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Sample records for lade teruo nakai

  1. LADEE Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-07

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) observatory launches aboard the Minotaur V rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Friday, Sept. 6, 2013 in Virginia. LADEE is a robotic mission that will orbit the moon where it will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. LADEE NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    NASA Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Program Scientist Sarah Noble talks during a NASA Social about the LADEE mission at NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Thursday, Sept. 5, 2013 on Wallops Island, VA. Fifty of NASA's social media followers are attending a two-day event in support of the LADEE launch. Data from LADEE will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. LADEE is scheduled to launch at 11:27 p.m. Friday, Sept. 6, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. LADEE NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    Bob Barber, Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft Systems Engineer at NASA Ames Research Center, points to a model of the LADEE spacecraft a NASA Social, Thursday, Sept. 5, 2013 at NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. Fifty of NASA's social media followers are attending a two-day event in support of the LADEE launch. Data from LADEE will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. LADEE is scheduled to launch at 11:27 p.m. Friday, Sept. 6, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. LADEE NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    Jason Townsend, NASA's Deputy Social Media Manager, kicks off the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) NASA Social at Wallops Flight Facility, Thursday, Sept. 5, 2013 on Wallops Island, VA. Fifty of NASA's social media followers are attending a two-day event in support of the LADEE launch. Data from LADEE will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. LADEE is scheduled to launch at 11:27 p.m. Friday, Sept. 6, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. LADEE NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate John Grunsfeld talks during a NASA Social about the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Thursday, Sept. 5, 2013 on Wallops Island, VA. Fifty of NASA's social media followers are attending a two-day event in support of the LADEE launch. Data from LADEE will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. LADEE is scheduled to launch at 11:27 p.m. Friday, Sept. 6, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. LADEE NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    A participant at a NASA Social on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission asks a question, Thursday, Sept. 5, 2013 on Wallops Island, VA. Fifty of NASA's social media followers are attending a two-day event in support of the LADEE launch. Data from LADEE will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. LADEE is scheduled to launch at 11:27 p.m. Friday, Sept. 6, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. LADEE NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    A participant at a NASA Social on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission asks NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate John Grunsfeld a question, Thursday, Sept. 5, 2013 on Wallops Island, VA. Fifty of NASA's social media followers are attending a two-day event in support of the LADEE launch. Data from LADEE will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. LADEE is scheduled to launch at 11:27 p.m. Friday, Sept. 6, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. LADEE NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate John Grunsfeld is seen in a video monitor during a NASA Social about the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Thursday, Sept. 5, 2013 on Wallops Island, VA. Fifty of NASA's social media followers are attending a two-day event in support of the LADEE launch. Data from LADEE will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. LADEE is scheduled to launch at 11:27 p.m. Friday, Sept. 6, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. LADEE Spin Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    During preparations for NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) observatory launch on Sept. 6, 2013, the spacecraft went through final preparations and close-outs, which included checking alignment after its cross-country shipment, checking the propulsion system for leaks, inspecting and repairing solar panels, and final electrical tests. After these activities were completed, more challenging portions of the launch preparations began: spin testing and fueling. To make sure that the spacecraft is perfectly balanced for flight, engineers mounted it onto a spin table and rotate it at high speeds, approximately one revolution per second. The team measured any offsets during the spinning, and then added small weights to the spacecraft to balance it. Once the spacecraft was balanced dry, the team loaded the propulsion tanks with fuel, oxidizer, and pressurant. The spin testing was performed again "wet," or with fuel, in order to see if the balance changed with the full fuel tanks. Engineers from NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., have now successfully completed launch preparation activities for LADEE, which has been encapsulated into the nose-cone of the Minotaur V rocket at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. LADEE is ready to launch when the window opens on Friday. Image Credit: NASA ----- What is LADEE? The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is designed to study the Moon's thin exosphere and the lunar dust environment. An "exosphere" is an atmosphere that is so thin and tenuous that molecules don't collide with each other. Studying the Moon's exosphere will help scientists understand other planetary bodies with exospheres too, like Mercury and some of Jupiter's bigger moons. The orbiter will determine the density, composition and temporal and spatial variability of the Moon's exosphere to help us understand where the species in the exosphere come from and the role of the solar wind, lunar surface

  10. Oplopanax elatus (Nakai) Nakai: chemistry, traditional use and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Guo, De-An

    2014-10-01

    Oplopanax elatus (Nakai) Nakai, a member of the ancient angiosperm plant family Araliaceae, is used for the treatment of different disorders in the medicine systems of China, Russia, and Korea, and was designated in Russia as a classical adaptogen. Despite extensive studies of classical adaptogens, there are comparatively few reports concerning the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of O. elatus in English. The plant is a potential source of saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, terpenes, and other active compounds. Experimental studies and clinical applications have indicated that O. elatus possesses a number of pharmacological activities, including adaptogenic, anti-convulsant, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, blood pressure modulating, and reproductive function effects. In this review, the chemistry, safety, and therapeutic potential of O. elatus are summarized and highlighted to encourage the further development of this plant. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. LADEE/Minotaur V Rocket

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-06

    The doors of the gantry support structure are opened to reveal the Minotaur V rocket on Pad 0B at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Friday, Sept. 6, 2013 in Virginia. The Minotaur V will launch NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). LADEE is a robotic mission that will orbit the moon where it will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. LADEE is scheduled to launch at 11:27 p.m. Friday, Sept. 6, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. LADEE Science Results and Implications for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; M. Horanyi; Colaprete, A.; Benna; Mahaffy, P.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Halekas, J. S.; Hurley, D. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, LADEE, concluded a fully successful investigation of the Moon's tenuous gas and dust atmosphere on April 18, 2014. LADEE hosted three science instruments to address atmospheric and dust objectives, and a technology demonstration of deep-space optical communication. The three science instruments were an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UVS), a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), and a lunar dust experiment (LDEX). All data acquired by these instruments have been submitted to the Planetary Data System. A mission overview and science instrument descriptions are readily available. LADEE inserted into a low-altitude, retrograde lunar orbit optimized for observations at the sunrise terminator, where surface temperatures rise abruptly. LADEE also carried out observations over a wide range of local times and altitudes. Here we describe some of the initial results.

  13. Attitude Design for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galal, Ken; Nickel, Craig; Sherman, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) satellite successfully completed its 148-day science investigation in a low-altitude, near-equatorial lunar orbit on April 18, 2014. The LADEE spacecraft was built, managed and operated by NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC). The Mission Operations Center (MOC) was located at Ames and was responsible for activity planning, command sequencing, trajectory and attitude design, orbit determination, and spacecraft operations. The Science Operations Center (SOC) was located at Goddard Space Flight Center and was responsible for science planning, data archiving and distribution. This paper details attitude design and operations support for the LADEE mission. LADEE's attitude design was shaped by a wide range of instrument pointing requirements that necessitated regular excursions from the baseline one revolution per orbit "Ram" attitude. Such attitude excursions were constrained by a number of flight rules levied to protect instruments from the Sun, avoid geometries that would result in simultaneous occlusion of LADEE's two star tracker heads, and maintain the spacecraft within its thermal and power operating limits. To satisfy LADEE's many attitude requirements and constraints, a set of rules and conventions was adopted to manage the complexity of this design challenge and facilitate the automation of ground software that generated pointing commands spanning multiple days of operations at a time. The resulting LADEE Flight Dynamics System (FDS) that was developed used Visual Basic scripts that generated instructions to AGI's Satellite Tool Kit (STK) in order to derive quaternion commands at regular intervals that satisfied LADEE's pointing requirements. These scripts relied heavily on the powerful "align and constrain" capability of STK's attitude module to construct LADEE's attitude profiles and the slews to get there. A description of the scripts and the attitude modeling they embodied is provided. One particular

  14. 19 CFR 122.94 - Certificate of lading for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of lading for exportation. 122.94....94 Certificate of lading for exportation. (a) Required filing. This section applies to merchandise entered for transportation and exportation by aircraft. A certificate of lading for exportation and...

  15. 19 CFR 191.156 - Bill of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... produce the bill of lading and such evidence of exportation and of his right to make the drawback entry as... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bill of lading. 191.156 Section 191.156 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Merchandise Exported From Continuous Customs Custody § 191.156 Bill of lading. (a...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.247-73 - Bills of Lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Bills of Lading (JUN 2002) The purpose of this clause is to define when a commercial bill of lading or a.... origin. (a) Commercial Bills of Lading. All domestic shipments shall be made via commercial bills of... statement as described below must be completed, signed by an authorized company representative, and attached...

  17. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  18. Flight Software for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Howard N.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft was launched on September 6, 2013, and completed its mission on April 17, 2014 with a directed impact to the Lunar Surface. Its primary goals were to examine the lunar atmosphere, measure lunar dust, and to demonstrate high rate laser communications. The LADEE mission was a resounding success, achieving all mission objectives, much of which can be attributed to careful planning and preparation. This paper discusses some of the highlights from the mission, and then discusses the techniques used for developing the onboard Flight Software. A large emphasis for the Flight Software was to develop it within tight schedule and cost constraints. To accomplish this, the Flight Software team leveraged heritage software, used model based development techniques, and utilized an automated test infrastructure. This resulted in the software being delivered on time and within budget. The resulting software was able to meet all system requirements, and had very problems in flight.

  19. LADEE Satellite Modeling and Simulation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael; Cannon, Howard; Frost, Chad

    2011-01-01

    As human activity on and around the Moon increases, so does the likelihood that our actions will have an impact on its atmosphere. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), a NASA satellite scheduled to launch in 2013, will orbit the Moon collecting composition, density, and time variability data to characterize the current state of the lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also test the concept of the "Modular Common Bus" spacecraft architecture, an effort to reduce both development time and cost by designing reusable, modular components for use in multiple missions with similar requirements. An important aspect of this design strategy is to both simulate the spacecraft and develop the flight code in Simulink, a block diagram-style programming language that allows easy algorithm visualization and performance testing. Before flight code can be tested, however, a realistic simulation of the satellite and its dynamics must be generated and validated. This includes all of the satellite control system components such as actuators used for force and torque generation and sensors used for inertial orientation reference. My primary responsibilities have included designing, integrating, and testing models for the LADEE thrusters, reaction wheels, star trackers, and rate gyroscopes.

  20. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial bills of... Commercial bills of lading. (a) DOE's cost-type contractors using commercial bills of lading in making shipments for the account of DOE shall include the following statement on all commercial bills of...

  1. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial bills of... Commercial bills of lading. (a) DOE's cost-type contractors using commercial bills of lading in making shipments for the account of DOE shall include the following statement on all commercial bills of...

  2. 41 CFR 109-40.5004 - Government bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government bills of... Government bills of lading. In those instances where DOE cost-type contractors are authorized to use Government bills of lading, specific employees of cost-type contractors will be authorized by the...

  3. LADEE Mission Update 2 (Beginning of Science Operations) Reporter Package

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-19

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, or LADEE, spacecraft has completed the check-out phase of its mission and has begun science operations around the moon. All the science instruments on-board have been examined by the LADEE team and have been cleared to begin collecting and analyzing the dust in the exosphere, or very thin atmosphere, that surrounds the moon.

  4. 41 CFR 109-40.5004 - Government bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5004... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government bills of lading. 109-40.5004 Section 109-40.5004 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  5. LADEE Propulsion System Cold Flow Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter; Chapman, Jack M.; Trinh, Hau, P.; Bell, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a NASA mission that will orbit the Moon. Its main objective is to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The spacecraft development is being led by NASA Ames Research Center and scheduled for launch in 2013. The LADEE spacecraft will be operated with a bi-propellant hypergolic propulsion system using MMH and NTO as the fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The propulsion system utilizes flight-proven hardware on major components. The propulsion layout is composed of one 100-lbf main thruster and four 5-lbf RCS thrusters. The propellants are stored in four tanks (two parallel-connected tanks per propellant component). The propellants will be pressurized by regulated helium. A simulated propulsion system has been built for conducting cold flow test series to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes, such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. Propellant drainage differential between propellant tanks will also be assessed. Since the oxidizer feed line system has a higher flow demand than the fuel system does, the cold flow test focuses on the oxidizer system. The objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the LADEE propulsion fluid flow operation through water cold flow test and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. The test activities, including the simulated propulsion test article, cold flow test, and analytical modeling, are being performed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. At the time of the abstract submission, the test article checkout is being performed. The test series will be completed by November, 2012

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. A Appendix A to Part 1035—Uniform Straight Bill of Lading Uniform Straight Bill of Lading...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. A Appendix A to Part 1035—Uniform Straight Bill of Lading Uniform Straight Bill of Lading...

  8. A Conversation with Native Flutist R. Carlos Nakai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1992-01-01

    R. Carlos Nakai discusses his personal development as a musician, his interest in keeping the Native flute tradition alive in a modern way, his ethic of service, the purpose of higher education for Indian students, the relation of education to life, and the role of Indian people in the sciences. (SV)

  9. A Conversation with Native Flutist R. Carlos Nakai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1992-01-01

    R. Carlos Nakai discusses his personal development as a musician, his interest in keeping the Native flute tradition alive in a modern way, his ethic of service, the purpose of higher education for Indian students, the relation of education to life, and the role of Indian people in the sciences. (SV)

  10. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... carriage. (b) A GBL is used only for international shipments. (c) A bill of lading, sometimes referred to... of lading for Government shipments if the specific terms and conditions of a GBL are included in any...

  11. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Turner, Mark; Caffrey, Robert T.; Hine, Butler Preston

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a Lunar science orbiter mission currently under development to address the goals of the National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) [1] report to study the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment prior to significant human activities. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. LADEE employs a high heritage science instrument payload including a neutral mass spectrometer, ultraviolet spectrometer, and dust sensor. In addition to the science payloads, LADEE will fly a laser communications system technology demonstration that could provide a building block for future space communications architectures. LADEE is an important component in NASA's portfolio of near-term lunar missions, addressing objectives that are currently not covered by other U.S. or international efforts, and whose observations must be conducted before large-scale human or robotic activities irrevocably perturb the tenuous and fragile lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost, rapid-development program utilizing a modular bus design launched on the new Minotaur V launch vehicle. Once proven, this capability could enable future lunar missions in a highly cost constrained environment. This paper describes the LADEE objectives, mission design, and technical

  12. 19 CFR 122.38 - Permit and special license to unlade and lade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permit and special license to unlade and lade. 122.38 Section 122.38 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... special license to unlade or lade shall be obtained from Customs. (1) Permit to unlade or lade. A...

  13. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If the person desiring to make entry is unable to present a bill of lading, air waybill, or other evidence of...

  14. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of lading... therefor on its form with a notation showing the freight forwarder's name, then the freight forwarder, upon...

  15. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, G. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Morgan, T. H.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Hine, B.; Boroson, D.; Salute, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent “Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon” (SCEM) report identify studies of the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment as among the leading priorities for future lunar science missions. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is currently under development to address these goals. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and dynamics, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. LADEE employs a high heritage instrument payload: the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS), the Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS), and the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). It will also carry the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) as a technology demo. LADEE is an important component in NASA’s portfolio of near-term lunar missions, addressing objectives that are currently not covered by other U.S. or international efforts, and whose observations must be conducted before large scale human or robotic activities irrevocably perturb the tenuous and fragile lunar atmosphere. LADEE’s success will also demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost, rapid development program, utilizing a modular bus design together with the new Minotaur IV+ launch vehicle, and will thus pave the way for cost-effective future lunar missions in a cost-constrained environment. The LADEE spacecraft with various instrument locations.

  16. 48 CFR 801.670-1 - Issuing bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuing bills of lading. 801.670-1 Section 801.670-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  17. 19 CFR 18.7 - Lading for exportation, verification of.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lading for exportation, verification of. 18.7... for exportation, verification of. (a) Promptly, but no more than 2 working days, after arrival of any portion of the in-bond shipment at the port of exportation, the delivering carrier shall surrender the...

  18. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND...

  19. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND...

  20. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND...

  1. LADEE Lunar Dust Experiment V1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, J.; James, D.

    2016-11-01

    This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. These data are generated by dust impacts on the LDEX detector. Reduced, calibrated, and derived data are included in this bundle.

  2. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS...

  3. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS...

  4. NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Hine, Butler; McClard, Steven; Grayzeck, Edwin; Boroson, Don

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 40 years have passed since the last Apollo missions investigated the mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. The most important questions remain: what is the composition, structure and variability of the tenuous lunar exosphere? What are its origins, transport mechanisms, and loss processes? Is lofted lunar dust the cause of the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor missions and Apollo astronauts? How does such levitated dust arise and move, what is its density, and what is its ultimate fate? The US National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) reports have identified studies of the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment as among the leading priorities for future lunar science missions. These measurements have become particularly important since recent observations by the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission point to significant amounts of water and other volatiles sequestered within polar lunar cold traps. Moreover Chandrayaan/M3, EPOXI and Cassini/VIMS have identified molecular water and hydroxyl on lunar surface regolith grains. Variability in concentration suggests these species are likely to be present in the exosphere, and thus constitute a source for the cold traps. NASA s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is currently under development to address these goals. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. LADEE s results are relevant to surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, will address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and will have

  5. Interferon-mediated antiviral activities of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its active components.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Prasanna; Uddin, Md Bashir; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Hongik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Angelica tenuissima Nakai is a widely used commodity in traditional medicine. Nevertheless, no study has been conducted on the antiviral and immune-modulatory properties of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, an effective dose of Angelica tenuissima Nakai markedly inhibited the replication of Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Coxsackie virus, and Enterovirus (EV-71) on epithelial (HEK293T/HeLa) and immune (RAW264.7) cells. Such inhibition can be described by the induction of the antiviral state in cells by antiviral, IFNrelated gene induction and secretion of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated BALB/c mice displayed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3, and H9N2). We also found that Angelica tenuissima Nakai can induce the secretion of IL-6, IFN-λ, and local IgA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated mice, which correlating with the observed prophylactic effects. In HPLC analysis, we found the presence of several compounds in the aqueous fraction and among them; we evaluated antiviral properties of ferulic acid. Therefore, an extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its components, including ferulic acid, play roles as immunomodulators and may be potential candidates for novel anti-viral/anti-influenza agents.

  6. 2014 Summer Series - Brian Lewis - Skimming the Lunar Surface for Science: The LADEE Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-15

    On Sept. 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into space. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. With commissioning completed, LADEE lowered periapsis over the sunrise terminator on Nov. 10, and on Nov. 20 lowered apoapsis as well. On April 11, after its primary mission was complete, LADEE performed it's final maneuver, placing it in a very low-altitude orbit that would yield a short period of highly valuable science while guaranteeing impact on the far side of the moon. On April 15, LADEE flew through a four hour lunar eclipse, demonstrating an ability to survive low temperatures and a deep drain on battery systems. LADEE ultimately impacted on the lunar surface between 9:30 pm and 10:22 pm PDT on April 17, 2014.

  7. Generation of Simulated Tracking Data for LADEE Operational Readiness Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodburn, James; Policastri, Lisa; Owens, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Operational Readiness Tests were an important part of the pre-launch preparation for the LADEE mission. The generation of simulated tracking data to stress the Flight Dynamics System and the Flight Dynamics Team was important for satisfying the testing goal of demonstrating that the software and the team were ready to fly the operational mission. The simulated tracking was generated in a manner to incorporate the effects of errors in the baseline dynamical model, errors in maneuver execution and phenomenology associated with various tracking system based components. The ability of the mission team to overcome these challenges in a realistic flight dynamics scenario indicated that the team and flight dynamics system were ready to fly the LADEE mission. Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment.

  8. LADEE Search for a Dust Exosphere: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Elphic, R.

    2014-01-01

    The LADEE search for exospheric dust is strongly motivated by putative detections of forward-scattered sunlight from exospheric dust grains which were observed during the Apollo era. This dust population, if it exists, has been associated with charging and transport of dust near the terminators. It is likely that the concentration of these dust grains is governed by a saltation mechanism originated by micrometeoroid impacts, which are the source of the more tenuous ejecta cloud.

  9. Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Stubbs, Timothy

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE’s science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium and potassium exospheres; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang’e 3 landing on 14 December 2013, and the Geminid meteor shower.

  10. 19 CFR 141.15 - Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond for production of bill of lading or air... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.15 Bond for production of bill of lading or air waybill. (a) When appropriate. If the...

  11. 49 CFR 1035.1 - Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... A and B to this part, or order bills of lading as prescribed in Appendix A and B to this Part, except that order bills of lading shall: (1) Be entitled “Uniform Order Bill of Lading” and be designated as “Negotiable” on the front (appendix A to this part); (2) Indicate consignment “to the order of...

  12. 49 CFR 1035.1 - Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... interlineation; (3) May vary in the arrangement and spacing of the printed matter on the face of the form. ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading... Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading. (a) All common carriers, except express companies,...

  13. 49 CFR 1035.1 - Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... interlineation; (3) May vary in the arrangement and spacing of the printed matter on the face of the form. ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading... Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading. (a) All common carriers, except express companies,...

  14. NASA Satellite Gives a Clear View for NASA's LADEE Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA's Wallops Flight Facility is located on Wallops Island, Va. and is the site of tonight's moon mission launch. Satellite imagery from NOAA's GOES-East satellite shows that high pressure remains in control over the Mid-Atlantic region, providing an almost cloud-free sky. This visible image of the Mid-Atlantic was captured by NOAA's GOES-East satellite at 17:31 UTC/1:31 p.m. EDT and shows some fair weather clouds over the Delmarva Peninsula (which consists of the state of Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia - which together is "Delmarva") and eastern Virginia and North Carolina. Most of the region is cloud-free, making for a perfect viewing night to see a launch. NOAA operates GOES-East and NASA's GOES Project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. creates images and animations from the data. NOAA's National Weather Service forecast for tonight, Sept. 6 calls for winds blowing from the east to 11 mph, with clear skies and overnight temperatures dropping to the mid-fifties. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, known as LADEE (pronounced like "laddie"), launches tonight at 11:27 p.m. EDT from Pad 0B at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, at NASA Wallops and will be visible along the Mid-Atlantic with tonight's perfect weather conditions. LADEE is managed by NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif. This will be the first launch to lunar orbit from NASA Wallops and the first launch of a Minotaur V rocket – the biggest ever launched from Wallops. NASA's LADEE is a robotic mission that will orbit the moon to gather detailed information about the lunar atmosphere, conditions near the surface and environmental influences on lunar dust. A thorough understanding of these characteristics will address long-standing unknowns, and help scientists understand other planetary bodies as well. LADEE also carries an important secondary payload, the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration, or LLCD, which will help us open a new

  15. The Use of Standards on the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a small explorer class mission that launched Sept 7, 2013 and successfully de-orbited and impacted the moon's surface on April 17, 2014. The spacecraft was the first to launch from a Minotaur 5 and was the first deep space mission to launch from the Wallops flight facility. Figure 1 shows the famous image of a frog unlucky enough to be launched from the facility at the same time as LADEE. The science mission for the spacecraft was to determine the density, composition and variability of the lunar exosphere. In addition, it performed a first-of-a-kind demonstration of laser-based communications from deep space that exhibited a record downlink rate of 622 megabits per second from the moon. In order to perform the lunar dust surveys, the spacecraft was placed in a retrograde equatorial orbit with periapsis between 20 and 60 kilometers. The mission was granted an extension in which final science surveys were performed at altitudes as low as 2 kilometers over the moon's surface. The cadence for spacecraft operations was demanding: the moon's highly inhomogeneous gravity field distorted the orbit, the regular maneuvers were subject to strict payload-induced pointing requirements, and there were periodic attitude changes to keep the spacecraft thermally safe. This led to a need for high reliability in the operation of the spacecraft while obeying strict budget and schedule guidelines.

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-11-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, α-pinene, camphene, α-limonene, β-eudesmol, α-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  17. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a nearperfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a higheccentricity geocentric orbit. The launch, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, was visible from much of the eastern seaboard. Over the next 30 days, LADEE performed three phasing orbits, with near-perfect maneuvers that placed apogee at ever higher altitudes in preparation for rendezvous with the Moon. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any.

  18. Comparative mapping in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai].

    PubMed

    Sandlin, Katherine; Prothro, Jason; Heesacker, Adam; Khalilian, Nelly; Okashah, Rebecca; Xiang, Wenwen; Bachlava, Eleni; Caldwell, David G; Taylor, Chris A; Seymour, Danelle K; White, Victoria; Chan, Eva; Tolla, Greg; White, Cathy; Safran, Dolores; Graham, Elaine; Knapp, Steven; McGregor, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    The first single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai] were constructed and compared. Three populations were developed from crosses between two elite cultivars, Klondike Black Seeded × New Hampshire Midget (KBS × NHM), an elite cultivar and wild egusi accession, Strain II × PI 560023 (SII × Egusi) and an elite cultivar and a wild citron accession, ZWRM50 × PI 244019 (ZWRM × Citroides). The SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides F(2) populations consisted of 187 and 182 individuals respectively while the KBS × NHM recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisted of 164 lines. The length of the genetic maps were 1,438, 1,514 and 1,144 cM with average marker distances of 3.8, 4.2, and 3.4 cM for the KBS × NHM, SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides populations, respectively. Shared markers were used to align the three maps so that the linkage groups (LGs) represented the 11 chromosomes of the species. Marker segregation distortion were observed in all three populations, but was highest (12.7 %) in the ZWRM × Citroides population, where Citroides alleles were favored. The three maps were used to construct a consensus map containing 378 SNP markers with an average distance of 5.1 cM between markers. Phenotypic data was collected for fruit weight (FWT), fruit length (FL), fruit width (FWD), fruit shape index (FSI), rind thickness (RTH) and Brix (BRX) and analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with these traits. A total of 40 QTL were identified in the three populations, including major QTL for fruit size and shape that were stable across genetic backgrounds and environments. The present study reports the first SNP maps for Citrullus and the first map constructed using two elite parents. We also report the first stable QTL associated with fruit size and shape in Citrullus lanatus. These maps, QTL and SNPs should be useful for the watermelon community and represent a significant step towards the

  19. What We Have Learned from the LADEE Mission (So Far)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Cook, Amanda; Stubbs, Timothy; Colaprete, Anthony; Delory, Gregory; Glenar, David; Wooden, Diane; Szalay, Jamey; Hurley, Dana; Halekas, Jasper; Poppe, Andrew; Mahaffy, Paul; Hodges, Richard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kempf, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, LADEE, concluded a fully successful investigation of the Moon's tenuous gas and dust atmosphere on April 18, 2014. LADEE hosted three science instruments to address atmospheric and dust objectives. The three science instruments were an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UVS), a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), and a lunar dust experiment (LDEX). A mission overview and science instrument descriptions are available. LADEE entered a low-altitude, retrograde lunar orbit optimized for observations at the sunrise terminator, where surface temperatures rise abruptly. LADEE carried out observations over a wide range of local times and altitudes. Here we describe some of the initial results. LDEX measurements have revealed the presence of a tenuous but persistent "cloud" of small dust grains, from <0.3 to >0.7 μm in radius. The number density of these grains maximizes over the morning side of the Moon, the hemisphere on the "upstream" side of the Moon's motion about the sun. The cloud, with observed densities ranging between 0.4 - 4 x 10 ^{-3} m ^{-3}, is made up of ballistic ejecta from micrometeoroidal impacts on the lunar surface. The cloud density increases as the Earth-Moon system passes through known meteoroid streams, such as the Geminids, which are derived from cometary debris trails. LDEX data show no evidence for an electrostatically-lofted dust component. LADEE's NMS instrument immediately detected helium ( ^{4}He) in the lunar atmosphere during high altitude commissioning. At lower altitudes it also measured neon ( ^{20}Ne) and argon ( ^{40}Ar). NMS measurements revealed systematic variations in density and scale height for these three noble gas species. The diurnal variation of helium, neon and argon are largely controlled by surface temperature. Helium density closely tracks the input of He ^{++} from the solar wind; loss is by way of thermal escape. ^{ 20}Ne is a minor solar wind constituent, but it has a

  20. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M; Mahaffy, Paul; Boroson, D.; Delory, G.; Noble, s; Hine, B; Salute, J.

    2013-01-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250- kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30 days in the event of contingencies. Following commissioning, the 100-day Science Phase is

  1. LADES: a software for constructing and analyzing longitudinal designs in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Alcocer, Alan; Garzón-Cortes, Daniel Ladislao; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important steps in biomedical longitudinal studies is choosing a good experimental design that can provide high accuracy in the analysis of results with a minimum sample size. Several methods for constructing efficient longitudinal designs have been developed based on power analysis and the statistical model used for analyzing the final results. However, development of this technology is not available to practitioners through user-friendly software. In this paper we introduce LADES (Longitudinal Analysis and Design of Experiments Software) as an alternative and easy-to-use tool for conducting longitudinal analysis and constructing efficient longitudinal designs. LADES incorporates methods for creating cost-efficient longitudinal designs, unequal longitudinal designs, and simple longitudinal designs. In addition, LADES includes different methods for analyzing longitudinal data such as linear mixed models, generalized estimating equations, among others. A study of European eels is reanalyzed in order to show LADES capabilities. Three treatments contained in three aquariums with five eels each were analyzed. Data were collected from 0 up to the 12th week post treatment for all the eels (complete design). The response under evaluation is sperm volume. A linear mixed model was fitted to the results using LADES. The complete design had a power of 88.7% using 15 eels. With LADES we propose the use of an unequal design with only 14 eels and 89.5% efficiency. LADES was developed as a powerful and simple tool to promote the use of statistical methods for analyzing and creating longitudinal experiments in biomedical research.

  2. Validation and Verification of LADEE Models and Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission will orbit the moon in order to measure the density, composition and time variability of the lunar dust environment. The ground-side and onboard flight software for the mission is being developed using a Model-Based Software methodology. In this technique, models of the spacecraft and flight software are developed in a graphical dynamics modeling package. Flight Software requirements are prototyped and refined using the simulated models. After the model is shown to work as desired in this simulation framework, C-code software is automatically generated from the models. The generated software is then tested in real time Processor-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop test beds. Travelling Road Show test beds were used for early integration tests with payloads and other subsystems. Traditional techniques for verifying computational sciences models are used to characterize the spacecraft simulation. A lightweight set of formal methods analysis, static analysis, formal inspection and code coverage analyses are utilized to further reduce defects in the onboard flight software artifacts. These techniques are applied early and often in the development process, iteratively increasing the capabilities of the software and the fidelity of the vehicle models and test beds.

  3. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use on...

  4. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use on...

  5. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use on...

  6. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  7. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; or (2) For shipment to the armed forces, certification by a military officer on Form 1582-B (5130.6... (§ 28.251), or an air express or air freight bill of lading (§ 28.252), when such bills of lading or... other evidence of exportation approved by the appropriate TTB officer. (b) Use as supplies on...

  8. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  9. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  10. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  11. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use on...

  12. Observations of Titanium, Aluminum and Magnesium in the Lunar Exosphere by LADEE UVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Wooden, D.; Cook, A.; Shirley, M.; Sarantos, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was an orbital lunar science mission designed to address the goals of the 2003 National Research Council decadal survey, the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group Roadmap, and the "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) report, and has been recommended for execution by the 2011 Planetary Missions Decadal Survey. The LADEE mission goal was to determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. It will monitor variations in known gasses, such as sodium, potassium, argon and helium, and will search for other, as-yet-undetected gasses of both lunar and extra-lunar origin. Another goal of LADEE was to determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability.

  13. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the LADEE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a contingency trajectory analysis performed for the Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission in the event of a missed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver by the LADEE spacecraft. The effects of varying solar perturbations in the vicinity of the weak stability boundary (WSB) in the Sun-Earth system on the trajectory design are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that geocentric recovery trajectory options existed for the LADEE spacecraft, depending on the spacecraft's recovery time to perform an Earth escape-prevention maneuver after the hypothetical LOI maneuver failure and subsequent path traveled through the Sun-Earth WSB. If Earth-escape occurred, a heliocentric recovery option existed, but with reduced science capacapability for the spacecraft in an eccentric, not circular near-equatorial retrograde lunar orbit.

  14. Comm for Small Sats: The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Communications Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuroda, Vanessa M.; Allard, Mark R.; Lewis, Brian; Lindsay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    September 6, 2013 through April 21, 2014 marked the mission lifecycle of the highly successful LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) mission that orbited the moon to gather detailed information about the thin lunar atmosphere. This paper will address the development, risks, and lessons learned regarding the specification, selection, and deployment of LADEE's unique Radio Frequency based communications subsystem and supporting tools. This includes the Electronic Ground Support Equipment (EGSE), test regimes, and RF dynamic link analysis environment developed to meet mission requirements for small, flexible, low cost, high performance, fast turnaround, and reusable spacecraft communication capabilities with easy and reliable application to future similar low cost small satellite missions over widely varying needs for communications and communications system complexity. LADEE communication subsystem key components, architecture, and mission performance will be reviewed toward applicability for future mission planning, design, and utilization.

  15. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Displays Broad Spectrum of Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inducing Cellular Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant’s known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakaimarkedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  16. The Impact of Meteoroid Streams on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment During the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wang, Y.; Hermalyn, B.; Sarantos, M.; Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are: (1) determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling distribution and variability - sources, sinks, and surface interactions; and (2) characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure spatial and temporal variability, and influences on the lunar atmosphere. Impacts on the lunar surface from meteoroid streams encountered by the Earth-Moon system are anticipated to result in enhancements in the both the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. Here we describe the annual meteoroid streams expected to be incident at the Moon during the LADEE mission, and their anticipated effects on the lunar environment.

  17. LDEX Sensitivity Studies in Preparation for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocker, A.; James, D.; Sternovsky, Z.; Horanyi, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment is an impact ionization dust detector scheduled for flight onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADE) mission in 2013. LDEX will map the spatial and size distributions of both the secondary ejecta particles - generated by interplanetary dust impacts, and the putative population of submicron grains - expected to be lofted by plasma effects near the terminators. The operational principal of LDEX is based on the measurement of impact generated electrons and ions, collected on its hemispherical target and ion sensor, respectively. The geometry of this instrument ensures that the collection efficiency of the ions does not depend on the location of the impact; however, the total charge does remain a function of the impact angle. This dependence was investigated during the calibration campaign at the dust accelerator facility of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS). The resulting data have been compared with similar experiments performed for the calibration of the impact ionization instruments onboard the spacecraft Galileo and the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard the Cassini space craft. These results show slight differences in the angular dependence of the ion generation for the various instruments, even though the function and the geometrical set ups as well as the target properties are similar. Furthermore, the investigated impact parameter ranges do not overlap completely. Thus, we perform a dedicated measurement with a suitable experimental set up at the dust accelerator facility in Boulder. The experiments exposed target materials, similar to LDEX, to dust particles in the velocity range from 1 to 70 km/s and mass range of 10-18 to 10-12kg, to show how the impact charge varies with impact angle. The simpler geometrical set up, especially the planar target, will allow to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying process by suppressing secondary processes, such as the ionization due

  18. 78 FR 7803 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Permit-Special License Unlading-Lading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Permit- Special License Unlading-Lading-Overtime Services AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department... information collection: 1651-0005. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department...

  19. 27 CFR 44.212 - Delay in lading at port of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Delay in lading at port of exportation. 44.212 Section 44.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 44.212 - Delay in lading at port of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Delay in lading at port of exportation. 44.212 Section 44.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 44.212 - Delay in lading at port of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Delay in lading at port of exportation. 44.212 Section 44.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  2. 77 FR 69649 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Permit-Special License Unlading-Lading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Permit- Special License Unlading-Lading-Overtime Services AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... collection of information. SUMMARY: As part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent...

  3. NASA Completes LADEE Mission with Planned Impact on Moon's Surface (Reporter Package)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-23

    NASA's LADEE mission came to an end as the spacecraft executed a planned de-orbit into the surface of the Moon at nearly three thousand, six hundred miles per hour. The primary goal of the mission was to collect data about the thin lunar atmosphere and the amounts of dust that are in it at multiple altitudes.

  4. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard C.; Hine, Butler; Delory, Gregory T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket success-fully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  5. Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd T.; Hodges, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission currently scheduled for launch in early 2013 aboard a Minotaur V will orbit the moon at a nominal periselene of 50 km to characterized the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. The science instrument payload includes a neutral mass spectrometer as well as an ultraviolet spectrometer and a dust detector. Although to date only He, Ar-40, K, Na and Rn-222 have been firmly identified in the lunar exosphere and arise from the solar wind (He), the lunar regolith (K and Na) and the lunar interior (Ar-40, Rn-222), upper limits have been set for a large number of other species, LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) observations will determine the abundance of several species and substantially lower the present upper limits for many others. Additionally, LADEE NMS will observe the spatial distribution and temporal variability of species which condense at nighttime and show peak concentrations at the dawn terminator (e,g, Ar-40), possible episodic release from the lunar interior, and the results of sputtering or desorption processes from the regolith. In this presentation, we describe the LADEE NMS hardware and the anticipated science results.

  6. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  7. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Boroson, D.; Hine, B.; Salute, J.

    2013-12-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon depends on the launch date, but with the Sept. 6 launch date it should arrive at the Moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250-kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30

  8. The effects of meteoroid streams on the lunar environment: Observations from the LADEE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, Timothy; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Wang, Yongli; Benna, Mehdi; Elphic, Richard; Sarantos, Menelaos; Kempf, Sascha; Colaprete, Anthony; Hurley, Dana; Delory, Gregory; Glenar, David; Hermalyn, Brendan; Wooden, Diane; Szalay, Jamey

    The scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are: (1) determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling distribution and variability - sources, sinks, and surface interactions; and (2) characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure spatial and temporal variability, and influences on the lunar atmosphere. Impacts on the lunar surface from meteoroid streams encountered by the Earth-Moon system can result in measurable enhancements in both the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. Here we describe the annual meteoroid streams incident at the Moon during the LADEE mission and their effects on the environment. The LADEE science payload consists of three instruments: the Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) for measuring emission lines from exospheric species and scattered light from exospheric dust; the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) for in situ measurement of exospheric dust; and the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) for in situ measurement of exospheric species. All three instruments are capable of detecting the effects of an encounter with a meteoroid stream. LADEE nominally has a 100-day science mission in which its retrograde equatorial orbit (inclination ≈157(°) ) will take it below 50 km altitude at periapsis near lunar sunrise. Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) occurred on 6 October 2013 and the current End-of-Mission (EOM) is planned for around 21 April 2014 following the lunar eclipse on 15 April 2014. The Earth-Moon system frequently encounters debris trails from comets and asteroids, which are referred to as meteoroid streams. The meteoroids in these streams have similar velocities and are on near-parallel trajectories, so when they enter the Earth's atmosphere the resulting shower of meteors appears to be emanating from a virtual point on the sky called the radiant. Meteor (and meteoroid) rates vary as a function of the Earth's position in its orbit, with an

  9. Implementation the NASA Planetary Data System PDS4 Providing Access to LADEE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, Reta F.; Huber , Lyle; Neakrase, Lynn; Reese, Shannon; Crichton, Daniel; Hardman, Sean; Delory, Gregory; Neese, Carol

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for archiving all planetary data acquired by robotic missions, and observational campaigns with ground/space-based observatories. PDS has moved to version 4 of its archive system. PDS4 uses XML to enhance search and retrieval capabilities. Although the efforts are system wide, the Atmospheres Node has acted as the lead node and is presenting a preliminary users interface for retrieval of LADEE data. LADEE provides the first opportunity to test out the end-to-end process of archiving data from an active mission into the new PDS4 architecture. The limited number of instruments, with simple data structures, is an ideal test of PDS4. XML uses schema (analogous to blueprints) to control the structure of the corresponding XML labels. In the case of PDS4, these schemas allow management of the labels and their content by forcing validation dictated by the underlying Information Model (IM). The use of a central IM is a vast improvement over PDS3 because of the uniformity it provides across all nodes. PDS4 has implemented a product-centric approach for archiving data and supplemental documentation. Another major change involves the Central Registry, where all products are registered and accessible to search engines. Under PDS4, documents, data, and other ancillary data are all products that are registered in the system. Together with the XML implementation, the Registry allows the search routines to be more complex and inclusive than they have been in the past. For LADEE, the PDS nodes and LADEE instrument teams worked together to identify data products that LADEE would produce. Documentation describing instruments and data products were produced by the teams and peer reviewed by PDS. XML label templates were developed by the PDS and provided to the instrument teams to integrate into their pipelines. Data from the primary mission (100 days) have been certified and harvested into the registry and are accessible through the

  10. Understanding Temporal and Spatial Variability of the Lunar Helium Atmosphere Using Simultaneous Observations from LRO, LADEE, and ARTEMIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Cook, Jason C.; Benna, Mehdi; Halekas, Jasper S.; Feldman, Paul D.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Hodges, R. Richard; Grava, Cesare; Mahaffy, Paul; Gladstone, G. Randall; hide

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of helium in the exosphere of the Moon are made from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) through the entire 5-month span of the LADEE mission. In addition, the ARTEMIS mission monitored the solar wind alpha particle flux to the Moon. Modeling the lunar helium exosphere, we relate the LAMP polar observations to the LADEE equatorial observations. Further, using the ARTEMIS alpha flux in the Monte Carlo model reproduces the temporal variations in helium density. Comparing the LAMP data to the LADEE data shows excellent agreement. Comparing those with the ARTEMIS data reveals that the solar wind alpha flux is the primary driver to variability in the helium exosphere throughout the LADEE mission. Using a decay time for exospheric helium of 5 days, we determine that the solar wind contributes 64 +/- 5% of the helium to the lunar exosphere. The remaining 36 +/- 5% is presumed to come from outgassing of radiogenic helium from the interior of the Moon. Furthermore, the model reproduces the measurements if 63 +/- 6% of the incident alpha particles are converted to thermalized helium atoms through the interaction between the alphas and the lunar surface. However, these values are dependent on both inferred source rates from LAMP and LADEE observations and on the assumed time constant of the exospheric decay rate.

  11. Understanding temporal and spatial variability of the lunar helium atmosphere using simultaneous observations from LRO, LADEE, and ARTEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Cook, Jason C.; Benna, Mehdi; Halekas, Jasper S.; Feldman, Paul D.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Hodges, R. Richard; Grava, Cesare; Mahaffy, Paul; Gladstone, G. Randall; Greathouse, Thomas; Kaufmann, David E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stern, S. Alan

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous measurements of helium in the exosphere of the Moon are made from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) through the entire 5-month span of the LADEE mission. In addition, the ARTEMIS mission monitored the solar wind alpha particle flux to the Moon. Modeling the lunar helium exosphere, we relate the LAMP polar observations to the LADEE equatorial observations. Further, using the ARTEMIS alpha flux in the Monte Carlo model reproduces the temporal variations in helium density. Comparing the LAMP data to the LADEE data shows excellent agreement. Comparing those with the ARTEMIS data reveals that the solar wind alpha flux is the primary driver to variability in the helium exosphere throughout the LADEE mission. Using a decay time for exospheric helium of 5 days, we determine that the solar wind contributes 64 ± 5% of the helium to the lunar exosphere. The remaining 36 ± 5% is presumed to come from outgassing of radiogenic helium from the interior of the Moon. Furthermore, the model reproduces the measurements if 63 ± 6% of the incident alpha particles are converted to thermalized helium atoms through the interaction between the alphas and the lunar surface. However, these values are dependent on both inferred source rates from LAMP and LADEE observations and on the assumed time constant of the exospheric decay rate.

  12. Evaluation of Processing Technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for Ethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, He; Sun, Qizhong; Zhang, Yunwei; Brown, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w), forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1∶6, 1∶8, 1∶10, 1∶12, and 1∶14, g/ml), digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min), digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C) for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1∶6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of appropriate

  13. Evaluation of processing technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fengqin; Yang, Fuyu; Zhou, He; Sun, Qizhong; Zhang, Yunwei; Brown, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w), forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml), digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min), digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C) for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of appropriate

  14. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cu cm. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  15. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2011-05-20

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cm{sup 3}. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  16. LADEE/LDEX observations of lunar pickup ion distribution and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Szalay, J. R.; Horányi, M.; Levin, Z.; Kempf, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report fortuitous observations of low-energy lunar pickup ion fluxes near the Moon while in the solar wind by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). We describe the method of observation and the empirical calibration of the instrument for ion observations. LDEX observes several trends in the exospheric ion production rate, including a scale height of approximately 100 km, a positive, linear correlation with solar wind flux, and evidence of a slight enhancement near 7-8 h local time. We compare the LDEX observations to both LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer ion mode observations and theoretical models. The LDEX data are best fit by total exospheric ion production rates of ≈6 × 103 m-3 s-1 with dominant contributions from Al+, CO+, and Ar+, although the LDEX data suggest that the aluminum neutral density and corresponding ion production rate are lower than predicted by recent models.

  17. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2011-05-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cm3. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  18. Metallic Species, Oxygen and Silicon in the Lunar Exosphere: Upper Limits and Prospects for LADEE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary Margaret; Glenar, David A.; Benna, Mehdi; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The only species that have been so far detected in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar,and He. However, models for the production and loss of species derived from the lunarregolith through micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering, and photon-stimulateddesorption, predict that a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere.Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape, photoionization, and recyclingto the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to publishedupper limits for the Moon. Only for Ca do modeled abundances clearly exceed theavailable measurements. This result suggests the relevance of some loss processes thatwere not included in the model, such as the possibility of gas-to-solid phasecondensation during micrometeoroid impacts or the formation of stable metallic oxides.Our simulations and the recalculation of efficiencies for resonant light scattering showthat models for other species studied are not well constrained by existingmeasurements. This fact underlines the need for improved remote and in situmeasurements of the lunar exosphere such as those planned by the Lunar Atmosphereand Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. Our simulations of the LADEEneutral mass spectrometer and visibleultraviolet spectrometer indicate that LADEE measurements promise to provide definitive observations or set stringent upper limitsfor all regolith-driven exospheric species. We predict that observations by LADEE willconstrain assumed model parameters for the exosphere of the Moon.

  19. Metallic Species, Oxygen and Silicon in the Lunar Exosphere: Upper Limits and Prospects for LADEE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; Glenar, David A.; Benna, Mehdi; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    The only species that have been continued in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar, and He. Models for the production and loss of lunar regolith-derived exospheric species from source processes including micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering. and, for Na and K, photon-stimulated desorption, predict a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere. Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape and recycling to the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to published upper limits from the Moon and to detected abundances from Mercury. Only for Ca do the available measurements show a clear deficiency compared to the model estimates. This result suggests the importance of loss processes not included in the model, such as the possibility of gas-to-solid phase condensation during micrometeoroid impacts or the formation of stable metallic oxides, and underlines the need for improved spectroscopic measurements of the lunar exosphere. Simulations of the neutral mass (NMS) and visible/ultraviolet spectrometry (UVS) investigations planned by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft are presented. Our calculations indicate that LADEE measurements promise to make definitive observations or set stringent upper limits for all regolith-driven exospheric species. Our models, along with LADEE observations, will constrain assumed model parameters for the Moon, such as sticking coefficients, source processes. and velocity distributions.

  20. Overview of the LADEE Ultraviolet-visible Spectrometer: Design, Performance and Planned Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.; Landis, D.; Karcz, J.; Osetinsky, L.; Shirley, M.; Vargo, K.; Wooden, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an orbital lunar science mission currently under development to address the goals of the 2003 National Research Council decadal survey, the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group Roadmap, and the "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) report, and has been recommended for execution by the 2011 Planetary Missions Decadal Survey. The mission s focus is to study the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment prior to possible lunar exploration activities by countries, including the United States, China, India, and Japan, among others. Activity on the lunar surface has the potential of altering the tenuous lunar atmosphere, but changing the type and concentration of gases in the atmosphere. Before these activities occur it is important to make measurements of the current lunar atmosphere in its unmodified state. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. It will monitor variations in known gases, such as sodium, potassium, argon and helium, and will search for other, as-yet-undetected gases of both lunar and extra-lunar origin. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. Launch is planned for August, 2013.

  1. Hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Ma, Young-Kyu; Kwon, Joseph; Park, Seong Hwa; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2011-09-28

    Two novel caffeoylmalic acid methyl esters, 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (6) and 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid 4-methyl ester (7), were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuhwangbae) fruit peels. In addition, 5 known hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters were identified: 2-O-(trans-coumaroyl)malic acid (1), 2-O-(cis-coumaroyl)malic acid (2), 2-O-(cis-coumaroyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (3), 2-O-(trans-coumaroyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (4), and 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid (phaselic acid, 5). The chemical structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic data from ESI MS and NMR. Of all the isolated compounds, five hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters (2-4, 6, 7) were identified in the pear for the first time.

  2. Neuroprotective and Cognitive Enhancement Potentials of Angelica gigas Nakai Root: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Songmun

    2017-04-28

    Angelica gigas Nakai is an important medicinal plant with health promoting properties that is used to treat many disorders. In traditional herbal medicine, the root of this plant is used to promote blood flow, to treat anemia, and is used as sedative or tonic agent. The root contains various bioactive metabolites; in particular, decursin and decursinol (pyranocoumarin type components) have been reported to possess various pharmacological properties. Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that the crude extracts and isolated components from the root of A. gigas exhibited neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects. Neuronal damage or death is the most important factor for many neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, recent studies have clearly demonstrated the possible mechanisms behind the neuroprotective action of extracts/compounds from the root of A. gigas. In the present review, we summarized the neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects of extracts and individual compounds from A. gigas root.

  3. Neuroprotective and Cognitive Enhancement Potentials of Angelica gigas Nakai Root: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Songmun

    2017-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai is an important medicinal plant with health promoting properties that is used to treat many disorders. In traditional herbal medicine, the root of this plant is used to promote blood flow, to treat anemia, and is used as sedative or tonic agent. The root contains various bioactive metabolites; in particular, decursin and decursinol (pyranocoumarin type components) have been reported to possess various pharmacological properties. Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that the crude extracts and isolated components from the root of A. gigas exhibited neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects. Neuronal damage or death is the most important factor for many neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, recent studies have clearly demonstrated the possible mechanisms behind the neuroprotective action of extracts/compounds from the root of A. gigas. In the present review, we summarized the neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects of extracts and individual compounds from A. gigas root. PMID:28452965

  4. Characterization and high-pressure microfluidization-induced activation of polyphenoloxidase from Chinese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Jianhua; Xie, Mingyong; Liu, Chengmei; Liu, Weilin; Wan, Jie

    2009-06-24

    Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from Chinese pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) was characterized using catechol as a substrate. PPO had a V(max) of 289.2 units/min and a K(m) of 3.8 mmol/L, which indicates that P. pyrifolia Nakai PPO has a great affinity for catechol. The catalyzing reaction velocity was proportional to the PPO concentration. The optimum pH and temperature for PPO activity were 4.5 and 45 degrees C, respectively. In addition, an investigation was made on the effect of high-pressure microfluidization of treatment pressure, treatment pass, and enzyme solution temperature on P. pyrifolia Nakai PPO. As the treatment pressure increased, the PPO relative activity was elevated from 100% untreated to 182.57% treated at 180 MPa. PPO relative activity was enhanced as the treatment pass increased. PPO solution temperature (25, 35, and 45 degrees C) had a significant effect on PPO relative activity when treated at 120 and 140 MPa.

  5. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Loucks, Michael; Carrico, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this extended abstract is to present results from a failed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver contingency analysis for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. The LADEE spacecrafts nominal trajectory implemented multiple sub-lunar phasing orbits centered at Earth before eventually reaching the Moon (Fig. 1) where a critical LOI maneuver was to be performed [1,2,3]. If this LOI was missed, the LADEE spacecraft would be on an Earth-escape trajectory, bound for heliocentric space. Although a partial mission recovery is possible from a heliocentric orbit (to be discussed in the full paper), it was found that an escape-prevention maneuver could be performed several days after a hypothetical LOI-miss, allowing a return to the desired science orbit around the Moon without leaving the Earths sphere-of-influence (SOI).

  6. Lunar meteoritic gardening rate derived from in situ LADEE/LDEX measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-05-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). LDEX was uniquely equipped to characterize the current rate of lunar impact gardening as it measured the very particles taking part in this process. By deriving an average lunar dust density distribution, we calculate the rate at which exospheric dust rains back down onto the lunar surface. Near the equatorial plane, we find that approximately 40 μm/Myr of lunar regolith, with a cumulative size distribution index of 2.7, is redistributed due to meteoritic bombardment, a process which occurs predominantly on the lunar apex hemisphere.

  7. Meteoritic influence on sodium and potassium abundance in the lunar exosphere measured by LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály; Colaprete, Anthony; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometer (UVS), and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). Here we compare coincident LDEX measurements of meteoritic influx to exospheric column densities of Na and K derived by UVS. We report a strong correlation of exospheric potassium and meteoroid ejecta during the Geminids meteoroid shower, exhibiting a much stronger response than sodium. With the exception of the Geminids, we find a weak correlation between the sporadic meteoroid influx as measured by LDEX and exospheric density as measured by UVS.

  8. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  9. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We have learned it is conceivable that the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on board the Lunarr Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) could measure gases from surface-reflected Attitude Control System (ACS) thruster plume. At minimum altitude, the measurement would be maximized, and gravitational influence minimized ("short" time-of-flight (TOF) situation) Could use to verify aspects of thruster plume modeling Model the transient disturbance to NMS measurements due to ACS gases reflected from lunar surface Observe evolution of various model characteristics as measured by NMS Species magnitudes, TOF measurements, angular distribution, species separation effects

  10. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26061361

  12. Phytochemical composition and toxicity of an antioxidant extract from Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Qian, Wenhui; Xu, Linli; Huang, Guoren; Cong, Wen; Wang, Zhenning; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Dacheng; Guan, Shuang

    2012-09-01

    Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai (PB) is one of the most favored edible greens grown in Asian regions. In our previously study, we found PB extract had antioxidant effects in vitro. In the present study, an EtOAc soluble extract (PBet) was isolated from PB. Then the antioxidant properties at cellular level, phytochemical composition and toxicity of PBet were examined. The results indicated that PBet (0.5-2mg/mL) could protect Bel-7404 cells from H(2)O(2) induced cell damage through scavenging of intracellular ROS. Moreover, myristic acid, 24ζ-methyl-5α-lanosta-25-one, β-sitosterol, pregnenolone and β-daucosterol were firstly isolated from PB. In addition, PBet (0.75g/kg BW, ig) had no acute toxicity and it (0.03-0.12g/kg BW, ig, 7 d) could not influence the rate of bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes micronucleus and chromosome aberration in KM mice. All above findings suggested that PBet could be considered as a safe functional food with antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Candidate Resistant Genes of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) to Alternaria alternata Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Hu, Hongju; Yu, Dazhao; Sun, Zhonghai; He, Xiujuan; Zhang, Jingguo; Chen, Qiliang; Tian, Rui; Fan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear.

  14. Decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai Inhibits B16F10 Melanoma Growth Through Induction of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Hyobin; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Bae, Sang Mun; Son, Hye-Nam; Lee, Yoon Jeong; Ryu, Sungpil; Park, Rang-Woon; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2015-10-01

    Decursin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai (danggwi), has shown preclinical anticancer efficacy in various cancer models. However, the antitumor effect of decursin in melanoma models remains undefined. The antitumor activities of decursin were investigated in B16F10 cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that treatment with decursin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells, but not in normal cells. Decursin also induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells, as determined by annexin V-staining assay and transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining assay. Decursin increased the phosphorylation of p38 as well as the expression of Bax while decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and the expression of Bcl-2 in B16F10 cells. Moreover, decursin activated caspase-3 in B16F10 cells and xenograft tumor tissue. Together, these findings support further investigations into the potential use of decursin in the treatment of melanoma cells.

  15. Development of Genome-Wide SSR Markers from Angelica gigas Nakai Using Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gil, Jinsu; Um, Yurry; Kim, Serim; Kim, Ok Tae; Koo, Sung Cheol; Reddy, Chinreddy Subramanyam; Kim, Seong-Cheol; Hong, Chang Pyo; Park, Sin-Gi; Kim, Ho Bang; Lee, Dong Hoon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Chung, Jong-Wook; Lee, Yi

    2017-09-21

    Angelica gigas Nakai is an important medicinal herb, widely utilized in Asian countries especially in Korea, Japan, and China. Although it is a vital medicinal herb, the lack of sequencing data and efficient molecular markers has limited the application of a genetic approach for horticultural improvements. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are universally accepted molecular markers for population structure study. In this study, we found over 130,000 SSRs, ranging from di- to deca-nucleotide motifs, using the genome sequence of Manchu variety (MV) of A. gigas, derived from next generation sequencing (NGS). From the putative SSR regions identified, a total of 16,496 primer sets were successfully designed. Among them, we selected 848 SSR markers that showed polymorphism from in silico analysis and contained tri- to hexa-nucleotide motifs. We tested 36 SSR primer sets for polymorphism in 16 A. gigas accessions. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.69; the average observed heterozygosity (HO) values, and the expected heterozygosity (HE) values were 0.53 and 0.73, respectively. These newly developed SSR markers would be useful tools for molecular genetics, genotype identification, genetic mapping, molecular breeding, and studying species relationships of the Angelica genus.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids incorporated colloidal systems for the delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae Young; Lee, Song Yi; Yoon, In-Soo; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fish oil-enriched colloidal systems were developed for the oral delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) extract (ext). By constructing a pseudo-ternary phase diagram, the composition of oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion (ME) systems based on ω-3 (oil), Labrasol (surfactant), and water was determined. AGN ext was dissolved into the ME system and d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was added to the ME formulation in order to enhance the mucosal absorption of the pharmacologically active ingredients in the AGN ext. The droplet size of AGN-loaded MEs was 205-277 nm and their morphology was spherical. The release of major components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), from ME formulations in pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffers was significantly greater (P<0.05) than that from the AGN suspension group. The pharmacokinetic properties of AGN-loaded MEs in rats were evaluated by measuring decursinol (DOH) concentrations in plasma after oral administration. TPGS-included ME (F2) resulted in significantly greater (P<0.05) systemic exposure of DOH than that with ME without TPGS (F1), AGN ext+TPGS, and AGN in suspension. Severe toxicity of F1 and F2 on the intestinal epithelium was not observed by histological staining. The colloidal carriers described herein are promising delivery systems for oral administration of AGN ext. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai Inhibits B16F10 Melanoma Growth Through Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Hyobin; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Bae, Sang Mun; Son, Hye-Nam; Lee, Yoon Jeong; Ryu, Sungpil; Park, Rang-Woon; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Decursin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai (danggwi), has shown preclinical anticancer efficacy in various cancer models. However, the antitumor effect of decursin in melanoma models remains undefined. The antitumor activities of decursin were investigated in B16F10 cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that treatment with decursin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells, but not in normal cells. Decursin also induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells, as determined by annexin V-staining assay and transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining assay. Decursin increased the phosphorylation of p38 as well as the expression of Bax while decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and the expression of Bcl-2 in B16F10 cells. Moreover, decursin activated caspase-3 in B16F10 cells and xenograft tumor tissue. Together, these findings support further investigations into the potential use of decursin in the treatment of melanoma cells. PMID:26336081

  18. Identification of QTLs controlling harvest time and fruit skin color in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Nishio, Sogo; Onoue, Noriyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Inoue, Eiichi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Itai, Akihiro; Saito, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Using an F1 population from a cross between Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars ‘Akiakari’ and ‘Taihaku’, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seven fruit traits (harvest time, fruit skin color, flesh firmness, fruit weight, acid content, total soluble solids content, and preharvest fruit drop). The constructed simple sequence repeat-based genetic linkage map of ‘Akiakari’ consisted of 208 loci and spanned 799 cM; that of ‘Taihaku’ consisted of 275 loci and spanned 1039 cM. Out of significant QTLs, two QTLs for harvest time, one for fruit skin color, and one for flesh firmness were stably detected in two successive years. The QTLs for harvest time were located at the bottom of linkage group (LG) Tai3 (nearest marker: BGA35) and at the top of LG Tai15 (nearest markers: PPACS2 and MEST050), in good accordance with results of genome-wide association study. The PPACS2 gene, a member of the ACC synthase gene family, may control harvest time, preharvest fruit drop, and fruit storage potential. One major QTL associated with fruit skin color was identified at the top of LG 8. QTLs identified in this study would be useful for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs. PMID:25914590

  19. Evaluation of the Mutagenic Properties of Two Lignans from Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chang-Eui

    2013-01-01

    Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai, a well known traditional herb grown in Jeju Island, South of Korea, has been used as a tonic and sedative agent, as well as in the treatment of diabetes and immune diseases. Mutagenicity of two lignans, syringaresinol and tortoside A isolated from A. koreanum, was assessed using Salmonella/microsome (Ames) test. Tester strains used were Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The mutagenic activity was determined both in the absence or presence of S9 mixture. As a result, tortoside A did not cause any increase in the number of his+ revertants in S. typhimurium and E. coli WP2uvrA strains in the presence or absence of S9 mix, compared to the controls. Similarly, low concentrations of syringaresinol (750 and 1,500 μg/plate) did not show any mutagenic properties in all bacterial strains, in the presence or absence of S9 mixture. However, in the high concentration of syringaresinol (3,000 μg/plate), the number of revertants were increased in TA1535 strains, in the absence of S9 metabolic activation. Therefore, in vivo experiments such as comet assay are needed to further determine the genotoxic/carciogenic potential of syringaresinol isolated from A. koreanum. PMID:24578798

  20. LADEE UVS Observations of Solar Occultation by Exospheric Dust Above the Lunar Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Cook, A. M.; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M. H.; Vargo, K. E.; Elphic, R. C.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a lunar orbiter launched in September 2012 that investigates the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. The primary goals of the mission are to characterize the pristine gas and dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. To address this goal, the LADEE instrument suite includes an Ultraviolet/ Visible Spectrometer (UVS), which searches for dust, Na, K, and trace gases such as OH, H2O, Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Ti, Fe, as well as other previously undetected species. UVS has two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar viewing telescope. The solar viewer is equipped with a diffuser (see Figure 1a) that allows UVS to stare directly at the solar disk as the Sun starts to set (or rise from) behind the lunar limb. Solar viewer measurements generally have very high signal to noise (SNR greater than 500) for 20-30 ms integration times. The 1-degree solar viewer field of view subtends a diameter of approximately 8 km at a distance of 400-450 km.

  1. LADEE UVS Observations of Solar Occulation by Exospheric Dust above the Lunar Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane; Cook, Amanda Marie; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M. H.; Vargo, K. E.; Elphic, R. C.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a lunar orbiter launched in September 2012 that investigates the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. The primary goals of the mission are to characterize the pristine gas and dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. To address this goal, the LADEE instrument suite includes an Ultraviolet/ Visible Spectrometer (UVS), which searches for dust, Na, K, and trace gases such as OH, H2O, Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Ti, Fe, as well as other previously undetected species. UVS has two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar viewing telescope. The solar viewer is equipped with a diffuser (see Figure 1a) that allows UVS to stare directly at the solar disk as the Sun starts to set (or rise from) behind the lunar limb. Solar viewer measurements generally have very high signal to noise (SNR>500) for 20-30 ms integration times. The 1-degree solar viewer field of view subtends a diameter of 8 km at a distance of 400-450 km

  2. The effects of spacecraft charging and outgassing on the LADEE ion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lianghai; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yongchun; Guo, Dawei

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal ion signals can be usually seen in the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, including a suddenly enhanced current observed by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) near the sunlight-shadow boundary and an unexpected water ion measured by the neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), with their magnitudes insensitive to the convection electric field of solar wind but dependent on the SW density and the elapsed time of LADEE mission. By analyzing both the LDEX measurements and the NMS measurements, we find that the current enhancement can be caused by a negatively charged spacecraft in the shadow region while the significant water ions should be some artificial ions from spacecraft outgassing. The artificial water ions show a peak near 8:00 LT that may be related to a sunlight-controlled surface outgassing. In addition, the H2O flux can be enhanced near the end of the mission when the spacecraft has a lower altitude. It is found that the H2O enhancement is actually caused by an exosphere-contributed return flux, rather than a real water exosphere.

  3. 19 CFR 123.8 - Permit or special license to unlade or lade a vessel or vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permit or special license to unlade or lade a vessel or vehicle. 123.8 Section 123.8 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General...

  4. LRO-LAMP Observations of the Lunar Exosphere Coordinated with LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grava, C.; Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Gladstone, R.; Hurley, D.; Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Miles, P. F.; Pryor, W. R.; Halekas, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The polar orbiting Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) carried out an atmospheric campaign during the month of December 2013, at the same time the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission was sampling the lunar exosphere in a retrograde equatorial orbit. Observations of the lunar exosphere were performed by LAMP during a solar "beta-90" geometry, i.e. riding along the lunar terminator. During this geometry, the LAMP nadir-pointed line of sight to the nightside surface also includes illuminated columns of foreground emissions from exospheric species, which is invaluable in the study of the tenuous lunar exosphere. Other types of maneuvers to probe the lunar exosphere were also performed by LAMP/LRO during this campaign. During backward pitch slews, the LRO spacecraft was pitched to look opposite its direction of motion to a point just inside the limb in the nightside region around the polar terminator. Forward pitch slews were also obtained, and the angles of 63 deg or 77 deg from nadir were set depending on the polar region observed. Finally, during lateral roll slews, LRO rotated by ~60 deg towards the nightside limb, maximizing the amount of illuminated atmosphere in the foreground probed by the LAMP field of view. We extract day to day density variations on helium and/or upper limits for numerous other species that were accessible to both LAMP and LADEE (e.g., Ar, Ne, O, and H2). Moreover, constraints on helium density will complement measurements of solar wind alpha particles (He++) from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission. This comparison will provide a comprehensive picture of composition, abundance, and spatial and temporal variations of volatiles of the lunar exosphere, combining equatorial (LADEE) and polar (LAMP) measurements for the first time. Volatiles in the lunar exosphere, especially water, are of paramount

  5. Molecular Characterization of FT and FD Homologs from Eriobotrya deflexa Nakai forma koshunensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yu, Hao; Lin, Shunquan; Gao, Yongshun

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, regulation of flowering is a vital process for successful reproduction. To date, the molecular mechanism of flowering is well-studied in the model plant, Arabidopsis, in which key genes such as FLOWERING LOCUST (FT) or FD have been identified to regulate flowering. However, the flowering mechanisms are still largely unknown in fruit trees like loquat. To this end, we first cloned one FT- and two FD-like genes from the loquat (Eriobotrya deflexa Nakai f. koshunensis) and referred to as EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 are conserved during the evolution process. EdFT is mainly expressed in reproductive tissues (e.g., flower buds, flowers, and fruits), while EdFD1 and EdFD2 are mainly expressed in apical buds including leaf buds and flower buds. EdFT is localized in the whole cell, while EdFD1 or EdFD2 is localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 in Arabidopsis results in early flowering. In addition, we have also revealed that the EdFT interacts with both EdFD1 and EdFD2. Overall, these data suggest that the EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 are the functional homologs of FT and FD, respectively, which might act together to regulate loquat flowering through a similar mechanism found in Arabidopsis. PMID:26834775

  6. Oral administration of Trapa taiwanensis Nakai fruit skin extracts conferring hepatoprotection from CCl4-caused injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Kao, Ming-Yuan; Wu, She-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Yi; Chang, Ju-Chun; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2011-04-27

    As a folk medicine, the hot-water infusion of water caltrop fruits has been used to protect the liver. In this study, the outer skins of mature water caltrop fruits ( Trapa taiwanensis Nakai) were removed, forced-air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to extraction with hot water, and the infusion was lyophilized and pulverized to prepare a hot water extract of T. taiwanensis (HWETT). HWETT was subjected to assays of α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, reducing power, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and antioxidative potency, and all determinations showed HWETT to be a potent antioxidant. As further analyzed with LC-MS, two major HPLC-detected components were elucidated as gallic acid and ellagic acid. Hepatoprotective activity of HWETT was assessed with Sprague-Dawley male rats by oral administration. Six groups of rats (n = 8 for each) were respectively treated, namely, control, CCl(4) (20% CCl(4)/olive oil by 2.0 mL/kg bw), CCl(4) and Silymarin (200 mg/kg bw), CCl(4) and low HWETT dose (12.5 mg/kg bw), CCl(4) and medium HWETT dose (25 mg/kg bw), and CCl(4) and high HWETT dose (125 mg/kg bw). After 8 weeks, all animals were fasted for an additional day and sacrificed to collect blood, liver, and kidney for analyses. Histopathological examinations showed that oral administrations with Silymarin and HWETT were effective in protecting the liver from CCl(4)-caused fatty change. Oral administration of HWETT at 125 mg/kg bw was more effective than was Silymarin at 200 mg/kg bw. On biochemical analyses, oral administrations with HWETT at medium and high doses were effective (p < 0.05) in lowering CCl(4)-caused increases of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. It is of merit to demonstrate HWETT as a potent source of antioxidants and hepatoprotective agents.

  7. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Hur, I C; Kim, I S; Jin, S K

    2013-02-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) flower buds transitioning through endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Ito, Akiko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-07-01

    The transcriptomes of endodormant and ecodormant Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai 'Kosui') flower buds were analyzed using RNA-seq technology and compared. Among de novo assembly of 114,191 unigenes, 76,995 unigenes were successfully annotated by BLAST searches against various databases. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that oxidoreductases were enriched in the molecular function category, a result consistent with previous observations of notable changes in hydrogen peroxide concentration during endodormancy release. In the GO categories related to biological process, the abundance of DNA methylation-related gene transcripts also significantly changed during endodormancy release, indicating the involvement of epigenetic regulation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis also showed the changes in transcript abundance of genes involved in the metabolism of various phytohormones. Genes for both ABA and gibberellin biosynthesis were down-regulated, whereas the genes encoding their degradation enzymes were up-regulated during endodormancy release. In the ethylene pathway, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), a gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme for ethylene biosynthesis, was induced towards endodormancy release. All of these results indicated the involvement of phytohormones in endodormancy release. Furthermore, the expression of dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes was down-regulated concomitant with endodormancy release, although changes in the abundance of these gene transcripts were not as significant as those identified by transcriptome analysis. Consequently, characterization of the Japanese pear transcriptome during the transition from endormancy to ecodormancy will provide researchers with useful information for data mining and will facilitate further experiments on endodormancy especially in rosaceae fruit trees.

  9. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Hur, I. C.; Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content. PMID:25049789

  10. The potential of Epimedium koreanum Nakai for herb-drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qingxiang; Shi, Ziqi; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Rongling; Xia, Zhi; Wang, Jing; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Yutong; Sun, E; Wei, Yingjie; Feng, Liang; Zhang, Zhenhai; Liu, Dan; Song, Jie; Jia, Xiaobin

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate potential herb-drug interactions (HDI) of Epimedium koreanum Nakai. Human liver microsomes (HLMs) were used to determine the enzyme kinetics of the major human cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Inducible potential of E. koreanum on CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C19 and 3A4 activities of human primary hepatocytes was also examined. Ethanol extract of E. koreanum showed direct inhibitory potency for CYP1A2 (IC50  = 121.8 μg/ml, Ki  = 110.7 ± 36.8 μg/ml) and CYP2B6 (IC50  = 59.5 μg/ml, Ki  = 18.1 ± 2.9 μg/ml). For CYP2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4, only negligible effect was observed. Time-dependent (irreversible) inhibition by E. koreanum was observed for CYP1A2 (KI  = 32.9 ± 18.4 μg/ml, kinact  = 0.031 ± 0.006 min(-1) ). However, ethanol extract of E. koreanum (1.5-150 μg/ml) did not change the activity or mRNA expressions for CYP3A4, 1A2, 2C19 and 2B6. The ethanol extract of E. koreanum is not likely to cause HDI via inducing the major human CYPs. But the potential for interactions between E. koreanum extract and substrates of CYP1A2 or 2B6 cannot be overlooked. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Rosa taiwanensis Nakai in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Der-Shiang; Huang, Mei-Hsuen; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shuang; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a 70% ethanol extract from Rosa taiwanensis Nakai (RTEtOH). The analgesic effect was determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of RTEtOH was examined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the paw edema tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver tissue. The betulinic acid and oleanolic acid contents of RTEtOH were assayed by HPLC. The results showed that RTEtOH decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses (1.0 g/kg) and the late phase of the formalin-induced licking time (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg). In the anti-inflammatory models, RTEtOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4, and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be due to the decreased levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as the inhibition of NO and MDA levels through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd. The contents of two active compounds, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid, were quantitatively determined. This study demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of RTEtOH and provided evidence to support its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25494361

  12. LADEE UVS Observations of Atoms and Dust in the Lunar Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Colaprete, Anthony; Cook, Amanda M.; Shirley, Mark H.; Vargo, Kara E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a lunar orbiter launched in September 2013 that investigated the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. A major goal of the mission was to characterize the dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. The Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard LADEE addresses this goal, utilizing two sets of optics: a limbviewing telescope, and a solar-viewing telescope. We report on spectroscopic (approximately 280 - 820 nm) observations viewing down the lunar wake or along the 'lunar tail' from lunar orbit. Prior groundbased studies have observed the emission from neutral sodium atoms extended along the lunar tail, so often this region is referred to as the lunar sodium tail. UVS measurements were made on the dark side of the moon, with the UVS limb-viewing telescope pointed outward in the direction of the Moon's wake (almost anti-sun), during different lunar phases. These UVS observation activities sample a long column and allow the characterization of scattered light from dust and emission lines from atoms in the lunar tail. Observations in this UVS configuration show the largest excess of scattered blue light in our data set, indicative of the presence of small dust grains in the tail. Once lofted, nanoparticles may become charged and picked up by the solar wind, similar to the phenomena witnessed above Enceladus's northern hemisphere or by the STEREO/WAVES instrument while close to Earth's orbit. The UVS data show that small dust grains as well as atoms become entrained in the lunar tail.

  13. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION...

  14. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice modulates oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray in mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Zakaria, Ainul Mardhiyah; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  15. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure. PMID:24877107

  16. Mosquito Fauna of Lao People's Democratic Republic, with Special Emphasis on the Adult and Larval Surveillance at Nakai District, Khammuane Province.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Pecor, James E; Sutherland, Ian W; Hii, Jeffrey; Debboun, Mustapha; Brey, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    This article includes the distribution records and updated checklist of mosquitoes (Culicidae, Diptera) from the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), based on the literature, specimens deposited at the US National Museum of Natural History mosquito collections, and our recent field collections from the Nakai District, Khammuane Province. Ten of 101 species in the updated checklist of mosquitoes are new records for the Lao PDR.

  17. Dehydration improves cryopreservation of mat rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai) basal stem buds on cryo-plates.

    PubMed

    Niino, T; Yamamoto, S I; Fukui, K; Castillo Martinez, C R; Arizaga, M V; Matsumoto, T; Engelmann, F

    2013-01-01

    Two cryopreservation procedures using aluminium cryo-plates, termed V-Cryo-plate and D-Cryo-plate, were successfully developed for in vitro mat rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai) basal stem buds. Multiple stems induced in liquid MS medium containing 8.9 μM BA by roller culture were cut into small clumps, plated on solid MS medium and cultured for 1 week at 25 degree C. Clumps that had produced many buds were cold-hardened at 5 degree C for 1-2 months. The buds with basal stems were dissected from small clumps and precultured overnight at 25 degree C on solid MS medium containing 0.3 M sucrose. Precultured buds were placed on aluminium cryo-plates and embedded in calcium alginate gel. Osmoprotection was performed by immersing the cryo-plates for 30 min at 25 degree C in loading solution (2 M glycerol + 1.0 M sucrose). In the D-Cryo-plate procedure, the buds were dehydrated to 27-25% moisture content (fresh weight) by placing the cryo-plates in the air current of a laminar flow cabinet for 2 to 3 h. In the V-Cryo-plate procedure, buds were dehydrated by immersing the cryo-plates in PVS2 vitrification solution for 40 min at 25 degree C. In both procedures, cooling was performed by placing the cryo-plates in uncapped cryotubes, which were immersed in liquid nitrogen. For rewarming, cryo-plates were immersed in medium with 1.0 M sucrose for 20 min at room temperature. Regrowth of cryopreserved buds of line 'Kitakei 2' using D-Cryo-plate and V-Cryo-plate procedures, was 90% and 80%, respectively. The two procedures were applied to 20 additional mat rush lines. Using the V-Cryo-plate procedure resulted in regrowth ranging between 13.3 and 86.7%, with an average of 52.5%. The D-Cryo-plate led to regrowth ranging between 73.3 and 96.7%, with an average of 86.3%. The D-Cryo-plate procedure will facilitate cryostorage of mat rush germplasm.

  18. LADEE UVS (UltraViolet Visible Spectrometer) and the Search for Lunar Exospheric Dust: A Detailed Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Cook, Amanda; Colaprete, Anthony; Shirley, Mark; Vargo, Kara; Elphic, Richard C.; Hermalyn, Brendan; Stubbs, Timothy John; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) executed science observations in lunar orbit spanning 2013-Oct-16- 2014-04-18 UT. LADEE's Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) studies the composition and temporal variations of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment, utilizing two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar-viewer. The limb-viewing telescope observes illuminated dust and emitting gas species while the Sun is just behind the lunar limb. The solar viewer, with its diffuser, allows UVS to also stare directly at the solar disk as it approaches the limb, sampling progressively lower exosphere altitudes. Solar viewer "Occultation" activities occur at the lunar sunrise limb, as the LADEE spacecraft passes into the lunar night side, facing the Sun (the spacecraft orbit is near-equatorial retrograde). A loss of transmission of sunlight occurs by the occultation of dust grains along the line-of-sight. So-called "Inertial Limb" activities have the limb-viewing telescope pointed at the lit exosphere just after the Sun has set. Inertial Limb activities follow a similar progression of diminishing sampling altitudes but hold the solar elongation angle constant so the zodiacal light contribution remains constant while seeking to observe the weak lunar horizon glow. On the dark side of the moon, "Sodium Tail" activities pointed the limb-viewing telescope in the direction of the Moon's sodium tail (similar to anti-sunward), during different lunar phases. Of the UVS data sets, these show the largest excess of scattered blue light, indicative of the presence of small (approximately 100 nm) dust grains in the tail. Correlations are sought between dust in the sodium tail and meteor streams and magnetotail crossings to investigate impact- versus electrostatic-lofting. Once lofted, nanoparticles can become charged and picked up by the solar wind. The LADEE UVS Occultation, Inertial Limb, and Sodium Tail spectral datasets provide evidence of

  19. Inferred contributions of the solar wind and micrometeoroids to metallic species in the lunar exosphere from LADEE data and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantos, M.; Colaprete, A.; Szalay, J.; Halekas, J. S.; Wooden, D. H.; Horanyi, M.; Janches, D.

    2016-12-01

    Two processes that have been hypothesized as sources for metals in the lunar exosphere are micrometeoroid impact vaporization and solar wind sputtering. Measurements of exospheric potassium, titanium and magnesium line emission, obtained by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft between November 2013 and April 2014, allow us to quantify the relative roles of these processes in vaporizing lunar soils. We use information provided by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on LADEE to seed a Monte Carlo model of exospheric transport, while the solar wind flux impinging on the lunar surface throughout the LADEE mission was observed by the Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission. The model output for different assumptions such as sputtering yields and micrometeoroid vapor flux is compared to the observed monthly cycle of these exospheres, especially times during passages of the Moon through the Earth's magnetosphere, to obtain the relative importance of sputtering to the overall source. Time-dependent simulation of the evolution of the atmosphere before, during, and following the Geminids meteor shower are also used to further constrain the roles of these two sources. Last, the observed monthly variation is used to obtain limits to the exogenous contribution to the atmosphere by the vaporizing micrometeoroid projectiles.

  20. The Na exosphere reservoir for Mercury and the Moon: Models constrained by MESSENGER and LADEE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantos, M.; Killen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Na exosphere of Mercury is flux-limited, and a careful accounting of the surface reservoir is necessary in order to understand the relative importance of proposed source mechanisms for this exosphere. At the Moon, a similar analysis has not yet been performed, but recent data acquired by the Kaguya spacecraft suggest an analogous depletion of the dayside reservoir for exospheric Na. New measurements of the lunar exosphere obtained by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) and of Mercury's exosphere by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft provide the opportunity to constrain the main parameters determining the reservoirs for these exospheres. We present a model of the exosphere-surface system that attempts to unify these two datasets. We have developed a simulator that accepts as input partially constrained microphysical parameters of the gas-surface interaction (e.g., source rates/cross sections for different source processes, degree of thermal accommodation) to make testable predictions regarding the exosphere and uppermost surface (top 10-10 m). These flux-balance simulations demonstrate that the lunar exosphere is limited by the recycling rate of Na atoms mobilized by micrometeoroid vaporization. An important consequence is that, to obtain consistency with ground-based observations of the Na exosphere, the inferred impact vapor at the Moon must peak near the equator and decrease towards the poles because of migration of surface particles toward the poles through exospheric transport. Micrometeoroid streams can have a long-term effect on the lunar exosphere because, as shown in our model, particles introduced by such streams survive in the soil and exosphere for at least two lunations. Important but secondary effects must be provided by the solar wind in order to account for the variations observed within one lunation by LADEE. In its application to Mercury, the code uses new estimates of

  1. Caffeoyl triterpenes from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) fruit peels and their antioxidative activities against oxidation of rat blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Chan Mi; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong-An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-05-15

    Six triterpenes, including three caffeoyl triterpenes, were purified and isolated from pear fruit ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuwhangbae) peel extracts using various column chromatography techniques with a guided 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. The isolated compounds were identified as betulinic aldehyde (1), lupeol (2), betulinic acid (3), 3-O-cis-caffeoylbetulinic acid (4), 3-O-trans-caffeoylbetulinic acid (5), and 3-O-trans-caffeoyloleanolic acid (6) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four compounds (1, 4-6) were identified from Asian pear fruit for the first time. In addition, compounds 4-6, containing a caffeic acid moiety, showed higher DPPH radical-scavenging and suppression effects against copper ion-induced oxidation of rat blood plasma than other compounds without a caffeic acid moiety.

  2. Detections of lunar exospheric ions by the LADEE neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Poppe, A. R.; Delory, G. T.

    2015-07-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS), operating in ion mode, provides sensitive detections of ions from the lunar exosphere. By analyzing ion-mode data from the entire mission, utilizing Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) plasma and magnetic field measurements to organize NMS data and eliminate background sources, we identify highly significant detections of lunar ions at mass per charge of 2, 4, 12, 20, 28, 39, and 40, moderately significant detections at 14 and 23, and weak detections at 24, 25, and 36. Unlike many previous observations of Moon-derived ions, an outward pointing viewing geometry ensures that these ions originate from the exosphere, rather than directly from the surface. For species with known neutral distributions, inferred ion production rates appear consistent with expectations for both magnitude and spatial distribution, assuming photoionization as the predominant source mechanism. Unexpected signals at mass per charge 12 and 28 suggest the presence of a significant exospheric population of carbon-bearing molecules.

  3. Early Operations Flight Correlation of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Yang, Kan; Nguyen, Daniel; Cornwell, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission launched on September 7, 2013 with a one month cruise before lunar insertion. The LADEE spacecraft is a power limited, octagonal, composite bus structure with solar panels on all eight sides with four vertical segments per side and 2 panels dedicated to instruments. One of these panels has the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), which represents a furthering of the laser communications technology demonstration proved out by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LLCD increases the bandwidth of communication to and from the moon with less mass and power than LROs technology demonstrator. The LLCD Modem and Controller boxes are mounted to an internal cruciform composite panel and have no dedicated radiator. The thermal design relies on power cycling of the boxes and radiation of waste heat to the inside of the panels, which then reject the heat when facing cold space. The LADEE mission includes a slow roll and numerous attitudes to accommodate the challenging thermal requirements for all the instruments on board. During the cruise phase, the internal Modem and Controller avionics for LLCD were warmer than predicted by more than modeling uncertainty would suggest. This caused concern that if the boxes were considerably warmer than expected while off, they would also be warmer when operating and could limit the operational time when in lunar orbit. The thermal group at Goddard Space Flight Center evaluated the models and design for these critical avionics for LLCD. Upon receipt of the spacecraft models and audit was performed and data was collected from the flight telemetry to perform a sanity check of the models and to correlate to flight where possible. This paper describes the efforts to correlate the model to flight data and to predict the thermal performance when in lunar orbit and presents some lessons learned.

  4. LADEE UVS (UltraViolet Visible Spectrometer) and the Search for Lunar Exospheric Dust: A Detailed Spectral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Cook, A.; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M.; Vargo, K.; Elphic, R. C.; Hermalyn, B.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) executed science observations in lunar orbit spanning 2013-Oct-16- 2014-04-18 UT. LADEE's Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) studies the composition and temporal variations of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment, utilizing two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar-viewer. The limb-viewing telescope observes illuminated dust and emitting gas species while the Sun is just behind the lunar limb. The solar viewer, with its diffuser, allows UVS to also stare directly at the solar disk as it approaches the limb, sampling progressively lower exosphere altitudes. Solar viewer "Occultation" activities occur at the lunar sunrise limb, as the LADEE spacecraft passes into the lunar night side, facing the Sun (the spacecraft orbit is near-equatorial retrograde). A loss of transmission of sunlight occurs by the occultation of dust grains along the line-of-sight [1, 2]. So-called "Inertial Limb" activities have the limb-viewing telescope pointed at the lit exosphere just after the Sun has set. Inertial Limb activities follow a similar progression of diminishing sampling altitudes but hold the solar elongation angle constant so the zodiacal light contribution remains constant while seeking to observe the weak lunar horizon glow [2,3,4]. On the dark side of the moon, "Sodium Tail" activities pointed the limb-viewing telescope in the direction of the Moon's sodium tail (~anti-sunward), during different lunar phases. Of the UVS data sets, these show the largest excess of scattered blue light, indicative of the presence of small (~100 nm) dust grains in the tail. Correlations are sought between dust in the sodium tail and meteor streams [5] and magnetotail [3] crossings to investigate impact- versus electrostatic-lofting [6]. Once lofted, nanoparticles can become charged and picked up by the solar wind [7,8]. The LADEE UVS Occultation, Inertial Limb, and Sodium Tail spectral datasets provide

  5. Nanocomposites based on Soluplus and Angelica gigas Nakai extract fabricated by an electrohydrodynamic method for oral administration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Nam, Suyeong; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Song Yi; Jeong, Jae Young; Lee, Jae-Young; Kang, Wie-Soo; Yoon, In-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-12-15

    Nanocomposites (NCs) based on Soluplus (SP) were fabricated by an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) method for the oral delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN). Nano-sized particles were obtained after dispersing the resultant, produced by the EHD technique, in the aqueous environment. AGN/SP2 (AGN:SP=1:2, w/w) NC dispersion in aqueous media exhibited a 130nm mean diameter, narrow size distribution, and robust stability in the tested concentration range of the ethanol extract of AGN (AGN EtOH ext) and at pH 1.2 and 6.8. Amorphization of the components of AGN and their interactions with SP in the AGN/SP2 NC formulation were demonstrated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis. The released amounts of decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), major components of AGN, from NCs were improved compared with those from the AGN EtOH ext group at both pH 1.2 and 6.8. As D and DA can be metabolized into decursinol (DOH) in the liver after oral administration, the DOH concentrations in plasma were quantitatively determined to evaluate the oral absorption of AGN. In a pharmacokinetic study in rats, higher oral absorption and the maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) were presented in the AGN/SP2 NC group compared with the AGN EtOH ext and AGN NC groups. These findings indicate the successful application of developed SP-based NCs for the oral delivery of AGN.

  6. Potent inhibition of monoamine oxidase A by decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai and by wogonin from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Ryu, Hyung Won; Kang, Myung-Gyun; Park, Daeui; Lee, Hanna; Shin, Heung Mook; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Hoon

    2017-04-01

    During the ongoing search for new monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, five coumarin derivatives and eight flavonoids were isolated from the roots of Angelica gigas Nakai and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, respectively. Of the phytochemicals, decursin (4) was found to potently and selectively inhibit human MAO-A (IC50=1.89μM). The IC50 value of 4 for MAO-A belonged to the lowest group in herbal sources and was similar to that of toloxatone (1.78μM), a marketed drug. Wogonin (11) effectively inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B (IC50=6.35 and 20.8μM, respectively). Furthermore, compounds 5 (decursinol angelate) and 10 (baicalein) were observed to selectively and moderately inhibit MAO-A. In addition, compound 4 reversibly and competitively inhibited MAO-A with a Ki of 0.17μM. Compound 11 also competitively inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B (Ki=0.56 and 1.96μM, respectively). Molecular docking simulation revealed that 4 interacts with Asn181 residue of MAO-A or Asn116 residue of MAO-B by formation of hydrogen bond. The findings suggest compounds 4 and 11 be considered as new potent and reversible MAO-A inhibitors or useful lead compounds for the developments of MAO inhibitors for the treatment of disorders like depression, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Kinchaku' (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in 'Osa Nijisseiki' and Ana in 'Nansui'. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of 'Kinchaku' and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a 'Housui' × 'Kinchaku' cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome and 107 Kb in the 'Dangshansuli' Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear.

  8. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar ‘Kinchaku’ (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in ‘Osa Nijisseiki’ and Ana in ‘Nansui’. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of ‘Kinchaku’ and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a ‘Housui’ × ‘Kinchaku’ cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome and 107 Kb in the ‘Dangshansuli’ Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear. PMID:27162498

  9. Achyranthes japonica Nakai Water Extract Suppresses Binding of IgE Antibody to Cell Surface FcɛRI

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sun Yup; Lee, Mina; Lee, Kyung Dong

    2016-01-01

    Achyranthes japonica Nakai (AJN) water extract has a variety of physiological properties, including anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-oxidative activities. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of AJN extract were investigated in high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcɛRI)-mediated KU812F cells activation. AJN extract showed suppressive effects on histamine release and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i elevation from anti-FcɛRI antibody (CRA-1)-stimulated cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis showed that AJN extract treatment caused a dose-dependent decrease in the cell surface FcɛRI expression and the binding between the cell surface FcɛRI and the IgE antibody. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that levels of the mRNA for the FcɛRI α chain was decreased by treatment with AJN extract. These results indicate that AJN extract may exert anti-allergic effects via the inhibition of calcium influx and histamine release, which occurs as a result from the down-regulation of the binding of IgE antibody to cell surface FcɛRI. This mechanism may occur through FcɛRI expression inhibition. PMID:28078254

  10. Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai modulates the immune response by inhibiting TLR 4-dependent cytokine production in rat model of endotoxic shock

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Myung-gi; Do, Gyeong-Min; Shin, Jae-Ho; Ham, Young Min; Park, Soo-Yeong

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai extract (AE) was investigated against D-Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS)-induced liver failure rats compared with that of acanthoic acid (AA) isolated from AE. Although D-GalN/LPS (250 mg/kg body weight/10 µg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced hepatic damage, pretreatments with AE (1 and 3% AE/g day) and AA (0.037% AA, equivalent to 3% AE/g day) alleviated the hepatic damage. This effect was the result of a significant decrease in the activity of alanine transaminase. Concomitantly, both the nitric oxide and IL-6 levels in the plasma were significantly decreased by high-dose AE (AE3) treatment compared to the GalN/LPS control (AE0). This response resulted from the regulation of pro-inflammatory signaling via a decrease in TLR4 and CD14 mRNA levels in the liver. While a high degree of necrosis and hemorrhage were observed in the AE0, pretreatment with AE3 and AA reduced the extent of hepatocyte degeneration, necrosis, hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltrates compared to the AE0. In conclusion, these results suggest that especially high-dose AE are capable of alleviating D-GalN/LPS-induced hepatic injury by decreasing hepatic toxicity, thereby mitigating the TLR 4-dependent cytokine release. The anti-inflammatory effect of AE could be contributing to that of AA and AE is better than AA. PMID:24353831

  11. Evaluation of Estrogenic Activity of Extract from the Herbal Mixture Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley, Phlomis umbrosa Turczaninow, and Angelica gigas Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Jong; Jin, Sun Woo; Lee, Gi-Ho; Kim, Yong An; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2017-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) consists of highly effective prescription medications for treating menopausal symptoms; however, these agents have exhibited side effects including the risk of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Therefore, interest in phytotherapy-based materials as a natural source of alternatives to estrogen therapy has increased. However, some of these herbal medicines have been reported to increase the risk of estrogen-induced cancer. Herbal formulations composed of a combination of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley (CW), Phlomis umbrosa Turczaninow (PU), and Angelica gigas Nakai (AG) extracts (CPAE) have been used for treating menopausal symptoms. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the safety of CPAE by determining its potential adverse estrogenic activity using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 455 (TG455) in a stably transfected transcriptionally activated human estrogen receptor α (hERα)-HeLa9903 cell model. We found that CPAE did not how any estrogenic activity or stimulate promoters containing estrogen response elements in MCF-7 cells. In addition, CPAE showed no significant selective activity against hERα and hERβ, non-selective activity against the ER, or effects on ER target gene expression. Furthermore, CPAE did not significantly induce MCF-7 cell proliferation and uterine weight increase in ovariectomized rats. These results demonstrate that CPAE can be used as beneficial herbal drug for prevention and therapeutic intervention of estrogen carcinogenesis in menopausal women. PMID:28133516

  12. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117.90 Section 102-117.90 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.210 - May my agency use bills of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conditions (also found in the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”) contained in this part. ... of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment? 102-118.210 Section 102-118.210 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.105 - Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.105 Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading? The “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook” contains information on how to prepare this...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.210 - May my agency use bills of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions (also found in the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”) contained in this part. ... of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment? 102-118.210 Section 102-118.210 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing...

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.105 - Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.105 Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading? The “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook” contains information on how to prepare this...

  17. Intestinal Absorption Mechanisms of Prenylated Flavonoids Present in the Heat-Processed Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Yin Yanghuo)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zhao, Yan Hong; Jia, Xiao Bin; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The purpose is to determine absorption mechanism of five bioactive prenylated flavonoids (baohuoside I, icariin, epimedine A, B, and C) present in heat-processed Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Yin Yanghuo). Methods Transport of five prenylated flavonoids present in heat-processed herbs were studied in the human intestinal Caco-2 model and the perfused rat intestinal model. Results In the perfused rat intestinal model, prenylated flavonoids with a monoglucosidic bond (e.g., icariin) was rapidly hydrolyzed into corresponding metabolites (e.g., baohuoside I). In the Caco-2 model, apical to basolateral permeability of a monoglycoside baohuoside I (1.46 ×10−6 cm/sec) was more than 2 folds greater than four prenylated flavonoids with 2 or more sugar moieties (<0.6×10−6 cm/sec). The slow apical to basolateral transport of baohuoside I was the result of efflux. This efflux was carrier-mediated and active since its transport was vectorial, concentration- and temperature-dependent with activation energies greater than 15 kcal/mol. Efflux of baohuoside I was significantly suppressed by inhibitors of BCRP and MRP2, whereas efflux of icariin was significantly inhibited only by p-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil. Because YHH is often heat-processed for better efficacy, we determined and found the optimal condition for increasing contents of more bioavailable flavonoids (i.e., baohuoside I) to be 160–170°C for 5–7 min. Conclusions Poor bioavailability of prenylated flavonoids results from their poor intrinsic permeation and transporter-mediated efflux. Heat processing parameters may be optimized to preserve the herb’s bioavailable flavonoids, which help retain and improve its efficacy during processing. PMID:18459036

  18. Potent Anti-Inflammatory and Antiadipogenic Properties of Bamboo (Sasa coreana Nakai) Leaves Extract and Its Major Constituent Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji Hye; Choi, Moon-Hee; Yang, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sam Seok; Park, Su Jung; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2017-08-09

    The pro-inflammatory response and recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we reported the anti-inflammatory and antiadipogenic effects of the methanol (MeOH) extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of bamboo leaf and its molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Functional macrophage migration assays also were performed. Surprisingly, the EtOAc fraction of MeOH extracts from native Korean plant species Sasa coreana Nakai (SCN) has shown potent anti-inflammatory properties; SCN pretreatment inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production (p < 0.01) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Inflammatory genes induced by LPS, including TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, were significantly attenuated by SCN (p < 0.01). Pretreatment with SCN antagonized NF-κB nuclear translocation and the simultaneous degradation of inhibitory κB protein. Furthermore, SCN selectively inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK (p < 0.01) and p38 (p < 0.05) but not ERK (p > 0.05). Similar to leaf extracts of other bamboo species, we identified that SCN contained several flavonoids including orientin, isoorientin, and vitexin; these compounds inhibited LPS-induced NO production (p < 0.05) and iNOS expression. In addition, SCN inhibited adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by Oil Red O staining and the protein expression of mature adipogenic marker genes. Treatment with the major flavonoids of SCN also inhibited adipogenesis. Furthermore, conditioned medium obtained from adipocytes stimulated macrophage chemotaxis, whereas medium from adipocytes treated with SCN significantly inhibited macrophage migration. Therefore, SCN is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of inflammation and obesity.

  19. Effect of nitrogen source on biomass and bioactive compound production in submerged cultures of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai adventitious roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium to nitrate ratios of 0:30, 5:25, 10:20, 15:15, 20:10, 25:5, and 30:0 mM were tested to determine the optimal NH(4)(+) :NO(3)(-) ratio for improving biomass and bioactive compound production in Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai adventitious roots using 3-L bulb-type bubble bioreactors. A high ammonium nitrogen ratio had a negative effect on root growth, and the highest fresh and dry weights were obtained when NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratios were 5:25 and 10:20 (mM) after 5 weeks of culture. Although the total production of eleutherosides B and E was slightly higher at the 10:20 ratio than at the 5:25 ratio (NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-)), we proposed that the optimal NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratio was 5:25 mM. This ratio achieved both the highest total production of five target bioactive compounds (eleutherosides B and E, chlorogenic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids) and the highest root biomass. Furthermore, increasing NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratios to 10:20 decreased pH in the medium, interrupted the absorption of essential minerals from the culture medium, and resulted in low biomass and increased relative oxidative stress levels, which were evaluated by determining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Therefore, nitrate rather than ammonium nitrogen was more essential not for only biomass production but also for bioactive compound production in E. koreanum adventitious root cultures. The optimal nitrogen source ratio produced 5.63 g L(-1) of biomass and 24.41 mg of the five total bioactive compounds per gram of biomass (dry weight basis). The development of such in vitro culture technology will benefit the pilot-scale production of E. koreanum-based bioactive compounds for commercialization.

  20. Quantifying Sources, Sinks and Gas-surface Interactions on the Moon from LADEE Measurements of Exospheric Na and K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, A.; Sarantos, M.; Poppe, A. R.; Bennett, C.; Orlando, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present numerical simulations of the generation and loss of the sodium (Na) and potassium (K) exospheres of the Moon and compare these results to recent LADEE observations. While both species appear to migrate towards the poles like other volatiles, Na resides on the soil and exosphere for one to two months before getting lost to the solar wind or the subsurface. K exhibits a different evolutionary trend: it is lost much more quickly than ionization and sputtering rates allow for, suggesting that it is lost to the ground in just a few bounces. Thus, the two alkalis exhibit very different interactions with the lunar surface. Reproducing the monthly variation exhibited by Na requires higher source rates at Mare, or higher sink rates at Highlands, or a combination of both. The very different behavior of Na on Mare and Highlands soils is reminiscent of laboratory experiments of water binding on Apollo fine soils.

  1. Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its main constituent icariin suppress lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yunk-Yung; Song, Mi-Young; Hwang, Min-Sub; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Park, Yong-Ki; Jung, Hyo-Won

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities such as type 2 diabetes and has become a major health problem worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Herba Epimedii, HE) and its main constituent icariin on the adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. HE extract and icariin significantly reduced lipid accumulation and suppressed the expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1c in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. They also inhibited fatty acid synthase (FAS), acyl-Co A synthase (ACS1), and perilipin. Moreover, HE extract and icariin markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK. These results indicated that HE extract and icariin can inhibit the adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of the adipogenic transcription factors, suggesting that HE containing icariin may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment and prevention of obesity. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of inoculum density and aeration volume on biomass and bioactive compound production in bulb-type bubble bioreactor cultures of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Moh, Sang-Hyun; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2011-07-01

    This study deals with the effects of initial inoculum density and aeration volume on biomass and bioactive compound production in adventitious roots of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai in bulb-type bubble bioreactors (3-L capacity). While the fresh and dry weights of the roots increased with increasing inoculum density, the highest percentage dry weight and accumulation of total target compounds (eleutheroside B and E, chlorogenic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids) were noted at an inoculum density of 5.0 g L(-1). Poor aeration volume (0.05 vvm) stunted root growth, and high aeration volume (0.4 vvm) caused physiological disorders. Moreover, an inoculum density of 5.0 g L(-1) and an aeration volume of 0.1 vvm resulted in the highest concentration of total target compounds and least root death. Such optimization of culture conditions will be beneficial for the large-scale production of E. koreanum biomass and bioactive compounds.

  3. High-Spectral Resolution, Ground-Based Observations of the Lunar Sodium and Potassium Exosphere During the LADEE Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuruppuaratchi, D. C. P.; Oliversen, R. J.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Derr, N. J.; Freer, C. W.; Gallant, M. A.; Gardner, D. D.; Lupie, O. L.; Spalsbury, L. C.; Wilson, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    We apply high resolution spectroscopy to investigate the lunar exosphere by measuring sodium and potassium spectral line profiles to determine the variations in exospheric effective temperatures and velocities. Observations were made at the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope concurrent with the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) science phase. We used a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 200,000 to measure the line widths and radial velocity Doppler shifts of the sodium D2 (5889.951 Å) and potassium D1 (7698.965 Å) emission lines. Data were taken during the full moon periods from November 2013 through May 2014 with the exception of March 2014. The instrument's Field of View (FOV) of 3 arcmin (~360 km) was positioned at several locations, centered at 1.5 arcmin, off the East and West limbs. The deconvolved line widths indicate sodium temperatures pre- and post- magnetotail passage are on the order of 1600 K while temperatures during passage through the magnetotail are on the order of a several thousand Kelvin. Unlike sodium, the potassium deconvolved line widths indicate pre-magnetotail passage several hundred degrees hotter than the post-magnetotail passage temperatures. Additionally, both sodium and potassium intensities were brighter after magnetotail passage than before. This work was partially supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy programs, NNX11AE38G and NNX13AL30G.

  4. Modeling the Impact Ejected Dust Contribution to the Lunar Exosphere: Results from Experiments and Ground Truth from LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Colaprete, A.

    2013-12-01

    A considerable body of evidence indicates the presence of lofted regolith dust above the lunar surface. These observations range from multiple in-situ and orbital horizon glow detections to direct measurement of dust motion on the surface, as by the Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment. Despite this evidence, the specific mechanisms responsible for the lofting of regolith are still actively debated. These include impact ejection, electrostatic lofting, effects of high energy radiation, UV/X- rays, and interplay with solar wind plasma. These processes are highly relevant to one of the two main scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (due to launch September, 2013): to directly measure the lunar exospheric dust environment and its spatial and temporal variability towards the goal of better understanding the dust flux. Of all the proposed mechanisms taking place on the lunar surface, the only unequivocal ongoing process is impact cratering. Hypervelocity impact events, which mobilize and redistribute regolith across planetary surfaces, are arguably the most pervasive geologic process on rocky bodies. While many studies of dust lofting state that the impact flux rate is orders of magnitude too low to account for the lunar horizon glow phenomenon and discount its contribution, it is imperative to re-examine these assumptions in light of new data on impact ejecta, particularly from the contributions from mesoscale (impactor size on the order of grain size) and macroscale (impactor > grain size) cratering. This is in large part due to a previous lack of data, for while past studies have established a canonical ejecta model for main-stage ejection of sand targets from vertical impacts, only recent studies have been able to begin quantitatively probing the intricacies of the ejection process outside this main-stage, vertical regime. In particular, it is the high-speed early-time ejecta that will reach

  5. Standardized Cirsium setidens Nakai Ethanolic Extract Suppresses Adipogenesis and Regulates Lipid Metabolisms in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C57BL/6J Mice Fed High-Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bong-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Jin-Ha; Ra, Moon-Jin; Han, Kyoung Chan; Kang, Il-Jun; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2017-08-01

    Cirsium setidens Nakai, a wild perennial herb, grows mainly in Gangwon province, Korea, and has been reported to contain bioactive ingredients with various medicinal activities, including the treatment of edema, bleeding, and hemoptysis. However, the potential antiobesity effects of C. setidens Nakai have not been fully investigated. This study evaluated the antiobesity effect of standardized C. setidens Nakai ethanolic extract (CNE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in obese C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. CNE suppressed the expression of lipogenic genes and increased the expression of lipolytic genes. The antiadipogenic and antilipogenic effects of CNE appear to be mediated by the inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) expressions. Moreover, CNE stimulated fatty acid oxidation in an AMPK-dependent manner. CNE-treated groups of C57BL/6J mice showed reduced body weights and adipose tissue weight and improved serum lipid profiles through the downregulation of PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) and the upregulation of adiponectin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) in obese C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. These results suggest that CNE may have an antiobesity effect on adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in vitro and in vivo and present the possibility of developing a treatment for obesity with nontoxic natural resources.

  6. Summary of the results from the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly

    2016-07-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (9/2013 - 4/2014) discovered a permanently present dust cloud engulfing the Moon. The size, velocity, and density distributions of the dust particles are consistent with ejecta clouds generated from the continual bombardment of the lunar surface by sporadic interplanetary dust particles. Intermittent density enhancements were observed during several of the annual meteoroid streams, especially during the Geminids. LDEX found no evidence of the expected density enhancements over the terminators where electrostatic processes were predicted to efficiently loft small grains. LDEX is an impact ionization dust detector, it captures coincident signals and full waveforms to reliably identify dust impacts. LDEX recorded average impact rates of approximately 1 and 0.1 hits/minute of particles with impact charges of q > 0.5 and q > 5 fC, corresponding to particles with radii of a > 0.3 and a> 0.7~μm, respectively. Several of the yearly meteor showers generated sustained elevated levels of impact rates, especially if their radiant direction intersected the lunar surface near the equatorial plane, greatly enhancing the probability of crossing their ejecta plumes. The characteristic velocities of dust particles in the cloud are on the order of ~100 m/s which we neglect compared to the typical spacecraft speeds of 1.6 km/s. Hence, with the knowledge of the spacecraft orbit and attitude, impact rates can be directly turned into particle densities as functions of time and position. LDEX observations are the first to identify the ejecta clouds around the Moon sustained by the continual bombardment of interplanetary dust particles. Most of the dust particles generated in impacts have insufficient energy to escape and follow ballistic orbits, returning to the surface, 'gardening' the regolith. Similar ejecta clouds are expected to engulf all airless planetary objects, including

  7. Angelica gigas Nakai and Soluplus-Based Solid Formulations Prepared by Hot-Melting Extrusion: Oral Absorption Enhancing and Memory Ameliorating Effects.

    PubMed

    Piao, Jingpei; Lee, Jae-Young; Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Choong Je; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kang, Wie-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Oral solid formulations based on Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) and Soluplus were prepared by the hot-melting extrusion (HME) method. AGN was pulverized into coarse and ultrafine particles, and their particle size and morphology were investigated. Ultrafine AGN particles were used in the HME process with high shear to produce AGN-based formulations. In simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2 and pH 6.8) and water, significantly higher amounts of the major active components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), were extracted from the HME-processed AGN/Soluplus (F8) group than the AGN EtOH extract (ext) group (p < 0.05). Based on an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, the relative oral bioavailability of decursinol (DOH), a hepatic metabolite of D and DA, in F8-administered mice was 8.75-fold higher than in AGN EtOH ext-treated group. In scopolamine-induced memory-impaired mice, F8 exhibited a more potent cognitive enhancing effect than AGN EtOH ext in both a Morris water maze test and a passive avoidance test. These findings suggest that HME-processed AGN/Soluplus formulation (F8) could be a promising therapeutic candidate for memory impairment.

  8. Decursin in Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) Enhances Doxorubicin Chemosensitivity in NCI/ADR-RES Ovarian Cancer Cells via Inhibition of P-glycoprotein Expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Cho, Sung-Gook; Kim, Min Kyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Moon, Seung Hee; Kim, Il Hwan; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-12-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN, Korean Dang-gui) is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Here, we investigated multidrug-resistant phenotype-reversal activities of AGN and its compounds (decursin, ferulic acid, and nodakenin) in doxorubicin-resistant NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed that a combination of doxorubicin with either AGN or decursin inhibited a proliferation of NCI/ADR-RES cells. These combinations increased the number of cells at sub-G1 phase when cells were stained with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate. We also found that these combinations activated caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3 and increased cleaved PARP level. Moreover, an inhibition of P-glycoprotein expression by either AGN or decursin resulted in a reduction of its activity in NCI/ADR-RES cells. Therefore, our data demonstrate that decursin in AGN inhibits doxorubicin-resistant ovarian cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in the presence of doxorubicin via blocking P-glycoprotein expression. Therefore, AGN would be a potentially novel treatment option for multidrug-resistant tumors by sensitizing to anticancer agents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The Neuroprotective Effects of Decursin Isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai Against Amyloid β-Protein-Induced Apoptosis in PC 12 Cells via a Mitochondria-Related Caspase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Du, Jikun; Zou, Liyi; Xia, Haishan; Wu, Tie; Kim, Yongho; Lee, Yongwoo

    2015-08-01

    Decursin, purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property. Previous study revealed decursin protected the PC12 cells from Aβ25-35-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate whether decursin could protect PC12 cells from apoptosis caused by Aβ. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with decursin significantly inhibited Aβ25-35-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The mechanism of action is likely to reverse Aβ25-35-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, including the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production, and the decrease of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c in PC12 cells. In addition, decursin significantly suppressed the activity of caspase-3 and moderated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax induced by Aβ25-35. These findings indicate that decursin exerts a neuroprotective effect against Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, at least in part, via suppressing the mitochondrial pathway of cellular apoptosis.

  10. Angelica gigas Nakai and Soluplus-Based Solid Formulations Prepared by Hot-Melting Extrusion: Oral Absorption Enhancing and Memory Ameliorating Effects

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Jingpei; Lee, Jae-Young; Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Choong Je; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kang, Wie-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Oral solid formulations based on Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) and Soluplus were prepared by the hot-melting extrusion (HME) method. AGN was pulverized into coarse and ultrafine particles, and their particle size and morphology were investigated. Ultrafine AGN particles were used in the HME process with high shear to produce AGN-based formulations. In simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2 and pH 6.8) and water, significantly higher amounts of the major active components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), were extracted from the HME-processed AGN/Soluplus (F8) group than the AGN EtOH extract (ext) group (p < 0.05). Based on an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, the relative oral bioavailability of decursinol (DOH), a hepatic metabolite of D and DA, in F8-administered mice was 8.75-fold higher than in AGN EtOH ext-treated group. In scopolamine-induced memory-impaired mice, F8 exhibited a more potent cognitive enhancing effect than AGN EtOH ext in both a Morris water maze test and a passive avoidance test. These findings suggest that HME-processed AGN/Soluplus formulation (F8) could be a promising therapeutic candidate for memory impairment. PMID:25915423

  11. Evaluation of polyphenol composition and biological activities of two samples from summer and winter seasons of Ligularia fischeri var. Spiciformis Nakai.

    PubMed

    Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Sivasubramanian, Chandran; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2015-06-01

    Phenolic contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were determined by two samples from summer (June) and winter (December) seasons of Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai. A total of 24 phenolic compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis. Myricetin (1964.35 and 1829.12 μg/g) was the most dominant flavonol compared to quercetin and kaempferol. Salicylic acid (222.80 and 215.25 μg/g) was the most important phenolic compound compared to pyrogallol, caffeic acid, gentisic acid, o-coumaric acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and ferulic acid in summer (June) and winter (December) seasons. Phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities were estimated for the various solvent extracts (petroleum ether, butanol, ethyl acetate, methanol and water). Ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest phenolic (332.64 and 299.44 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and flavonoid contents (5.72 and 5.29 mg/g quercetin equivalent) and also the strongest antioxidant activity in summer and winter seasons. Due to these metabolic variations, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were increased with summer seasons compared to winter seasons. Our study shows that the samples collected in June had higher phenolic compounds, stronger antioxidative and antimicrobial activity than the samples of L. fischeri leaf extracts collected in December.

  12. Ethanol extract of Synurus deltoides (Aiton) Nakai suppresses in vitro LPS-induced cytokine production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo acute inflammatory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yunyao

    2014-01-01

    Synurus deltoides (Aiton) Nakai, belonging to the Compositae family, is an edible plant widely distributed in Northeast Asia. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulative effects of the ethanol extract of S. deltoides (SDE). The SDE extract strongly down-regulated the mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, thereby inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and TNF-α in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, SDE also suppressed the nuclear translocation of the activation protein (AP)-1 and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and simultaneously decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK), p38, and Akt. In agreement with the in vitro observations, the orally administered SDE ameliorated the acute inflammatory symptoms in the arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and the EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Therefore, S. deltoides have a potential anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential therapeutic use in the inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:24611100

  13. Rapid identification of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genotypes in cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) using CAPS markers.

    PubMed

    Itai, A; Kotaki, T; Tanabe, K; Tamura, F; Kawaguchi, D; Fukuda, M

    2003-05-01

    In Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), fruit storage potential is closely related to the amount of ethylene produced. We have developed a rapid and accurate method for analyzing genes involved in high ethylene production during fruit ripening in Japanese pear. This involves cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) of two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes (PPACS1 and PPACS2). Two CAPS markers (A for PPACS1 and B for PPACS2), associated with the amount of ethylene produced, were identified. Marker A was associated with high ethylene producers and marker B with moderate ethylene producers. The absence of these two markers enabled the identification of low ethylene producers. Using these markers, we have identified ethylene genotypes for 40 Japanese pear cultivars and two Chinese pear (P. bretschneideri) cultivars that are commercially important and used in breeding programs. Furthermore, we performed linkage analysis of these two genes in the F(2) population, which revealed that the recombination frequency between the two markers was 20.8 +/- 3.6%. This information is critical to the selection of parents and in breeding strategies to improve storage ability of Japanese pears.

  14. Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai extract and its constituent p-coumaric acid inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells through activation of the AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung-Woo; Kang, Seong-Il; Shin, Hye-Sun; Yoon, Seon-A; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai extract (SQE) and its main constituent, p-coumaric acid, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. SQE markedly inhibited adipogenesis by downregulating the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and aP2. It also decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adiponectin mRNAs in differentiating adipocytes. SQE increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation during the early phase of MDI-induced differentiation, suggesting that SQE exerted its anti-adipogenic effect via AMPK activation at an early stage of the differentiation process. p-Coumaric acid suppressed adipogenesis by attenuating the expression of C/EBPα, PPARγ, and SREBP-1c during the late phase of MDI-induced differentiation. In addition, p-coumaric acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC, and the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) mRNA, in fully differentiated adipocytes, indicating that it promotes fatty acid β-oxidation via AMPK signaling. Taken together, our data suggest that SQE and p-coumaric acid might have the anti-obesitic effects via AMPK pathway in 3T3-L1 cells.

  15. Chamnamul [Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai] ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves antioxidant status in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jin; Choi, Ha-Neul; Kang, Min-Jung; Choe, Eunok; Auh, Joong Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Chronic consumption of a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet increases insulin resistance and results in type 2 diabetes mellitus in C57BL/6J mice. Hyperglycemia in diabetics increases oxidative stress, which is associated with a high risk of diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of chamnamul [Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai] in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of a 70% ethanol extract of chamnamul was measured in vitro. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a basal or HFHS diet with or without a 70% ethanol extract of chamnamul at a 0.5% level of the diet for 12 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. After sacrifice, serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and lipid profiles, and lipid peroxidation of the liver were determined. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. Chamnamul extract inhibited α-glucosidase by 26.7%, which was 78.3% the strength of inhibition by acarbose at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. Serum glucose, insulin, and cholesterol levels, as well as HOMA-IR values, were significantly lower in the chamnamul group than in the HFHS group. Chamnamul extract significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver compared with the HFHS group. These findings suggest that chamnamul may be useful in prevention of hyperglycemia and reduction of oxidative stress in mice fed a HFHS diet. PMID:24353829

  16. Chamnamul [Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai] ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves antioxidant status in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Jin; Choi, Ha-Neul; Kang, Min-Jung; Choe, Eunok; Auh, Joong Hyuck; Kim, Jung-In

    2013-12-01

    Chronic consumption of a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet increases insulin resistance and results in type 2 diabetes mellitus in C57BL/6J mice. Hyperglycemia in diabetics increases oxidative stress, which is associated with a high risk of diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of chamnamul [Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai] in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of a 70% ethanol extract of chamnamul was measured in vitro. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a basal or HFHS diet with or without a 70% ethanol extract of chamnamul at a 0.5% level of the diet for 12 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. After sacrifice, serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and lipid profiles, and lipid peroxidation of the liver were determined. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. Chamnamul extract inhibited α-glucosidase by 26.7%, which was 78.3% the strength of inhibition by acarbose at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. Serum glucose, insulin, and cholesterol levels, as well as HOMA-IR values, were significantly lower in the chamnamul group than in the HFHS group. Chamnamul extract significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver compared with the HFHS group. These findings suggest that chamnamul may be useful in prevention of hyperglycemia and reduction of oxidative stress in mice fed a HFHS diet.

  17. Ixeris dentata (Thunb. Ex Thunb.) Nakai Extract Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Akt/NF-κB Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seong-Ah; Lee, Hae-Nim; Choo, Gang-Sik; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Jung, Ji-Youn

    2017-01-01

    Ixeris dentata (Thunb. Ex Thunb.) Nakai (ID) exhibits various physiological activities, and its related plant derived-products are expected to represent promising cancer therapeutic agents. However, the anticancer effects of ID extract on breast cancer cells classified as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects and analyzed the molecular mechanism of ID extract in T47D, MCF-7 (ER-, PR-positive, HER2-negative), SK-BR-3(ER-, PR-negative, HER2-positive), and MDA-MB-231 (Triple-negative) through in vitro studies. Additionally, we examined its anti-tumor effects through in vivo studies. Our findings indicated that ID extract-induced apoptosis was mediated via various survival pathways on four breast cancer cells by identifying the factors including Bcl-2 family, phospho-Akt and phospho-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Based on in vitro findings that induced apoptosis via Akt-NF-κB signaling, we investigated the effects of ID extract on mice bearing MDA-MB-231 cells. The results showed that ID extract significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 tumor volume and weight via inducing apoptosis by suppressing phospho-Akt. Overall, these results indicate that ID extract induces apoptosis through the Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and tumors, and it may serve as a therapeutic agent for triple-negative human breast cancer. PMID:28134814

  18. Neuroprotective effect of the hairy root extract of Angelica gigas NAKAI on transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats through the regulation of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae Woo; Park, Ki-Ho; Jung, Hyo Won; Park, Yong-Ki

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of the hairy root extract of Angelica gigas NAKAI (Angelica Gigantis Radix) on transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats through the regulation of angiogenesis molecules. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced focal cerebral ischemia by a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90 min, and then orally administrated with the water extract of A. gigas hairy roots (AG). After 24 h reperfusion, infarction volume and the changes of BBB permeability were measured by TTC and Evans Blue (EB) staining. The neuronal cell damage and the activation of glial cells were assessed by immunohistochemistry in the ischemic brain. The expression of angiogenesis-induced proteins such as angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inflammatory protein such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CAM-1), tight junction proteins such as ZO-1, and Occludin and the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT were determined in the ischemic brains by Western blot, respectively. The treatment of AG extract significantly decreased the volumes of brain infarction, and edema in MACO-induced ischemic rats. AG extract decreased the increase of BBB permeability, and neuronal death and inhibited the activation of astrocytes and microglia in ischemic brains. AG extract also significantly increased the expression of Ang-1, Tie-2, VEGF, ZO-1 and Occludin through activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. AG extract significantly increased the expression of ICAM-1 in ischemic brains. Our results indicate that the hairy root of AG has a neuroprotective effect in ischemic stroke.

  19. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L; Dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-03-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat

  20. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L.; dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-01-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat

  1. Improvement in antiproliferative activity of Angelica gigas Nakai by solid dispersion formation via hot-melt extrusion and induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunyao; Piao, Jingpei; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is one of the most popular herbal medicines and widely used as a functional food product. In this study, AGN was firstly processed by a low-temperature turbo mill and a hot melting extruder to reduce particle size and form solid dispersion (SD). Anticancer activity against HeLa cells was then examined. AGN-SD based on Soluplus was formed via hot-melt extrusion (HME) and showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells. In addition, the possible mechanism of cell death induced by AGN-SD on HeLa cells was also investigated. AGN-SD decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis, increased the production of reactive oxygen species, regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and induced G2/M phase arrest in HeLa cells. This study suggested that AGN-SD based on Soluplus and the method to improve antiproliferative effect by SD formation via HME may be suitable for application in the pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Decursin Isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai Rescues PC12 Cells from Amyloid β-Protein-Induced Neurotoxicity through Nrf2-Mediated Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1: Potential Roles of MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Du, Ji-kun; Zou, Li-yi; Wu, Tie; Lee, Yong-woo; Kim, Yong-ho

    2013-01-01

    Decursin (D), purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property. Previous study revealed that D reduced Aβ25‒35-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Our study explored the underlying mechanisms by which D mediates its therapeutic effects in vitro. Pretreatment of cells with D diminished intracellular generation of ROS in response to Aβ25‒35. Western blot revealed that D significantly increased the expression and activity of HO-1, which was correlated with its protection against Aβ25‒35-induced injury. Addition of ZnPP, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor, significantly attenuated its protective effect in Aβ25‒35-treated cells, indicating the vital role of HO-1 resistance to oxidative injury. Moreover, D induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, the upstream of HO-1 expression. While investigating the signaling pathways responsible for HO-1 induction, D activated ERK and dephosphorylated p38 in PC12 cells. Addition of U0126, a selective inhibitor of ERK, blocked D-induced Nrf2 activation and HO-1 induction and meanwhile reversed the protection of D against Aβ25‒35-induced cell death. These findings suggest D augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through both intrinsic free radical scavenging activity and activation of MAPK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction, thereby protecting the PC12 cells from Aβ25‒35-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. PMID:23762139

  3. Inhibitory effects of the standardized extract (DA-9601) of Artemisia asiatica Nakai on phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity, papilloma formation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nuclear transcription factor kappa B activation in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyo-Joung; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Han, Seong Su; Chung, Won-Yoon; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Won-Bae; Surh, Young-Joon

    2002-08-01

    Artemisia asiatica Nakai has been used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of inflammatory and other disorders. Previous studies have revealed that the formulated ethanol extract (DA-9601) of A. asiatica has pronounced antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities and exhibits cytoprotective effects against experimentally induced gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic damage. In the present study, we assessed the inhibitory effect of DA-9601 on tumor promotion, which is closely linked to inflammatory tissue damage. As an initial approach to evaluating the possible antitumor-promoting potential of DA-9601, its effects on TPA-induced ear edema were examined in female ICR mice. Pretreatment of the inner surface of the mouse ear with DA-9601 30 min prior to topical application of TPA inhibited ear edema at 5 hr. TPA-stimulated expression of epidermal COX-2 and iNOS was also mitigated by topical application of the same extract. Moreover, DA-9601 abrogated the TPA-mediated activation of NF-kappa B/Rel and AP-1 in mouse epidermis. Suppression of epidermal NF-kappa B by DA-9601 appeared to be mediated in part through inhibition of I kappa B alpha degradation, thereby blocking the nuclear translocation of p65, the functional subunit of NF-kappa B. DA-9601 also significantly suppressed TPA-induced ODC activity and papilloma formation in mouse skin. Taken together, these findings suggest that DA-9601 derived from A. asiatica possesses potential chemopreventive activities.

  4. Anti-Obesity Effect of the Above-Ground Part of Valeriana dageletiana Nakai ex F. Maek Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6N Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kim, Ju Hee; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    Valeriana dageletiana Nakai ex F. Maek (VD) has been used as traditional medicine for the treatment of restlessness and sleeping disorders. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with VD. In this study, we first investigated the influences of VD on the accumulation of lipid content in 3T3-L1 cells; and the results showed that the above-ground VD extracts (VDAE) suppressed the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Thus, the effects of VDAE on preventing obesity were then studied in the C57BL/6N mice for 10 weeks (n = 6): normal-fat diet, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with 1% (10 g/kg) Garcinia combogia extract (positive control), and HFD supplemented with 1% (10 g/kg) VDAE. The results showed that VDAE reduced food efficiency ratio, body weight, epididymal adipose and hepatic tissue weight, hepatic lipid metabolites, and triacylglycerol and cholesterol serum levels compared to the high-fat diet group. Moreover, VD significantly inhibited the expression of adipogenic genes, such as PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and aP2, and lipogenic genes, such as SREBP-1c, FAS, SCD-1, and CD36, in epididymal adipose tissue and hepatic tissue. These findings indicate anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects of VDAE and suggest that it could be a potent functional food ingredient for the prevention of high-fat diet-induced obesity. PMID:28671595

  5. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants.

  6. AEGINETTA INDICA L. VAR. GRACILIS NAKAI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Zingiber mioga. Due to the parasitic attachment of Namban giseru, the stalk and stem diameter of sugar cane decreases, and the decrease in the number of living leaves and sweetness is influenced....Namban giseru is an annual parasitic grass of the Orobanchacae family. It is a parasite to Japanesepampas grass (Miscanthus sinensis), sugar cane

  7. Pawsey, Joseph Lade (1908-62)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Radiophysicist and astronomer, born Ararat, Victoria, Australia, pioneered the use of a Lloyd's mirror arrangement for radio interferometry at Dover Heights in Australia, and located the source of solar radio noise within the disc of the Sun. As John Hey had suggested, the radio noise came from sunspots....

  8. Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

  9. 48 CFR 801.670-1 - Issuing bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...., United Parcel Service, Federal Express, or United States Postal Service small package shipments), no VA.... 801.670-1 Section 801.670-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  10. Gravity measured at the apollo 14 lading site.

    PubMed

    Nance, R L

    1971-12-03

    The gravity at the Apollo 14 landing site has been determined from the accelerometer data that were telemetered from the lunar module. The values for the lunar gravity measured at the Apollo 11, 12, and 14 sites were reduced to a common elevation and were then compared between sites. A theoretical gravity, based on the assumption of a spherical moon, was computed for each landing site and compared with the observed value. The observed gravity was also used to compute the lunar radius at each landing site.

  11. Combining ability analysis in complete diallel cross of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai).

    PubMed

    Bahari, M; Rafii, M Y; Saleh, G B; Latif, M A

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were carried out in two research stations (MARDI Bukit Tangga, Kedah, and MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang) in Malaysia. The crossings were performed using the four inbred lines in complete diallel cross including selfs and reciprocals. We evaluated the yield components and fruit characters such as fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to fruit maturity, fruit weight, total soluble solid content, and rind thickness over a period of two planting seasons. General combining ability and its interaction with locations were statistically significant for all characteristics except number of fruits per plant across the environments. Results indicated that the additive genetic effects were important to the inheritance of these traits and the expression of additive genes was influenced greatly by environments. In addition, specific combining ability effect was statistically evident for fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to first female flower, and fruit weight. Most of the characters are simultaneously controlled by additive and nonadditive gene effects. This study demonstrated that the highest potential and promising among the crosses was cross P2 (BL-14) × P3 (6372-4), which possessed prolific plants, with early maturity, medium fruit weight and high soluble solid contents. Therefore this hybrid might be utilized for developing high yielding watermelon cultivars and may be recommended for commercial cultivation.

  12. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUCIES ON THE SEEDS OF MULAM CITRULLUS LANATUS (THUNB.) MATS & NAKAI (CUCURBITACAE)

    PubMed Central

    Shantha, T.R.; Kumar, K.G. Vasantha; Pasupathy, Saraswathy; Vijayalakshmi, B.; Bikshapathi, T.

    2001-01-01

    In the Siddha system of Medicine cotyledons of the seeds of C. Lanatus are known as Mulam/Pullum/Pitcha (Tamil) and used as Pulukolli (Vermifuge), Karpa moolikai (General tonic) and as Aanmeiperukki (Aphrodisiac). In the Ayurvedic system of Medicine seeds are said to have properties like Sheeta (cooling), Mootrala (Diuretic) and Vrshya (Aphrodisiac). The present paper deals with macro and microscopical studies, maceration, histochemical tests, solubility, physical contents, extractive values, tests for inorganic and organic constituents, U.V. and thin layer chromatographic studies. PMID:22557025

  13. Distribution and biosynthesis of 20-hydroxyecdysone in plants of Achyranthes japonica Nakai.

    PubMed

    Boo, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Doseung; Jeon, Gyeong Lyong; Ko, Seung Hee; Cho, Somi K; Kim, Jae Hoon; Park, Se Pill; Hong, Quanchun; Lee, Sang-Han; Lee, Dong-Sun; Riu, Key Zung

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in phytoecdysteroids (PEs) because of their potential role in plant defense against insects. To understand the mechanism regulating their levels in plants, the fluctuation, distribution, and biosynthesis of PE 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) examined in Achyranthes japonica. The total amount of 20E per individual plant initially remained at a constant level, and increased markedly after the first leaf pair (LP) stage, while the concentration of 20E in a given plant decreased rapidly during vegetative growth. In addition, the incorporation of [2-(14)C]-mevalonic acid into 20E did not differ significantly depending on plant organs and developmental stages, suggesting that biosynthesis of 20E is not restricted to particular organs or growth stages.

  14. Pear Skin Stain Caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola on Niitaka Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Oh, Soh-Young; Yoon, Deok-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Pear skin stains on ‘Niitaka’ pears, which occur from the growing stage to the cold storage stage, reportedly negatively influence the marketing of pears. These stains on fruit skin are likely due to a pathogenic fungus that resides on the skin and is characterized by dark stains; however, the mycelium of this fungus does not penetrate into the sarcocarp and is only present on the cuticle layer of fruit skin. A pathogenic fungus was isolated from the skin lesions of infected fruits, and its pathogenicity was subsequently tested. According to the pathogenicity test, Mycosphaerella sp. was strongly pathogenic, while Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. showed modest pathogenicity. In this present study, we isolated the pathogenic fungus responsible for the symptoms of pears (i.e., dark brown-colored specks) and identified it as Mycosphaerella graminicola based on its morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. M. graminicola was pathogenic to the skin of ‘Niitaka’ pears, which are one of the most widely growing varieties of pears in South Korea. PMID:25289008

  15. Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil from Angelica koreana Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Junghyun; Shin, Seungwon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Angelica koreana. Methods. Essential oil was obtained from the dried roots of A. koreana by steam distillation, and its composition was identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the oil fraction and its main components were determined by broth dilution assay using common pathogenic Aspergillus and Trichophyton species. The combined effects of the oils with itraconazole were evaluated using a checkerboard titer test. In addition, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, nitrite inhibition, and reducing power were determined to assess the antioxidant activity of this oil. Results. The essential oil fraction and its main components showed inhibitory activity against all of the tested fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 250–1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, this oil exhibited synergism when combined with itraconazole. Conclusion. In the treatment of infections caused by Aspergillus and Trichophyton species, combining itraconazole with either A. koreana essential oil or its main components may reduce the minimum effective dose of itraconazole required and, thus, minimize its side effects. In addition, this oil is a promising source of natural antioxidant agents. PMID:25197308

  16. Algorithms for Data Sharing, Coordination, and Communication in Dynamic Network Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-03

    Chakraborty, and Nancy Lynch. Clock Synchronization for Wireless Networks. In Teruo Higashino , editor, Principles of Distributed Systems: OPODIS 2004: 8th...Teruo Higashino , editor, Principles of Distributed Systems: OPODIS 2004: 8th International Conference on Principles of Distributed 4 Systems, Grenoble

  17. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information, except the actual shipment weight and any other information necessary to determine the final... household goods that are lost, damaged, destroyed, or otherwise not delivered to the final destination. If...

  18. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information, except the actual shipment weight and any other information necessary to determine the final... household goods that are lost, damaged, destroyed, or otherwise not delivered to the final destination. If...

  19. 48 CFR 47.303-17 - Contractor-prepaid commercial bills of lading, small package shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... have been acquired f.o.b. origin, to domestic destinations, including DOD air and water terminals, by... of payment when requested by the Government. (e) Shipments and invoices shall not be split to reduce...

  20. 48 CFR 47.303-17 - Contractor-prepaid commercial bills of lading, small package shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... have been acquired f.o.b. origin, to domestic destinations, including DOD air and water terminals, by... of payment when requested by the Government. (e) Shipments and invoices shall not be split to reduce...

  1. 48 CFR 47.303-17 - Contractor-prepaid commercial bills of lading, small package shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... have been acquired f.o.b. origin, to domestic destinations, including DOD air and water terminals, by... of payment when requested by the Government. (e) Shipments and invoices shall not be split to reduce...

  2. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR part 156 may be used as an alternative to the FUMIGANT marking. (c) No person may affix or display on...

  3. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR part 156 may be used as an alternative to the FUMIGANT marking. (c) No person may affix or display on...

  4. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR part 156 may be used as an alternative to the FUMIGANT marking. (c) No person may affix or display on...

  5. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR part 156 may be used as an alternative to the FUMIGANT marking. (c) No person may affix or display on...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... at any time interested in all or any of said property, that every service to be performed hereunder... Length Plan No. packages Description of articles, special marks, and exceptions *Weight (subject to correction) Class or rate Check column . Subject to Section 7 of conditions, if this shipment is to be...

  7. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of... basis, the name, address, and if furnished, the telephone number, facsimile number, or e-mail address of... annually by the motor carrier based on the U.S. Department of Commerce's Cost of Living Adjustment....

  8. 48 CFR 47.303-17 - Contractor-prepaid commercial bills of lading, small package shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... savings to the Government consistent with other contract and traffic management considerations. When... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply...

  9. 48 CFR 47.303-17 - Contractor-prepaid commercial bills of lading, small package shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... savings to the Government consistent with other contract and traffic management considerations. When... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply...

  10. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... which transits the Panama Canal and no cargo, baggage, or other article shall be laden on a vessel... such special license to unlade shall be granted, the master, owner, or agent of such vessel or vehicle, or the person in charge of such vehicle, shall be required to deposit sufficient money to pay, or to...

  11. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of communication approved by the Customs Service... electronically pursuant to an authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of...

  12. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of communication approved by the Customs Service... electronically pursuant to an authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of...

  13. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  14. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from entry or clearance fees under 19 U.S.C. 288, no passengers, cargo, baggage, or other article shall... which transits the Panama Canal and no cargo, baggage, or other article shall be laden on a vessel... such special license to unlade shall be granted, the master, owner, or agent of such vessel or vehicle...

  15. 48 CFR 52.247-1 - Commercial Bill of Lading Notations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shown as the consignor or the consignee, the annotation shall be: “Transportation is for the ___ and the... or the consignee, the annotation shall be: “Transportation is for the ___ and the actual...

  16. Development and validation of an ultra-performance convergence chromatography method for the quality control of Angelica gigas Nakai.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Seon; Chun, Jin Mi; Kwon, Bo-In; Lee, A-Reum; Kim, Ho Kyoung; Lee, A Yeong

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-performance convergence chromatography, which integrates the advantages of supercritical fluid chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography technologies, is an environmentally friendly analytical method that uses dramatically reduced amounts of organic solvents. An ultra-performance convergence chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantification of decursinol angelate and decursin in Angelica gigas using a CSH Fluoro-Phenyl column (2.1 mm × 150 mm, 1.7 μm) with a run time of 4 min. The method had an improved resolution and a shorter analysis time in comparison to the conventional high-performance liquid chromatography method. This method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy. The limits of detection were 0.005 and 0.004 μg/mL for decursinol angelate and decursin, respectively, while the limits of quantitation were 0.014 and 0.012 μg/mL, respectively. The two components showed good regression (correlation coefficient (r(2) ) > 0.999), excellent precision (RSD < 2.28%), and acceptable recoveries (99.75-102.62%). The proposed method can be used to efficiently separate, characterize, and quantify decursinol angelate and decursin in Angelica gigas and its related medicinal materials or preparations, with the advantages of a shorter analysis time, greater sensitivity, and better environmental compatibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effect of the successive steps of a cryopreservation protocol on the structural integrity of Rubia akane Nakai hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Salma, Mohammad; Engelmann-Sylvestre, Isabelle; Collin, Myriam; Escoute, Jacques; Lartaud, Marc; Yi, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Haeng-Hoon; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Engelmann, Florent

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we studied the impact of the successive steps of the droplet-vitrification protocol technique employed for cryopreservation of Rubia akane hairy roots on the features of cortical, pericycle and endoderm cells of apical and central root segments, using histology techniques and combining qualitative and quantitative observations. In apical segments, plasmolysis (22-71 %, depending on cell type) was observed only after the loading treatment and did not increase after the following steps of the protocol. By contrast, in central segments, plasmolysis (39-45 %) was already observed after the sucrose pretreatment; it increased to 54-68 %, depending on cell type, after the loading treatment, but no further changes were noted after treatment with the vitrification solution. After liquid nitrogen exposure and unloading treatment, deplasmolysis was more rapid in apical segments, with cortical and pericycle cells having retrieved their original features. In central segments, only cortical cells had retrieved their original features and endoderm and pericycle cells were still highly plasmolysed. Nuclei were more strongly impacted by the cryopreservation protocol in central segments, where they displayed a highly condensed nucleoplasm from the loading treatment onwards and had not retrieved their original aspect after the unloading treatment. By contrast, nuclei had a much less condensed nucleoplasm in cells of apical segments, and they had retrieved their original aspect after the unloading treatment.

  18. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... granting of permits and special licenses on Customs Form 3171 (CF 3171). Adequate protection of the revenue... unladen under the terms of a CF 3171 has been reladen on the same vessel, potential liability for...

  19. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... granting of permits and special licenses on Customs Form 3171 (CF 3171). Adequate protection of the revenue... unladen under the terms of a CF 3171 has been reladen on the same vessel, potential liability for...

  20. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... granting of permits and special licenses on Customs Form 3171 (CF 3171). Adequate protection of the revenue... unladen under the terms of a CF 3171 has been reladen on the same vessel, potential liability for...

  1. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... granting of permits and special licenses on Customs Form 3171 (CF 3171). Adequate protection of the revenue... unladen under the terms of a CF 3171 has been reladen on the same vessel, potential liability for...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.135 - Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... are contained in this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook.” ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.135 Where are the mandatory terms and conditions...

  3. 41 CFR 102-118.135 - Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are contained in this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook.” ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.135 Where are the mandatory terms and conditions...

  4. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., exemption or exclusions legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheadings 7102.10, 7102.21, and 7102.31, in accordance with the Clean Diamond Trade Act, will require the proof of filing... citations, and exemption legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheading 7102.10,...

  5. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., exemption or exclusions legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheadings 7102.10, 7102.21, and 7102.31, in accordance with the Clean Diamond Trade Act, will require the proof of...

  6. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... granting of permits and special licenses on Customs Form 3171 (CF 3171). Adequate protection of the revenue... unladen under the terms of a CF 3171 has been reladen on the same vessel, potential liability for that...

  7. Expression for the granular elastic energy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yimin; Zheng, Hepeng; Peng, Zheng; Fu, Liping; Song, Shixiong; Sun, Qicheng; Mayer, Michael; Liu, Mario

    2012-05-01

    Granular solid hydrodynamics (GSH) is a broad-ranged continual mechanical description of granular media capable of accounting for static stress distributions, yield phenomena, propagation and damping of elastic waves, the critical state, shear band, and fast dense flow. An important input of GSH is an expression for the elastic energy needed to deform the grains. The original expression, though useful and simple, has some drawbacks. Therefore a slightly more complicated expression is proposed here that eliminates three of them: (1) The maximal angle at which an inclined layer of grains remains stable is increased from 26^{∘} to the more realistic value of 30^{∘}. (2) Depending on direction and polarization, transverse elastic waves are known to propagate at slightly different velocities. The old expression neglects these differences, the new one successfully reproduces them. (3) Most importantly, the old expression contains only the Drucker-Prager yield surface. The new one contains in addition those named after Coulomb, Lade-Duncan, and Matsuoka-Nakai-realizing each, and interpolating between them, by shifting a single scalar parameter.

  8. A comparative study on the metabolism of Epimedium koreanum Nakai-prenylated flavonoids in rats by an intestinal enzyme (lactase phlorizin hydrolase) and intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan; Wang, Ying; Gao, Xia; Qu, Ding; Liu, Congyan

    2013-12-24

    The aim of this study was to compare the significance of the intestinal hydrolysis of prenylated flavonoids in Herba Epimedii by an intestinal enzyme and flora. Flavonoids were incubated at 37 °C with rat intestinal enzyme and intestinal flora. HPLC-UV was used to calculate the metabolic rates of the parent drug in the incubation and LC/MS/MS was used to determine the chemical structures of metabolites generated by different flavonoid glycosides. Rates of flavonoid metabolism by rat intestinal enzyme were quicker than those of intestinal flora. The sequence of intestinal flora metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin B>epimedin A>epimedin C>baohuoside I, whereas the order of intestinal enzyme metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin A>epimedin C>epimedin B>baohuoside I. Meanwhile, the LC/MS/MS graphs showed that icariin produced three products, epimedin A/B/C had four and baohuoside I yielded one product in incubations of both intestinal enzyme and flora, which were more than the results of HPLC-UV due to the fact LC/MS/MS has lower detectability and higher sensitivity. Moreover, the outcomes indicated that the rate of metabolization of flavonoids by intestinal enzyme were faster than those of intestinal flora, which was consistent with the HPLC-UV results. In conclusion, the metabolic pathways of the same components by intestinal flora and enzyme were the same. What's more, an intestinal enzyme such as lactase phlorizin hydrolase exhibited a more significant metabolic role in prenylated flavonoids of Herba Epimedi compared with intestinal flora.

  9. Response of miR156-SPL Module during the Red Peel Coloration of Bagging-Treated Chinese Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Qian, Minjie; Ni, Junbei; Niu, Qingfeng; Bai, Songling; Bao, Lu; Li, Jianzhao; Sun, Yongwang; Zhang, Dong; Teng, Yuanwen

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA156 is an evolutionarily highly conserved plant micro-RNA (miRNA) that controls an age-dependent flowering pathway. miR156 and its target SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes regulate anthocyanin accumulation in plants, but it is unknown whether this process is affected by light. Red Chinese sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) fruits exhibit a unique coloration pattern in response to bagging treatments, which makes them appropriate for studying the molecular mechanism underlying light-induced anthocyanin accumulation in fruit. Based on high-throughput miRNA and degradome sequencing data, we determined that miR156 was expressed in pear fruit peels, and targeted four SPL genes. Light-responsive elements were detected in the promoter regions of the miR156a and miR156ba precursors. We identified 19 SPL genes using the "Suli" pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Chinese White Pear Group) genome database, of which seven members were putative miR156 targets. The upregulated expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes and downregulated expression of PpSPL2, PpSPL5, PpSPL7, PpSPL9, PpSPL10, PpSPL13, PpSPL16, PpSPL17, and PpSPL18 were observed in pear fruits after bags were removed from plants during the anthocyanin accumulation period. Additionally, miR156a/ba/g/s/sa abundance increased after bags were removed. Yeast two-hybrid results suggested that PpMYB10, PpbHLH, and PpWD40 could form a protein complex, probably involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Additionally, PpSPL10 and PpSPL13 interacted with PpMYB10. The results obtained in this study are helpful in understanding the possible role of miR156 and its target PpSPL genes in regulating light-induced red peel coloration and anthocyanin accumulation in pear.

  10. Effects of Clonal Integration on Microbial Community Composition and Processes in the Rhizosphere of the Stoloniferous Herb Glechoma longituba (Nakai) Kuprian

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ningfei; Li, Jun; Ni, Shijun; Chen, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    The effects of rhizodeposition on soil C and N availabilities lead to substantial changes of microbial community composition and processes in the rhizosphere of plants. Under heterogeneous light, photosynthates can be translocated or shared between exposed and shaded ramets by clonal integration. Clonal integration may enhance the rhizodeposition of the shaded ramets, which further influences nutrient recycling in their rhizosphere. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a pot experiment by the stoloniferous herb Glechoma longituba subjected to heterogeneous light. Microbial biomass and community composition in the rhizosphere of shaded offspring ramets, assessed by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis, were markedly altered by clonal integration. Clonal integration positively affected C, N availabilities, invertase and urease activities, N mineralization (Nmin) and nitrification rates (Nnitri) in the rhizosphere of shaded offspring ramets. However, an opposite pattern was also observed in phenoloxidase (POXase) and peroxidase (PODase) activities. Our results demonstrated that clonal integration facilitated N assimilation and uptake in the rhizosphere of shaded offspring ramets. The experiment provides insights into the mechanism of nutrient recycling mediated by clonal integration. PMID:25243590

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook.” ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.140 What are the major mandatory terms and...

  12. DoD Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Convention: ASC X12 Transaction Set 858 Freight Government Bill of Lading Shipment Information (Version 003010)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    shipper orders dromedary , the carrer may supply a trailer to convey the dromedary equipment. The trailer is con- sidered secondary equipment. The...Qualify in REF01. The tractor num- ber carried in this data element is the power unit for the trailer described in the N7 segment of the same equipment loop...1248 TTS 8 The identifying marks assigned to a power unit (tractor). REF03 352 Description C AN 1/80 10.7.50 930210 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GOVERNMBENT

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GBL attached to Standard Form (SF) 1113, Public Voucher for Transportation Charges, to the paying... Debt Collection Act of 1982 31 U.S.C. 3717); and (f) Additional mandatory terms and conditions are in this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook.”...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GBL attached to Standard Form (SF) 1113, Public Voucher for Transportation Charges, to the paying... Debt Collection Act of 1982 31 U.S.C. 3717); and (f) Additional mandatory terms and conditions are in this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook.”...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GBL attached to Standard Form (SF) 1113, Public Voucher for Transportation Charges, to the paying... Debt Collection Act of 1982 31 U.S.C. 3717); and (f) Additional mandatory terms and conditions are in this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook.”...

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.200 - Can a TSP demand advance payment for the transportation charges submitted on a bill of lading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 102-118.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can a TSP demand advance...

  17. LADEEView: Elemental Composition Analysis of Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolic, D.; Darrach, M.

    2016-10-01

    LadeeView is a comprehensive lunar data analyzer with modular architecture. Mass spectrometry module is designed to map elemental abundances along the LADEE spacecraft trajectories. These maps are useful input for future models of lunar exosphere.

  18. 49 CFR 178.338-15 - Cleanliness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the manhole of the tank. Chemical or solvent cleaning with a material compatible with the intending lading must be performed to remove any contaminants likely to react with the lading. [68 FR 75755,...

  19. 19 CFR 141.16 - Disposition of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make Entry and Declarations on Entry § 141.16 Disposition of documents. (a) Bill of lading or air waybill. When the return of the bill of lading or air... bill of lading or air waybill to completely identify it and enable the auditor to verify the production...

  20. 49 CFR 375.405 - How must I provide a non-binding estimate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-binding estimate as an attachment to be made an integral part of the bill of lading contract. (5) You must... written attachment to be made an integral part of the bill of lading contract and have the individual... the estimate and keep it as an attachment to be made an integral part of the bill of lading contract....

  1. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ....'', ``Squash--Cucurbita pepo L., C. moschata (Duchesne) Poiret, and C. maxima Duchesne'', and ``Watermelon..., and C. maxima Duchesne'', and ``Watermelon-- Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var....

  2. Expression and genomic structure of the dormancy-associated MADS box genes MADS13 in Japanese pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) that differ in their chilling requirement for endodormancy release.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Saito, Toshihiro; Ubi, Banjamin Ewa; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-06-01

    We isolated three dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes (MADS13-1, MADS13-2 and MADS13-3) and showed regulated expression concomitant with endodormancy establishment and release in the leaf buds of Japanese pear 'Kosui'. Comparative analysis between 'Kosui' and Taiwanese pear TP-85-119 ('Hengshanli'), a less dormant pear cultivar, showed reduction of MADS13-1 expression level in 'Hengshanli' earlier than in 'Kosui' towards endodormancy release, suggesting the possible relationship between chilling requirement and MADS13-1 expression. Application of hydrogen cyanamide accelerated endodormancy release with a reduction in MADS13 expression, whereas heat treatment in autumn inhibited endodormancy establishment without induction of MADS13 expression, indicating a close relationship between the MADS13 expression pattern and endodormancy phase transitions. Moreover, both the cis-acting regulatory elements and the methylation status in the 5' upstream region of the MADS13-1 gene were not largely different between 'Kosui' and 'Hengshanli'. Genomic structures of MADS13-1 from 'Kosui' and 'Hengshanli' revealed a 3218 bp insertion in the first intron of 'Hengshanli' that might be ascribed to the lower expression of MADS13-1tw; however, this insertion was also found in pear genotypes with a high chilling requirement. These results indicated that the low expression of MADS13-1 in 'Hengshanli' towards endodormancy release could not be explained by the identified cis-acting regulatory elements, the methylation status of the putative promoter or by intron insertion.

  3. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R.; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-01-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  4. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-03-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon.

  5. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Delory, G. T.; Hine, Butler P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Horanyi, M.; Colaprete, A.; Benna, M.; Noble, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission was designed to address long-standing scientific questions about the Moon's environment, including the assessment of the composition of the lunar atmosphere, and characterization of the lunar dust environment at low orbital altitudes. LADEE was derived from the Modular Common Spacecraft Bus design that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center; it used modularized subassemblies and existing commercial spaceflight hardware to reduce cost. LADEE was launched on the very first Minotaur V, and was also the first deep space mission launched from Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. LADEE was equipped with two in situ instruments and a remote sensing instrument to address the atmosphere and dust measurement requirements. LADEE also carried the first deep-space optical communications demonstration, the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration. LADEE was launched in early September, 2013, took science data for over 140 days in low lunar orbit, and impacted the surface on April 18, 2014.

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.40 - How does my agency order transportation and transportation services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... equivalent), or a Government bill of lading for international shipments (including domestic overseas shipments). In extremely limited cases, cash can be used where government payment mechanisms are not...

  7. Mechanisms of Radiation Damage Generated by Ionizing Radiation in Optical Waveguides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Nakai, Y. Mimura, 0. Shinbori, and H. Tokiwa , Jpn. J. Appi. Phys. 25, L704 (1988). 8. R. Cases, D.L. Griscom, and D.C. Tran, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 72, 51...1985). 9. T. Nakai, Y. Mimura, H. Tokiwa , and 0. Shinbori, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 565 (1985). 10. E.J. Friebele, D.L. Griscom, and G.H. Sigel...Academic Press. New York, 1985. for the control (see Figs I and 2). This observation 8. T. Nakai. Y. Mimura, H. Tokiwa and 0. Shiribon. I. suggests that

  8. 41 CFR 109-40.5005 - Description of property for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading... not be used as bill of lading descriptions. (b) A shipment containing hazardous materials, such as explosives, radioactive materials, flammable liquids, flammable solids, oxidizers, or poison A or poison...

  9. 41 CFR 109-40.5005 - Description of property for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading... not be used as bill of lading descriptions. (b) A shipment containing hazardous materials, such as explosives, radioactive materials, flammable liquids, flammable solids, oxidizers, or poison A or poison...

  10. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... materials compatible with the lading, having sufficient flow capacity to prevent pressure build-up in the... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to the...

  11. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with the lading. (b) Any steel casting, steel forging, steel structural shape or carbon steel plate used to... temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks...

  12. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with the lading. (b) Any steel casting, steel forging, steel structural shape or carbon steel plate used to... temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks...

  13. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with the lading. (b) Any steel casting, steel forging, steel structural shape or carbon steel plate used to... temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks...

  14. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with the lading. (b) Any steel casting, steel forging, steel structural shape or carbon steel plate used to... temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks...

  15. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... condition prior to fabrication, forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with the lading. (b) Any steel casting, steel forging, steel structural shape...) Conducted at the tank design service temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds...

  16. 49 CFR 177.837 - Class 3 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Bonding and grounding containers other than cargo tanks prior to and during transfer of lading. For... Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials between such containers. Such bonding shall be made by first...) Bonding and grounding cargo tanks before and during transfer of lading. (1) When a cargo tank is...

  17. 44 CFR 11.75 - Claims involving carriers and insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occurred, according to the terms of its bill of lading or contract, before submitting a claim against the Government under this subpart. (1) If more than one bill of lading or contract was issued, a separate demand... prosecute rights available against a carrier or insurer and to collect the amount recoverable from the...

  18. 19 CFR 191.52 - Rejecting, perfecting or amending claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... include, but is not limited to: (1) The export bill of lading or other actual evidence of exportation, as... shipped which shall be attached to such bill of lading, showing that the party filing the entry is... Customs upon request, the endorsement from the exporter assigning the right to claim drawback); (2) A copy...

  19. 19 CFR 181.47 - Completion of claim for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Mexico, as provided in paragraph (c) of this section; (E) Waiver of right to drawback. If the person... shall include a bill of lading, air waybill, freight waybill, export ocean bill of lading, Canadian... the identity and location of the ultimate consignee of the exported goods; (H) Waiver of right to...

  20. 19 CFR 141.14 - Deceased or insolvent consignees and court-appointed administrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Right To Make... act for a consignee shall not be permitted to make entry unless he produces a duly endorsed bill of lading or air waybill, a carrier's certificate, or a duplicate bill of lading or air waybill, executed in...

  1. 19 CFR 141.53 - Procedure for separate entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are made for merchandise covered by a single bill of lading or air waybill, the provisions of § 141.54 shall be complied with, except that the endorsement on the bill of lading or air waybill required by... separate entries, the undersigned consignee expressly waives the right granted by section 484(j), Tariff...

  2. 7 CFR 46.43 - Terms construed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shipment is handled under normal transportation service and conditions, will assure delivery without... a bill of lading issued prior to the day on which the quotation is made and has moved or is moving... bill of lading, delivery order, or other document enabling him to obtain the goods from the carrier....

  3. 7 CFR 1494.201 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... upon the office to which a submission is to be made, are on official duty during normal business hours... method of shipment: (1) The on-board date shown on the export carrier's bill of lading, when the eligible... at the Canadian port shown on the export carrier's bill of lading, when the eligible commodity...

  4. 19 CFR 141.11 - Evidence of right to make entry for importations by common carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... air waybill, or carrier's certificate from the carrier, the exchange shall be made before the entry is... common carrier: (1) A bill of lading or air waybill, presented by the holder thereof, properly endorsed when endorsement is required under the law. A nonnegotiable bill of lading, or air waybill, may not be...

  5. 19 CFR 191.112 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Customs Form 7514 may be filed either before or after the lading of the articles. If filed after lading, the notice shall be filed within 3 years after exportation of the articles. (d) Contents of notice... articles were or are to be laden; (2) The number and kind of packages and their marks and numbers; (3) A...

  6. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ocean vessel, one copy of all bill(s) of lading described in § 201.52(a)(4) has been maiIed to: Maritime... terms, or (ii) By the supplier of ocean transportation whenever USAID-finances the freight under any.... (4) Evidence of shipment. (i) A copy (or photostat) of the bill(s) of lading (ocean, charter...

  7. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ocean vessel, one copy of all bill(s) of lading described in § 201.52(a)(4) has been maiIed to: Maritime... terms, or (ii) By the supplier of ocean transportation whenever USAID-finances the freight under any.... (4) Evidence of shipment. (i) A copy (or photostat) of the bill(s) of lading (ocean, charter...

  8. 19 CFR 141.16 - Disposition of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disposition of documents. 141.16 Section 141.16 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Disposition of documents. (a) Bill of lading or air waybill. When the return of the bill of lading or air...

  9. 41 CFR 102-117.135 - What are the international transportation restrictions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 40118); and (b) International movement of property by water is subject to the cargo preference laws (see... Government shippers must send a rated copy of the ocean carrier's bill of lading to MARAD within 30 days of... underlying ocean carrier bill of lading. ...

  10. 19 CFR 10.64 - Crediting or cancellation of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of lading in a class of trade or business entitling the articles to exemption from duty and tax under... one of the following who has knowledge of the facts: (1) The operations manager or port captain for... ______ declare that I have knowledge of the facts set forth herein, and that upon the lading of the...

  11. 19 CFR 191.112 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... repair of aircraft. (j) Fuel laden on vessels or aircraft as supplies—(1) Composite notice of lading. In... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Supplies for Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 191.112 Procedure. (a) General. The.... The notice of lading shall show: (1) The name of the vessel or identity of the aircraft on...

  12. 19 CFR 191.112 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... repair of aircraft. (j) Fuel laden on vessels or aircraft as supplies—(1) Composite notice of lading. In... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Supplies for Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 191.112 Procedure. (a) General. The.... The notice of lading shall show: (1) The name of the vessel or identity of the aircraft on...

  13. 19 CFR 191.112 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... repair of aircraft. (j) Fuel laden on vessels or aircraft as supplies—(1) Composite notice of lading. In... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Supplies for Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 191.112 Procedure. (a) General. The.... The notice of lading shall show: (1) The name of the vessel or identity of the aircraft on...

  14. Consequences of the Introduction of Insensitive Munitions on Safety, Collateral Damage and Operations (consequenties van de invoering van mkm-munitie op veiligheid, gevolgschade en (internationaal) opereren

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Slow Cook-Off, BI is Bullet Impact, FI is Fragment Impact, SCJ is Shaped Charge Jet (Holle lading) en SD is Sympathetic Detonation. AUh Missile...samenwerkenddee land.n e ana Hoet valte noaelj met fit te eGgen, dftati een lade VexrainveSterinen isolet n ide optwikeling personeel blootra stet aeranginderr v

  15. 49 CFR 375.403 - How must I provide a binding estimate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... integral part of the bill of lading contract. (4) You must clearly indicate upon each binding estimate's... attachment to be made an integral part of the bill of lading contract and have the individual shipper sign... least one year from the date you made the estimate and keep it as an attachment to be made an...

  16. 77 FR 15378 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... permission of the CBP port director for the withdrawal and lading of bonded merchandise (especially alcoholic beverages) for use on board fishing vessels involved in international trade. The applicant must certify on...

  17. 46 CFR 381.3 - Reporting information and procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section 901(b)(2) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended, pursuant to the authority delegated to him... 1223. Where obtainable, a properly notated and legible copy of the ocean bill of lading in English...

  18. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material lading would have a dangerous reaction with the hazardous material. (2) A cargo tank may not be... tanks equipped with a 1 psig normal vent, the sum of the tank static head plus 1 psig. In addition,...

  19. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lading retention or containment function and provides no structural support to the cargo tank. Baffle... head (and baffle and bulkhead when used as tank reinforcement) thickness needed to meet the...

  20. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lading retention or containment function and provides no structural support to the cargo tank. Baffle... head (and baffle and bulkhead when used as tank reinforcement) thickness needed to meet the...

  1. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lading retention or containment function and provides no structural support to the cargo tank. Baffle... head (and baffle and bulkhead when used as tank reinforcement) thickness needed to meet the...

  2. 5 CFR 180.107 - Claims procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... evidence of the crime such as breaking and entering, capture of the thief or robber, or recovery of part of... bills of lading, inventories, and other applicable shipping documents; (vii) Date and place of...

  3. 49 CFR 179.201-9 - Gauging device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS.... The gauging device must be made of materials not subject to rapid deterioration by the lading. When...

  4. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... such dangerous materials are charcoal screenings, ground, crushed, or pulverized charcoal, and lump charcoal. (c) Lading ventilation, precautions against spontaneous combustion. Whenever a motor carrier has... soon as practicable after reaching its destination. Charcoal screenings, or ground, crushed,...

  5. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... such dangerous materials are charcoal screenings, ground, crushed, or pulverized charcoal, and lump charcoal. (c) Lading ventilation, precautions against spontaneous combustion. Whenever a motor carrier has... soon as practicable after reaching its destination. Charcoal screenings, or ground, crushed,...

  6. 19 CFR 141.111 - Carrier's release order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; (3) A combined carrier's certificate and release order issued in accordance with § 141.11(a)(4); or... given to release the articles covered by this certified duplicate bill of lading or air waybill to: (c...

  7. ScienceCast 117: NASA Mission Seeks Lunar Air

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    A NASA spacecraft slated for launch in September will fly to the Moon to investigate the tenuous lunar atmosphere. Researchers hope "LADEE" will solve a mystery that has been puzzling them since the days of Apollo.

  8. 40 CFR 80.27 - Controls and prohibitions on gasoline volatility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section 211(f) of the Clean Air Act. (3) Each invoice, loading ticket, bill of lading, delivery ticket and... address, city, county, State, and zip code); (iii) The manner in which information on vehicles and engines...

  9. 40 CFR 80.27 - Controls and prohibitions on gasoline volatility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section 211(f) of the Clean Air Act. (3) Each invoice, loading ticket, bill of lading, delivery ticket and... address, city, county, State, and zip code); (iii) The manner in which information on vehicles and engines...

  10. 49 CFR 179.500-11 - Loading and unloading valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT... type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by lading or in service, and shall...

  11. 49 CFR 179.500-11 - Loading and unloading valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and... of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by lading or in service, and shall withstand without...

  12. 49 CFR 375.103 - What are the definitions of terms used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... on behalf of the bank as drawer. (3) A direct obligation of the bank. (4) Provided to a customer of... parties and could not be avoided by exercise of due care. Government bill of lading shipper means...

  13. The Dust Environment of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.; Szalay, J.; Gruen, E.; Glenar, D.; Wang, X.; Zakharov, A.

    2016-05-01

    We will briefly review the history of the observations of the lunar dust environment, but mainly focus on the results of the LADEE mission, and the recent laboratory results on the charging and mobilization of dust particles on regolith surfaces.

  14. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  15. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  16. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  17. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  18. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  19. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  20. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  1. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  2. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  3. 31 CFR 590.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  4. 31 CFR 560.325 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  5. 31 CFR 560.325 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  6. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  7. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other..., ships, goods on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks, copyrights,...

  8. 31 CFR 590.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  9. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  10. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other..., ships, goods on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks, copyrights,...

  11. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  12. 19 CFR 181.48 - Person entitled to receive drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... named as exporter on the notice of exportation or on the bill of lading, air waybill, freight waybill... reserve the right to claim drawback. The manufacturer or producer who reserves this right may claim... right to claim drawback. ...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-30 - F.o.b. Origin, Contractor's Facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... street or highway, in the city, county, and State from which the shipment will be made. (b) The... carrier's conveyance; (5) Complete the Government bill of lading supplied by the ordering agency or,...

  14. 49 CFR 179.102-4 - Vinyl fluoride, stabilized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... device may be installed. (f) A pressure gage may be installed. (g) Aluminum, copper, silver, zinc, or an... of the lading from increasing from the pressure at the maximum allowable filling density to the start...

  15. 49 CFR 179.102-4 - Vinyl fluoride, stabilized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... device may be installed. (f) A pressure gage may be installed. (g) Aluminum, copper, silver, zinc, or an... of the lading from increasing from the pressure at the maximum allowable filling density to the start...

  16. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... thermal resistance so that there will be no release of any lading within the tank car, except release... resistance of the tank car does not conform to paragraph (a) of this section, the thermal resistance of...

  17. 49 CFR 179.100-12 - Manway nozzle, cover and protective housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of forged or rolled steel for steel tanks or of fabricated aluminum alloy for aluminum tanks, with an... carbon or alloy steel, rolled aluminum alloy or nickel when required by the lading. Minimum thickness...

  18. 49 CFR 179.100-12 - Manway nozzle, cover and protective housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of forged or rolled steel for steel tanks or of fabricated aluminum alloy for aluminum tanks, with an... carbon or alloy steel, rolled aluminum alloy or nickel when required by the lading. Minimum thickness...

  19. 31 CFR 597.302 - Assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or other rights in the nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills..., real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or interest or interests therein, present, future...

  20. 31 CFR 587.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or other rights in the nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills..., real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or interest or interests therein, present, future...

  1. 31 CFR 500.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., mortgages, pledges, liens or other right in the nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading..., or mixed, tangible or intangible, or interest or interests therein, present, future, or contingent....

  2. 49 CFR 178.345-9 - Pumps, piping, hoses and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-9 Pumps, piping, hoses... expansion, contraction, jarring, and vibration. Slip joints may not be used for this purpose in the lading...

  3. 49 CFR 178.345-9 - Pumps, piping, hoses and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-9 Pumps, piping, hoses... expansion, contraction, jarring, and vibration. Slip joints may not be used for this purpose in the lading...

  4. 41 CFR 109-40.306-2 - Required shipping documents and annotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (name and telephone number). See 332 ICC 161. (c) To ensure proper application of a Government rate... 10721 tender, ABC Transportation Company, ICC No. 374.” In addition, if commercial bills of lading...

  5. 41 CFR 109-40.306-2 - Required shipping documents and annotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (name and telephone number). See 332 ICC 161. (c) To ensure proper application of a Government rate... 10721 tender, ABC Transportation Company, ICC No. 374.” In addition, if commercial bills of lading...

  6. 48 CFR 46.314 - Transportation contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... domestic water carriers (including inland, coastwise, and intercoastal). The contracting officer shall not... carriers or by international ocean carriers, or to freight services provided under bills of lading or to...

  7. 41 CFR 102-117.225 - What is the difference between a contract or a rate tender and a commuted rate system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contract or a rate tender, the agency prepares the bill of lading and books the shipment. The agency is the... the agency for the resulting costs. Use this method only within the continental United States...

  8. 19 CFR 10.257 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Textile Articles § 10.257 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a... article in question, such as purchase orders, invoices, bills of lading and other shipping documents,...

  9. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the lading temperature. (1) Liquid control valves must be of extended stem design. (2) Packing, if... effectively seal the valve stem without causing difficulty of operation. (3) Each control valve and shut-off...

  10. 49 CFR 179.400-4 - Insulation system and performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., in gallons; tl = equilibrium temperature of intended lading at maximum shipping pressure, in ° F.; 8... locations on the jacket at regular intervals during the NER test, in °F.; tf = equilibrium temperature...

  11. 49 CFR 179.400-4 - Insulation system and performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... at 60 °F. of the inner tank, in gallons; tl = equilibrium temperature of intended lading at maximum... = equilibrium temperature of the test cryogenic liquid at the NER test pressure of approximately, one...

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-42 - C.i.f. Destination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Obtain and dispatch promptly to the Government clean on-board ocean bills of lading to the specified... for importation into the country of destination; and (6) Obtain and dispatch to the Government...

  13. 7 CFR 1499.13 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... media approved by FAS or by providing the carrier's on board bill of lading. The evidence of export must..., analytical capability, language skills and experience in conducting evaluations of development...

  14. Data Mining: Technology and Policy. 2008 Report to Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    of CBP, the U.S. Customs Service traditionally employed computerized screening tools to target potentially high-risk cargo entering, exiting, and...Consignment Services (bills of lading); CCRA Manifests (bills of lading from Canada Customs and Revenue (CCRA)); CBP Automated Forms Entry Systems...admissibility to the satisfaction of the CBP officer and must submit to inspection for customs purposes. The information collected is authorized pursuant

  15. MNE5 Coalition Logistics Information Sharing (NATO IR Decomposition Methodology)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-16

    Populate IR: The name of the Authoritative Data Source Example: Global Transportation Network ( GTN ) • Link to Source / Systems: The connecting link...best chance possible to locate it. Additionally, if there is a document that could be modified to support exchanging this information list it and...COMMERCI AL BILL OF LADING FROM WHICH THE FREIGHT- LADING- BILL WAS Nation al, CTF GTN GTN.doc 18 UNCLASSIFIED –APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

  16. MNE 5 Coalition Logistics Information Sharing (NATO IR Decomposition Methodology)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-16

    Populate IR: The name of the Authoritative Data Source Example: Global Transportation Network ( GTN ) • Link to Source / Systems: The connecting...the best chance possible to locate it. Additionally, if there is a document that could be modified to support exchanging this information list it...THE COMMERCI AL BILL OF LADING FROM WHICH THE FREIGHT- LADING- BILL WAS Nation al, CTF GTN GTN.doc 18 UNCLASSIFIED –APPROVED FOR PUBLIC

  17. Notes on Citrullius spp. and Acanthosicyos naudinianus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. lanatus subsp. mu...

  18. USVL-370, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-370’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] containing resistance to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated wit...

  19. Turkmenistan Melon (Cucumis melo), and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Germplasm Expedition 2008.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Turkmenistan has a rich tradition of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) production, but like in many countries land races and old varieties are in danger of genetic erosion. In July-August 2008, a collaborative Turkmenistan–United States germplasm exp...

  20. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  1. Atomistic Study of Metastable Phases in an A1-3wt.%-Li0 .12wt.%-Zr Alloy. A Preliminary Study of A1-Li Alloys Using Atom-Probe Field Ion Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-02

    miscibility gap has been obtained by Nozato and Nakai (5), Spooner ir al.(6), Rioja ind Ludwiczak (7), Papzian et al.(8). However, direct imaging of the a...International Conference on Al-Li Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London, in press. 626 ALUMINUM ALLOYS - PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 7. Rioja , R. J

  2. Atomic Data for Fusion. Volume 5: Collisions of Carbon and Oxygen Ions with Electrons, H, H2 and He

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    A. iller, Strahlenzentrum der Justus Liebig -Universitaet, Leihgesterner Weg 217, 6300 Giessen, West Germany 443. Dr. Y. Nakai, Dept. of Physics...Strahlenzentrum, Der Justus Liebig -Univ., Leihgesterner Weg 217, D-6300 Giessen, West Germany 465. Dr. A. Sanchez, Calle Angostura Quinta-Carmen, El

  3. A survey of bee species found pollinating watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives were in any of the fie...

  4. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  5. Notes on Citrullus spp. And Acanthosicyos naudinianus-pollen morphology and interspecific hybridization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. mucosospermus (Fu...

  6. The Bukkyo University and University of Hawai'i College of Education Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Hunter; Goto, Sunao; Horike, Yukiyo

    2010-01-01

    For the past ten years, the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa (UHM-COE) and Bukkyo University in Kyoto, Japan have enjoyed a special relationship designed to promote cooperation and academic exchanges between the two institutions. The agreement of cooperation was signed on June 5, 2000 by President Shinko Nakai of Bukkyo…

  7. USVL-380, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-380’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] resistant to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated with ZYMV-resis...

  8. Basic Hydrodynamics of Richtmyer-Meshkov-type Growth and Oscillations in the ICF-Relevant Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    density foam targets rippled on the front ( Watari et al. 2008). It is more instructive, however, to see the effect of ablation velocity increase due...152-167. Watari , T., Nakai, M., Azechi, H., Sakaiya, T., Shiraga, H., Shigemori, K., Fujioka, S., Otani, K., Nagai, K., Sunahara, A. & Mima, K. 2008

  9. Linkage mapping in a watermelon population segregating for fusarium wilt resistance

    Treesearch

    Leigh K. Hawkins; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Billy B. Rhodes; Robert L. Jarret

    2001-01-01

    Isozyme, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were used to generate a linkage map in an F2 and F3 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.) Matsum. & Nakai) population derived from a cross between the fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f....

  10. Observations on anatomical aspects of the fruit, leaf and stem tissues of four Citrullus spp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Morphological characteristics of the fruit, stem and leaf tissues of four species of Citrullus (L.) Schrad. were examined using standard histological methods. Plant materials included the cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and three of its related species; C. colocynthis (...

  11. USVL-360, a novel watermelon tetraploid germplasm line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A tetraploid line “USVL-360” derived from the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 299379 that belong to Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. citroides (L. H. Bailey) Mansf. (CLC) was developed in this study. USVL-360 is a pure line selection from an autotetraploid plant generated by tr...

  12. Cytomolecular characterization of rRNA gene sequences among Citrullus species and subspecies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In previous studies, many DNA markers showed strong preferential (non-Mendelian) segregation in F2 and BC1 genetic populations derived from crosses between wild type watermelon [C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb.] (CLC) and watermelon cultivar...

  13. High frequency oligonucleotides – targeting active gene (HFO-TAG) markers reveal wide genetic diversity among Citrullus spp. accessions useful for enhancing disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a continuous need to enhance watermelon cultivars for disease and pest resistance. Different U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus lanatus subsp. lanatus var. lanatus [also known as C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb.] (CLC) col...

  14. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultigens tested in two environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melon producers face increasing production costs and international market competition. Maximizing marketability of high quality watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai], that also contain high levels of the amino acid phytonutrient L-citrulline, can provide new market niches for th...

  15. Design and Development of an Equipotential Voltage Reference (Grounding) System for a Low-Cost Rapid-Development Modular Spacecraft Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukash, James A.; Daley, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and development effort to adapt rapid-development space hardware by creating a ground system using solutions of low complexity, mass, & cost. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is based on the modular common spacecraft bus architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The challenge was building upon the existing modular common bus design and development work and improving the LADEE spacecraft design by adding an Equipotential Voltage Reference (EVeR) system, commonly referred to as a ground system. This would aid LADEE in meeting Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) requirements, thereby making the spacecraft more compatible with itself and its space environment. The methods used to adapt existing hardware are presented, including provisions which may be used on future spacecraft.

  16. Synodic and Semiannual Oscillations of Argon-40 in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. Richard, Jr.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft collected a trove of exospheric data, including a set of high-quality measurements of radiogenic Ar-40 over a period of 142 days. Data synthesis studies, using well-established exosphere simulation tools, show that the LADEE argon data are consistent with an exosphere-regolith interaction that is dominated by adsorption and that the desorption process generates the Armand distribution of exit velocities. The synthesis work has uncovered an apparent semiannual oscillation of argon that is consistent with temporal sequestration in the seasonal cold traps created at the poles by the obliquity of the Moon. In addition, the LADEE data provide new insight into the pristine nature of lunar regolith, its spatially varying sorption properties, and the influence of sorption processes on the synodic oscillation of the argon exosphere.

  17. Synodic and semiannual oscillations of argon-40 in the lunar exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, R. Richard; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft collected a trove of exospheric data, including a set of high-quality measurements of radiogenic 40Ar over a period of 142 days. Data synthesis studies, using well-established exosphere simulation tools, show that the LADEE argon data are consistent with an exosphere-regolith interaction that is dominated by adsorption and that the desorption process generates the Armand distribution of exit velocities. The synthesis work has uncovered an apparent semiannual oscillation of argon that is consistent with temporal sequestration in the seasonal cold traps created at the poles by the obliquity of the Moon. In addition, the LADEE data provide new insight into the pristine nature of lunar regolith, its spatially varying sorption properties, and the influence of sorption processes on the synodic oscillation of the argon exosphere.

  18. Low incidence of left atrial delayed enhancement with MRI in patients with AF: a single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bois, John P; Glockner, James; Young, Phillip M; Foley, Thomas A; Sheldon, Seth; Newman, Darrell B; Lin, Grace; Packer, Douglas L; Brady, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained atrial arrhythmia. One potential target for ablation is left atrial (LA) scar (LAS) regions that may be the substrate for re-entry within the atria, thereby sustaining AF. Identification of LAS through LA delayed gadolinium enhancement (LADE) with MRI has been proposed. Objectives We sought to evaluate LADE in patients referred for catheter ablation of AF. Methods Prospective analysis was conducted of consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary vein antrum isolation (PVAI) ablation for AF at a single institution. Patients underwent LADE with MRI to determine LAS regions before ablation. MRI data were analysed independently in accordance with prespecified institutional protocol by two staff cardiac radiologists to whom patient outcomes were masked, and reports of LADE were documented. Where no initial consensus occurred regarding delayed enhancement (DE), a third staff cardiac radiologist independently reviewed the case and had the deciding vote. Results Of the 149 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age, 59 (9) years), AF was persistent in 64 (43%) and paroxysmal in 85 (57%); 45 (30%) had prior ablation. Only five patients (3%) had identifiable DE in LA walls (persistent AF, n=1; paroxysmal AF, n=4). LADE was present in two (4%) of the 45 patients with previous left PVAI. The presence of LADE was not associated with a higher recurrence rate of AF. Conclusions In contrast to previous studies, the finding of DE within LA walls was uncommon and, when present, did not correlate with AF type or risk of AF recurrence. It therefore is of unclear clinical significance. PMID:28123766

  19. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1-40amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE,LRO, etc.).

  20. Trajectory Design for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Loucks, Michel E.; Yang, Fan Yang; Lee, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The presented trajectory design and analysis was performed for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment (PADME) mission concept as part of a NASA proposal submission managed by NASA Ames Research Center in the 2014-2015 timeframe. The PADME spacecraft would be a derivative of the successfully flown Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. While LADEE was designed to enter low-lunar orbit, the PADME spacecraft would instead enter an elliptical Mars orbit of 2-week period. This Mars orbit would pass by Phobos near periapsis on successive orbits and then raise periapsis to yield close approaches of Deimos every orbit thereafter.

  1. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... any type of lighted heater or open-flame device, or in a rail car equipped with any apparatus or...) materials may not be loaded in a truck body or trailer equipped with any type of lighted heater or any... (flammable gas) materials only if: (1) The lading space is not equipped with any electrical apparatus that is...

  2. Image Processing of Digital Cartographic Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-05

    lasibases de datas digitales par media de una Estaci6n de Manja de Im~genes. Taznbign trata de la canfiguracio’n de las sistemas , sus cam- ponentes, la...DE IMAGENES DE DATOS CARTOGRAFICOS DIGITALES Desde hace tiempa el cart~graffa ha querido representar las caracteristicas de la superficie terrestre

  3. 49 CFR 375.217 - How must I collect charges upon delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... service and the bill of lading. (c) Charge or credit card payments: (1) If you agree to accept payment by charge or credit card, you must arrange with the individual shipper for the delivery only at a time when you can obtain authorization for the shipper's credit card transaction. (2) Paragraph (c)(1) of this...

  4. 49 CFR 375.217 - How must I collect charges upon delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... service and the bill of lading. (c) Charge or credit card payments: (1) If you agree to accept payment by charge or credit card, you must arrange with the individual shipper for the delivery only at a time when you can obtain authorization for the shipper's credit card transaction. (2) Paragraph (c)(1) of this...

  5. 49 CFR 375.217 - How must I collect charges upon delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... service and the bill of lading. (c) Charge or credit card payments: (1) If you agree to accept payment by charge or credit card, you must arrange with the individual shipper for the delivery only at a time when you can obtain authorization for the shipper's credit card transaction. (2) Paragraph (c)(1) of this...

  6. 7 CFR 1403.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... railroads, motor carriers, ocean carriers or piggyback enterprises, which provide transportation or other... means the deduction of money from the current pay account of a present or former Government employee... ocean bill or lading, or other similar agreement between the carrier and CCC. In the case of...

  7. 7 CFR 1403.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... railroads, motor carriers, ocean carriers or piggyback enterprises, which provide transportation or other... means the deduction of money from the current pay account of a present or former Government employee... ocean bill or lading, or other similar agreement between the carrier and CCC. In the case of...

  8. 7 CFR 1403.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... railroads, motor carriers, ocean carriers or piggyback enterprises, which provide transportation or other... means the deduction of money from the current pay account of a present or former Government employee... ocean bill or lading, or other similar agreement between the carrier and CCC. In the case of...

  9. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5... truck, the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one copy of the bill of lading covering the... carrier, the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one non-negotiable copy or photo copy or other...

  10. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required... exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one copy of the bill of lading covering the commodity..., the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one non-negotiable copy or photo copy or other type...

  11. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required... exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one copy of the bill of lading covering the commodity..., the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one non-negotiable copy or photo copy or other type...

  12. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required... exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one copy of the bill of lading covering the commodity..., the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one non-negotiable copy or photo copy or other type...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on the bill of lading (including a...

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.95 - What transportation documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117... acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? (a) Bills of lading and purchase orders are the transportation documents you use to acquire freight, household goods shipments,...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on the bill of lading (including a...

  16. 49 CFR 178.338-16 - Inspection and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the magnetic particle method, the liquid penetrant method, or any method involving a material deposit... effective means, and all such residue and cleaning solution must be removed from the tank prior to final... service by means that assure that all contaminants that are likely to react with the lading have been...

  17. 7 CFR 352.30 - Untreated oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., or to approved refrigerated storage pending lading aboard ship, in Corpus Christi, Galveston, or... Hebbronville, TX, to Corpus Christi, TX, to Galveston, TX, to Kinder, LA, to Memphis, TN, and then to... east by a line drawn from Laredo, TX, to Hebbronville, TX, to Corpus Christi, TX, to Galveston, TX, to...

  18. 7 CFR 352.30 - Untreated oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., or to approved refrigerated storage pending lading aboard ship, in Corpus Christi, Galveston, or... Hebbronville, TX, to Corpus Christi, TX, to Galveston, TX, to Kinder, LA, to Memphis, TN, and then to... east by a line drawn from Laredo, TX, to Hebbronville, TX, to Corpus Christi, TX, to Galveston, TX, to...

  19. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  20. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1035 - Contract Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... issuing this bill of lading, or carrier on whose line the loss, damage, injury or delay occurred, within... transportation under which the shipment was made. The term “delivering carrier” means the line-haul carrier... danger, damage or disaster resulting from faults or errors in navigation, or in the management of the...

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-3 - Structural integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., the suspension sub-frame, accident protection structures, and external circumferential reinforcement... weight of lading, the weight of structure supported by the cargo tank wall, and the effect of temperature... percent of the ultimate tensile strength of the type steel used. (e) The minimum metal thickness for...

  2. 46 CFR 520.13 - Exemptions and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER... common carrier by water transporting the containers or containerized cargo under a through bill of lading... and personal effects are the accompanying personal property of the passengers and are not transported...

  3. 46 CFR 520.13 - Exemptions and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER... common carrier by water transporting the containers or containerized cargo under a through bill of lading... and personal effects are the accompanying personal property of the passengers and are not transported...

  4. 49 CFR 173.13 - Exceptions for Class 3, Divisions 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 6.1, and Classes 8 and 9 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material must be placed in a tightly closed glass, plastic or metal inner packaging with a maximum capacity... placed in a hermetically sealed barrier bag which is impervious to the lading, and then wrapped in a non... the hermetically sealed barrier bag. The combination of inner packaging, absorbent material, and...

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the referenced...

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the referenced...

  7. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the referenced...

  8. 46 CFR 381.7 - Federal Grant, Guaranty, Loan and Advance of Funds Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... furnished to both the Contracting Officer (through the prime contractor in the case of subcontractor bills... contract, to the extent such vessels are available at fair and reasonable rates for United States-flag... Contracting Officer (through the prime contractor in the case of subcontractor bills-of-lading) and to the...

  9. 49 CFR 178.338-14 - Gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pipe or tube of small diameter equipped with a valve at or near the jacket and extending into the cargo... indicating the lading pressure and located on the front of the jacket so it can be read by the driver in the... restricted at or inside the jacket by orifices no larger than 0.060-inch diameter. Trycock lines, if provided...

  10. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the...

  11. 49 CFR 180.407 - Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or other liquid having similar viscosity, at a temperature not exceeding 100 °F. The cargo tank must... limited to, steam or hot water for heating the lading must be hydrostatically pressure tested at least... indicate that the cargo tank has no working heating system. (7) The inspector must record the results...

  12. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  13. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading,...

  14. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  15. 27 CFR 28.22 - Vessels employed in the fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fisheries. 28.22 Section 28.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Lading for Use on Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 28.22 Vessels employed in the fisheries. Liquors may be... the fisheries, only for use on vessels of the United States documented to engage in the fisheries...

  16. 49 CFR 178.255-5 - Bottom discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... outlets prohibited, except on tanks used for shipments of sludge acid and alkaline corrosive liquids. (b) If installed, bottom outlets or bottom washout chambers shall be of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by the lading, and each shall be provided with a valve or plug at its upper end and liquid-tight...

  17. 49 CFR 179.400-17 - Inner tank piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-17 Inner tank piping. (a) Product lines. The piping system for vapor and liquid phase transfer and... lading temperature. The outlets of all vapor phase and liquid phase lines must be located so that...

  18. 49 CFR 178.255-5 - Bottom discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., except on tanks used for shipments of sludge acid and alkaline corrosive liquids. (b) If installed, bottom outlets or bottom washout chambers shall be of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by the lading, and each shall be provided with a valve or plug at its upper end and liquid-tight closure at it...

  19. Calibration of the Neutral Mass Spectrometer for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Hodges, R. R.; Harpold, D. N.; King, T. T.; Jaeger, F.; Raaen, E.; Lyness, E.; Collier, M.; Benna, M.

    2012-01-01

    Science objectives of the LADEE Mission are to (1) determine the composition, and time variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere and (2) to characterize the dust environment and its variability. These studies will extend the in-situ characterization of the environment that were carried out decades ago with the Apollo missions and a variety of ground based studies. The focused LADEE measurements will enable a more complete understanding of dust and gas sources and sinks. Sources of gas include UV photo-stimulated desorption, sputtering by plasma and micrometeorites, as well as thermal release of species such as argon from the cold service or venting from the lunar interior. Sinks include recondensation on the surface and escape through a variety of mechanisms. The LADEE science payload consists of an Ultraviolet Spectrometer, a Neutral Mass Spectrometer, and a Dust Detector. The LADEE orbit will include multiple passes at or below 50 km altitude and will target repeated sampling at the sunrise terminator where exospheric density will be highest for some thermally released species. The science mission will be implemented in approximately three months to allow measurements to be made over a period of one or more lunations In addition to the science mission NASA will use this mission to demonstrate optical communication technology away from low Earth orbit.

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  1. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  2. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, powers of..., deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, real estate and any interest therein..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks, copyrights, contracts or licenses affecting or...

  3. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  4. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  5. 31 CFR 570.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  6. 31 CFR 549.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  7. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  8. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  9. 31 CFR 549.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  10. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  11. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  12. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  13. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  14. 31 CFR 589.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  15. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, powers of..., deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, real estate and any interest therein..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks, copyrights, contracts or licenses affecting or...

  16. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  17. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  18. 31 CFR 570.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  19. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  20. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  1. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  2. Simulations of Water Migration in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Goldstein, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    We perform modeling and analysis of water in the lunar exosphere. There were two controlled experiments of water interactions with the surface of the Moon observed by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). The Chang'e 3 landing on the Moon on 14 Dec 2013 putatively sprayed ~120 kg of water on the surface on the Moon at a mid-morning local time. Observations by LADEE near the noon meridian on six of the orbits in the 24 hours following the landing constrain the propagation of water vapor. Further, on 4 Apr 2014, LADEE's Orbital Maintenance Manuever (OMM) #21 sprayed the surface of the Moon with an estimated 0.73 kg of water in the pre-dawn sector. Observations of this maneuver and later in the day constrain the adsorption and release at dawn of adsorbed materials. Using the Chang'e 3 exhaust plume and LADEE's OMM-21 as control experiments, we set limits to the adsorption and thermalization of water with lunar regolith. This enables us to predict the efficiency of the migration of water as a delivery mechanism to the lunar poles. Then we simulate the migration of water through the lunar exosphere using the rate of sporadic inputs from meteoritic sources (Benna et al., this session). Simulations predict the amount of water adsorbed to the surface of the Moon and the effective delivery rate to the lunar polar cold traps.

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (b) When a water displacement method of discharge is used, pressure vessel type cargo tanks, designed... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading...

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (b) When a water displacement method of discharge is used, pressure vessel type cargo tanks, designed... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading...

  5. 49 CFR 376.31 - Interchange of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipment to be interchanged. This written agreement shall set forth the specific points of interchange, how... commodities at the point where the physical exchange occurs. (c) Through bills of lading. The traffic... divisions of the joint rates or the proportions of such rates accruing to the carriers by the application...

  6. 75 FR 42685 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... ImportIQ reports for Angang and Quyky exports showing bills of lading for merchandise identical to that... 7. Based on shipment data obtained from Zepol ImportIQ, a database of manifest data similar to PIERS... hangers to the United States. See Angang Request at 14 and Exhibit 2. Further, based on Zepol...

  7. 49 CFR 1310.4 - Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... valuable goods. (ii) Claim restrictions, including time periods within which shippers or consignees must... REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.4 Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference. (a... contract of carriage for the transportation of household goods, provided that: (1) The bill of lading or...

  8. 7 CFR 6.29 - Use of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... its agent, and must be owned by the licensee at the time of such entry. (c) If the article entered or... supplier, the licensee shall present, at the time of entry: (1) A true and correct copy of a through bill... licensee shall present, at the time of entry: (1) A true and correct copy of a through bill of lading...

  9. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with requirements of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (15 CFR part 30) and § 758.1 of the... consignee to whom the shipment is authorized. (b) Destination control statement. The SCL holder and consignees must enter a destination control statement on all copies of the bill of lading or air...

  10. 7 CFR 1493.500 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... bill(s) of lading signed by the shipping company with the onboard ocean carrier date for each shipment, the airway bill, or, if shipped by rail or truck, the entry certificate or similar document signed by..., in form and substance satisfactory to CCC, subrogating to CCC the respective rights of the exporter...

  11. 19 CFR 141.54 - Separate entries for consolidated shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the right to make entry as set forth in § 141.11(a), and such evidence shall be permanently retained by the port director. (b) Waiver of right to have bill of lading or air waybill returned. If a bill... right to make entry. The nominal consignee of a consolidated shipment covering merchandise for various...

  12. 7 CFR 1493.110 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... intermodal bill(s) of lading signed by the shipping company with the onboard ocean carrier date for each shipment, the airway bill, or, if shipped by rail or truck, the entry certificate or similar document... instrument, in form and substance satisfactory to CCC, subrogating to CCC the respective rights of the...

  13. 78 FR 18421 - Information Collection Activities; Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... annual burden of $687,700. Needs and Uses: Moving companies must inform consumers of their rights and... goods, typically at a lower cost to you. You will select the liability level later, on the bill of lading (contract) for your move. Before selecting a liability level, please read ``Your Rights and...

  14. 7 CFR 1493.300 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the negotiable ocean carrier or intermodal bill(s) of lading signed by the shipping company with the onboard ocean carrier date for each shipment, the airway bill; or, if shipped by rail or truck, the entry... respective rights of the exporter and the exporter's assignee, if applicable, to the amount of payment in...

  15. 77 FR 17436 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... delivery charges, and bill of lading charges) in the ocean freight calculation because these charges were... both its U.S. price and normal value components. In addition, the Department does not find the highest... weighted-average amount by which the normal value exceeds U.S. price, as indicated above....

  16. 49 CFR 375.201 - What is my normal liability for loss and damage when I accept goods from an individual shipper?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is my normal liability for loss and damage... What is my normal liability for loss and damage when I accept goods from an individual shipper? (a) In... of household goods and all related services identified on your lawful bill of lading. (b) Full...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4101-1 - Taxable fuel; registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information from the applicant, and inspect the applicant's premises during normal business hours without... Internal Revenue Service during normal business hours records relevant to a determination of tax liability... shipping papers, bills of lading, and similar documents that are provided by the terminal operator...

  18. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... stationary, the heat transfer rate must be determined by measuring the normal evaporation rate (NER) of the... transfer rate to cargo tank with lading, Btu/hr. n = normal evaporation rate (NER), which is the rate of evaporation, determined by the test of a test cryogenic liquid in a cargo tank maintained at a pressure of...

  19. 7 CFR 1488.2 - Definition of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... carrier (truck, rail car or lash or seabee barge) date of a through bill of lading covering commodities in... container on a truck or rail car, or in a lash or seabee barge for shipment to a point of export under a... approval. (q) Financing period means the number of months over which repayment is to be made. Such period...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.247-72 - Advance notice of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Advance notice of shipment. 1852.247-72 Section 1852.247-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... furnish the anticipated shipment date, bill of lading number (if applicable), and carrier identity to...

  1. 48 CFR 1852.247-72 - Advance notice of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advance notice of shipment. 1852.247-72 Section 1852.247-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... furnish the anticipated shipment date, bill of lading number (if applicable), and carrier identity to and...

  2. 48 CFR 1852.247-72 - Advance notice of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Advance notice of shipment. 1852.247-72 Section 1852.247-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... furnish the anticipated shipment date, bill of lading number (if applicable), and carrier identity to and...

  3. 49 CFR 178.337-10 - Accident damage protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident damage protection. 178.337-10 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-10 Accident damage... stop valve and within the accident damage protection to prevent any accidental loss of lading....

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the cargo... square inch gauge. (d) Piping. (1) The pumps and piping used for cargo transfer shall be independent...

  5. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the cargo... square inch gauge. (d) Piping. (1) The pumps and piping used for cargo transfer shall be independent...

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the cargo... square inch gauge. (d) Piping. (1) The pumps and piping used for cargo transfer shall be independent...

  7. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-19 Valves and gages... liquefied lading within the inner tank, mounted where it will be readily visible to an operator...

  8. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-19 Valves and gages... liquefied lading within the inner tank, mounted where it will be readily visible to an operator...

  9. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-19 Valves and gages... liquefied lading within the inner tank, mounted where it will be readily visible to an operator...

  10. 49 CFR 371.113 - May I provide individual shippers with a written estimate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... agreement must be printed on the written estimate and must be printed at no less than 7-point font size and with the font typeface Universe. (3) A copy of the waiver agreement must be retained as an addendum to... applicable to bills of lading. (d) You must keep the records required by this section for three years...

  11. 49 CFR 371.113 - May I provide individual shippers with a written estimate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... agreement must be printed on the written estimate and must be printed at no less than 7-point font size and with the font typeface Universe. (3) A copy of the waiver agreement must be retained as an addendum to... applicable to bills of lading. (d) You must keep the records required by this section for three years...

  12. 49 CFR 178.606 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with specific gravities different from that of the liquid to be transported, the force must be calculated based on the specific gravity that will be marked on the packaging. The minimum height of the... number of containers that, when stacked, reach a height of 3 meters. s = specific gravity of lading. w...

  13. 49 CFR 179.400-3 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... space with an approved insulating material; (3) Have the inner tank heads designed concave to pressure; and (4) Have the outer jacket heads designed convex to pressure. (b) The tank must be equipped with piping systems for vapor venting and transfer of lading, and with pressure relief devices, controls...

  14. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-19 Valves and gages. (a) Valves. Manually operated shut-off valves and control valves must be provided wherever needed for control of vapor phase pressure, vapor phase venting, liquid transfer and... satisfactory properties at the lading temperature. (1) Liquid control valves must be of extended stem design...

  15. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....1 (flammable gas) materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored in a rail car equipped with any type of lighted heater or open-flame device, or in a rail car equipped with any apparatus or... (flammable gas) materials only if: (1) The lading space is not equipped with any electrical apparatus that is...

  16. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....1 (flammable gas) materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored in a rail car equipped with any type of lighted heater or open-flame device, or in a rail car equipped with any apparatus or... (flammable gas) materials only if: (1) The lading space is not equipped with any electrical apparatus that is...

  17. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....1 (flammable gas) materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored in a rail car equipped with any type of lighted heater or open-flame device, or in a rail car equipped with any apparatus or... (flammable gas) materials only if: (1) The lading space is not equipped with any electrical apparatus that is...

  18. 19 CFR 4.7a - Inward manifest; information required; alternative forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inward manifest; information required; alternative... § 4.7a Inward manifest; information required; alternative forms. The forms designated by § 4.7(a) as... calling for such information and on the same line where the bill of lading is listed for that shipper's...

  19. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim, TTB...

  20. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim, TTB...

  1. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim, TTB...

  2. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim, TTB...

  3. 22 CFR 201.43 - Diversion clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FINANCED BY USAID General Provisions Relating to USAID Financing of Commodities and Commodity-Related Services § 201.43 Diversion clause. USAID may require that charter parties, bills of lading, or other ocean shipping documents covering USAID-financed commodities contain a clause substantially as follows: USAID may...

  4. 22 CFR 201.43 - Diversion clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FINANCED BY USAID General Provisions Relating to USAID Financing of Commodities and Commodity-Related Services § 201.43 Diversion clause. USAID may require that charter parties, bills of lading, or other ocean shipping documents covering USAID-financed commodities contain a clause substantially as follows: USAID may...

  5. 22 CFR 201.43 - Diversion clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FINANCED BY USAID General Provisions Relating to USAID Financing of Commodities and Commodity-Related Services § 201.43 Diversion clause. USAID may require that charter parties, bills of lading, or other ocean shipping documents covering USAID-financed commodities contain a clause substantially as follows: USAID may...

  6. 22 CFR 201.43 - Diversion clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FINANCED BY USAID General Provisions Relating to USAID Financing of Commodities and Commodity-Related Services § 201.43 Diversion clause. USAID may require that charter parties, bills of lading, or other ocean shipping documents covering USAID-financed commodities contain a clause substantially as follows: USAID may...

  7. 22 CFR 201.43 - Diversion clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FINANCED BY USAID General Provisions Relating to USAID Financing of Commodities and Commodity-Related Services § 201.43 Diversion clause. USAID may require that charter parties, bills of lading, or other ocean shipping documents covering USAID-financed commodities contain a clause substantially as follows: USAID may...

  8. 7 CFR 1488.2 - Definition of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., rail car or lash or seabee barge) date of a through bill of lading covering commodities in a container... container on a truck or rail car, or in a lash or seabee barge for shipment to a point of export under a... financing agreement and executes the documents evidencing the account receivable assigned to CCC. (t) GSM-5...

  9. 7 CFR 1488.2 - Definition of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., rail car or lash or seabee barge) date of a through bill of lading covering commodities in a container... container on a truck or rail car, or in a lash or seabee barge for shipment to a point of export under a... financing agreement and executes the documents evidencing the account receivable assigned to CCC. (t) GSM-5...

  10. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stationary, the heat transfer rate must be determined by measuring the normal evaporation rate (NER) of the... atmosphere. The calculated heat transfer rate must be determined from: q = / Where: q = calculated heat transfer rate to cargo tank with lading, Btu/hr. n = normal evaporation rate (NER), which is the rate of...

  11. 49 CFR 179.400-4 - Insulation system and performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., in gallons; tl = equilibrium temperature of intended lading at maximum shipping pressure, in °F.; 8.32828 = constant for converting gallons of water at 60 °F. to lbs. of water at 60 °F., in lbs./gallon... locations on the jacket at regular intervals during the NER test, in °F.; tf = equilibrium temperature...

  12. 41 CFR 109-40.5002 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5002... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability. 109-40.5002 Section 109-40.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  13. 41 CFR 109-40.5005 - Description of property for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of property for shipment. 109-40.5005 Section 109-40.5005 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  14. 41 CFR 109-40.5000 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5000 Scope... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of subpart. 109-40.5000 Section 109-40.5000 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  15. 41 CFR 109-40.5000 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5000 Scope... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope of subpart. 109-40.5000 Section 109-40.5000 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  16. 41 CFR 109-40.5002 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5002... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 109-40.5002 Section 109-40.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  17. 41 CFR 109-40.5001 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5001 Policy... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 109-40.5001 Section 109-40.5001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  18. 41 CFR 109-40.5001 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5001 Policy... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 109-40.5001 Section 109-40.5001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  19. 49 CFR 178.815 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... container in pounds. s = specific gravity (liquids) or density (solids) of the lading. v = actual capacity... formula: Liquids: A = (1.8)(n - 1) × 1.5; or Solids: A = (1.8)(n - 1) × 1.5 Where: A = applied load in...

  20. 49 CFR 178.980 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... using the applicable formula: Liquids: A = (1.8)(n−1) × 1.5; or Solids: A = (1.8)(n−1) × 1.5 Where: A.... w = maximum weight of one empty container in pounds. s = specific gravity (liquids) or density (solids) of the lading. v = actual capacity of container (rated capacity + outage) in gallons. and: 8.3...

  1. 49 CFR 178.980 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... using the applicable formula: Liquids: A = (1.8)(n−1) × 1.5; or Solids: A = (1.8)(n−1) × 1.5 Where: A.... w = maximum weight of one empty container in pounds. s = specific gravity (liquids) or density (solids) of the lading. v = actual capacity of container (rated capacity + outage) in gallons. and: 8.3...

  2. 49 CFR 178.815 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... container in pounds. s = specific gravity (liquids) or density (solids) of the lading. v = actual capacity... formula: Liquids: A = (1.8)(n - 1) × 1.5; or Solids: A = (1.8)(n - 1) × 1.5 Where: A = applied load in...

  3. 49 CFR 178.980 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... using the applicable formula: Liquids: A = (1.8)(n−1) × 1.5; or Solids: A = (1.8)(n−1) × 1.5 Where: A.... w = maximum weight of one empty container in pounds. s = specific gravity (liquids) or density (solids) of the lading. v = actual capacity of container (rated capacity + outage) in gallons. and: 8.3...

  4. 49 CFR 178.815 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... container in pounds. s = specific gravity (liquids) or density (solids) of the lading. v = actual capacity... formula: Liquids: A = (1.8)(n - 1) × 1.5; or Solids: A = (1.8)(n - 1) × 1.5 Where: A = applied load in...

  5. 40 CFR 279.56 - Tracking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners § 279.56 Tracking. (a) Acceptance. Used oil processors/re-refiners must keep a record of each used oil shipment accepted for processing/re-refining. These records may take the form of a log, invoice, manifest, bill of lading or...

  6. 15 CFR 758.6 - Destination control statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be entered on the invoice and on the bill of lading, air waybill, or other export control document... Control List that are not classified as EAR99, unless the export may be made under License Exception BAG or GFT (see part 740 of the EAR). At a minimum, the DCS must state: “These commodities, technology...

  7. 15 CFR 758.6 - Destination control statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be entered on the invoice and on the bill of lading, air waybill, or other export control document... Control List that are not classified as EAR99, unless the export may be made under License Exception BAG or GFT (see part 740 of the EAR). At a minimum, the DCS must state: “These commodities, technology...

  8. 15 CFR 758.6 - Destination control statement and other information furnished to consignees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (DCS) must be entered on the invoice and on the bill of lading, air waybill, or other export control... Control List that are not classified as EAR99, unless the export may be made under License Exception BAG or GFT (see part 740 of the EAR). At a minimum, the DCS must state: “These commodities,...

  9. 15 CFR 758.6 - Destination control statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be entered on the invoice and on the bill of lading, air waybill, or other export control document... Control List that are not classified as EAR99, unless the export may be made under License Exception BAG or GFT (see part 740 of the EAR). At a minimum, the DCS must state: “These commodities, technology...

  10. 15 CFR 758.6 - Destination control statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be entered on the invoice and on the bill of lading, air waybill, or other export control document... Control List that are not classified as EAR99, unless the export may be made under License Exception BAG or GFT (see part 740 of the EAR). At a minimum, the DCS must state: “These commodities, technology...

  11. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES... exporting carrier on which movement of the grapes from the United States is effected. The date of the on board bill of lading (or loading tally sheet) shall be considered to be the date the grapes were...

  12. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES... exporting carrier on which movement of the grapes from the United States is effected. The date of the on board bill of lading (or loading tally sheet) shall be considered to be the date the grapes were...

  13. 49 CFR 178.348-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... heats of the vapor. If (K) is unknown, let C = 315. C = 520 ]0.5 Where: K = Cp / Cv Cp = The specific heat at constant pressure, in -calories per gram degree centigrade (BTU/lb °F.); and Cv = The specific... surface area of tank shell—square meters (square feet); L = The latent heat of vaporization of the lading...

  14. 49 CFR 178.348-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... heats of the vapor. If (K) is unknown, let C = 315. C = 520 ]0.5 Where: K = Cp / Cv Cp = The specific heat at constant pressure, in -calories per gram degree centigrade (BTU/lb °F.); and Cv = The specific... surface area of tank shell—square meters (square feet); L = The latent heat of vaporization of the lading...

  15. 49 CFR 178.348-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... heats of the vapor. If (K) is unknown, let C = 315. C = 520 ]0.5 Where: K = Cp / Cv Cp = The specific heat at constant pressure, in -calories per gram degree centigrade (BTU/lb °F.); and Cv = The specific... surface area of tank shell—square meters (square feet); L = The latent heat of vaporization of the lading...

  16. 49 CFR 178.348-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... heats of the vapor. If (K) is unknown, let C = 315. C = 520 ]0.5 Where: K = Cp / Cv Cp = The specific heat at constant pressure, in -calories per gram degree centigrade (BTU/lb °F.); and Cv = The specific... surface area of tank shell—square meters (square feet); L = The latent heat of vaporization of the lading...

  17. 48 CFR 252.232-7011 - Payments in Support of Emergencies and Contingency Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and weight of shipment will be shown for shipments on Government bills of lading. (vi) Name and..., Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer—System for Award Management, or FAR 52.232-34, Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer—Other Than System for Award Management), or applicable agency procedures. (C)...

  18. 77 FR 60454 - Proposed Information Collection; Declaration for Importation or Exportation of Fish or Wildlife

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...: Send your comments on the IC to the Service Information Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Fish and... Forms 3-177 and 3-177a with us at the time and port where they request clearance of the import or export... the airway bill or bill of lading number, the location of the fish or wildlife for inspection, and the...

  19. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., see § 171.7 of this subchapter); (B) include impact test specimens of weld metal and heat affected...) meet the same impact requirements as the plate material. (c) Insulation must be of approved material... insulation must be designed to prevent the pressure of the lading from increasing from the pressure at the...

  20. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see § 171.7 of this subchapter); (B) include impact test specimens of weld metal and heat affected...) meet the same impact requirements as the plate material. (c) Insulation must be of approved material... insulation must be designed to prevent the pressure of the lading from increasing from the pressure at the...