Moon's wake (almost anti-sun), during different lunar phases. These UVS observation activities sample a long column and allow the characterization of scattered light from dust and emission lines from atoms in the lunar tail. Observations in this UVS configuration show the largest excess of scattered blue light in our data set, indicative of the presence of small dust grains in the tail. Once lofted, nanoparticles may become charged and picked up by the solar wind, similar to the phenomena witnessed above Enceladus's northern hemisphere or by the STEREO/WAVES instrument while close to Earth's orbit. The UVS data show that small dust grains as well as atoms become entrained in the lunar tail.

  16. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar ‘Kinchaku’ (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in ‘Osa Nijisseiki’ and Ana in ‘Nansui’. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of ‘Kinchaku’ and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a ‘Housui’ × ‘Kinchaku’ cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome and 107 Kb in the ‘Dangshansuli’ Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear. PMID:27162498

  17. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Kinchaku' (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in 'Osa Nijisseiki' and Ana in 'Nansui'. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of 'Kinchaku' and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a 'Housui' × 'Kinchaku' cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome and 107 Kb in the 'Dangshansuli' Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear.

  18. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Kinchaku' (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in 'Osa Nijisseiki' and Ana in 'Nansui'. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of 'Kinchaku' and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a 'Housui' × 'Kinchaku' cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome and 107 Kb in the 'Dangshansuli' Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear. PMID:27162498

  19. LADEE UVS (UltraViolet Visible Spectrometer) and the Search for Lunar Exospheric Dust: A Detailed Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Cook, Amanda; Colaprete, Anthony; Shirley, Mark; Vargo, Kara; Elphic, Richard C.; Hermalyn, Brendan; Stubbs, Timothy John; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) executed science observations in lunar orbit spanning 2013-Oct-16- 2014-04-18 UT. LADEE's Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) studies the composition and temporal variations of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment, utilizing two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar-viewer. The limb-viewing telescope observes illuminated dust and emitting gas species while the Sun is just behind the lunar limb. The solar viewer, with its diffuser, allows UVS to also stare directly at the solar disk as it approaches the limb, sampling progressively lower exosphere altitudes. Solar viewer "Occultation" activities occur at the lunar sunrise limb, as the LADEE spacecraft passes into the lunar night side, facing the Sun (the spacecraft orbit is near-equatorial retrograde). A loss of transmission of sunlight occurs by the occultation of dust grains along the line-of-sight. So-called "Inertial Limb" activities have the limb-viewing telescope pointed at the lit exosphere just after the Sun has set. Inertial Limb activities follow a similar progression of diminishing sampling altitudes but hold the solar elongation angle constant so the zodiacal light contribution remains constant while seeking to observe the weak lunar horizon glow. On the dark side of the moon, "Sodium Tail" activities pointed the limb-viewing telescope in the direction of the Moon's sodium tail (similar to anti-sunward), during different lunar phases. Of the UVS data sets, these show the largest excess of scattered blue light, indicative of the presence of small (approximately 100 nm) dust grains in the tail. Correlations are sought between dust in the sodium tail and meteor streams and magnetotail crossings to investigate impact- versus electrostatic-lofting. Once lofted, nanoparticles can become charged and picked up by the solar wind. The LADEE UVS Occultation, Inertial Limb, and Sodium Tail spectral datasets provide evidence of

  20. Metallic species, oxygen and silicon in the lunar exosphere: constraints from Mercury and prospects for LADEE measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantos, M.; Killen, R. M.; Glenar, D. A.; Benna, M.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    The only species that have been confirmed in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar, and He. Models for the production and loss of lunar regolith-derived exospheric species from source processes including micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering, and, for Na and K, photon-stimulated desorption, predict a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere. Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape and recycling to the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to published upper limits from the Moon. Our models are further constrained by observations from Moon's sister exosphere, that of Mercury. Simulations of the neutral mass (NMS) and visible/ultraviolet spectrometry (UVS) investigations planned by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft are presented. Our calculations indicate that LADEE measurements promise to make definitive observations or set stringent upper limits for at least a few of the regolith-driven exospheric species. Our models, along with LADEE observations, will constrain assumed model parameters for the Moon, such as sticking coefficients, source processes and velocity distributions.

  1. LADEE UVS Observations of Atoms and Dust in the Lunar Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Colaprete, Anthony; Cook, Amanda M.; Shirley, Mark H.; Vargo, Kara E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Glenar, David A.

    2014-11-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a lunar orbiter launched in September 2013 that investigated the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. A major goal of the mission was to characterize the dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. The Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard LADEE addresses this goal, utilizing two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar-viewing telescope (Colaprete et al. 2014a). We report on spectroscopic 280-820 nm) observations viewing down the lunar wake or along the ‘lunar tail’ from lunar orbit. Prior ground-based studies have observed the emission from neutral sodium atoms extended along the lunar tail, so often this region is referred to as the lunar sodium tail (e.g., Smith et al. 1999, Wilson et al. 1999).UVS measurements were made on the dark side of the moon, with the UVS limb-viewing telescope pointed outward in the direction of the Moon’s wake (almost anti-sun), during different lunar phases. These UVS observation activities sample a long column and allow the characterization of scattered light from dust and emission lines from atoms in the lunar tail (Colaprete et al. 2014b). Observations in this UVS configuration show the largest excess of scattered blue light in our data set, indicative of the presence of small dust grains in the tail. Once lofted (e.g., Stubbs et al. 2006), nanoparticles may become charged and picked up by the solar wind, similar to the phenomena witnessed above Enceladus’s northern hemisphere (Farrell et al. 2012) or by the STEREO/WAVES instrument while close to Earth’s orbit (Meyer-Vernet et al 2009). The UVS data show that small dust grains as well as atoms become entrained in the lunar tail. References:Colaprete, A. et al. (2014a), Space Sci. Rev., submittedColaprete, A. et al. (2014b), SSERVI Exploration Forum, http://nesf2014.arc

  2. The Na exosphere reservoir for Mercury and the Moon: Models constrained by MESSENGER and LADEE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantos, M.; Killen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Na exosphere of Mercury is flux-limited, and a careful accounting of the surface reservoir is necessary in order to understand the relative importance of proposed source mechanisms for this exosphere. At the Moon, a similar analysis has not yet been performed, but recent data acquired by the Kaguya spacecraft suggest an analogous depletion of the dayside reservoir for exospheric Na. New measurements of the lunar exosphere obtained by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) and of Mercury's exosphere by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft provide the opportunity to constrain the main parameters determining the reservoirs for these exospheres. We present a model of the exosphere-surface system that attempts to unify these two datasets. We have developed a simulator that accepts as input partially constrained microphysical parameters of the gas-surface interaction (e.g., source rates/cross sections for different source processes, degree of thermal accommodation) to make testable predictions regarding the exosphere and uppermost surface (top 10-10 m). These flux-balance simulations demonstrate that the lunar exosphere is limited by the recycling rate of Na atoms mobilized by micrometeoroid vaporization. An important consequence is that, to obtain consistency with ground-based observations of the Na exosphere, the inferred impact vapor at the Moon must peak near the equator and decrease towards the poles because of migration of surface particles toward the poles through exospheric transport. Micrometeoroid streams can have a long-term effect on the lunar exosphere because, as shown in our model, particles introduced by such streams survive in the soil and exosphere for at least two lunations. Important but secondary effects must be provided by the solar wind in order to account for the variations observed within one lunation by LADEE. In its application to Mercury, the code uses new estimates of

  3. Anti-cancer and other bioactivities of Korean Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) and its major pyranocoumarin compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Jiang, Cheng; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lü, Junxuan

    2012-12-01

    Korean Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is a major medicinal herb used in Asian countries such as Korea and China. Traditionally, its dried root has been used to treat anemia, pain, infection and articular rheumatism in Korea, most often through boiling in water to prepare the dosage forms. The pyranocoumarin compound decursin and its isomer decursinol angelate (DA) are the major chemical components in the alcoholic extracts of the root of AGN. The in vitro anti-tumor activities of decursin and/or DA against prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, bladder cancer, sarcoma, myeloma and leukemia have been increasingly reported in the past decade whereas the in vivo efficacy in mouse models was established only for a few organ sites. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies by us and others in rodent models indicated that decursinol (DOH), which has much less in vitro direct anticancer activities by itself, is the major and rapid in vivo hydrolysis metabolite of both decursin and DA. Besides decursin, DA and DOH, other chemical components in AGN such as polysaccharides and polyacetylenes have been reported to exert anti-cancer and anti-inflammation activities as well. We systematically reviewed the published literature on the anti-cancer and other bio-activities effects of AGN extract and decursin, DA and DOH, as well as other chemicals identified from AGN. Although a number of areas are identified that merit further investigation, one critical need is first-in-human studies of the pharmacokinetics of decursin/DA to determine whether humans differ from rodents in absorption and metabolism of these compounds.

  4. Effect of nitrogen source on biomass and bioactive compound production in submerged cultures of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai adventitious roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium to nitrate ratios of 0:30, 5:25, 10:20, 15:15, 20:10, 25:5, and 30:0 mM were tested to determine the optimal NH(4)(+) :NO(3)(-) ratio for improving biomass and bioactive compound production in Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai adventitious roots using 3-L bulb-type bubble bioreactors. A high ammonium nitrogen ratio had a negative effect on root growth, and the highest fresh and dry weights were obtained when NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratios were 5:25 and 10:20 (mM) after 5 weeks of culture. Although the total production of eleutherosides B and E was slightly higher at the 10:20 ratio than at the 5:25 ratio (NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-)), we proposed that the optimal NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratio was 5:25 mM. This ratio achieved both the highest total production of five target bioactive compounds (eleutherosides B and E, chlorogenic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids) and the highest root biomass. Furthermore, increasing NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratios to 10:20 decreased pH in the medium, interrupted the absorption of essential minerals from the culture medium, and resulted in low biomass and increased relative oxidative stress levels, which were evaluated by determining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Therefore, nitrate rather than ammonium nitrogen was more essential not for only biomass production but also for bioactive compound production in E. koreanum adventitious root cultures. The optimal nitrogen source ratio produced 5.63 g L(-1) of biomass and 24.41 mg of the five total bioactive compounds per gram of biomass (dry weight basis). The development of such in vitro culture technology will benefit the pilot-scale production of E. koreanum-based bioactive compounds for commercialization.

  5. LADEE NMS Observations of Sporadic Water and Carbon Dioxide Signatures in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Hurley, D.; Stubbs, T. J.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Elphic, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    During its six months in orbit, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) has detected signatures of water and carbon dioxide in the exosphere of the Moon. The signature of these two volatile gases has been measured by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) as sporadic short-lived signal increases above instrument background. Following the detection of these two species in the exosphere, a systematic measurement campaign with a cadence of few hours over four main lunar local time sectors (sunrise, midnight, sunset, and noon) was put in place and continued to the end of the mission. While this measurement campaign did not reveal any local time dependence for these sporadic signal events, it showed that they are globally correlated with predicted micrometeoroid streams. Moreover, a subset of these NMS observations were acquired at low altitudes when water and carbon dioxide signals were below instrumental background, and used to establish new upper limits of the background abundances of these two gases in the exosphere.

  6. Detections of lunar exospheric ions by the LADEE neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Poppe, A. R.; Delory, G. T.

    2015-07-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS), operating in ion mode, provides sensitive detections of ions from the lunar exosphere. By analyzing ion-mode data from the entire mission, utilizing Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) plasma and magnetic field measurements to organize NMS data and eliminate background sources, we identify highly significant detections of lunar ions at mass per charge of 2, 4, 12, 20, 28, 39, and 40, moderately significant detections at 14 and 23, and weak detections at 24, 25, and 36. Unlike many previous observations of Moon-derived ions, an outward pointing viewing geometry ensures that these ions originate from the exosphere, rather than directly from the surface. For species with known neutral distributions, inferred ion production rates appear consistent with expectations for both magnitude and spatial distribution, assuming photoionization as the predominant source mechanism. Unexpected signals at mass per charge 12 and 28 suggest the presence of a significant exospheric population of carbon-bearing molecules.

  7. Early Operations Flight Correlation of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Yang, Kan; Nguyen, Daniel; Cornwell, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission launched on September 7, 2013 with a one month cruise before lunar insertion. The LADEE spacecraft is a power limited, octagonal, composite bus structure with solar panels on all eight sides with four vertical segments per side and 2 panels dedicated to instruments. One of these panels has the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), which represents a furthering of the laser communications technology demonstration proved out by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LLCD increases the bandwidth of communication to and from the moon with less mass and power than LROs technology demonstrator. The LLCD Modem and Controller boxes are mounted to an internal cruciform composite panel and have no dedicated radiator. The thermal design relies on power cycling of the boxes and radiation of waste heat to the inside of the panels, which then reject the heat when facing cold space. The LADEE mission includes a slow roll and numerous attitudes to accommodate the challenging thermal requirements for all the instruments on board. During the cruise phase, the internal Modem and Controller avionics for LLCD were warmer than predicted by more than modeling uncertainty would suggest. This caused concern that if the boxes were considerably warmer than expected while off, they would also be warmer when operating and could limit the operational time when in lunar orbit. The thermal group at Goddard Space Flight Center evaluated the models and design for these critical avionics for LLCD. Upon receipt of the spacecraft models and audit was performed and data was collected from the flight telemetry to perform a sanity check of the models and to correlate to flight where possible. This paper describes the efforts to correlate the model to flight data and to predict the thermal performance when in lunar orbit and presents some lessons learned.

  8. LADEE UVS (UltraViolet Visible Spectrometer) and the Search for Lunar Exospheric Dust: A Detailed Spectral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Cook, A.; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M.; Vargo, K.; Elphic, R. C.; Hermalyn, B.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) executed science observations in lunar orbit spanning 2013-Oct-16- 2014-04-18 UT. LADEE's Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) studies the composition and temporal variations of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment, utilizing two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar-viewer. The limb-viewing telescope observes illuminated dust and emitting gas species while the Sun is just behind the lunar limb. The solar viewer, with its diffuser, allows UVS to also stare directly at the solar disk as it approaches the limb, sampling progressively lower exosphere altitudes. Solar viewer "Occultation" activities occur at the lunar sunrise limb, as the LADEE spacecraft passes into the lunar night side, facing the Sun (the spacecraft orbit is near-equatorial retrograde). A loss of transmission of sunlight occurs by the occultation of dust grains along the line-of-sight [1, 2]. So-called "Inertial Limb" activities have the limb-viewing telescope pointed at the lit exosphere just after the Sun has set. Inertial Limb activities follow a similar progression of diminishing sampling altitudes but hold the solar elongation angle constant so the zodiacal light contribution remains constant while seeking to observe the weak lunar horizon glow [2,3,4]. On the dark side of the moon, "Sodium Tail" activities pointed the limb-viewing telescope in the direction of the Moon's sodium tail (~anti-sunward), during different lunar phases. Of the UVS data sets, these show the largest excess of scattered blue light, indicative of the presence of small (~100 nm) dust grains in the tail. Correlations are sought between dust in the sodium tail and meteor streams [5] and magnetotail [3] crossings to investigate impact- versus electrostatic-lofting [6]. Once lofted, nanoparticles can become charged and picked up by the solar wind [7,8]. The LADEE UVS Occultation, Inertial Limb, and Sodium Tail spectral datasets provide

  9. 41 CFR 102-118.105 - Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading? 102-118.105 Section 102-118.105 Public Contracts... Transportation Services § 102-118.105 Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of...

  10. 41 CFR 102-118.105 - Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading? 102-118.105 Section 102-118.105 Public Contracts... Transportation Services § 102-118.105 Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of...

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.105 - Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading? 102-118.105 Section 102-118.105 Public Contracts... Transportation Services § 102-118.105 Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of...

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.105 - Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading? 102-118.105 Section 102-118.105 Public Contracts... Transportation Services § 102-118.105 Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.105 - Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading? 102-118.105 Section 102-118.105 Public Contracts... Transportation Services § 102-118.105 Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.210 - May my agency use bills of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government... conditions (also found in the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”) contained in this part....

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.210 - May my agency use bills of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government... conditions (also found in the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”) contained in this part....

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.210 - May my agency use bills of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government... conditions (also found in the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”) contained in this part....

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.210 - May my agency use bills of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government... conditions (also found in the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”) contained in this part....

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.210 - May my agency use bills of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government... conditions (also found in the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”) contained in this part....

  19. Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its main constituent icariin suppress lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yunk-Yung; Song, Mi-Young; Hwang, Min-Sub; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Park, Yong-Ki; Jung, Hyo-Won

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities such as type 2 diabetes and has become a major health problem worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Herba Epimedii, HE) and its main constituent icariin on the adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. HE extract and icariin significantly reduced lipid accumulation and suppressed the expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1c in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. They also inhibited fatty acid synthase (FAS), acyl-Co A synthase (ACS1), and perilipin. Moreover, HE extract and icariin markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK. These results indicated that HE extract and icariin can inhibit the adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of the adipogenic transcription factors, suggesting that HE containing icariin may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:27667512

  20. Influence of inoculum density and aeration volume on biomass and bioactive compound production in bulb-type bubble bioreactor cultures of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Moh, Sang-Hyun; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2011-07-01

    This study deals with the effects of initial inoculum density and aeration volume on biomass and bioactive compound production in adventitious roots of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai in bulb-type bubble bioreactors (3-L capacity). While the fresh and dry weights of the roots increased with increasing inoculum density, the highest percentage dry weight and accumulation of total target compounds (eleutheroside B and E, chlorogenic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids) were noted at an inoculum density of 5.0 g L(-1). Poor aeration volume (0.05 vvm) stunted root growth, and high aeration volume (0.4 vvm) caused physiological disorders. Moreover, an inoculum density of 5.0 g L(-1) and an aeration volume of 0.1 vvm resulted in the highest concentration of total target compounds and least root death. Such optimization of culture conditions will be beneficial for the large-scale production of E. koreanum biomass and bioactive compounds.

  1. Variability of helium, neon, and argon in the lunar exosphere as observed by the LADEE NMS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Elphic, R. C.; Delory, G. T.

    2015-05-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) provided the first global characterization of He and Ar along with the discovery of Ne in the lunar exosphere. The mapping of the equatorial distribution of these noble gases revealed new selenographic and temporal variations. Helium was found to be controlled by the supply of solar wind alpha particles and by the presence of an endogenous source that supplies the exosphere at a rate of 1.9 × 1023 atoms s-1. Neon was detected over the nightside at levels comparable to He and was found to exhibit the spatial distribution of a surface accommodated noncondensable gas. The global measurements of NMS revealed the presence of a localized Ar enhancement that has never been identified before at the western maria. The variability resulting from this local enhancement is coupled to a more global but transient source.

  2. Quantifying Sources, Sinks and Gas-surface Interactions on the Moon from LADEE Measurements of Exospheric Na and K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, A.; Sarantos, M.; Poppe, A. R.; Bennett, C.; Orlando, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present numerical simulations of the generation and loss of the sodium (Na) and potassium (K) exospheres of the Moon and compare these results to recent LADEE observations. While both species appear to migrate towards the poles like other volatiles, Na resides on the soil and exosphere for one to two months before getting lost to the solar wind or the subsurface. K exhibits a different evolutionary trend: it is lost much more quickly than ionization and sputtering rates allow for, suggesting that it is lost to the ground in just a few bounces. Thus, the two alkalis exhibit very different interactions with the lunar surface. Reproducing the monthly variation exhibited by Na requires higher source rates at Mare, or higher sink rates at Highlands, or a combination of both. The very different behavior of Na on Mare and Highlands soils is reminiscent of laboratory experiments of water binding on Apollo fine soils.

  3. Modelling Niche Differentiation of Co-Existing, Elusive and Morphologically Similar Species: A Case Study of Four Macaque Species in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Coudrat, Camille N. Z.; Nekaris, K. Anne-Isola

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We investigated the niche separation of four macaque species (Macaca arctoides, M. assamensis, M. leonina, M. mulatta) occurring within Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, central-eastern Laos using the environmental niche modelling software MaxEnt. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an environmental gradient of, notably, temperature, precipitation, elevation and slope within the study area. This means that the four species seem adapted to different ecological conditions within the area. This information has implications for future research on these species and for their management and conservation. Abstract Species misidentification often occurs when dealing with co-existing and morphologically similar species such as macaques, making the study of their ecology challenging. To overcome this issue, we use reliable occurrence data from camera-trap images and transect survey data to model their respective ecological niche and potential distribution locally in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA), central-Eastern Laos. We investigate niche differentiation of morphologically similar species using four sympatric macaque species in NNT NPA, as our model species: rhesus Macaca mulatta (Taxonomic Serial Number, TSN 180099), Northern pig-tailed M. leonina (TSN not listed); Assamese M. assamensis (TSN 573018) and stump-tailed M. arctoides (TSN 573017). We examine the implications for their conservation. We obtained occurrence data of macaque species from systematic 2006–2011 camera-trapping surveys and 2011–2012 transect surveys and model their niche and potential distribution with MaxEnt software using 25 environmental and topographic variables. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an

  4. Evaluation of polyphenol composition and biological activities of two samples from summer and winter seasons of Ligularia fischeri var. Spiciformis Nakai.

    PubMed

    Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Sivasubramanian, Chandran; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2015-06-01

    Phenolic contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were determined by two samples from summer (June) and winter (December) seasons of Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai. A total of 24 phenolic compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis. Myricetin (1964.35 and 1829.12 μg/g) was the most dominant flavonol compared to quercetin and kaempferol. Salicylic acid (222.80 and 215.25 μg/g) was the most important phenolic compound compared to pyrogallol, caffeic acid, gentisic acid, o-coumaric acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and ferulic acid in summer (June) and winter (December) seasons. Phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities were estimated for the various solvent extracts (petroleum ether, butanol, ethyl acetate, methanol and water). Ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest phenolic (332.64 and 299.44 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and flavonoid contents (5.72 and 5.29 mg/g quercetin equivalent) and also the strongest antioxidant activity in summer and winter seasons. Due to these metabolic variations, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were increased with summer seasons compared to winter seasons. Our study shows that the samples collected in June had higher phenolic compounds, stronger antioxidative and antimicrobial activity than the samples of L. fischeri leaf extracts collected in December.

  5. Angelica gigas Nakai and Soluplus-Based Solid Formulations Prepared by Hot-Melting Extrusion: Oral Absorption Enhancing and Memory Ameliorating Effects

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Jingpei; Lee, Jae-Young; Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Choong Je; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kang, Wie-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Oral solid formulations based on Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) and Soluplus were prepared by the hot-melting extrusion (HME) method. AGN was pulverized into coarse and ultrafine particles, and their particle size and morphology were investigated. Ultrafine AGN particles were used in the HME process with high shear to produce AGN-based formulations. In simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2 and pH 6.8) and water, significantly higher amounts of the major active components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), were extracted from the HME-processed AGN/Soluplus (F8) group than the AGN EtOH extract (ext) group (p < 0.05). Based on an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, the relative oral bioavailability of decursinol (DOH), a hepatic metabolite of D and DA, in F8-administered mice was 8.75-fold higher than in AGN EtOH ext-treated group. In scopolamine-induced memory-impaired mice, F8 exhibited a more potent cognitive enhancing effect than AGN EtOH ext in both a Morris water maze test and a passive avoidance test. These findings suggest that HME-processed AGN/Soluplus formulation (F8) could be a promising therapeutic candidate for memory impairment. PMID:25915423

  6. Development of an efficient callus proliferation system for Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Mun, Song-Chol; Mun, Gwan-Sim

    2016-07-01

    A clonal mass propagation to obtain mountainous sources of Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant in Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established by rhizome tissue culture. Whole plants were selected and collected as a vigorous individual free from blights and harmful insects among wild plants of R. coreanum grown on the top of Mt. Langrim (1.540 m above the sea) situated at the northern extremity of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Induction of the callus was determined using four organs separated from the whole plant and different plant growth regulators. The callus was successfully induced from rhizome explant on MS medium containing 2.4-D (0.2-0.3 mg/l). In the MS medium supplemented with a combination of BAP (2 mg/l) and NAA (0.2 mg/l), single NAA (0.5 mg/l), or IBA (0.5 mg/l), a higher number of shoot, root and plantlets was achieved. The survival rate on the mountainous region of the plantlets successfully acclimatized (100%) in greenhouse reached 95%, and yields of crude drug and contents of active principles were higher than those obtained by sexual and vegetative propagation. This first report of R. coreanum tissue culture provides an opportunity to control extinction threats and an efficient callus proliferation system for growing resources rapidly on a large scale.

  7. Ethanol extract of Synurus deltoides (Aiton) Nakai suppresses in vitro LPS-induced cytokine production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo acute inflammatory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yunyao

    2014-01-01

    Synurus deltoides (Aiton) Nakai, belonging to the Compositae family, is an edible plant widely distributed in Northeast Asia. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulative effects of the ethanol extract of S. deltoides (SDE). The SDE extract strongly down-regulated the mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, thereby inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and TNF-α in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, SDE also suppressed the nuclear translocation of the activation protein (AP)-1 and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and simultaneously decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK), p38, and Akt. In agreement with the in vitro observations, the orally administered SDE ameliorated the acute inflammatory symptoms in the arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and the EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Therefore, S. deltoides have a potential anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential therapeutic use in the inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:24611100

  8. Angelica gigas Nakai and Soluplus-Based Solid Formulations Prepared by Hot-Melting Extrusion: Oral Absorption Enhancing and Memory Ameliorating Effects.

    PubMed

    Piao, Jingpei; Lee, Jae-Young; Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Choong Je; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kang, Wie-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Oral solid formulations based on Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) and Soluplus were prepared by the hot-melting extrusion (HME) method. AGN was pulverized into coarse and ultrafine particles, and their particle size and morphology were investigated. Ultrafine AGN particles were used in the HME process with high shear to produce AGN-based formulations. In simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2 and pH 6.8) and water, significantly higher amounts of the major active components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), were extracted from the HME-processed AGN/Soluplus (F8) group than the AGN EtOH extract (ext) group (p < 0.05). Based on an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, the relative oral bioavailability of decursinol (DOH), a hepatic metabolite of D and DA, in F8-administered mice was 8.75-fold higher than in AGN EtOH ext-treated group. In scopolamine-induced memory-impaired mice, F8 exhibited a more potent cognitive enhancing effect than AGN EtOH ext in both a Morris water maze test and a passive avoidance test. These findings suggest that HME-processed AGN/Soluplus formulation (F8) could be a promising therapeutic candidate for memory impairment.

  9. The Neuroprotective Effects of Decursin Isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai Against Amyloid β-Protein-Induced Apoptosis in PC 12 Cells via a Mitochondria-Related Caspase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Du, Jikun; Zou, Liyi; Xia, Haishan; Wu, Tie; Kim, Yongho; Lee, Yongwoo

    2015-08-01

    Decursin, purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property. Previous study revealed decursin protected the PC12 cells from Aβ25-35-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate whether decursin could protect PC12 cells from apoptosis caused by Aβ. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with decursin significantly inhibited Aβ25-35-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The mechanism of action is likely to reverse Aβ25-35-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, including the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production, and the decrease of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c in PC12 cells. In addition, decursin significantly suppressed the activity of caspase-3 and moderated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax induced by Aβ25-35. These findings indicate that decursin exerts a neuroprotective effect against Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, at least in part, via suppressing the mitochondrial pathway of cellular apoptosis.

  10. Development of an efficient callus proliferation system for Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Mun, Song-Chol; Mun, Gwan-Sim

    2016-07-01

    A clonal mass propagation to obtain mountainous sources of Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant in Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established by rhizome tissue culture. Whole plants were selected and collected as a vigorous individual free from blights and harmful insects among wild plants of R. coreanum grown on the top of Mt. Langrim (1.540 m above the sea) situated at the northern extremity of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Induction of the callus was determined using four organs separated from the whole plant and different plant growth regulators. The callus was successfully induced from rhizome explant on MS medium containing 2.4-D (0.2-0.3 mg/l). In the MS medium supplemented with a combination of BAP (2 mg/l) and NAA (0.2 mg/l), single NAA (0.5 mg/l), or IBA (0.5 mg/l), a higher number of shoot, root and plantlets was achieved. The survival rate on the mountainous region of the plantlets successfully acclimatized (100%) in greenhouse reached 95%, and yields of crude drug and contents of active principles were higher than those obtained by sexual and vegetative propagation. This first report of R. coreanum tissue culture provides an opportunity to control extinction threats and an efficient callus proliferation system for growing resources rapidly on a large scale. PMID:27298581

  11. Chamnamul [Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai] ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves antioxidant status in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jin; Choi, Ha-Neul; Kang, Min-Jung; Choe, Eunok; Auh, Joong Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Chronic consumption of a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet increases insulin resistance and results in type 2 diabetes mellitus in C57BL/6J mice. Hyperglycemia in diabetics increases oxidative stress, which is associated with a high risk of diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of chamnamul [Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai] in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of a 70% ethanol extract of chamnamul was measured in vitro. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a basal or HFHS diet with or without a 70% ethanol extract of chamnamul at a 0.5% level of the diet for 12 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. After sacrifice, serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and lipid profiles, and lipid peroxidation of the liver were determined. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. Chamnamul extract inhibited α-glucosidase by 26.7%, which was 78.3% the strength of inhibition by acarbose at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. Serum glucose, insulin, and cholesterol levels, as well as HOMA-IR values, were significantly lower in the chamnamul group than in the HFHS group. Chamnamul extract significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver compared with the HFHS group. These findings suggest that chamnamul may be useful in prevention of hyperglycemia and reduction of oxidative stress in mice fed a HFHS diet. PMID:24353829

  12. Modeling the Impact Ejected Dust Contribution to the Lunar Exosphere: Results from Experiments and Ground Truth from LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Colaprete, A.

    2013-12-01

    A considerable body of evidence indicates the presence of lofted regolith dust above the lunar surface. These observations range from multiple in-situ and orbital horizon glow detections to direct measurement of dust motion on the surface, as by the Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment. Despite this evidence, the specific mechanisms responsible for the lofting of regolith are still actively debated. These include impact ejection, electrostatic lofting, effects of high energy radiation, UV/X- rays, and interplay with solar wind plasma. These processes are highly relevant to one of the two main scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (due to launch September, 2013): to directly measure the lunar exospheric dust environment and its spatial and temporal variability towards the goal of better understanding the dust flux. Of all the proposed mechanisms taking place on the lunar surface, the only unequivocal ongoing process is impact cratering. Hypervelocity impact events, which mobilize and redistribute regolith across planetary surfaces, are arguably the most pervasive geologic process on rocky bodies. While many studies of dust lofting state that the impact flux rate is orders of magnitude too low to account for the lunar horizon glow phenomenon and discount its contribution, it is imperative to re-examine these assumptions in light of new data on impact ejecta, particularly from the contributions from mesoscale (impactor size on the order of grain size) and macroscale (impactor > grain size) cratering. This is in large part due to a previous lack of data, for while past studies have established a canonical ejecta model for main-stage ejection of sand targets from vertical impacts, only recent studies have been able to begin quantitatively probing the intricacies of the ejection process outside this main-stage, vertical regime. In particular, it is the high-speed early-time ejecta that will reach

  13. Summary of the results from the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly

    2016-07-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (9/2013 - 4/2014) discovered a permanently present dust cloud engulfing the Moon. The size, velocity, and density distributions of the dust particles are consistent with ejecta clouds generated from the continual bombardment of the lunar surface by sporadic interplanetary dust particles. Intermittent density enhancements were observed during several of the annual meteoroid streams, especially during the Geminids. LDEX found no evidence of the expected density enhancements over the terminators where electrostatic processes were predicted to efficiently loft small grains. LDEX is an impact ionization dust detector, it captures coincident signals and full waveforms to reliably identify dust impacts. LDEX recorded average impact rates of approximately 1 and 0.1 hits/minute of particles with impact charges of q > 0.5 and q > 5 fC, corresponding to particles with radii of a > 0.3 and a> 0.7~μm, respectively. Several of the yearly meteor showers generated sustained elevated levels of impact rates, especially if their radiant direction intersected the lunar surface near the equatorial plane, greatly enhancing the probability of crossing their ejecta plumes. The characteristic velocities of dust particles in the cloud are on the order of ~100 m/s which we neglect compared to the typical spacecraft speeds of 1.6 km/s. Hence, with the knowledge of the spacecraft orbit and attitude, impact rates can be directly turned into particle densities as functions of time and position. LDEX observations are the first to identify the ejecta clouds around the Moon sustained by the continual bombardment of interplanetary dust particles. Most of the dust particles generated in impacts have insufficient energy to escape and follow ballistic orbits, returning to the surface, 'gardening' the regolith. Similar ejecta clouds are expected to engulf all airless planetary objects, including

  14. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L.; dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-01-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat

  15. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L; Dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-03-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat

  16. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L; Dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-03-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat

  17. Decursin Isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai Rescues PC12 Cells from Amyloid β-Protein-Induced Neurotoxicity through Nrf2-Mediated Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1: Potential Roles of MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Du, Ji-kun; Zou, Li-yi; Wu, Tie; Lee, Yong-woo; Kim, Yong-ho

    2013-01-01

    Decursin (D), purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property. Previous study revealed that D reduced Aβ25‒35-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Our study explored the underlying mechanisms by which D mediates its therapeutic effects in vitro. Pretreatment of cells with D diminished intracellular generation of ROS in response to Aβ25‒35. Western blot revealed that D significantly increased the expression and activity of HO-1, which was correlated with its protection against Aβ25‒35-induced injury. Addition of ZnPP, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor, significantly attenuated its protective effect in Aβ25‒35-treated cells, indicating the vital role of HO-1 resistance to oxidative injury. Moreover, D induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, the upstream of HO-1 expression. While investigating the signaling pathways responsible for HO-1 induction, D activated ERK and dephosphorylated p38 in PC12 cells. Addition of U0126, a selective inhibitor of ERK, blocked D-induced Nrf2 activation and HO-1 induction and meanwhile reversed the protection of D against Aβ25‒35-induced cell death. These findings suggest D augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through both intrinsic free radical scavenging activity and activation of MAPK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction, thereby protecting the PC12 cells from Aβ25‒35-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. PMID:23762139

  18. Improvement in antiproliferative activity of Angelica gigas Nakai by solid dispersion formation via hot-melt extrusion and induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunyao; Piao, Jingpei; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is one of the most popular herbal medicines and widely used as a functional food product. In this study, AGN was firstly processed by a low-temperature turbo mill and a hot melting extruder to reduce particle size and form solid dispersion (SD). Anticancer activity against HeLa cells was then examined. AGN-SD based on Soluplus was formed via hot-melt extrusion (HME) and showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells. In addition, the possible mechanism of cell death induced by AGN-SD on HeLa cells was also investigated. AGN-SD decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis, increased the production of reactive oxygen species, regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and induced G2/M phase arrest in HeLa cells. This study suggested that AGN-SD based on Soluplus and the method to improve antiproliferative effect by SD formation via HME may be suitable for application in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26057458

  19. Improvement in antiproliferative activity of Angelica gigas Nakai by solid dispersion formation via hot-melt extrusion and induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunyao; Piao, Jingpei; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is one of the most popular herbal medicines and widely used as a functional food product. In this study, AGN was firstly processed by a low-temperature turbo mill and a hot melting extruder to reduce particle size and form solid dispersion (SD). Anticancer activity against HeLa cells was then examined. AGN-SD based on Soluplus was formed via hot-melt extrusion (HME) and showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells. In addition, the possible mechanism of cell death induced by AGN-SD on HeLa cells was also investigated. AGN-SD decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis, increased the production of reactive oxygen species, regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and induced G2/M phase arrest in HeLa cells. This study suggested that AGN-SD based on Soluplus and the method to improve antiproliferative effect by SD formation via HME may be suitable for application in the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants. PMID:26940832

  1. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants.

  2. Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

  3. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... foreign commerce containing the following information: (a) Names of consignor and consignee. (b) Origin and destination points. (c) Number of packages. (d) Description of freight. (e) Weight, volume, or... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379....

  4. Gravity measured at the apollo 14 lading site.

    PubMed

    Nance, R L

    1971-12-01

    The gravity at the Apollo 14 landing site has been determined from the accelerometer data that were telemetered from the lunar module. The values for the lunar gravity measured at the Apollo 11, 12, and 14 sites were reduced to a common elevation and were then compared between sites. A theoretical gravity, based on the assumption of a spherical moon, was computed for each landing site and compared with the observed value. The observed gravity was also used to compute the lunar radius at each landing site.

  5. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUCIES ON THE SEEDS OF MULAM CITRULLUS LANATUS (THUNB.) MATS & NAKAI (CUCURBITACAE)

    PubMed Central

    Shantha, T.R.; Kumar, K.G. Vasantha; Pasupathy, Saraswathy; Vijayalakshmi, B.; Bikshapathi, T.

    2001-01-01

    In the Siddha system of Medicine cotyledons of the seeds of C. Lanatus are known as Mulam/Pullum/Pitcha (Tamil) and used as Pulukolli (Vermifuge), Karpa moolikai (General tonic) and as Aanmeiperukki (Aphrodisiac). In the Ayurvedic system of Medicine seeds are said to have properties like Sheeta (cooling), Mootrala (Diuretic) and Vrshya (Aphrodisiac). The present paper deals with macro and microscopical studies, maceration, histochemical tests, solubility, physical contents, extractive values, tests for inorganic and organic constituents, U.V. and thin layer chromatographic studies. PMID:22557025

  6. Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil from Angelica koreana Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Junghyun; Shin, Seungwon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Angelica koreana. Methods. Essential oil was obtained from the dried roots of A. koreana by steam distillation, and its composition was identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the oil fraction and its main components were determined by broth dilution assay using common pathogenic Aspergillus and Trichophyton species. The combined effects of the oils with itraconazole were evaluated using a checkerboard titer test. In addition, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, nitrite inhibition, and reducing power were determined to assess the antioxidant activity of this oil. Results. The essential oil fraction and its main components showed inhibitory activity against all of the tested fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 250–1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, this oil exhibited synergism when combined with itraconazole. Conclusion. In the treatment of infections caused by Aspergillus and Trichophyton species, combining itraconazole with either A. koreana essential oil or its main components may reduce the minimum effective dose of itraconazole required and, thus, minimize its side effects. In addition, this oil is a promising source of natural antioxidant agents. PMID:25197308

  7. Combining ability analysis in complete diallel cross of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai).

    PubMed

    Bahari, M; Rafii, M Y; Saleh, G B; Latif, M A

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were carried out in two research stations (MARDI Bukit Tangga, Kedah, and MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang) in Malaysia. The crossings were performed using the four inbred lines in complete diallel cross including selfs and reciprocals. We evaluated the yield components and fruit characters such as fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to fruit maturity, fruit weight, total soluble solid content, and rind thickness over a period of two planting seasons. General combining ability and its interaction with locations were statistically significant for all characteristics except number of fruits per plant across the environments. Results indicated that the additive genetic effects were important to the inheritance of these traits and the expression of additive genes was influenced greatly by environments. In addition, specific combining ability effect was statistically evident for fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to first female flower, and fruit weight. Most of the characters are simultaneously controlled by additive and nonadditive gene effects. This study demonstrated that the highest potential and promising among the crosses was cross P2 (BL-14) × P3 (6372-4), which possessed prolific plants, with early maturity, medium fruit weight and high soluble solid contents. Therefore this hybrid might be utilized for developing high yielding watermelon cultivars and may be recommended for commercial cultivation.

  8. Pear Skin Stain Caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola on Niitaka Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Oh, Soh-Young; Yoon, Deok-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Pear skin stains on ‘Niitaka’ pears, which occur from the growing stage to the cold storage stage, reportedly negatively influence the marketing of pears. These stains on fruit skin are likely due to a pathogenic fungus that resides on the skin and is characterized by dark stains; however, the mycelium of this fungus does not penetrate into the sarcocarp and is only present on the cuticle layer of fruit skin. A pathogenic fungus was isolated from the skin lesions of infected fruits, and its pathogenicity was subsequently tested. According to the pathogenicity test, Mycosphaerella sp. was strongly pathogenic, while Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. showed modest pathogenicity. In this present study, we isolated the pathogenic fungus responsible for the symptoms of pears (i.e., dark brown-colored specks) and identified it as Mycosphaerella graminicola based on its morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. M. graminicola was pathogenic to the skin of ‘Niitaka’ pears, which are one of the most widely growing varieties of pears in South Korea. PMID:25289008

  9. Pear Skin Stain Caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola on Niitaka Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Oh, Soh-Young; Yoon, Deok-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Pear skin stains on 'Niitaka' pears, which occur from the growing stage to the cold storage stage, reportedly negatively influence the marketing of pears. These stains on fruit skin are likely due to a pathogenic fungus that resides on the skin and is characterized by dark stains; however, the mycelium of this fungus does not penetrate into the sarcocarp and is only present on the cuticle layer of fruit skin. A pathogenic fungus was isolated from the skin lesions of infected fruits, and its pathogenicity was subsequently tested. According to the pathogenicity test, Mycosphaerella sp. was strongly pathogenic, while Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. showed modest pathogenicity. In this present study, we isolated the pathogenic fungus responsible for the symptoms of pears (i.e., dark brown-colored specks) and identified it as Mycosphaerella graminicola based on its morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. M. graminicola was pathogenic to the skin of 'Niitaka' pears, which are one of the most widely growing varieties of pears in South Korea.

  10. Effect of the successive steps of a cryopreservation protocol on the structural integrity of Rubia akane Nakai hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Salma, Mohammad; Engelmann-Sylvestre, Isabelle; Collin, Myriam; Escoute, Jacques; Lartaud, Marc; Yi, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Haeng-Hoon; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Engelmann, Florent

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we studied the impact of the successive steps of the droplet-vitrification protocol technique employed for cryopreservation of Rubia akane hairy roots on the features of cortical, pericycle and endoderm cells of apical and central root segments, using histology techniques and combining qualitative and quantitative observations. In apical segments, plasmolysis (22-71 %, depending on cell type) was observed only after the loading treatment and did not increase after the following steps of the protocol. By contrast, in central segments, plasmolysis (39-45 %) was already observed after the sucrose pretreatment; it increased to 54-68 %, depending on cell type, after the loading treatment, but no further changes were noted after treatment with the vitrification solution. After liquid nitrogen exposure and unloading treatment, deplasmolysis was more rapid in apical segments, with cortical and pericycle cells having retrieved their original features. In central segments, only cortical cells had retrieved their original features and endoderm and pericycle cells were still highly plasmolysed. Nuclei were more strongly impacted by the cryopreservation protocol in central segments, where they displayed a highly condensed nucleoplasm from the loading treatment onwards and had not retrieved their original aspect after the unloading treatment. By contrast, nuclei had a much less condensed nucleoplasm in cells of apical segments, and they had retrieved their original aspect after the unloading treatment.

  11. Effect of the successive steps of a cryopreservation protocol on the structural integrity of Rubia akane Nakai hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Salma, Mohammad; Engelmann-Sylvestre, Isabelle; Collin, Myriam; Escoute, Jacques; Lartaud, Marc; Yi, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Haeng-Hoon; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Engelmann, Florent

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we studied the impact of the successive steps of the droplet-vitrification protocol technique employed for cryopreservation of Rubia akane hairy roots on the features of cortical, pericycle and endoderm cells of apical and central root segments, using histology techniques and combining qualitative and quantitative observations. In apical segments, plasmolysis (22-71 %, depending on cell type) was observed only after the loading treatment and did not increase after the following steps of the protocol. By contrast, in central segments, plasmolysis (39-45 %) was already observed after the sucrose pretreatment; it increased to 54-68 %, depending on cell type, after the loading treatment, but no further changes were noted after treatment with the vitrification solution. After liquid nitrogen exposure and unloading treatment, deplasmolysis was more rapid in apical segments, with cortical and pericycle cells having retrieved their original features. In central segments, only cortical cells had retrieved their original features and endoderm and pericycle cells were still highly plasmolysed. Nuclei were more strongly impacted by the cryopreservation protocol in central segments, where they displayed a highly condensed nucleoplasm from the loading treatment onwards and had not retrieved their original aspect after the unloading treatment. By contrast, nuclei had a much less condensed nucleoplasm in cells of apical segments, and they had retrieved their original aspect after the unloading treatment. PMID:24150426

  12. Development of a droplet-vitrification protocol for cryopreservation of Rubia akane (Nakai) hairy roots using a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, H H; Popova, E V; Shin, D J; Bae, C H; Baek, H J; Park, S U; Engelmann, F

    2012-01-01

    A systematic approach using a set of 13 treatments was applied to develop a droplet-vitrification protocol for Rubia akane hairy roots, based on their responses to preculture, loading, dehydration and cooling/rewarming steps. The roots were very sensitive to osmotic stress induced by both preculture in liquid sucrose-enriched medium (up to 0.5 M sucrose) and by dehydration with highly concentrated vitrification solutions (VSs). Loading was necessary before dehydration of explants with VS, and the composition of the loading solution (LS) significantly affected their post-cryopreservation regeneration. Due to high sensitivity of roots to both chemical cytotoxicity and osmotic stress produced by VSs, cryoprotection with alternative VSs, i.e. B5-80 percent (40 percent glycerol + 40 percent sucrose, w/v) at room temperature for 15 min or with A3-70 percent (29.2 percent glycerol + 11.7 percent DMSO + 11.7 percent EG + 17.4 percent sucrose, w/v) at 0 degree C for 20 min ensured the highest post-cryopreservation regeneration. However, when using these solutions, endothermic peaks (enthalpies) with -2.9 and -5.8 J per gram fresh weight, respectively, were recorded by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) during the rewarming phase. Droplet-vitrification using foil strips showed higher post-cryopreservation regeneration (86 percent) compared with vitrification in cryovials (59 percent), possibly due to the higher cooling and rewarming rates achieved with droplet-vitrification. The developed protocol was applied to hairy roots of five other species with minor modifications in explant type, the duration of the last subculture before explant excision, and the dehydration duration with VS B5-80 percent.

  13. 49 CFR 1035.1 - Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as “Negotiable” on the front (appendix A to this part); (2) Indicate consignment “to the order of * * * ” on the front (appendix A to this part); and (3) Provide for endorsement on the back portion...

  14. 19 CFR 122.38 - Permit and special license to unlade and lade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.38 Permit and special license... advance electronic cargo information required, respectively, under § 122.48a or 192.14(b)(1)(ii) of this... waived under paragraph (e) of this section. (e) Waiver of bond. To insure prompt and orderly clearance...

  15. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  16. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  17. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  18. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  19. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  20. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... which transits the Panama Canal and no cargo, baggage, or other article shall be laden on a vessel... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at...

  1. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... which transits the Panama Canal and no cargo, baggage, or other article shall be laden on a vessel... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at...

  2. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... which transits the Panama Canal and no cargo, baggage, or other article shall be laden on a vessel... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at...

  3. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... which transits the Panama Canal and no cargo, baggage, or other article shall be laden on a vessel... Federal Register citations affecting § 4.30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in...

  4. 78 FR 7803 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Permit-Special License Unlading-Lading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Register (77 FR 69649) on November 20, 2012, allowing for a 60-day comment period. This notice allows for an additional 30 days for public comments. This process is conducted in accordance with 5 CFR 1320.10... and Rulings, Office of International Trade, 90 K Street NE., 10th Floor, Washington, DC 20229-1177,...

  5. 77 FR 69649 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Permit-Special License Unlading-Lading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...-1177. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information should be directed to Tracey... 9th Street NW., 5th Floor, Washington, DC 20229-1177, at 202-325-0265. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: CBP..., 1455, and 1551. It is provided for 19 CFR 4.10, 4.30, 4.37, 4.39, 4.91, 10.60, 24.16, 122.29,...

  6. 48 CFR 47.303-17 - Contractor-prepaid commercial bills of lading, small package shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... have been acquired f.o.b. origin, to domestic destinations, including DOD air and water terminals, by... of payment when requested by the Government. (e) Shipments and invoices shall not be split to...

  7. 48 CFR 47.303-17 - Contractor-prepaid commercial bills of lading, small package shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... have been acquired f.o.b. origin, to domestic destinations, including DOD air and water terminals, by... of payment when requested by the Government. (e) Shipments and invoices shall not be split to...

  8. 48 CFR 47.303-17 - Contractor-prepaid commercial bills of lading, small package shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... have been acquired f.o.b. origin, to domestic destinations, including DOD air and water terminals, by... of payment when requested by the Government. (e) Shipments and invoices shall not be split to...

  9. 48 CFR 47.303-17 - Contractor-prepaid commercial bills of lading, small package shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... have been acquired f.o.b. origin, to domestic destinations, including DOD air and water terminals, by... of payment when requested by the Government. (e) Shipments and invoices shall not be split to...

  10. 48 CFR 47.303-17 - Contractor-prepaid commercial bills of lading, small package shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... have been acquired f.o.b. origin, to domestic destinations, including DOD air and water terminals, by... of payment when requested by the Government. (e) Shipments and invoices shall not be split to...

  11. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by a carrier to load, unload, transport or otherwise handle cargo. (n)(1) Customs will not issue a... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo... from entry or clearance fees under 19 U.S.C. 288, no passengers, cargo, baggage, or other article...

  12. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the..., exemption or exclusions legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheadings 7102.10, 7102.21, and 7102.31, in accordance with the Clean Diamond Trade Act, will require the proof of...

  13. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the..., exemption or exclusions legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheadings 7102.10, 7102.21, and 7102.31, in accordance with the Clean Diamond Trade Act, will require the proof of...

  14. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the..., exemption or exclusions legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheadings 7102.10, 7102.21, and 7102.31, in accordance with the Clean Diamond Trade Act, will require the proof of...

  15. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects... TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.39 Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading... Act of 1930, port directors may permit narcotic drugs, except smoking opium, in reasonable...

  16. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects... TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.39 Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading... Act of 1930, port directors may permit narcotic drugs, except smoking opium, in reasonable...

  17. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects... TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.39 Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading... Act of 1930, port directors may permit narcotic drugs, except smoking opium, in reasonable...

  18. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects... TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.39 Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading... Act of 1930, port directors may permit narcotic drugs, except smoking opium, in reasonable...

  19. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects... TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.39 Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading... Act of 1930, port directors may permit narcotic drugs, except smoking opium, in reasonable...

  20. 19 CFR 123.8 - Permit or special license to unlade or lade a vessel or vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions... vessel of less than 5 net tons arriving from Canada or Mexico by any route, or from a vehicle, permission... vehicle arriving from or departing for Canada or Mexico by any route at night, on a Sunday or holiday,...

  1. Expression for the granular elastic energy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yimin; Zheng, Hepeng; Peng, Zheng; Fu, Liping; Song, Shixiong; Sun, Qicheng; Mayer, Michael; Liu, Mario

    2012-05-01

    Granular solid hydrodynamics (GSH) is a broad-ranged continual mechanical description of granular media capable of accounting for static stress distributions, yield phenomena, propagation and damping of elastic waves, the critical state, shear band, and fast dense flow. An important input of GSH is an expression for the elastic energy needed to deform the grains. The original expression, though useful and simple, has some drawbacks. Therefore a slightly more complicated expression is proposed here that eliminates three of them: (1) The maximal angle at which an inclined layer of grains remains stable is increased from 26^{∘} to the more realistic value of 30^{∘}. (2) Depending on direction and polarization, transverse elastic waves are known to propagate at slightly different velocities. The old expression neglects these differences, the new one successfully reproduces them. (3) Most importantly, the old expression contains only the Drucker-Prager yield surface. The new one contains in addition those named after Coulomb, Lade-Duncan, and Matsuoka-Nakai-realizing each, and interpolating between them, by shifting a single scalar parameter. PMID:23004747

  2. Effect of heat treatment around the fruit set region on growth and yield of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai].

    PubMed

    Noh, Jaejong; Kim, Jeong Man; Sheikh, Sameena; Lee, So Geun; Lim, Jeong Hyeon; Seong, Moon Ho; Jung, Gi Tai

    2013-10-01

    The present experiment was aimed to study the effect of imposing modulated temperature treatments 14 °C and 18 °C, around the fruiting region of watermelon plants, and to estimate the economic feasibility of the temperature treatments based on energy consumption for heating. Watermelon cultivar 'Sambok-gul' was selected and sown on perlite beds in a plastic house under controlled conditions at Watermelon Farm, Jeongeup-Jeonbuk, longitude 35° 31' 47.51N, 126° 48'48.84E, altitude 37 m during the early spring season (2010-2011). The findings revealed that the temperature treatment at 18 °C caused significant increase in weight (2.0 kg plant(-1)), fruit weight (8.3 kg plant(-1)), soluble solid content (11.5 %), and fruit set rate (96.5 %) at harvest stage. Higher contents of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions were observed in the 1st upper leaf of the fruit set node (79.3 mg L(-1)) and the 1st lower leaf of the fruit set node (12.0 mg L(-1)), respectively at 14 °C. The power consumption and extra costs of the temperature treatment 18 °C were suggested as affordable and in range of a farmer's budget (41.14 USD/22 days). Hence, it was concluded that modulating temperature treatments could be utilized successfully to optimize the temperature range for enhancing the fruit yield and quality in the winter watermelon crops. PMID:24431519

  3. A comparative study on the metabolism of Epimedium koreanum Nakai-prenylated flavonoids in rats by an intestinal enzyme (lactase phlorizin hydrolase) and intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan; Wang, Ying; Gao, Xia; Qu, Ding; Liu, Congyan

    2013-12-24

    The aim of this study was to compare the significance of the intestinal hydrolysis of prenylated flavonoids in Herba Epimedii by an intestinal enzyme and flora. Flavonoids were incubated at 37 °C with rat intestinal enzyme and intestinal flora. HPLC-UV was used to calculate the metabolic rates of the parent drug in the incubation and LC/MS/MS was used to determine the chemical structures of metabolites generated by different flavonoid glycosides. Rates of flavonoid metabolism by rat intestinal enzyme were quicker than those of intestinal flora. The sequence of intestinal flora metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin B>epimedin A>epimedin C>baohuoside I, whereas the order of intestinal enzyme metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin A>epimedin C>epimedin B>baohuoside I. Meanwhile, the LC/MS/MS graphs showed that icariin produced three products, epimedin A/B/C had four and baohuoside I yielded one product in incubations of both intestinal enzyme and flora, which were more than the results of HPLC-UV due to the fact LC/MS/MS has lower detectability and higher sensitivity. Moreover, the outcomes indicated that the rate of metabolization of flavonoids by intestinal enzyme were faster than those of intestinal flora, which was consistent with the HPLC-UV results. In conclusion, the metabolic pathways of the same components by intestinal flora and enzyme were the same. What's more, an intestinal enzyme such as lactase phlorizin hydrolase exhibited a more significant metabolic role in prenylated flavonoids of Herba Epimedi compared with intestinal flora.

  4. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of 18 prenylated flavonoids isolated from medicinal plants: Morus alba L., Morus mongolica Schneider, Broussnetia papyrifera (L.) Vent, Sophora flavescens Ait and Echinosophora koreensis Nakai.

    PubMed

    Sohn, H Y; Son, K H; Kwon, C S; Kwon, G S; Kang, S S

    2004-11-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the 18 prenylated flavonoids, which were purified from five different medicinal plants, was evaluated by determination of MIC using the broth microdilution methods against four bacterial and two fungal microorganisms (Candida albicans, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermis and S. aureus). Papyriflavonol A, kuraridin, sophoraflavanone D and sophoraisoflavanone A exhibited a good antifungal activity with strong antibacterial activity. Kuwanon C, mulberrofuran G, albanol B, kenusanone A and sophoraflavanone G showed strong antibacterial activity with 5-30 microg/ml of MICs. Morusin, sanggenon B and D, kazinol B, kurarinone, kenusanone C and isosophoranone were effective to only gram positive bacteria, and broussochalcone A was effective to C. albicans. IC50 values of papyriflavonol A, kuraridin, sophoraflavanone D, sophoraisoflavanone A and broussochalcone A in HepG2 cells were 20.9, 37.8, 39.1, 22.1, and 22.0 microg/ml, respectively. These results support the use of prenylated flavonoids in Asian traditional medicine to treat microbial infection and indicate a high potential for prenylated flavonoids as antimicrobial agents as well as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:15636183

  5. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-03-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  6. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R.; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-01-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  7. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-03-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon.

  8. 19 CFR 141.16 - Disposition of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.16 Disposition of documents. (a) Bill of lading or air waybill. When the return of the bill of lading or air... bill of lading or air waybill to completely identify it and enable the auditor to verify the...

  9. 49 CFR 1005.2 - Filing of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section, with the receiving or delivering carrier, or carrier issuing the bill of lading, receipt, ticket... the bill of lading or other contract of carriage, and all tariff provisions applicable thereto. (b... specified in the bill of lading or contract of carriage or transportation and: (1) Containing...

  10. 19 CFR 141.16 - Disposition of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.16 Disposition of documents. (a) Bill of lading or air waybill. When the return of the bill of lading or air... bill of lading or air waybill to completely identify it and enable the auditor to verify the...

  11. 49 CFR 1310.4 - Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (i.e., without stating their full text) into the bill of lading or other document embodying the contract of carriage for the transportation of household goods, provided that: (1) The bill of lading or... its bill of lading or by other actual notice to individuals whose shipments are subject to...

  12. 49 CFR 1005.2 - Filing of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section, with the receiving or delivering carrier, or carrier issuing the bill of lading, receipt, ticket... the bill of lading or other contract of carriage, and all tariff provisions applicable thereto. (b... specified in the bill of lading or contract of carriage or transportation and: (1) Containing...

  13. 19 CFR 141.16 - Disposition of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.16 Disposition of documents. (a) Bill of lading or air waybill. When the return of the bill of lading or air... bill of lading or air waybill to completely identify it and enable the auditor to verify the...

  14. 49 CFR 1310.4 - Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (i.e., without stating their full text) into the bill of lading or other document embodying the contract of carriage for the transportation of household goods, provided that: (1) The bill of lading or... its bill of lading or by other actual notice to individuals whose shipments are subject to...

  15. 49 CFR 370.3 - Filing of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bill of lading, receipt, ticket, or baggage check, or carrier on whose line the alleged loss, damage... required by law, the terms of the bill of lading or other contract of carriage, and all tariff provisions... time limits specified in the bill of lading or contract of carriage or transportation and:...

  16. 40 CFR 82.13 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements for class I controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... importer number for the shipment; (ix) A copy of the bill of lading for the import; (x) The invoice for the...; (B) the EPA non-objection notice; (C) the bill of lading for the import; and (D) U.S. Customs entry... reclaimed) must label their bill of lading or invoice indicating that the controlled substance is...

  17. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Delory, G. T.; Hine, Butler P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Horanyi, M.; Colaprete, A.; Benna, M.; Noble, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission was designed to address long-standing scientific questions about the Moon's environment, including the assessment of the composition of the lunar atmosphere, and characterization of the lunar dust environment at low orbital altitudes. LADEE was derived from the Modular Common Spacecraft Bus design that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center; it used modularized subassemblies and existing commercial spaceflight hardware to reduce cost. LADEE was launched on the very first Minotaur V, and was also the first deep space mission launched from Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. LADEE was equipped with two in situ instruments and a remote sensing instrument to address the atmosphere and dust measurement requirements. LADEE also carried the first deep-space optical communications demonstration, the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration. LADEE was launched in early September, 2013, took science data for over 140 days in low lunar orbit, and impacted the surface on April 18, 2014.

  18. 7 CFR 1488.2 - Definition of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of delivery means the on-board date of the ocean bill of lading, or the date of an airway bill, or..., rail car or lash or seabee barge) date of a through bill of lading covering commodities in a container... through bill of lading. Delivery at point of export shall be f.a.s. or f.o.b. export carrier at U.S....

  19. 7 CFR 1488.2 - Definition of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of delivery means the on-board date of the ocean bill of lading, or the date of an airway bill, or..., rail car or lash or seabee barge) date of a through bill of lading covering commodities in a container... through bill of lading. Delivery at point of export shall be f.a.s. or f.o.b. export carrier at U.S....

  20. 46 CFR 502.304 - Procedure and filing fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of affidavits, correspondence, bills of lading, paid freight bills, export declarations, dock or... decision, the Commission exercises its discretionary right to review the decision. The Commission shall...

  1. 49 CFR 172.604 - Emergency response telephone number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hazardous material. For telephone numbers outside the United States, the international access code or the...) Transportation vehicles or freight containers containing lading that has been fumigated and displaying...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.40 - How does my agency order transportation and transportation services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... orders: (a) Transportation of freight and household goods and related transportation services (e.g... equivalent), or a Government bill of lading for international shipments (including domestic...

  3. 41 CFR 102-118.40 - How does my agency order transportation and transportation services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... orders: (a) Transportation of freight and household goods and related transportation services (e.g... equivalent), or a Government bill of lading for international shipments (including domestic...

  4. 41 CFR 102-118.40 - How does my agency order transportation and transportation services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... orders: (a) Transportation of freight and household goods and related transportation services (e.g... equivalent), or a Government bill of lading for international shipments (including domestic...

  5. 7 CFR 20.9 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lading or delivery documents evidencing all such exports and inspection and weight certificates relating thereto. Such records shall be available during regular business hours for inspection and audit...

  6. 49 CFR 179.400-3 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic... piping systems for vapor venting and transfer of lading, and with pressure relief devices,...

  7. 48 CFR 1846.672-3 - Multiple consignee instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving Reports... shipping instructions; and (5) If applicable, bill of lading number and mode of shipment code....

  8. 48 CFR 1846.672-3 - Multiple consignee instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving Reports... shipping instructions; and (5) If applicable, bill of lading number and mode of shipment code....

  9. 48 CFR 1846.672-3 - Multiple consignee instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving Reports... shipping instructions; and (5) If applicable, bill of lading number and mode of shipment code....

  10. 41 CFR 102-118.245 - How does my agency get an assigned set of GBL or GTR numbers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) §...

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.245 - How does my agency get an assigned set of GBL or GTR numbers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) §...

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.250 - Who is accountable for the issuance and use of GBL and GTR forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) §...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.250 - Who is accountable for the issuance and use of GBL and GTR forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) §...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.245 - How does my agency get an assigned set of GBL or GTR numbers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) §...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.250 - Who is accountable for the issuance and use of GBL and GTR forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) §...

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.245 - How does my agency get an assigned set of GBL or GTR numbers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) §...

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.250 - Who is accountable for the issuance and use of GBL and GTR forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) §...

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.250 - Who is accountable for the issuance and use of GBL and GTR forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) §...

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.245 - How does my agency get an assigned set of GBL or GTR numbers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) §...

  20. 19 CFR 191.52 - Rejecting, perfecting or amending claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... include, but is not limited to: (1) The export bill of lading or other actual evidence of exportation, as... shipped which shall be attached to such bill of lading, showing that the party filing the entry is... Customs upon request, the endorsement from the exporter assigning the right to claim drawback); (2) A...

  1. 19 CFR 141.14 - Deceased or insolvent consignees and court-appointed administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make... act for a consignee shall not be permitted to make entry unless he produces a duly endorsed bill of lading or air waybill, a carrier's certificate, or a duplicate bill of lading or air waybill, executed...

  2. 19 CFR 191.52 - Rejecting, perfecting or amending claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... include, but is not limited to: (1) The export bill of lading or other actual evidence of exportation, as... shipped which shall be attached to such bill of lading, showing that the party filing the entry is... Customs upon request, the endorsement from the exporter assigning the right to claim drawback); (2) A...

  3. 19 CFR 141.14 - Deceased or insolvent consignees and court-appointed administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make... act for a consignee shall not be permitted to make entry unless he produces a duly endorsed bill of lading or air waybill, a carrier's certificate, or a duplicate bill of lading or air waybill, executed...

  4. 19 CFR 141.14 - Deceased or insolvent consignees and court-appointed administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make... act for a consignee shall not be permitted to make entry unless he produces a duly endorsed bill of lading or air waybill, a carrier's certificate, or a duplicate bill of lading or air waybill, executed...

  5. 48 CFR 847.303-1 - F.o.b. origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... within this category must be shipped on a bill of lading, except as provided in 41 CFR 102-118.40. Contracting officers must comply with 41 CFR Parts 102-117 and 102-118. Contact the Traffic Manager for... domestic use or Government Bill of Lading for international shipments and domestic off-shore shipments)...

  6. 48 CFR 847.303-1 - F.o.b. origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... within this category must be shipped on a bill of lading, except as provided in 41 CFR 102-118.40. Contracting officers must comply with 41 CFR Parts 102-117 and 102-118. Contact the Traffic Manager for... domestic use or Government Bill of Lading for international shipments and domestic off-shore shipments)...

  7. 19 CFR 4.7a - Inward manifest; information required; alternative forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is used. (iii) All bills of lading, whether issued by a carrier, freight forwarder, or other issuer... the National Motor Freight Traffic Association, Inc., Directory of Standard Multi-Modal Carrier and... used by the carrier, freight forwarder or issuer for another bill of lading for a period of 3...

  8. 48 CFR 847.303-1 - F.o.b. origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... within this category must be shipped on a bill of lading, except as provided in 41 CFR 102-118.40. Contracting officers must comply with 41 CFR Parts 102-117 and 102-118. Contact the Traffic Manager for... domestic use or Government Bill of Lading for international shipments and domestic off-shore shipments)...

  9. 19 CFR 181.47 - Completion of claim for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... laws and regulations of the United States, evidence of exportation to Canada or Mexico, and... Mexico, as provided in paragraph (c) of this section; (E) Waiver of right to drawback. If the person... shall include a bill of lading, air waybill, freight waybill, export ocean bill of lading,...

  10. 75 FR 1619 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... of Policy Proceeds EIB 99-17. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank), as a... Policy Proceeds EIB 92-53. Section C.2. (c) Change: ] A bill of lading identifying the Insured and the Buyer and evidencing the export of the products shipped; and To: A bill of lading (or other...

  11. 40 CFR 82.24 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements for class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in the United States; (ix) The name, address, contact person, phone number and fax number of the U.S... for the shipment; (x) A copy of the bill of lading for the import; (xi) The invoice for the import...; (C) The bill of lading for the import; and (D) U.S. Customs entry documents for the import that...

  12. 19 CFR 181.47 - Completion of claim for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... laws and regulations of the United States, evidence of exportation to Canada or Mexico, and... Mexico, as provided in paragraph (c) of this section; (E) Waiver of right to drawback. If the person... shall include a bill of lading, air waybill, freight waybill, export ocean bill of lading,...

  13. 19 CFR 141.53 - Procedure for separate entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Subchapter XIII, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202). (d) When separate entries are made for merchandise covered by a single bill of lading or air waybill, the provisions of § 141.54 shall be complied with, except that the endorsement on the bill of lading or air waybill required...

  14. 19 CFR 181.47 - Completion of claim for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... laws and regulations of the United States, evidence of exportation to Canada or Mexico, and... Mexico, as provided in paragraph (c) of this section; (E) Waiver of right to drawback. If the person... shall include a bill of lading, air waybill, freight waybill, export ocean bill of lading,...

  15. 40 CFR 82.24 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements for class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in the United States; (ix) The name, address, contact person, phone number and fax number of the U.S... for the shipment; (x) A copy of the bill of lading for the import; (xi) The invoice for the import...; (C) The bill of lading for the import; and (D) U.S. Customs entry documents for the import that...

  16. 19 CFR 141.53 - Procedure for separate entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Subchapter XIII, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202). (d) When separate entries are made for merchandise covered by a single bill of lading or air waybill, the provisions of § 141.54 shall be complied with, except that the endorsement on the bill of lading or air waybill required...

  17. 19 CFR 181.47 - Completion of claim for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... laws and regulations of the United States, evidence of exportation to Canada or Mexico, and... Mexico, as provided in paragraph (c) of this section; (E) Waiver of right to drawback. If the person... shall include a bill of lading, air waybill, freight waybill, export ocean bill of lading,...

  18. 19 CFR 141.53 - Procedure for separate entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Subchapter XIII, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202). (d) When separate entries are made for merchandise covered by a single bill of lading or air waybill, the provisions of § 141.54 shall be complied with, except that the endorsement on the bill of lading or air waybill required...

  19. 19 CFR 141.53 - Procedure for separate entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Subchapter XIII, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202). (d) When separate entries are made for merchandise covered by a single bill of lading or air waybill, the provisions of § 141.54 shall be complied with, except that the endorsement on the bill of lading or air waybill required...

  20. 26 CFR 1.993-3 - Definition of export property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon copy of the certificate of lading for the property executed by a customs officer of the country to which the property is delivered, (d) If such country has no customs administration, a written statement... (e) or a document such as an export bill of lading such document still indicates the country in...

  1. 26 CFR 1.927(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of export property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon copy of the certificate of lading for the property executed by a customs officer of the country to which the property is delivered, (D) If that country has no customs administration, a written statement... bill of lading, such document still indicates the country in which delivery to the ultimate...

  2. 49 CFR 177.839 - Class 8 (corrosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... above any packaging containing any other kind of material. (b) Storage batteries. All storage batteries containing any electrolyte must be so loaded, if loaded with other lading, that all such batteries will be protected against other lading falling onto or against them, and adequate means must be provided in...

  3. 49 CFR 177.839 - Class 8 (corrosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... above any packaging containing any other kind of material. (b) Storage batteries. All storage batteries containing any electrolyte must be so loaded, if loaded with other lading, that all such batteries will be protected against other lading falling onto or against them, and adequate means must be provided in...

  4. 26 CFR 48.4101-1 - Taxable fuel; registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in § 48.4081-6(f)(1)(iii); and (ii) The total number of gallons of gasoline expected to be bought at... shipping papers, bills of lading, and similar documents that are provided by the terminal operator to... diesel fuel or kerosene at each terminal it operates: (A) The bill of lading or other shipping...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4101-1 - Taxable fuel; registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in § 48.4081-6(f)(1)(iii); and (ii) The total number of gallons of gasoline expected to be bought at... shipping papers, bills of lading, and similar documents that are provided by the terminal operator to... diesel fuel or kerosene at each terminal it operates: (A) The bill of lading or other shipping...

  6. 7 CFR 20.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. (b) Buy-back contract. A transaction under... applicable export carrier onboard bill of lading or the date the commodity is received for shipment, as specified on the bill of lading, in the case of a commodity received for shipment in a lash barge...

  7. 7 CFR 20.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. (b) Buy-back contract. A transaction under... applicable export carrier onboard bill of lading or the date the commodity is received for shipment, as specified on the bill of lading, in the case of a commodity received for shipment in a lash barge...

  8. 7 CFR 20.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. (b) Buy-back contract. A transaction under... of the applicable export carrier onboard bill of lading or the date the commodity is received for shipment, as specified on the bill of lading, in the case of a commodity received for shipment in a...

  9. 7 CFR 20.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. (b) Buy-back contract. A transaction under... applicable export carrier onboard bill of lading or the date the commodity is received for shipment, as specified on the bill of lading, in the case of a commodity received for shipment in a lash barge...

  10. 19 CFR 191.112 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... complete the section “Declaration of Master or Other Officer” on Customs Form 7514. (k) Desire to land articles covered by notice of lading. The master of the vessel or commander of the aircraft desiring to... each notice of lading and return one copy to the exporter for delivery to the master or...

  11. 49 CFR 173.24b - Additional general requirements for bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... test specimen. (c) Air pressure in excess of ambient atmospheric pressure may not be used to load or unload any lading which may create an air-enriched mixture within the flammability range of the lading in... subchapter) or a pressure vessel design code approved by the Associate Administrator; (iv) Be approved by...

  12. 49 CFR 173.24b - Additional general requirements for bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... test specimen. (c) Air pressure in excess of ambient atmospheric pressure may not be used to load or unload any lading which may create an air-enriched mixture within the flammability range of the lading in... subchapter) or a pressure vessel design code approved by the Associate Administrator; (iv) Be approved by...

  13. 49 CFR 173.24b - Additional general requirements for bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... test specimen. (c) Air pressure in excess of ambient atmospheric pressure may not be used to load or unload any lading which may create an air-enriched mixture within the flammability range of the lading in... subchapter) or a pressure vessel design code approved by the Associate Administrator; (iv) Be approved by...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.205 - May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118... bill of lading will list the TSP with whom the Government has a contract....

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.205 - May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118... bill of lading will list the TSP with whom the Government has a contract....

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.205 - May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118... bill of lading will list the TSP with whom the Government has a contract....

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.205 - May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118... bill of lading will list the TSP with whom the Government has a contract....

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.205 - May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118... bill of lading will list the TSP with whom the Government has a contract....

  19. 49 CFR 178.345-8 - Accident damage protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... distribution of loads to the cargo tank wall and to minimize the possibility of adversely affecting the lading... impact must be considered as being uniformly applied in the horizontal plane at an angle of 10 degrees...

  20. 19 CFR 181.48 - Person entitled to receive drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... named as exporter on the notice of exportation or on the bill of lading, air waybill, freight waybill... reserve the right to claim drawback. The manufacturer or producer who reserves this right may claim... right to claim drawback....

  1. 19 CFR 181.48 - Person entitled to receive drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... named as exporter on the notice of exportation or on the bill of lading, air waybill, freight waybill... reserve the right to claim drawback. The manufacturer or producer who reserves this right may claim... right to claim drawback....

  2. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exported; (viii) A copy of the bill of lading and the invoice indicating the net quantity (in kilograms) of... quantity of unexpended consumption rights; (F) The control period(s) to which the trade applies; and...

  3. 22 CFR 201.44 - Vesting in USAID of title to commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... compliance with the provisions or purposes of any act of Congress. (1) Rights of USAID upon vesting of title... such negotiable bills of lading, suppliers' invoices, packing lists, inspection certificates or...

  4. 48 CFR 52.246-14 - Inspection of Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provided under bills of lading or to those negotiated for reduced rates under 49 U.S.C. 10721 or 13712. (See part 47, Transportation.) Inspection of Transportation (APR 1984) The Government has the right...

  5. 19 CFR 181.48 - Person entitled to receive drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... named as exporter on the notice of exportation or on the bill of lading, air waybill, freight waybill... reserve the right to claim drawback. The manufacturer or producer who reserves this right may claim... right to claim drawback....

  6. 49 CFR 371.3 - Records to be kept by brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... originating motor carrier; (3) The bill of lading or freight bill number; (4) The amount of compensation... by this section for a period of three years. (c) Each party to a brokered transaction has the...

  7. 19 CFR 10.153 - Conditions for exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., bill of lading, or other shipping document. (e) No alcoholic beverage, perfume containing alcohol... the shipment does not exceed $5), cigars, or cigarettes shall be exempted from the payment of duty...

  8. 49 CFR 179.201-9 - Gauging device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tank, it must be equipped with an excess flow valve of an approved design. If the opening for passage of lading through the gauging device is not more than 0.060 inch diameter an excess flow valve is...

  9. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with... temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks...

  10. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with... temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks...

  11. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with... temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks...

  12. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with... temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks...

  13. The Dust Environment of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.; Szalay, J.; Gruen, E.; Glenar, D.; Wang, X.; Zakharov, A.

    2016-05-01

    We will briefly review the history of the observations of the lunar dust environment, but mainly focus on the results of the LADEE mission, and the recent laboratory results on the charging and mobilization of dust particles on regolith surfaces.

  14. 32 CFR 552.109 - Routine security controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Center/Civilian Personnel Office will be issued at the Madigan and Logistics Center gates respectively... displays a bill of lading or other official documentation demonstrating a legitimate need to enter...

  15. 27 CFR 17.170 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... support thereof, all commercial invoices or other documents evidencing taxpayment or tax-determination of domestic spirits, all documents evidencing taxpayment of imported spirits, and all bills of lading...

  16. 48 CFR 1846.672-2 - Consolidated shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving Reports 1846.672-2... transportation consolidation to a single destination on a single bill of lading, the applicable DD Forms 250...

  17. 48 CFR 552.211-77 - Packing List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requisition number; (4) Government bill of lading number covering the shipment (if any); and (5) Description of the material shipped, including item number, quantity, number of containers, and package...

  18. 46 CFR 515.11 - Basic requirements for licensing; eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) An NVOCC with a tariff and proof of financial responsibility in effect as of April 30, 1999, may... moving on other than such carrier's own bills of lading subject to the provisions of § 515.42(g)....

  19. 49 CFR 178.345-2 - Material and material thickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by 49 CFR part 173 for a particular lading, a cargo tank or a part thereof, subject to thinning by... or seam in the lining must be made by fusing the materials together, or by other satisfactory means....

  20. 32 CFR 552.109 - Routine security controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Center/Civilian Personnel Office will be issued at the Madigan and Logistics Center gates respectively... displays a bill of lading or other official documentation demonstrating a legitimate need to enter...

  1. 49 CFR 179.400-25 - Stenciling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... design service temperature and maximum lading weight, in letters and figures at least 11/2 inches high... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  2. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... causing any adverse chemical reaction with the cargo tank lading in the event of leakage. The unit... affecting § 178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section...

  3. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... causing any adverse chemical reaction with the cargo tank lading in the event of leakage. The unit... affecting § 178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section...

  4. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... causing any adverse chemical reaction with the cargo tank lading in the event of leakage. The unit... affecting § 178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section...

  5. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must not be capable of causing any adverse chemical reaction with the cargo tank lading in the event of... citations affecting § 178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding...

  6. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... causing any adverse chemical reaction with the cargo tank lading in the event of leakage. The unit... affecting § 178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section...

  7. 49 CFR 178.815 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recorded as zero deformation. The force “A” then to be applied must be calculated using the applicable... container in pounds. s = specific gravity (liquids) or density (solids) of the lading. v = actual...

  8. 26 CFR 48.0-2 - General definitions and attachment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as a manufacturer. Whether the person who buys such component parts and assembles a taxable article... bill of lading. (10) The term exportation means the severance of an article from the mass of...

  9. 41 CFR 102-118.215 - May my agency pay a TSP any extra fees to pay for the preparation and use of the GBL or GTR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl... higher rate than comparable under commercial procedures for transportation bought on a GBL or GTR....

  10. 41 CFR 102-118.130 - Must my agency use a GBL for express, courier, or small package shipments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forth for use of a bill of lading for the Government. Any other non-conflicting applicable contracts or agreements between the TSP and an agency involving buying transportation services for Government...

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.130 - Must my agency use a GBL for express, courier, or small package shipments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forth for use of a bill of lading for the Government. Any other non-conflicting applicable contracts or agreements between the TSP and an agency involving buying transportation services for Government...

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.130 - Must my agency use a GBL for express, courier, or small package shipments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... forth for use of a bill of lading for the Government. Any other non-conflicting applicable contracts or agreements between the TSP and an agency involving buying transportation services for Government...

  13. 26 CFR 48.0-2 - General definitions and attachment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as a manufacturer. Whether the person who buys such component parts and assembles a taxable article... bill of lading. (10) The term exportation means the severance of an article from the mass of...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shipments bought on a TD, the TSP must submit an original properly certified GBL, PPGBL, or bill of lading... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shipments bought on a TD, the TSP must submit an original properly certified GBL, PPGBL, or bill of lading... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of...

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.130 - Must my agency use a GBL for express, courier, or small package shipments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forth for use of a bill of lading for the Government. Any other non-conflicting applicable contracts or agreements between the TSP and an agency involving buying transportation services for Government...

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shipments bought on a TD, the TSP must submit an original properly certified GBL, PPGBL, or bill of lading... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of...

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.215 - May my agency pay a TSP any extra fees to pay for the preparation and use of the GBL or GTR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl... higher rate than comparable under commercial procedures for transportation bought on a GBL or GTR....

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shipments bought on a TD, the TSP must submit an original properly certified GBL, PPGBL, or bill of lading... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of...

  20. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shipments bought on a TD, the TSP must submit an original properly certified GBL, PPGBL, or bill of lading... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of...

  1. 26 CFR 48.0-2 - General definitions and attachment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as a manufacturer. Whether the person who buys such component parts and assembles a taxable article... bill of lading. (10) The term exportation means the severance of an article from the mass of...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.215 - May my agency pay a TSP any extra fees to pay for the preparation and use of the GBL or GTR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl... higher rate than comparable under commercial procedures for transportation bought on a GBL or GTR....

  3. 41 CFR 102-118.215 - May my agency pay a TSP any extra fees to pay for the preparation and use of the GBL or GTR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl... higher rate than comparable under commercial procedures for transportation bought on a GBL or GTR....

  4. 41 CFR 102-118.215 - May my agency pay a TSP any extra fees to pay for the preparation and use of the GBL or GTR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl... higher rate than comparable under commercial procedures for transportation bought on a GBL or GTR....

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.130 - Must my agency use a GBL for express, courier, or small package shipments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forth for use of a bill of lading for the Government. Any other non-conflicting applicable contracts or agreements between the TSP and an agency involving buying transportation services for Government...

  6. 49 CFR 1310.4 - Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (i.e., without stating their full text) into the bill of lading or other document embodying the... tariffs; and the carrier must make the full text of incorporated terms readily available for inspection...

  7. 32 CFR 552.109 - Routine security controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Center/Civilian Personnel Office will be issued at the Madigan and Logistics Center gates respectively... displays a bill of lading or other official documentation demonstrating a legitimate need to enter...

  8. 32 CFR 552.109 - Routine security controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Center/Civilian Personnel Office will be issued at the Madigan and Logistics Center gates respectively... displays a bill of lading or other official documentation demonstrating a legitimate need to enter...

  9. 32 CFR 552.109 - Routine security controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Center/Civilian Personnel Office will be issued at the Madigan and Logistics Center gates respectively... displays a bill of lading or other official documentation demonstrating a legitimate need to enter...

  10. 46 CFR 535.306 - Nonexclusive transshipment agreements-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... description of the service offered as being by means of transshipment, the port of transshipment and the... of bills of lading (and the assumption of common carriage-associated liabilities) to the...

  11. 46 CFR 535.306 - Nonexclusive transshipment agreements-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... description of the service offered as being by means of transshipment, the port of transshipment and the... of bills of lading (and the assumption of common carriage-associated liabilities) to the...

  12. 41 CFR 109-40.306-2 - Required shipping documents and annotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (name and telephone number). See 332 ICC 161. (c) To ensure proper application of a Government rate... 10721 tender, ABC Transportation Company, ICC No. 374.” In addition, if commercial bills of lading...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.255 - Are GBL and GTR forms numbered and used sequentially?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) § 102-118.255...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.240 - How does my agency get GBL and GTR forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) § 102-118.240 How does...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.255 - Are GBL and GTR forms numbered and used sequentially?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) § 102-118.255...

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.220 - If a transportation debt is owed to my agency by a TSP because of loss or damage to property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) §...

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.255 - Are GBL and GTR forms numbered and used sequentially?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) § 102-118.255...

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.240 - How does my agency get GBL and GTR forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) § 102-118.240 How does...

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.220 - If a transportation debt is owed to my agency by a TSP because of loss or damage to property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) §...

  20. 41 CFR 102-118.255 - Are GBL and GTR forms numbered and used sequentially?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) § 102-118.255...

  1. 41 CFR 102-118.240 - How does my agency get GBL and GTR forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) § 102-118.240 How does...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.220 - If a transportation debt is owed to my agency by a TSP because of loss or damage to property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) §...

  3. 41 CFR 102-118.255 - Are GBL and GTR forms numbered and used sequentially?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) § 102-118.255...

  4. 41 CFR 102-118.220 - If a transportation debt is owed to my agency by a TSP because of loss or damage to property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) §...

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.240 - How does my agency get GBL and GTR forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Agency Responsibilities When Using Government Bills of Lading (gbls) Or Government Transportation Requests (gtrs) § 102-118.240 How does...

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.220 - If a transportation debt is owed to my agency by a TSP because of loss or damage to property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) §...

  7. 46 CFR 98.25-90 - Special operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous... to transport lading other than anhydrous ammonia in the cargo tanks. (d) Sufficient hose...

  8. Observations on anatomical aspects of the fruit, leaf and stem tissues of four Citrullus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphological characteristics of the fruit, stem and leaf tissues of four species of Citrullus (L.) Schrad. were examined using standard histological methods. Plant materials included the cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and three of its related species; C. colocynthis (...

  9. Sequence-characterized amplified polymorphism markers for selecting rind stripe pattern in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inheritance of foreground stripe pattern in rind of watermelon fruits [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] was evaluated and the molecular markers for selecting the JT stripe pattern were developed based on bulked segregant analysis (BSA). Divergence in rind pattern among F2 progeny deri...

  10. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  11. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultigens tested in two environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon producers face increasing production costs and international market competition. Maximizing marketability of high quality watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai], that also contain high levels of the amino acid phytonutrient L-citrulline, can provide new market niches for th...

  12. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  13. Notes on Citrullius spp. and Acanthosicyos naudinianus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. lanatus subsp. mu...

  14. Turkmenistan Melon (Cucumis melo), and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Germplasm Expedition 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkmenistan has a rich tradition of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) production, but like in many countries land races and old varieties are in danger of genetic erosion. In July-August 2008, a collaborative Turkmenistan–United States germplasm exp...

  15. USVL-370, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-370’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] containing resistance to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated wit...

  16. Phytophthora fruit rot-resistant watermelon germplasm lines: USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR, and USVL020-PFR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR, and USVL020-PFR are watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) germplasm lines that exhibit high levels of resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici. Resistance in these germplasm lines is ...

  17. Notes on Citrullus spp. And Acanthosicyos naudinianus-pollen morphology and interspecific hybridization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. mucosospermus (Fu...

  18. A survey of bee species found pollinating watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives were in any of the fie...

  19. Sweeping Hearts: Writing Poems Inspired by Native American Music and Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    States that having students write poems while listening to a cassette tape of "Earth Spirit" by R. Carlos Nakai has been a remarkably successful exercise with students in grades 2-12. Discusses exercises in which the author reads three poems while the tape plays, and the students then write poems of their own. (PA)

  20. The Bukkyo University and University of Hawai'i College of Education Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Hunter; Goto, Sunao; Horike, Yukiyo

    2010-01-01

    For the past ten years, the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa (UHM-COE) and Bukkyo University in Kyoto, Japan have enjoyed a special relationship designed to promote cooperation and academic exchanges between the two institutions. The agreement of cooperation was signed on June 5, 2000 by President Shinko Nakai of Bukkyo…

  1. Protein expression patterns in two Spiraea species in response to cold treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-M; Fang, L; Che, Y-S; Wu, F-Z; Yang, C-P

    2014-07-01

    We analyzed the different cold-resistance species Spiraea trichocarpa Nakai and Spiraea bumalda 'Goldmound' for low-temperature protein expression, protein types identification, and investigated the cold resistance mechanisms under different levels of low temperature by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. An average of 668 and 559 protein spots were detected by 2-DE of S. bumalda 'Goldmound' and S. trichocarpa Nakai, respectively, under different low-temperature treatments. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy identified 48 proteins, with varying expression, related to metabolism, amino acid synthesis, transportation, stress responses and oxidation-reduction reactions. The results showed that the photosynthesis of S. bumalda 'Goldmound' had been affected, enzymes (RuBisCO large and small subunits) involved in the Calvin cycle were up- and down-regulated, and ATP synthase in photophosphorylation was down-regulated. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase expression weakened in the TCA cycle, while amino acid synthesis strengthened. The activity of four antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], L-ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and peroxidase) was reduced under varying low temperatures. Enzymes (ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase and RuBisCO small chain precursor) involved in the photosynthesis of S. trichocarpa Nakai showed obvious up- and down-regulation under low temperatures. Cold treatment influenced the photosynthesis of S. trichocarpa Nakai and S. bumalda 'Goldmound', but the results showed significant differences between the two species, which were supposed to the fact that low temperature modified the metabolic mechanisms and led to the weaker cold resistance in S. bumalda 'Goldmound' than in S. trichocarpa Nakai.

  2. Synodic and semiannual oscillations of argon-40 in the lunar exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, R. Richard; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft collected a trove of exospheric data, including a set of high-quality measurements of radiogenic 40Ar over a period of 142 days. Data synthesis studies, using well-established exosphere simulation tools, show that the LADEE argon data are consistent with an exosphere-regolith interaction that is dominated by adsorption and that the desorption process generates the Armand distribution of exit velocities. The synthesis work has uncovered an apparent semiannual oscillation of argon that is consistent with temporal sequestration in the seasonal cold traps created at the poles by the obliquity of the Moon. In addition, the LADEE data provide new insight into the pristine nature of lunar regolith, its spatially varying sorption properties, and the influence of sorption processes on the synodic oscillation of the argon exosphere.

  3. Design and Development of an Equipotential Voltage Reference (Grounding) System for a Low-Cost Rapid-Development Modular Spacecraft Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukash, James A.; Daley, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and development effort to adapt rapid-development space hardware by creating a ground system using solutions of low complexity, mass, & cost. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is based on the modular common spacecraft bus architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The challenge was building upon the existing modular common bus design and development work and improving the LADEE spacecraft design by adding an Equipotential Voltage Reference (EVeR) system, commonly referred to as a ground system. This would aid LADEE in meeting Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) requirements, thereby making the spacecraft more compatible with itself and its space environment. The methods used to adapt existing hardware are presented, including provisions which may be used on future spacecraft.

  4. Trajectory Design for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Loucks, Michel E.; Yang, Fan Yang; Lee, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The presented trajectory design and analysis was performed for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment (PADME) mission concept as part of a NASA proposal submission managed by NASA Ames Research Center in the 2014-2015 timeframe. The PADME spacecraft would be a derivative of the successfully flown Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. While LADEE was designed to enter low-lunar orbit, the PADME spacecraft would instead enter an elliptical Mars orbit of 2-week period. This Mars orbit would pass by Phobos near periapsis on successive orbits and then raise periapsis to yield close approaches of Deimos every orbit thereafter.

  5. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1-40amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE,LRO, etc.).

  6. Anticomplement activity of various solvent extracts from Korea local Artemisia spp.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In; Jung, Seil; Lee, Young-Choon; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-02-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of eight Artemisia plants (Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Artemisia fukudo Makino., Artemisia japonica Thunb., Artemisia montana (Nakai) Pamp., Artemisia keiskeana Miq., Artemisia rubripes Nakai., Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Kom., and Artemisia sylvatica Max.) from South Korea on the classical pathway (CP). We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from eight Artemisia plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the CP. A. rubripes and A. montana chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀) values of 54.3 and 64.2 μg/mL. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Artemisia plants.

  7. Crystal structure of (4-aminopyridine)bis-1, 10-phenanthroline copper(II) hexaflourophosphate acetone adduct, [Cu(C[sub 5]H[sub 6]N[sub 2])(C[sub 12]H[sub 8]N[sub 2])[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jeter, D.Y.; Castell, W.J. Jr. ); Condren, S.M.; Hobson, A.M.; Stiles, T.E. ); Cordes, A.W. )

    1993-03-01

    Numerous examples of five coordination of Cu(II) are known and have been reviewed by O'Brien (1984) and Hathaway (1982, 1983). The ability of the bis (1, 10-phenanthroline) copper (II) cation to add an additional ligand to make a five coordinate species is well documented. Structures previously reported for Cu(phen)[sub 2] X cations include complexes in which X is a small molecule or ion such as Cl- (Boys et al., 1981), CN- (Anderson, 1975) and H[sub 2]O (Nakai et al., 1975; Nakai et al., 1978) and, more recently, a large heterocycle such as 3,5-dimethyl-pyridine (Jeter et al., 1988). With a small ligand near trigonal bipyramidal geometry seems to prevail, but, with the large heterocylic ligand the geometry approximately a square pyramid. In this work, we report the structure of a second complex with a large heterocylic ligand, 4-aminopyridine.

  8. Between universalism and regionalism: universal systematics from imperial Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung

    2015-12-01

    Historiographic discussions of the universality and regionality of science have to date focused on European cases for making regional science universal. This paper presents a new perspective by moving beyond European origins and illuminating a non-European scientist's engagement with the universality and regionality of science. It will examine the case of the Japanese botanist Nakai Takenoshin (1882-1952), an internationally recognized authority on Korean flora based at Tokyo Imperial University. Serving on the International Committee on Botanical Nomenclature in 1926, Nakai endorsed and acted upon European claims of universal science, whilst simultaneously unsettling them with his regionally shaped systematics. Eventually he came to promote his own systematics, built regionally on Korean flora, as the new universal. By analysing his shifting claims in relation to those of other European and non-European botanists, this paper makes two arguments. First, universalism and regionalism were not contradictory foundations of scientific practice but useful tools used by this non-European botanist in maintaining his scientific authority as a representative Japanese systematist. Second, his claims to universality and regionalism were both imperially charged. An imperially monopolized study of Korean plants left a regional imprint on Nakai's systematics. In order to maintain his scientific authority beyond its region of origin he had to assert either the expanding regionalism of 'East Asia' or universalism.

  9. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  10. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  11. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading,...

  12. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  13. 49 CFR 178.606 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with specific gravities different from that of the liquid to be transported, the force must be calculated based on the specific gravity that will be marked on the packaging. The minimum height of the... number of containers that, when stacked, reach a height of 3 meters. s = specific gravity of lading....

  14. 49 CFR 178.606 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with specific gravities different from that of the liquid to be transported, the force must be calculated based on the specific gravity that will be marked on the packaging. The minimum height of the... number of containers that, when stacked, reach a height of 3 meters. s = specific gravity of lading....

  15. 49 CFR 178.606 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with specific gravities different from that of the liquid to be transported, the force must be calculated based on the specific gravity that will be marked on the packaging. The minimum height of the... number of containers that, when stacked, reach a height of 3 meters. s = specific gravity of lading....

  16. 19 CFR 12.6 - Affidavits required to accompany entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... actual consumption shall be furnished to the appropriate Customs officer within three years after the date such cheese is entered or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption. (b) These affidavits shall... of origin on a through bill of lading. Milk and Cream...

  17. 49 CFR 178.337-17 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... weight of lading (Max. Payload), in pounds (6) Lining materials (Lining), if applicable. (7) Heating system design pressure (Heating sys. press.), in psig, if applicable. (8) Heating system design temperature (Heating sys. temp.), in °F, if applicable. (9) Cargo tank serial number, assigned by cargo...

  18. 49 CFR 174.300 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... from the lading space to any combustion apparatus; and (4) The heating system conforms to § 393.77 of... heating or refrigerating apparatus may not be loaded on a flatcar except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (c) Heating or refrigeration apparatus on a motor vehicle loaded with Class 3...

  19. 49 CFR 178.337-17 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... weight of lading (Max. Payload), in pounds (6) Lining materials (Lining), if applicable. (7) Heating system design pressure (Heating sys. press.), in psig, if applicable. (8) Heating system design temperature (Heating sys. temp.), in °F, if applicable. (9) Cargo tank serial number, assigned by cargo...

  20. 49 CFR 178.337-17 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... weight of lading (Max. Payload), in pounds (6) Lining materials (Lining), if applicable. (7) Heating system design pressure (Heating sys. press.), in psig, if applicable. (8) Heating system design temperature (Heating sys. temp.), in °F, if applicable. (9) Cargo tank serial number, assigned by cargo...

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-17 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... weight of lading (Max. Payload), in pounds (6) Lining materials (Lining), if applicable. (7) Heating system design pressure (Heating sys. press.), in psig, if applicable. (8) Heating system design temperature (Heating sys. temp.), in °F, if applicable. (9) Cargo tank serial number, assigned by cargo...

  2. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) The heating system conforms to § 393.77 of this title and does not heat any part of the lading over 54... automatic heating or refrigerating apparatus when such truck bodies or trailers are loaded on flatcars except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (c) Heating or refrigeration apparatus may...

  3. 49 CFR 180.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Corrosive to the tank or valve means that the lading has been shown through experience or test data to... design and construction of a cargo tank or a cargo tank motor vehicle that affects its structural... of components such as valves, vents, and fittings with a component of a similar design and of...

  4. 49 CFR 180.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... means that the lading has been shown through experience or test data to reduce the thickness of the... its attached couplings. Modification means any change to the original design and construction of a... valves, vents, and fittings with a component of a similar design and of the same size. Owner means...

  5. 27 CFR 28.267 - Exportation from interior port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of U.S. Customs regulations (19 CFR chapter I). On completion of the lading, the seals shall be... port. 28.267 Section 28.267 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Proceedings at Ports of Export §...

  6. 27 CFR 28.267 - Exportation from interior port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of U.S. Customs regulations (19 CFR chapter I). On completion of the lading, the seals shall be... port. 28.267 Section 28.267 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Proceedings at Ports of Export §...

  7. 15 CFR 30.25 - Values for certain types of transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the EEI will be “fair market value,” plus charges when applicable, at which the property was... drayage. The estimated “fair market value” may be zero, or it may be a percentage of the original or estimated acquisition costs. (Bill of lading, air waybill, and other commercial loading documents for...

  8. 49 CFR 177.839 - Class 8 (corrosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... above any packaging containing any other kind of material. (b) Storage batteries. All storage batteries containing any electrolyte must be so loaded, if loaded with other lading, that all such batteries will be... cases for the protection and insulation of battery terminals against short circuits....

  9. 49 CFR 177.839 - Class 8 (corrosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... above any packaging containing any other kind of material. (b) Storage batteries. All storage batteries containing any electrolyte must be so loaded, if loaded with other lading, that all such batteries will be... cases for the protection and insulation of battery terminals against short circuits....

  10. 49 CFR 177.839 - Class 8 (corrosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... above any packaging containing any other kind of material. (b) Storage batteries. All storage batteries containing any electrolyte must be so loaded, if loaded with other lading, that all such batteries will be... cases for the protection and insulation of battery terminals against short circuits....

  11. 19 CFR 10.1 - Domestic products; requirements on entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or a U.S. export invoice, bill of lading or airway bill evidencing the U.S. origin of the articles... provided for in paragraph (a)(1) to the effect that the articles “are returned without having been advanced... or a vessel operated by the United States Government, (ii) Not landed in a foreign country,...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  14. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  15. 49 CFR 173.13 - Exceptions for Class 3, Divisions 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 6.1, and Classes 8 and 9 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... material must be placed in a tightly closed glass, plastic or metal inner packaging with a maximum capacity... placed in a hermetically sealed barrier bag which is impervious to the lading, and then wrapped in a non... the hermetically sealed barrier bag. The combination of inner packaging, absorbent material, and...

  16. 49 CFR 173.13 - Exceptions for Class 3, Divisions 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 6.1, and Classes 8 and 9 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material must be placed in a tightly closed glass, plastic or metal inner packaging with a maximum capacity... placed in a hermetically sealed barrier bag which is impervious to the lading, and then wrapped in a non... the hermetically sealed barrier bag. The combination of inner packaging, absorbent material, and...

  17. 49 CFR 173.13 - Exceptions for Class 3, Divisions 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 6.1, and Classes 8 and 9 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material must be placed in a tightly closed glass, plastic or metal inner packaging with a maximum capacity... placed in a hermetically sealed barrier bag which is impervious to the lading, and then wrapped in a non... the hermetically sealed barrier bag. The combination of inner packaging, absorbent material, and...

  18. 49 CFR 173.13 - Exceptions for Class 3, Divisions 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 6.1, and Classes 8 and 9 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material must be placed in a tightly closed glass, plastic or metal inner packaging with a maximum capacity... placed in a hermetically sealed barrier bag which is impervious to the lading, and then wrapped in a non... the hermetically sealed barrier bag. The combination of inner packaging, absorbent material, and...

  19. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipped with one or more vacuum relief devices; (2) When intended for use only for lading meeting the...) Each vacuum relief device must be set to open at no more than 6 ounces vacuum. (d) Venting capacities...(e) may be rated at these same pressures. (2) Each vacuum relief system must have sufficient...

  20. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the...

  1. 77 FR 23202 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Service Arrangements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... while ensuring that the criteria of Section 16 were met. 69 FR 75850, 75852 (December 20, 2004). \\1... an NSA means a written contract, other than a bill of lading or receipt, between one or more NSA... FR 52345 (September 2, 2005). \\5\\ The Commission received comments from: The United States...

  2. 19 CFR 141.54 - Separate entries for consolidated shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the right to make entry as set forth in § 141.11(a), and such evidence shall be permanently retained by the port director. (b) Waiver of right to have bill of lading or air waybill returned. If a bill... right to make entry. The nominal consignee of a consolidated shipment covering merchandise for...

  3. 7 CFR 1493.110 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... intermodal bill(s) of lading signed by the shipping company with the onboard ocean carrier date for each shipment, the airway bill, or, if shipped by rail or truck, the entry certificate or similar document..., the FAS, FOB, CFR or CIF values; or (B) If there was an intervening purchaser, both the...

  4. 7 CFR 1493.500 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bill(s) of lading signed by the shipping company with the onboard ocean carrier date for each shipment, the airway bill, or, if shipped by rail or truck, the entry certificate or similar document signed by..., FOB, CFR or CIF values; or (B) If there was an intervening purchaser, both the exporter's invoice...

  5. 7 CFR 1493.110 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Depending upon the method of shipment, the negotiable ocean carrier or intermodal bill(s) of lading signed by the shipping company with the onboard ocean carrier date for each shipment, the airway bill, or... importing country; (iii)(A) The exporter's invoice showing, as applicable, the FAS, FOB, CFR or CIF...

  6. 49 CFR 375.707 - If a shipment is partially lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... estimate; (ii) Charges for any additional services requested by the shipper after the bill of lading has.... (2) You must bill and collect from the individual shipper any remaining charges not collected at... the individual shipper. (d) The individual shipper's rights are in addition to, and not in lieu...

  7. 19 CFR 141.54 - Separate entries for consolidated shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the right to make entry as set forth in § 141.11(a), and such evidence shall be permanently retained by the port director. (b) Waiver of right to have bill of lading or air waybill returned. If a bill... right to make entry. The nominal consignee of a consolidated shipment covering merchandise for...

  8. 46 CFR 502.304 - Procedure and filing fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... parts thereof will be sufficient. Supporting documents may consist of affidavits, correspondence, bills of lading, paid freight bills, export declarations, dock or wharf receipts, or of such other... discretionary right to review the decision. The Commission shall not, on its own initiative, review any...

  9. 7 CFR 1493.300 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bill(s) of lading signed by the shipping company with the onboard ocean carrier date for each shipment, the airway bill; or, if shipped by rail or truck, the entry certificate or similar document signed by... of sale (e.g., FOB, CFR, or CIF) or, if services are billed separately, documents that the...

  10. 19 CFR 141.54 - Separate entries for consolidated shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the right to make entry as set forth in § 141.11(a), and such evidence shall be permanently retained by the port director. (b) Waiver of right to have bill of lading or air waybill returned. If a bill... right to make entry. The nominal consignee of a consolidated shipment covering merchandise for...

  11. 7 CFR 1493.500 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... bill(s) of lading signed by the shipping company with the onboard ocean carrier date for each shipment, the airway bill, or, if shipped by rail or truck, the entry certificate or similar document signed by..., FOB, CFR or CIF values; or (B) If there was an intervening purchaser, both the exporter's invoice...

  12. 7 CFR 1493.300 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the negotiable ocean carrier or intermodal bill(s) of lading signed by the shipping company with the onboard ocean carrier date for each shipment, the airway bill; or, if shipped by rail or truck, the entry... invoice(s) showing the value and basis of sale (e.g., FOB, CFR, or CIF) or, if services are...

  13. 77 FR 15378 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 1497) on January 10, 2012, allowing for a 60-day comment... permission of the CBP port director for the withdrawal and lading of bonded merchandise (especially alcoholic beverages) for use on board fishing vessels involved in international trade. The applicant must certify...

  14. 46 CFR 520.13 - Exemptions and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... common carrier by water transporting the containers or containerized cargo under a through bill of lading; and (iii) Such terminal operator is a Pacific Slope state, municipality, or other public body or... circumscribed barge service in question as of January 2, 1975. (c) Cargo types. The following cargo types...

  15. 49 CFR 179.300-13 - Venting, loading and unloading valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting, loading and unloading valves. 179.300-13... Venting, loading and unloading valves. (a) Valves shall be of approved type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by lading, and shall withstand tank test pressure without leakage. The valves...

  16. 49 CFR 179.300-13 - Venting, loading and unloading valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Venting, loading and unloading valves. 179.300-13..., loading and unloading valves. (a) Valves shall be of approved type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by lading, and shall withstand tank test pressure without leakage. The valves shall be...

  17. 49 CFR 179.201-8 - Sampling device and thermometer well.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lading, and must withstand a pressure of 100 psig without leakage. Interior pipes of the sampling valve must be equipped with excess flow valves of an approved design. Interior pipe of thermometer well must... Sampling device and thermometer well. (a) Sampling valve and thermometer well are not...

  18. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid flow rates. All valves must be made from approved materials compatible with the lading and having... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and gages. 179.400-19 Section 179.400-19...-19 Valves and gages. (a) Valves. Manually operated shut-off valves and control valves must...

  19. 49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... without an intervening shut-off valve, or a check valve permitting flow from the pipe or hose into the... subchapter); or (ii) Is oxygen or a flammable material. (4) A valve or fitting made of aluminum with internal... valve, pipe or fitting, external to the jacket that retains lading during transportation may not...

  20. 31 CFR 500.536 - Certain transactions with respect to merchandise affected by § 500.204.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lading, from the country issuing the appropriate certificate of origin. (d) A certificate of origin is... merchandise affected by § 500.204. 500.536 Section 500.536 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... transactions with respect to merchandise affected by § 500.204. (a) With respect to merchandise the...