Science.gov

Sample records for lade teruo nakai

  1. LADEE Science Results and Implications for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; M. Horanyi; Colaprete, A.; Benna; Mahaffy, P.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Halekas, J. S.; Hurley, D. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Saratos, M.; Kempf, S.; Poppe, A.; Szalay, J.; Sternovsky, Z.; Cooke, A. M.; Wooden, D. H.; Glenar, D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, LADEE, concluded a fully successful investigation of the Moon's tenuous gas and dust atmosphere on April 18, 2014. LADEE hosted three science instruments to address atmospheric and dust objectives, and a technology demonstration of deep-space optical communication. The three science instruments were an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UVS), a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), and a lunar dust experiment (LDEX). All data acquired by these instruments have been submitted to the Planetary Data System. A mission overview and science instrument descriptions are readily available. LADEE inserted into a low-altitude, retrograde lunar orbit optimized for observations at the sunrise terminator, where surface temperatures rise abruptly. LADEE also carried out observations over a wide range of local times and altitudes. Here we describe some of the initial results.

  2. Attitude Design for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galal, Ken; Nickel, Craig; Sherman, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) satellite successfully completed its 148-day science investigation in a low-altitude, near-equatorial lunar orbit on April 18, 2014. The LADEE spacecraft was built, managed and operated by NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC). The Mission Operations Center (MOC) was located at Ames and was responsible for activity planning, command sequencing, trajectory and attitude design, orbit determination, and spacecraft operations. The Science Operations Center (SOC) was located at Goddard Space Flight Center and was responsible for science planning, data archiving and distribution. This paper details attitude design and operations support for the LADEE mission. LADEE's attitude design was shaped by a wide range of instrument pointing requirements that necessitated regular excursions from the baseline one revolution per orbit "Ram" attitude. Such attitude excursions were constrained by a number of flight rules levied to protect instruments from the Sun, avoid geometries that would result in simultaneous occlusion of LADEE's two star tracker heads, and maintain the spacecraft within its thermal and power operating limits. To satisfy LADEE's many attitude requirements and constraints, a set of rules and conventions was adopted to manage the complexity of this design challenge and facilitate the automation of ground software that generated pointing commands spanning multiple days of operations at a time. The resulting LADEE Flight Dynamics System (FDS) that was developed used Visual Basic scripts that generated instructions to AGI's Satellite Tool Kit (STK) in order to derive quaternion commands at regular intervals that satisfied LADEE's pointing requirements. These scripts relied heavily on the powerful "align and constrain" capability of STK's attitude module to construct LADEE's attitude profiles and the slews to get there. A description of the scripts and the attitude modeling they embodied is provided. One particular

  3. 19 CFR 122.94 - Certificate of lading for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of lading for exportation. 122.94....94 Certificate of lading for exportation. (a) Required filing. This section applies to merchandise entered for transportation and exportation by aircraft. A certificate of lading for exportation and...

  4. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  5. Flight Software for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Howard N.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft was launched on September 6, 2013, and completed its mission on April 17, 2014 with a directed impact to the Lunar Surface. Its primary goals were to examine the lunar atmosphere, measure lunar dust, and to demonstrate high rate laser communications. The LADEE mission was a resounding success, achieving all mission objectives, much of which can be attributed to careful planning and preparation. This paper discusses some of the highlights from the mission, and then discusses the techniques used for developing the onboard Flight Software. A large emphasis for the Flight Software was to develop it within tight schedule and cost constraints. To accomplish this, the Flight Software team leveraged heritage software, used model based development techniques, and utilized an automated test infrastructure. This resulted in the software being delivered on time and within budget. The resulting software was able to meet all system requirements, and had very problems in flight.

  6. LADEE Satellite Modeling and Simulation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael; Cannon, Howard; Frost, Chad

    2011-01-01

    As human activity on and around the Moon increases, so does the likelihood that our actions will have an impact on its atmosphere. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), a NASA satellite scheduled to launch in 2013, will orbit the Moon collecting composition, density, and time variability data to characterize the current state of the lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also test the concept of the "Modular Common Bus" spacecraft architecture, an effort to reduce both development time and cost by designing reusable, modular components for use in multiple missions with similar requirements. An important aspect of this design strategy is to both simulate the spacecraft and develop the flight code in Simulink, a block diagram-style programming language that allows easy algorithm visualization and performance testing. Before flight code can be tested, however, a realistic simulation of the satellite and its dynamics must be generated and validated. This includes all of the satellite control system components such as actuators used for force and torque generation and sensors used for inertial orientation reference. My primary responsibilities have included designing, integrating, and testing models for the LADEE thrusters, reaction wheels, star trackers, and rate gyroscopes.

  7. 41 CFR 109-40.5004 - Government bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government bills of... Government bills of lading. In those instances where DOE cost-type contractors are authorized to use Government bills of lading, specific employees of cost-type contractors will be authorized by the...

  8. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial bills of... Commercial bills of lading. (a) DOE's cost-type contractors using commercial bills of lading in making shipments for the account of DOE shall include the following statement on all commercial bills of...

  9. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial bills of... Commercial bills of lading. (a) DOE's cost-type contractors using commercial bills of lading in making shipments for the account of DOE shall include the following statement on all commercial bills of...

  10. LADEE Propulsion System Cold Flow Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter; Chapman, Jack M.; Trinh, Hau, P.; Bell, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a NASA mission that will orbit the Moon. Its main objective is to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The spacecraft development is being led by NASA Ames Research Center and scheduled for launch in 2013. The LADEE spacecraft will be operated with a bi-propellant hypergolic propulsion system using MMH and NTO as the fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The propulsion system utilizes flight-proven hardware on major components. The propulsion layout is composed of one 100-lbf main thruster and four 5-lbf RCS thrusters. The propellants are stored in four tanks (two parallel-connected tanks per propellant component). The propellants will be pressurized by regulated helium. A simulated propulsion system has been built for conducting cold flow test series to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes, such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. Propellant drainage differential between propellant tanks will also be assessed. Since the oxidizer feed line system has a higher flow demand than the fuel system does, the cold flow test focuses on the oxidizer system. The objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the LADEE propulsion fluid flow operation through water cold flow test and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. The test activities, including the simulated propulsion test article, cold flow test, and analytical modeling, are being performed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. At the time of the abstract submission, the test article checkout is being performed. The test series will be completed by November, 2012

  11. A Conversation with Native Flutist R. Carlos Nakai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1992-01-01

    R. Carlos Nakai discusses his personal development as a musician, his interest in keeping the Native flute tradition alive in a modern way, his ethic of service, the purpose of higher education for Indian students, the relation of education to life, and the role of Indian people in the sciences. (SV)

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. A Appendix A to Part 1035—Uniform Straight Bill of Lading Uniform Straight Bill of Lading...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. A Appendix A to Part 1035—Uniform Straight Bill of Lading Uniform Straight Bill of Lading...

  14. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Turner, Mark; Caffrey, Robert T.; Hine, Butler Preston

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a Lunar science orbiter mission currently under development to address the goals of the National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) [1] report to study the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment prior to significant human activities. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. LADEE employs a high heritage science instrument payload including a neutral mass spectrometer, ultraviolet spectrometer, and dust sensor. In addition to the science payloads, LADEE will fly a laser communications system technology demonstration that could provide a building block for future space communications architectures. LADEE is an important component in NASA's portfolio of near-term lunar missions, addressing objectives that are currently not covered by other U.S. or international efforts, and whose observations must be conducted before large-scale human or robotic activities irrevocably perturb the tenuous and fragile lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost, rapid-development program utilizing a modular bus design launched on the new Minotaur V launch vehicle. Once proven, this capability could enable future lunar missions in a highly cost constrained environment. This paper describes the LADEE objectives, mission design, and technical

  15. 19 CFR 122.38 - Permit and special license to unlade and lade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permit and special license to unlade and lade. 122.38 Section 122.38 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... special license to unlade or lade shall be obtained from Customs. (1) Permit to unlade or lade. A...

  16. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, G. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Morgan, T. H.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Hine, B.; Boroson, D.; Salute, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent “Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon” (SCEM) report identify studies of the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment as among the leading priorities for future lunar science missions. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is currently under development to address these goals. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and dynamics, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. LADEE employs a high heritage instrument payload: the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS), the Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS), and the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). It will also carry the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) as a technology demo. LADEE is an important component in NASA’s portfolio of near-term lunar missions, addressing objectives that are currently not covered by other U.S. or international efforts, and whose observations must be conducted before large scale human or robotic activities irrevocably perturb the tenuous and fragile lunar atmosphere. LADEE’s success will also demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost, rapid development program, utilizing a modular bus design together with the new Minotaur IV+ launch vehicle, and will thus pave the way for cost-effective future lunar missions in a cost-constrained environment. The LADEE spacecraft with various instrument locations.

  17. LADEE Lunar Dust Experiment V1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, J.; James, D.

    2016-11-01

    This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. These data are generated by dust impacts on the LDEX detector. Reduced, calibrated, and derived data are included in this bundle.

  18. 19 CFR 18.7 - Lading for exportation, verification of.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lading for exportation, verification of. 18.7... for exportation, verification of. (a) Promptly, but no more than 2 working days, after arrival of any portion of the in-bond shipment at the port of exportation, the delivering carrier shall surrender the...

  19. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS...

  20. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS...

  1. Interferon-mediated antiviral activities of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its active components.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Prasanna; Uddin, Md Bashir; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Hongik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Angelica tenuissima Nakai is a widely used commodity in traditional medicine. Nevertheless, no study has been conducted on the antiviral and immune-modulatory properties of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, an effective dose of Angelica tenuissima Nakai markedly inhibited the replication of Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Coxsackie virus, and Enterovirus (EV-71) on epithelial (HEK293T/HeLa) and immune (RAW264.7) cells. Such inhibition can be described by the induction of the antiviral state in cells by antiviral, IFNrelated gene induction and secretion of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated BALB/c mice displayed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3, and H9N2). We also found that Angelica tenuissima Nakai can induce the secretion of IL-6, IFN-λ, and local IgA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated mice, which correlating with the observed prophylactic effects. In HPLC analysis, we found the presence of several compounds in the aqueous fraction and among them; we evaluated antiviral properties of ferulic acid. Therefore, an extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its components, including ferulic acid, play roles as immunomodulators and may be potential candidates for novel anti-viral/anti-influenza agents.

  2. NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Hine, Butler; McClard, Steven; Grayzeck, Edwin; Boroson, Don

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 40 years have passed since the last Apollo missions investigated the mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. The most important questions remain: what is the composition, structure and variability of the tenuous lunar exosphere? What are its origins, transport mechanisms, and loss processes? Is lofted lunar dust the cause of the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor missions and Apollo astronauts? How does such levitated dust arise and move, what is its density, and what is its ultimate fate? The US National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) reports have identified studies of the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment as among the leading priorities for future lunar science missions. These measurements have become particularly important since recent observations by the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission point to significant amounts of water and other volatiles sequestered within polar lunar cold traps. Moreover Chandrayaan/M3, EPOXI and Cassini/VIMS have identified molecular water and hydroxyl on lunar surface regolith grains. Variability in concentration suggests these species are likely to be present in the exosphere, and thus constitute a source for the cold traps. NASA s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is currently under development to address these goals. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. LADEE s results are relevant to surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, will address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and will have

  3. Generation of Simulated Tracking Data for LADEE Operational Readiness Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodburn, James; Policastri, Lisa; Owens, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Operational Readiness Tests were an important part of the pre-launch preparation for the LADEE mission. The generation of simulated tracking data to stress the Flight Dynamics System and the Flight Dynamics Team was important for satisfying the testing goal of demonstrating that the software and the team were ready to fly the operational mission. The simulated tracking was generated in a manner to incorporate the effects of errors in the baseline dynamical model, errors in maneuver execution and phenomenology associated with various tracking system based components. The ability of the mission team to overcome these challenges in a realistic flight dynamics scenario indicated that the team and flight dynamics system were ready to fly the LADEE mission. Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment.

  4. LADEE Search for a Dust Exosphere: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Elphic, R.

    2014-01-01

    The LADEE search for exospheric dust is strongly motivated by putative detections of forward-scattered sunlight from exospheric dust grains which were observed during the Apollo era. This dust population, if it exists, has been associated with charging and transport of dust near the terminators. It is likely that the concentration of these dust grains is governed by a saltation mechanism originated by micrometeoroid impacts, which are the source of the more tenuous ejecta cloud.

  5. Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Stubbs, Timothy

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE’s science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium and potassium exospheres; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang’e 3 landing on 14 December 2013, and the Geminid meteor shower.

  6. 49 CFR 1035.1 - Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... interlineation; (3) May vary in the arrangement and spacing of the printed matter on the face of the form. ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading... Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading. (a) All common carriers, except express companies,...

  7. 49 CFR 1035.1 - Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... interlineation; (3) May vary in the arrangement and spacing of the printed matter on the face of the form. ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading... Requirement for certain forms of bills of lading. (a) All common carriers, except express companies,...

  8. The Use of Standards on the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a small explorer class mission that launched Sept 7, 2013 and successfully de-orbited and impacted the moon's surface on April 17, 2014. The spacecraft was the first to launch from a Minotaur 5 and was the first deep space mission to launch from the Wallops flight facility. Figure 1 shows the famous image of a frog unlucky enough to be launched from the facility at the same time as LADEE. The science mission for the spacecraft was to determine the density, composition and variability of the lunar exosphere. In addition, it performed a first-of-a-kind demonstration of laser-based communications from deep space that exhibited a record downlink rate of 622 megabits per second from the moon. In order to perform the lunar dust surveys, the spacecraft was placed in a retrograde equatorial orbit with periapsis between 20 and 60 kilometers. The mission was granted an extension in which final science surveys were performed at altitudes as low as 2 kilometers over the moon's surface. The cadence for spacecraft operations was demanding: the moon's highly inhomogeneous gravity field distorted the orbit, the regular maneuvers were subject to strict payload-induced pointing requirements, and there were periodic attitude changes to keep the spacecraft thermally safe. This led to a need for high reliability in the operation of the spacecraft while obeying strict budget and schedule guidelines.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-11-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, α-pinene, camphene, α-limonene, β-eudesmol, α-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  10. Comparative mapping in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai].

    PubMed

    Sandlin, Katherine; Prothro, Jason; Heesacker, Adam; Khalilian, Nelly; Okashah, Rebecca; Xiang, Wenwen; Bachlava, Eleni; Caldwell, David G; Taylor, Chris A; Seymour, Danelle K; White, Victoria; Chan, Eva; Tolla, Greg; White, Cathy; Safran, Dolores; Graham, Elaine; Knapp, Steven; McGregor, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    The first single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai] were constructed and compared. Three populations were developed from crosses between two elite cultivars, Klondike Black Seeded × New Hampshire Midget (KBS × NHM), an elite cultivar and wild egusi accession, Strain II × PI 560023 (SII × Egusi) and an elite cultivar and a wild citron accession, ZWRM50 × PI 244019 (ZWRM × Citroides). The SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides F(2) populations consisted of 187 and 182 individuals respectively while the KBS × NHM recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisted of 164 lines. The length of the genetic maps were 1,438, 1,514 and 1,144 cM with average marker distances of 3.8, 4.2, and 3.4 cM for the KBS × NHM, SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides populations, respectively. Shared markers were used to align the three maps so that the linkage groups (LGs) represented the 11 chromosomes of the species. Marker segregation distortion were observed in all three populations, but was highest (12.7 %) in the ZWRM × Citroides population, where Citroides alleles were favored. The three maps were used to construct a consensus map containing 378 SNP markers with an average distance of 5.1 cM between markers. Phenotypic data was collected for fruit weight (FWT), fruit length (FL), fruit width (FWD), fruit shape index (FSI), rind thickness (RTH) and Brix (BRX) and analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with these traits. A total of 40 QTL were identified in the three populations, including major QTL for fruit size and shape that were stable across genetic backgrounds and environments. The present study reports the first SNP maps for Citrullus and the first map constructed using two elite parents. We also report the first stable QTL associated with fruit size and shape in Citrullus lanatus. These maps, QTL and SNPs should be useful for the watermelon community and represent a significant step towards the

  11. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a nearperfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a higheccentricity geocentric orbit. The launch, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, was visible from much of the eastern seaboard. Over the next 30 days, LADEE performed three phasing orbits, with near-perfect maneuvers that placed apogee at ever higher altitudes in preparation for rendezvous with the Moon. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any.

  12. What We Have Learned from the LADEE Mission (So Far)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Cook, Amanda; Stubbs, Timothy; Colaprete, Anthony; Delory, Gregory; Glenar, David; Wooden, Diane; Szalay, Jamey; Hurley, Dana; Halekas, Jasper; Poppe, Andrew; Mahaffy, Paul; Hodges, Richard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kempf, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, LADEE, concluded a fully successful investigation of the Moon's tenuous gas and dust atmosphere on April 18, 2014. LADEE hosted three science instruments to address atmospheric and dust objectives. The three science instruments were an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UVS), a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), and a lunar dust experiment (LDEX). A mission overview and science instrument descriptions are available. LADEE entered a low-altitude, retrograde lunar orbit optimized for observations at the sunrise terminator, where surface temperatures rise abruptly. LADEE carried out observations over a wide range of local times and altitudes. Here we describe some of the initial results. LDEX measurements have revealed the presence of a tenuous but persistent "cloud" of small dust grains, from <0.3 to >0.7 μm in radius. The number density of these grains maximizes over the morning side of the Moon, the hemisphere on the "upstream" side of the Moon's motion about the sun. The cloud, with observed densities ranging between 0.4 - 4 x 10 ^{-3} m ^{-3}, is made up of ballistic ejecta from micrometeoroidal impacts on the lunar surface. The cloud density increases as the Earth-Moon system passes through known meteoroid streams, such as the Geminids, which are derived from cometary debris trails. LDEX data show no evidence for an electrostatically-lofted dust component. LADEE's NMS instrument immediately detected helium ( ^{4}He) in the lunar atmosphere during high altitude commissioning. At lower altitudes it also measured neon ( ^{20}Ne) and argon ( ^{40}Ar). NMS measurements revealed systematic variations in density and scale height for these three noble gas species. The diurnal variation of helium, neon and argon are largely controlled by surface temperature. Helium density closely tracks the input of He ^{++} from the solar wind; loss is by way of thermal escape. ^{ 20}Ne is a minor solar wind constituent, but it has a

  13. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M; Mahaffy, Paul; Boroson, D.; Delory, G.; Noble, s; Hine, B; Salute, J.

    2013-01-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250- kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30 days in the event of contingencies. Following commissioning, the 100-day Science Phase is

  14. LADES: a software for constructing and analyzing longitudinal designs in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Alcocer, Alan; Garzón-Cortes, Daniel Ladislao; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important steps in biomedical longitudinal studies is choosing a good experimental design that can provide high accuracy in the analysis of results with a minimum sample size. Several methods for constructing efficient longitudinal designs have been developed based on power analysis and the statistical model used for analyzing the final results. However, development of this technology is not available to practitioners through user-friendly software. In this paper we introduce LADES (Longitudinal Analysis and Design of Experiments Software) as an alternative and easy-to-use tool for conducting longitudinal analysis and constructing efficient longitudinal designs. LADES incorporates methods for creating cost-efficient longitudinal designs, unequal longitudinal designs, and simple longitudinal designs. In addition, LADES includes different methods for analyzing longitudinal data such as linear mixed models, generalized estimating equations, among others. A study of European eels is reanalyzed in order to show LADES capabilities. Three treatments contained in three aquariums with five eels each were analyzed. Data were collected from 0 up to the 12th week post treatment for all the eels (complete design). The response under evaluation is sperm volume. A linear mixed model was fitted to the results using LADES. The complete design had a power of 88.7% using 15 eels. With LADES we propose the use of an unequal design with only 14 eels and 89.5% efficiency. LADES was developed as a powerful and simple tool to promote the use of statistical methods for analyzing and creating longitudinal experiments in biomedical research.

  15. Validation and Verification of LADEE Models and Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission will orbit the moon in order to measure the density, composition and time variability of the lunar dust environment. The ground-side and onboard flight software for the mission is being developed using a Model-Based Software methodology. In this technique, models of the spacecraft and flight software are developed in a graphical dynamics modeling package. Flight Software requirements are prototyped and refined using the simulated models. After the model is shown to work as desired in this simulation framework, C-code software is automatically generated from the models. The generated software is then tested in real time Processor-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop test beds. Travelling Road Show test beds were used for early integration tests with payloads and other subsystems. Traditional techniques for verifying computational sciences models are used to characterize the spacecraft simulation. A lightweight set of formal methods analysis, static analysis, formal inspection and code coverage analyses are utilized to further reduce defects in the onboard flight software artifacts. These techniques are applied early and often in the development process, iteratively increasing the capabilities of the software and the fidelity of the vehicle models and test beds.

  16. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Displays Broad Spectrum of Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inducing Cellular Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant’s known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakaimarkedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  17. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  18. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  19. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  20. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; or (2) For shipment to the armed forces, certification by a military officer on Form 1582-B (5130.6... (§ 28.251), or an air express or air freight bill of lading (§ 28.252), when such bills of lading or... other evidence of exportation approved by the appropriate TTB officer. (b) Use as supplies on...

  1. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  2. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  3. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  4. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  5. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  6. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the LADEE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a contingency trajectory analysis performed for the Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission in the event of a missed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver by the LADEE spacecraft. The effects of varying solar perturbations in the vicinity of the weak stability boundary (WSB) in the Sun-Earth system on the trajectory design are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that geocentric recovery trajectory options existed for the LADEE spacecraft, depending on the spacecraft's recovery time to perform an Earth escape-prevention maneuver after the hypothetical LOI maneuver failure and subsequent path traveled through the Sun-Earth WSB. If Earth-escape occurred, a heliocentric recovery option existed, but with reduced science capacapability for the spacecraft in an eccentric, not circular near-equatorial retrograde lunar orbit.

  7. Comm for Small Sats: The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Communications Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuroda, Vanessa M.; Allard, Mark R.; Lewis, Brian; Lindsay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    September 6, 2013 through April 21, 2014 marked the mission lifecycle of the highly successful LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) mission that orbited the moon to gather detailed information about the thin lunar atmosphere. This paper will address the development, risks, and lessons learned regarding the specification, selection, and deployment of LADEE's unique Radio Frequency based communications subsystem and supporting tools. This includes the Electronic Ground Support Equipment (EGSE), test regimes, and RF dynamic link analysis environment developed to meet mission requirements for small, flexible, low cost, high performance, fast turnaround, and reusable spacecraft communication capabilities with easy and reliable application to future similar low cost small satellite missions over widely varying needs for communications and communications system complexity. LADEE communication subsystem key components, architecture, and mission performance will be reviewed toward applicability for future mission planning, design, and utilization.

  8. Observations of Titanium, Aluminum and Magnesium in the Lunar Exosphere by LADEE UVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Wooden, D.; Cook, A.; Shirley, M.; Sarantos, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was an orbital lunar science mission designed to address the goals of the 2003 National Research Council decadal survey, the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group Roadmap, and the "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) report, and has been recommended for execution by the 2011 Planetary Missions Decadal Survey. The LADEE mission goal was to determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. It will monitor variations in known gasses, such as sodium, potassium, argon and helium, and will search for other, as-yet-undetected gasses of both lunar and extra-lunar origin. Another goal of LADEE was to determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability.

  9. The Impact of Meteoroid Streams on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment During the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wang, Y.; Hermalyn, B.; Sarantos, M.; Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are: (1) determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling distribution and variability - sources, sinks, and surface interactions; and (2) characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure spatial and temporal variability, and influences on the lunar atmosphere. Impacts on the lunar surface from meteoroid streams encountered by the Earth-Moon system are anticipated to result in enhancements in the both the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. Here we describe the annual meteoroid streams expected to be incident at the Moon during the LADEE mission, and their anticipated effects on the lunar environment.

  10. LDEX Sensitivity Studies in Preparation for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocker, A.; James, D.; Sternovsky, Z.; Horanyi, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment is an impact ionization dust detector scheduled for flight onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADE) mission in 2013. LDEX will map the spatial and size distributions of both the secondary ejecta particles - generated by interplanetary dust impacts, and the putative population of submicron grains - expected to be lofted by plasma effects near the terminators. The operational principal of LDEX is based on the measurement of impact generated electrons and ions, collected on its hemispherical target and ion sensor, respectively. The geometry of this instrument ensures that the collection efficiency of the ions does not depend on the location of the impact; however, the total charge does remain a function of the impact angle. This dependence was investigated during the calibration campaign at the dust accelerator facility of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS). The resulting data have been compared with similar experiments performed for the calibration of the impact ionization instruments onboard the spacecraft Galileo and the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard the Cassini space craft. These results show slight differences in the angular dependence of the ion generation for the various instruments, even though the function and the geometrical set ups as well as the target properties are similar. Furthermore, the investigated impact parameter ranges do not overlap completely. Thus, we perform a dedicated measurement with a suitable experimental set up at the dust accelerator facility in Boulder. The experiments exposed target materials, similar to LDEX, to dust particles in the velocity range from 1 to 70 km/s and mass range of 10-18 to 10-12kg, to show how the impact charge varies with impact angle. The simpler geometrical set up, especially the planar target, will allow to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying process by suppressing secondary processes, such as the ionization due

  11. Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd T.; Hodges, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission currently scheduled for launch in early 2013 aboard a Minotaur V will orbit the moon at a nominal periselene of 50 km to characterized the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. The science instrument payload includes a neutral mass spectrometer as well as an ultraviolet spectrometer and a dust detector. Although to date only He, Ar-40, K, Na and Rn-222 have been firmly identified in the lunar exosphere and arise from the solar wind (He), the lunar regolith (K and Na) and the lunar interior (Ar-40, Rn-222), upper limits have been set for a large number of other species, LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) observations will determine the abundance of several species and substantially lower the present upper limits for many others. Additionally, LADEE NMS will observe the spatial distribution and temporal variability of species which condense at nighttime and show peak concentrations at the dawn terminator (e,g, Ar-40), possible episodic release from the lunar interior, and the results of sputtering or desorption processes from the regolith. In this presentation, we describe the LADEE NMS hardware and the anticipated science results.

  12. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  13. 27 CFR 44.212 - Delay in lading at port of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Delay in lading at port of exportation. 44.212 Section 44.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND...

  14. 27 CFR 44.212 - Delay in lading at port of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Delay in lading at port of exportation. 44.212 Section 44.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND...

  15. 27 CFR 44.212 - Delay in lading at port of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Delay in lading at port of exportation. 44.212 Section 44.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND...

  16. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard C.; Hine, Butler; Delory, Gregory T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket success-fully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  17. 78 FR 7803 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Permit-Special License Unlading-Lading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Permit- Special License Unlading-Lading-Overtime Services AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department... information collection: 1651-0005. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department...

  18. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Boroson, D.; Hine, B.; Salute, J.

    2013-12-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon depends on the launch date, but with the Sept. 6 launch date it should arrive at the Moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250-kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30

  19. The effects of meteoroid streams on the lunar environment: Observations from the LADEE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, Timothy; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Wang, Yongli; Benna, Mehdi; Elphic, Richard; Sarantos, Menelaos; Kempf, Sascha; Colaprete, Anthony; Hurley, Dana; Delory, Gregory; Glenar, David; Hermalyn, Brendan; Wooden, Diane; Szalay, Jamey

    The scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are: (1) determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling distribution and variability - sources, sinks, and surface interactions; and (2) characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure spatial and temporal variability, and influences on the lunar atmosphere. Impacts on the lunar surface from meteoroid streams encountered by the Earth-Moon system can result in measurable enhancements in both the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. Here we describe the annual meteoroid streams incident at the Moon during the LADEE mission and their effects on the environment. The LADEE science payload consists of three instruments: the Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) for measuring emission lines from exospheric species and scattered light from exospheric dust; the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) for in situ measurement of exospheric dust; and the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) for in situ measurement of exospheric species. All three instruments are capable of detecting the effects of an encounter with a meteoroid stream. LADEE nominally has a 100-day science mission in which its retrograde equatorial orbit (inclination ≈157(°) ) will take it below 50 km altitude at periapsis near lunar sunrise. Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) occurred on 6 October 2013 and the current End-of-Mission (EOM) is planned for around 21 April 2014 following the lunar eclipse on 15 April 2014. The Earth-Moon system frequently encounters debris trails from comets and asteroids, which are referred to as meteoroid streams. The meteoroids in these streams have similar velocities and are on near-parallel trajectories, so when they enter the Earth's atmosphere the resulting shower of meteors appears to be emanating from a virtual point on the sky called the radiant. Meteor (and meteoroid) rates vary as a function of the Earth's position in its orbit, with an

  20. Evaluation of processing technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fengqin; Yang, Fuyu; Zhou, He; Sun, Qizhong; Zhang, Yunwei; Brown, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w), forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml), digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min), digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C) for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of appropriate

  1. Implementation the NASA Planetary Data System PDS4 Providing Access to LADEE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, Reta F.; Huber , Lyle; Neakrase, Lynn; Reese, Shannon; Crichton, Daniel; Hardman, Sean; Delory, Gregory; Neese, Carol

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for archiving all planetary data acquired by robotic missions, and observational campaigns with ground/space-based observatories. PDS has moved to version 4 of its archive system. PDS4 uses XML to enhance search and retrieval capabilities. Although the efforts are system wide, the Atmospheres Node has acted as the lead node and is presenting a preliminary users interface for retrieval of LADEE data. LADEE provides the first opportunity to test out the end-to-end process of archiving data from an active mission into the new PDS4 architecture. The limited number of instruments, with simple data structures, is an ideal test of PDS4. XML uses schema (analogous to blueprints) to control the structure of the corresponding XML labels. In the case of PDS4, these schemas allow management of the labels and their content by forcing validation dictated by the underlying Information Model (IM). The use of a central IM is a vast improvement over PDS3 because of the uniformity it provides across all nodes. PDS4 has implemented a product-centric approach for archiving data and supplemental documentation. Another major change involves the Central Registry, where all products are registered and accessible to search engines. Under PDS4, documents, data, and other ancillary data are all products that are registered in the system. Together with the XML implementation, the Registry allows the search routines to be more complex and inclusive than they have been in the past. For LADEE, the PDS nodes and LADEE instrument teams worked together to identify data products that LADEE would produce. Documentation describing instruments and data products were produced by the teams and peer reviewed by PDS. XML label templates were developed by the PDS and provided to the instrument teams to integrate into their pipelines. Data from the primary mission (100 days) have been certified and harvested into the registry and are accessible through the

  2. Understanding temporal and spatial variability of the lunar helium atmosphere using simultaneous observations from LRO, LADEE, and ARTEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Cook, Jason C.; Benna, Mehdi; Halekas, Jasper S.; Feldman, Paul D.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Hodges, R. Richard; Grava, Cesare; Mahaffy, Paul; Gladstone, G. Randall; Greathouse, Thomas; Kaufmann, David E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stern, S. Alan

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous measurements of helium in the exosphere of the Moon are made from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) through the entire 5-month span of the LADEE mission. In addition, the ARTEMIS mission monitored the solar wind alpha particle flux to the Moon. Modeling the lunar helium exosphere, we relate the LAMP polar observations to the LADEE equatorial observations. Further, using the ARTEMIS alpha flux in the Monte Carlo model reproduces the temporal variations in helium density. Comparing the LAMP data to the LADEE data shows excellent agreement. Comparing those with the ARTEMIS data reveals that the solar wind alpha flux is the primary driver to variability in the helium exosphere throughout the LADEE mission. Using a decay time for exospheric helium of 5 days, we determine that the solar wind contributes 64 ± 5% of the helium to the lunar exosphere. The remaining 36 ± 5% is presumed to come from outgassing of radiogenic helium from the interior of the Moon. Furthermore, the model reproduces the measurements if 63 ± 6% of the incident alpha particles are converted to thermalized helium atoms through the interaction between the alphas and the lunar surface. However, these values are dependent on both inferred source rates from LAMP and LADEE observations and on the assumed time constant of the exospheric decay rate.

  3. Hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Ma, Young-Kyu; Kwon, Joseph; Park, Seong Hwa; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2011-09-28

    Two novel caffeoylmalic acid methyl esters, 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (6) and 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid 4-methyl ester (7), were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuhwangbae) fruit peels. In addition, 5 known hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters were identified: 2-O-(trans-coumaroyl)malic acid (1), 2-O-(cis-coumaroyl)malic acid (2), 2-O-(cis-coumaroyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (3), 2-O-(trans-coumaroyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (4), and 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid (phaselic acid, 5). The chemical structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic data from ESI MS and NMR. Of all the isolated compounds, five hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters (2-4, 6, 7) were identified in the pear for the first time.

  4. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2011-05-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cm3. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  5. LADEE/LDEX observations of lunar pickup ion distribution and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Szalay, J. R.; Horányi, M.; Levin, Z.; Kempf, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report fortuitous observations of low-energy lunar pickup ion fluxes near the Moon while in the solar wind by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). We describe the method of observation and the empirical calibration of the instrument for ion observations. LDEX observes several trends in the exospheric ion production rate, including a scale height of approximately 100 km, a positive, linear correlation with solar wind flux, and evidence of a slight enhancement near 7-8 h local time. We compare the LDEX observations to both LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer ion mode observations and theoretical models. The LDEX data are best fit by total exospheric ion production rates of ≈6 × 103 m-3 s-1 with dominant contributions from Al+, CO+, and Ar+, although the LDEX data suggest that the aluminum neutral density and corresponding ion production rate are lower than predicted by recent models.

  6. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2011-05-20

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cm{sup 3}. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  7. Overview of the LADEE Ultraviolet-visible Spectrometer: Design, Performance and Planned Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.; Landis, D.; Karcz, J.; Osetinsky, L.; Shirley, M.; Vargo, K.; Wooden, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an orbital lunar science mission currently under development to address the goals of the 2003 National Research Council decadal survey, the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group Roadmap, and the "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) report, and has been recommended for execution by the 2011 Planetary Missions Decadal Survey. The mission s focus is to study the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment prior to possible lunar exploration activities by countries, including the United States, China, India, and Japan, among others. Activity on the lunar surface has the potential of altering the tenuous lunar atmosphere, but changing the type and concentration of gases in the atmosphere. Before these activities occur it is important to make measurements of the current lunar atmosphere in its unmodified state. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. It will monitor variations in known gases, such as sodium, potassium, argon and helium, and will search for other, as-yet-undetected gases of both lunar and extra-lunar origin. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. Launch is planned for August, 2013.

  8. Metallic Species, Oxygen and Silicon in the Lunar Exosphere: Upper Limits and Prospects for LADEE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary Margaret; Glenar, David A.; Benna, Mehdi; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The only species that have been so far detected in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar,and He. However, models for the production and loss of species derived from the lunarregolith through micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering, and photon-stimulateddesorption, predict that a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere.Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape, photoionization, and recyclingto the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to publishedupper limits for the Moon. Only for Ca do modeled abundances clearly exceed theavailable measurements. This result suggests the relevance of some loss processes thatwere not included in the model, such as the possibility of gas-to-solid phasecondensation during micrometeoroid impacts or the formation of stable metallic oxides.Our simulations and the recalculation of efficiencies for resonant light scattering showthat models for other species studied are not well constrained by existingmeasurements. This fact underlines the need for improved remote and in situmeasurements of the lunar exosphere such as those planned by the Lunar Atmosphereand Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. Our simulations of the LADEEneutral mass spectrometer and visibleultraviolet spectrometer indicate that LADEE measurements promise to provide definitive observations or set stringent upper limitsfor all regolith-driven exospheric species. We predict that observations by LADEE willconstrain assumed model parameters for the exosphere of the Moon.

  9. Metallic Species, Oxygen and Silicon in the Lunar Exosphere: Upper Limits and Prospects for LADEE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; Glenar, David A.; Benna, Mehdi; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    The only species that have been continued in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar, and He. Models for the production and loss of lunar regolith-derived exospheric species from source processes including micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering. and, for Na and K, photon-stimulated desorption, predict a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere. Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape and recycling to the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to published upper limits from the Moon and to detected abundances from Mercury. Only for Ca do the available measurements show a clear deficiency compared to the model estimates. This result suggests the importance of loss processes not included in the model, such as the possibility of gas-to-solid phase condensation during micrometeoroid impacts or the formation of stable metallic oxides, and underlines the need for improved spectroscopic measurements of the lunar exosphere. Simulations of the neutral mass (NMS) and visible/ultraviolet spectrometry (UVS) investigations planned by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft are presented. Our calculations indicate that LADEE measurements promise to make definitive observations or set stringent upper limits for all regolith-driven exospheric species. Our models, along with LADEE observations, will constrain assumed model parameters for the Moon, such as sticking coefficients, source processes. and velocity distributions.

  10. Characterization and high-pressure microfluidization-induced activation of polyphenoloxidase from Chinese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Jianhua; Xie, Mingyong; Liu, Chengmei; Liu, Weilin; Wan, Jie

    2009-06-24

    Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from Chinese pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) was characterized using catechol as a substrate. PPO had a V(max) of 289.2 units/min and a K(m) of 3.8 mmol/L, which indicates that P. pyrifolia Nakai PPO has a great affinity for catechol. The catalyzing reaction velocity was proportional to the PPO concentration. The optimum pH and temperature for PPO activity were 4.5 and 45 degrees C, respectively. In addition, an investigation was made on the effect of high-pressure microfluidization of treatment pressure, treatment pass, and enzyme solution temperature on P. pyrifolia Nakai PPO. As the treatment pressure increased, the PPO relative activity was elevated from 100% untreated to 182.57% treated at 180 MPa. PPO relative activity was enhanced as the treatment pass increased. PPO solution temperature (25, 35, and 45 degrees C) had a significant effect on PPO relative activity when treated at 120 and 140 MPa.

  11. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity.

  12. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26061361

  13. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Loucks, Michael; Carrico, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this extended abstract is to present results from a failed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver contingency analysis for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. The LADEE spacecrafts nominal trajectory implemented multiple sub-lunar phasing orbits centered at Earth before eventually reaching the Moon (Fig. 1) where a critical LOI maneuver was to be performed [1,2,3]. If this LOI was missed, the LADEE spacecraft would be on an Earth-escape trajectory, bound for heliocentric space. Although a partial mission recovery is possible from a heliocentric orbit (to be discussed in the full paper), it was found that an escape-prevention maneuver could be performed several days after a hypothetical LOI-miss, allowing a return to the desired science orbit around the Moon without leaving the Earths sphere-of-influence (SOI).

  14. Decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai Inhibits B16F10 Melanoma Growth Through Induction of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Hyobin; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Bae, Sang Mun; Son, Hye-Nam; Lee, Yoon Jeong; Ryu, Sungpil; Park, Rang-Woon; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2015-10-01

    Decursin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai (danggwi), has shown preclinical anticancer efficacy in various cancer models. However, the antitumor effect of decursin in melanoma models remains undefined. The antitumor activities of decursin were investigated in B16F10 cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that treatment with decursin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells, but not in normal cells. Decursin also induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells, as determined by annexin V-staining assay and transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining assay. Decursin increased the phosphorylation of p38 as well as the expression of Bax while decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and the expression of Bcl-2 in B16F10 cells. Moreover, decursin activated caspase-3 in B16F10 cells and xenograft tumor tissue. Together, these findings support further investigations into the potential use of decursin in the treatment of melanoma cells.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids incorporated colloidal systems for the delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae Young; Lee, Song Yi; Yoon, In-Soo; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fish oil-enriched colloidal systems were developed for the oral delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) extract (ext). By constructing a pseudo-ternary phase diagram, the composition of oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion (ME) systems based on ω-3 (oil), Labrasol (surfactant), and water was determined. AGN ext was dissolved into the ME system and d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was added to the ME formulation in order to enhance the mucosal absorption of the pharmacologically active ingredients in the AGN ext. The droplet size of AGN-loaded MEs was 205-277 nm and their morphology was spherical. The release of major components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), from ME formulations in pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffers was significantly greater (P<0.05) than that from the AGN suspension group. The pharmacokinetic properties of AGN-loaded MEs in rats were evaluated by measuring decursinol (DOH) concentrations in plasma after oral administration. TPGS-included ME (F2) resulted in significantly greater (P<0.05) systemic exposure of DOH than that with ME without TPGS (F1), AGN ext+TPGS, and AGN in suspension. Severe toxicity of F1 and F2 on the intestinal epithelium was not observed by histological staining. The colloidal carriers described herein are promising delivery systems for oral administration of AGN ext.

  16. Evaluation of the Mutagenic Properties of Two Lignans from Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chang-Eui

    2013-01-01

    Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai, a well known traditional herb grown in Jeju Island, South of Korea, has been used as a tonic and sedative agent, as well as in the treatment of diabetes and immune diseases. Mutagenicity of two lignans, syringaresinol and tortoside A isolated from A. koreanum, was assessed using Salmonella/microsome (Ames) test. Tester strains used were Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The mutagenic activity was determined both in the absence or presence of S9 mixture. As a result, tortoside A did not cause any increase in the number of his+ revertants in S. typhimurium and E. coli WP2uvrA strains in the presence or absence of S9 mix, compared to the controls. Similarly, low concentrations of syringaresinol (750 and 1,500 μg/plate) did not show any mutagenic properties in all bacterial strains, in the presence or absence of S9 mixture. However, in the high concentration of syringaresinol (3,000 μg/plate), the number of revertants were increased in TA1535 strains, in the absence of S9 metabolic activation. Therefore, in vivo experiments such as comet assay are needed to further determine the genotoxic/carciogenic potential of syringaresinol isolated from A. koreanum. PMID:24578798

  17. Candidate Resistant Genes of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) to Alternaria alternata Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Hu, Hongju; Yu, Dazhao; Sun, Zhonghai; He, Xiujuan; Zhang, Jingguo; Chen, Qiliang; Tian, Rui; Fan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear.

  18. Phytochemical composition and toxicity of an antioxidant extract from Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Qian, Wenhui; Xu, Linli; Huang, Guoren; Cong, Wen; Wang, Zhenning; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Dacheng; Guan, Shuang

    2012-09-01

    Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai (PB) is one of the most favored edible greens grown in Asian regions. In our previously study, we found PB extract had antioxidant effects in vitro. In the present study, an EtOAc soluble extract (PBet) was isolated from PB. Then the antioxidant properties at cellular level, phytochemical composition and toxicity of PBet were examined. The results indicated that PBet (0.5-2mg/mL) could protect Bel-7404 cells from H(2)O(2) induced cell damage through scavenging of intracellular ROS. Moreover, myristic acid, 24ζ-methyl-5α-lanosta-25-one, β-sitosterol, pregnenolone and β-daucosterol were firstly isolated from PB. In addition, PBet (0.75g/kg BW, ig) had no acute toxicity and it (0.03-0.12g/kg BW, ig, 7 d) could not influence the rate of bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes micronucleus and chromosome aberration in KM mice. All above findings suggested that PBet could be considered as a safe functional food with antioxidant activities.

  19. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We have learned it is conceivable that the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on board the Lunarr Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) could measure gases from surface-reflected Attitude Control System (ACS) thruster plume. At minimum altitude, the measurement would be maximized, and gravitational influence minimized ("short" time-of-flight (TOF) situation) Could use to verify aspects of thruster plume modeling Model the transient disturbance to NMS measurements due to ACS gases reflected from lunar surface Observe evolution of various model characteristics as measured by NMS Species magnitudes, TOF measurements, angular distribution, species separation effects

  20. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  1. Lunar meteoritic gardening rate derived from in situ LADEE/LDEX measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-05-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). LDEX was uniquely equipped to characterize the current rate of lunar impact gardening as it measured the very particles taking part in this process. By deriving an average lunar dust density distribution, we calculate the rate at which exospheric dust rains back down onto the lunar surface. Near the equatorial plane, we find that approximately 40 μm/Myr of lunar regolith, with a cumulative size distribution index of 2.7, is redistributed due to meteoritic bombardment, a process which occurs predominantly on the lunar apex hemisphere.

  2. Meteoritic influence on sodium and potassium abundance in the lunar exosphere measured by LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály; Colaprete, Anthony; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometer (UVS), and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). Here we compare coincident LDEX measurements of meteoritic influx to exospheric column densities of Na and K derived by UVS. We report a strong correlation of exospheric potassium and meteoroid ejecta during the Geminids meteoroid shower, exhibiting a much stronger response than sodium. With the exception of the Geminids, we find a weak correlation between the sporadic meteoroid influx as measured by LDEX and exospheric density as measured by UVS.

  3. LADEE UVS Observations of Solar Occultation by Exospheric Dust Above the Lunar Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Cook, A. M.; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M. H.; Vargo, K. E.; Elphic, R. C.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a lunar orbiter launched in September 2012 that investigates the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. The primary goals of the mission are to characterize the pristine gas and dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. To address this goal, the LADEE instrument suite includes an Ultraviolet/ Visible Spectrometer (UVS), which searches for dust, Na, K, and trace gases such as OH, H2O, Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Ti, Fe, as well as other previously undetected species. UVS has two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar viewing telescope. The solar viewer is equipped with a diffuser (see Figure 1a) that allows UVS to stare directly at the solar disk as the Sun starts to set (or rise from) behind the lunar limb. Solar viewer measurements generally have very high signal to noise (SNR greater than 500) for 20-30 ms integration times. The 1-degree solar viewer field of view subtends a diameter of approximately 8 km at a distance of 400-450 km.

  4. LADEE UVS Observations of Solar Occulation by Exospheric Dust above the Lunar Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane; Cook, Amanda Marie; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M. H.; Vargo, K. E.; Elphic, R. C.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a lunar orbiter launched in September 2012 that investigates the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. The primary goals of the mission are to characterize the pristine gas and dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. To address this goal, the LADEE instrument suite includes an Ultraviolet/ Visible Spectrometer (UVS), which searches for dust, Na, K, and trace gases such as OH, H2O, Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Ti, Fe, as well as other previously undetected species. UVS has two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar viewing telescope. The solar viewer is equipped with a diffuser (see Figure 1a) that allows UVS to stare directly at the solar disk as the Sun starts to set (or rise from) behind the lunar limb. Solar viewer measurements generally have very high signal to noise (SNR>500) for 20-30 ms integration times. The 1-degree solar viewer field of view subtends a diameter of 8 km at a distance of 400-450 km

  5. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Hur, I. C.; Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content. PMID:25049789

  6. Molecular Characterization of FT and FD Homologs from Eriobotrya deflexa Nakai forma koshunensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yu, Hao; Lin, Shunquan; Gao, Yongshun

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, regulation of flowering is a vital process for successful reproduction. To date, the molecular mechanism of flowering is well-studied in the model plant, Arabidopsis, in which key genes such as FLOWERING LOCUST (FT) or FD have been identified to regulate flowering. However, the flowering mechanisms are still largely unknown in fruit trees like loquat. To this end, we first cloned one FT- and two FD-like genes from the loquat (Eriobotrya deflexa Nakai f. koshunensis) and referred to as EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 are conserved during the evolution process. EdFT is mainly expressed in reproductive tissues (e.g., flower buds, flowers, and fruits), while EdFD1 and EdFD2 are mainly expressed in apical buds including leaf buds and flower buds. EdFT is localized in the whole cell, while EdFD1 or EdFD2 is localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 in Arabidopsis results in early flowering. In addition, we have also revealed that the EdFT interacts with both EdFD1 and EdFD2. Overall, these data suggest that the EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 are the functional homologs of FT and FD, respectively, which might act together to regulate loquat flowering through a similar mechanism found in Arabidopsis. PMID:26834775

  7. Oral administration of Trapa taiwanensis Nakai fruit skin extracts conferring hepatoprotection from CCl4-caused injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Kao, Ming-Yuan; Wu, She-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Yi; Chang, Ju-Chun; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2011-04-27

    As a folk medicine, the hot-water infusion of water caltrop fruits has been used to protect the liver. In this study, the outer skins of mature water caltrop fruits ( Trapa taiwanensis Nakai) were removed, forced-air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to extraction with hot water, and the infusion was lyophilized and pulverized to prepare a hot water extract of T. taiwanensis (HWETT). HWETT was subjected to assays of α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, reducing power, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and antioxidative potency, and all determinations showed HWETT to be a potent antioxidant. As further analyzed with LC-MS, two major HPLC-detected components were elucidated as gallic acid and ellagic acid. Hepatoprotective activity of HWETT was assessed with Sprague-Dawley male rats by oral administration. Six groups of rats (n = 8 for each) were respectively treated, namely, control, CCl(4) (20% CCl(4)/olive oil by 2.0 mL/kg bw), CCl(4) and Silymarin (200 mg/kg bw), CCl(4) and low HWETT dose (12.5 mg/kg bw), CCl(4) and medium HWETT dose (25 mg/kg bw), and CCl(4) and high HWETT dose (125 mg/kg bw). After 8 weeks, all animals were fasted for an additional day and sacrificed to collect blood, liver, and kidney for analyses. Histopathological examinations showed that oral administrations with Silymarin and HWETT were effective in protecting the liver from CCl(4)-caused fatty change. Oral administration of HWETT at 125 mg/kg bw was more effective than was Silymarin at 200 mg/kg bw. On biochemical analyses, oral administrations with HWETT at medium and high doses were effective (p < 0.05) in lowering CCl(4)-caused increases of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. It is of merit to demonstrate HWETT as a potent source of antioxidants and hepatoprotective agents.

  8. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Hur, I C; Kim, I S; Jin, S K

    2013-02-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) flower buds transitioning through endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Ito, Akiko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-07-01

    The transcriptomes of endodormant and ecodormant Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai 'Kosui') flower buds were analyzed using RNA-seq technology and compared. Among de novo assembly of 114,191 unigenes, 76,995 unigenes were successfully annotated by BLAST searches against various databases. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that oxidoreductases were enriched in the molecular function category, a result consistent with previous observations of notable changes in hydrogen peroxide concentration during endodormancy release. In the GO categories related to biological process, the abundance of DNA methylation-related gene transcripts also significantly changed during endodormancy release, indicating the involvement of epigenetic regulation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis also showed the changes in transcript abundance of genes involved in the metabolism of various phytohormones. Genes for both ABA and gibberellin biosynthesis were down-regulated, whereas the genes encoding their degradation enzymes were up-regulated during endodormancy release. In the ethylene pathway, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), a gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme for ethylene biosynthesis, was induced towards endodormancy release. All of these results indicated the involvement of phytohormones in endodormancy release. Furthermore, the expression of dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes was down-regulated concomitant with endodormancy release, although changes in the abundance of these gene transcripts were not as significant as those identified by transcriptome analysis. Consequently, characterization of the Japanese pear transcriptome during the transition from endormancy to ecodormancy will provide researchers with useful information for data mining and will facilitate further experiments on endodormancy especially in rosaceae fruit trees.

  10. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Rosa taiwanensis Nakai in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Der-Shiang; Huang, Mei-Hsuen; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shuang; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a 70% ethanol extract from Rosa taiwanensis Nakai (RTEtOH). The analgesic effect was determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of RTEtOH was examined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the paw edema tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver tissue. The betulinic acid and oleanolic acid contents of RTEtOH were assayed by HPLC. The results showed that RTEtOH decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses (1.0 g/kg) and the late phase of the formalin-induced licking time (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg). In the anti-inflammatory models, RTEtOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4, and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be due to the decreased levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as the inhibition of NO and MDA levels through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd. The contents of two active compounds, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid, were quantitatively determined. This study demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of RTEtOH and provided evidence to support its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25494361

  11. 19 CFR 123.8 - Permit or special license to unlade or lade a vessel or vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permit or special license to unlade or lade a vessel or vehicle. 123.8 Section 123.8 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General...

  12. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice modulates oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray in mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Zakaria, Ainul Mardhiyah; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  13. LRO-LAMP Observations of the Lunar Exosphere Coordinated with LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grava, C.; Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Gladstone, R.; Hurley, D.; Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Miles, P. F.; Pryor, W. R.; Halekas, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The polar orbiting Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) carried out an atmospheric campaign during the month of December 2013, at the same time the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission was sampling the lunar exosphere in a retrograde equatorial orbit. Observations of the lunar exosphere were performed by LAMP during a solar "beta-90" geometry, i.e. riding along the lunar terminator. During this geometry, the LAMP nadir-pointed line of sight to the nightside surface also includes illuminated columns of foreground emissions from exospheric species, which is invaluable in the study of the tenuous lunar exosphere. Other types of maneuvers to probe the lunar exosphere were also performed by LAMP/LRO during this campaign. During backward pitch slews, the LRO spacecraft was pitched to look opposite its direction of motion to a point just inside the limb in the nightside region around the polar terminator. Forward pitch slews were also obtained, and the angles of 63 deg or 77 deg from nadir were set depending on the polar region observed. Finally, during lateral roll slews, LRO rotated by ~60 deg towards the nightside limb, maximizing the amount of illuminated atmosphere in the foreground probed by the LAMP field of view. We extract day to day density variations on helium and/or upper limits for numerous other species that were accessible to both LAMP and LADEE (e.g., Ar, Ne, O, and H2). Moreover, constraints on helium density will complement measurements of solar wind alpha particles (He++) from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission. This comparison will provide a comprehensive picture of composition, abundance, and spatial and temporal variations of volatiles of the lunar exosphere, combining equatorial (LADEE) and polar (LAMP) measurements for the first time. Volatiles in the lunar exosphere, especially water, are of paramount

  14. LADEE UVS Observations of Atoms and Dust in the Lunar Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Colaprete, Anthony; Cook, Amanda M.; Shirley, Mark H.; Vargo, Kara E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a lunar orbiter launched in September 2013 that investigated the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. A major goal of the mission was to characterize the dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. The Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard LADEE addresses this goal, utilizing two sets of optics: a limbviewing telescope, and a solar-viewing telescope. We report on spectroscopic (approximately 280 - 820 nm) observations viewing down the lunar wake or along the 'lunar tail' from lunar orbit. Prior groundbased studies have observed the emission from neutral sodium atoms extended along the lunar tail, so often this region is referred to as the lunar sodium tail. UVS measurements were made on the dark side of the moon, with the UVS limb-viewing telescope pointed outward in the direction of the Moon's wake (almost anti-sun), during different lunar phases. These UVS observation activities sample a long column and allow the characterization of scattered light from dust and emission lines from atoms in the lunar tail. Observations in this UVS configuration show the largest excess of scattered blue light in our data set, indicative of the presence of small dust grains in the tail. Once lofted, nanoparticles may become charged and picked up by the solar wind, similar to the phenomena witnessed above Enceladus's northern hemisphere or by the STEREO/WAVES instrument while close to Earth's orbit. The UVS data show that small dust grains as well as atoms become entrained in the lunar tail.

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION...

  16. Dehydration improves cryopreservation of mat rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai) basal stem buds on cryo-plates.

    PubMed

    Niino, T; Yamamoto, S I; Fukui, K; Castillo Martinez, C R; Arizaga, M V; Matsumoto, T; Engelmann, F

    2013-01-01

    Two cryopreservation procedures using aluminium cryo-plates, termed V-Cryo-plate and D-Cryo-plate, were successfully developed for in vitro mat rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai) basal stem buds. Multiple stems induced in liquid MS medium containing 8.9 μM BA by roller culture were cut into small clumps, plated on solid MS medium and cultured for 1 week at 25 degree C. Clumps that had produced many buds were cold-hardened at 5 degree C for 1-2 months. The buds with basal stems were dissected from small clumps and precultured overnight at 25 degree C on solid MS medium containing 0.3 M sucrose. Precultured buds were placed on aluminium cryo-plates and embedded in calcium alginate gel. Osmoprotection was performed by immersing the cryo-plates for 30 min at 25 degree C in loading solution (2 M glycerol + 1.0 M sucrose). In the D-Cryo-plate procedure, the buds were dehydrated to 27-25% moisture content (fresh weight) by placing the cryo-plates in the air current of a laminar flow cabinet for 2 to 3 h. In the V-Cryo-plate procedure, buds were dehydrated by immersing the cryo-plates in PVS2 vitrification solution for 40 min at 25 degree C. In both procedures, cooling was performed by placing the cryo-plates in uncapped cryotubes, which were immersed in liquid nitrogen. For rewarming, cryo-plates were immersed in medium with 1.0 M sucrose for 20 min at room temperature. Regrowth of cryopreserved buds of line 'Kitakei 2' using D-Cryo-plate and V-Cryo-plate procedures, was 90% and 80%, respectively. The two procedures were applied to 20 additional mat rush lines. Using the V-Cryo-plate procedure resulted in regrowth ranging between 13.3 and 86.7%, with an average of 52.5%. The D-Cryo-plate led to regrowth ranging between 73.3 and 96.7%, with an average of 86.3%. The D-Cryo-plate procedure will facilitate cryostorage of mat rush germplasm.

  17. LADEE UVS (UltraViolet Visible Spectrometer) and the Search for Lunar Exospheric Dust: A Detailed Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Cook, Amanda; Colaprete, Anthony; Shirley, Mark; Vargo, Kara; Elphic, Richard C.; Hermalyn, Brendan; Stubbs, Timothy John; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) executed science observations in lunar orbit spanning 2013-Oct-16- 2014-04-18 UT. LADEE's Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) studies the composition and temporal variations of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment, utilizing two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar-viewer. The limb-viewing telescope observes illuminated dust and emitting gas species while the Sun is just behind the lunar limb. The solar viewer, with its diffuser, allows UVS to also stare directly at the solar disk as it approaches the limb, sampling progressively lower exosphere altitudes. Solar viewer "Occultation" activities occur at the lunar sunrise limb, as the LADEE spacecraft passes into the lunar night side, facing the Sun (the spacecraft orbit is near-equatorial retrograde). A loss of transmission of sunlight occurs by the occultation of dust grains along the line-of-sight. So-called "Inertial Limb" activities have the limb-viewing telescope pointed at the lit exosphere just after the Sun has set. Inertial Limb activities follow a similar progression of diminishing sampling altitudes but hold the solar elongation angle constant so the zodiacal light contribution remains constant while seeking to observe the weak lunar horizon glow. On the dark side of the moon, "Sodium Tail" activities pointed the limb-viewing telescope in the direction of the Moon's sodium tail (similar to anti-sunward), during different lunar phases. Of the UVS data sets, these show the largest excess of scattered blue light, indicative of the presence of small (approximately 100 nm) dust grains in the tail. Correlations are sought between dust in the sodium tail and meteor streams and magnetotail crossings to investigate impact- versus electrostatic-lofting. Once lofted, nanoparticles can become charged and picked up by the solar wind. The LADEE UVS Occultation, Inertial Limb, and Sodium Tail spectral datasets provide evidence of

  18. Caffeoyl triterpenes from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) fruit peels and their antioxidative activities against oxidation of rat blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Chan Mi; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong-An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-05-15

    Six triterpenes, including three caffeoyl triterpenes, were purified and isolated from pear fruit ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuwhangbae) peel extracts using various column chromatography techniques with a guided 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. The isolated compounds were identified as betulinic aldehyde (1), lupeol (2), betulinic acid (3), 3-O-cis-caffeoylbetulinic acid (4), 3-O-trans-caffeoylbetulinic acid (5), and 3-O-trans-caffeoyloleanolic acid (6) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four compounds (1, 4-6) were identified from Asian pear fruit for the first time. In addition, compounds 4-6, containing a caffeic acid moiety, showed higher DPPH radical-scavenging and suppression effects against copper ion-induced oxidation of rat blood plasma than other compounds without a caffeic acid moiety.

  19. The Na exosphere reservoir for Mercury and the Moon: Models constrained by MESSENGER and LADEE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantos, M.; Killen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Na exosphere of Mercury is flux-limited, and a careful accounting of the surface reservoir is necessary in order to understand the relative importance of proposed source mechanisms for this exosphere. At the Moon, a similar analysis has not yet been performed, but recent data acquired by the Kaguya spacecraft suggest an analogous depletion of the dayside reservoir for exospheric Na. New measurements of the lunar exosphere obtained by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) and of Mercury's exosphere by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft provide the opportunity to constrain the main parameters determining the reservoirs for these exospheres. We present a model of the exosphere-surface system that attempts to unify these two datasets. We have developed a simulator that accepts as input partially constrained microphysical parameters of the gas-surface interaction (e.g., source rates/cross sections for different source processes, degree of thermal accommodation) to make testable predictions regarding the exosphere and uppermost surface (top 10-10 m). These flux-balance simulations demonstrate that the lunar exosphere is limited by the recycling rate of Na atoms mobilized by micrometeoroid vaporization. An important consequence is that, to obtain consistency with ground-based observations of the Na exosphere, the inferred impact vapor at the Moon must peak near the equator and decrease towards the poles because of migration of surface particles toward the poles through exospheric transport. Micrometeoroid streams can have a long-term effect on the lunar exosphere because, as shown in our model, particles introduced by such streams survive in the soil and exosphere for at least two lunations. Important but secondary effects must be provided by the solar wind in order to account for the variations observed within one lunation by LADEE. In its application to Mercury, the code uses new estimates of

  20. Early Operations Flight Correlation of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Yang, Kan; Nguyen, Daniel; Cornwell, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission launched on September 7, 2013 with a one month cruise before lunar insertion. The LADEE spacecraft is a power limited, octagonal, composite bus structure with solar panels on all eight sides with four vertical segments per side and 2 panels dedicated to instruments. One of these panels has the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), which represents a furthering of the laser communications technology demonstration proved out by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LLCD increases the bandwidth of communication to and from the moon with less mass and power than LROs technology demonstrator. The LLCD Modem and Controller boxes are mounted to an internal cruciform composite panel and have no dedicated radiator. The thermal design relies on power cycling of the boxes and radiation of waste heat to the inside of the panels, which then reject the heat when facing cold space. The LADEE mission includes a slow roll and numerous attitudes to accommodate the challenging thermal requirements for all the instruments on board. During the cruise phase, the internal Modem and Controller avionics for LLCD were warmer than predicted by more than modeling uncertainty would suggest. This caused concern that if the boxes were considerably warmer than expected while off, they would also be warmer when operating and could limit the operational time when in lunar orbit. The thermal group at Goddard Space Flight Center evaluated the models and design for these critical avionics for LLCD. Upon receipt of the spacecraft models and audit was performed and data was collected from the flight telemetry to perform a sanity check of the models and to correlate to flight where possible. This paper describes the efforts to correlate the model to flight data and to predict the thermal performance when in lunar orbit and presents some lessons learned.

  1. LADEE UVS (UltraViolet Visible Spectrometer) and the Search for Lunar Exospheric Dust: A Detailed Spectral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Cook, A.; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M.; Vargo, K.; Elphic, R. C.; Hermalyn, B.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) executed science observations in lunar orbit spanning 2013-Oct-16- 2014-04-18 UT. LADEE's Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) studies the composition and temporal variations of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment, utilizing two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar-viewer. The limb-viewing telescope observes illuminated dust and emitting gas species while the Sun is just behind the lunar limb. The solar viewer, with its diffuser, allows UVS to also stare directly at the solar disk as it approaches the limb, sampling progressively lower exosphere altitudes. Solar viewer "Occultation" activities occur at the lunar sunrise limb, as the LADEE spacecraft passes into the lunar night side, facing the Sun (the spacecraft orbit is near-equatorial retrograde). A loss of transmission of sunlight occurs by the occultation of dust grains along the line-of-sight [1, 2]. So-called "Inertial Limb" activities have the limb-viewing telescope pointed at the lit exosphere just after the Sun has set. Inertial Limb activities follow a similar progression of diminishing sampling altitudes but hold the solar elongation angle constant so the zodiacal light contribution remains constant while seeking to observe the weak lunar horizon glow [2,3,4]. On the dark side of the moon, "Sodium Tail" activities pointed the limb-viewing telescope in the direction of the Moon's sodium tail (~anti-sunward), during different lunar phases. Of the UVS data sets, these show the largest excess of scattered blue light, indicative of the presence of small (~100 nm) dust grains in the tail. Correlations are sought between dust in the sodium tail and meteor streams [5] and magnetotail [3] crossings to investigate impact- versus electrostatic-lofting [6]. Once lofted, nanoparticles can become charged and picked up by the solar wind [7,8]. The LADEE UVS Occultation, Inertial Limb, and Sodium Tail spectral datasets provide

  2. Nanocomposites based on Soluplus and Angelica gigas Nakai extract fabricated by an electrohydrodynamic method for oral administration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Nam, Suyeong; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Song Yi; Jeong, Jae Young; Lee, Jae-Young; Kang, Wie-Soo; Yoon, In-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-12-15

    Nanocomposites (NCs) based on Soluplus (SP) were fabricated by an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) method for the oral delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN). Nano-sized particles were obtained after dispersing the resultant, produced by the EHD technique, in the aqueous environment. AGN/SP2 (AGN:SP=1:2, w/w) NC dispersion in aqueous media exhibited a 130nm mean diameter, narrow size distribution, and robust stability in the tested concentration range of the ethanol extract of AGN (AGN EtOH ext) and at pH 1.2 and 6.8. Amorphization of the components of AGN and their interactions with SP in the AGN/SP2 NC formulation were demonstrated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis. The released amounts of decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), major components of AGN, from NCs were improved compared with those from the AGN EtOH ext group at both pH 1.2 and 6.8. As D and DA can be metabolized into decursinol (DOH) in the liver after oral administration, the DOH concentrations in plasma were quantitatively determined to evaluate the oral absorption of AGN. In a pharmacokinetic study in rats, higher oral absorption and the maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) were presented in the AGN/SP2 NC group compared with the AGN EtOH ext and AGN NC groups. These findings indicate the successful application of developed SP-based NCs for the oral delivery of AGN.

  3. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar ‘Kinchaku’ (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in ‘Osa Nijisseiki’ and Ana in ‘Nansui’. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of ‘Kinchaku’ and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a ‘Housui’ × ‘Kinchaku’ cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome and 107 Kb in the ‘Dangshansuli’ Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear. PMID:27162498

  4. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Kinchaku' (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in 'Osa Nijisseiki' and Ana in 'Nansui'. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of 'Kinchaku' and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a 'Housui' × 'Kinchaku' cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome and 107 Kb in the 'Dangshansuli' Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear.

  5. Achyranthes japonica Nakai Water Extract Suppresses Binding of IgE Antibody to Cell Surface FcɛRI

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sun Yup; Lee, Mina; Lee, Kyung Dong

    2016-01-01

    Achyranthes japonica Nakai (AJN) water extract has a variety of physiological properties, including anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-oxidative activities. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of AJN extract were investigated in high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcɛRI)-mediated KU812F cells activation. AJN extract showed suppressive effects on histamine release and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i elevation from anti-FcɛRI antibody (CRA-1)-stimulated cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis showed that AJN extract treatment caused a dose-dependent decrease in the cell surface FcɛRI expression and the binding between the cell surface FcɛRI and the IgE antibody. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that levels of the mRNA for the FcɛRI α chain was decreased by treatment with AJN extract. These results indicate that AJN extract may exert anti-allergic effects via the inhibition of calcium influx and histamine release, which occurs as a result from the down-regulation of the binding of IgE antibody to cell surface FcɛRI. This mechanism may occur through FcɛRI expression inhibition. PMID:28078254

  6. Evaluation of Estrogenic Activity of Extract from the Herbal Mixture Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley, Phlomis umbrosa Turczaninow, and Angelica gigas Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Jong; Jin, Sun Woo; Lee, Gi-Ho; Kim, Yong An; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2017-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) consists of highly effective prescription medications for treating menopausal symptoms; however, these agents have exhibited side effects including the risk of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Therefore, interest in phytotherapy-based materials as a natural source of alternatives to estrogen therapy has increased. However, some of these herbal medicines have been reported to increase the risk of estrogen-induced cancer. Herbal formulations composed of a combination of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley (CW), Phlomis umbrosa Turczaninow (PU), and Angelica gigas Nakai (AG) extracts (CPAE) have been used for treating menopausal symptoms. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the safety of CPAE by determining its potential adverse estrogenic activity using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 455 (TG455) in a stably transfected transcriptionally activated human estrogen receptor α (hERα)-HeLa9903 cell model. We found that CPAE did not how any estrogenic activity or stimulate promoters containing estrogen response elements in MCF-7 cells. In addition, CPAE showed no significant selective activity against hERα and hERβ, non-selective activity against the ER, or effects on ER target gene expression. Furthermore, CPAE did not significantly induce MCF-7 cell proliferation and uterine weight increase in ovariectomized rats. These results demonstrate that CPAE can be used as beneficial herbal drug for prevention and therapeutic intervention of estrogen carcinogenesis in menopausal women. PMID:28133516

  7. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117.90 Section 102-117.90 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.210 - May my agency use bills of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conditions (also found in the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”) contained in this part. ... of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment? 102-118.210 Section 102-118.210 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing...

  9. 41 CFR 102-118.105 - Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.105 Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading? The “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook” contains information on how to prepare this...

  10. 41 CFR 102-118.210 - May my agency use bills of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions (also found in the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook”) contained in this part. ... of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment? 102-118.210 Section 102-118.210 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing...

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.105 - Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.105 Where can I find the rules governing the use of a Government Bill of Lading? The “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook” contains information on how to prepare this...

  12. Intestinal Absorption Mechanisms of Prenylated Flavonoids Present in the Heat-Processed Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Yin Yanghuo)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zhao, Yan Hong; Jia, Xiao Bin; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The purpose is to determine absorption mechanism of five bioactive prenylated flavonoids (baohuoside I, icariin, epimedine A, B, and C) present in heat-processed Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Yin Yanghuo). Methods Transport of five prenylated flavonoids present in heat-processed herbs were studied in the human intestinal Caco-2 model and the perfused rat intestinal model. Results In the perfused rat intestinal model, prenylated flavonoids with a monoglucosidic bond (e.g., icariin) was rapidly hydrolyzed into corresponding metabolites (e.g., baohuoside I). In the Caco-2 model, apical to basolateral permeability of a monoglycoside baohuoside I (1.46 ×10−6 cm/sec) was more than 2 folds greater than four prenylated flavonoids with 2 or more sugar moieties (<0.6×10−6 cm/sec). The slow apical to basolateral transport of baohuoside I was the result of efflux. This efflux was carrier-mediated and active since its transport was vectorial, concentration- and temperature-dependent with activation energies greater than 15 kcal/mol. Efflux of baohuoside I was significantly suppressed by inhibitors of BCRP and MRP2, whereas efflux of icariin was significantly inhibited only by p-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil. Because YHH is often heat-processed for better efficacy, we determined and found the optimal condition for increasing contents of more bioavailable flavonoids (i.e., baohuoside I) to be 160–170°C for 5–7 min. Conclusions Poor bioavailability of prenylated flavonoids results from their poor intrinsic permeation and transporter-mediated efflux. Heat processing parameters may be optimized to preserve the herb’s bioavailable flavonoids, which help retain and improve its efficacy during processing. PMID:18459036

  13. Effect of nitrogen source on biomass and bioactive compound production in submerged cultures of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai adventitious roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium to nitrate ratios of 0:30, 5:25, 10:20, 15:15, 20:10, 25:5, and 30:0 mM were tested to determine the optimal NH(4)(+) :NO(3)(-) ratio for improving biomass and bioactive compound production in Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai adventitious roots using 3-L bulb-type bubble bioreactors. A high ammonium nitrogen ratio had a negative effect on root growth, and the highest fresh and dry weights were obtained when NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratios were 5:25 and 10:20 (mM) after 5 weeks of culture. Although the total production of eleutherosides B and E was slightly higher at the 10:20 ratio than at the 5:25 ratio (NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-)), we proposed that the optimal NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratio was 5:25 mM. This ratio achieved both the highest total production of five target bioactive compounds (eleutherosides B and E, chlorogenic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids) and the highest root biomass. Furthermore, increasing NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratios to 10:20 decreased pH in the medium, interrupted the absorption of essential minerals from the culture medium, and resulted in low biomass and increased relative oxidative stress levels, which were evaluated by determining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Therefore, nitrate rather than ammonium nitrogen was more essential not for only biomass production but also for bioactive compound production in E. koreanum adventitious root cultures. The optimal nitrogen source ratio produced 5.63 g L(-1) of biomass and 24.41 mg of the five total bioactive compounds per gram of biomass (dry weight basis). The development of such in vitro culture technology will benefit the pilot-scale production of E. koreanum-based bioactive compounds for commercialization.

  14. Quantifying Sources, Sinks and Gas-surface Interactions on the Moon from LADEE Measurements of Exospheric Na and K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, A.; Sarantos, M.; Poppe, A. R.; Bennett, C.; Orlando, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present numerical simulations of the generation and loss of the sodium (Na) and potassium (K) exospheres of the Moon and compare these results to recent LADEE observations. While both species appear to migrate towards the poles like other volatiles, Na resides on the soil and exosphere for one to two months before getting lost to the solar wind or the subsurface. K exhibits a different evolutionary trend: it is lost much more quickly than ionization and sputtering rates allow for, suggesting that it is lost to the ground in just a few bounces. Thus, the two alkalis exhibit very different interactions with the lunar surface. Reproducing the monthly variation exhibited by Na requires higher source rates at Mare, or higher sink rates at Highlands, or a combination of both. The very different behavior of Na on Mare and Highlands soils is reminiscent of laboratory experiments of water binding on Apollo fine soils.

  15. Influence of inoculum density and aeration volume on biomass and bioactive compound production in bulb-type bubble bioreactor cultures of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Moh, Sang-Hyun; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2011-07-01

    This study deals with the effects of initial inoculum density and aeration volume on biomass and bioactive compound production in adventitious roots of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai in bulb-type bubble bioreactors (3-L capacity). While the fresh and dry weights of the roots increased with increasing inoculum density, the highest percentage dry weight and accumulation of total target compounds (eleutheroside B and E, chlorogenic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids) were noted at an inoculum density of 5.0 g L(-1). Poor aeration volume (0.05 vvm) stunted root growth, and high aeration volume (0.4 vvm) caused physiological disorders. Moreover, an inoculum density of 5.0 g L(-1) and an aeration volume of 0.1 vvm resulted in the highest concentration of total target compounds and least root death. Such optimization of culture conditions will be beneficial for the large-scale production of E. koreanum biomass and bioactive compounds.

  16. Modeling the Impact Ejected Dust Contribution to the Lunar Exosphere: Results from Experiments and Ground Truth from LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Colaprete, A.

    2013-12-01

    A considerable body of evidence indicates the presence of lofted regolith dust above the lunar surface. These observations range from multiple in-situ and orbital horizon glow detections to direct measurement of dust motion on the surface, as by the Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment. Despite this evidence, the specific mechanisms responsible for the lofting of regolith are still actively debated. These include impact ejection, electrostatic lofting, effects of high energy radiation, UV/X- rays, and interplay with solar wind plasma. These processes are highly relevant to one of the two main scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (due to launch September, 2013): to directly measure the lunar exospheric dust environment and its spatial and temporal variability towards the goal of better understanding the dust flux. Of all the proposed mechanisms taking place on the lunar surface, the only unequivocal ongoing process is impact cratering. Hypervelocity impact events, which mobilize and redistribute regolith across planetary surfaces, are arguably the most pervasive geologic process on rocky bodies. While many studies of dust lofting state that the impact flux rate is orders of magnitude too low to account for the lunar horizon glow phenomenon and discount its contribution, it is imperative to re-examine these assumptions in light of new data on impact ejecta, particularly from the contributions from mesoscale (impactor size on the order of grain size) and macroscale (impactor > grain size) cratering. This is in large part due to a previous lack of data, for while past studies have established a canonical ejecta model for main-stage ejection of sand targets from vertical impacts, only recent studies have been able to begin quantitatively probing the intricacies of the ejection process outside this main-stage, vertical regime. In particular, it is the high-speed early-time ejecta that will reach

  17. Summary of the results from the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly

    2016-07-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (9/2013 - 4/2014) discovered a permanently present dust cloud engulfing the Moon. The size, velocity, and density distributions of the dust particles are consistent with ejecta clouds generated from the continual bombardment of the lunar surface by sporadic interplanetary dust particles. Intermittent density enhancements were observed during several of the annual meteoroid streams, especially during the Geminids. LDEX found no evidence of the expected density enhancements over the terminators where electrostatic processes were predicted to efficiently loft small grains. LDEX is an impact ionization dust detector, it captures coincident signals and full waveforms to reliably identify dust impacts. LDEX recorded average impact rates of approximately 1 and 0.1 hits/minute of particles with impact charges of q > 0.5 and q > 5 fC, corresponding to particles with radii of a > 0.3 and a> 0.7~μm, respectively. Several of the yearly meteor showers generated sustained elevated levels of impact rates, especially if their radiant direction intersected the lunar surface near the equatorial plane, greatly enhancing the probability of crossing their ejecta plumes. The characteristic velocities of dust particles in the cloud are on the order of ~100 m/s which we neglect compared to the typical spacecraft speeds of 1.6 km/s. Hence, with the knowledge of the spacecraft orbit and attitude, impact rates can be directly turned into particle densities as functions of time and position. LDEX observations are the first to identify the ejecta clouds around the Moon sustained by the continual bombardment of interplanetary dust particles. Most of the dust particles generated in impacts have insufficient energy to escape and follow ballistic orbits, returning to the surface, 'gardening' the regolith. Similar ejecta clouds are expected to engulf all airless planetary objects, including

  18. Angelica gigas Nakai and Soluplus-Based Solid Formulations Prepared by Hot-Melting Extrusion: Oral Absorption Enhancing and Memory Ameliorating Effects.

    PubMed

    Piao, Jingpei; Lee, Jae-Young; Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Choong Je; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kang, Wie-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Oral solid formulations based on Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) and Soluplus were prepared by the hot-melting extrusion (HME) method. AGN was pulverized into coarse and ultrafine particles, and their particle size and morphology were investigated. Ultrafine AGN particles were used in the HME process with high shear to produce AGN-based formulations. In simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2 and pH 6.8) and water, significantly higher amounts of the major active components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), were extracted from the HME-processed AGN/Soluplus (F8) group than the AGN EtOH extract (ext) group (p < 0.05). Based on an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, the relative oral bioavailability of decursinol (DOH), a hepatic metabolite of D and DA, in F8-administered mice was 8.75-fold higher than in AGN EtOH ext-treated group. In scopolamine-induced memory-impaired mice, F8 exhibited a more potent cognitive enhancing effect than AGN EtOH ext in both a Morris water maze test and a passive avoidance test. These findings suggest that HME-processed AGN/Soluplus formulation (F8) could be a promising therapeutic candidate for memory impairment.

  19. Decursin in Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) Enhances Doxorubicin Chemosensitivity in NCI/ADR-RES Ovarian Cancer Cells via Inhibition of P-glycoprotein Expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Cho, Sung-Gook; Kim, Min Kyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Moon, Seung Hee; Kim, Il Hwan; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-12-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN, Korean Dang-gui) is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Here, we investigated multidrug-resistant phenotype-reversal activities of AGN and its compounds (decursin, ferulic acid, and nodakenin) in doxorubicin-resistant NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed that a combination of doxorubicin with either AGN or decursin inhibited a proliferation of NCI/ADR-RES cells. These combinations increased the number of cells at sub-G1 phase when cells were stained with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate. We also found that these combinations activated caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3 and increased cleaved PARP level. Moreover, an inhibition of P-glycoprotein expression by either AGN or decursin resulted in a reduction of its activity in NCI/ADR-RES cells. Therefore, our data demonstrate that decursin in AGN inhibits doxorubicin-resistant ovarian cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in the presence of doxorubicin via blocking P-glycoprotein expression. Therefore, AGN would be a potentially novel treatment option for multidrug-resistant tumors by sensitizing to anticancer agents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Neuroprotective Effects of Decursin Isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai Against Amyloid β-Protein-Induced Apoptosis in PC 12 Cells via a Mitochondria-Related Caspase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Du, Jikun; Zou, Liyi; Xia, Haishan; Wu, Tie; Kim, Yongho; Lee, Yongwoo

    2015-08-01

    Decursin, purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property. Previous study revealed decursin protected the PC12 cells from Aβ25-35-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate whether decursin could protect PC12 cells from apoptosis caused by Aβ. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with decursin significantly inhibited Aβ25-35-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The mechanism of action is likely to reverse Aβ25-35-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, including the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production, and the decrease of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c in PC12 cells. In addition, decursin significantly suppressed the activity of caspase-3 and moderated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax induced by Aβ25-35. These findings indicate that decursin exerts a neuroprotective effect against Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, at least in part, via suppressing the mitochondrial pathway of cellular apoptosis.

  1. Rapid identification of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genotypes in cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) using CAPS markers.

    PubMed

    Itai, A; Kotaki, T; Tanabe, K; Tamura, F; Kawaguchi, D; Fukuda, M

    2003-05-01

    In Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), fruit storage potential is closely related to the amount of ethylene produced. We have developed a rapid and accurate method for analyzing genes involved in high ethylene production during fruit ripening in Japanese pear. This involves cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) of two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes (PPACS1 and PPACS2). Two CAPS markers (A for PPACS1 and B for PPACS2), associated with the amount of ethylene produced, were identified. Marker A was associated with high ethylene producers and marker B with moderate ethylene producers. The absence of these two markers enabled the identification of low ethylene producers. Using these markers, we have identified ethylene genotypes for 40 Japanese pear cultivars and two Chinese pear (P. bretschneideri) cultivars that are commercially important and used in breeding programs. Furthermore, we performed linkage analysis of these two genes in the F(2) population, which revealed that the recombination frequency between the two markers was 20.8 +/- 3.6%. This information is critical to the selection of parents and in breeding strategies to improve storage ability of Japanese pears.

  2. Ethanol extract of Synurus deltoides (Aiton) Nakai suppresses in vitro LPS-induced cytokine production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo acute inflammatory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yunyao

    2014-01-01

    Synurus deltoides (Aiton) Nakai, belonging to the Compositae family, is an edible plant widely distributed in Northeast Asia. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulative effects of the ethanol extract of S. deltoides (SDE). The SDE extract strongly down-regulated the mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, thereby inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and TNF-α in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, SDE also suppressed the nuclear translocation of the activation protein (AP)-1 and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and simultaneously decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK), p38, and Akt. In agreement with the in vitro observations, the orally administered SDE ameliorated the acute inflammatory symptoms in the arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and the EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Therefore, S. deltoides have a potential anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential therapeutic use in the inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:24611100

  3. Evaluation of polyphenol composition and biological activities of two samples from summer and winter seasons of Ligularia fischeri var. Spiciformis Nakai.

    PubMed

    Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Sivasubramanian, Chandran; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2015-06-01

    Phenolic contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were determined by two samples from summer (June) and winter (December) seasons of Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai. A total of 24 phenolic compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis. Myricetin (1964.35 and 1829.12 μg/g) was the most dominant flavonol compared to quercetin and kaempferol. Salicylic acid (222.80 and 215.25 μg/g) was the most important phenolic compound compared to pyrogallol, caffeic acid, gentisic acid, o-coumaric acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and ferulic acid in summer (June) and winter (December) seasons. Phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities were estimated for the various solvent extracts (petroleum ether, butanol, ethyl acetate, methanol and water). Ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest phenolic (332.64 and 299.44 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and flavonoid contents (5.72 and 5.29 mg/g quercetin equivalent) and also the strongest antioxidant activity in summer and winter seasons. Due to these metabolic variations, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were increased with summer seasons compared to winter seasons. Our study shows that the samples collected in June had higher phenolic compounds, stronger antioxidative and antimicrobial activity than the samples of L. fischeri leaf extracts collected in December.

  4. Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai extract and its constituent p-coumaric acid inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells through activation of the AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung-Woo; Kang, Seong-Il; Shin, Hye-Sun; Yoon, Seon-A; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai extract (SQE) and its main constituent, p-coumaric acid, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. SQE markedly inhibited adipogenesis by downregulating the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and aP2. It also decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adiponectin mRNAs in differentiating adipocytes. SQE increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation during the early phase of MDI-induced differentiation, suggesting that SQE exerted its anti-adipogenic effect via AMPK activation at an early stage of the differentiation process. p-Coumaric acid suppressed adipogenesis by attenuating the expression of C/EBPα, PPARγ, and SREBP-1c during the late phase of MDI-induced differentiation. In addition, p-coumaric acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC, and the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) mRNA, in fully differentiated adipocytes, indicating that it promotes fatty acid β-oxidation via AMPK signaling. Taken together, our data suggest that SQE and p-coumaric acid might have the anti-obesitic effects via AMPK pathway in 3T3-L1 cells.

  5. Ixeris dentata (Thunb. Ex Thunb.) Nakai Extract Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Akt/NF-κB Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seong-Ah; Lee, Hae-Nim; Choo, Gang-Sik; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Jung, Ji-Youn

    2017-01-01

    Ixeris dentata (Thunb. Ex Thunb.) Nakai (ID) exhibits various physiological activities, and its related plant derived-products are expected to represent promising cancer therapeutic agents. However, the anticancer effects of ID extract on breast cancer cells classified as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects and analyzed the molecular mechanism of ID extract in T47D, MCF-7 (ER-, PR-positive, HER2-negative), SK-BR-3(ER-, PR-negative, HER2-positive), and MDA-MB-231 (Triple-negative) through in vitro studies. Additionally, we examined its anti-tumor effects through in vivo studies. Our findings indicated that ID extract-induced apoptosis was mediated via various survival pathways on four breast cancer cells by identifying the factors including Bcl-2 family, phospho-Akt and phospho-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Based on in vitro findings that induced apoptosis via Akt-NF-κB signaling, we investigated the effects of ID extract on mice bearing MDA-MB-231 cells. The results showed that ID extract significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 tumor volume and weight via inducing apoptosis by suppressing phospho-Akt. Overall, these results indicate that ID extract induces apoptosis through the Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and tumors, and it may serve as a therapeutic agent for triple-negative human breast cancer. PMID:28134814

  6. Chamnamul [Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai] ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves antioxidant status in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Jin; Choi, Ha-Neul; Kang, Min-Jung; Choe, Eunok; Auh, Joong Hyuck; Kim, Jung-In

    2013-12-01

    Chronic consumption of a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet increases insulin resistance and results in type 2 diabetes mellitus in C57BL/6J mice. Hyperglycemia in diabetics increases oxidative stress, which is associated with a high risk of diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of chamnamul [Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai] in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of a 70% ethanol extract of chamnamul was measured in vitro. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a basal or HFHS diet with or without a 70% ethanol extract of chamnamul at a 0.5% level of the diet for 12 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. After sacrifice, serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and lipid profiles, and lipid peroxidation of the liver were determined. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. Chamnamul extract inhibited α-glucosidase by 26.7%, which was 78.3% the strength of inhibition by acarbose at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. Serum glucose, insulin, and cholesterol levels, as well as HOMA-IR values, were significantly lower in the chamnamul group than in the HFHS group. Chamnamul extract significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver compared with the HFHS group. These findings suggest that chamnamul may be useful in prevention of hyperglycemia and reduction of oxidative stress in mice fed a HFHS diet.

  7. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L; Dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-03-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat

  8. Improvement in antiproliferative activity of Angelica gigas Nakai by solid dispersion formation via hot-melt extrusion and induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunyao; Piao, Jingpei; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is one of the most popular herbal medicines and widely used as a functional food product. In this study, AGN was firstly processed by a low-temperature turbo mill and a hot melting extruder to reduce particle size and form solid dispersion (SD). Anticancer activity against HeLa cells was then examined. AGN-SD based on Soluplus was formed via hot-melt extrusion (HME) and showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells. In addition, the possible mechanism of cell death induced by AGN-SD on HeLa cells was also investigated. AGN-SD decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis, increased the production of reactive oxygen species, regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and induced G2/M phase arrest in HeLa cells. This study suggested that AGN-SD based on Soluplus and the method to improve antiproliferative effect by SD formation via HME may be suitable for application in the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Decursin Isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai Rescues PC12 Cells from Amyloid β-Protein-Induced Neurotoxicity through Nrf2-Mediated Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1: Potential Roles of MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Du, Ji-kun; Zou, Li-yi; Wu, Tie; Lee, Yong-woo; Kim, Yong-ho

    2013-01-01

    Decursin (D), purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property. Previous study revealed that D reduced Aβ25‒35-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Our study explored the underlying mechanisms by which D mediates its therapeutic effects in vitro. Pretreatment of cells with D diminished intracellular generation of ROS in response to Aβ25‒35. Western blot revealed that D significantly increased the expression and activity of HO-1, which was correlated with its protection against Aβ25‒35-induced injury. Addition of ZnPP, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor, significantly attenuated its protective effect in Aβ25‒35-treated cells, indicating the vital role of HO-1 resistance to oxidative injury. Moreover, D induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, the upstream of HO-1 expression. While investigating the signaling pathways responsible for HO-1 induction, D activated ERK and dephosphorylated p38 in PC12 cells. Addition of U0126, a selective inhibitor of ERK, blocked D-induced Nrf2 activation and HO-1 induction and meanwhile reversed the protection of D against Aβ25‒35-induced cell death. These findings suggest D augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through both intrinsic free radical scavenging activity and activation of MAPK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction, thereby protecting the PC12 cells from Aβ25‒35-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. PMID:23762139

  10. Inhibitory effects of the standardized extract (DA-9601) of Artemisia asiatica Nakai on phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity, papilloma formation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nuclear transcription factor kappa B activation in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyo-Joung; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Han, Seong Su; Chung, Won-Yoon; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Won-Bae; Surh, Young-Joon

    2002-08-01

    Artemisia asiatica Nakai has been used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of inflammatory and other disorders. Previous studies have revealed that the formulated ethanol extract (DA-9601) of A. asiatica has pronounced antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities and exhibits cytoprotective effects against experimentally induced gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic damage. In the present study, we assessed the inhibitory effect of DA-9601 on tumor promotion, which is closely linked to inflammatory tissue damage. As an initial approach to evaluating the possible antitumor-promoting potential of DA-9601, its effects on TPA-induced ear edema were examined in female ICR mice. Pretreatment of the inner surface of the mouse ear with DA-9601 30 min prior to topical application of TPA inhibited ear edema at 5 hr. TPA-stimulated expression of epidermal COX-2 and iNOS was also mitigated by topical application of the same extract. Moreover, DA-9601 abrogated the TPA-mediated activation of NF-kappa B/Rel and AP-1 in mouse epidermis. Suppression of epidermal NF-kappa B by DA-9601 appeared to be mediated in part through inhibition of I kappa B alpha degradation, thereby blocking the nuclear translocation of p65, the functional subunit of NF-kappa B. DA-9601 also significantly suppressed TPA-induced ODC activity and papilloma formation in mouse skin. Taken together, these findings suggest that DA-9601 derived from A. asiatica possesses potential chemopreventive activities.

  11. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants.

  12. Pawsey, Joseph Lade (1908-62)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Radiophysicist and astronomer, born Ararat, Victoria, Australia, pioneered the use of a Lloyd's mirror arrangement for radio interferometry at Dover Heights in Australia, and located the source of solar radio noise within the disc of the Sun. As John Hey had suggested, the radio noise came from sunspots....

  13. Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

  14. Gravity measured at the apollo 14 lading site.

    PubMed

    Nance, R L

    1971-12-03

    The gravity at the Apollo 14 landing site has been determined from the accelerometer data that were telemetered from the lunar module. The values for the lunar gravity measured at the Apollo 11, 12, and 14 sites were reduced to a common elevation and were then compared between sites. A theoretical gravity, based on the assumption of a spherical moon, was computed for each landing site and compared with the observed value. The observed gravity was also used to compute the lunar radius at each landing site.

  15. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... foreign commerce containing the following information: (a) Names of consignor and consignee. (b) Origin and destination points. (c) Number of packages. (d) Description of freight. (e) Weight, volume,...

  16. 48 CFR 801.670-1 - Issuing bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...., United Parcel Service, Federal Express, or United States Postal Service small package shipments), no VA.... 801.670-1 Section 801.670-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  17. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUCIES ON THE SEEDS OF MULAM CITRULLUS LANATUS (THUNB.) MATS & NAKAI (CUCURBITACAE)

    PubMed Central

    Shantha, T.R.; Kumar, K.G. Vasantha; Pasupathy, Saraswathy; Vijayalakshmi, B.; Bikshapathi, T.

    2001-01-01

    In the Siddha system of Medicine cotyledons of the seeds of C. Lanatus are known as Mulam/Pullum/Pitcha (Tamil) and used as Pulukolli (Vermifuge), Karpa moolikai (General tonic) and as Aanmeiperukki (Aphrodisiac). In the Ayurvedic system of Medicine seeds are said to have properties like Sheeta (cooling), Mootrala (Diuretic) and Vrshya (Aphrodisiac). The present paper deals with macro and microscopical studies, maceration, histochemical tests, solubility, physical contents, extractive values, tests for inorganic and organic constituents, U.V. and thin layer chromatographic studies. PMID:22557025

  18. Distribution and biosynthesis of 20-hydroxyecdysone in plants of Achyranthes japonica Nakai.

    PubMed

    Boo, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Doseung; Jeon, Gyeong Lyong; Ko, Seung Hee; Cho, Somi K; Kim, Jae Hoon; Park, Se Pill; Hong, Quanchun; Lee, Sang-Han; Lee, Dong-Sun; Riu, Key Zung

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in phytoecdysteroids (PEs) because of their potential role in plant defense against insects. To understand the mechanism regulating their levels in plants, the fluctuation, distribution, and biosynthesis of PE 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) examined in Achyranthes japonica. The total amount of 20E per individual plant initially remained at a constant level, and increased markedly after the first leaf pair (LP) stage, while the concentration of 20E in a given plant decreased rapidly during vegetative growth. In addition, the incorporation of [2-(14)C]-mevalonic acid into 20E did not differ significantly depending on plant organs and developmental stages, suggesting that biosynthesis of 20E is not restricted to particular organs or growth stages.

  19. Pear Skin Stain Caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola on Niitaka Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Oh, Soh-Young; Yoon, Deok-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Pear skin stains on ‘Niitaka’ pears, which occur from the growing stage to the cold storage stage, reportedly negatively influence the marketing of pears. These stains on fruit skin are likely due to a pathogenic fungus that resides on the skin and is characterized by dark stains; however, the mycelium of this fungus does not penetrate into the sarcocarp and is only present on the cuticle layer of fruit skin. A pathogenic fungus was isolated from the skin lesions of infected fruits, and its pathogenicity was subsequently tested. According to the pathogenicity test, Mycosphaerella sp. was strongly pathogenic, while Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. showed modest pathogenicity. In this present study, we isolated the pathogenic fungus responsible for the symptoms of pears (i.e., dark brown-colored specks) and identified it as Mycosphaerella graminicola based on its morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. M. graminicola was pathogenic to the skin of ‘Niitaka’ pears, which are one of the most widely growing varieties of pears in South Korea. PMID:25289008

  20. Combining ability analysis in complete diallel cross of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai).

    PubMed

    Bahari, M; Rafii, M Y; Saleh, G B; Latif, M A

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were carried out in two research stations (MARDI Bukit Tangga, Kedah, and MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang) in Malaysia. The crossings were performed using the four inbred lines in complete diallel cross including selfs and reciprocals. We evaluated the yield components and fruit characters such as fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to fruit maturity, fruit weight, total soluble solid content, and rind thickness over a period of two planting seasons. General combining ability and its interaction with locations were statistically significant for all characteristics except number of fruits per plant across the environments. Results indicated that the additive genetic effects were important to the inheritance of these traits and the expression of additive genes was influenced greatly by environments. In addition, specific combining ability effect was statistically evident for fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to first female flower, and fruit weight. Most of the characters are simultaneously controlled by additive and nonadditive gene effects. This study demonstrated that the highest potential and promising among the crosses was cross P2 (BL-14) × P3 (6372-4), which possessed prolific plants, with early maturity, medium fruit weight and high soluble solid contents. Therefore this hybrid might be utilized for developing high yielding watermelon cultivars and may be recommended for commercial cultivation.

  1. Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil from Angelica koreana Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Junghyun; Shin, Seungwon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Angelica koreana. Methods. Essential oil was obtained from the dried roots of A. koreana by steam distillation, and its composition was identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the oil fraction and its main components were determined by broth dilution assay using common pathogenic Aspergillus and Trichophyton species. The combined effects of the oils with itraconazole were evaluated using a checkerboard titer test. In addition, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, nitrite inhibition, and reducing power were determined to assess the antioxidant activity of this oil. Results. The essential oil fraction and its main components showed inhibitory activity against all of the tested fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 250–1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, this oil exhibited synergism when combined with itraconazole. Conclusion. In the treatment of infections caused by Aspergillus and Trichophyton species, combining itraconazole with either A. koreana essential oil or its main components may reduce the minimum effective dose of itraconazole required and, thus, minimize its side effects. In addition, this oil is a promising source of natural antioxidant agents. PMID:25197308

  2. Algorithms for Data Sharing, Coordination, and Communication in Dynamic Network Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-03

    Chakraborty, and Nancy Lynch. Clock Synchronization for Wireless Networks. In Teruo Higashino , editor, Principles of Distributed Systems: OPODIS 2004: 8th...Teruo Higashino , editor, Principles of Distributed Systems: OPODIS 2004: 8th International Conference on Principles of Distributed 4 Systems, Grenoble

  3. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of... basis, the name, address, and if furnished, the telephone number, facsimile number, or e-mail address of... annually by the motor carrier based on the U.S. Department of Commerce's Cost of Living Adjustment....

  4. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  5. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  6. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  7. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of communication approved by the Customs Service... electronically pursuant to an authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of communication... in paper form or by electronic transmission through a Customs-approved electronic data...

  8. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of communication approved by the Customs Service... electronically pursuant to an authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of...

  9. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of communication approved by the Customs Service... electronically pursuant to an authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of...

  10. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of communication approved by the Customs Service... electronically pursuant to an authorized electronic data interchange system or other means of communication... in paper form or by electronic transmission through a Customs-approved electronic data...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as indicated below, which said company (the word company being understood throughout this contract as... usual place of delivery at said destination, if on its own road or its own water line, otherwise to....) . *If the shipment moves between two ports by a carrier by water, the law requires that the bill...

  12. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  13. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  14. 48 CFR 52.247-1 - Commercial Bill of Lading Notations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shown as the consignor or the consignee, the annotation shall be: “Transportation is for the ___ and the... or the consignee, the annotation shall be: “Transportation is for the ___ and the actual...

  15. Effect of the successive steps of a cryopreservation protocol on the structural integrity of Rubia akane Nakai hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Salma, Mohammad; Engelmann-Sylvestre, Isabelle; Collin, Myriam; Escoute, Jacques; Lartaud, Marc; Yi, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Haeng-Hoon; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Engelmann, Florent

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we studied the impact of the successive steps of the droplet-vitrification protocol technique employed for cryopreservation of Rubia akane hairy roots on the features of cortical, pericycle and endoderm cells of apical and central root segments, using histology techniques and combining qualitative and quantitative observations. In apical segments, plasmolysis (22-71 %, depending on cell type) was observed only after the loading treatment and did not increase after the following steps of the protocol. By contrast, in central segments, plasmolysis (39-45 %) was already observed after the sucrose pretreatment; it increased to 54-68 %, depending on cell type, after the loading treatment, but no further changes were noted after treatment with the vitrification solution. After liquid nitrogen exposure and unloading treatment, deplasmolysis was more rapid in apical segments, with cortical and pericycle cells having retrieved their original features. In central segments, only cortical cells had retrieved their original features and endoderm and pericycle cells were still highly plasmolysed. Nuclei were more strongly impacted by the cryopreservation protocol in central segments, where they displayed a highly condensed nucleoplasm from the loading treatment onwards and had not retrieved their original aspect after the unloading treatment. By contrast, nuclei had a much less condensed nucleoplasm in cells of apical segments, and they had retrieved their original aspect after the unloading treatment.

  16. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., exemption or exclusions legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheadings 7102.10, 7102.21, and 7102.31, in accordance with the Clean Diamond Trade Act, will require the proof of filing... citations, and exemption legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheading 7102.10,...

  17. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., exemption or exclusions legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheadings 7102.10, 7102.21, and 7102.31, in accordance with the Clean Diamond Trade Act, will require the proof of...

  18. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects... TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.39 Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading... Act of 1930, port directors may permit narcotic drugs, except smoking opium, in reasonable...

  19. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... granting of permits and special licenses on Customs Form 3171 (CF 3171). Adequate protection of the revenue... unladen under the terms of a CF 3171 has been reladen on the same vessel, potential liability for...

  20. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... granting of permits and special licenses on Customs Form 3171 (CF 3171). Adequate protection of the revenue... unladen under the terms of a CF 3171 has been reladen on the same vessel, potential liability for...

  1. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... granting of permits and special licenses on Customs Form 3171 (CF 3171). Adequate protection of the revenue... unladen under the terms of a CF 3171 has been reladen on the same vessel, potential liability for...

  2. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... granting of permits and special licenses on Customs Form 3171 (CF 3171). Adequate protection of the revenue... unladen under the terms of a CF 3171 has been reladen on the same vessel, potential liability for...

  3. 41 CFR 102-118.135 - Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... are contained in this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook.” ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.135 Where are the mandatory terms and conditions...

  4. 41 CFR 102-118.135 - Where are the mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are contained in this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook.” ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.135 Where are the mandatory terms and conditions...

  5. A comparative study on the metabolism of Epimedium koreanum Nakai-prenylated flavonoids in rats by an intestinal enzyme (lactase phlorizin hydrolase) and intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan; Wang, Ying; Gao, Xia; Qu, Ding; Liu, Congyan

    2013-12-24

    The aim of this study was to compare the significance of the intestinal hydrolysis of prenylated flavonoids in Herba Epimedii by an intestinal enzyme and flora. Flavonoids were incubated at 37 °C with rat intestinal enzyme and intestinal flora. HPLC-UV was used to calculate the metabolic rates of the parent drug in the incubation and LC/MS/MS was used to determine the chemical structures of metabolites generated by different flavonoid glycosides. Rates of flavonoid metabolism by rat intestinal enzyme were quicker than those of intestinal flora. The sequence of intestinal flora metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin B>epimedin A>epimedin C>baohuoside I, whereas the order of intestinal enzyme metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin A>epimedin C>epimedin B>baohuoside I. Meanwhile, the LC/MS/MS graphs showed that icariin produced three products, epimedin A/B/C had four and baohuoside I yielded one product in incubations of both intestinal enzyme and flora, which were more than the results of HPLC-UV due to the fact LC/MS/MS has lower detectability and higher sensitivity. Moreover, the outcomes indicated that the rate of metabolization of flavonoids by intestinal enzyme were faster than those of intestinal flora, which was consistent with the HPLC-UV results. In conclusion, the metabolic pathways of the same components by intestinal flora and enzyme were the same. What's more, an intestinal enzyme such as lactase phlorizin hydrolase exhibited a more significant metabolic role in prenylated flavonoids of Herba Epimedi compared with intestinal flora.

  6. Effects of Clonal Integration on Microbial Community Composition and Processes in the Rhizosphere of the Stoloniferous Herb Glechoma longituba (Nakai) Kuprian

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ningfei; Li, Jun; Ni, Shijun; Chen, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    The effects of rhizodeposition on soil C and N availabilities lead to substantial changes of microbial community composition and processes in the rhizosphere of plants. Under heterogeneous light, photosynthates can be translocated or shared between exposed and shaded ramets by clonal integration. Clonal integration may enhance the rhizodeposition of the shaded ramets, which further influences nutrient recycling in their rhizosphere. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a pot experiment by the stoloniferous herb Glechoma longituba subjected to heterogeneous light. Microbial biomass and community composition in the rhizosphere of shaded offspring ramets, assessed by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis, were markedly altered by clonal integration. Clonal integration positively affected C, N availabilities, invertase and urease activities, N mineralization (Nmin) and nitrification rates (Nnitri) in the rhizosphere of shaded offspring ramets. However, an opposite pattern was also observed in phenoloxidase (POXase) and peroxidase (PODase) activities. Our results demonstrated that clonal integration facilitated N assimilation and uptake in the rhizosphere of shaded offspring ramets. The experiment provides insights into the mechanism of nutrient recycling mediated by clonal integration. PMID:25243590

  7. DoD Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Convention: ASC X12 Transaction Set 858 Freight Government Bill of Lading Shipment Information (Version 003010)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    shipper orders dromedary , the carrer may supply a trailer to convey the dromedary equipment. The trailer is con- sidered secondary equipment. The...Qualify in REF01. The tractor num- ber carried in this data element is the power unit for the trailer described in the N7 segment of the same equipment loop...1248 TTS 8 The identifying marks assigned to a power unit (tractor). REF03 352 Description C AN 1/80 10.7.50 930210 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GOVERNMBENT

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GBL attached to Standard Form (SF) 1113, Public Voucher for Transportation Charges, to the paying... Debt Collection Act of 1982 31 U.S.C. 3717); and (f) Additional mandatory terms and conditions are in this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook.”...

  9. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GBL attached to Standard Form (SF) 1113, Public Voucher for Transportation Charges, to the paying... Debt Collection Act of 1982 31 U.S.C. 3717); and (f) Additional mandatory terms and conditions are in this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook.”...

  10. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GBL attached to Standard Form (SF) 1113, Public Voucher for Transportation Charges, to the paying... Debt Collection Act of 1982 31 U.S.C. 3717); and (f) Additional mandatory terms and conditions are in this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook.”...

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this part and the “U.S. Government Freight Transportation—Handbook.” ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.140 What are the major mandatory terms and...

  12. LADEEView: Elemental Composition Analysis of Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolic, D.; Darrach, M.

    2016-10-01

    LadeeView is a comprehensive lunar data analyzer with modular architecture. Mass spectrometry module is designed to map elemental abundances along the LADEE spacecraft trajectories. These maps are useful input for future models of lunar exosphere.

  13. 49 CFR 178.338-15 - Cleanliness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the manhole of the tank. Chemical or solvent cleaning with a material compatible with the intending lading must be performed to remove any contaminants likely to react with the lading. [68 FR 75755,...

  14. 49 CFR 375.405 - How must I provide a non-binding estimate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-binding estimate as an attachment to be made an integral part of the bill of lading contract. (5) You must... written attachment to be made an integral part of the bill of lading contract and have the individual... the estimate and keep it as an attachment to be made an integral part of the bill of lading contract....

  15. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-03-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon.

  16. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R.; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-01-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  17. Expression and genomic structure of the dormancy-associated MADS box genes MADS13 in Japanese pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) that differ in their chilling requirement for endodormancy release.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Saito, Toshihiro; Ubi, Banjamin Ewa; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-06-01

    We isolated three dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes (MADS13-1, MADS13-2 and MADS13-3) and showed regulated expression concomitant with endodormancy establishment and release in the leaf buds of Japanese pear 'Kosui'. Comparative analysis between 'Kosui' and Taiwanese pear TP-85-119 ('Hengshanli'), a less dormant pear cultivar, showed reduction of MADS13-1 expression level in 'Hengshanli' earlier than in 'Kosui' towards endodormancy release, suggesting the possible relationship between chilling requirement and MADS13-1 expression. Application of hydrogen cyanamide accelerated endodormancy release with a reduction in MADS13 expression, whereas heat treatment in autumn inhibited endodormancy establishment without induction of MADS13 expression, indicating a close relationship between the MADS13 expression pattern and endodormancy phase transitions. Moreover, both the cis-acting regulatory elements and the methylation status in the 5' upstream region of the MADS13-1 gene were not largely different between 'Kosui' and 'Hengshanli'. Genomic structures of MADS13-1 from 'Kosui' and 'Hengshanli' revealed a 3218 bp insertion in the first intron of 'Hengshanli' that might be ascribed to the lower expression of MADS13-1tw; however, this insertion was also found in pear genotypes with a high chilling requirement. These results indicated that the low expression of MADS13-1 in 'Hengshanli' towards endodormancy release could not be explained by the identified cis-acting regulatory elements, the methylation status of the putative promoter or by intron insertion.

  18. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Delory, G. T.; Hine, Butler P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Horanyi, M.; Colaprete, A.; Benna, M.; Noble, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission was designed to address long-standing scientific questions about the Moon's environment, including the assessment of the composition of the lunar atmosphere, and characterization of the lunar dust environment at low orbital altitudes. LADEE was derived from the Modular Common Spacecraft Bus design that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center; it used modularized subassemblies and existing commercial spaceflight hardware to reduce cost. LADEE was launched on the very first Minotaur V, and was also the first deep space mission launched from Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. LADEE was equipped with two in situ instruments and a remote sensing instrument to address the atmosphere and dust measurement requirements. LADEE also carried the first deep-space optical communications demonstration, the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration. LADEE was launched in early September, 2013, took science data for over 140 days in low lunar orbit, and impacted the surface on April 18, 2014.

  19. 19 CFR 191.112 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... repair of aircraft. (j) Fuel laden on vessels or aircraft as supplies—(1) Composite notice of lading. In... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Supplies for Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 191.112 Procedure. (a) General. The.... The notice of lading shall show: (1) The name of the vessel or identity of the aircraft on...

  20. 19 CFR 191.112 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... repair of aircraft. (j) Fuel laden on vessels or aircraft as supplies—(1) Composite notice of lading. In... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Supplies for Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 191.112 Procedure. (a) General. The.... The notice of lading shall show: (1) The name of the vessel or identity of the aircraft on...

  1. 19 CFR 191.112 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... repair of aircraft. (j) Fuel laden on vessels or aircraft as supplies—(1) Composite notice of lading. In... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Supplies for Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 191.112 Procedure. (a) General. The.... The notice of lading shall show: (1) The name of the vessel or identity of the aircraft on...

  2. 19 CFR 191.112 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... repair of aircraft. (j) Fuel laden on vessels or aircraft as supplies—(1) Composite notice of lading. In... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Supplies for Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 191.112 Procedure. (a) General. The.... The notice of lading shall show: (1) The name of the vessel or identity of the aircraft on...

  3. 19 CFR 191.112 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... repair of aircraft. (j) Fuel laden on vessels or aircraft as supplies—(1) Composite notice of lading. In... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Supplies for Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 191.112 Procedure. (a) General. The.... The notice of lading shall show: (1) The name of the vessel or identity of the aircraft on...

  4. 49 CFR 178.337-17 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... temperature (Design Temp. Range) ___ °F to ___ °F. (5) Nominal capacity (Water Cap.), in pounds. (6) Maximum design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon. (7) Material specification number... water capacity. Note 2 to paragraph (c): When the shell and head materials are the same thickness,...

  5. 19 CFR 4.63 - Outward cargo declaration; shippers' export declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bills of lading or equivalent commercial documents relating to all cargo encompassed by the manifest... must also be included thereon) or on attached copies of bills of lading or equivalent commercial...); (3) Number of packages and gross weight (see paragraph (d) of this section); (4) Name of vessel...

  6. 19 CFR 10.64 - Crediting or cancellation of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of lading in a class of trade or business entitling the articles to exemption from duty and tax under... one of the following who has knowledge of the facts: (1) The operations manager or port captain for... ______ declare that I have knowledge of the facts set forth herein, and that upon the lading of the...

  7. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Weight or measurement, container size, and number of containers of individual shipment, as well as all... shipment(s). (g) Name of carrier and date shown on bill of lading (furnish legible copies of bill(s) of lading). (h) Names of participating ocean carrier(s). (i) Name(s) of vessel(s) involved in carriage....

  8. 49 CFR 177.837 - Class 3 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Bonding and grounding containers other than cargo tanks prior to and during transfer of lading. For... Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials between such containers. Such bonding shall be made by first...) Bonding and grounding cargo tanks before and during transfer of lading. (1) When a cargo tank is...

  9. 78 FR 23905 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... at less than normal value (``NV''). In addition, Petitioner alleges that subject imports exceed the...'') subheadings 7210.90.6000 and 7212.50.0000, corresponding to bills of lading, as obtained through Zepol... of certain nickel-plated, flat-rolled steel from Japan captured in bills of lading. Petitioner...

  10. 7 CFR 46.43 - Terms construed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shipment is handled under normal transportation service and conditions, will assure delivery without... a bill of lading issued prior to the day on which the quotation is made and has moved or is moving... bill of lading, delivery order, or other document enabling him to obtain the goods from the carrier....

  11. 7 CFR 1494.201 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... upon the office to which a submission is to be made, are on official duty during normal business hours... method of shipment: (1) The on-board date shown on the export carrier's bill of lading, when the eligible... at the Canadian port shown on the export carrier's bill of lading, when the eligible commodity...

  12. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-5 Materials. (a) Stainless steel of ASTM A 240/A 240M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), Type... lading; and (3) Compatible with the lading. (b) Any steel casting, steel forging, steel structural...

  13. 15 CFR 30.37 - Miscellaneous exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than one (1) year from the date of export. (6) Are not shipped under a bill of lading or an air waybill... requirements of the licensing Federal agency. (f) Exports of technology and software as defined in 15 CFR 772... vessels and aircraft. (m) Carriers' stores, not shipped under a bill of lading or an air...

  14. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ocean vessel, one copy of all bill(s) of lading described in § 201.52(a)(4) has been maiIed to: Maritime... terms, or (ii) By the supplier of ocean transportation whenever USAID-finances the freight under any.... (4) Evidence of shipment. (i) A copy (or photostat) of the bill(s) of lading (ocean, charter...

  15. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ocean vessel, one copy of all bill(s) of lading described in § 201.52(a)(4) has been maiIed to: Maritime... terms, or (ii) By the supplier of ocean transportation whenever USAID-finances the freight under any.... (4) Evidence of shipment. (i) A copy (or photostat) of the bill(s) of lading (ocean, charter...

  16. 49 CFR 178.337-17 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature (Design Temp. Range) ___ °F to ___ °F. (5) Nominal capacity (Water Cap.), in pounds. (6) Maximum design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon. (7) Material specification number...), in inches. When minimum shell thicknesses are not the same for different areas, show (top__,...

  17. 49 CFR 178.338-18 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Cargo tank design temperature (Design Temp. Range) __ °F to __ °F. (6) Nominal capacity (Water Cap.), in pounds. (7) Maximum design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon. (8) Material... thicknesses are not the same for different areas, show (top __, side __, bottom __, in inches). (12)...

  18. 41 CFR 109-40.5005 - Description of property for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading... not be used as bill of lading descriptions. (b) A shipment containing hazardous materials, such as explosives, radioactive materials, flammable liquids, flammable solids, oxidizers, or poison A or poison...

  19. 41 CFR 109-40.5005 - Description of property for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading... not be used as bill of lading descriptions. (b) A shipment containing hazardous materials, such as explosives, radioactive materials, flammable liquids, flammable solids, oxidizers, or poison A or poison...

  20. 49 CFR 375.403 - How must I provide a binding estimate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... integral part of the bill of lading contract. (4) You must clearly indicate upon each binding estimate's... attachment to be made an integral part of the bill of lading contract and have the individual shipper sign... least one year from the date you made the estimate and keep it as an attachment to be made an...

  1. 46 CFR 381.3 - Reporting information and procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section 901(b)(2) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended, pursuant to the authority delegated to him... 1223. Where obtainable, a properly notated and legible copy of the ocean bill of lading in English...

  2. 49 CFR 179.201-9 - Gauging device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS.... The gauging device must be made of materials not subject to rapid deterioration by the lading....

  3. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid flow rates. All valves must be made from approved materials compatible with the lading and having... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  4. 32 CFR 623.4 - Accounting procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... source of accounting and billing for reimbursement. No separate property book accounts will be set up for... noted on the reverse side of the bill of lading. (2) When a DD Form 1348-1 has not been received by...

  5. 32 CFR 623.4 - Accounting procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... source of accounting and billing for reimbursement. No separate property book accounts will be set up for... noted on the reverse side of the bill of lading. (2) When a DD Form 1348-1 has not been received by...

  6. 19 CFR 10.257 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Textile Articles § 10.257 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a... article in question, such as purchase orders, invoices, bills of lading and other shipping documents,...

  7. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with... temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks...

  8. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with... temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks...

  9. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., forming and fusion welding; (2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and (3) Compatible with... temperature or colder; and (4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks...

  10. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  11. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  12. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  13. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  14. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  15. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  16. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  17. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  18. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  19. 31 CFR 590.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  20. 31 CFR 560.325 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  1. 31 CFR 560.325 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  2. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  3. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other..., ships, goods on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks, copyrights,...

  4. 31 CFR 590.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  5. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  6. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other..., ships, goods on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks, copyrights,...

  7. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  8. 49 CFR 179.500-11 - Loading and unloading valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT... type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by lading or in service, and shall...

  9. 48 CFR 52.247-30 - F.o.b. Origin, Contractor's Facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... street or highway, in the city, county, and State from which the shipment will be made. (b) The... carrier's conveyance; (5) Complete the Government bill of lading supplied by the ordering agency or,...

  10. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material lading would have a dangerous reaction with the hazardous material. (2) A cargo tank may not be... tanks equipped with a 1 psig normal vent, the sum of the tank static head plus 1 psig. In addition,...

  11. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material lading would have a dangerous reaction with the hazardous material. (2) A cargo tank may not be... tanks equipped with a 1 psig normal vent, the sum of the tank static head plus 1 psig. In addition,...

  12. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... material lading would have a dangerous reaction with the hazardous material. (2) A cargo tank may not be... tanks equipped with a 1 psig normal vent, the sum of the tank static head plus 1 psig. In addition,...

  13. 41 CFR 109-40.306-2 - Required shipping documents and annotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (name and telephone number). See 332 ICC 161. (c) To ensure proper application of a Government rate... 10721 tender, ABC Transportation Company, ICC No. 374.” In addition, if commercial bills of lading...

  14. 41 CFR 109-40.306-2 - Required shipping documents and annotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (name and telephone number). See 332 ICC 161. (c) To ensure proper application of a Government rate... 10721 tender, ABC Transportation Company, ICC No. 374.” In addition, if commercial bills of lading...

  15. 49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.31 Use of tank cars. (a..., vinyl fluoride, ethylene, or hydrogen, 133 percent of the sum of lading vapor pressure at the...

  16. 49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.31 Use of tank cars. (a..., vinyl fluoride, ethylene, or hydrogen, 133 percent of the sum of lading vapor pressure at the...

  17. 49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.31 Use of tank cars. (a..., vinyl fluoride, ethylene, or hydrogen, 133 percent of the sum of lading vapor pressure at the...

  18. 31 CFR 597.302 - Assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or other rights in the nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills..., real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or interest or interests therein, present, future...

  19. 31 CFR 587.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or other rights in the nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills..., real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or interest or interests therein, present, future...

  20. 31 CFR 500.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., mortgages, pledges, liens or other right in the nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading..., or mixed, tangible or intangible, or interest or interests therein, present, future, or contingent....

  1. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... thermal resistance so that there will be no release of any lading within the tank car, except release... resistance of the tank car does not conform to paragraph (a) of this section, the thermal resistance of...

  2. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... such dangerous materials are charcoal screenings, ground, crushed, or pulverized charcoal, and lump charcoal. (c) Lading ventilation, precautions against spontaneous combustion. Whenever a motor carrier has... soon as practicable after reaching its destination. Charcoal screenings, or ground, crushed,...

  3. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... such dangerous materials are charcoal screenings, ground, crushed, or pulverized charcoal, and lump charcoal. (c) Lading ventilation, precautions against spontaneous combustion. Whenever a motor carrier has... soon as practicable after reaching its destination. Charcoal screenings, or ground, crushed,...

  4. The Dust Environment of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.; Szalay, J.; Gruen, E.; Glenar, D.; Wang, X.; Zakharov, A.

    2016-05-01

    We will briefly review the history of the observations of the lunar dust environment, but mainly focus on the results of the LADEE mission, and the recent laboratory results on the charging and mobilization of dust particles on regolith surfaces.

  5. 49 CFR 375.103 - What are the definitions of terms used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... on behalf of the bank as drawer. (3) A direct obligation of the bank. (4) Provided to a customer of... parties and could not be avoided by exercise of due care. Government bill of lading shipper means...

  6. 5 CFR 180.107 - Claims procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... evidence of the crime such as breaking and entering, capture of the thief or robber, or recovery of part of... bills of lading, inventories, and other applicable shipping documents; (vii) Date and place of...

  7. 77 FR 15378 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... permission of the CBP port director for the withdrawal and lading of bonded merchandise (especially alcoholic beverages) for use on board fishing vessels involved in international trade. The applicant must certify...

  8. 7 CFR 1499.13 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... media approved by FAS or by providing the carrier's on board bill of lading. The evidence of export must..., analytical capability, language skills and experience in conducting evaluations of development...

  9. 49 CFR 179.400-4 - Insulation system and performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., in gallons; tl = equilibrium temperature of intended lading at maximum shipping pressure, in ° F.; 8... locations on the jacket at regular intervals during the NER test, in °F.; tf = equilibrium temperature...

  10. 49 CFR 179.400-4 - Insulation system and performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... at 60 °F. of the inner tank, in gallons; tl = equilibrium temperature of intended lading at maximum... = equilibrium temperature of the test cryogenic liquid at the NER test pressure of approximately, one...

  11. 48 CFR 52.247-42 - C.i.f. Destination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Obtain and dispatch promptly to the Government clean on-board ocean bills of lading to the specified... for importation into the country of destination; and (6) Obtain and dispatch to the Government...

  12. 19 CFR 141.111 - Carrier's release order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; (3) A combined carrier's certificate and release order issued in accordance with § 141.11(a)(4); or... given to release the articles covered by this certified duplicate bill of lading or air waybill to:...

  13. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the lading temperature. (1) Liquid control valves must be of extended stem design. (2) Packing, if... effectively seal the valve stem without causing difficulty of operation. (3) Each control valve and...

  14. MNE5 Coalition Logistics Information Sharing (NATO IR Decomposition Methodology)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-16

    Populate IR: The name of the Authoritative Data Source Example: Global Transportation Network ( GTN ) • Link to Source / Systems: The connecting link...best chance possible to locate it. Additionally, if there is a document that could be modified to support exchanging this information list it and...COMMERCI AL BILL OF LADING FROM WHICH THE FREIGHT- LADING- BILL WAS Nation al, CTF GTN GTN.doc 18 UNCLASSIFIED –APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

  15. MNE 5 Coalition Logistics Information Sharing (NATO IR Decomposition Methodology)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-16

    Populate IR: The name of the Authoritative Data Source Example: Global Transportation Network ( GTN ) • Link to Source / Systems: The connecting...the best chance possible to locate it. Additionally, if there is a document that could be modified to support exchanging this information list it...THE COMMERCI AL BILL OF LADING FROM WHICH THE FREIGHT- LADING- BILL WAS Nation al, CTF GTN GTN.doc 18 UNCLASSIFIED –APPROVED FOR PUBLIC

  16. Turkmenistan Melon (Cucumis melo), and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Germplasm Expedition 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkmenistan has a rich tradition of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) production, but like in many countries land races and old varieties are in danger of genetic erosion. In July-August 2008, a collaborative Turkmenistan–United States germplasm exp...

  17. Notes on Citrullius spp. and Acanthosicyos naudinianus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. lanatus subsp. mu...

  18. USVL-370, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-370’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] containing resistance to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated wit...

  19. Atomic Data for Fusion. Volume 5: Collisions of Carbon and Oxygen Ions with Electrons, H, H2 and He

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    A. iller, Strahlenzentrum der Justus Liebig -Universitaet, Leihgesterner Weg 217, 6300 Giessen, West Germany 443. Dr. Y. Nakai, Dept. of Physics...Strahlenzentrum, Der Justus Liebig -Univ., Leihgesterner Weg 217, D-6300 Giessen, West Germany 465. Dr. A. Sanchez, Calle Angostura Quinta-Carmen, El

  20. Atomistic Study of Metastable Phases in an A1-3wt.%-Li0 .12wt.%-Zr Alloy. A Preliminary Study of A1-Li Alloys Using Atom-Probe Field Ion Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-02

    miscibility gap has been obtained by Nozato and Nakai (5), Spooner ir al.(6), Rioja ind Ludwiczak (7), Papzian et al.(8). However, direct imaging of the a...International Conference on Al-Li Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London, in press. 626 ALUMINUM ALLOYS - PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 7. Rioja , R. J

  1. The Bukkyo University and University of Hawai'i College of Education Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Hunter; Goto, Sunao; Horike, Yukiyo

    2010-01-01

    For the past ten years, the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa (UHM-COE) and Bukkyo University in Kyoto, Japan have enjoyed a special relationship designed to promote cooperation and academic exchanges between the two institutions. The agreement of cooperation was signed on June 5, 2000 by President Shinko Nakai of Bukkyo…

  2. Observations on anatomical aspects of the fruit, leaf and stem tissues of four Citrullus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphological characteristics of the fruit, stem and leaf tissues of four species of Citrullus (L.) Schrad. were examined using standard histological methods. Plant materials included the cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and three of its related species; C. colocynthis (...

  3. Notes on Citrullus spp. And Acanthosicyos naudinianus-pollen morphology and interspecific hybridization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. mucosospermus (Fu...

  4. A survey of bee species found pollinating watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives were in any of the fie...

  5. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  6. USVL-360, a novel watermelon tetraploid germplasm line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tetraploid line “USVL-360” derived from the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 299379 that belong to Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. citroides (L. H. Bailey) Mansf. (CLC) was developed in this study. USVL-360 is a pure line selection from an autotetraploid plant generated by tr...

  7. Cytomolecular characterization of rRNA gene sequences among Citrullus species and subspecies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous studies, many DNA markers showed strong preferential (non-Mendelian) segregation in F2 and BC1 genetic populations derived from crosses between wild type watermelon [C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb.] (CLC) and watermelon cultivar...

  8. High frequency oligonucleotides – targeting active gene (HFO-TAG) markers reveal wide genetic diversity among Citrullus spp. accessions useful for enhancing disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a continuous need to enhance watermelon cultivars for disease and pest resistance. Different U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus lanatus subsp. lanatus var. lanatus [also known as C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb.] (CLC) col...

  9. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultigens tested in two environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon producers face increasing production costs and international market competition. Maximizing marketability of high quality watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai], that also contain high levels of the amino acid phytonutrient L-citrulline, can provide new market niches for th...

  10. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  11. Design and Development of an Equipotential Voltage Reference (Grounding) System for a Low-Cost Rapid-Development Modular Spacecraft Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukash, James A.; Daley, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and development effort to adapt rapid-development space hardware by creating a ground system using solutions of low complexity, mass, & cost. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is based on the modular common spacecraft bus architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The challenge was building upon the existing modular common bus design and development work and improving the LADEE spacecraft design by adding an Equipotential Voltage Reference (EVeR) system, commonly referred to as a ground system. This would aid LADEE in meeting Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) requirements, thereby making the spacecraft more compatible with itself and its space environment. The methods used to adapt existing hardware are presented, including provisions which may be used on future spacecraft.

  12. Low incidence of left atrial delayed enhancement with MRI in patients with AF: a single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bois, John P; Glockner, James; Young, Phillip M; Foley, Thomas A; Sheldon, Seth; Newman, Darrell B; Lin, Grace; Packer, Douglas L; Brady, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained atrial arrhythmia. One potential target for ablation is left atrial (LA) scar (LAS) regions that may be the substrate for re-entry within the atria, thereby sustaining AF. Identification of LAS through LA delayed gadolinium enhancement (LADE) with MRI has been proposed. Objectives We sought to evaluate LADE in patients referred for catheter ablation of AF. Methods Prospective analysis was conducted of consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary vein antrum isolation (PVAI) ablation for AF at a single institution. Patients underwent LADE with MRI to determine LAS regions before ablation. MRI data were analysed independently in accordance with prespecified institutional protocol by two staff cardiac radiologists to whom patient outcomes were masked, and reports of LADE were documented. Where no initial consensus occurred regarding delayed enhancement (DE), a third staff cardiac radiologist independently reviewed the case and had the deciding vote. Results Of the 149 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age, 59 (9) years), AF was persistent in 64 (43%) and paroxysmal in 85 (57%); 45 (30%) had prior ablation. Only five patients (3%) had identifiable DE in LA walls (persistent AF, n=1; paroxysmal AF, n=4). LADE was present in two (4%) of the 45 patients with previous left PVAI. The presence of LADE was not associated with a higher recurrence rate of AF. Conclusions In contrast to previous studies, the finding of DE within LA walls was uncommon and, when present, did not correlate with AF type or risk of AF recurrence. It therefore is of unclear clinical significance. PMID:28123766

  13. Trajectory Design for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Loucks, Michel E.; Yang, Fan Yang; Lee, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The presented trajectory design and analysis was performed for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment (PADME) mission concept as part of a NASA proposal submission managed by NASA Ames Research Center in the 2014-2015 timeframe. The PADME spacecraft would be a derivative of the successfully flown Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. While LADEE was designed to enter low-lunar orbit, the PADME spacecraft would instead enter an elliptical Mars orbit of 2-week period. This Mars orbit would pass by Phobos near periapsis on successive orbits and then raise periapsis to yield close approaches of Deimos every orbit thereafter.

  14. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1-40amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE,LRO, etc.).

  15. Anticomplement activity of various solvent extracts from Korea local Artemisia spp.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In; Jung, Seil; Lee, Young-Choon; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-02-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of eight Artemisia plants (Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Artemisia fukudo Makino., Artemisia japonica Thunb., Artemisia montana (Nakai) Pamp., Artemisia keiskeana Miq., Artemisia rubripes Nakai., Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Kom., and Artemisia sylvatica Max.) from South Korea on the classical pathway (CP). We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from eight Artemisia plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the CP. A. rubripes and A. montana chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀) values of 54.3 and 64.2 μg/mL. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Artemisia plants.

  16. 22 CFR 211.9 - Liability for loss damage or improper distribution of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and other factors affecting its accuracy, or an explanation of why a scale was not used and how weight... specify how such losses occurred; (E) Obtain copies of port and/or ship records including scale weights... bill(s) of lading, (B) The related outturn or survey report(s), (C) Evidence showing the amount...

  17. 49 CFR 173.13 - Exceptions for Class 3, Divisions 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 6.1, and Classes 8 and 9 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material must be placed in a tightly closed glass, plastic or metal inner packaging with a maximum capacity... placed in a hermetically sealed barrier bag which is impervious to the lading, and then wrapped in a non... the hermetically sealed barrier bag. The combination of inner packaging, absorbent material, and...

  18. 49 CFR 179.201-3 - Lined tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.201-3 Lined tanks. (a) Rubber-lined tanks. (1... the corrosive or solvent action of the lading in the liquid or gas phase and is suitable for...

  19. 49 CFR 179.201-3 - Lined tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.201-3 Lined tanks. (a) Rubber-lined tanks. (1... the corrosive or solvent action of the lading in the liquid or gas phase and is suitable for...

  20. 49 CFR 178.606 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subjected to a force applied to the top surface of the test sample equivalent to the total weight of... (104°F). Alternative test methods which yield equivalent results may be used if approved by the... height of 3 meters. s = specific gravity of lading. w = maximum weight of one empty container in...

  1. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... least 8 feet above the tank top or the highest level the lading may rise, whichever is greater. All openings shall be in the top of the tank. (2) Pressure vessel type tanks shall be designed for the maximum... the design pressure be less than 50 pounds per square inch gauge. All openings shall be in the top...

  2. 19 CFR 10.247 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act Apparel and Other Textile Articles Under the Andean Trade... article in question, such as purchase orders, invoices, bills of lading and other shipping documents, and... to the conclusion that the apparel or other textile article qualifies for preferential...

  3. 19 CFR 10.227 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act Textile and Apparel Articles Under the United States..., such as purchase orders, invoices, bills of lading and other shipping documents, and customs import and... the textile or apparel article qualifies for preferential treatment. Those records must...

  4. 19 CFR 10.217 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Textile and Apparel Articles Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act § 10.217 Verification and... of the article in question, such as purchase orders, invoices, bills of lading and other shipping... importer came to the conclusion that the textile or apparel article qualifies for preferential...

  5. 49 CFR 179.400-4 - Insulation system and performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., in gallons; tl = equilibrium temperature of intended lading at maximum shipping pressure, in ° F.; 8.32828 = constant for converting gallons of water at 60 °F. to lbs. of water at 60 °F., in lbs./gallon... locations on the jacket at regular intervals during the NER test, in °F.; tf = equilibrium temperature...

  6. 49 CFR 179.400-4 - Insulation system and performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., in gallons; tl = equilibrium temperature of intended lading at maximum shipping pressure, in ° F.; 8.32828 = constant for converting gallons of water at 60 °F. to lbs. of water at 60 °F., in lbs./gallon... locations on the jacket at regular intervals during the NER test, in °F.; tf = equilibrium temperature...

  7. 49 CFR 179.400-4 - Insulation system and performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., in gallons; tl = equilibrium temperature of intended lading at maximum shipping pressure, in °F.; 8.32828 = constant for converting gallons of water at 60 °F. to lbs. of water at 60 °F., in lbs./gallon... locations on the jacket at regular intervals during the NER test, in °F.; tf = equilibrium temperature...

  8. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....1 (flammable gas) materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored in a rail car equipped with any type of lighted heater or open-flame device, or in a rail car equipped with any apparatus or... (flammable gas) materials only if: (1) The lading space is not equipped with any electrical apparatus that...

  9. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....1 (flammable gas) materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored in a rail car equipped with any type of lighted heater or open-flame device, or in a rail car equipped with any apparatus or... (flammable gas) materials only if: (1) The lading space is not equipped with any electrical apparatus that...

  10. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....1 (flammable gas) materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored in a rail car equipped with any type of lighted heater or open-flame device, or in a rail car equipped with any apparatus or... (flammable gas) materials only if: (1) The lading space is not equipped with any electrical apparatus that...

  11. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....1 (flammable gas) materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored in a rail car equipped with any type of lighted heater or open-flame device, or in a rail car equipped with any apparatus or... (flammable gas) materials only if: (1) The lading space is not equipped with any electrical apparatus that...

  12. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES... exporting carrier on which movement of the grapes from the United States is effected. The date of the on board bill of lading (or loading tally sheet) shall be considered to be the date the grapes were...

  13. 49 CFR 173.24b - Additional general requirements for bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... test specimen. (c) Air pressure in excess of ambient atmospheric pressure may not be used to load or... provided in this subchapter, exceeds the maximum weight of lading marked on the specification plate. (e... may not exceed the maximum permissible stacking test mass marked on the packaging. (f) UN...

  14. 49 CFR 178.345-8 - Accident damage protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be proven capable of carrying the required loads by calculations, tests or a combination of tests... for the loss of lading due to an accident. (1) Any dome, sump, or washout cover plate projecting from... to the wall of a cargo tank must be able to withstand or deflect away from the cargo tank the...

  15. 49 CFR 178.345-8 - Accident damage protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be proven capable of carrying the required loads by calculations, tests or a combination of tests... of lading due to an accident. (1) Any dome, sump, or washout cover plate projecting from the cargo... to the wall of a cargo tank must be able to withstand or deflect away from the cargo tank the...

  16. 49 CFR 178.345-8 - Accident damage protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must be proven capable of carrying the required loads by calculations, tests or a combination of tests... of lading due to an accident. (1) Any dome, sump, or washout cover plate projecting from the cargo... to the wall of a cargo tank must be able to withstand or deflect away from the cargo tank the...

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52... the same city or commercial zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract the Federal... agency for commercial bills of lading; e.g., “This shipment is the property of, and the freight...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52... the same city or commercial zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract the Federal... agency for commercial bills of lading; e.g., “This shipment is the property of, and the freight...

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-29 - F.o.b. Origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-29 F... contract (the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49... ordering agency or, when a Government bill of lading is not supplied, prepare a commercial bill of...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-29 - F.o.b. Origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-29 F... contract (the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49... ordering agency or, when a Government bill of lading is not supplied, prepare a commercial bill of...

  1. 40 CFR 279.56 - Tracking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners § 279.56 Tracking. (a) Acceptance. Used oil processors/re-refiners must keep a record of each used oil shipment accepted for processing/re-refining. These records may take the form of a log, invoice, manifest, bill of lading or...

  2. 46 CFR 520.13 - Exemptions and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... common carrier by water transporting the containers or containerized cargo under a through bill of lading... and personal effects are the accompanying personal property of the passengers and are not transported... through rates are filed with the Surface Transportation Board and/or the Canadian Transport...

  3. Simulations of Water Migration in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Goldstein, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    We perform modeling and analysis of water in the lunar exosphere. There were two controlled experiments of water interactions with the surface of the Moon observed by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). The Chang'e 3 landing on the Moon on 14 Dec 2013 putatively sprayed ~120 kg of water on the surface on the Moon at a mid-morning local time. Observations by LADEE near the noon meridian on six of the orbits in the 24 hours following the landing constrain the propagation of water vapor. Further, on 4 Apr 2014, LADEE's Orbital Maintenance Manuever (OMM) #21 sprayed the surface of the Moon with an estimated 0.73 kg of water in the pre-dawn sector. Observations of this maneuver and later in the day constrain the adsorption and release at dawn of adsorbed materials. Using the Chang'e 3 exhaust plume and LADEE's OMM-21 as control experiments, we set limits to the adsorption and thermalization of water with lunar regolith. This enables us to predict the efficiency of the migration of water as a delivery mechanism to the lunar poles. Then we simulate the migration of water through the lunar exosphere using the rate of sporadic inputs from meteoritic sources (Benna et al., this session). Simulations predict the amount of water adsorbed to the surface of the Moon and the effective delivery rate to the lunar polar cold traps.

  4. 49 CFR 376.31 - Interchange of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipment to be interchanged. This written agreement shall set forth the specific points of interchange, how... commodities at the point where the physical exchange occurs. (c) Through bills of lading. The traffic... divisions of the joint rates or the proportions of such rates accruing to the carriers by the application...

  5. Image Processing of Digital Cartographic Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-05

    lasibases de datas digitales par media de una Estaci6n de Manja de Im~genes. Taznbign trata de la canfiguracio’n de las sistemas , sus cam- ponentes, la...DE IMAGENES DE DATOS CARTOGRAFICOS DIGITALES Desde hace tiempa el cart~graffa ha querido representar las caracteristicas de la superficie terrestre

  6. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  7. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, powers of..., deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, real estate and any interest therein..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks, copyrights, contracts or licenses affecting or...

  8. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  9. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  10. 31 CFR 570.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  11. 31 CFR 549.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  12. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  13. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  14. 31 CFR 549.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  15. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  16. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  17. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  18. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  19. 31 CFR 589.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  20. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, powers of..., deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, real estate and any interest therein..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks, copyrights, contracts or licenses affecting or...

  1. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  2. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  3. 31 CFR 570.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  4. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  5. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  6. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters... of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents, real estate and any..., accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies, safe deposit boxes...

  7. 27 CFR 28.22 - Vessels employed in the fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fisheries. 28.22 Section 28.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Lading for Use on Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 28.22 Vessels employed in the fisheries. Liquors may be... the fisheries, only for use on vessels of the United States documented to engage in the fisheries...

  8. 49 CFR 179.100-12 - Manway nozzle, cover and protective housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of forged or rolled steel for steel tanks or of fabricated aluminum alloy for aluminum tanks, with an... carbon or alloy steel, rolled aluminum alloy or nickel when required by the lading. Minimum thickness is... must have steel sidewalls not less than three-fourths inch in thickness and must be equipped with...

  9. 76 FR 51980 - Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... forwarder without a license and that Respondent has copied Complainant's standard contract, known as a dock... form of dock receipt and bill of lading.'' The full text of the complaint can be found in the... testimony and cross-examination in the discretion of the presiding officer only upon proper showing...

  10. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading,...

  11. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  12. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  13. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  14. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  15. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the...

  16. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with requirements of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (15 CFR part 30) and § 758.1 of the... consignee to whom the shipment is authorized. (b) Destination control statement. The SCL holder and consignees must enter a destination control statement on all copies of the bill of lading or air...

  17. 49 CFR 376.12 - Written lease requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall not be made contingent upon submission of a bill of lading to which no exceptions have been taken... documents and other paperwork. (g) Copies of freight bill or other form of freight documentation. When a... rated freight bill or a computer-generated document containing the same information, or, in the case...

  18. 77 FR 17436 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... delivery charges, and bill of lading charges) in the ocean freight calculation because these charges were... both its U.S. price and normal value components. In addition, the Department does not find the highest... weighted-average amount by which the normal value exceeds U.S. price, as indicated above....

  19. 49 CFR 375.201 - What is my normal liability for loss and damage when I accept goods from an individual shipper?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is my normal liability for loss and damage... What is my normal liability for loss and damage when I accept goods from an individual shipper? (a) In... of household goods and all related services identified on your lawful bill of lading. (b) Full...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4101-1 - Taxable fuel; registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information from the applicant, and inspect the applicant's premises during normal business hours without... Internal Revenue Service during normal business hours records relevant to a determination of tax liability... shipping papers, bills of lading, and similar documents that are provided by the terminal operator...

  1. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-5 Materials. (a) Stainless steel of ASTM A 240/A 240M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), Type 304 or 304L must be used... the lading. (b) Any steel casting, steel forging, steel structural shape or carbon steel plate used...

  2. 7 CFR 1403.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... railroads, motor carriers, ocean carriers or piggyback enterprises, which provide transportation or other... means the deduction of money from the current pay account of a present or former Government employee... ocean bill or lading, or other similar agreement between the carrier and CCC. In the case of...

  3. 48 CFR 752.247-70 - Preference for privately owned U.S.-flag commercial vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under P.L. 480 financed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, that may be transported in ocean vessels..., depending on current compliance with Cargo Preference requirements. If freight under the contract is fixed... legible copy of a rated on-board ocean bill of lading for each shipment to both the Division of...

  4. 7 CFR 1403.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... railroads, motor carriers, ocean carriers or piggyback enterprises, which provide transportation or other... means the deduction of money from the current pay account of a present or former Government employee... ocean bill or lading, or other similar agreement between the carrier and CCC. In the case of...

  5. 7 CFR 1403.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... railroads, motor carriers, ocean carriers or piggyback enterprises, which provide transportation or other... means the deduction of money from the current pay account of a present or former Government employee... ocean bill or lading, or other similar agreement between the carrier and CCC. In the case of...

  6. 49 CFR 178.345-2 - Material and material thickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for minimum thickness specified in § 178.320(a). (c) Corrosion or abrasion protection. When required... corrosion or mechanical abrasion due to the lading, must be protected by providing the tank or part of the... protection. (1) Corrosion allowance. Material added for corrosion allowance need not be of uniform...

  7. 48 CFR 52.247-57 - Transportation Transit Privilege Credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment and acceptance by the carrier, these shipments under paid commercial bills of lading will move for... the offered f.o.b. origin price unless a lower rate is applicable on the date of bid opening (or closing date specified for receipt of offers). To have the offer evaluated on this basis, the offeror...

  8. 49 CFR 178.345-8 - Accident damage protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident damage protection. 178.345-8 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-8 Accident damage protection. (a... of lading due to an accident. (1) Any dome, sump, or washout cover plate projecting from the...

  9. 49 CFR 178.337-10 - Accident damage protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident damage protection. 178.337-10 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-10 Accident damage... stop valve and within the accident damage protection to prevent any accidental loss of lading....

  10. 49 CFR 178.345-8 - Accident damage protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accident damage protection. 178.345-8 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-8 Accident damage protection. (a... of lading due to an accident. (1) Any dome, sump, or washout cover plate projecting from the...

  11. 49 CFR 178.337-3 - Structural integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., the suspension sub-frame, accident protection structures, and external circumferential reinforcement... generated by design pressure, the weight of lading, the weight of structure supported by the cargo tank wall... percent of the ultimate tensile strength of the type steel used. (e) The minimum metal thickness for...

  12. 49 CFR 178.337-3 - Structural integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., the suspension sub-frame, accident protection structures, and external circumferential reinforcement... weight of lading, the weight of structure supported by the cargo tank wall, and the effect of temperature... percent of the ultimate tensile strength of the type steel used. (e) The minimum metal thickness for...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing? 102-118.195 Section... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading... must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing?...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing? 102-118.195 Section... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading... must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing?...

  15. 48 CFR 252.232-7011 - Payments in Support of Emergencies and Contingency Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and weight of shipment will be shown for shipments on Government bills of lading. (vi) Name and..., Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer—System for Award Management, or FAR 52.232-34, Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer—Other Than System for Award Management), or applicable agency procedures. (C)...

  16. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim,...

  17. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim,...

  18. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim,...

  19. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim,...

  20. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim,...

  1. 7 CFR 318.13-6 - Transit of fruits and vegetables from Hawaii or the territories into or through the continental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (i) The specific types of fruits and vegetables to be shipped (only scientific or English common..., such as the accompanying manifest, waybill, and bill of lading. (Only scientific or English common... quantity of the fruits or vegetables (only scientific or English common names are acceptable), the...

  2. 17 CFR 190.08 - Allocation of property and allowance of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... allowance of claims. 190.08 Section 190.08 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING...) Open commodity contracts; (C) Warehouse receipts, bills of lading, or other documents of title or... secure security futures products, or accruing as a result of such products, if held in a...

  3. 15 CFR 758.6 - Destination control statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be entered on the invoice and on the bill of lading, air waybill, or other export control document... Control List that are not classified as EAR99, unless the export may be made under License Exception BAG or GFT (see part 740 of the EAR). At a minimum, the DCS must state: “These commodities, technology...

  4. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that relate to EAR License Exceptions: (1) License Exception Baggage (BAG), as set forth in § 740.14 of.... See 15 CFR 30.53 of the FTSR; (5) License Exception Technology and Software Under Restriction (TSR... entered on the loading document (e.g., Cargo Declaration, manifest, bill of lading, (master) air...

  5. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... that relate to EAR License Exceptions: (1) License Exception Baggage (BAG), as set forth in § 740.14 of.... See 15 CFR 30.53 of the FTSR; (5) License Exception Technology and Software Under Restriction (TSR... entered on the loading document (e.g., Cargo Declaration, manifest, bill of lading, (master) air...

  6. 15 CFR 758.6 - Destination control statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be entered on the invoice and on the bill of lading, air waybill, or other export control document... Control List that are not classified as EAR99, unless the export may be made under License Exception BAG or GFT (see part 740 of the EAR). At a minimum, the DCS must state: “These commodities, technology...

  7. 15 CFR 758.6 - Destination control statement and other information furnished to consignees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (DCS) must be entered on the invoice and on the bill of lading, air waybill, or other export control... Control List that are not classified as EAR99, unless the export may be made under License Exception BAG or GFT (see part 740 of the EAR). At a minimum, the DCS must state: “These commodities,...

  8. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... that relate to EAR License Exceptions: (1) License Exception Baggage (BAG), as set forth in § 740.14 of.... See 15 CFR 30.53 of the FTSR; (5) License Exception Technology and Software Under Restriction (TSR... entered on the loading document (e.g., Cargo Declaration, manifest, bill of lading, (master) air...

  9. 15 CFR 758.6 - Destination control statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be entered on the invoice and on the bill of lading, air waybill, or other export control document... Control List that are not classified as EAR99, unless the export may be made under License Exception BAG or GFT (see part 740 of the EAR). At a minimum, the DCS must state: “These commodities, technology...

  10. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... that relate to EAR License Exceptions: (1) License Exception Baggage (BAG), as set forth in § 740.14 of.... See 15 CFR 30.53 of the FTSR; (5) License Exception Technology and Software Under Restriction (TSR... entered on the loading document (e.g., Cargo Declaration, manifest, bill of lading, (master) air...

  11. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... that relate to EAR License Exceptions: (1) License Exception Baggage (BAG), as set forth in § 740.14 of.... See 15 CFR 30.53 of the FTSR; (5) License Exception Technology and Software Under Restriction (TSR... entered on the loading document (e.g., Cargo Declaration, manifest, bill of lading, (master) air...

  12. 15 CFR 758.6 - Destination control statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be entered on the invoice and on the bill of lading, air waybill, or other export control document... Control List that are not classified as EAR99, unless the export may be made under License Exception BAG or GFT (see part 740 of the EAR). At a minimum, the DCS must state: “These commodities, technology...

  13. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES... exporting carrier on which movement of the grapes from the United States is effected. The date of the on board bill of lading (or loading tally sheet) shall be considered to be the date the grapes were...

  14. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES... exporting carrier on which movement of the grapes from the United States is effected. The date of the on board bill of lading (or loading tally sheet) shall be considered to be the date the grapes were...

  15. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be sift-proof. (2) Paper bags 5M2: To prevent the entry of moisture, a bag of four plies or more... ply. When there is danger of the lading reacting with moisture, or when it is packed damp,...

  16. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-19 Valves and gages... liquefied lading within the inner tank, mounted where it will be readily visible to an operator...

  17. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-19 Valves and gages... liquefied lading within the inner tank, mounted where it will be readily visible to an operator...

  18. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-19 Valves and gages... liquefied lading within the inner tank, mounted where it will be readily visible to an operator...

  19. 78 FR 18421 - Information Collection Activities; Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... annual burden of $687,700. Needs and Uses: Moving companies must inform consumers of their rights and... Rates of Motor Common Carriers of Household Goods, RR 999 (Amendment No. 5) (STB served March 9, 2012... lading (contract) for your move. Before selecting a liability level, please read ``Your Rights...

  20. 15 CFR Appendix F to Part 30 - FTR to FTSR Concordance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., medicinal supplies, food, souvenirs, games, and similar personal effects and their containers 30.56(a)(1... articles, medicinal supplies, food, souvenirs, games, and similar personal effects and their containers. 30... stores, * * *. 30.37(p) Baggage and personal effects not shipped as cargo under a bill of lading or...

  1. 15 CFR Appendix F to Part 30 - FTR to FTSR Concordance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., medicinal supplies, food, souvenirs, games, and similar personal effects and their containers 30.56(a)(1... articles, medicinal supplies, food, souvenirs, games, and similar personal effects and their containers. 30... stores, * * *. 30.37(p) Baggage and personal effects not shipped as cargo under a bill of lading or...

  2. Calibration of the Neutral Mass Spectrometer for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Hodges, R. R.; Harpold, D. N.; King, T. T.; Jaeger, F.; Raaen, E.; Lyness, E.; Collier, M.; Benna, M.

    2012-01-01

    Science objectives of the LADEE Mission are to (1) determine the composition, and time variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere and (2) to characterize the dust environment and its variability. These studies will extend the in-situ characterization of the environment that were carried out decades ago with the Apollo missions and a variety of ground based studies. The focused LADEE measurements will enable a more complete understanding of dust and gas sources and sinks. Sources of gas include UV photo-stimulated desorption, sputtering by plasma and micrometeorites, as well as thermal release of species such as argon from the cold service or venting from the lunar interior. Sinks include recondensation on the surface and escape through a variety of mechanisms. The LADEE science payload consists of an Ultraviolet Spectrometer, a Neutral Mass Spectrometer, and a Dust Detector. The LADEE orbit will include multiple passes at or below 50 km altitude and will target repeated sampling at the sunrise terminator where exospheric density will be highest for some thermally released species. The science mission will be implemented in approximately three months to allow measurements to be made over a period of one or more lunations In addition to the science mission NASA will use this mission to demonstrate optical communication technology away from low Earth orbit.

  3. 49 CFR 180.407 - Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... found. The hole is detected by the white or light blue spark formed. (A sound lining causes a dark blue... filled with water or other liquid having similar viscosity, at a temperature not exceeding 100 °F. The... unheated cargo tank if: (i) The heating system remains in place and is structurally sound and no lading...

  4. 49 CFR 180.407 - Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... until the hole is found. The hole is detected by the white or light blue spark formed. (A sound lining... or other liquid having similar viscosity, at a temperature not exceeding 100 °F. The cargo tank must... unheated cargo tank if: (i) The heating system remains in place and is structurally sound and no lading...

  5. 75 FR 42685 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... ImportIQ reports for Angang and Quyky exports showing bills of lading for merchandise identical to that... 7. Based on shipment data obtained from Zepol ImportIQ, a database of manifest data similar to PIERS... hangers to the United States. See Angang Request at 14 and Exhibit 2. Further, based on Zepol...

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on the bill of lading (including a...

  7. 41 CFR 102-117.95 - What transportation documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117... acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? (a) Bills of lading and purchase orders are the transportation documents you use to acquire freight, household goods shipments,...

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on the bill of lading (including a...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1035 - Contract Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract Terms and Conditions B Appendix B to Part... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. B Appendix B to Part 1035—Contract Terms and Conditions Contract Terms and Conditions Sec. 1. (a) The...

  10. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the cargo... square inch gauge. (d) Piping. (1) The pumps and piping used for cargo transfer shall be independent...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the cargo... square inch gauge. (d) Piping. (1) The pumps and piping used for cargo transfer shall be independent...

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the cargo... square inch gauge. (d) Piping. (1) The pumps and piping used for cargo transfer shall be independent...

  14. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents, under equilibrium..., Btu/lb. ts = average temperature of outer shell during test, °F. t1 = equilibrium temperature of lading at maximum loading pressure, °F. tf = equilibrium temperature of test fluid at one atmosphere,...

  15. 27 CFR 28.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exportation, lading for use on vessels and aircraft, and the transfer to a foreign-trade zone or a... Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... provided for in 26 U.S.C. 5066 and 5362, whether without payment of tax, free of tax, or with benefit...

  16. 27 CFR 28.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exportation, lading for use on vessels and aircraft, and the transfer to a foreign-trade zone or a... Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... provided for in 26 U.S.C. 5066 and 5362, whether without payment of tax, free of tax, or with benefit...

  17. 27 CFR 28.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exportation, lading for use on vessels and aircraft, and the transfer to a foreign-trade zone or a... Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... provided for in 26 U.S.C. 5066 and 5362, whether without payment of tax, free of tax, or with benefit...

  18. 27 CFR 28.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exportation, lading for use on vessels and aircraft, and the transfer to a foreign-trade zone or a... Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... provided for in 26 U.S.C. 5066 and 5362, whether without payment of tax, free of tax, or with benefit...

  19. 27 CFR 28.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... exportation, lading for use on vessels and aircraft, and the transfer to a foreign-trade zone or a... Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... provided for in 26 U.S.C. 5066 and 5362, whether without payment of tax, free of tax, or with benefit...

  20. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  1. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  2. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  3. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  4. 49 CFR 178.606 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with specific gravities different from that of the liquid to be transported, the force must be calculated based on the specific gravity that will be marked on the packaging. The minimum height of the... number of containers that, when stacked, reach a height of 3 meters. s = specific gravity of lading....

  5. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  8. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  9. Extracting lunar dust parameters from image charge signals produced by the Lunar Dust Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, J.; Kempf, S.; Horanyi, M.; Szalay, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an impact ionization dust detector used to characterize the lunar dust exosphere generated by the impacts of large interplanetary particles and meteor streams (Horanyi et al., 2015). In addition to the mass and speed of these lofted particles, LDEX is sensitive to their charge. The resulting signatures of impact events therefore provide valuable information about not only the ambient plasma environment, but also the speed vectors of these dust grains. Here, impact events produced from LDEX's calibration at the Dust Accelerator Laboratory are analyzed using an image charge model derived from the electrostatic simulation program, Coulomb. We show that parameters such as dust grain speed, size, charge, and position of entry into LDEX can be recovered and applied to data collected during LADEE's seven-month mission.

  10. Methane in the lunar exosphere: Implications for solar wind carbon escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, , R. Richard

    2016-07-01

    A positive identification of methane in the lunar exosphere has been made in data from the neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. Like argon-40, methane is adsorbed on the lunar surface during nighttime. However, higher activation energies for methane delay its desorption at sunrise by about an hour local time, creating a postsunrise bulge with peak concentration of approximately 400-450 molecules cm-3 at a reference altitude of 12 km, which is just above the highest topographic feature on the Moon. The rate of escape of carbon as methane derived from the LADEE data is estimated to be in the range 1.5-4.5 × 1021 s-1. A lower bound for solar carbon escape derived separately from Apollo sample analyses is 3.4 × 1021 s-1.

  11. The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Hodges, R. Richard; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Harpold, Daniel N.; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Kellogg, James; Kimvilakani, Patrick; Lefavor, Matthew; Hengemihle, Jerome; Jaeger, Ferzan; Lyness, Eric; Maurer, John; Nguyen, Daniel; Nolan, Thomas; Noreiga, Felix; Noreiga, Marvin; Patel, Kiran; Prats, Benito; Quinones, Omar; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence; Weidner, Edwin; Woronowicz, Michael; Gundersen, Cynthia (Inventor); Battel, Steven; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The NMS complements two other instruments on the LADEE spacecraft designed to secure spectroscopic measurements of lunar composition and in situ measurement of lunar dust over the course of a 100-day mission in order to sample multiple lunation periods. The NMS utilizes a dual ion source designed to measure both surface reactive and inert species and a quadrupole analyzer. The NMS is expected to secure time resolved measurements of helium and argon and determine abundance or upper limits for many other species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface.

  12. Scattering Properties of Lunar Dust Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S.; Marshall, J.; Richard, D.; Adler, D.; Adler, B.

    2013-01-01

    A number of space missions are planned to explore the lunar exosphere which may contain a small population of dust particles. The objective of this paper is to present preliminary results from scattering experiments on a suspension of lunar simulants to support one such mission. The intensity of the light scattered from a lunar simulant is measured with a commercial version of the spectrometer used in the forthcoming LADEE mission. Physical properties of the lunar simulant are described along with two similarly-sized reference microspheres. We confirm that micron-sized particles tend to form agglomerates rather than remaining isolated entities and that certain general characteristic of the target particles can be predicted from intensity measurements alone. These results can be used directly to assess general features of the lunar exosphere from LADEE instrument data. Further analysis of particle properties from such remote sensing data will require measurements of polarization signatures.

  13. 46 CFR 35.01-10 - Shipping papers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers-TB/ALL. 35.01-10 Section 35.01-10... Requirements § 35.01-10 Shipping papers—TB/ALL. Each loaded tank vessel shall have on board a bill of lading... agent of the owner: Provided, however, That in the case of unmanned barges where shipping papers are...

  14. 46 CFR 35.01-10 - Shipping papers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers-TB/ALL. 35.01-10 Section 35.01-10... Requirements § 35.01-10 Shipping papers—TB/ALL. Each loaded tank vessel shall have on board a bill of lading... agent of the owner: Provided, however, That in the case of unmanned barges where shipping papers are...

  15. Analysis and calibration of a three-invariant plasticity model for granular materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sture, S.; Runesson, K.; Macari-Pasqualino, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews issues related to the characterization of properties of granular materials subjected to microgravity and one-gravity conditions at very low effective stress levels. The development of a three-invariant plasticity model that resembles the model devised by Lade (1979) is described. An inverse-identification scheme where the analysis tools are used to extract constitutive model parameters from experiments is also discussed.

  16. Implementation of a new type of time-of-flight laser anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, M. P.; Edwards, R. V.

    1986-01-01

    A new time-of-flight (TOF) laser anemometer system utilizing a spatial lead-lag filter for bipolar pulse generation has been constructed and tested. This new TOF has been modified to enable measurements in turbulent flows near walls. Good results have been obtained as close as 100 microns from a surface, with a 140-mm focal length final lens. Lading's theory for the behavior of the measurement variance has been confirmed for this configuration.

  17. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amounts required to be deducted under § 201.65(d)); (E) The sales price for each item net of all trade discounts under § 201.65(d); (F) The delivery terms (e.g., f.o.b., f.a.s., c.i.f. or c. & f.); (G) The type... ocean vessel, one copy of all bill(s) of lading described in § 201.52(a)(4) has been maiIed to:...

  18. The Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-05

    demonstrate optical communications from a lunar orbiting spacecraft to an Earth -based ground receiver. A low SWAP optical terminal will be... Earth - based ground receiver. A ·low SWAP optical terminal will be integrated onto the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE...0.5-W optical sigrial to an Earth -based 0.5-m collection aperture can support a data rates in excess of 500 Mbps using existing technologies. By

  19. 49 CFR 179.201-6 - Manways and manway closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.201-6... 111A100W5 must be made of a suitable metal. The top, bottom and edge of manway cover must be acid resistant... material at least one-eighth inch in thickness. Cover made of metal not affected by the lading need not...

  20. Dynamic Defensive Posture for Computer Network Defence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    comprendre la sécurité du réseau et comment les décisions relatives à la gestion du réseau influent sur cette sécurité. Toutefois, la...des algorithmes pour le classement de la sévérité des attaques sur le réseau et des mécanismes permettant d’attribuer une valeur aux éléments

  1. 19 CFR 24.23 - Fees for processing merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Fees—(1) Formal entry or release—(i) Ad valorem fee—(A) General. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of... ad valorem fee of 0.21 percent. The 0.21 ad valorem fee is due and payable to CBP by the importer of... or bill of lading fee and, if applicable, to the 0.21 percent ad valorem fee in accordance...

  2. Implementation of a new type of time-of-flight laser anemometer.

    PubMed

    Wernet, M P; Edwards, R V

    1986-03-01

    A new time-of-flight (TOF) laser anemometer system utilizing a spatial lead-lag filter for bipolar pulse generation has been constructed and tested. This new TOF has been modified to enable measurements in turbulent flows near walls. Good results have been obtained as close as 100 microm from a surface, with a 140-mm focal length final lens. Lading's theory for the behavior of the measurement variance has been confirmed for this configuration.

  3. Continuing Development of the Vulnerability Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    between the container shell and inside lading. These ther iffrece ionangeomety becigqause none of the h insun tono 9 Ia submodels are therefore treated...of muscular coordination, but still able to maintain balance. 3 Loss of ability to remain upright on tilting surface; loss of consciousness. 4 Some...other sensory disorder, weakness, muscular incoordination, and epilepsy--like seizures. All these symptoms have been seen to per- 4 •sist. The

  4. Innovative Strategic Aircraft Design Study (ISADS) Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    34uS P ? AS Rockwell International Corp, LADE 63314 . Q302ll Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, CA PE634F j HCONrI110.ING OPFICI NAME AND...I p UNCLASSIFIED Section I ’ INTRODUCTION PROGRAM OVERVIEW (U) The Innovative Strategic Aircraft Design Study (ISADS) was sponsored by the Air Force...Robinson served as program manager, assisted by Daniel P . Raymer, deputy program manager. Individual tasks were directed by project managers from the

  5. NASA Lunar Robotics for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Lavoie, Anthony R.; Gilbert, Paul A.; Horack, John M.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the robotic missions that NASA and the international partnership are undertaking to investigate the moon to support science and exploration objectives. These missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Moon Mineralogy Mapper (MMM), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), and the International Lunar Network (ILN). The goals and instrumentation of these missions are reviewed.

  6. 49 CFR 176.9 - “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D.” shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false âOrder-Notifyâ or âC.O.D.â shipments. 176.9... General § 176.9 “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D.” shipments. A carrier may not transport Division 1.1 or 1.2... “C.O.D.”, except on a through bill of lading to a place outside the United States; or (b)...

  7. 49 CFR 174.106 - “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D.” shipments, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false âOrder-Notifyâ or âC.O.D.â shipments, Division 1.1... MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Class I (Explosive) Materials § 174.106 “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D... to “order-notify” or “C.O.D.”, except on a through bill of lading to a place outside the...

  8. 49 CFR 176.9 - “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D.” shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false âOrder-Notifyâ or âC.O.D.â shipments. 176.9... General § 176.9 “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D.” shipments. A carrier may not transport Division 1.1 or 1.2... “C.O.D.”, except on a through bill of lading to a place outside the United States; or (b)...

  9. 49 CFR 174.106 - “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D.” shipments, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false âOrder-Notifyâ or âC.O.D.â shipments, Division 1.1... MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Class I (Explosive) Materials § 174.106 “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D... to “order-notify” or “C.O.D.”, except on a through bill of lading to a place outside the...

  10. Solar Illumination Calculator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    I UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ~ I AIR WEATHER SERVICE (MAC) i~Ii’I ’IUSAF ENVIRONMENTAL 7 . TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS CENTER SCOTT AIR FORCE lADE, ILLINOIS... Environmental Technical Arplications~entir- Scott APB, IL 62225 11. CONTROLLING 00FICE NAME ANU ADDRE.SS 12. REPORT CATE USAr Environmental ...sun and T is a time factor express- ing the fractional value of orbital completion. The value of A, called the obli- quity of the ecliptic, can be

  11. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! A lowcost, portable, and end-to-end photovoltaic-system test appropriate for NASA's new generation of Class D missions is presented. High risk, low-cost, and quick-turn satellites rarely have the resources to execute the traditional approaches from higher-class (A-C) missions. The Class D approach, as demonstrated on the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), utilizes a portable, metalhalide, theatre lamp for an end-to-end photovoltaic system test. While not as precise and comprehensive as the traditional Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS) test, the LADEE method leverages minimal resources into an ongoing assessment program that can be applied through numerous stages of the mission. The project takes a true Class D approach in assessing the technical value of a costly, highfidelity performance test versus a simpler approach with less programmatic risk. The resources required are a fraction of that for a LAPSS test, and is easy to repeat due to its portability. Further, the test equipment can be handed down to future projects without building an on-site facility. At the vanguard of Class D missions, the LADEE team frequently wrestled with and challenged the status quo. The philosophy of risk avoidance at all cost, typical to Class A-C missions, simply could not be executed. This innovative and simple testing solution is contextualized to NASA Class D programs and a specific risk encountered during development of the LADEE Electrical Power System (EPS). Selection of the appropriate lamp and safety concerns are discussed, with examples of test results. Combined with the vendor's panellevel data and periodic inspection, the method ensures system integrity from Integration and Test (I&T) through launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of available data.

  12. Stability Characteristics of a Combat Aircraft with Control Surface Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    on the LEF terms remain consis- 59 tent between equation (5.1) and (5.2) illustrating that there is not some fundamental change in the in- teraction...that prop~m is to aulate the control C write (6*) - c derr~vauv for the left lading edge flap Vven velum C wtit*(6,*) c ror q. alpha. bea, c witg(6

  13. Marshall Team Complete Testing for Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swofford, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Huu Trinh and his team with the Propulsion Systems and Test Departments at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. successfully complete a simulated cold-flow test series on the propulsion system used for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., is leading NASA s work on the development of the LADEE spacecraft, and the Marshall center is the program office for the project. The spacecraft, scheduled for launch this fall, will orbit the Moon and gather information about the lunar atmosphere, conditions near the surface of the Moon, and collect samples of lunar dust. A thorough understanding of these characteristics will address long-standing unknowns, and help scientists understand other planetary bodies as well. The test team at the Marshall center conducted the cold flow test to identify how the fluid flows through the propulsion system feed lines, especially during critical operation modes. The test data will be used to assist the LADEE team in identifying any potential flow issues in the propulsion system, and allow them to address and correct them in advance of the launch.

  14. Hydrogen Bearing Material in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D.; Benna, M.; Colaprete, A.; Retherford, K. D.; Cook, J. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Killen, R. M.; Sarantos, M.

    2015-12-01

    We report on observations of water and its daughters in the lunar exosphere. Data from LADEE NMS, LADEE UVS, and LRO LAMP indicating the presence of H, H2, OH, and H2O are presented in terms of their relationship to external drivers. These observations point to the roles of solar wind and micrometeoroids in the source and release of hydrogen-bearing atoms and molecules in the exosphere. In particular, the implantation of H via solar wind is found to be the largest contributor to H2 in the moon's exosphere. However, the spatial distribution is more consistent with a release mechanism centered on the morning hemisphere. Thus the data are consistent with H2 created through a 2-step process involving the implantation of solar wind and subsequent release by micrometeoroids. This accounts for >12% of the solar wind H budget, leaving < 50% of the solar wind proton budget unobserved. LADEE data are consistent with water mainly being released by micrometeoroids. We present an overall picture of the present-day water cycle occurring on the Moon.

  15. Quantum chemical approach for condensed-phase thermochemistry (II): Applications to formation and combustion reactions of liquid organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakai, Hiromi

    2015-03-01

    The harmonic solvation model (HSM), which was recently developed for evaluating condensed-phase thermodynamics by quantum chemical calculations (Nakai and Ishikawa, 2014), was applied to formation and combustion reactions of simple organic molecules. The conventional ideal gas model (IGM) considerably overestimated the entropies of the liquid molecules. The HSM could significantly improve this overestimation; mean absolute deviations for the Gibbs energies of the formation and combustion reactions were (49.6, 26.7) for the IGM and (9.7, 5.4) for the HSM in kJ/mol.

  16. Measuring the Average Thickness of a Plate Using a Bayesian Method and Free Vibration Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    form, the model is constructed with the implicit assumption that the corrosion is uniform. A more detailed model that included details of the pitting ...PROCEDURE The test specimen was a 0.76m by 0.60m (30” by 24”, 5:4 aspect ratio), 1.55mm (1/16”) thick 6061 -T6 aluminum plate. The density was...considering corrosion effect.” Marine Struc- tures, 21(4):402 – 419. [3] T. Nakai, H. Matsushita, N. Yamamoto, and H. Arai, 2004. “Effect of pitting

  17. Immunotoxicity activity from various essential oils of Angelica genus from South Korea against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-02-01

    The leaves of Angelica anomala Lallemant, Angelica cartilagino-marginata var. distans (Nakai) Kitag, Angelica czernevia (Fisch. et Meyer) Kitagawa, Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hooker, Angelica decursiva (Miq.) Franch. & Sav, Angelica fallax Boissieu, Angelica gigas Nakai, Angelica japonica A. gray were essential oil extracted and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The Angelica anomala, A. cartilagino-marginata var. distans, A. czernevia, A. dahurica, A. decursiva, A. fallax, A. gigas, A. japonica essential oil yield were 4.13, 4.83, 4.45, 3.25, 4.11, 4.73, 4.34 and 4.21%. The A. dahurica essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with a lethal concentration 50 (LC₅₀) value of 43.12 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 65.23 ppm. The above indicates that essential oil contents may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil.

  18. Angelica gigas Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Hepatic Steatosis in C57BL/KsJ-db/db Mice via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ui-Jin; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Oh, Mi-Ra; Jung, Su-Jin; Park, Joon; Jung, Tae-Sung; Park, Tae-Sun; Chae, Soo-Wan; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a major global public health challenge. Decursin, an active compound of Angelica gigas Nakai roots, was recently reported to have a glucose-lowering activity. However, the antidiabetic effect of Angelica gigas Nakai extract (AGNE) has not yet been investigated. We evaluated the effects of AGNE on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic mice and investigated the underlying mechanism by which AGNE acts. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were treated with either AGNE (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg) or metformin (100 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. AGNE supplementation (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly decreased fasting glucose and insulin levels, decreased the areas under the curve of glucose in oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests, and improved homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistant (HOMA-IR) scores. AGNE also ameliorated hepatic steatosis, hyperlipidemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Mechanistic studies suggested that the glucose-lowering effect of AGNE was mediated by the activation of AMP activated protein kinase, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3[Formula: see text]. AGNE can potentially improve hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. On the computation of steady hopper flows III: Model comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gremaud, Pierre A.; Matthews, John V.; Schaeffer, David G.

    2006-11-01

    Gravity flows of granular materials through hoppers are considered. For hoppers shaped as general nonaxisymmetric cones, i.e., "pyramids", the flow inherits some simplified features from the geometry: similarity solutions can be constructed. Using two different plasticity laws, namely Matsuoka-Nakai and von Mises, those solutions are obtained by solving first-order nonlinear partial differential algebraic systems for stresses, velocities, and a plasticity function. A pseudospectral discretization is applied to both models and the resulting flow fields are examined. Some similarities are found, but important differences appear, especially with regard to velocities near the wall and normal wall stresses. Preliminary comparisons with recent experiments [J.F. Wambaugh, R.P. Behringer, Asymmetry-induced circulation in granular hopper flows, in: R. Garcia-Rojo, H.J. Herrmann, S. McNamara (Eds.), Powders and Grains, 2005, pp. 915-918] based on the present results indicate that for slow granular flows the lesser known Matsuoka-Nakai plasticity law yields better results than more common models based on a von Mises criterion.

  20. CONSTRUCTION OF A SMALL AUTOMATED CORONAGRAPH FOR OBSERVATIONS OF THE LUNAR Na EXOSPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Roy; Morgan, T. H.; Killen, R. M.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the final optical and mechanical design and the construction and initial testing of a small coronagraph at the Winer Observatory, near Sonoita, Arizona. The coronagraph includes a narrow band filter and low-light level camera to observe lunar exospheric sodium in the resonance lines of that element near 590 nm. Without the use of a coronagraph, the signal from sodium would be lost against light scattered by the Earth’s atmosphere and scattered light in the telescope. The design uses Commercial Off the Shelf Technology (COTS), and our goal is to obtain observations while the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is still in orbit.

  1. Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) Support of Space to Ground Link Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Wright, Malcolm W.; Roberts, William T.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA/JPL Optical Communication Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) was built for dedicated research and development toward supporting free-space laser communications from space. Recently, the OCTL telescope was used to support the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) from the Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and is planned for use with the upcoming Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) demonstration from the International Space Station (ISS). The use of OCTL to support these demonstrations is discussed in this report. The discussion will feed forward to ongoing and future space-to-ground laser communications as it advances toward becoming an operational capability.

  2. Advances in Lunar Science and Observational Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Lunar science is currently undergoing a renaissance as our understanding of our Moon continues to evolve given new data from multiple lunar mission and new analyses. This talk will overview NASA's recent and future lunar missions to explain the scientific questions addressed by missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (Grail), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The talk will also overview opportunities for participatory exploration whereby professional and amateur astronomers are encouraged to participate in lunar exploration in conjunction with NASA.

  3. Research in Digital Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    flodel-Reduc Lion via flanice.i Matrix Approximation", invited lecture for state-ot-the- Art heview of Systems Approximation, European Conterathe on...Lindsey. Statiticul Characterization o± a Systea of Two Mutually byachronize1 Oscillators", National Telecom muica t~ons Contere ce hecurd, Galveston, TZ...cuiiuicatiuza systems. The WdYid, q hush-Uip, bLADES, FtsC-A/Rake, COUjkC, and AiIC-50 systems are featured, CLI~Oig With d aebcription of the prior art iu

  4. Information gathering for the Transportation Statistics Data Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Mason, P.J.

    1981-10-01

    The Transportation Statistics Data Bank (TSDB) was developed in 1974 to collect information on the transport of Department of Energy (DOE) materials. This computer program may be used to provide the framework for collecting more detailed information on DOE shipments of radioactive materials. This report describes the type of information that is needed in this area and concludes that the existing system could be readily modified to collect and process it. The additional needed information, available from bills of lading and similar documents, could be gathered from DOE field offices and transferred in a standard format to the TSDB system. Costs of the system are also discussed briefly.

  5. Limiting performance of ground transportation vehicles subject to transient loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, W. D.; Wang, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    A computational approach to determining the limiting performance of vehicles subject to transient disturbances based on response variable criteria is set forth. For the purposes of a limiting performance study, the transportation system dynamics are described using second- or first-order equations in which the sought for quantity is a vector of time-varying functions called control or isolator forces that have replaced portions of the physical system. Computations are performed as a linear programming problem. As an example of the limiting performance of vehicles in protecting passengers or cargo under crash conditions, the problem of lading damage of a rail vehicle that is struck by another vehicle is considered.

  6. NASA's optical communications program for 2015 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, Donald M.

    2015-03-01

    NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program at NASA headquarters is pursuing a vibrant and wide-ranging optical communications program for further planetary and near-Earth missions following the spectacular success of NASA's Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft orbiting the moon in 2013. This invited paper will discuss NASA's new laser communication missions, key scenarios and details, and the plans to infuse this new technology into NASA's existing communications networks.

  7. The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration: NASA's First Step Toward Very High Data Rate Support of Science and Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroson, Don M.; Robinson, Bryan S.

    2014-12-01

    Future NASA missions for both Science and Exploration will have needs for much higher data rates than are presently available, even with NASA's highly-capable Space- and Deep-Space Networks. As a first step towards this end, for one month in late 2013, NASA's Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) successfully demonstrated for the first time high-rate duplex laser communications between a satellite in lunar orbit, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and multiple ground stations on the Earth. It constituted the longest-range laser communication link ever built and demonstrated the highest communication data rates ever achieved to or from the Moon.

  8. Quantitative analysis of marker compounds in Angelica gigas, Angelica sinensis, and Angelica acutiloba by HPLC/DAD.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su Yang; Kim, Hye Mi; Lee, Kyu Ha; Kim, Kyu Yeob; Huang, Dae Sun; Kim, Jong Hwan; Seong, Rack Seon

    2015-01-01

    Although Danggui is the root of Angelica gigas NAKAI in the Korean Pharmacopoeia, it is determined that Danggui is also the root of Angelica sinensis (OLIV.) DIELS in China and Hong Kong, as well as the root of Angelica acutiloba KITAGAWA in Japan. Accordingly, we tried to develop an identification method using the main compounds in A. gigas, A. sinensis, and A. acutiloba through HPLC/diode-array detector (DAD). This method was fully validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and robustness. Multivariate analysis was also implemented after pattern analysis and monitoring. As a result, each compound pattern of A. gigas, A. sinensis, and A. acutiloba was identified, making it possible to distinguish them from each other.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies from Rubia cordifolia against antitumor cyclohexapeptide deoxybouvardin and their use in immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Hasuda, Tomoyo; Hitotsuyanagi, Yukio; Takeya, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    An immunoassay system was established for the estimation of the quantity of an antitumor cyclohexapeptide, deoxybouvardin (RA-V) from Bouvardia ternifolia (Cav.) Schlecht, Rubia cordifolia L., and R. akane Nakai (Rubiaceae). First, RA-V was converted into a protein conjugate to make it an effective antigen. In the conjugate the molecular ratio between RA-V and the carrier protein was 5.9:1. The splenocytes from the mouse immunized with the conjugate were then fused with mouse myeloma cells to produce hybridoma, secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against RA-V. Two clones were isolated, one producing MAb IgG(1) and the other MAb IgG(2b), both having a κ light chain. The resultant MAbs were evaluated for their sensitivity and cross-reactivity.

  10. An effective energy gradient expression for divide-and-conquer second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theorya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Nakai, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    We recently proposed a linear-scaling evaluation scheme for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) energy based on the divide-and-conquer (DC) method [M. Kobayashi, Y. Imamura, and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 074103 (2007), 10.1063/1.2761878]. In this paper, we propose an approximate but effective expression for the first derivative of the DC-MP2 energy. The present scheme evaluates the one- and two-body density matrices, which appear in the MP2 gradient formula, in the DC manner; that is, the entire matrix is obtained as the sum of subsystem matrices masked by the partition matrix. Therefore, the method requires solving only the local Z-vector equations. Illustrative applications to three types of systems, peptides, Si surface model, and delocalized polyenes, reveal the effectiveness of the present method.

  11. Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activity of cis-Hinokiresinol from Trapa pseudoincisa.

    PubMed

    Song, Myoung-Chong; Yang, Hye-Joung; Bang, Myun-Ho; Kim, Dae-Keun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kim, Jong-Pyung; Baek, Nam-In

    2007-11-01

    cis-Hinokiresinol, also known as (+)-nyasol, was isolated for the first time from an aquatic herbaceous plant, Trapa pseudoincisa NAKAI, via silica gel and octadecyl silica gel column chromatographies. The chemical structure was determined via analyses of the spectroscopic data, including NMR, MS and IR. cis-Hinokiresinol was also found to exhibit antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities. The ICso values for the scavenging activities of cis-hinokiresinol on ABTS cation and superoxide anion radicals were 45.6 and 40.5 microM, respectively. The IC50 values for the inhibitory effects on Lp-PLA2, hACAT1, hACAT2 and LDL-oxidation were 284.7, 280.6, 398.9 and 5.6 microM, respectively.

  12. Sasa quelpaertensis and p-coumaric acid attenuate oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kang, Seong-Il; Shin, Hye-Sun; Yoon, Seon-A; Kang, Seung-Woo; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of Jeju dwarf bamboo (Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai) extract (JBE) and p-coumaric acid (CA) on oleic acid (OA)-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. JBE and CA increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a) in OA-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, these compounds decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and OA-induced lipid accumulation, suggesting that JBE and CA modulate lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells via the AMPK activation pathway.

  13. Evidence for a Dynamic Nanodust Cloud Enveloping the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Cook, A. M.; Colaprete, A.; Glenar, D. A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Shirley, M.

    2015-01-01

    The exospheres that surround airless bodies such as the Moon are tenuous, atmosphere-like layers whose constituent particles rarely collide with one another. Some particles contained within such exospheres are the product of direct interactions between airless bodies and the space environment, and offer insights into space weathering processes. NASAs Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission studied the Moons exospheric constituents in situ and detected a permanent dust exosphere1 of particles with radii as small as 300 nm. Here we present evidence from LADEE spectral data for an additional fluctuating nanodust exosphere at the Moon containing a population of particles sufficiently dense to be detectable via scattered sunlight. We compare two anti-Sun spectral observations: one near the peak of the Quadrantidmeteoroid stream, the other during a period of comparativelyweak stream activity. The former shows a negative spectralslope consistent with backscattering of sunlight by nanodustgrains with radii less than 20 to 30 nm; the latter has a flatterspectral slope. We hypothesize that a spatially and temporallyvariable nanodust exosphere may exist at the Moon, and thatit is modulated by changes in meteoroid impact rates, suchas during encounters with meteoroid streams. The findingssuggest that similar nanodust exospheresand the particle ejection and transport processes that form themmay occurat other airless bodies.

  14. Dust mobilization on airless planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.

    2013-12-01

    There are a number of observations indicating that small dust grains can be mobilized and transported on the surfaces of airless bodies. While not a single measurement to date can unambiguously identify the responsible process, the entire body of existing observations as a whole suggests that electrodynamics remains the most likely candidate. If this is the case, our models have to be able to account for the electrostatic charging and subsequent dynamics of the grains sculpted by surface electric fields. The Colorado Center for Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) of the former NASA Lunar Science Institute conducted a series of small-scale laboratory experiments to address dust charging and mobilization issues, including the effects of flowing plasmas and UV radiation. This talk will draw conclusions based on these series of experiments and use them to guide the analysis and interpretation of the data from the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Mission (LADEE). By the time of this talk, LADEE is expected to collect its initial science measurements. The combination of laboratory and in situ space measurements provides a unique opportunity to advance our theoretical models on the transport of charged dust particles on the lunar surface, and apply these arguments to all other airless planetary bodies.

  15. Evidence for a dynamic nanodust cloud enveloping the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Cook, A. M.; Colaprete, A.; Glenar, D. A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Shirley, M.

    2016-09-01

    The exospheres that surround airless bodies such as the Moon are tenuous, atmosphere-like layers whose constituent particles rarely collide with one another. Some particles contained within such exospheres are the product of direct interactions between airless bodies and the space environment, and offer insights into space weathering processes. NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission studied the Moon's exospheric constituents in situ and detected a permanent dust exosphere of particles with radii as small as 300 nm. Here we present evidence from LADEE spectral data for an additional fluctuating nanodust exosphere at the Moon containing a population of particles sufficiently dense to be detectable via scattered sunlight. We compare two anti-Sun spectral observations: one near the peak of the Quadrantid meteoroid stream, the other during a period of comparatively weak stream activity. The former shows a negative spectral slope consistent with backscattering of sunlight by nanodust grains with radii less than 20 to 30 nm the latter has a flatter spectral slope. We hypothesize that a spatially and temporally variable nanodust exosphere may exist at the Moon, and that it is modulated by changes in meteoroid impact rates, such as during encounters with meteoroid streams. The findings suggest that similar nanodust exospheres--and the particle ejection and transport processes that form them--may occur at other airless bodies.

  16. Modelling strain localization in granular materials using micropolar theory: mathematical formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaleh, Mustafa I.; Voyiadjis, George Z.; Alshibli, Khalid A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been known that classical continuum mechanics laws fail to describe strain localization in granular materials due to the mathematical ill-posedness and mesh dependency. Therefore, a non-local theory with internal length scales is needed to overcome such problems. The micropolar and high-order gradient theories can be considered as good examples to characterize the strain localization in granular materials. The fact that internal length scales are needed requires micromechanical models or laws; however, the classical constitutive models can be enhanced through the stress invariants to incorporate the Micropolar effects. In this paper, Lade's single hardening model is enhanced to account for the couple stress and Cosserat rotation and the internal length scales are incorporated accordingly. The enhanced Lade's model and its material properties are discussed in detail; then the finite element formulations in the Updated Lagrangian Frame (UL) are used. The finite element formulations were implemented into a user element subroutine for ABAQUS (UEL) and the solution method is discussed in the companion paper. The model was found to predict the strain localization in granular materials with low dependency on the finite element mesh size. The shear band was found to reflect on a certain angle when it hit a rigid boundary. Applications for the model on plane strain specimens tested in the laboratory are discussed in the companion paper. Copyright

  17. The lunar laser communication demonstration time-of-flight measurement system: overview, on-orbit performance, and ranging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, M. L.; Parenti, R. R.; Willis, M. M.; Greco, J. A.; Khatri, F. I.; Robinson, B. S.; Boroson, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) flown on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) satellite achieved record uplink and downlink communication data rates between a satellite orbiting the Moon and an Earth-based ground terminal. In addition, the high-speed signals of the communication system were used to accurately measure the round-trip time-of-flight (TOF) of signals sent to the Moon and back to the Earth. The measured TOF data, sampled at a 20-kS/s rate, and converted to distance, was processed to show a Gaussian white noise floor typically less than 1 cm RMS. This resulted in a precision for relative distance measurements more than two orders-of-magnitude finer than the RF-based navigation and ranging systems used during the LADEE mission. This paper presents an overview of the LLCD TOF system, a summary of the on-orbit measurements, and an analysis of the accuracy of the measured data for the mission.

  18. Local unitary transformation method toward practical electron correlation calculations with scalar relativistic effect in large-scale molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2013-07-21

    In order to perform practical electron correlation calculations, the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas–Kroll–Hess (IODKH) level [J. Seino and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys.136, 244102 (2012); J. Seino and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys.137, 144101 (2012)], which is based on the locality of relativistic effects, has been combined with the linear-scaling divide-and-conquer (DC)-based Hartree–Fock (HF) and electron correlation methods, such as the second-order Møller–Plesset (MP2) and the coupled cluster theories with single and double excitations (CCSD). Numerical applications in hydrogen halide molecules, (HX){sub n} (X = F, Cl, Br, and I), coinage metal chain systems, M{sub n} (M = Cu and Ag), and platinum-terminated polyynediyl chain, trans,trans-((p-CH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 3}P){sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})Pt(C≡C){sub 4}Pt(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})((p-CH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 3}P){sub 2}, clarified that the present methods, namely DC-HF, MP2, and CCSD with the LUT-IODKH Hamiltonian, reproduce the results obtained using conventional methods with small computational costs. The combination of both LUT and DC techniques could be the first approach that achieves overall quasi-linear-scaling with a small prefactor for relativistic electron correlation calculations.

  19. Comparison of methods for nutrient measurement in calcareous soils: Ion-exchange resin bag, capsule, membrane, and chemical extractions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Four methods for measuring quantities of 12 plant-available nutrients were compared using three sandy soils in a series of three experiments. Three of the methods use different ion-exchange resin forms-bags, capsules, and membranes-and the fourth was conventional chemical extraction. The first experiment compared nutrient extraction data from a medium of sand saturated with a nutrient solution. The second and third experiments used Nakai and Sheppard series soils from Canyonlands National Park, which are relatively high in soil carbonates. The second experiment compared nutrient extraction data provided by the four methods from soils equilibrated at two temperatures, "warm" and "cold." The third experiment extracted nutrients from the same soils in a field equilibration. Our results show that the four extraction techniques are not comparable. This conclusion is due to differences among the methods in the net quantities of nutrients extracted from equivalent soil volumes, in the proportional representation of nutrients within similar soils and treatments, in the measurement of nutrients that were added in known quantities, and even in the order of nutrients ranked by net abundance. We attribute the disparities in nutrient measurement among the different resin forms to interacting effects of the inherent differences in resin exchange capacity, differences among nutrients in their resin affinities, and possibly the relatively short equilibration time for laboratory trials. One constraint for measuring carbonate-related nutrients in high-carbonate soils is the conventional ammonium acetate extraction method, which we suspect of dissolving fine CaCO3 particles that are more abundant in Nakai series soils, resulting in erroneously high Ca2+ estimates. For study of plant-available nutrients, it is important to identify the nutrients of foremost interest and understand differences in their resin sorption dynamics to determine the most appropriate extraction method.

  20. Baseline health situation of communities affected by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao PDR and indicators for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Erlanger, Tobias E; Sayasone, Somphou; Krieger, Gary R; Kaul, Surinder; Sananikhom, Pany; Tanner, Marcel; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jurg

    2008-06-01

    Hydroelectric projects offer opportunities for infrastructure development and economic growth; yet, if not well designed, implemented and operated, they have the potential to negatively affect the health and well-being of local and distant downstream communities. Remote rural populations are particularly vulnerable to the sudden influx of men, materials and money, and associated population mixing that accompany project construction phases. Two large-scale baseline health surveys, carried out in 2001/2002 in two communities that were affected by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao PDR, were analysed. For the population to be resettled on the Nakai plateau it was observed that access to clean water and basic sanitation facilities was lacking. Faecal examinations revealed a high infection prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides (67.7%), but relatively low prevalences for hookworm (9.7%), Taenia spp. (4.8%), Enterobius vermicularis (4.4%), Trichuris trichiura (3.9%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.4%) and Opisthorchis viverrini (0.9%). For the population in the Xe Bang Fai downstream area, rapid diagnostic tests for malaria carried out in the rainy season found a prevalence below 1%, which might be explained by the complete coverage of households with insecticide-treated nets (99.8%). Anthropometric measurements in both populations suggest that wasting, stunting and underweight in under 5-year-old children were moderate to high; 15.9-17.5%, 40.4-55.7% and 35.8-55.7%, respectively. One out of six individuals aged above 14 years were malnourished, most likely as a result of early childhood wasting. Moderate anaemia, assessed by age- and sex-specific haemoglobin levels, was present in 43.8% (Nakai) and 54.9% of the individuals examined (Xe Bang Fai). Several indicators were extracted that can be utilised for monitoring changes in health, well-being and equity, as the project is implemented and operated.

  1. Incorporation of the Mass Concentration and the New Snow Albedo Schemes into the Global Forecasting Model, GEOS-5 and the Impact of the New Schemes over Himalayan Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasunari, Teppei

    2012-01-01

    Recently the issue on glacier retreats comes up and many factors should be relevant to the issue. The absorbing aerosols such as dust and black carbon (BC) are considered to be one of the factors. After they deposited onto the snow surface, it will reduce snow albedo (called snow darkening effect) and probably contribute to further melting of glacier. The Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) has developed at NASA/GSFC. However, the original snowpack model used in the land surface model in the GEOS-5 did not consider the snow darkening effect. Here we developed the new snow albedo scheme which can consider the snow darkening effect. In addition, another scheme on calculating mass concentrations on the absorbing aerosols in snowpack was also developed, in which the direct aerosol depositions from the chemical transport model in the GEOS-5 were used. The scheme has been validated with the observed data obtained at backyard of the Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, by Dr. Teruo Aoki (Meteorological Research Institute) et aL including me. The observed data was obtained when I was Ph.D. candidate. The original GEOS-5during 2007-2009 over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau region showed more reductions of snow than that of the new GEOS-5 because the original one used lower albedo settings. On snow cover fraction, the new GEOS-5 simulated more realistic snow-covered area comparing to the MODIS snow cover fraction. The reductions on snow albedo, snow cover fraction, and snow water equivalent were seen with statistically significance if we consider the snow darkening effect comparing to the results without the snow darkening effect. In the real world, debris cover, inside refreezing process, surface flow of glacier, etc. affect glacier mass balance and the simulated results immediately do not affect whole glacier retreating. However, our results indicate that some surface melting over non debris covered parts of the glacier would be

  2. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Toyonobu

    2013-02-01

    As the successor to Professor Teruo Kishi, the former Editor-in-Chief of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM), I would like to share some of STAM's journal history with our readers. STAM was launched in 2000 with the financial support of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in recognition of a strong need for an international journal that would be distributed and read across the globe. Five years later, the publication of STAM was transferred to the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) under the initiative of Professor Kishi. As a result of his work, STAM is now positioned as a high-impact journal, 3.512 as listed by the ISI 2011 Science Citation Index Journal Citation Report, with a much higher and faster growth than when I was participating as a co-founder in the past. STAM is well known as a successful open-access journal since shifting from the initial subscription model in 2008. As an editor, I would like to emphasize that STAM will continue to publish with a sense of social mission as an academic journal, allowing space for researchers to contribute to the sustainable development of society and health. However, some contribution from authors would assist us in creating a sustainable journal publishing model, and further enhance services to authors and readers of STAM. With this in mind, I would like to state that STAM's editorial board is planning to introduce an article processing charge from July 2013, in addition to NIMS' continuing financial support. One of our new editorial policies is to aim for reader-oriented publishing. I believe that academic journal publishing can take the role of navigator in advancing the development of materials. Among the many other scientific journals, STAM will lead the rapid growth in materials science, inspiring research into new materials for the future and leading the next generation of materials science and technology. It is my honor to work with members of

  3. EDITORIAL: STAM celebrates its 10th anniversary STAM celebrates its 10th anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushioda, Sukekatsu

    2010-02-01

    I would like to extend my warmest greetings to the readers and staff of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM), on the occasion of its 10th anniversary. Launched in 2000, STAM marks this year an important milestone in its history. This is a great occasion to celebrate. STAM was founded by Tsuyoshi Masumoto in collaboration with Teruo Kishi and Toyonobu Yoshida as a world-class resource for the materials science community. It was initially supported by several materials research societies and was published as a regular peer-reviewed journal. Significant changes occurred in 2008, when the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) became solely responsible for all the costs of maintaining the journal. STAM was transformed into an open-access journal published by NIMS in partnership with IOP Publishing. As a result, the publication charges were waived and the entire STAM content, including all back issues, became freely accessible through the IOP Publishing website. The transition has made STAM more competitive and successful in global publication communities, with innovative ideas and approaches. The journal has also changed its publication strategy, aiming to publish a limited number of high-quality articles covering the frontiers of materials science. Special emphasis has been placed on reviews and focus issues, providing recent summaries of hot materials science topics. Publication has become electronic only; however, selected issues are printed and freely distributed at major international scientific events. The Editorial Board has been expanded to include leading experts from all over the world and, together with the Editorial Office, the board members are doing their best to transform STAM into a leading materials science journal. These efforts are paying off, as shown by the rapidly increasing number of article downloads and citations in 2009. I believe that the STAM audience can not only deepen their knowledge in their own specialties but

  4. PREFACE: Nanospintronics design and realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2004-12-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Nanospintronics Design and Realization (ICNDR 2004), which was held in Kyoto, Japan, 24--28 May 2004. This conference was organized by the Nanospintronics Design and Realization project members: Hideaki Kasai, Osaka (Chair of the Conference) Hisazumi Akai, Osaka Hajime Asahi, Osaka Wilson Agerico Diño, Osaka Hiroshi Harima, Kyoto Tomoyuki Kakeshita, Osaka Junjiro Kanamori, Kyoto Hiroshi Katayama-Yoshida, Osaka Koichi Kusakabe, Osaka Hiroshi Nakanishi, Osaka (Secretary) Tamio Oguchi, Hiroshima Teruo Ono, Osaka Naoshi Suzuki, Osaka Hitoshi Tabata, Osaka under the auspices of the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, and the sponsorship of Osaka University and the International Institute for Advanced Studies (IIAS). The conference is intended to provide an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers, in the rapidly developing field of nanospintronics. It aims to: provide an overview of our current understanding of the physics of spin transport in (magnetic) semiconductors and hybrid magnetic/semiconductor structures; provide a venue to present and discuss the latest developments in using spin-dependent phenomena in nano-(opto-) electronics and computing applications; provide a venue for discussion and assessment of other possible means of exploiting the spin-dependent phenomena in future nano-(opto-) electronic and computing applications; address current (and foreseeable future) problems, of fundamental and applied nature, in an effort to bridge the physics and technology gap between semiconducting and magnetic materials. All of these being geared towards bringing about the realization of a functioning nanospintronics. A total of 127 delegates from 15 countries took part in ICNDR 2004, which was comprised of 62 invited

  5. The Studies on Aerosol Transport, Its Deposition, and Its Impact on Climate - the Study on the Surface Material Circulation can Connect from the Past to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasunari, Teppei

    2012-01-01

    Recently the issue on glacier retreats comes up and many factors should be relevant to the issue. The absorbing aerosols such as dust and black carbon (BC) are considered to be one of the factors. After they deposited onto the snow surface, it will reduce snow albedo (called snow darkening effect) and probably contribute to further melting of glacier. The Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) has developed at NASAlGSFC. However, the original snowpack model used in the land surface model in the GEOS-5 did not consider the snow darkening effect. Here we developed the new snow albedo scheme which can consider the snow darkening effect. In addition, another scheme on calculating mass concentrations on the absorbing aerosols in snowpack was also developed, in which the direct aerosol depositions from the chemical transport model in the GEOS-5 were used. The scheme has been validated with the observed data obtained at backyard of the Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, by Dr. Teruo Aoki (Meteorological Research Institute) et al. including me. The observed data was obtained when I was Ph.D. candidate. The original GEOS-5 during 2007-2009 over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau region showed more reductions of snow than that of the new GEOS-5 because the original one used lower albedo settings. On snow cover fraction, the new GEOS-5 simulated more realistic snow-covered area comparing to the MODIS snow cover fraction. The reductions on snow albedo, snow cover fraction, and snow water equivalent were seen with statistically significance if we consider the snow darkening effect comparing to the results without the snow darkening effect. In the real world, debris-cover, inside refreezing process, surface flow of lacier, etc. affect glacier mass balance and the simu.latedresults immediately do not affect whole glacier retreating. However, our results indicate that some surface melting over non debris-covered parts of the glacier would be

  6. The Various Influences due to Aerosol Depositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasunari, Teppei

    2011-01-01

    Recently the issue on glacier retreats comes up and many factors should be relevant to the issue. The absorbing aerosols such as dust and black carbon (BC) are considered to be one of the factors. After they deposited onto the snow surface, it will reduce snow albedo (called snow darkening effect) and probably contribute to further melting of glacier. The Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) has developed at NASA/GSFC. However, the original snowpack model used in the land surface model in the GEOS-5 did not consider the snow darkening effect. Here we developed the new snow albedo scheme which can consider the snow darkening effect. In addition, another scheme on calculating mass concentrations on the absorbing aerosols in snowpack was also developed, in which the direct aerosol depositions from the chemical transport model in the GEOS-5 were used. The scheme has been validated with the observed data obtained at backyard of the Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, by Dr. Teruo Aoki (Meteorological Research Institute) et al. including me. The observed data was obtained when I was Ph.D.caftdidate. The original GEOS-5 during 2007-2009 over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau region showed more reductions of snow than that of the new GEOS-5 because the original one used lower albedo settings. On snow cover fraction, the new GEOS-5 simulated more realistic snow-covered area comparing to the MODIS snow cover fraction. The reductions on snow albedo, snow cover fraction, and snow water equivalent were seen with statistically significance if we consider the snow darkening effect comparing to the results without the snow darkening effect. In the real world, debris cover, inside refreezing process, surface flow of glacier, etc. affect glacier mass balance and the simulated results immediately do not affect whole glacier retreating. However, our results indicate that some surface melting over non debris covered parts of the glacier would be

  7. Multi-millennial-scale climate variability in Antarctica during the past seven glacial periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.

    2009-12-01

    Climate variability on 1,000- to 10,000 -year timescales and associated interhemispheric seesaw during the last glacial period have been documented in a variety of paleoclimatic records. However, the frequency, magnitude, cause and prerequisites for the older glacial periods are still uncertain. We here present a new 720,000-year ice core record from Dome Fuji, East Antarctica. The agreement between the Dome Fuji and Dome C isotopic temperature records indicates homogeneous climate variability across the East Antarctic plateau throughout the past 720 kyr. By combining the two temperature proxy records, we identified persistent multi-millennial-scale Antarctic events over the past seven glacial periods. With a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, it is suggested that the prerequisite for the bipolar seesaw is the combination of a cold background climate and freshwater input into the northern North Atlantic. With our identification criteria, the mean repetition period of the large Antarctic events increased from 6 kyr in the older three glacial periods to 8 kyr in the younger four glacial periods. Low frequency variations (repetition period of >10 kyr) occur in the early parts of the last four glacial periods (i.e. after Mid-Brunhes climatic shift), suggesting a role of insolation forcing on the large bipolar events in the recent glacial periods. Dome Fuji Ice Core Project members (listed in alphabetical order): Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Yutaka Ageta, Shuji Aoki, Nobuhiko Azuma, Yoshiyuki Fujii, Koji Fujita, Shuji Fujita, Kotaro Fukui, Teruo Furukawa, Atsushi Furusaki, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Ralf Greve, Motohiro Hirabayashi, Takeo Hondoh, Akira Hori, Shinichiro Horikawa, Kazuho Horiuchi, Makoto Igarashi, Yoshinori Iizuka, Takao Kameda, Kokichi Kamiyama, Hiroshi Kanda, Kenji Kawamura, Mika Kohno, Takayuki Kuramoto, Yuki Matsushi, Morihiro Miyahara, Takayuki Miyake, Atsushi Miyamoto, Hideaki Motoyama, Yasuo Nagashima, Yoshiki Nakayama, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Fumio

  8. OCTL Laser Beam Transmission Interruptions due to Aircraft and Predictive Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Roberts, W. T.; Kovalik, J. M.; Wright, M. W.

    2012-11-01

    Laser beam transmission from the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at Table Mountain, California, is required in order to provide a beacon source for optical link acquisition between spacecraft carrying laser communication terminals and OCTL. The laser transmission must be regulated in order to avoid inadvertent irradiation of overflying aircraft or spacecraft. In this article, we present an analysis and data to determine the frequency and duration of laser transmission interruptions so that future laser communication operations can be planned. A week's worth of aircraft flight-path data in the vicinity of OCTL was obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The FAA data were analyzed, along with simulated Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft predicted orbital data, in order to determine the frequency of laser transmission interruptions. An upper bound of five interruptions per 15-min period was observed due to aircraft overflights. Under more favorable conditions, a 15-min pass to the LADEE spacecraft could encounter no interruptions due to aircraft. The analysis was corroborated with "ground-truth" measurements at OCTL, using the existing laser safety system sensors and radar, to monitor aircraft that intercept a plus-or-minus 2.5-deg exclusion zone around the boresight axis of the OCTL telescope. The frequency of interruptions obtained from this data was in agreement with the predictions obtained using the FAA data analysis. Furthermore, the ground observation confirmed typical interrupt durations of 3 to 5 s due to overflying aircraft. This sets a lower bound for the fractional duration of the shoot window to be approximately 98 percent. Predictive avoidance (PA) data obtained from the Laser Clearing House (LCH) for approximately one month with the Moon as a target was analyzed. Note that the difference between using the Moon as a target versus simulated LADEE spacecraft orbital data is that the Moon

  9. Science from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Noble, Sarah; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. The spacecraft impacted the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE’s science objectives were twofold: (1) Determine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for particles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exospheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) acquired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wavelength range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. Among the preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longitudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lunar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization processes. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent “shroud” of small dust particles between 0

  10. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark V.

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! Specifically, the standard practice for doing so is the Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulation (LAPSS). A LAPSS test can characterize a photovoltaic system's efficiency via its response to rapidly applied impulses of simulated sunlight. However, a Class D program on a constrained budget and schedule may not have the resources to ship an entire satellite for a LAPSS test alone. Such was the case with the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) program, which was also averse to the risk of hardware damage during shipment. When the Electrical Power System (EPS) team was denied a spacecraft-level LAPSS test, the lack of an end-to-end power generation test elevated to a project-level technical risk. The team pulled together very limited resources to not only eliminate the risk, but build a process to monitor the health of the system through mission operations. We discuss a process for performing a low-cost, end-to-end test of the LADEE photovoltaic system. The approach combines system-level functional test, panel-level performance results, and periodic inspection (and repair) up until launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of data. The process starts in manufacturing at the subcontractor. The panel manufacturer provides functional test and LAPSS data on each individual panel. We apply an initial assumption that the per-panel performance is sufficient to meet the power generation requirements. The manufacturer's data is also carried as the performance allocation for each panel during EPS system modeling and initial mission operations. During integration and test, a high-power, professional theater lamp system provides simulated sunlight to each panel on the spacecraft, thereby permitting a true end-to-end system test. A passing test results in a step response to nearly full-rated current

  11. Effect of periodic fluctuation of soil particle rotation resistance on interface shear behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimian, Babak; Noorzad, Asadollah

    2010-06-01

    The interface behaviour between infinite extended narrow granular layer and bounding structure is numerically investigated using finite element method. The micro-polar (Cosserat) continuum approach within the framework of elasto-plasticity is employed to remove the numerical difficulties caused by strain-softening of materials in classical continuum mechanics. Mechanical properties of cohesionless granular soil are described with Lade's model enhanced with polar terms including Cosserat rotations, curvatures and couple stresses via mean grain diameter as the internal length. The main attention of paper is laid on the influence of spatial periodic fluctuation of rotation resistance of soil particles interlocked with the surface of bounding structure on evolution and location of shear band developed inside granular body. The finite element results demonstrate that the location and evolution of shear localization in granular body is strongly affected by prescribed non-uniform micro-polar kinematic boundary conditions along the interface.

  12. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, A.; Sarantos, M.; Wooden, D. H.; Stubbs, T. J.; Cook, A. M.; Shirley, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon’s exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  13. LLCD operations using the Lunar Lasercom OGS Terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodnik, Zoran; Smit, Hans; Sans, Marc; Zayer, Igor; Lanucara, Marco; Montilla, Iciar; Alonso, Angel

    2014-03-01

    The paper describes the operations of ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS) during the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) experiment, performed in October and November 2013 with NASA's Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environmental Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. First the transmitter and receiver designs at the OGS telescope are described, which are geometrically separated to prevent cross-talk. Problems encountered and the lesson learned will be explained. As it turned the chosen arrangement was not sufficiently stable in terms of alignment and the paper will describe the solution found. A new industrial contract has been placed for improvement of the design of two solutions will be presented, which will both be tested in a follow-up laser communication campaign, scheduled for end March 2014.

  14. Detecting meteoroid streams with an in-situ dust detector above an airless body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-09-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), aboard NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) successfully mapped the dust density distribution over the lunar surface up to an altitude of ∼ 250 km. LDEX detected dust grains launched off the surface in ejecta plumes generated by impacts of cometary and asteroidal micrometeoroids striking the Moon. While on average LDEX detected particles at a rate of 1 min-1 , periodically it measured bursts of particles at a rate exceeding the average value by up to two orders of magnitude. The timing and location of the most intense period of bursts is used here to independently determine the radiant for the Geminids meteoroid stream. The method is proposed to be of general interest to characterize meteoroid streams bombarding any of the airless bodies in the solar system using in-situ dust detectors.

  15. JPL Developments in Retrieval Algorithms for Geostationary Observations - Applications to H2CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurosu, Thomas P.; Kulawik, Susan; Natraj, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    JPL has strong expertise in atmospheric retrievals from UV and thermal IR, and a wide range of tools to apply to observations and instrument characterization. Radiative Transfer, AMF, Inversion, Fitting, Assimilation. Tools were applied for a preliminary study of H2CO sensitivities from GEO. Results show promise for moderate/strong H2CO lading but also that low background conditions will prove a challenge. H2CO DOF are not too strongly dependent on FWHM. GEMS (Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer) choice of 0.6 nm FWHM (?) spectral resolution is adequate for H2CO retrievals. Case study can easily be adapted to GEMS observations/instrument model for more in-depth sensitivity characterization.

  16. How Surface Composition and Meteoroid Impacts Mediate Sodium and Potassium in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Sarantos, M.; Wooden, D. H.; Stubbs, T. J.; Cook, A. M.; Shirley, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  17. Analysis and test results for a two-bladed, passive cycle pitch, horizontal-axis wind turbine in free and controlled yaw

    SciTech Connect

    Holenemser, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report surveys the analysis and tests performed at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, on a horizontal-axis, two-laded wind turbine with teeter hub. The introduction is a brief account of results obtained during the 5-year period ending December 1985. The wind tunnel model and the test turbine (7.6 m [25 ft.] in diameter) at Washington University`s Tyson Research Center had a 67{degree} delta-three angle of the teeter axis. The introduction explains why this configuration was selected and named the passive cycle pitch (PCP) wind turbine. Through the analysis was not limited to the PCP rotor, all tests, including those done from 1986 to 1994, wee conducted with the same teetered wind rotor. The blades are rather stiff and have only a small elastic coning angle and no precone.

  18. Theory-led confirmation bias and experimental persona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Questionnaire and interview findings from a survey of three Year 8 (ages 12-13 years) science practical lessons (n = 52) demonstrate how pupils' data collection and inference making were sometimes biased by desires to confirm a personal theory. A variety of behaviours are described where learners knowingly rejected anomalies, manipulated apparatus, invented results or carried out other improper operations to either collect data which they believed were scientifically correct, or achieve social conformity. It is proposed that confirmation bias was a consequence of the degree to which individuals were laden by theory, and driven by this, experimenters assumed one of three different personas: becoming right answer confirmers; good scientists; or indifferent spectators. These personas have parallels with historical instances of scientific behaviour. Implications of a continued teacher-tolerance of pupil confirmation bias include the promotion of unscientific experimenting, and the persistence of unchallenged science misconceptions. Solutions are offered in the way of practical strategies that might reduce experimenters' theory-ladeness.

  19. Do Bare Rocks Exist on the Moon?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Bandfield, Joshua; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Hayne, Paul; Leader, Frank; Paige, David

    2017-01-01

    Astronaut surface observations and close-up images at the Apollo and Chang'e 1 landing sites confirm that at least some lunar rocks have no discernable dust cover. However, ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) measurements as well as astronaut and LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) orbital observations and laboratory experiments possibly suggest that a fine fraction of dust is levitated and moves across and above the lunar surface. Over millions of years such dust might be expected to coat all exposed rock surfaces. This study uses thermal modeling, combined with Diviner (a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter experiment) orbital lunar eclipse temperature data, to further document the existence of bare rocks on the lunar surface.

  20. NASA's Big Events: A Framework for Public Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Louis; Cline, Troy; Lewis, Elaine; Ng, Carolyn

    2014-11-01

    Through the education and communication programs in its Science Mission Directorate (SMD), NASA supports many nation-wide and international pubic engagement programs aimed at increasing public interest and scientific literacy in space and Earth science. These programs key off of celestial and space mission events as well as historical dates and celebrations and achieve enormous reach (10's to 100's of millions annually) and impact through the involvement of numerous partners and networks of partners including NASA Field Centers and space missions, museums and science centers, schools and school districts, broadcast media, community groups, professional societies, and amateur astronomers. A summary of recent Big Events includes the Transit of Venus, the launches of LADEE and MAVEN, the MSL/Curiosity landing on Mars, and the arrival of Comet ISON. Through this presentation, we will discuss the strategies employed by NASA to stimulate public interest on large scales and preview upcoming NASA Big Events.

  1. Tisettanta case study: the interoperation of furniture production companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarilli, Fabrizio; Spreafico, Alberto

    This chapter presents the Tisettanta case study, focusing on the definition of the possible innovations that ICT technologies can bring to the Italian wood-furniture industry. This sector is characterized by industrial clusters composed mainly of a few large companies with international brand reputations and a large base of SMEs that manufacture finished products or are specialized in the production of single components/processes (such as the Brianza cluster, where Tisettanta operates). In this particular business ecosystem, ICT technologies can bring relevant support and improvements to the supply chain process, where collaborations between enterprises are put into action through the exchange of business documents such as orders, order confirmation, bills of lading, invoices, etc. The analysis methodology adopted in the Tisettanta case study refers to the TEKNE Methodology of Change (see Chapter 2), which defines a framework for supporting firms in the adoption of the Internetworked Enterprise organizational paradigm.

  2. Lunar atmosphere. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere.

    PubMed

    Colaprete, A; Sarantos, M; Wooden, D H; Stubbs, T J; Cook, A M; Shirley, M

    2016-01-15

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  3. A steady-state model of the lunar ejecta cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Apostolos

    2014-05-01

    Every airless body in the solar system is surrounded by a cloud of ejecta produced by the impact of interplanetary meteoroids on its surface [1]. Such ``dust exospheres'' have been observed around the Galilean satellites of Jupiter [2,3]. The prospect of long-term robotic and human operations on the Moon by the US and other countries has rekindled interest on the subject [4]. This interest has culminated with the - currently ongoing - investigation of the Moon's dust exosphere by the LADEE spacecraft [5]. Here a model is presented of a ballistic, collisionless, steady state population of ejecta launched vertically at randomly distributed times and velocities and moving under constant gravity. Assuming a uniform distribution of launch times I derive closed form solutions for the probability density functions (pdfs) of the height distribution of particles and the distribution of their speeds in a rest frame both at the surface and at altitude. The treatment is then extended to particle motion with respect to a moving platform such as an orbiting spacecraft. These expressions are compared with numerical simulations under lunar surface gravity where the underlying ejection speed distribution is (a) uniform (b) a power law. I discuss the predictions of the model, its limitations, and how it can be validated against near-surface and orbital measurements.[1] Gault, D. Shoemaker, E.M., Moore, H.J., 1963, NASA TN-D 1767. [2] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Hamilton, D. P., Grun, E., 1999, Nature, 399, 558. [3] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Sremcevic, M., Grun, E., 2003, Icarus, 164, 170. [4] Grun, E., Horanyi, M., Sternovsky, Z., 2011, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1672. [5] Elphic, R.C., Hine, B., Delory, G.T., Salute, J.S., Noble, S., Colaprete, A., Horanyi, M., Mahaffy, P., and the LADEE Science Team, 2014, LPSC XLV, LPI Contr. 1777, 2677.

  4. The Lunar Dust Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  5. Carbon and energy fluxes of the understory vegetation of the black spruce ecosystem in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, H.; Nakai, T.; Kim, Y.; Busey, R.; Suzuki, R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    Underlain by permafrost, understory vegetation in the boreal forest of the high northern latitudes is likely sensitive to climate change. This study investigated the contribution of the understory vegetation of the black spruce forest (Picea mariana) to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and vertical energy fluxes at the supersite (65deg 07' 24' N, 147deg 29' 15' W) of the JAMSTEC-IARC Collaboration Study (JICS) located within the property of the Poker Flat Research Range of the University of Alaska Fairbanks in interior Alaska [Sugiura et al., 2011; Nakai et al., 2013]. The understory is dominated by a 0 - 20 cm thick layer of peat moss (Sphagnum fuscum) and feather moss (Hylocomium splendens). Eddy covariance measurements were made at 11 m over the canopy and 1.9 m above the ground in summer 2013. The measurement shows that the peak sink of CO2 from understory during the day typically accounted for 80% of the total NEE of (~ 3 μmol m-2s-1) observed over the canopy. Sensible heat flux was nearly identical between the two heights and latent heat flux observed at 1.9m was slightly higher than that observed at 11m. Higher latent heat flux from understory than the total latent heat flux over the canopy is most likely due to the difference in the footprint of the two measurements, and it is necessary to further evaluate the spatial representativeness of the understory fluxes. Nonetheless, these high flux values from the understory suggest an importance of the understory vegetation in evaluating ecosystem flux of the black spruce forest. Acknowledgement This study is funded by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) References Nakai, T., Y. Kim, R. C. Busey, R. Suzuki, S. Nagai, H. Kobayashi, H. Park, K. Sugiura, and A. Ito (2013), Characteristics of evapotranspiration from a permafrost black spruce forest in interior Alaska, Polar Science, 7(2), 136-148, doi:10.1016/j.polar.2013.03.003. Sugiura, K

  6. The genetic structure of populations of the vulnerable aquatic macrophyte Ranunculus nipponicus (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Koga, Keiichi; Kadono, Yasuro; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2007-03-01

    Ranunculus nipponicus (Makino) Nakai is a vulnerable aquatic macrophyte in the Kinki district, which is the southernmost distribution of this species in Japan. The genetic diversity and structure within and among eleven extant populations were assessed using the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) polymerase chain reaction in association with combinations of propagation pattern (clonal and/or seeds) and genotypic geographical structure. In total, 53 bands were amplified, of which 18 (34%) were polymorphic. Analysis of the ISSR bands identified 46 genotypes among 81 individuals from one stream population and 72 distinct genotypes among 147 individuals in the Kinki district. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram showed some unity among upstream and downstream subpopulations within one stream and eleven populations. The Shannon index of genetic diversity was 0.109 for one stream population and 0.313 for total genetic diversity, suggesting relatively high genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 84.1% of the total genetic diversity occurred among populations and the remaining diversity (15.9%) occurred within populations. Significant genetic differentiation occurred among populations in the Kinki district. These results suggest that conservation of each population is important for maintaining genetic diversity of R. nipponicus in this district.

  7. Protective Effect of Decursin Extracted from Angelica gigas in Male Infertility via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woong Jin; Ha, U Syn; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Kang Sup; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Wang, Zhiping; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Kim, Sae Woong

    2016-01-01

    Higher testicular temperature results in altered spermatogenesis due to heat-related oxidative stress. We examined the effects of decursin extracted from Angelica gigas Nakai on antioxidant activity in vitro and in a cryptorchidism-induced infertility rat model. TM3 Leydig cell viability was measured based on oxidative stress according to treatment. Either distilled water or AG 400 mg/kg of A. gigas extract was administered orally for 4 weeks after unilateral cryptorchidism was induced. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, six rats from the control group and six rats from treatment group were sacrificed. Testicular weight, semen quality, antioxidant activities, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein, and mRNA expression of Nrf2-regulated genes were analyzed. Treatment with A. gigas extract (1) protected TM3 cells against oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, (2) improved the mean weight of the cryptorchid testis, (3) maintained sperm counts, motility, and spermatogenic cell density, (4) decreased levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), (5) significantly increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and (6) significantly decreased apoptosis. This study suggests that decursin extracted from A. gigas is a supplemental agent that can reduce oxidative stress by Nrf2-mediated upregulation of HO-1 in rat experimentally induced unilateral cryptorchidism and may improve cryptorchidism-induced infertility.

  8. A 116-kDa phytoglycoprotein inhibits aberrant crypt foci formation through modulation of manganese superoxide dismutase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-kappa B, activator protein-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine/dextran sodium sulfate-treated ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2008-11-01

    The 116-kDa Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN) glycoprotein is a naturally occurring phytoglycoprotein found in the stem of UDN. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive effect of UDN glycoprotein on inflammation-mediated colorectal carcinogenesis induced by 10 mg/kg 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and 2% dextran sodium sulfate in ICR mice. Consumption of UDN glycoprotein (0.01 and 0.02%) significantly reduced the frequency of colonic aberrant crypt foci, the expression of colonic proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and the release of plasma lactate dehydrogenase without any cytotoxic activity at the initiation stage of colorectal carcinogenesis in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine/dextran sodium sulfate-treated mice. In addition, UDN glycoprotein has antioxidative effects on the formation of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and on the production of plasma inducible nitric oxide, accompanying the normalizing effects on the activity of colonic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) in the mice. UDN glycoprotein intake also remarkably attenuated the expression of inflammation-related factors (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) and the DNA-binding activity of redox-sensitive transcription factors (nuclear factor-kappa B and activator protein-1) in the mice. Collectively, the results suggest that UDN glycoprotein has chemopreventive potential at the initiation stage of colorectal cancer by reducing the factors responsible for oxidative stress, inflammation, and carcinogenesis.

  9. Local unitary transformation method toward practical electron correlation calculations with scalar relativistic effect in large-scale molecules.

    PubMed

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2013-07-21

    In order to perform practical electron correlation calculations, the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level [J. Seino and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 244102 (2012); and ibid. 137, 144101 (2012)], which is based on the locality of relativistic effects, has been combined with the linear-scaling divide-and-conquer (DC)-based Hartree-Fock (HF) and electron correlation methods, such as the second-order Mo̸ller-Plesset (MP2) and the coupled cluster theories with single and double excitations (CCSD). Numerical applications in hydrogen halide molecules, (HX)n (X = F, Cl, Br, and I), coinage metal chain systems, Mn (M = Cu and Ag), and platinum-terminated polyynediyl chain, trans,trans-{(p-CH3C6H4)3P}2(C6H5)Pt(C≡C)4Pt(C6H5){(p-CH3C6H4)3P}2, clarified that the present methods, namely DC-HF, MP2, and CCSD with the LUT-IODKH Hamiltonian, reproduce the results obtained using conventional methods with small computational costs. The combination of both LUT and DC techniques could be the first approach that achieves overall quasi-linear-scaling with a small prefactor for relativistic electron correlation calculations.

  10. Monoterpenoids from the traditional North Italian vegetable Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H.Hara (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Granica, Sebastian; Fusani, Pietro; Stanisławska, Iwona; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Melck, Dominique; Motta, Andrea; Zidorn, Christian

    2017-04-15

    Investigations of young shoots of Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H.Hara (Rosaceae), collected from the wild and used as vegetables in alpine provinces of Italy, yielded eight monoterpenoids. Besides known compounds, aruncin A, aruncide A, and cimicifugolide, five previously undescribed substances, aruncins C, D, and E, and aruncides D and E, were identified. Based on results from the full synthesis of aruncin B, structures of aruncin A and aruncide A were revised. Structures were established by HR mass spectrometry and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and based on data from synthetic aruncin B. An HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed to investigate the distribution of the monoterpenoids in different organs of Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris and in aerial parts of A. dioicus var. aethusifolius (H.Lév.) H.Hara [Syn.: Aruncus aethusifolius (H.Lév.) Nakai]. Preliminary bioactivity studies moreover indicated weak cytotoxicity for some of the compounds against human prostrate adenocarcinoma cells.

  11. Preventative Effect of an Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Development of Airway Inflammation in Mice via Modulation of Th1/2 Cells Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4+ T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4+ T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ+ cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4+ cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance. PMID:23844220

  12. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Choi, Jina; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.). In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4+ T and CD8+ T), which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice. PMID:25045390

  13. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress.

  14. Recovery of diurnal depression of leaf hydraulic conductance in a subtropical woody bamboo species: embolism refilling by nocturnal root pressure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Sun, Mei; Goldstein, Guillermo; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2012-04-01

    Despite considerable investigations of diurnal water use characteristics in different plant functional groups, the research on daily water use strategies of woody bamboo grasses remains lacking. We studied the daily water use and gas exchange of Sinarundinaria nitida (Mitford) Nakai, an abundant subtropical bamboo species in Southwest China. We found that the stem relative water content (RWC) and stem hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of this bamboo species did not decrease significantly during the day, whereas the leaf RWC and leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) showed a distinct decrease at midday, compared with the predawn values. Diurnal loss of K(leaf) was coupled with a midday decline in stomatal conductance (g(s)) and CO(2) assimilation. The positive root pressures in the different habitats were of sufficient magnitude to refill the embolisms in leaves. We concluded that (i) the studied bamboo species does not use stem water storage for daily transpiration; (ii) diurnal down-regulation in K(leaf) and gs has the function to slow down potential water loss in stems and protect the stem hydraulic pathway from cavitation; (iii) since K(leaf) did not recover during late afternoon, refilling of embolism in bamboo leaves probably fully depends on nocturnal root pressure. The embolism refilling mechanism by root pressure could be helpful for the growth and persistence of this woody monocot species.

  15. Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4(+) T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ(+) cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4(+) cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

  16. Chikusetsusaponin IVa Methyl Ester Isolated from the Roots of Achyranthes japonica Suppresses LPS-Induced iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β Expression by NF-κB and AP-1 Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Jun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Lee, Woo-Seok; Shim, Heon-Yong; Park, Ji-Min; Jang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of chikusetsusaponin IVa (CS) and chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester (CS-ME) from the roots of Achyranthes japonica NAKAI on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. CS-ME more potently inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production than CS. CS-ME concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β production in RAW264.7 macrophages and mouse peritoneal macrophages. Consistent with these findings, CS-ME suppressed LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 at protein level as well as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β at mRNA level. In addition, CS-ME suppressed LPS-induced transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein (AP)-1. The anti-inflammatory properties of CS-ME might result from suppression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β expression through downregulation of NF-κB and AP-1 in macrophages.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effect of herbal medicines (APR) in RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, HAN-SEOK; SEO, HYE SOOK; KIM, SOON RE; CHOI, YOUN KYUNG; SHIN, YONG-CHEOL; KO, SEONG-GYU

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of a mixture of medicinal plants [Angelica gigas Nakai, Panax ginseng and Rhus verniciflua Stokes (APR)] on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Cells were treated with APR and LPS at various concentrations and indicated times. WST assay, trypan blue assay and quantification of activated cells demonstrated that APR suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. APR induced G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and necrosis factor κB (NF-κB). APR also suppressed nitric oxide synthase isoform (iNOS) and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 (Cox-2) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression induced by LPS. Furthermore, APR decreased LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as induced PARP and caspase-3 cleavage, suggesting that APR causes apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study indicated that APR may be advantageous in treating inflammatory disease. PMID:24626965

  18. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  19. Icariin stimulates angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kim, Chun-Ki; Kim, Jung Huan; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Geun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2008-11-14

    We investigated the molecular effect and signal pathway of icariin, a major flavonoid of Epimedium koreanum Nakai, on angiogenesis. Icariin stimulated in vitro endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis, which are typical phenomena of angiogenesis, as well as increased in vivo angiogenesis. Icariin activated the angiogenic signal modulators, ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and increased NO production, without affecting VEGF expression, indicating that icariin may directly stimulate angiogenesis. Icariin-induced ERK activation and angiogenic events were significantly inhibited by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, without affecting Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. The PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin suppressed icariin-mediated angiogenesis and Akt and eNOS activation without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, the NOS inhibitor NMA partially reduced the angiogenic activity of icariin. These results suggest that icariin stimulated angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways and may be a useful drug for angiogenic therapy.

  20. Crystal structure of N-de­acetyl­lappa­coni­tine

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xin-Wei; Lu, Qiang-Qiang; Zhou, Jun-Hui; Cui, Xin-Ai

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C30H42N2O7 [systematic name: (1S,4S,5S,7S,8S,9S,10S,11S,13R,14S,16S,17R)-20-ethyl-4,8,9-trihy­droxy-1,14,16-tri­meth­oxy­aconitan-4-yl 2-amino­benzoate], isolated from roots of Aconitum sinomontanum Nakai, is a typical aconitane-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid, which crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The conformations of the two independent mol­ecules are closely similar. Each mol­ecule comprises four six-membered rings (A, B, D and E) including one six-membered N-containing heterocyclic ring (E), and two five-membered rings (C and F). Rings A, B and E adopt chair conformations, while ring D displays a boat conformation. Five-membered rings C and F exhibit envelope conformations. IntramolecularN—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amino group and carbonyl O atom help to stabilize molecular structure. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into zigzag chains propagating in [010]. PMID:26396805