Science.gov

Sample records for lake city area

  1. View of the Salt Lake City, Utah area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An oblique view of the Salt Lake City, Utah area as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. Approximately two-thirds of the Great Salt Lake is in view. The smaller body of water south of Salt Lake City is Utah Lake. The Wasatch Range is on the east side of the Great Salt Lake.

  2. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  3. 77 FR 56608 - Designation for the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Designation for the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection....... 10/1/2012 9/30/2015 Ohio Valley Evansville, IN (812) 423-9010... 10/1/2012 9/30/2015 Utah Salt...

  4. Business Use of Small Computers in the Salt Lake City, Utah Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Michael M.

    In July 1981, Utah Technical College (UTC) conducted a survey of businesses in the Salt Lake City area to gather information for the development of a curriculum integrating computer applications with business course instruction. The survey sought to determine the status and usage of current micro/mini computer equipment, future data processing…

  5. 75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B... information from airspace users and others concerning a proposal to revise the Class B airspace area at Salt... Terminal, 397 North 2370 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116. (3) The meeting on Thursday, February 3,...

  6. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  7. Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S.; McCoy, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western`s net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western`s purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western`s net revenue is computed.

  8. 77 FR 13074 - Opportunity for Designation in the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Opportunity for Designation in the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas; Request for Comments on the Official Agencies Servicing...

  9. Hydrochemical profile for assessing the groundwater quality of Sambhar lake city and its adjoining area.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anita; Seth, Gita

    2011-03-01

    Quality assessment of water is essential to ensure sustainable safe use of it for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes. For the same purpose the study was conducted for the samples of water of Sambhar lake city and its adjoining areas. The standard methods of APHA were used to analysis 15 samples collected from hand pumps and tube wells of the specified area. The analytical results show higher concentration of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity sodium, nitrate, sulfate, and fluoride, which indicate signs of deterioration but values of pH, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, and carbonate are within permissible limits as per WHO standards. From the Hill-piper trilinear diagram, it is observed that the majority of groundwater from sampling stations are sodium-potassium-chloride-sulfate type water. The values of sodium absorption ratio and electrical conductivity of the groundwater were plotted in the US salinity laboratory diagram for irrigation water. Only the one sample fall in C(3)S(1) quality with high salinity hazard and low sodium hazard. Other samples fall in high salinity hazard and high sodium hazard. Chemical analysis of groundwater shows that mean concentration of cation is in order sodium > magnesium > calcium > potassium while for the anion it is chloride > bicarbonate > nitrate > sulfate.

  10. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, powdery snow that results from the arid climate and location at the ... should be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. The canyons and peaks of the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains are ...

  11. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  12. Issues of scale, location and geologic terrain related to Salt Lake City and Baltimore-Washington metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.; Godfrey, A.E.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Planning and development of expanding metropolitan regions require consideration of earth science issues related to issues involving scale, space (location), geologic terrain and physiographic units, and information transfer. This paper explores these matters with examples from the Salt Lake City, Utah area and Mid-Atlantic region of Baltimore-Washington that include water supply and natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, and sinkholes.) Information transfer methods using physiographic units at national, regional, local and site scales serve to communicate relevant geologic constraint and natural resource information.

  13. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  14. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  15. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  16. Effects of wetlands on quality of runoff entering lakes in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Four wetlands were compared with respect to their effectiveness in decreasing suspended solids and nutrient concentrations in runoff to lakes immediately downstream from the wetlands. An artificial impoundment in one of the wetlands increased settling of suspended solids. A decrease of nutrients in this wetland was probably the result of high assimilation rates associated with a dense stand of cattails. Two of the other three wetlands consist of open water and land areas, both of which contain abundant vegetation. Drainage from land areas within the wetlands may have lowered the overall effectiveness of the wetlands in decreasing sediment and nutrient concentrations. The third wetland was a constructed wetland that was ineffective in decreasing sediment or nutrient concentrations because its storage capacity was too small to prevent frequent flushing of accumulated sediment. Sediment concentrations in discharge from this wetland were as much as 22 times greater than the already high sediment concentrations in the inflow. (Author 's abstract)

  17. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution

  18. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  20. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  1. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  2. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  3. Particle Count and Black Carbon Measurements at Schools in Las Vegas and in the Greater Salt Lake City Area.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven G; Vaughn, David L; Roberts, Paul T

    2016-12-23

    As part of two separate studies aimed to characterize ambient pollutant concentrations at schools in urban areas, we compare black carbon and particle count measurements at Adcock Elementary in Las Vegas, Nevada (April-June 2013), and Hunter High School in the West Valley City area of Greater Salt Lake City, Utah (February 2012). Both schools are in urban environments, but Adcock Elementary is next to the U.S. 95 freeway. Black Carbon (BC) concentrations were 13% higher at Adcock compared to Hunter, while particle count concentrations were 60% higher. When wind speeds were low-less than 2 m/sec-both BC and particle count concentrations were significantly higher at Adcock, while concentrations at Hunter did not have as strong a variation with wind speed. When wind speeds were less than 2 m/s, emissions from the adjacent freeway greatly affected concentrations at Adcock, regardless of wind direction. At both sites, BC and particle count concentrations peaked in the morning during commute hours. At Adcock, particle count also peaked during midday or early afternoon, when BC was low and conditions were conducive to new particle formation. While this midday peak occurred at Adcock on roughly 45% of the measured days, it occurred on only about 25% of the days at Hunter, since conditions for particle formation (higher solar radiation, lower wind speeds, lower relative humidity) were more conducive at Adcock. Thus, children attending these schools are likely to be exposed to pollution peaks during school drop-off in the morning, when BC and particle count concentrations peak, and often again during lunchtime recess when particle count peaks again.

  4. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  5. 78 FR 76781 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...; Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Lake City Class B airspace area by raising the floor of a small portion of Class B airspace between the Salt Lake City Class B surface area and the Hill Air Force Base (AFB) Class D airspace area....

  6. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  7. INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18272, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  8. 200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST OF "MAIN' STREET. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18273, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  9. 78 FR 45848 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY... airspace at Salt Lake City, UT, to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... procedures at Salt Lake City International Airport. This improves the safety and management of...

  10. 250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 83, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 8-3, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH - REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18271, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  11. PLAT X41601 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAT X-4-160-1 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY BETWEEN OLIVE STREET (1020 EAST) AND 1000 EAST STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 12049, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  12. CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT CHINESE PLAT MARKER AND BURNER. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  13. Stereo Pair, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This image pair provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture

  14. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Stool Specimens by an Enzyme Immunoassay and Surveillance for Campylobacter upsaliensis in the Greater Salt Lake City Area

    PubMed Central

    Hindiyeh, Musa; Jense, Sandra; Hohmann, Sheri; Benett, Hilary; Edwards, Cheryl; Aldeen, William; Croft, Ann; Daly, Judy; Mottice, Susan; Carroll, Karen C.

    2000-01-01

    The Alexon-Trend, Inc. (Ramsey, Minn.), ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate assay was compared with culture on a Campy-CVA plate (Remel, Lenexa, Kans.) and blood-free campylobacter agar with cefoperazone (20 μg/ml), amphotericin B (10 μg/ml), and teicoplanin (4 μg/ml) (CAT medium; Oxoid Limited, Hampshire, England) with 631 patient stool samples. The CAT medium was used to isolate Campylobacter upsaliensis. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) had a sensitivity and a specificity of 89 and 99%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 80 and 99%, respectively. Even though we extensively looked for C. upsaliensis in stool samples from patients from the greater Salt Lake City area, we did not isolate this species during the study period. The overall excellent specificity of the EIA allows rapid detection and treatment of positive patients; however, a negative result should be confirmed by culture when clinical suspicion is high. PMID:10921981

  15. Rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni in stool specimens by an enzyme immunoassay and surveillance for Campylobacter upsaliensis in the greater Salt Lake City area.

    PubMed

    Hindiyeh, M; Jense, S; Hohmann, S; Benett, H; Edwards, C; Aldeen, W; Croft, A; Daly, J; Mottice, S; Carroll, K C

    2000-08-01

    The Alexon-Trend, Inc. (Ramsey, Minn.), ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate assay was compared with culture on a Campy-CVA plate (Remel, Lenexa, Kans.) and blood-free campylobacter agar with cefoperazone (20 microg/ml), amphotericin B (10 microg/ml), and teicoplanin (4 microg/ml) (CAT medium; Oxoid Limited, Hampshire, England) with 631 patient stool samples. The CAT medium was used to isolate Campylobacter upsaliensis. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) had a sensitivity and a specificity of 89 and 99%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 80 and 99%, respectively. Even though we extensively looked for C. upsaliensis in stool samples from patients from the greater Salt Lake City area, we did not isolate this species during the study period. The overall excellent specificity of the EIA allows rapid detection and treatment of positive patients; however, a negative result should be confirmed by culture when clinical suspicion is high.

  16. Space Radar Image of Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Salt Lake City, Utah, illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in the Utah Valley. Salt Lake City lies between the shores of the Great Salt Lake (the dark area on the left side of the image) and the Wasatch Front Range (the mountains in the upper half of the image). The Salt Lake City area is of great interest to urban planners because of the combination of lake, valley and alpine environments that coexist in the region. Much of the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake is a waterfowl management area. The green grid pattern in the right center of the image is Salt Lake City and its surrounding communities. The Salt Lake City airport is visible as the brown rectangle near the center of the image. Interstate Highway 15 runs from the middle right edge to the upper left of the image. The bright white patch east of Interstate 15 is the downtown area, including Temple Square and the state capitol. The University of Utah campus is the yellowish area that lies at the base of the mountains, east of Temple Square. The large reservoir in the lower left center is a mine tailings pond. The semi-circular feature in the mountains at the bottom edge of the image is the Kennecott Copper Mine. The area shown is 60 kilometers by 40 kilometers (37 miles by 25 miles) and is centered at 40.6 degrees north latitude, 112.0 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  17. CLEAR LAKE ROADLESS AREA, FLORIDA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Crandall, Thomas M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Clear Lake Roadless Area, Florida was concluded to offer little or no promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. The only commodity that has been mined in the area is clayey sand used in stabilizing roads and in highway construction. No peat more than a few inches thick occurs in the area. Limestone underlies all of the Clear Lake area but is under thick overburden. The region has been explored for heavy minerals and phosphate, but no resources have been found. There appears to be little promise for discovery of oil and gas in the Clear Lake area. However, the area and nearby lands have not been thoroughly tested for oil and gas, and the possibilities for discovery cannot be ruled out.

  18. LAKE ELEANOR ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Donald F.; Cather, Eric E.

    1984-01-01

    The Lake Eleanor Roadless Area occupies an area of about 22. 3 sq mi in the Trinity Alps of the Klamath Mountains, 14-28 mi north-northeast of Weaverville, California. Mining began in the Trinity Alps about 1850 and has continued intermittently since then. There is no record of mining activity in the Lake Eleanor Roadless Area, but placer and lode mining occurred nearby. On the basis of mineral surveys the area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic, nonmetallic, or energy resources.

  19. A Survey and Analysis of Reading Habits and Library Use Patterns of the Central City Residents of Salt Lake City, Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freebairn, Mark R.; Palmer, Rita

    The purpose of this study was to survey and analyze two census tracts of Salt Lake City proper, a residential area frequently referred to as Central City. This study was commissioned by Richard J. Rademacher, Director, Salt Lake City Public Library. A questionnaire was formulated through an analysis of other surveys at the conclusion of an…

  20. Dinkey Lakes Roadless Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, F.C.W.; Federspiel, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in 1980, show that parts of the Dinkey Lakes Roadless Area have substantiated resource potential for tungsten and marble and probable resource potential for quartz crystal gemstones. A probable resource potential for geothermal energy exists in one small area. No potential for other metallic mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  1. DINKEY LAKES ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodge, F.C.W.; Federspiel, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Dinkey Lakes Roadless Area occupies an area of about 184 sq mi on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, California. The results of a mineral survey show that parts of the area have substantiated resource potential for tungsten and marble and probable resource potential for quartz crystal gemstones. A probable resource potential for geothermal energy exists in one small area. No potential for other metallic mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  2. Environmental effects of dredging: Synopsis of Hamlet City Lake, North Carolina, and San Francisco Bay Area, California, sediment leaching studies. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.E.; Brannon, J.M.; Engler, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    This note summarizes results from six laboratory leaching studies conducted on contaminated sediments. Laboratory batch and column leach tests were conducted on sediments from Hamlet City Lake, Hamlet, North Carolina; Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, Oakland, California; Santa Fe Channel (Richmond Harbor), Oakland; and West Richmond and Pinole Shoal reaches of the J. F. Baldwin Channel, Oakland. These studies were conducted for the U.S. Army Engineer Districts, Wilmington and San Francisco. Implications of the results for development of predictive techniques for leachate quality in confined disposal facilities (CDFs) are discussed.

  3. DOLUS LAKES ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.; Avery, Dale W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Dolus Lakes Roadless Area in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Much of the roadless area has probable and substantiated potential for resources of gold, silver, molybdenum, and tungsten. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of coal, oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Detailed geologic and geochemical studies are suggested to delineate exploration targets that could be tested by drilling.

  4. 78 FR 17097 - Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Triathlon; Lake Havasu City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Triathlon; Lake Havasu City, AZ.... 165.T11-474 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-474 Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Triathlon; Lake Havasu...

  5. 75 FR 22333 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Michigan City,...

  6. 75 FR 34932 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Michigan City, Indiana. This zone...

  7. CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT CHINESE PLAT MARKER, BURNER & CHINESE GRAVES. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  8. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  9. Intercultural Education at High Schools in Greater Salt Lake City, Utah: An Ethnographic Inquiry. Urban Education Reports Series Number Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank Andrews

    Intercultural education in the Greater Salt Lake City (Utah) metropolitan area seems to have minimal effect on high school students' behavior or attitudes. This study was planned in order to better understand the nature and dynamics of intercultural instruction in Salt Lake City. Information was analyzed from the following sources: (1) interviews…

  10. Salt Lake City, Utah, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This 3-D perspective view, in simulated natural colors, presents a late spring view over Salt Lake City towards the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains to the east. The image was created by draping ASTER image data over digital topography data from the US Geological Survey's National Elevation Data.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation

  11. 78 FR 27872 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT...: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Salt Lake City International Airport, Salt Lake City... operations at Salt Lake City International Airport. This action also would adjust the geographic...

  12. Salt Lake City, Utah, Winter 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, winter view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal

  13. RAINBOW LAKE WILDERNESS AND FLYNN LAKE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WISCONSIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.; Dunn, Maynard L.

    1984-01-01

    The Rainbow Lake Wilderness and Flynn Lake Wilderness study area in Wisconsin are contiguous and were studied as a unit. The rainbow Lake Wilderness contains a demonstrated resource of about 210,000 tons of commercial-quality peat in an area of substantiated peat resource potential. The Flynn Lake Wilderness study area contains a demonstrated resource of about 300,000 tons of commercial-quality peat in an area of substantiated peat resource potential. These deposits, however, are of limited importance because larger deposits of similar material are abundant outside the areas, closer to present markets. Rocks in the subsurface contain a low-grade copper resource identified by mining company exploration drilling. Although this is an area of substantiated copper resource potential, it is a low-grade resource, thin and generally at great depth.

  14. Portion of the Great Lakes area as seen from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An oblique view of a portion of the Great Lakes (43.0N, 70.0W) area as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. lake Erie is in the foreground; and Lake Ontario is in the background. The Niagara Falls area is in the center of the photograph. Portions of Pennsylvania, New York, and Ontario, Canada are visible, but under nearly complete snow cover. Major structural features, drainage patterns, road systems and the cities of Buffalo and Toronto are easily distinguished and actually enhanced by the snow. At the time this picture was taken, these two Great Lakes had no observable ice, although cloud formations partially mask the southern shores of the two bodies of water.

  15. Taxonomic Evaluation of Cleveland Harbor Lake Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Immature. Comparison to previous collections Although benthic invertebrates were not previously collected for USACE- LRB from the current study areas...areas in the lake. There were considerable differences in invertebrate community taxa between Vermillion and Cleveland Harbor, including the presence...Griffiths. 1984. Benthic invertebrates of the nearshore zone of eastern Lake Huron, Georgian Bay, and North Channel. Journal of Great Lakes Research 10:407

  16. New York City area as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The recent heavy snowfalls help to accentuate the major transportation networks (railroads, highways and airports) throughout the New York City metropolitan area. This particular scene also highlights the land-water boundaries the lighter open spaces, such as parks, cemeteries and recreational areas. The snows have produced a white blanket effect on these areas. Even some of the snow-covered lakes can be discerned. The boroughs of Staten Island, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx and Manhattan are also recognizable on the photograph.

  17. SKY LAKES ROADLESS AREA AND MOUNTAIN LAKES WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James G.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Based on a mineral survey of the Sky Lakes Roadless Area and the Mountain Lakes Wilderness, Oregon, the areas have little or no promise for the occurrence of metallic-mineral resources or geothermal energy resources. Nonmetallic resources exist in the areas, but other areas outside the roadless area and wilderness also contain resources of volcanic cinders, scoria, ash, breccia, and sand and gravel which are easier to obtain and closer to markets. The roadless area and wilderness are not geologically favorable for metallic deposits, or for coal, oil, or gas resources.

  18. Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread

  19. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  20. Hydrogeology of the Lake Miona area, northeast Sumter County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradner, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Lake Miona area, in northeast Sumter County, is characterized by karstic depressions that contain lakes, ponds, and marshes that drain vertically to the upper Floridan aquifer. Lake Miona, Black Lake, and Cherry Lake are the prominent water features of the area. When the lake levels are lowest, the lakes are not connected, but at higher levels, they become connected and water flows eastward from Lake Miona through Black Lake to Cherry Lake. The chemical and biological conditions in the lakes are such that, although they support a large population of submerged aquatic plants, no problem with algae blooms was observed. (USGS)

  1. Contaminant concentrations in stormwater from eight lake Superior basin cities, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, J.J.; Selbig, W.R.; Hornewer, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected Stormwater samples from eight Lake Superior Basin cities to determine the quality of urban runoff entering Lake Superior from urban areas. The samples were collected during July 1993-September 1994 from storm sewers in Ishpeming, Negaunee, Sault Ste. Marie, and Houghton, Michigan; Virginia and Ribbing, Minnesota; and Ashland and Hurley, Wisconsin. Automated samplers were installed in manholes draining the selected sewers within each city. Water samples were collected for analyses of total recoverable metals, nutrients, and poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of these constituents for each site are listed in data tables.

  2. 76 FR 52905 - Proposed Amendment to Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Lake City, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Salt Lake City, UT, Class B airspace to contain aircraft conducting Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) instrument approach procedures to Salt Lake City...

  3. 78 FR 2434 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT..., Salt Lake City, UT 84108, telephone (801) 581-3876. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in..., Salt Lake City, UT 84108, telephone (801) 581-3876, before February 11, 2013. Repatriation of the...

  4. 33 CFR 165.T11-281 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV. 165.T11-281 Section 165.T11-281 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.T11-281 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder...

  5. Disaster Preparedness: Lessons from the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaps, Richard A.

    Between February 7 and February 24, 2002, Utah and Salt Lake City hosted the Winter Olympics. Due to the bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta and the emotional fallout that resulted, it was recommended that the Utah Psychological Association and Utah Red Cross plan for such an occurrence and organize a coordinated Disaster Mental Health…

  6. Salt Lake City's Systemwide Approach to Instructional Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, John W.

    This paper identifies the five instructional improvement goals set by the Salt Lake City (Utah) School District and describes the activities undertaken by the district in pursuit of those goals. The goals are (1) to develop an instructional program with clear learning objectives, including those mandated by the state; (2) to develop a…

  7. Shared Governance in the Salt Lake City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Stanley R.

    Facing declining enrollment, loss of state funds, and decreasing public confidence, the Salt Lake City Schools found several groups demanding a voice in the decision-making process. A plan for shared governance was implemented. Representatives of the teachers' association, the administrative association, and the classified employees' association…

  8. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Rose, L. Shea

    2001-02-28

    Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, and to design effective implementation programs. In this report, we discuss the result of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup (percentage of various surface-types) using aerial color orthophotography. The digital aerial photographs for Salt Lake City covered a total of about 34 km2 (13 mi2). At 0.50-m resolution, there were approximately 1.4 x 108 pixels of data. Four major land-use types were examined: (1) commercial, (2) industrial, (3) educational, and (4) residential. On average, for the areas studied, vegetation covers about 46 percent of the area (ranging 44-51 percent), roofs cover about 21 percent (ranging 15-24 percent), and paved surfaces about 26 percent (ranging 21-28 percent). For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. In most non-residential areas, paved surfaces cover 46-66 percent of the area. In residential areas, on average, paved surfaces cover about 32 percent of the area. Land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) data from the United States Geological Survey were used to extrapolate these results from neighborhood scales to metropolitan Salt Lake City. In an area of roughly 560 km2, defining most of metropolitan Salt Lake City, over 60 percent is residential. The total roof area is about 110 km2, and the total paved surface area (roads, parking areas, sidewalks) covers about 170 km2. The total vegetated area covers about 230 km2.

  9. ALPINE LAKES WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gualtieri, J.L.; Thurber, H.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Alpine Lakes Wilderness study area, located in the central part of the Cascade Mountains of Washington was examined for its mineral-resource potential. On the basis of that study the area was found to contain deposits of copper, other base metals, and gold and silver. Probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential exists for these commodities in the southwest-central, northwest, and southeast-central parts of the area. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  10. TEN LAKES WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whipple, James W.; Hamilton, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Ten Lakes Wilderness Study Area, Montana, was conducted. Areas of probable or substantiated mineral potential were found surrounding zones of past mining activity east of Independence Peak where copper-bearing veins are hosted by basaltic lava flows. Three mines contain demonstrated or inferred resources, and there are numerous prospects. Other areas of probable resource potential include an area on Sinclair Creek with copper occurrences similar to those of the Independence Peak area, an area including Gilbralter Ridge where lead and zinc veins are hosted by sedimentary rocks, two areas where zinc-copper occurrences are related to metadiorite sills, and two areas that contain stratabound copper occurrences. The areas with copper and lead-zinc veins may also be of interest for deeply buried mineralized systems, as the veins may be the surface expression of plutons at relatively shallow depths.

  11. Student Loan Collections at Lake City Community College [Florida].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracy, Lavon W.

    Lake City Community College began its involvement with the National Direct Student Loan Program in 1965. As of June 30, 1975, the college had loaned $317,625 to 486 students--an average of $653 per student. Of this amount, $93,292 has been repaid or cancelled, leaving $224,333 outstanding and $42,678 past due. Of the past due amount, $15,142 is…

  12. An investigation of the origin of Rock City and cause of piping problems at Mountain Lake, Giles County, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atallah, Nidal Walid

    Mountain Lake is one of only two natural lakes in the state of Virginia. The lake's origin has been attributed to either a natural solution-collapse basin, or to a landslide damming the valley of northwesterly flowing Pond Drain, or to a NW-SE trending fracture lineation. The lake is located within the breached northwest limb of a gently plunging anticline, a part of the larger Valley and Ridge physiographic province. In recent years, the lake drained almost completely, exposing the lake bottom and revealing the presence of four sinkhole-like depressions, containing piping holes at their sides and bottoms, at the northeastern and northwestern margins of the lake. This study focuses on the most likely origin of large sandstone blocks present at the northern end of the lake in an area locally referred to as "Rock City", including mapping of the block locations and analyzing the mode and extent of displacement that they have undergone. An additional objective is to investigate the piping potential of the lake-bottom sediment and its role in seepage out of the lake basin causing lake-level fluctuations. Mapping of Rock City was conducted by taking GPS readings at the corners of the rock blocks and using ArcMap Software. Investigations of the displacement mode of the rock blocks was done by comparing the measured orientations of principal discontinuity sets, forming the rock-block boundaries, with discontinuity orientations of undisturbed outcrops within the headscarp, using stereonet analysis. Grain size analysis, Atterberg limits, and a compaction-mold permeameter test were used to evaluate lake sediment's susceptibility to piping. Field observations and discontinuity data analysis indicate that Rock City is a landslide that dammed the valley of Pond Drain, consequently forming the lake. The primary mode of slope movement involves lateral spreading that is associated with extension occurring along discontinuities. The Tuscarora Sandstone rock blocks comprising Rock

  13. 78 FR 71493 - Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake Havasu, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... in support of the Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights on the Colorado River. This... of Lights will involve fifty vessels in Lake Havasu, AZ transiting Thompson Bay, proceeding...

  14. ROUND LAKE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WISCONSIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.; Williams, Bradford B.

    1984-01-01

    The Round Lake Wilderness study area in Wisconsin was studied using geophysical and geochemical surveys, examination of a few bedrock exposures near the area (none are known within the area) and augering and testing of peat deposits. The only direct indication of potential mineral resource is about 760,000 tons of commercial quality peat contained in several bogs. Larger deposits of similar material are abundant closer to markets and although the peat in this area is classified as a demonstrated resource within an area of substantiated peat resource potential, it is considered to be of little importance. The study area lies within a belt of ancient volcanic rocks extending across northern Wisconsin in which several important copper, zinc, and lead deposits were discovered but no indication of such deposits was found within the area.

  15. Analysis and Application of Airborne Thermal Data at the Local Level Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley-Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Expanding cities are transforming periurban environments such as agricultural land, natural grasslands, forests, wetlands, and and land, into urban surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete. This transformation is part of a process defined as "urban heat island". The urban surfaces get much hotter during the daylight hours in the summer than the natural or vegetated environment. The heat builds up creating a dome effect over the city making it many degrees hotter than it's surrounding area. The impacts from this, which include higher usage of air conditioners, water, etc., are numerous and costly. As cities expand, this problem is exacerbated. It is necessary to incorporate better quality data into urban analysis and for establishing methods that systematically and objectively monitor growth and change due to increased urbanization. NASA initiated Project Atlanta in 1997 "as an interdisciplinary remote sensing study to observe and measure the growth and development of the urban heat island effect over Atlanta, and its associated impacts". This project has recently included Salt Lake City, among others, in the study of the development and effects of "urban heat islands". NASA has made available to Salt Lake City, high resolution, 10 meter, multispectral thermal data collected in June 1998. The data collection was part of a special NASA over-flight, a mission supported by the U.S. EPA in conjunction with their Urban Heat Island (UHI) Mitigation Initiative. Salt Lake City is one of three pilot cities selected to participate in this unique initiative. Hence, this project constitutes a rare opportunity to capitalize upon state-of-the-art NASA technology and link it to an urban community very concerned about rapid growth and development. This data will enhance existing data and be used for improving technical tools used to plan for Utah's future.

  16. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities Grants to Wisconsin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities grants totaling more than $800,000 to four cities in Wisconsin to fund green infrastructure projects that will improve water quality in

  17. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities Grants to Illinois, Indiana and Michigan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities grants totaling more than $430,000 to four cities in Illinois, Indiana and Michigan to fund green infrastructure projects that will impr

  18. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities Grants to Northern Ohio

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EUCLID, OHIO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities grants totaling more than $500,000 to three cities in northern Ohio to fund green infrastructure projects that will improve water q

  19. Hydrology of the Floral City Pool of Tsala Apopka Lake, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradner, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Tsala Apopka Lake, in west-central Florida, has an area of about 19,000 acres and is divided into three water-management pools, with the Floral City Pool, the most upgradient. The Floral City Pool, which has a surface area of approximately 4,750 acres, contains an extensive combination of lakes, wetlands, and connecting canals. The Pool receives inflow from the Withlacoochee River through two canals. Outflow is through one manmade canal and one natural slough. Canal flow is partially controlled by manmade structures. A cumulative deficit of 19.4 inches of rainfall from August 1984 through May 1985 reduced surface-water inflow to the Floral City Pool to about 0.5 cu ft/sec by May 1985. During May 1985, pool levels declined approximately 0.04 ft/day. By the end of May, there was no observable outflow. From June 1985 through September 1985, 39.8 inches of rainfall caused above-average inflow to the Floral City Pool and a pool-level increase of 6.2 ft. The inflow of 340 CFS nearly equaled the outflow of 338 CFS by the end of September. (USGS)

  20. Report to the Utah State Board of Education on the Teacher Education Programs at Westminster College of Salt Lake City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The state approval on-site visitation team report to the Utah State Office of Education on the current status of teacher education programs leading to certification at Westminster College of Salt Lake City is presented. The team evaluated the organization and administration of teacher education and curriculum principles and patterns. In each area,…

  1. Scope of work-supplemental standards-related fieldwork - Salt Lake City UMTRA Project Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-23

    This scope of work governs the field effort to conduct transient in situ (hereafter referred to by the trademark name HydroPunch{reg_sign}) investigative subsurface logging and ground water sampling, and perform well point installation services at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Salt Lake City, Utah. The HydroPunch{reg_sign} and well point services subcontractor (the Subcontractor) shall provide services as stated herein to be used to investigate the subsurface, collect and analyze ground water samples, and install shallow well points.

  2. WILD CATTLE MOUNTAIN AND HEART LAKE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Denton, David K.

    1984-01-01

    The results of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas in California indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic, nonmetallic, or fossil fuel resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and noncompetitive geothermal lease applications have been filed on much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park. Geochemical and geologic data indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Growler and Morgan Hot Springs just southwest of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, the entire Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of the Heart Lake Roadless Area have a substantiated geothermal resource potential; the rest of the Heart Lake Roadless Area has a probable geothermal resource potential.

  3. Mechanisms influencing changes in lake area in Alaskan boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David; Jones, Jeremy B.

    2011-01-01

    During the past ∼50 years, the number and area of lakes have declined in several regions in boreal forests. However, there has been substantial finer-scale heterogeneity; some lakes decreased in area, some showed no trend, and others increased. The objective of this study was to identify the primary mechanisms underlying heterogeneous trends in closed-basin lake area. Eight lake characteristics (δ18O, electrical conductivity, surface : volume index, bank slope, floating mat width, peat depth, thaw depth at shoreline, and thaw depth at the forest boundary) were compared for 15 lake pairs in Alaskan boreal forest where one lake had decreased in area since ∼1950, and the other had not. Mean differences in characteristics between paired lakes were used to identify the most likely of nine mechanistic scenarios that combined three potential mechanisms for decreasing lake area (talik drainage, surface water evaporation, and terrestrialization) with three potential mechanisms for nondecreasing lake area (subpermafrost groundwater recharge through an open talik, stable permafrost, and thermokarst). A priori expectations of the direction of mean differences between decreasing and nondecreasing paired lakes were generated for each scenario. Decreasing lakes had significantly greater electrical conductivity, greater surface : volume indices, shallower bank slopes, wider floating mats, greater peat depths, and shallower thaw depths at the forest boundary. These results indicated that the most likely scenario was terrestrialization as the mechanism for lake area reduction combined with thermokarst as the mechanism for nondecreasing lake area. Terrestrialization and thermokarst may have been enhanced by recent warming which has both accelerated permafrost thawing and lengthened the growing season, thereby increasing plant growth, floating mat encroachment, transpiration rates, and the accumulation of organic matter in lake basins. The transition to peatlands associated

  4. Environmental geophysics and sequential aerial photo study at Sunfish and Marsden Lakes, Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Padar, C.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Anderson, A.W.; Benson, M.A.; Stevanov, J.E.; Daudt, C.R.; Miller, S.F.; Knight, D.E. |

    1995-08-01

    Geophysical studies at Site H of Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant have delineated specific areas of dumping and waste disposal. Anomalous areas noted in the geophysical data sets have been correlated with features visible in a chronological sequence of aerial photos. The photos aid in dating the anthropogenic changes and in interpreting the geophysical anomalies observed at Site H and across Sunfish Lake. Specifically, two burn cages and what has been interpreted as their surrounding debris have been delineated. The areal extent of another waste site has been defined in the southwest corner of Area H-1. Depth estimates to the top of the Area H-1 anomalies show that the anomalies lie below lake level, indicative of dumping directly into Sunfish Lake. Except for these areas along the northwestern shore, there is no evidence of waste disposal along the shoreline or within the present-day lake margins. Magnetic, electromagnetic, and ground-penetrating-radar data have pinpointed the locations of mounds, observable in aerial photos, around the first burn cage. The second burn cage and its surrounding area have also been clearly defined from aerial photos, with support from further geophysical data. Additional analysis of the data has yielded volumetric estimates of the amount of material that would need removal in the event of excavation of the anomalous areas. Magnetic and electromagnetic profiles were also run across Marsden Lake. On the basis of these data, it has been concluded that no large-scale dumping has occurred in or around Marsden Lake.

  5. Hydrogeology of the Tully Lakes area in southern Onondaga and Cortland counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.; Miller, Todd S.; Hetcher, Kari K.

    2001-01-01

    Glacial processes created the many kettlehole lakes, ponds, and depressions in the Tully Lakes area, as well as the Valley Heads Moraine, which forms the drainage divide between the St. Lawrence River drainage to the north and the Susquehanna River drainage to the south. The first hydrogeologic studies of the Tully Lakes area began in the 1870's, when the lakes were considered as a possible water supply for the city of Syracuse. Water was diverted from some of the northwestern lakes and ponds into the Tully Valley; these diversions occurred as early as the 1840's and ceased in the early 1960's, with the closure of the eastern Tully Valley brinefield. In 1998, the USGS began a 2-year hydrogeologic study of the aquifer system underlying the Tully Lakes area that included monitoring water levels in five of the Tully Lakes and more than 50 wells. The average annual water-level fluctuations in the three western lakes ranged from about 2.5 feet to 6 feet. Water-level fluctuations in the eastern lakes, near the center of the valley, were much less--about 1.5 feet, because these lakes have natural outlets. Three sets of ground-water-level measurements were made from the spring recharge period through the fall dry period of 2000. The resulting potentiometric-surface maps indicate that the water-level declines from the spring to the fall ranged from 1.5 to 8 feet. The ground-water divide is about 1 mile south of the Valley Heads Moraine crest in the spring and migrates southward in response to declining water levels in the surficial aquifer during the fall. Water-surface altitudes in the kettlehole lakes and ponds respond slowly to seasonal water-level changes in the surrounding aquifer and often differ from water levels in the aquifer because the poorly permeable lakebed sediments impede the exchange of water.

  6. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Most of the population of Utah lives just west of the Wasatch Mountains in the north central part of the state. This broad east-northeastward view shows that region with the cities of Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo seen from left to right. The Great Salt Lake (left) and Utah Lake (right) are quite shallow and appear greenish in this enhanced natural color view. Thousands of years ago ancient Lake Bonneville covered all of the lowlands seen here. Its former shoreline is clearly seen as a wave-cut bench and/or light colored 'bathtub ring' at several places along the base of the mountain front - evidence seen from space of our ever-changing planet.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic, and a false sky. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  7. 36 CFR 7.62 - Lake Chelan National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Chelan National Recreation Area. 7.62 Section 7.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.62 Lake Chelan...

  8. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ross Lake National Recreation Area. 7.69 Section 7.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation...

  9. 36 CFR 7.62 - Lake Chelan National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Chelan National Recreation Area. 7.62 Section 7.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.62 Lake Chelan...

  10. 36 CFR 7.62 - Lake Chelan National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Chelan National Recreation Area. 7.62 Section 7.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.62 Lake Chelan...

  11. 36 CFR 7.62 - Lake Chelan National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Chelan National Recreation Area. 7.62 Section 7.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.62 Lake Chelan...

  12. Assessment of metals distribution and microbial contamination at selected lake waters in and around Miri City, East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, M V; Nagarajan, R; Chidambaram, S; Elayaraja, A

    2012-09-01

    A baseline study was carried out to assess the metal concentrations and microbial contamination at selected Lake waters in and around Miri City, East Malaysia. Sixteen surface water samples were collected at specific Lakes in the environs of major settlement areas and recreational centers in Miri City. The Physico-chemical parameters [pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO)], metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were analysed. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Ni have been found to be above the permissible limits of drinking water quality standards. The metals data have also been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index. Higher values of E. coli indicate microbial contamination in the Lake waters.

  13. Hydrology of the Lake Deaton and Lake Okahumpka area, Northeast Sumter County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simonds, Edward P.; German, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer in the Lake Deaton and Lake Okahumpka area is 50 to 130 feet below land surface. During the 16-year period 1963-78 lake evaporation exceeded rainfall by 0.4 inches. Drainage from Lake Deaton and its surrounding area goes into Chitty Chatty Creek and on the Hogeye Sink when the altitude of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is low. During a higher altitude of the Floridan potentiometric surface, Hogeye Sink may discharge water; this water, along with the normal runoff, goes into Lake Okahumpka. Average lake fluctuation is 1.5 to 2.0 feet per year. Lake Deaton supports a large population of blue-green algae and Lake Okahumpka is choked with aquatic plants. The water quality of the two lakes differ, with Lake Deaton having a sodium chloride water and Lake Okahumpka having a calcium bicarbonate water. Analysis of water and bottom material samples showed that only cadmium and mercury exceeded the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation 's criteria for Class III waters; however, the amounts detected were at or slightly above the limits of the analytical method. (USGS)

  14. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  15. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  16. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  17. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  18. Impact of lake breezes on ozone and nitrogen oxides in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.

    2015-05-01

    Meteorological and air quality datasets from summertime (May to September, 2010-2012) were analysed in order to assess the influence of lake-breeze circulations on pollutant levels in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). While previous estimates of the frequency of summer days experiencing lake breezes range between 25 and 32 % for the GTA, a simple algorithm using surface meteorological observations suggested Lake Ontario breezes occurred on 56% of summer days, whereas a more reliable multiplatform approach yielded a frequency of 74%. Data from five air quality stations across the GTA were used to compare air quality on days during which a lake-breeze circulation formed ("lake breeze days") versus days when one did not ("non-lake breeze days"). Average daytime O3 maxima were 13.6-14.8 ppb higher on lake breeze days relative to non-lake breeze days. Furthermore, the Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria (AAQC) for 1-h average O3 (80 ppb) and 8-h average O3 (65 ppb) were exceeded only on lake breeze days and occurred on a total of 30 and 54 days throughout the study period, respectively. A causal link between lake-breeze circulations and enhanced O3 was identified by examining several days in which only some of the air quality sites were inside the lake-breeze circulation. O3 mixing ratios at sites located within the circulation were at least 30 ppb higher than sites outside the circulation, despite similar temperatures, cloud conditions and synoptic regimes across the region. Rapid O3 increases were concurrent with the arrival of the lake-breeze front, suggesting O3-rich air from over the lake is being advected inland throughout the day. Lake-breeze circulations were found to have less impact on nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels. Morning NOx was greater on lake breeze days, probably due to the stagnant conditions favourable for lake breeze formation. During the late afternoon, only inland sites experience increased NOx on lake breeze days, likely as a result of being downwind

  19. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  20. 76 FR 67533 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cities of South Lake Tahoe, CA and Stateline, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cities of South Lake Tahoe, CA and... behind (south of) Heavenly Village Center (Raley's Shopping Center) and then along a new...

  1. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  2. 78 FR 2430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT... February 11, 2013. ADDRESSES: Duncan Metcalfe, Natural History Museum of Utah, 301 Wakara Way, Salt Lake... funerary objects should contact Duncan Metcalfe, Natural History Museum of Utah, 301 Wakara Way, Salt...

  3. 75 FR 13232 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... Pipe from Lake Mead throughout 2010. This safety zone is necessary to ensure non-authorized...

  4. 76 FR 2579 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... blasting operations for the placement of a water intake pipe in Lake Mead during the first 6 months of...

  5. Lake and bog development at Glimmerglass lake in the Sylvania Wilderness Area, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Brugam, R.B.; Owen, B.; McKeever, K.

    1995-06-01

    We used pollen and diatom analysis to reconstruct post-glacial development of Glimmerglass Lake and its adjacent Sphagnum peatland using transacts of cores. Glimmerglass lake has existed since late-glacial times with little or no change in water levels. In contrast the peatland began growing as a floating mat in a pond that was separated from the main lake by a spit of land. Over time, the floating mat became grounded in the pond but continued growing to cover an adjacent low area that had never been underwater. The peatland continues to grow even though it is approximately 2 m above the level of the adjacent lake. It seems that the peat has slowed drainage into the lake and allowed the peatland to grow above the level of the lake. It is unclear whether climatic change or hydrology controls the rate of accumulation of the peat.

  6. Fifteen-year aerosol optical depth climatology for Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalsky, Joseph; Lebaron, Brock

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its wavelength dependence have been measured for the past 15 years in the Salt Lake City metropolitan area using a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer. The instrument has not experienced a major hardware failure. It has been continuously field calibrated for extraterrestrial responses in its five aerosol channels. The instrument's cosine response was measured in 1996 and again in 2012. In our analysis of this 15 year data set, linear interpolation of these two cosine responses was used to approximate the angular response between the two characterizations. The Salt Lake City aerosol burden increased through the mid-2000s, but has dropped to its lowest level of the record since that time despite a population increase of approximately 25%. Annually, the aerosol burden is highest in midspring and midsummer with relatively coarse aerosols during the spring peak and fine aerosols during the summer peak. There is no indication of a diurnal cycle in AOD. There is a significant, but low, correlation between PM2.5 and 500 nm AOD, and a slightly lower correlation between PM10 and 500 nm AOD. The correlations between the surface-based measurements and total column AOD explain only 13% and 9% of the variance, respectively. Measurements are continuing to track future trends.

  7. Program Contacts for Lake Pontchartrain Area/New Orleans (Louisiana)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lake Pontchartrain Area/New Orleans (Louisiana) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts

  8. Photo Gallery for Lake Pontchartrain Area/New Orleans (Louisiana)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lake Pontchartrain Area/New Orleans (Louisiana) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  9. Links Related to Lake Pontchartrain Area/New Orleans (Louisiana)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lake Pontchartrain Area/New Orleans (Louisiana) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts

  10. 15. View east of original machine shop area. Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View east of original machine shop area. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  11. Dynamics in urban water quality: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vlugt, Corné; Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuurman, Roelof; Broers, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Urban water quality is influenced by a large number of heterogeneous sources. We aimed to identify solute pathways from different sources in the urban area of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The city is situated in the Dutch delta, and largely below mean sea level. The water system of the centre of the city is connected to the large fresh water lake Ijsselmeer, but suburbs are mainly located within reclaimed lake and polder areas where water is pumped out in order to maintain the water levels, which are generally 1 tot 4 m. below sea level. Sources of water include: urban storm runoff, inlet water from the Ijsselmeer and surrounding areas, groundwater seepage and possibly also leaking sewage systems. The temporal dynamics and spatial patterns related to these flow routes and sources were largely unknown to date. Water quality is measured at those pumping stations systematically each month. We analysed the pumping discharge data and the concentration data to calculate daily water balances and annual load estimates for HCO3,Ca, Cl, Na, SO4, Ptot, Ntot ,NH4, NH3 and NO3. Chloride appears to be a good tracer to identify inlet water and bicarbonate and DIC were effective to estimate the groundwater contribution to the surface water outflow to the regional system. We were able to improve the solute balances by calibrating the measured temporal patterns of chloride and DIC using known concentrations from the individual sources. Subsequently the water balances where used to identify periods where one of the sources was dominant and by doing so we improved our understanding of the dynamics of N, P and S fluxes and the relations with dry and wet meteorological conditions. It appeared that N and P were largely related to groundwater outflow , whereas S was mainly related to dry periods and shallow flow routes influenced by sewage, urban storm runoff and shallow groundwater flow . The results are used to optimize urban water management which benefits from the improved insight in

  12. Emerging Contaminant Sources Fate in Recharged Treated Wasterwater, Lake Havasu City, Arizona

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2008 the City of Lake Havasu, Arizona, began a subsurface, effluent injection program to store treated wastewater effluent, which will eventually be seasonally recovered to balance the demand for irrigation during the summer months. As a proactive measure, the City decided to ...

  13. Were Holocene large slumps in Lake Geneva off the city of Lausanne caused by fault activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia Demand, Jehanne; Marillier, François; Kremer, Katrina; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2014-05-01

    Lake Geneva is set in an area where glacier advances and retreats have carved Tertiary Molasse rocks in front of the Alpine units. Glacial and lacustrine sediments have accumulated in the lake on top of the Molasse. Within Holocene sedimentary layers, seismic studies in the central part of Lake Geneva ("Grand-Lac") have shown the presence of several mass transport deposits (MTD). A large one, MTD A, is observed off the city of Lausanne. The depth of the associated failure scars (100 m water depth), its volume (~ 0.13 km3), and the occurrence of other smaller MTDs that were possibly co-deposited with MTD A point to the occurrence of a major slide event in the lake, most likely associated with an earthquake. Based on 14C dating, the sediment age model for MTD A gives an age interval of 1865-1608 BC (Kremer et al. 2014). To resolve the details of the MTDs off Lausanne, and to better understand its geological context different seismic systems were used. These were a 3.5 KHz pinger with a theoretical vertical resolution of 0.15 m and a multichannel system with water-gun or air-gun seismic sources with vertical resolution of 0.6 m and 1.1 m, respectively. After a first pass processing, the multi-channel data were reprocessed in order to take into account the shape of the streamer in the water and to enhance the results of migration. In addition to typical seismic images of MTDs observed in other alpine lakes such as chaotic or transparent seismic character between well-organized reflections, two intriguing positive water-bottom topographic features associated with apparent sub-vertical offsets are revealed by the seismic data. They are located in the near vicinity of the depot centers of the MTDs and conspicuously located near faults in the Tertiary Molasse. These are thrust faults that are offset by small strike-slip faults, and we suggest that the positive topographic features are linked to a compressive component within the sediments due to displacements along these

  14. Lakes in the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of an inventory of the lakes in the central one-third of the Colorado Front Range Urban Corridor. This inventory provides information that might be helpful in planning the best and most beneficial use of lakes in an area of rapid population growth. The report includes data on lake size and water quality. Size data are included on most of the lakes of 2 hectares (20,000 m2, or about 5 acres) or greater, and water-quality data are provided on most lakes larger than 10 hectares (about 25 acres). Bodies of water resulting form excavation of gravel (borrow pits) were generally not included in the inventory.

  15. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'', to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective to investigate the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City. This paper summarizes our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance and annual C02 reduction of HIR strategies in the three initial cities. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer most savings potential: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by old or new construction and with a gas furnace or an electric heat pump. We defined prototypical building characteristics for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.IE model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on building [direct effect], (3) combined strategies I and 2 [direct effect], (4) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (5) combined strategies 1, 2 and 4 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show, that in Baton Rouge, potential annual energy savings of $15M could be realized by rate-payers from

  16. Growth and potential yield of perch (Perca spp.) in selected areas of Lake Baikal and the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Bronte, Charles R.; Hatcher, Charles O.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Sokolnikov, Yury

    1998-01-01

    We compared growth, mortality, and potential yield of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Chivirkui Bay in Lake Baikal with that of yellow perch (P. flavescens) from three areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes --Chequamegon Bay in Lake Superior, northeastern Lake Ontario, and southwestern Lake Erie. Graded mesh gill nets were fished in August to sample perch in lakes Baikal (1993), Ontario (1985-93), and Erie (1994). Bottom trawls were fished in July-August to sample perch in Lake Superior (1973-93). Adult yellow perch from the Laurentian Great Lakes were heavier at most lengths than adult Eurasian perch from Lake Baikal. The increase in body weight per unit increase in length was greatest in Lake Erie. Total annual mortality of perch was low in Lake Baikal (0.31), intermediate in lakes Superior (0.41) and Ontario (0.54), and high in Lake Erie (0.66). Annual fishing mortality (u) for perch in Lake Baikal was 60%-70% lower than that for perch in the Great Lakes. At ages 1-3, perch in Lake Erie were longer than those in lakes Baikal, Superior, and Ontario but at ages 4-9 perch in Lake Baikal were longer than those in the other lakes. Although Eurasian perch in Lake Baikal were longer at age 4 and older, growth in length, as measured by the Brody growth coefficient, K, was lower there than in the other lakes and was similar to that in Lake Superior; yellow perch in Lake Erie grew the fastest. Yield-per-recruit was lowest in Lake Erie and highest in Lake Superior. Potential yield was influenced by growth rates and fishing mortality.

  17. Holiday CO2: Inference from the Salt Lake City data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, J.; Fung, I. Y.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Stephens, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    A network of high-frequency CO2 sensors has been established in Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah (http://co2.utah.edu/), and the annual/monthly pattern of CO2 variability is consistent with a priori estimates of CO2 fluxes (McKain et al., 2012). Here we ask if short-term changes in anthropogenic sources can be detected, and present a case study of Thanksgiving holiday, when traffic and energy use patterns are expected to be different from that during the rest of the month. CO2 mole fraction is much higher during the Thanksgiving holidays than the other days in November 2008 for all 5 sites in SLC, and a similar pattern is found in other years. Taking into account that the wind speed is relatively low in downtown SLC compared to the other SLC sites, the downtown site is further investigated to minimize the meteorological influence on CO2. In order to understand the relative contributions to the high level of CO2 during the Thanksgiving holidays, we carried out a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis of the rate of CO2 change against various sources. Mobile CO2 sources are assumed to be proportional to local traffic data and residential CO2 sources are assumed to depend exponentially on temperature. Vulcan data were used to specify the other anthropogenic sources (commercial, industrial, nonroad, electricity, aircraft, and cement). The MLR analysis shows that during the Thanksgiving holidays CO2 contributions from residential and commercial CO2 are larger than that during the rest of November, and mobile sources represent only a relatively small contribution. The study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting changes in urban source contributions using high-frequency measurements in combination with daily PBL height and local traffic volume data.

  18. Environmental geophysics and sequential air photo study at Sunfish Lake Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Padar, C.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-11-01

    Geophysical and air photo studies at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP), Minnesota, were conducted to establish a chronology of dumping and waste disposal. This study was undertaken to aid in the assessment of the amount of remediation needed to reclaim a wetland area. An integrated analysis of electromagnetic, magnetic and ground-penetrating RADAR (GPR) measurements over a 25-acre site, provided the information necessary to define waste disposal events. These events are observed on a sequence of aerial photos taken between 1940 and 1993. The former southwestern embayment of the lake, filled in during the original construction of the base, has been clearly defined. Two burn cages and their surrounding debris have been delineated. The areal extent of another waste site has been defined along the northern shoreline. Depth estimates determined from EM-61 analysis, and depths to original lake bottom, derived from GPR, have yielded volumetric estimates of the amount of material that would need removal if excavation is required. Magnetic and electromagnetic data have pinpointed the locations of mounds, observed from historical air photos. Except for these areas along the Northwestern shore, there is no evidence of waste disposal along the shoreline or within the present-day lake margins. The ability to date the anomalous regions is significant, in that different production demands upon TCAAP, during the time periods of WWII, The Korean War, and The Vietnam Conflict, have resulted in different types of waste. The ability to categorize areas with distinct time periods of operation and waste disposal can greatly aid the environmental cleanup effort with regard to the type of contaminants that might be expected at these poorly documented disposal sites.

  19. Lake Holloman Recreational Area Development Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    an artificial lake outside of the Holloman AFB main base. The Boles Well Water System Annex currently consists of groundwater wells that supply...Holloman AFB with all of the Base’s potable water. The development of Boles Well Reservoir would require construction of a 10 million gallon artificial ... intelligence , counterintelligence, and other security programs. In response to terrorist attacks and the need to improve force protection, the DoD in

  20. City Core - detecting the anthropocene in urban lake cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjaer, K. H.; Ilsøe, P.; Andresen, C. S.; Rasmussen, P.; Andersen, T. J.; Frei, R.; Schreiber, N.; Odgaard, B.; Funder, S.; Holm, J. M.; Andersen, K.

    2011-12-01

    Here, we presents the preliminary results from lake cores taken in ditches associated with the historical fortifications enclosing the oldest - central Copenhagen to achieve new knowledge from sediment deposits related to anthropogenic activities. We have examined sediment cores with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers to correlate element patterns from urban and industrial emissions. Thus, we aim to track these patterns back in time - long before regular routines of recording of atmospheric environment began around 1978. Furthermore, we compare our data to alternative sources of information in order to constrain and expand the temporal dating limits (approximately 1890) achieved from 210Pb activity. From custom reports and statistic sources, information on imported volumes from coal, metal and oil was obtained and related contaminants from these substances to the sediment archives. Intriguingly, we find a steep increase in import of coal and metals matching the exponential increase of lead and zinc counts from XRF-recordings of the sediment cores. In this finding, we claim to have constrain the initiation of urban industrialization. In order to confirm the age resolution of the lake cores, DNA was extracted from sediments, sedaDNA. Thus we attempt to trace plantation of well documented exotic plants to, for instance, the Botanical Garden. Through extraction and sampling of sedaDNA from these floral and arboreal specimens we intend to locate their strataigraphic horizons in the sediment core. These findings may correlate data back to 1872, when the garden was established on the area of the former fortification. In this line of research, we hope to achieve important supplementary knowledge of sedaDNA-leaching frequencies within freshwater sediments.

  1. Impact of Taihu Lake on city ozone in the Yangtze River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jinhui; Kang, Hanqing

    2017-02-01

    The lake-breeze at Taihu Lake generates a different specific heat capacity between the water body and the surrounding land. Taihu Lake has a significant impact on the atmospheric conditions and the air quality in the Yangtze River Delta. This phenomenon is referred to as the Taihu Lake effect. In this study, two simulations were conducted to determine the impact of the Taihu Lake effect in the reference experiment (R-E) and sensitivity experiments (NO_TH). The control simulations demonstrated that the meteorological field and the spatial distribution of ozone (O3) concentrations over Taihu lake obviously changed once the land-use type of water body was substituted by cropland. The surface temperature of Taihu Lake was reduced under the impact of Taihu Lake, and a huge temperature difference caused a strong lake-breeze effect. The results also showed that the difference in the average concentrations of O3 between the R-E and NO TH experiments reached 12 ppbv in most areas of Taihu Lake, all day, on 20 May 2014. During daytime (0800-1600 LST, LST=UTC+8), the influence of the Taihu Lake effect on O3 in the Suzhou region was not significant. However, the influence of the Taihu Lake effect on O3 in the Suzhou region was obvious during nighttime (1800-2400 LST). The larger changes in the physical and chemical processes were horizontal and vertical advections under the influence of the Taihu Lake effect in Taihu Lake.

  2. 36 CFR 7.57 - Lake Meredith National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... number 662-525-1431 dated July 9, 1965, such Rosita Area comprising about 1,500 acres. (b) Safety Helmets... Lake Meredith except in the following closed areas: stilling basin below Sanford Dam, within 750 feet of the Sanford Dam intake tower, and on the waters of the Canadian River. (2) PWC may operate on...

  3. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  4. Area contingency plan Western Lake Erie. (COTP Toledo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-31

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Erie Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Toledo Coastal Zone.

  5. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  6. Impacts of upwind wildfire emissions on CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations in Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallia, D. V.; Lin, J. C.; Urbanski, S.; Ehleringer, J.; Nehrkorn, T.

    2015-01-01

    burning is known to contribute large quantities of CO2, CO, and PM2.5 to the atmosphere. Biomass burning not only affects the area in the vicinity of fire but may also impact the air quality far downwind from the fire. The 2007 and 2012 western U.S. wildfire seasons were characterized by significant wildfire activity across much of the Intermountain West and California. In this study, we determined the locations of wildfire-derived emissions and their aggregate impacts on Salt Lake City, a major urban center downwind of the fires. To determine the influences of biomass burning emissions, we initiated an ensemble of stochastic back trajectories at the Salt Lake City receptor within the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, driven by wind fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The trajectories were combined with a new, high-resolution biomass burning emissions inventory—the Wildfire Emissions Inventory. Initial results showed that the WRF-STILT model was able to replicate many periods of enhanced wildfire activity observed in the measurements. Most of the contributions for the 2007 and 2012 wildfire seasons originated from fires located in Utah and central Idaho. The model results suggested that during intense episodes of upwind wildfires in 2007 and 2012, fires contributed as much as 250 ppb of CO during a 3 h period and 15 µg/m3 of PM2.5 averaged over 24 h at Salt Lake City. Wildfires had a much smaller impact on CO2 concentrations in Salt Lake City, with contributions rarely exceeding 2 ppm enhancements.

  7. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other... HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities... purchase by each Enterprise of mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and...

  8. 78 FR 17869 - Safety Zone; Desert Storm Shootout; Lake Havasu, Lake Havasu City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Lake Havasu, Lake Havasu... LLC is sponsoring the Desert Storm Shootout, which is to be held on the Colorado River in Lake Havasu... vessels intending to transit or anchor in a portion of the Colorado River from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. on...

  9. 78 FR 6832 - Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The mailing address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Utah State Office, in Salt Lake City, Utah, will be changing from P.O....

  10. Forest Technology Program, Lake City Community College: The Founding of a School, the Evolution of a College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Susan Robinson

    Since 1947, Lake City Community College (LCCC) has evolved from a forest ranger school to a junior college to a true community college. After World War II, Lake City, the "Forestry Capitol of the World," converted a local air base into the Columbia Forestry School (CFS). The first few years were characterized by extremely low enrollment and…

  11. Geothermal resource assessment of Canon City, Colorado Area

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 a program was initiated to fully define the geothermal conditions of an area east of Canon City, bounded by the mountains on the north and west, the Arkansas River on the south and Colorado Highway 115 on the east. Within this area are a number of thermal springs and wells in two distinct groups. The eastern group consists of 5 thermal artesian wells located within one mile of Colorado Highway 115 from Penrose on the north to the Arkansas river on the south. The western group, located in and adjacent to Canon City, consists of one thermal spring on the south bank of the Arkansas River on the west side of Canon City, a thermal well in the northeast corner of Canon City, another well along the banks of Four Mile Creek east of Canon City and a well north of Canon City on Four Mile Creek. All the thermal waters in the Canon City Embayment, of which the study area is part of, are found in the study area. The thermal waters unlike the cold ground waters of the Canon City Embayment, are a calcium-bicarbonate type and range in temperature from 79 F (26 C) to a high of 108 F (42 C). The total combined surface discharge o fall the thermal water in the study area is in excess of 532 acre feet (A.F.) per year.

  12. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  13. A framework for profiling a lake's riparian area development potential.

    PubMed

    Jakes, Pamela J; Schlichting, Ciara; Anderson, Dorothy H

    2003-12-01

    Some of the greatest challenges for managing residential development occur at the interface between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems--in a lake's riparian area. Land use planners need a framework they can use to identify development hotspots, areas were the next push for development will most likely occur. Lake riparian development profiles provide a framework for linking ecological and social factors important to development. In a test of this framework in northern Minnesota, researchers identified seven constructs influencing riparian area development: current general development, current housing development, and availability, accessibility, suitability, aesthetics, and proximity to services. Profiles display a lake's value for each construct relative to the range of values for all lakes in the county. Maps, developed using indicators for several constructs, allow us to identify how the factors interact and are dispersed across the landscape. These profiles help policy makers, planners, and managers identify lakes that are potential development hotspots so they can take timely steps to manage development or control the impacts of development.

  14. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Ortman, Scott G.; Smith, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step—to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics—has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces. PMID

  15. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    PubMed

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  16. Ground penetrating radar study of the Cheko Lake area, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipan, M.; Baradello, L.; Forte, E.; Gasperini, L.; Bonatti, E.; Longo, Giuseppe

    2000-04-01

    We performed an integrated acoustic and GPR study of the Cheko Lake area (101 degrees E, 62 degrees N) during summer 1999. The GPR study aimed at imaging lake bottom and shallow sedimentary layers to plan coring of sediments coeval with the catastrophic 1908 explosion. The water of the Cheko Lake strongly attenuates radar waves. Therefore, the central and northern sectors of the lake (30 m average depth) were surveyed by means of acoustic techniques only. Integrated acoustic and GPR techniques were used in the shallow southern sector. More than 5 km of radar profiles were obtained in the lake, using 50 MHz and 100 MHz antennas. 150 meters of 200 MHz multi-fold profiles were obtained across the only accessible sectors on land. The GPR profiles processed to date successfully image discontinuities at depths greater than 700 cm. Comparison with acoustic results shows that GPR provides high resolution images of the depth range of interest (0 - 500 cm) which complement the information obtained from sub-bottom profilers and can be calibrated by the gravity cores. A deep (700 cm) flat sub-horizontal reflector, shallow (0 - 200 cm) dipping layers, sigmoidal structures and local chaotic lenses are the primary features imaged by GPR in the lake.

  17. COUGAR LAKES-MOUNT AIX WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, George C.; Van Noy, Ronald M.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Cougar Lakes-Mount Aix Wilderness study area in Washington was carried out to assess its mineral-resource potential. The study included reconnaissance geologic mapping and geochemical sampling, statistical analyses of samples, interpretation of an aeromagnetic survey, and an investigation of mining properties. These studies indicate that the area has a probable mineral-resource potential for silver, copper, manganese, mercury, tungsten, and zinc. This resource potential occurs in four small isolated areas in the southern half of the study area, and in a larger area which has a potential for porphyry copper, near the north boundary of the study area.

  18. Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    PubMed Central

    YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.

    2011-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624

  19. 76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011--Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical... Technical Review Board will hold a public meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah, on Tuesday, September 13, and....m. and will be held at the Little America Hotel; 500 South Main Street; Salt Lake City, Utah...

  20. Neotectonic fault structures in the Lake Thun area (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Stefano C.; Herwegh, Marco; Schlunegger, Fritz; Hübscher, Christian; Weiss, Benedikt J.; Schmelzbach, Cédric; Horstmeyer, Heinrich; Merz, Kaspar; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2016-04-01

    Strong historic earthquakes (i.e. intensities I0 ≥ V) in Switzerland are well documented by the earthquake catalogue of Switzerland ECOS-09 (e.g. Frutigen, 1729 AD, Mw=5.2, I0=VI). Many of these strong events can be recognized paleoseismically by large subaquatic, earthquake-triggered mass movements that occur frequently in Swiss Lakes. Some of these represent the occasional occurrence of even stronger earthquakes (i.e. Mw ˜6.5) in the Alpine region (Strasser et al., 2013), which are expected to produce noticeable surface ruptures. However, convincing evidence for Quaternary displacements with offset surface expressions have scarcely been found (e.g., Wiemer et al., 2009). Applying a multi-disciplinary approach, this study presents potential candidates for such faults in the larger Lake Thun area at the edge of the Alps. The overdeepened basin of Lake Thun is situated at the northern Alpine front, which extends orthogonally to the general strike direction of the Alpine nappe front. The northern shoreline is predominantly shaped by the front of the Subalpine Molasse, which is in strong contrast to the south western shore built by the structurally higher units of the Middle and Lower Penninic nappes. This pattern with obvious differences of both lake sides suggests a major fault along the lake axis and high tectonic activity during nappe emplacement, i.e. from Eocene times throughout the Late Miocene. The area is dominated today by a strike-slip stress regime with a slight normal faulting component (Kastrup et al., 2004). As part of a multi-disciplinary study, attempting to find potential neotectonically active fault structures in the Lake Thun area, a 2D ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was conducted. The aim of the GPR survey was to link observations from a multichannel reflection seismic survey and a multibeam bathymetric survey carried out in Lake Thun with findings in a nearby gravel quarry revealing suspicious deformation features such as rotated gravel

  1. Archaeological Survey and Testing for the Upstream Work. Big Stone Lake-Whetstone River Project Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    Minnesota River valley between Ortonville and Big Stone City is the beginning point of Glacial River Warren which drained both Lake Agassiz I and...Lake Agassiz II in the terminal and early post-glacial Pleistocene. The valley is very wide and deep for its entire length, reflecting the huge...very small remnant of Glacial Lake Agassiz . Big Stone Lake has very little discharge and the upper Minnesota River is a small stream meandering over a

  2. Water resources of the Park City area, Utah, with emphasis on ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.; Thompson, Kendall R.; Enright, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The Park City area is a rapidly growing residential and recreational area about 30 miles east of Sal t Lake City (fig. 1). The area of study is about 140 square miles in which the principle industries are agriculture, skiing, and other recreational activities. The area once was a major lead- and silver-mining district, but no mines were active in 1984. A resumption in mining activity, however, could take place with an increase in the price of metals.The population of the Park City area is expected to increase rapidly in the near future; and the provision of an adequate water supply for the growing population, while avoiding harmful affects of development, is a major concern for local municipalities, developers, and the Utah Division of Water Rights. In addition, agricultural interests in and below the area are concerned about the effects of increased ground-water withdrawals on streamflow, which is fully appropriated by downstream users. The area also contains the proposed site for the Jordanelle dam, a part of the Bonneville unit of the central Utah Project. The damsite is near an historic mining area; and mining companies are concerned that if mining is resumed, the reservoir may create some additional dewatering problems in the mines.

  3. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

  4. Barriers to Academic Success in a Homeless Population in Salt Lake City, Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Carrie Highton

    This study explored the academic and physical barriers that homeless children in Utah encountered on a daily basis in a structured educational setting. The project was conducted in a shelter and resource center in Salt Lake City. Data were collected from 1 male and 14 female adults and 15 children, representing 15 families. A perceived barriers…

  5. Curriculum Development for Gifted Children in Salt Lake City--An Evolving Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicord, Barbara

    1984-01-01

    The curriculum director for Salt Lake City's gifted and talented program cites the advantages of using a thematic, interdisciplinary approach developed within the program and having access to administrative assistance in curriculum development. A curriculum map for developing curricula themes and/or processes is included. (CL)

  6. Environmental effects of dredging program: Leachate testing of Hamlet City Lake, North Carolina, sediment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B.

    1992-11-01

    Sediment leaching studies of Hamlet City Lake, Hamlet, NC, were conducted in laboratories at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The purpose of these studies was to provide quantitative information on the potential for leachate impacts on groundwaters if dredged material from Hamlet City Lake were placed in a confined disposal facility (CDF) or under disposal conditions similar to land-farming. The study involved three elements: batch leach tests, column leach tests, and simulations using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. Batch tests were conducted to determine intrinsic leaching characteristics of solids in Hamlet City Lake sediment. Column tests were conducted as a physical analog of continuous flow leaching in a CDF. HELP model simulations were conducted to simulate the generation of leachate by infiltration and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a disposal site liner. Results of this study showed that, under disposal conditions similar to land-farming, organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPHs) will decrease in concentration as the result of volatilization and or biodegradation.... Dredged material, Leachate, Permeameter, Hamlet city lake, Leaching, Heavy metals, Mass transport.

  7. RadNet Air Data From Salt Lake City, UT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Salt City, UT from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  8. Microbial quality of lakes around Dharwad City, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Bagade, N S; Belagali, S L

    2013-07-01

    Water being an essential component of food chain of living beings is contaminated day-by-day in the increasing order due to public apathy and improper management of water sources like lakes, reservoirs and ponds. The microbiological studies of Kelageri, Nuggikeri, Navalur, Neerasagar and Salakinakoppa lakes located around Dharwad were carried out with respect to total plate count (TPC),Total Fungal count (TFC) and total Coliform. They are highly contaminated with bacterial species like fecal Coliforms, E. coli, Bacillus species, Actinomycetes, Monococcus sps, Streptococcus sps. and Fungal sps like Pencilium, Fusarium, Mucor , Rhizopus, Yeast cells. The results indicate that the lakes except Neerasagar lake were considered to be unfit for drinking purpose due to the excess of anthropogenic activities, inflow of water through widespread agricultural land and stream, where the dairy industry, poultry, brick manufacturing unit, animal husbandry are maintained. The extent of pollution of water depends upon the dense population of these microorganisms which vary in rainy, winter and summer seasons. The presence of Fecal Streptococcal species viz., S. fecalis, S. equinus, S. faecium, S. bovis, S. avium, indicate the fecal pollution with seasonal variations throughout the year.

  9. 75 FR 5115 - Temporary Concession Contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ/NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... concession contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public notice... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ/NV AGENCY... the conduct of certain visitor services within Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Arizona and...

  10. Glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas--from an area-wide glacial lake inventory to on-site and modeling based risk assessment of critical glacial lakes.

    PubMed

    Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Glacial lake hazards and glacial lake distributions are investigated in many glaciated regions of the world, but comparably little attention has been given to these topics in the Indian Himalayas. In this study we present a first area-wide glacial lake inventory, including a qualitative classification at 251 glacial lakes >0.01 km(2). Lakes were detected in the five states spanning the Indian Himalayas, and lake distribution pattern and lake characteristics were found to differ significantly between regions. Three glacial lakes, from different geographic and climatic regions within the Indian Himalayas were then selected for a detailed risk assessment. Lake outburst probability, potential outburst magnitudes and associated damage were evaluated on the basis of high-resolution satellite imagery, field assessments and through the use of a dynamic model. The glacial lakes analyzed in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh were found to present moderate risks to downstream villages, whereas the lake in Sikkim severely threatens downstream locations. At the study site in Sikkim, a dam breach could trigger drainage of ca. 16×10(6)m(3) water and generate maximum lake discharge of nearly 7000 m(3) s(-). The identification of critical glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas and the detailed risk assessments at three specific sites allow prioritizing further investigations and help in the definition of risk reduction actions.

  11. 75 FR 6218 - New Melones Lake Area Resource Management Plan, Tuolumne and Calaveras Counties, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Office, New Melones ] Lake Office, 6850 Studhorse Flat Road, Sonora, California 95370. City of Angels... South Green St., 4th Floor, Sonora, CA 95370. Sonora Main Branch Library, 480 Greenley Rd, Sonora,...

  12. New ad campaign for St. Mark's Hospital in Salt Lake City: nursing is a calling, not just a career.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    A recent advertising campaign for St. Mark's Hospital in Salt Lake City focuses on the hospital's compassion and impeccable nurse care. The effort illustrates that nursing is not just a career, but a calling.

  13. Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway Regional Transportation Study; Great Lakes Area Industries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Regional Transportation Study is an element of this planning process . The objective of the GL/SLS Regional Transportation Study is to develop an up-to-date...system performance and ability to process future cargo flows Evaluation of the performance and economic feasibility of improvements to increase the...section is organized as follows: Basic steelmaking processes Production centers in the U.S. and Canada The industry in the Great Lakes area. These

  14. Numerical Simulation of the Life Cycle of a Persistent Wintertime Inversion over Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Linbo; Pu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Shigong

    2013-08-01

    An episode of persistent wintertime inversion over Salt Lake City, Utah and its vicinity from 1200 UTC 30 November to 0000 UTC 7 December 2010 is simulated using an advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The numerical simulations agree well with observed soundings in temperature, wind speed, and wind direction in the atmospheric boundary layer and above, although there are some differences near the surface due to the influence of complex terrain in the area. The characteristics of large-scale environmental conditions and their interactions with local-scale processes are analyzed to understand the factors that influence the onset and evolution of persistent inversions. It is found that the inversion formed mainly because of the interaction between the heating effect from a high-pressure ridge in the mid-troposphere and a near-surface cold pool due to the effects of radiation. During the following six to seven days, the high-pressure ridge was maintained and vertical motion very weak, allowing a persistent inversion to become established. Finally, the cold effect from a low-pressure trough in the mid-troposphere, combined with mixing due to vertical motion, led to extreme weakening of the persistent inversion.

  15. MULTISCALE MODELING OF AIR FLOW IN SALT LAKE CITY AND THE SURROUNDING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    M. BROWN; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    A general overview is given of a modeling effort to simulate the fate and transport of a tracer within the downtown core of Salt Lake City and beyond into the Salt Lake Basin. The problem crosses three significant scales where different physics are predominant: atmospheric mesoscale, city scale, and building scale. Three different computational fluid dynamics models were used, each with strengths at particular spatial and temporal scales. We show preliminary results and discuss what we believe to be the relevant phenomenon one must model as one crosses from atmospheric scale to engineering scale flow problems. We also describe our model validation efforts, including wind-tunnel and tow-tank experiments and a recently completed urban field experiment.

  16. 75 FR 34369 - Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing two temporary safety zones on Lake Michigan near Chicago, Illinois....

  17. 75 FR 22330 - Safety Zone; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a safety zone on Lake Michigan near Chicago, Illinois....

  18. Urbanization effects on stream habitat characteristics in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, T.M.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Relations between stream habitat and urban land-use intensity were examined in 90 stream reaches located in or near the metropolitan areas of Salt Lake City, Utah (SLC); Birmingham, Alabama (BIR); and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urban intensity was based on a multi-metric index (urban intensity index or UII) that included measures of land cover, socioeconomic organization, and urban infrastructure. Twenty-eight physical variables describing channel morphology, hydraulic properties, and streambed conditions were examined. None of the habitat variables was significantly correlated with urbanization intensity in all three study areas. Urbanization effects on stream habitat were less apparent for streams in SLC and BIR, owing to the strong influence of basin slope (SLC) and drought conditions (BIR) on local flow regimes. Streamflow in the BOS study area was not unduly influenced by similar conditions of climate and physiography, and habitat conditions in these streams were more responsive to urbanization. Urbanization in BOS contributed to higher discharge, channel deepening, and increased loading of fine-grained particles to stream channels. The modifying influence of basin slope and climate on hydrology of streams in SLC and BIR limited our ability to effectively compare habitat responses among different urban settings and identify common responses that might be of interest to restoration or water management programs. Successful application of land-use models such as the UII to compare urbanization effects on stream habitat in different environmental settings must account for inherent differences in natural and anthropogenic factors affecting stream hydrology and geomorphology. The challenge to future management of urban development is to further quantify these differences by building upon existing models, and ultimately develop a broader understanding of urbanization effects on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  19. Diversity and Composition of Bacterial Community in Soils and Lake Sediments from an Arctic Lake Area

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Yong; Dong, Long Long; Guo, Yu Dong; Ma, Yong Xing; Zang, Jia Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities within soils and lake sediments from an Arctic lake area (London Island, Svalbard). A total of 2,987 operational taxonomic units were identified by high-throughput sequencing, targeting bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The samples from four sites (three samples in each site) were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community composition. Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were abundant phyla in the nine soil samples, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant phyla in the three sediment samples. Furthermore, Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Elusimicrobia, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria significantly varied in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Additionally, members of the dominant genera, such as Clostridium, Luteolibacter, Methylibium, Rhodococcus, and Rhodoplanes, were significantly different in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Besides, distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.001), water content (p < 0.01), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, p < 0.01), silicate silicon (SiO42--Si, p < 0.01), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N, p < 0.05), organic carbon (p < 0.05), and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05) were the most significant factors that correlated with the bacterial community composition. The results suggest soils and sediments from a lake area in the Arctic harbor a high diversity of bacterial communities, which are influenced by many geochemical factors of Arctic environments. PMID:27516761

  20. Playing the City: Public Participation in a Contested Suburban Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauwaert, Maaike

    2009-01-01

    This article presents one case study of public participation in urban planning: the "Face Your World" project that took place in 2005 in the suburban area of Slotervaart, close to the Dutch city of Amsterdam. "Face Your World" was a participation project that aimed at engaging both younger and immigrant inhabitants of…

  1. Records of wells, water levels, and quality of ground water in the Sammamish Lake area, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liesch, Bruce A.

    1955-01-01

    This report, one of a series on the ground-water resources of the State of Washington, contains well records and other data collected during the course of an investigation in the Sammamish Lake area immediately east of Seattle, King County, Washington.  Most of these investigations are conducted in cooperation with the State of Washington, Department of Conservation and Development, Division of Water Resources.  However, a few investigations, including the one in the Sammamish Lake area, have been made entirely with Federal funds.  A similar investigation is now being made in the area to the west, including the city of Seattle and metropolitan areas to the north and south.  It is planned that results of teh two investigations will be combined into a single comprehencive report.  In order that the data collected can be made available sooner, this report as been prepared with only a brief explanatory and descriptive text.

  2. Algal and Water-Quality Data for Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Putnam, Larry D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of algae and water-quality sampling on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the algal community composition of Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake in relation to organisms that are known producers of unwanted tastes and odors in drinking-water supplies. Algal assemblage structure (phytoplankton and periphyton) was examined at 16 sites on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007, and actinomycetes bacteria were sampled at the Rapid City water treatment plant intake in May 2007, to determine if taste-and-odor producing organisms were present. During the May 2007 sampling, 3 Rapid Creek sites and 4 Canyon Lake sites were quantitatively sampled for phytoplankton in the water column, 7 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 4 lake and retention pond sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Five Rapid Creek sites were sampled for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, two common taste-and-odor causing compounds known to affect water supplies. During the September 2007 sampling, 4 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 3 Canyon Lake sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were measured during each sampling event. Methods of collection and sample analysis are presented for the various types of biological and chemical constituent samples. Diatoms comprised 91-100 percent of the total algal biovolume in periphyton samples collected during May and September. Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) were detected in 7 of the 11 quantitative periphyton samples and ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 percent of the total biovolume. Cyanobacteria were present in 3 of the 7 phytoplankton samples collected in May, but the relative biovolumes were small (0.01-0.2 percent). Six of seven qualitative samples collected from Canyon Lake

  3. Modelled present and future thaw lake area expansion/contraction trends throughout the continuous permafrost zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Y.; van Huissteden, J.; Dolman, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Thaw lakes and drained lake basins are a dominant feature of Arctic lowlands. Thaw lakes are a source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), which is produced under anaerobic conditions, while drained lake basins are carbon sinks due to sedimentation. Besides feedbacks on climate, the development of thaw lakes due to the melt-out of ground ice and subsequent ground subsidence, can have significant impacts on the regional morphology, hydrology, geophysics and biogehemistry. Permafrost degradation as a result of climate warming, which is proceeding considerably faster in high latitude regions than the global average, could lead to either an increases in lake area due to lake expansion, or decrease due to lake drainage. However, which process will dominate is elusive. Therefore understanding thaw lake dynamics and quantifying the feedbacks related to thaw lake expansion and contraction are urgent questions to solve. We apply a stochastic model, THAWLAKE, on four representative Arctic sites, to reproduce recent lake dynamics (1963-2012) and predict for the future changes under various anticipated climate scenarios. The model simulations of current thaw lake cycles and expansion rates are comparable with data. Future lake expansions are limited by lake drainage. We suggest further improvements in the area of enhancing the hydrology component, and operation on larger scales to gauge the impacts on lacustrine morphology and greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. [Discussion on water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    According to the schistosomiasis endemic situation in the Poyang Lake area, this paper analyzes the relationship between the water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control, and reviews and discusses the effects of the Water Level Control Project of Poyang Lake, the Lake Dike Slope Hardening Project, and the Lifting Delta and Descending Beach Project on Oncomelania snail control.

  5. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under...) Pope Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward...

  6. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under...) Pope Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward...

  7. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under...) Pope Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward...

  8. 75 FR 35829 - Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, Refuge), 7 miles south of... ``Bear Lake CCP EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Annette de Knijf, 208-847-1319....

  9. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of...

  10. Groundwater-Lake Interaction in the Dead Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiro, Y.; Weinstein, Y.; Starinsky, A.; Yechieli, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Dead Sea hypersaline water system is unique in terms of its unusual geochemical composition, rapid lake level changes and water composition of the brines discharging along its shoreline. The Dead Sea can be used as a natural lab for studying groundwater-seawater interaction and saline water hydrological circulation along the aquifer-sea boundary. It provides an opportunity to follow the geochemical processes along a flow path from the lake into the aquifer and back into the lake. The lake level has been dropping since the 1960's due to human interference in its water budget, reaching a rate of 1 m/yr in recent years. Saline water circulation in coastal aquifers may be a major process that governs trace element mass balances in coastal areas. This study uses radium isotopes in order to quantify the lake water circulation in the Dead Sea aquifer. There are four naturally-occurring radium isotopes, with half-lives ranging from 3.7 days to 1600 years which are chain products of uranium and thorium isotopes. Radium isotopes are usually enriched in saline groundwater and therefore are good candidates for estimating seawater or hypersaline lake water circulation in the aquifer. Compared to most natural water bodies, the Dead Sea is extremely enriched in radium and barium, where both 226Ra and 228Ra activities and Ba concentration (145, 1-2 dpm/L and 5 mg/L, respectively) are 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in ocean water, whereas the salinity of the Dead Sea is only 10 times higher. Circulated Dead Sea water in the aquifer contains decreased concentrations of 226Ra (60 dpm/L), Ba (1.5 mg/L), Sr (300 relative to 340 mg/L in the Dead Sea) and Sulfate (250 relative to 392 mg/L). We suggest that the low 226Ra and Ba concentrations are due to precipitation of barite and celestine from the supersaturated Dead Sea water on entering the aquifer. 228Ra and the shorter-lived 224Ra and 223Ra, which have much lower activities in the Dead Sea (up to 1.8, 3 and 0.8 dpm

  11. Role of the Lakes in Groundwater Recharge and Discharge in the Young Glacial Area, Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Jaworska-Szulc, Beata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to delineate characteristic hydrogeological lake types in the Young Glacial Area (YGA). The YGA is in the central and east part of the Kashubian Lake District (KLD) in Northern Poland, an area covered by deposits of Quaternary glaciation. All the bigger lakes were investigated in the area of about 1500 km(2) (39 lakes). The role of lakes in groundwater recharge and discharge was determined from total dissolved solids (TDS) in lake waters and also from groundwater flow simulation. The general trend was that gaining lakes, as determined by flow modeling, had higher values of TDS than losing lakes. In addition to typical gaining lakes (with TDS > 250 mg/l), there were losing lakes perched on glacial till deposits with very low TDS (<100 mg/l). Two groups of losing lakes were delineated: ones with very low TDS and another group with slightly higher TDS (due to local contact with groundwater). Flow-through lakes with TDS of 170-200 mg/l were also delineated.

  12. Dramatic variations in emergent wetland area in China's largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Chen, Jiyu

    2016-10-01

    Freshwater wetlands are important ecosystems experiencing rapid degradation around the world. As much as 64% of world's wetland area has been lost since 1900; the situation is even more serious in Asia, where land reclamation and anthropogenic modifications of rivers are increasing the rate of wetland disappearance. In this study, we provide a first complete estimation of daily Emergent Wetland Area (EWA) in Poyang Lake, China's largest freshwater lake, from 1955 to 2012. A wavelet analysis indicates a strong periodicity in the monthly EWA time series with two oscillations having a period of 12 and 60-72 months, respectively. A dramatic increase in mean annual EWA is detected since 2003, when the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) was completed, mainly due to the seasonal drying of 1078 km2 of wetlands in October. It is found that the timing of wetland emergence during the dry season has been anticipated of one month, from November to October, since the establishment of TGD. It is argued that a significant increase in wetland exposure and an observable shift in the seasonal timing of flooding and drying will seriously degrade the wetland system and threaten the endangered migratory birds that inhabit it unless effective countermeasures are implemented.

  13. Connections Between Cold Air Pools and Mountain Valley Fog Events in Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the connection between cold air pools and fog events in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Statistical analyses are conducted using soundings and reported automated surface observing system data from Salt Lake International Airport for the last eighteen cold seasons (October to March, during 1997-2015). A Chi-square test of independence is performed on identified cold air pool, and fog events to determine whether the two events are correlated. Conditional probabilities are then computed to investigate the occurrence of fog, given the presence of a cold pool. These probabilities are compared against that of random fog generation in the mid-winter. It is concluded that the dependence between cold air pools and fog events is statistically significant. The presence of a cold pool makes the formation of fog more likely than random generation.

  14. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  15. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  16. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  17. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  18. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  19. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area is... enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  20. LOW-LEVEL EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN LAKE HAVASU, ARIZONA AND CALIFORNIA AND THEIR ACCESS TO LAKE HAVASU CITY'S DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In preparation of a wastewater effluent re-charge and recovery program, involving alluvial fan sediments, the City of Lake Havasu initiated a survey to evaluate possible waterborne sources of emerging contaminants in the water/wastewater distribution cycle. This distribution cyc...

  1. Delayed Response of Lake Area Change to Climate Change in Siling Co Lake, Tibetan Plateau, from 2003 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guihua; Zhang, Tingbin

    2015-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is a key area for research on global environmental changes. During the past 50 years, the climate in the Siling Co lake area has become continuously warmer and wetter, which may have further caused the increase in Siling Co lake area. Based on the Siling Co lake area (2003 to 2013) and climate data acquired from the Xainza and Baingoin meteorological stations (covering 1966 to 2013), we analyzed the delayed responses of lake area changes to climate changes through grey relational analysis. The following results were obtained: (1) The Siling Co lake area exhibited a rapid expansion trend from 2003 to 2013. The lake area increased to 2318 km2, with a growth ratio of 14.6% and an annual growth rate of 26.84 km2·year−1; (2) The rate of air temperature increase was different in the different seasons. The rate in the cold season was about 0.41 °C per ten years and 0.32 °C in hot season. Precipitation evidently increased, with a change rate of 17.70 mm per ten years in the hot season and a slight increase with a change rate of 2.36 mm per ten years in the cold season. Pan evaporation exhibited evidently decreasing trends in both the hot and cold seasons, with rates of −33.35 and −14.84 mm per ten years, respectively; (3) An evident delayed response of lake area change to climate change is observed, with a delay time of approximately one to two years. PMID:26528996

  2. Delayed Response of Lake Area Change to Climate Change in Siling Co Lake, Tibetan Plateau, from 2003 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guihua; Zhang, Tingbin

    2015-10-30

    The Tibetan Plateau is a key area for research on global environmental changes. During the past 50 years, the climate in the Siling Co lake area has become continuously warmer and wetter, which may have further caused the increase in Siling Co lake area. Based on the Siling Co lake area (2003 to 2013) and climate data acquired from the Xainza and Baingoin meteorological stations (covering 1966 to 2013), we analyzed the delayed responses of lake area changes to climate changes through grey relational analysis. The following results were obtained: (1) The Siling Co lake area exhibited a rapid expansion trend from 2003 to 2013. The lake area increased to 2318 km², with a growth ratio of 14.6% and an annual growth rate of 26.84 km²·year(-1); (2) The rate of air temperature increase was different in the different seasons. The rate in the cold season was about 0.41 °C per ten years and 0.32 °C in hot season. Precipitation evidently increased, with a change rate of 17.70 mm per ten years in the hot season and a slight increase with a change rate of 2.36 mm per ten years in the cold season. Pan evaporation exhibited evidently decreasing trends in both the hot and cold seasons, with rates of -33.35 and -14.84 mm per ten years, respectively; (3) An evident delayed response of lake area change to climate change is observed, with a delay time of approximately one to two years.

  3. Schistosomiasis Breeding Environment Situation Analysis in Dongting Lake Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanrong; Jia, Yuanyuan; Ma, Lingling; Liu, Zhaoyan; Qian, Yonggang

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring environmental characteristics, such as vegetation, soil moisture et al., of Oncomelania hupensis (O. hupensis)’ spatial/temporal distribution is of vital importance to the schistosomiasis prevention and control. In this study, the relationship between environmental factors derived from remotely sensed data and the density of O. hupensis was analyzed by a multiple linear regression model. Secondly, spatial analysis of the regression residual was investigated by the semi-variogram method. Thirdly, spatial analysis of the regression residual and the multiple linear regression model were both employed to estimate the spatial variation of O. hupensis density. Finally, the approach was used to monitor and predict the spatial and temporal variations of oncomelania of Dongting Lake region, China. And the areas of potential O. hupensis habitats were predicted and the influence of Three Gorges Dam (TGB)project on the density of O. hupensis was analyzed.

  4. Late Archean mafic volcanism in the Rainy Lake area, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Late Archean greenstone-granite terrane of the Rainy Lake area of Minnesota contains a bimodal suite of mafic and felsic volcanic and coeval intrusive rocks. New geochemical data show that the mafic rocks occur in three distinct suites: (1) low-Ti olivine- and quartz-tholeiite, (2) high-Ti quartz-tholeiite and basaltic andesite, and (3) calc-alkaline lamprophyric monzodiorite and quartz diorite. The low-Ti tholeiites have only slightly evolved Mg-numbers from 53-63, Ni=125-300 ppm, and MORB-like REE. In contrast, the high-Ti tholeiites are more evolved, with Mg*=26-48, Ni=43-135 ppm, and higher total REE. Compared to the tholeiitic suites, the monzodiorite suite has more primitive Mg-numbers, with Mg*=70-78, Ni<410 ppm, and anomalously high LREE. The two tholeiitic suites cannot be genetically related by simple fractionation from a single parent magma; however, lower degrees of partial melting (<8 percent) of a mantle source (spinel periodotite) with REE=2-4 times chondrites could have produced the high-Ti tholeiites, and higher degrees of melting (20-30 percent) of a similar source could have generated the low-Ti tholeiites. In contrast, the monzodiorite suite must have been generated from either a LREE-rich or (and) a garnet-bearing source (garnet periodotite). The authors conclude that shallow melting (<40-50 km) within the Archean mantle in the Rainy Lake area produced the tholeiitic rocks, and that deep melting (>40-50 km) generated the lamprophyric monzodiorites.

  5. Evidence for former Glacial Lakes in the High Peaks and Rossendale Plateau areas, NW England.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Cathy; Crofts, Richard; Rhodes, Ed; Jones, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The identification of former ice-dammed lakes associated with Quaternary ice sheets is important for two reasons. Firstly, these lakes can contain varved sediments which can be used to establish a chronology related to ice margin position, and also provide a high-resolution (sub-annual) record of meltwater discharge from the ice sheet, which in turn can be related to climate. Secondly such lakes are commonly associated with sporadic outburst floods, which are an important geomorphic agent and can affect ice dynamics. This paper examines the evidence for the occurrence of ice-dammed lakes, ponded between the uplands of the South Pennines and the lowland, late Devensian, British Ice Sheet around Manchester, and explores the possibility of establishing a varve chronology for this area. The position of lakes has been reconstructed from a combination of borehole records of laminated silts and clays and associated sands, and morphological evidence, including shorelines and meltwater channels. Both lateral and pro-glacial ice-dammed lakes existed at Glacial Maximum in this area. Two former lakes, the High Peaks Lake, a pro-glacial ice-dammed lake, and Lake Rawtenstall, a lateral ice-dammed lake, are examined in more detail. Borehole records and one new borehole from the High Peaks Lake indicate varved sediments deposited in an ice-advance lake are preserved underneath glacial tills, but that post-glacial lake sediments are absent, indicating an ice-retreat lake of relatively short duration, and probable rapid reworking of exposed lakes sediments. Former Lake Rawtenstall contains much longer sequences of rhythmically laminated sediments, and may have existed for a considerable period of time (>1,000 years) across the Glacial Maximum. A number of shorelines were identified, indicating that lake level dropped as the ice margin receded and the lake surface area expanded. In its latter stages the lake is likely to have partly or fully drained periodically, causing outburst

  6. Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1970-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. The data show that most ground water is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and that major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. Annual ground-water-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type, including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  7. Climatic and lake temperature data for Wetland P1, Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1982-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, Renee S.; Sturrock, A.M.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Winter, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of Wetland P1 and the Cottonwood Lake Area includes the study of evaporation. Presented here in a graphical format are those data collected during the open-water seasons of 1982-87 that were needed for energy- budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies. The data include air temperatures, water surface and lake-bottom temperatures, windspeed, radiation, humidity, and precipitation. Data were collected at a raft station and two land stations.

  8. Completion report for the UMTRA project Vitro processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This completion report provides evidence that the final Salt Lake City, Utah, processing site property conditions are in accordance with the approval design and that all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been satisfied. Included as appendixes to support the stated conclusions are the record drawings; a summary of grid test results; contract specifications and construction drawing and the EPA standards; the audit, inspection, and surveillance summary; the permit information; and project photographs. The principal objectives of remedial action at Salt Lake City were to remove the tailings from the former processing site, render the site free of contamination to EPA standards, and restore the site to the final design grade elevations. The final remedial action plan, which is approved by the U.S. Department of Energy and concurred upon by the U.S. Nuclear Regulator Commission and the state of Utah, contains the conceptual design used to develop the final approved design. During remedial action construction operations, conditions were encountered that required design features that differed form the conceptual design. These conditions and the associated design changes are noted in the record drawings. All remedial action activities were completed in conformance with the specifications and drawings. In the opinion of the state of Utah, the record drawings accurately reflect existing property conditions at the processing site.

  9. Seismic characterization of the Wasatch fault system beneath Salt Lake City using a land streamer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, B.; Liberty, L. M.; Gribler, G.

    2015-12-01

    We characterize the active Wasatch fault system beneath downtown Salt Lake City by measuring p- and s-wave velocities and seismic reflection profiling. Our focus was on the segment boundary between the Warm Springs and East Bench faults. We collected 14.5 km along 9 west-east profiles in 3 field days using a 60 m aperture seismic land streamer and 200 kg weight drop system. From a p-wave refraction analysis, we measure velocities from 230-3900 m/s for the upper 20-25 meters. Shear wave velocities for the upper 30 m, derived from a multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) approach, show velocities that range from 100-1800 m/s. P-wave reflection images from the upper 100 m depth indicate offset and truncated (mostly) west-dipping strata (Bonneville Lake deposits?) that suggest active faults extend beneath the downtown urban corridor. We identify saturated sediments on the lower elevation (western) portions of the profiles and shallow high velocity (dry) strata to the east of the mapped faults. We observe slow p-wave velocities near identified faults that may represent the fault's colluvial wedge. These velocity results are best highlighted with Vp/Vs ratios. Analyzing shear wave velocities by NEHRP class, we estimate soft soil (NEHRP D) limited less than 1 m depth along most profiles, and stiff soil (NEHRP C) to up to 25 m depth in some locations. However near steep topographic slopes (footwall deposits), we identify NEHRP Class D stiff soil velocities to less than 2 m depth before transition to NEHRP Class C soft rock. Depth to hard rock (velocities >760 m/s) are as shallow as 20 m below the land surface on some steep slopes beneath north Salt Lake City and greater than our imaging depths along the western portions of our profiles. Our findings suggest large variations in seismic velocities beneath the Salt Lake City corridor and that multiple fault strands related to the Warm Springs fault segment extend beneath downtown.

  10. Hydrologic data for the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, J.W.; Arnold, L.M.; Reed, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes are flood control lakes constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and leased to the Colorado Division of Parks and Recreation. Both lakes are in the Denver metropolitan area and provide a variety of recreational activities, including boating, camping, fishing, picnicking, and swimming. The projected increase of urban development in the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes could increase the constituent loads delivered to the lakes. Due to the eutrophic condition of Cherry Creek Lake and the potential eutrophic condition of Chatfield Lake, increased constituent loads could affect the suitability of the lakes for recreation. A monitoring program was started to determine the constituent loads of the drainage basins to both lakes. A network of monitoring stations was established to collect ambient water quality samples, storm runoff water quality samples, precipitation, and stream discharge. In the Cherry Creek basin 12 observation wells were established in the alluvium upgradient from Cherry Creek lake. Water levels and water quality data were collected to determine the quantity and quality of groundwater entering Cherry Creek lake. Data were collected from January through December 1982. The data may be used to evaluate the present and projected impact of urbanization in the drainage basins and the effect of increased constituent loads delivered to Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Selenium dynamics in Farmington Bay wetlands, Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicataldo, G.; Hayes, D. F.; Miller, T. G.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2006-12-01

    The dynamics of Selenium (Se) and other water quality parameters in the Farmington Bay wetlands were presented. This is the first time that the fate and transport of selenium is being studied in Farmington Bay wetlands. The significant salinity gradient between wetland impoundments and the hypersaline condition of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) make these wetlands systems unique. Selenium has been observed for the first time to cycle diurnally. A 100% increase of total selenium was measured during a 24-hour study in October 2005 at site #5320 at nighttime (i.e., 1.99 micrograms/L at 3:00 a.m. MST) compared to daytime (i.e., 0.99 micrograms/L at 2:00 p.m. MST). Particulate selenium also increased at the same site during nighttime and decreased during daylight. No significant daily changes were measured in dissolved selenium concentrations between day and night. Total suspended solids (TSS) measured during the same time period increased to a maximum concentration of 107 mg/L (at 4:21 a.m. MST) during nighttime and dramatically decreased after sunrise (i.e., 18.8 mg/L at 8:21 a.m. MST). Particulate generation at night could be linked to total and particulate selenium increase during this time period. Later studies in May 2006 have shown that total organic carbon (TOC) increased about 3.5-folds (i.e., from 2.9 mg/L to 12.9 mg/L) during nighttime (with high peak at 4:00 a.m. MST) and decreased dramatically at sunrise (about 6:30 a.m. MST) in May 2006. Seasonal selenium speciation showed for the first time that the predominant species reaching the Farmington Bay are elemental selenium and selenide species (organic and inorganic) (Se(0) + Se(-2)). This is a significant finding toward a better understand of the bioavailability of selenium to birds and aquatic life in Farmington Bay. The selenium concentration as water parcels moved through the system showed to be reduced up to 186%. Also, average monthly loads of selenium to Farmington Bay from Ambassador Duck Club wetlands

  12. Lakes in permafrost areas - inter- and intra-annual variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Annett; Widhalm, Barbara; Leibman, Marina; Khomutov, Artem

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is pronounced in the Arctic. Increasing temperatures above the global mean are expected for most of the region. This has an effect on soil temperature and thus the extent of permafrost. Lakes are a characteristic feature of lowland permafrost. Their changes as detected with satellite data are often interpreted as indicator for climate change. They are however in many cases connected to flood plains and thus undergo seasonal changes which are not confined to the period just after snowmelt. The Yamal peninsula is one of the areas from which changes have been reported (active layer thickness measurements for more than 20 years) and where it is expected that continuous permafrost will not be present anymore towards the end of this century. It has been already shown in the past that seasonal variations are common in several parts of the peninsula. These need to be considered for longterm studies based on lake monitoring. This requires high temporal resolution which can be only achieved with high resolution radar information (SAR which is cloud independent). The ENVISAT ASAR archive provided data for initial studies covering 2007 and 2008. This time series has been now extended with TerraSAR-X to 2015 for hotspots of variations and changes (shrinking versus emerging vegetation) verified by in-situ observations. The new data also provide better spatial detail (3 m compared to 75m). Inter and intra-annual variations have been quantified in space and time. The temporal pattern has been also analyzed with respect to snowmelt timing (obtained by satellite and ground temperature observations). Results are discussed with respect to previous inundation trend studies based on global coarse resolution (>25 km) datasets which depict significant changes on the peninsula.

  13. Multi-century lake area changes in the Southern Altiplano: a tree-ring-based reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M. S.; Carilla, J.; Grau, H. R.; Villalba, R.

    2015-09-01

    Size fluctuations in endorheic lakes in northwestern Argentina (NWA) and southwestern Bolivia (SWB) are very sensitive to basin hydrological balances, and consequently, very vulnerable to deleterious effects from climatic changes. The management of these water resources and their biodiversity requires a comprehensive knowledge of their natural variability over multiple timescales. In this study, we present a multi-century reconstruction of past lake-area fluctuations in NWA and SWB. The evidence used to develop and validate this reconstruction includes satellite images and a century-long tree-ring record from P. tarapacana. Inter-annual fluctuations in lake area of nine lakes were quantified based on Landsat satellite images over the period 1975 to 2009. A regional P. tarapacana tree-ring chronology, composite from two sampling sites, was used as predictors in a regression model to reconstruct the mean annual (January-December) lake area from the nine lakes. The reconstruction model captures 62 % of the total variance in lake-area fluctuations and shows adequate levels of cross-validation. This high-resolution reconstruction covers the past 601 years and characterizes the occurrence of annual to multi-decadal lake area fluctuations and its main oscillation modes of variability. Our reconstruction points out that the late 20th century decrease in lake area was exceptional over the period 1407-2007; a persistent negative trend in lake area is clear in the reconstruction and consistent with glacier retreat and other climate proxies from the Altiplano and the tropical Andes. Since the mid 1970s, the Vilama-Coruto lake system recorded an accelerated decrease in area consistent with an increasing recurrence of extremely small lake-area events. Throughout the 601 years, the reconstruction provides valuable information about spatial and temporal stabilities of the relationships between changes in lake area, ENSO, and PDO, highlighting the Pacific influence over most modes

  14. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  15. Land-cover changes in an urban lake watershed in a mega-city, Central China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Shuqing; Zhao, Kun; Xie, Ping; Fang, Jingyun

    2006-04-01

    Urbanization can exert a profound influence on land covers and landscape characteristics. In this study, we characterize the impact of urbanization on land cover and lacustrine landscape and their consequences in a large urban lake watershed, Donghu Lake watershed (the largest urban lake in China), Central China, by using Landsat TM satellite images of three periods of 1987, 1993 and 1999 and ground-based information. We grouped the land covers into six categories: water body, vegetable land, forested land, shrub-grass land, open area and urban land, and calculated patch-related landscape indices to analyze the effects of urbanization on landscape features. We overlaid the land cover maps of the three periods to track the land cover change processes. The results indicated that urban land continuously expanded from 9.1% of the total watershed area in 1987, to 19.4% in 1993, and to 29.6% in 1999. The vegetable land increased from 7.0% in 1987, 11.9% in 1993, to 13.9% in 1999 to sustain the demands of vegetable for increased urban population. Concurrently, continuous reduction of other land cover types occurred between 1987 and 1999: water body decreased from 30.4% to 23.8%, and forested land from 33.6% to 24.3%. We found that the expansion of urban land has at least in part caused a decrease in relatively wild habitats, such as urban forest and lake water area. These alterations had resulted in significant negative environmental consequences, including decline of lakes, deterioration of water and air quality, and loss of biodiversity.

  16. Characterization and comparison of phytoplankton in selected lakes of five Great Lakes area national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith Becker; Whitman, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoplankton species have been widely used as indicators of lake conditions, and they may be useful for detecting changes in overall lake condition. In an attempt to inventory and monitor its natural resources, the National Park Service wants to establish a monitoring program for aquatic resources in the Great Lakes Cluster National Parks. This study sought to establish baseline information on the phytoplankton and water chemistry of selected lakes in five national parks in a preliminary effort toward establishing a long-term monitoring program. Phytoplankton and water chemistry samples were collected from ten lakes in five national parks over a two-year period. A total of 176 taxa were identified during the study. Northern lakes generally had higher Shannon-Wiener diversity and clustered together in similarity. Lakes exhibited a south to north gradient of many water chemistry variables, with northern lakes having lower hardness, sulfate, turbidity, and temperature and higher dissolved oxygen. Chloride and sulfate concentrations were the variables that best explained variation among phytoplankton in the ten lakes. A monitoring plan will have to incorporate the differences among lakes, but by coordinating the effort, comparisons within and among parks and other regions will prove useful for determining environmental change.

  17. Heterogeneity in High Latitude Lake Area Trends and Relationship to Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; Verbyla, D.

    2012-12-01

    During the past ~60 years, net declines in lake area have been identified in several circumpolar regions. Lakes and wetlands in Alaskan National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) provide critical breeding habitats for migratory waterfowl and shorebirds. The loss of these breeding habitats may have far-reaching effects along migratory routes that extend to more southerly parts of North America, South America, Asia, and Australia. However, the magnitude, mechanisms, and biological implications of lake area change have not been fully evaluated across Alaskan refuge lands. The objectives of this work were to: 1) use historical aerial photography and remotely sensed imagery to estimate lake area trends for 8 Alaskan NWRs at two spatial scales; broad-scale estimates were obtained for 10 study areas, and fine-scale estimates were obtained for ~24,000 lakes in these study areas, 2) characterize local to regional heterogeneity in lake area trends, 3) relate heterogeneous lake area trends to landscape characteristics and associated mechanistic processes, and 4) build empirical models to understand the potential effects of changing lake area on waterfowl species richness. Net statewide trends were decreasing (-0.73% per year). However, there was heterogeneity in rates of change among individual lakes (26.2% to -34.1% per year) and among study areas (0.3 to -3.0% per year) since ~1985. The lack of a latitudinal (Arctic to sub-Arctic) or longitudinal (continental to maritime) pattern in study area trends suggested the involvement of substrate characteristics and landscape position, rather than regional climatic gradients, as mechanisms underlying heterogeneous lake area trends. Study areas with a greater proportion of lakes outside of the immediate floodplain zone (> ~1.8 km from rivers), but still in lowland areas with coarse-grained soils were most likely to have net declining trends in lake area. These results indicated drainage and negative hydraulic gradients between surface and

  18. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, M; Brophy, J

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and immunity disorders; diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, nervous system and sense organs, circulatory and respiratory systems, digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, musculoskeletal system and connective tissues; congenital anomalies, and infant mortality. Of particular concern was the early onset of the elevated rates of many of these diseases and conditions. Comparison of these incident rates with those in Hamilton, another industrial municipality in southern Ontario, suggested that in addition to a variety of local sources of industrial pollution from automobile manufacturing and use, transboundary air and water pollution from Detroit, Michigan, should be investigated as potentially important causes of these health outcomes in the Windsor Area of Concern. Some of the institutional and political trends of the past decade may need to be reversed before effective remedial programs are implemented for cleaning up contaminated sediments and for containment of leaking hazardous waste sites. This pilot project would seem to be a useful preliminary method of integrating human health concerns and of priority setting for the administration of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. PMID:11744501

  19. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with

  20. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  1. Hydrogeology, hydrologic budget, and water chemistry of the Medina Lake area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Grimm, Kenneth C.; Lee, Roger W.

    2000-01-01

    A three-phase study of the Medina Lake area in Texas was done to assess the hydrogeology and hydrology of Medina and Diversion Lakes combined (the lake system) and to determine what fraction of seepage losses from the lake system might enter the regional ground-water-flow system of the Edwards and (or) Trinity aquifers. Phase 1 consisted of revising the geologic framework for the Medina Lake area. Results of field mapping show that the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone underlies Medina Lake and the intervening stream channel from the outflow of Medina Lake to the midpoint of Diversion Lake, where the Diversion Lake fault intersects Diversion Lake. A thin sequence of strata consisting primarily of the basal nodular and dolomitic members of the Kainer Formation of the Edwards Group, is present in the southern part of the study area. On the southern side of Medina Lake, the contact between the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone and the basal nodular member is approximately 1,000 feet above mean sea level, and the contact between the basal nodular member and the dolomitic member is approximately 1,050 feet above mean sea level. The most porous and permeable part of the basal nodular member is about 1,045 feet above mean sea level. At these altitudes, Medina Lake is in hydrologic connection with rocks in the Edwards aquifer recharge zone, and Medina Lake appears to lose more water to the ground-water system along this bedding plane contact. Hydrologic budgets calculated during phase 2 for Medina Lake, Diversion Lake, and Medina/Diversion Lakes combined indicate that: (1) losses from Medina and Diversion Lakes can be quantified; (2) a portion of those losses are entering the Edwards aquifer; and (3) losses to the Trinity aquifer in the Medina Lake area are minimal and within the error of the hydrologic budgets. Hydrologic budgets based on streamflow, precipitation, evaporation, and change in lake storage were used to quantify losses (recharge) to the ground

  2. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  3. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  4. Differential Staffing Patterns with Job Analyses and Operational Procedures for Salt Lake City School District Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkin, Katherine Story

    Duties of the staff of media centers in the Salt Lake City School District and an analysis of task performances by position are listed. Positions included are: (1) head of the school media center/school media specialist, (2) school media center technician, (3) school media center aide, and (4) student aides. Twenty general district operational…

  5. Dynamic monitoring of Poyang Lake water body area using MODIS images between 2000 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yayong; Huang, Shifeng; Li, Jiren; Li, Xiaotao; Ma, Jianwei; Li, Shanyang; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake of China, is well known for its ecological and economic importance as a dynamic wetland system. But, influenced by the climate change and human activity, Poyang Lake wetland has changed a lot. The long time series of Terra/MODIS data between 2000 and 2014 were utilized to investigate the variation of Poyang Lake and to analyze Poyang lake response to variation of local precipitation with the meteorological data. The results showed: (1) Poyang Lake water body area showed a significant seasonal variation, minimum value was about 690 km2 and maximum value reached 3500 km2, and inter-annual fluctuation; (2)For the past 15 year , local precipitation directly affected the inundation changes. In particular, the impact of rainfall during the first half of the year is more significant (the relation coefficient with R2 of 0.61); (3) Taking into account humid activities, the impoundment of the Three Gorges dam (TGD) had a certain impact on Poyang Lake water body area, especially the persistent reduction of Poyang lake surface area in November was deteriorated by the impounding of TGD in October after 2006. Finally, the study provides a theoretical basis and data for changes in Poyang Lake wetland research and protection.

  6. Density-independent survival of wild lake trout in the Apostle Islands area of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    1995-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stock at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior was one of only a few stocks of lean lake trout in the Great Lakes that survived overfishing and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Since the mid 1960s, the abundance of wild recruits measured at age 0 and the number of age-7 to -11 wild fish recruited to the fishable stock have increased. We used the Varley-Gradwell method to test for density-dependent survival between these life stages. Survival from age-0 to ages 7–11 was not affected by increasing density, which suggests that further increases in recruitment and stock size are still possible. We suggest that testing for the existence of density-dependent survival can be used to indicate when lake trout populations are rehabilitated.

  7. Program for the Division of Chemical Education Salt Lake City, March 22-26, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smist, Julianne M.; Harwood, William S.; Levy, Irvin J.

    2009-03-01

    CHED technical sessions will be held in the Salt Lake Marriott City Center Hotel, 220 South State Street (location #10 on the ACS map). Exceptions are the Sunday evening Reception and Social Event, the Sunday evening poster session, Undergraduate Program, Undergraduate Research Posters, and Sci-Mix, all of which will be held at the Salt Palace Convention Center. Be sure to check the on-site program for any last-minute changes in time or location. Unless otherwise noted, morning sessions begin at 8:30 a.m. and afternoon sessions at 1:30 p.m. Symposia that are related to the over arching multidisciplinary theme "Nanoscience: Challenges for the Future" are noted cosponsored by NANO.

  8. High frequency monitoring of stable isotopes in Red Butte Creek, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulley-Cordova, C. L.; Bowen, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    For several decades hydrologists have recognized that the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen can be used to distinguish different sources of water contributing to stream discharge. The majority of these 'isotope hydrograph separation' studies have shown that old water (water stored within the catchment prior to a precipitation event) is the dominant contributor to storm event runoff in most stream systems, with small contributions of new water (storm precipitation). Limited data from urban systems show a stronger response to storm precipitation, but the main contributor to the stream continues to be groundwater. Our research examines the relationship between urban and natural systems by conducting isotopic research on Red Butte Creek, a small creek in Salt Lake City. We hypothesize the balance of old and new water contributions to runoff are different in the natural and urban stream sections, and hypothesize there is a change in the balance of old and new water contributions throughout seasonal cycles.

  9. Hydrogeological properties of bank storage area in Changwon city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, H.-S.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Kim, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Bank filtrated water has been used in developed countries such as United States, France, Germany, Austria, Nederland and so on. In Korea, most of the drinking water is provided from the surface water. However, drinking water acquisition is becoming difficult due to the degradation of surface water quality. In special, the quality of drinking water source is much lower in downstream area than in upstream area. Thus, the use of bank filtrated water is getting attracted by central and local governments in Korea. The bank filtrated water was surveyed in the areas of Yeongsan river, Nakdong river, Geum river and Han river. Up to present, however, the downstream areas of Nakdong river are most suitable places to apply the bank filtration system. This study investigates hydrogeological characteristics of bank-storage area located in Daesan- Myeon, Changwon city, adjacent the downstream of Nakdong river. Changwon city is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-Do province. Changwon city uses water derived from Nakdong river as municipal water. However, the quantity and quality of the river water are gradually decreased. Thus, Changwon city developed two sites of bank filtration system in Daesan-myeon and Buk-myeon. Pumping rate is 2,000m3/day at present and will be increased to 60,000m3/day in Daesan-myeon site at the end of the first stage of the project. For the study, we conducted pumping tests four times on seven pumping wells (PW1, PW2, PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6, and PW7) and twelve drill holes (BH-2, OW2-OW12) in the area of 370 m x 100 m. Pumping wells PW1 and PW2 were drilled in 1999 by Samjung Engineering Co. and pumping wells PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6 and PW7 were drilled in 2000 by Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co. The pumping wells are located at 45-110 meters from Nakdong riverside. The geology of the study area is composed of volcanic rocks (Palryeongsan tuff and Jusasan andesitic rock) and alluvium. Palryeongsan tuff consists of mostly green tuff with partly

  10. SWAT modeling of Critical Source Area for Runoff and Phosphorus losses: Lake Champlain Basin, VT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, exhibits eutrophication due to continuing phosphorus (P) inputs mainly from upstream nonpoint source areas. To address the Lake's eutrophication problem and as part of total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, a state-level P reducti...

  11. Determination of critical source areas for phosphorous losses: Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, exhibits eutrophication due to continuing phosphorus (P) inputs mainly from upstream nonpoint source areas. To address the Lake's eutrophication problem and as part of total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, a state-level P reducti...

  12. News about Lake Pontchartrain Area/New Orleans (Louisiana)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New Orleans/Lake Pontchartrain of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  13. Remedial Action Plan for Deer Lake Area of Concern, 1987

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stage I document details Deer Lake’s history of mercury and other contamination, and describes sources of pollution and future remedial actions, to address beneficial use impairments identified by the Great Lakes Water Quality Board (WQB).

  14. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  15. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  16. Urban Groundwater Mapping - Bucharest City Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Bica, Ioan; Anghel, Leonard; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Ionita, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Urban Groundwater Mapping (UGM) is a generic term for a collection of procedures and techniques used to create targeted cartographic representation of the groundwater related aspects in urban areas. The urban environment alters the physical and chemical characteristics of the underneath aquifers. The scale of the pressure is controlled by the urban development in time and space. To have a clear image on the spatial and temporal distribution of different groundwater- urban structures interaction we need a set of thematic maps is needed. In the present study it is described the methodological approach used to obtain a reliable cartographic product for Bucharest City area. The first step in the current study was to identify the groundwater related problems and aspects (changes in the groundwater table, infiltration and seepage from and to the city sewer network, contamination spread to all three aquifers systems located in quaternary sedimentary formations, dewatering impact for large underground structures, management and political drawbacks). The second step was data collection and validation. In urban areas there is a big spectrum of data providers related to groundwater. Due to the fact that data is produced and distributed by different types of organizations (national agencies, private companies, municipal water regulator, etc) the validation and cross check process is mandatory. The data is stored and managed by a geospatial database. The design of the database follows an object-orientated paradigm and is easily extensible. The third step consists of a set of procedures based on a multi criteria assessment that creates the specific setup for the thematic maps. The assessment is based on the following criteria: (1) scale effect area - how the groundwater is interacting with urban structures >, (2) time , (3) vertical distribution and (4) type of the groundwater related problem. The final

  17. Application of constructed wetland for urban lake water purification: trial of Xing-qing Lake in Xi'an city, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, F; Zhou, Q; Wang, Y; Zhao, Y Q

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the current water pollution status in China has indicated that the urban lakes in Chinese cities have suffered from serious pollution and are in high risk of eutrophication, although the pollution sources have been largely controlled. The objective of this study lies in exploring a long term restoration of the aquatic ecosystem in Chinese city lakes using treatment wetland, an environmentally friendly and cost-effective technology. Trials from a subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland (CW) have demonstrated that the treatment wetland can be used for a purpose such as lake water quality control. Average removal of 84.2% for COD, 53.8% for NH(3)-N, 47.9% for TN, 73.3% for TP and 86.6% for SS can be achieved. Relatively, low removal of nitrogen lies in the lack of nitrification and denitrification process. Accordingly, improved configuration of the treatment wetland system has been proposed and discussed. Finally, the importance of the integrated constructed wetland especially for the application of urban lake water treatment is highlighted.

  18. Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian

    1988-08-01

    Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong. Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the overburden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and loadadded effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explesion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquatienal effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion.

  19. Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Chen )

    1988-08-01

    Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the over-burden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and load-added effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explosion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquefaction effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion.

  20. Effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in contrasting environmental settings: Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; Zappia, H.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Responses of invertebrate assemblages along gradients of urban intensity were examined in three metropolitan areas with contrasting climates and topography (Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; Salt Lake City, Utah). Urban gradients were defined using an urban intensity index (UII) derived from basin-scale population, infrastructure, land-use, land-cover, and socioeconomic characteristics. Responses based on assemblage metrics, indices of biotic integrity (B-IBI), and ordinations were readily detected in all three urban areas and many responses could be accurately predicted simply using regional UIIs. Responses to UII were linear and did not indicate any initial resistance to urbanization. Richness metrics were better indicators of urbanization than were density metrics. Metrics that were good indicators were specific to each study except for a richness-based tolerance metric (TOLr) and one B-IBI. Tolerances to urbanization were derived for 205 taxa. These tolerances differed among studies and with published tolerance values, but provided similar characterizations of site conditions. Basin-scale land-use changes were the most important variables for explaining invertebrate responses to urbanization. Some chemical and instream physical habitat variables were important in individual studies, but not among studies. Optimizing the study design to detect basin-scale effects may have reduced the ability to detect local-scale effects. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  1. The Role of Trans Tensional Structures and Lake Mead Reservoir in Groundwater Flow in Black Canyon, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, NV-AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justet, L.; Beard, S.

    2010-12-01

    Hot springs and seeps discharging into Black Canyon (BC) along the Colorado River in north Colorado River Valley (CRV) support endemic riparian ecosystems in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Increases in groundwater development in southern NV and northwestern AZ may impact spring discharge. Sources of spring discharge in BC were evaluated using geochemical methods. Kinematic analysis and geologic mapping of structures associated with BC springs were used to evaluate structural controls on groundwater flow in BC. Geochemical analysis indicates groundwater discharge near Hoover Dam (HD) and along the faulted edge of the Boulder City Pluton is derived from Lake Mead, high δ87Sr Proterozoic or Tertiary crystalline rock and, possibly, Tertiary sedimentary rock. Reducing conditions indicated by 234U/238U and δ34S concentrations suggest the groundwater is confined and/or derived from greater depths while carbon isotopes indicate the groundwater is old. Lighter δD and δO-18, modern tritium concentrations, post-Dam U disequilibrium ages, and occurrence of anthropogenic perchlorate support the presence of a young Lake Mead component. South of the pluton, the Lake Mead component is absent. More oxidizing conditions in this part of BC, indicated by the U and S isotope concentrations, suggest the groundwater is less confined and/or derived from shallower depths compared to groundwater discharging near HD. Older apparent groundwater ages and heavier δD and δO-18 values south of the pluton indicate slower flow paths from a lower elevation or latitude source. Clarifying the nature of groundwater flow in eastern NV, the analyses indicate that hydraulic connection between the regional carbonate aquifer and BC is unlikely. Instead, the data indicate sources of BC springs are derived relatively locally in CRV and, possibly, south Lake Mead Valley. Results of the geologic and kinematic analyses indicate faults that formed from the interaction of E-W extension related to

  2. Geohydrology, water quality, and water budgets of Golden Gate Park and the Lake Merced area in the western part of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, E.B.; Hamlin, S.N.; McCann, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    The groundwater resources in the western part of the San Francisco, groundwater budgets for Golden Gate Park and the Lake Merced area, and a surface-water budget for Lake Merced are described. A continuous groundwater basin underlies a 39-sq-mi coastal strip in the San Francisco Peninsula south of the city. Basin fill consists largely of sand and silt. An extensive subsurface clay layer is present near Lake Merced. Recharge is principally from rainfall and irrigation-return flow, with lesser amounts from leaking water and sewer pipes, which were identified in part by stable-isotope and major ion analyses. In Golden Gate Park, about 1, 070 acre-ft/yr of groundwater flows to the ocean. Water levels are not declining, and pumpage could be safely increased. However, nitrate concentrations in excess of Federal drinking-water standards in water from many wells may limit potential uses of groundwater. Groundwater in the Lake Merced area is in a state of overdraft, as indicated by long- term declines in the level of Lake Merced and by groundwater levels persistently below sea level in deep wells. Seawater intrusion has not been detected, however. A surface-water budget for Lake Merced indicates that the largest inflow is from shallow groundwater and the largest outflow is loss by evaporation. (USGS)

  3. Guidance for Delisting Michigan’s Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A useful tool for guidance in delisting Michigan’s Areas of Concern. Technical staff in the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), USEPA Great Lakes National Program Office, among others.

  4. Direct Final Approval of the Lake Tahoe Nevada CO Maintenance Area's Second Maintenance Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    December 22, 2016: In a direct final action EPA is approved the State of Nevada's request to approve the 2012 maintenance plan for Lake Tahoe Nevada carbon monoxide maintenance area as a revision to the Nevada State Implementation Plan.

  5. Radium-226 in water, sediments, and fish from lakes near the city of Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Clulow, F V; Davé, N K; Lim, T P; Avadhanula, R

    1998-01-01

    Ra-226 was measured by alpha-emission spectroscopy in water, sediments, and fish (tissues and gut contents), from five lakes in a watershed containing U mining and milling operations at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from control lakes in an adjacent non-industrialized watershed. Ra-226 transfer parameters from lake water and sediments to fish tissues, and annual intakes by humans consuming fish, were estimated. Mean dissolved 226Ra levels ranged from approximately 76 mBq litre(-1) in water of the most affected lake, to < 10 mBq litre(-1) in control lakes. Levels in summer were consistently higher than in fall or winter; no consistent variation with depth was noted. Sediment levels ranged from approximately 3000 mBq g(-1) dry wt in one study lake to < 100 mBq g(-1) dry wt of sediment in control lakes. Bone 226Ra concentrations were higher than in muscle. The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), a predatory secondary consumer, had bone 226Ra levels (< 20 mBq g(-1) dry wt) that did not show significant site variation. In contrast, bottom feeding whitefish had significantly more 226Ra in bone tissue (to 38 mBq g(-1) dry wt in the lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, and 76 mBq g(-1) in round whitefish, Prosopium cylindraceum) in study lakes than in controls (< 20 mBq g(-1) dry wt). Ra-226 levels in lake trout muscle were low and showed erratic variation among lakes whereas levels in whitefish muscle did not vary significantly among study and control sites. Lake herring (= cisco, Coregonus artedii), a planktivorous fish taken only from Quirke Lake, had mean 226Ra levels of 18 and 1.4 mBq g(-1) dry wt in bone and muscle, respectively. Gut 226Ra levels, highest in lake trout from McCabe and Quirke Lakes (126 +/- 53, 64 +/- 44 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), and just detectable in McCabe and Elliot Lake whitefish (24 +/- 2, 36 +/- 14 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), were below detection in lake trout and whitefish from other lakes. Concentration ratios (CRs) of 226Ra from

  6. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

  7. The Impact of Eutrophication on Mercury Cycling in Lake 227 at the Experimental Lakes Area in Northwestern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, J.; Lehnherr, I.; Gleason, A.; St. Louis, V. L.; Muir, D.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern as concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg), the toxic and bioaccumulative form of Hg, are often present in fish at levels high enough to pose health risks to consumers. Although we are beginning to understand the factors controlling MeHg production in freshwater lakes, the impacts of environmental disturbances, such as eutrophication, on Hg cycling are not known. As part of a larger project examining controls on eutrophication, we are studying Hg cycling and MeHg production in the artificially eutrophied Lake 227 at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario. In addition to 40 years of ancillary data, Lake 227 is ideal for this study as it has an anoxic hypolimnion which may be an important zone of microbial MeHg production. To determine sources and losses of inorganic Hg(II) and MeHg from the lake, we are using a mass balance approach including: detailed lake profiles to determine the water column pools of Hg(II) and MeHg, Hg(II) and MeHg inputs via precipitation, and losses of Hg(II) and MeHg from the lake via gaseous elemental Hg(0) evasion and MeHg photodemethylation, respectively. Rates of water column MeHg production are also being determined using Hg stable isotope tracer experiments. 2010-2011 water column profiles demonstrated that although total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations were fairly low in Lake 227 surface waters (2.42 ± 0.64 and 0.11 ± 0.06 ng/L, respectively), MeHg concentrations (1.08 ± 0.39 ng/L) and the % THg that was MeHg (16 ± 5%) were high in deep regions of the water column (6-9 m). The zone of elevated water column MeHg expanded throughout summers 2010-2011, closely following the zone of anoxia, suggesting MeHg is produced in the anoxic hypolimnion. The zone of high particulate-bound THg (62 ± 6%) also migrated with the zone of anoxia over the summer suggesting that particle sinking and sediment resuspension, which are controlled by the timing of algal blooms, are important

  8. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The...

  9. Geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits of the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake, central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to describe the geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River between Lake Overholser and Eufaula Lake, an area of about 1,835 square miles, and to determine the maximum annual yield of ground water. A 1982 water-level map of the alluvial and terrace aquifer was prepared using field data and published records. Data from test holes and other data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board were used to establish the approximate thickness of the alluvial and terrace deposits. The North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, near Oklahoma City, to Eufaula Lake is paralleled by a 2- to 3-mile wide band of alluvium. Scattered terrace deposits on either side of the alluvium reach an extreme width of 8 miles. Rocks of Permian age bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from the west to the midpoint of the study area; Pennsylvanian rocks bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from that point eastward. Three major aquifers are present in the study area: the alluvial and terrace aquifer, consisting of alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age in a narrow band on either side of the North Canadian River; the Garber-Wellington aquifer of Permian age, consisting of an upper unconfined zone and a lower confined zone separated by relatively impermeable shales; and the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of Pennsylvanian age. At locations were the alluvial and terrace aquifer overlies either of the other aquifers, there is hydraulic continuity between the alluvial and terrace aquifer and the other aquifers, and water levels are the same. Most large-scale municipal and industrial pumping from the Garber-Wellington aquifer is from the lower zone and has little discernible effect upon the alluvial and terrace aquifer. The total estimated base flow of the North Canadian River for the studied reach is 264 cubic feet per second. Evapotranspiration from the basin in August is about 60 cubic

  10. Phase 2 and 3 Slim Hole Drilling and Testing at the Lake City, California Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Dick Benoit; David Blackwell; Joe Moore; Colin Goranson

    2005-10-27

    During Phases 2 and 3 of the Lake City GRED II project two slim holes were cored to depths of 1728 and 4727 ft. Injection and production tests with temperature and pressure logging were performed on the OH-1 and LCSH-5 core holes. OH-1 was permanently modified by cementing an NQ tubing string in place below a depth of 947 ft. The LCSH-1a hole was drilled in Quaternary blue clay to a depth of 1727 ft and reached a temperature of 193 oF at a depth of 1649 ft. This hole failed to find evidence of a shallow geothermal system east of the Mud Volcano but the conductive temperature profile indicates temperatures near 325 oF could be present below depth of 4000 ft. The LCSH-5 hole was drilled to a depth of 4727 ft and encountered a significant shallow permeability between depths of 1443 and 1923 ft and below 3955 ft. LCSH-5 drilled impermeable Quaternary fanglomerate to a depth of 1270 ft. Below 1270 ft the rocks consist primarily of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The most significant formation deep in LCSH-5 appears to be a series of poikoilitic mafic lava flows below a depth of 4244 ft that host the major deep permeable fracture encountered. The maximum static temperature deep in LCSH-5 is 323 oF and the maximum flowing temperature is 329 oF. This hole extended the known length of the geothermal system by ¾ of a mile toward the north and is located over ½ mile north of the northernmost hot spring. The OH-1 hole was briefly flow tested prior to cementing the NQ rods in place. This flow test confirmed the zone at 947 ft is the dominant permeability in the hole. The waters produced during testing of OH-1 and LCSH-5 are generally intermediate in character between the deep geothermal water produced by the Phipps #2 well and the thermal springs. Geothermometers applied to deeper fluids tend to predict higher subsurface temperatures with the maximum being 382 oF from the Phipps #2 well. The Lake City geothermal system can be viewed as having shallow (elevation > 4000 ft and

  11. [Characteristics of soil seed banks in different water level areas after returning farmland into lake in Qingshanyuan of Dongting Lake].

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhi-Yong; Xie, Yong-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Feng

    2009-06-01

    To study the composition and distribution of soil seed bank in the areas after returning farmland into lake is of significance in evaluating the ecological restoration effect of damaged wetlands. In this paper, the composition and diversity of seed bank in soil profile (0-2, 2-5, and 5-10 cm) and their relationships with above-ground vegetation in different water level areas in Qingshanyuan, a typical region after returning farmland into lake in Dongting Lake, were investigated. A V-type variation pattern was observed in the seed density and species richness of soil seed bank and in the similarity coefficient of soil seed bank and above-ground vegetation along a gradient of low-medium-high water level. As for the seed density, it was the highest (36943 +/- 5207 seeds x m(-2)) in frequently flooded area, followed by in heavily flooded area (30572 +/- 5329 seeds x m(-2)), and in incidentally flooded area (18618 +/- 6977 seeds x m(-2)); for the similarity coefficient, it was also in the order of frequently flooded area (0.76) > heavily flooded area (0.53) > incidentally flooded area (0.41). The seed density, species diversity, and species richness of soil seed bank decreased along soil profile, but the decrements differed in different water level areas. The regular variation patterns of the seed density and species richness of soil seed bank and of the similarity coefficient of soil seed bank and above-ground vegetation along the water level gradient were closely related to the water-level fluctuation and the life-form composition of the vegetations in study area.

  12. Pronounced chemical response of Subarctic lakes to climate-driven losses in surface area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Tyler L.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Koch, Joshua C.; Bertram, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Losses in lake area have been observed for several Arctic and Subarctic regions in recent decades, with unknown consequences for lake ecosystems. These reductions are primarily attributed to two climate-sensitive mechanisms, both of which may also cause changes in water chemistry: (i) increased imbalance of evaporation relative to inflow, whereby increased evaporation and decreased inflow act to concentrate solutes into smaller volumes; and (ii) accelerated permafrost degradation, which enhances sublacustrine drainage while simultaneously leaching previously frozen solutes into lakes. We documented changes in nutrients [total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP)] and ions (calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium) over a 25 year interval in shrinking, stable, and expanding Subarctic lakes of the Yukon Flats, Alaska. Concentrations of all six solutes increased in shrinking lakes from 1985–1989 to 2010–2012, while simultaneously undergoing little change in stable or expanding lakes. This created a present-day pattern, much weaker or absent in the 1980s, in which shrinking lakes had higher solute concentrations than their stable or expanding counterparts. An imbalanced evaporation-to-inflow ratio (E/I) was the most likely mechanism behind such changes; all four ions, which behave semiconservatively and are prone to evapoconcentration, increased in shrinking lakes and, along with TN and TP, were positively related to isotopically derived E/I estimates. Moreover, the most conservative ion, chloride, increased >500% in shrinking lakes. Conversely, only TP concentration was related to probability of permafrost presence, being highest at intermediate probabilities. Overall, the substantial increases of nutrients (TN >200%, TP >100%) and ions (>100%) may shift shrinking lakes towards overly eutrophic or saline states, with potentially severe consequences for ecosystems of northern lakes.

  13. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S.; Hernandez, C.G.

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  14. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-08-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 μg m-3, 3.6 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.35 μg m-3 respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7 μg m-3, 2.8 μg m-3, 1.7 μg m-3, and 0.25 μg m-3. Additional improvements are possible by (i) using a day-dependent emission inventory, (ii) improving the performance of

  15. Geologic map database of the El Mirage Lake area, San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.

    2000-01-01

    This geologic map database for the El Mirage Lake area describes geologic materials for the dry lake, parts of the adjacent Shadow Mountains and Adobe Mountain, and much of the piedmont extending south from the lake upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. This area lies within the western Mojave Desert of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, southeastern California. The area is traversed by a few paved highways that service the community of El Mirage, and by numerous dirt roads that lead to outlying properties. An off-highway vehicle area established by the Bureau of Land Management encompasses the dry lake and much of the land north and east of the lake. The physiography of the area consists of the dry lake, flanking mud and sand flats and alluvial piedmonts, and a few sharp craggy mountains. This digital geologic map database, intended for use at 1:24,000-scale, describes and portrays the rock units and surficial deposits of the El Mirage Lake area. The map database was prepared to aid in a water-resource assessment of the area by providing surface geologic information with which deepergroundwater-bearing units may be understood. The area mapped covers the Shadow Mountains SE and parts of the Shadow Mountains, Adobe Mountain, and El Mirage 7.5-minute quadrangles. The map includes detailed geology of surface and bedrock deposits, which represent a significant update from previous bedrock geologic maps by Dibblee (1960) and Troxel and Gunderson (1970), and the surficial geologic map of Ponti and Burke (1980); it incorporates a fringe of the detailed bedrock mapping in the Shadow Mountains by Martin (1992). The map data were assembled as a digital database using ARC/INFO to enable wider applications than traditional paper-product geologic maps and to provide for efficient meshing with other digital data bases prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project.

  16. Evaluation of Experimental Four-Day Week Class Schedule, January Through April 1974 at Lake City Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Clark

    Due to the energy disturbance during the fall and winter of 1973-74, Lake City Community College experimented with a 4-days-per-week schedule of classes. a student evaluation of the 4-day week was completed by 58 percent of the full-time students. Fifty-one percent of the total student sample preferred the 4-day week, and 30 percent preferred the…

  17. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  18. The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning Program: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, Livia; Peter, Lyla; Moore, Kelley

    2008-01-01

    The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning (LAP) Program is a community-based approach to developing comprehensive neighbourhood plans. In order to achieve sustainable and implementable Local Area Plans (LAPs), the City of Saskatoon has been using innovative methods of collaborative decision-making to engage citizens. The program has been…

  19. Research in the Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.

    1981-01-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake area is one of two places in the world where major vapor-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs are commercially exploited for electric power production. Because energy can be extracted more efficiently from steam than from hot water, vapor-dominated systems are preferable for electric power generation, although most geothermal electric power facilities tap water-dominated systems. The Geysers- Clear Lake geothermal system has therefore been of great interest to the geothermal industry.

  20. Surficial geologic map of the Red Rock Lakes area, southwest Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Sojda, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The Centennial Valley and Centennial Range continue to be formed by ongoing displacement on the Centennial fault. The dominant fault movement is downward, creating space in the valley for lakes and the deposition of sediment. The Centennial Valley originally drained to the northeast through a canyon now represented by a chain of lakes starting with Elk Lake. Subsequently, large landslides blocked and dammed the drainage, which created Lake Centennial, in the Centennial Valley. Sediments deposited in this late Pleistocene lake underlie much of the valley floor and rest on permeable sand and gravel deposited when the valley drained to the northeast. Cold Pleistocene climates enhanced colluvial supply of gravelly sediment to mountain streams and high peak flows carried gravelly sediment into the valley. There, the lower gradient of the streams resulted in deposition of alluvial fans peripheral to Lake Centennial as the lake lowered through time to the level of the two present lakes. Pleistocene glaciers formed in the high Centennial Range, built glacial moraines, and also supplied glacial outwash to the alluvial fans. Winds from the west and south blew sand to the northeast side of the valley building up high dunes. The central part of the map area is flat, sloping to the west by only 0.6 meters in 13 kilometers (2 feet in 8 miles) to form a watery lowland. This lowland contains Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes, many ponds, and peat lands inside the “water plane,” above which are somewhat steeper slopes. The permeable sands and gravels beneath Lake Centennial sediments provide a path for groundwater recharged from the adjacent uplands. This groundwater leaks upward through Lake Centennial sediments and sustains wetland vegetation into late summer. Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes are formed by alluvial-fan dams. Alluvial fans converge from both the south and the north to form outlet thresholds that dam the two shallow lakes upstream. The surficial geology aids in

  1. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Las Vegas Wash to Virgin River, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laney, R.L.; Bales, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    This study is the last of a series of eight geohydrologic reconnaissance studies that were done in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. The studies were done to evaluate the water resources in the recreation area and to identify areas having potential for the development of water supplies that would be adequate for marinas and campgrounds. The study area includes about 250 square miles north of Lake Mead from Las Vegas Wash to the Virgin River (Overton Arm), Nevada. Volcanic rocks, consolidated sedimentary rocks, and unconsolidated to semiconsolidated sedimentary rocks underlie the area. Surface-water sources include the Colorado River, Virgin River, Muddy River, and Las Vegas Wash. Elsewhere in the area, streamflow is meager and extremely variable. Ground water originates from four sources: (1) subsurface flow in local basins, (2) infiltration of water from Lake Mead into permeable rocks near the lake, (3) subsurface flow in valleys of perennial streams, and (4) subsurface flow in consolidated rocks of the Muddy Mountains. The quantity of water from Lake Mead that has saturated rocks adjacent to the lake probably is greater than the quantity of ground water from all the Other sources. Rocks saturated by water from the lake probably extend less than 0.5 mileinland from the lake shore. The quality of virtually all the ground water in the area is not acceptable for drinking purposes. The most favorable areas for obtaining ground water are those underlain by the coarse-grained deposits of the older alluvium and the younger alluvium adjacent to Lake Mead. The least favorable areas are those underlain by the mudstone facies of the Muddy Creek Formation and fine-grained rocks of the Horse Spring Formation. Four areas identified as having potential for ground-water development are (1) near Overton Beach, (2) west of Callville Bay, (3) near Middle Point, and (4) in the lower Moapa Valley. Usable quantities of water probably can be obtained at these sites, but the

  2. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Nettilling Lake area (Baffin Island, Nunavut): A multi-proxy analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Anne; Pienitz, Reinhard; Francus, Pierre; Zdanowicz, Christian; St-Onge, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The paleoclimate and paleolimnological history of several Arctic regions remains poorly known. This is the case for the area around Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Nunavut), the largest lake of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. To reconstruct the past environmental history of this area, a highly innovative multi-proxy approach combining physical, magnetic, chemical and biological properties preserved in lake sediments was used. One particular goal of this study was to investigate the possible coupling between sedimentation processes observed in the lake and melt rates of nearby Penny Ice Cap. A 1-m long sediment core was retrieved from a small bay in the northeastern part of Nettilling Lake during the summer of 2010. This sampling area was chosen based on the hypothesis that incoming glacial meltwaters from Penny Ice Cap would leave a strong climate-modulated signal that would be reflected in the sedimentary sequence. The core was analyzed by both non-destructive (X-radiography (X-ray), microfluorescence-X (µ-XRF), magnetic susceptibility) and destructive (Loss On Ignition, grain size, water content, thin sections, diatoms) techniques. Radiometric AMS 14C and 210Pb/137Cs age determinations, as well as paleomagnetic measurements, were used to develop the core chronology, yielding an estimated bottom age of approximately 1365 AD. The sedimentation rate (0.15 cm.yr-1) in Nettilling Lake was found to be high compared to other Arctic lakes, due to inputs of highly turbid meltwaters from Penny Ice Cap with high suspended sediment loads. Significant correlations were found between geochemical profiles of elements linked to detrital inputs (Si, Ti, K, Ca) and melt rates from Penny Ice Cap since the 19th century. This suggests that variations in detrital elements in Nettilling Lake sediments might be used as an indirect indicator of regional climate fluctuations (e.g., summer temperatures) that determine glacier melt rates.

  3. 33 CFR 165.T09-0073 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010; Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010; Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI; Duluth, MN; Green Bay, WI; Sturgeon Bay...; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI; Duluth, MN; Green Bay, WI; Sturgeon Bay, WI; Chicago, IL; Erie, PA....

  4. Economic Impact of Arts and Cultural Institutions. Case Studies in Columbus, Minneapolis/St. Paul, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, Springfield. Report #15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report examines the economic impact of cultural institutions on their communities in Columbus (Ohio), Minneapolis/ St. Paul (Minnesota), St. Louis (Missouri), Salt Lake City (Utah), San Antonio (Texas), and Springfield (Illinois). For each city, tables are included which list data in the following categories: (1) audience per capita spending;…

  5. 33 CFR 165.1191 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events. 165.1191 Section 165.1191 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1191 Northern California and Lake Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events. (a) General. Safety zones are established for the events listed in Table 1 of this section. Further information...

  6. 33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Tahoe area annual marine events. 100.1103 Section 100.1103 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events. (a) General. Special local regulations are established for the events listed in Table 1 of this section. Notice of implementation of these special...

  7. 33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Tahoe area annual marine events. 100.1103 Section 100.1103 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events. (a) General. Special local regulations are established for the events listed in Table 1 of this section. Notice of implementation of these special...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1191 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events. 165.1191 Section 165.1191 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1191 Northern California and Lake Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events. (a) General. Safety zones are established for the events listed in Table 1 of this section. Further information...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1191 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events. 165.1191 Section 165.1191 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1191 Northern California and Lake Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events. (a) General. Safety zones are established for the events listed in Table 1 of this section. Further information...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line...

  15. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  16. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  17. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  18. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  19. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  20. 33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Tahoe area annual marine events. 100.1103 Section 100.1103 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1103 Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events. (a) General. Special local regulations...

  1. Mineral resource potential map of the Clear Lake Roadless Area, Leon County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendry, Charles W.; Patterson, Sam H.; Crandall, Thomas M.; Sweeney, John W.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for finding valuable mineral deposits or oil and gas in the Clear Lake Roadless Area is low. However, the area and nearby lands have not been thoroughly tested for oil and gas, and the possibilities for discovery cannot be ruled out. 

  2. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region.

  3. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  4. 77 FR 13073 - Designation for the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... October 20, 2011. In the Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA areas, Lincoln, Midsouth, and Sioux... (901) 942-3216 4/1/2012 3/31/2015 Sioux City Sioux City, IA......... (712) 255-8073 4/1/2012...

  5. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bryan Dillon, Area Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT...

  6. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Mud Lake area, eastern Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater with elevated dissolved-solids concentrations—containing large concentrations of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium—is present in the Mud Lake area of Eastern Idaho. The source of these solutes is unknown; however, an understanding of the geochemical sources and processes controlling their presence in groundwater in the Mud Lake area is needed to better understand the geochemical sources and processes controlling the water quality of groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory. The geochemical sources and processes controlling the water quality of groundwater in the Mud Lake area were determined by investigating the geology, hydrology, land use, and groundwater geochemistry in the Mud Lake area, proposing sources for solutes, and testing the proposed sources through geochemical modeling with PHREEQC. Modeling indicated that sources of water to the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were groundwater from the Beaverhead Mountains and the Camas Creek drainage basin; surface water from Medicine Lodge and Camas Creeks, Mud Lake, and irrigation water; and upward flow of geothermal water from beneath the aquifer. Mixing of groundwater with surface water or other groundwater occurred throughout the aquifer. Carbonate reactions, silicate weathering, and dissolution of evaporite minerals and fertilizer explain most of the changes in chemistry in the aquifer. Redox reactions, cation exchange, and evaporation were locally important. The source of large concentrations of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium was evaporite deposits in the unsaturated zone associated with Pleistocene Lake Terreton. Large amounts of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium are added to groundwater from irrigation water infiltrating through lake bed sediments containing evaporite deposits and the resultant dissolution of gypsum, halite, sylvite, and bischofite.

  7. Lake surface area variation and its responses to climatic change in Yamzhog Yumco Basin, South Tibet during 1970-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Tian, Y.; Sun, R.

    2015-12-01

    The research on lake extraction from multi-source and multi-temporal satellite images and the lake size variation can provide reliable method and indispensable information to deepen the understanding about alpine lake changes with the accelerating warming. With field survey experience in the Yamzhog Yumco Basin, South Tibet, the outlines of five lakes (i.e., Yamzhog Yumco, Chen Co, Kongmu Co, Bajiu Co and Puma Yumco) were delineated by the adoption of 42 scenes of satellite images from Landsat, CBERS and HJ from 1970 to 2010, basing on which the responses of alpine lakes to climate change at different timescales were explored. The results are summarized as follows. (1) The seasonal fluctuation of lake surface area was similar with different trend for the five alpine lakes. As for the last 41 years, the annual variation of lake surface area exhibited two kinds of patterns for the five alpine lakes. And the Yamzhog Yumco declined by 9.41%, while the rest four lakes expanded. (2) The responses of alpine lakes to climate change rely on different timescale and water replenishment types. On the one hand, the precipitation change was the predominant driving forces for the seasonal fluctuation and variation trend of lake size, and the rising temperature accounted for the inter-annual lake surface variation. On the other hand, the two kinds of alpine lakes behaviors were well correspondent with the warming temperature over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The lakes supplied mainly by precipitation shrunk as a result of increased evaporation, and lakes supplied mainly by glacier and snow meltwater, however, expanded because of the remarkable glacier recession. (3) The quantification of hydrological components would hopefully be improved, according to uncertainties analysis, with the adoption of microwave satellite images and higher resolution ones to disclose the interaction mechanism among climate, glacier, and lake in alpine regions.

  8. Molecular phylogenetic investigations of the Viviparidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) in the lakes of the Rift Valley area of Africa.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mita E; Kristensen, Thomas K; Madsen, Henry; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2009-09-01

    The freshwater gastropod family Viviparidae is nearly cosmopolitan, but absent from South America. On the African continent, two genera are recognized; the widespread Bellamya and the monotypic Neothauma, which is confined to Lake Tanganyika. Most of the African Bellamya species are confined to the major lakes of the Rift Valley area in Africa, i.e. Lake Albert, Lake Malawi, Lake Mweru, and Lake Victoria. The phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (H3, 18S and 28S) DNA inferred three major lake-clades; i.e. Lake Victoria/Kyoga/Albert, Lake Malawi and Lake Mweru/Bangweulu. The endemic B. rubicunda from Lake Albert and B. unicolor from Lake Kyoga were inferred to be part of the Lake Victoria clade. Bellamya capillata as identified by shell characters was polyphyletic in gene trees. The monophyletic Bellamya species radiation in Lake Malawi was most nearly related to the Lake Victoria/Kyoga/Albert-clade. Taxa from the Zambian lakes, Mweru and Bangweulu, were inferred together and placed ancestral to the other lakes. Neothauma tanganyicense was inferred as the sister-group to the Zambian Bellamya. Within the lake-clades the endemic radiations show very low genetic diversities (0-4.1% in COI), suggesting much faster morphological divergence than molecular divergence. Alternatively, Bellamya in Africa constitutes only a few species with several sub-species or eco-phenotypic morphs. The African viviparids were inferred to be the sister-group to a clade comprising Asian species, and the relatively low genetic diversity between the clades (12.6-15.5% in COI) makes a recent Miocene dispersal event from Asia to Africa much more likely than an ancient Gondwana vicarience distribution.

  9. Preliminary report on ground water in the Bonanza Lake area, Power and Blaine counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meisler, Harold

    1958-01-01

    The investigation in the Bonanza Lake area of northwestern Power and southeastern Blaine Counties was made to determine the direction of ground-water movement and to ascertain the relation of the regional ground-water body to the Snake River. The surface of the area is nearly flat to gently rolling, and slopes to the west. Lake Channel, an abandoned channel of the Snake River, and a few volcanic cones modify the gentle relief. The climate is semiarid, the annual precipitation ranging from 10 to 15 inches. Most of the area is uncultivated and covered with sagebrush, the predominate vegetation. A significant amount of the area is dry farmed; about 500 to 650 acres is irrigated with ground water pumped from wells or from ponds in Lake Channel. The Bonanza area and vicinity are underlin by windblown deposits of Recent age (not shown on the geologic map); alluvium with admixed windblown material and black basalt, both also of Recent age; undifferentiated Snake River basalt, of Pliocene to Recent age; the American Falls lake beds and Cedar Butte basalt, or Pleistocene age; of the Raft Lake beds and Massacre volcanic and associated rocks, of Pliocene(?) age. The alluvium contains ground water at shallow depth, but because of its limited areal extent it is not an important aquifer, The Snake River basalt is the most important aquifer in the area and yields water to irrigation, domestic, and stock wells. Several springs discharge from the basalt into Lake Walcott. The Cedar Butte basalt is a major aquifer supplying water to a number of stock and domestic wells and to Bonanza Lake. Ground water moves southward and southwestward through the area from the Aberseen-Springfield tract on the northeast and possibly from the downstream end of American Falls Reservoir. Part of the ground water is discharged to the Snake River and Lake Walcott and part moves westward out of the area of the main ground-water body. The amount of ground water can not be determined from the data bow

  10. VITELLOGENIN GENE EXPRESSION IN FATHEAD MINNOWS AND PEARL DACE FROM CONTROL (NON-DOSED) AND LAKES DOSED WITH EE2 IN THE CANADIAN EXPERIMENTAL LAKES AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A whole-lake endocrine disruption experiment was conducted by Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in northwestern Ontario for three years beginning in 2001. This experiment examined population, organismal, biochemical and cellular-level effects in la...

  11. Modeling carbon dioxide emissions reductions for three commercial reference buildings in Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucich, Stephen M.

    In the United States, the buildings sector is responsible for approximately 40% of the national carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. CO2 is created during the generation of heat and electricity, and has been linked to climate change, acid rain, a variety of health threats, surface water depletion, and the destruction of natural habitats. Building energy modeling is a powerful educational tool that building owners, architects, engineers, city planners, and policy makers can use to make informed decisions. The aim of this thesis is to simulate the reduction in CO2 emissions that may be achieved for three commercial buildings located in Salt Lake City, UT. The following two questions were used to guide this process: 1. How much can a building's annual CO2 emissions be reduced through a specific energy efficiency upgrade or policy? 2. How much can a building's annual CO2 emissions be reduced through the addition of a photovoltaic (PV) array? How large should the array be? Building energy simulations were performed with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlus software, commercial reference building models, and TMY3 weather data. The chosen models were a medium office building, a primary school, and a supermarket. Baseline energy consumption data were simulated for each model in order to identify changes that would have a meaningful impact. Modifications to the buildings construction and operation were considered before a PV array was incorporated. These modifications include (1) an improved building envelope, (2) reduced lighting intensity, and (3) modified HVAC temperature set points. The PV array sizing was optimized using a demand matching approach based on the method of least squares. The arrays tilt angle was optimized using the golden section search algorithm. Combined, energy efficiency upgrades and the PV array reduced building CO2 emissions by 58.6, 54.0, and 52.2% for the medium office, primary school, and supermarket, respectively. However, for these models, it was

  12. Robust Lake Level Extraction in Mountainous Areas By Retracking Cryosat Sarin Mode Waveforms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinherenbrink, M.; Ditmar, P.; Lindenbergh, R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, lake levels can be monitored using satellite altimetry.This is notably an advantage for lakes located in remote areas, where no gauges are present.Two disadvantages of traditional satellite altimetry however are the limited number of ground tracks and the pulse limited footprint size.In 2010 Cryosat was launched with onboard a SAR Interferometric Radar ALtimeter (SIRAL), which has a dense ground track spacing of 7-8 km and a along-track resolution of approximately 300 m in the SAR Interferometric (SARIn) mode.This potentially enables Cryosat to sample more lakes and obtain more reliable lake levels in near-shore regions.Still, the accuracy and robustness of standard level 2 data is limited due to pollution of the waveform in near-shore regions.We propose therefore to actively extract the water surface by a novel retracking algorithm based on cross-correlation of observed level 1b waveforms with a generic simulated waveform.As a result, we obtain multiple elevations per waveform.As the water level is contributing to each consecutive waveform over the lake, it can efficiently be extracted using a majority voting scheme.By comparing the lake levels to those obtained with Jason-2 over Lake Nasser an RMS of differences of 0.30 m is found.After this validation step, we applied the procedure to lakes in Tian Shan and Tibet.In these areas 125 lakes are measured at least four times in two years, of which 30 are even sampled ten times in two years and 16 more than twenty times.For the ones sampled more than twenty times an additional slope in the water surface could be estimated, which can be an effect of prevailing winds or errors in the geoid model.Ultimately, we found a negative water balance in the natural lakes in Tian Shan and a positive balance in Tibet between February 2012 and February 2014.These results clearly demonstrate the potential of Cryosat, as previous radar altimetry missions were only able to sample about 70 lakes over

  13. 36 CFR 7.55 - Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... following locations: (i) Upper Hawk Creek from the waterfall near the campground through the area known as... launch ramps, marina facilities, campground areas, water skiers, beaches occupied by swimmers, or...

  14. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm) chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the Mexico City urban center, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.5 μg m-3, 3.5 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.36 μg m-3, respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7

  15. Increased atmospheric deposition of mercury in reference lakes near major urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of Hg is the predominant pathway for Hg to reach sensitive ecosystems, but the importance of emissions on near-field deposition remains unclear. To better understand spatial variability in Hg deposition, mercury concentrations were analyzed in sediment cores from 12 lakes with undeveloped watersheds near to (<50 km) and remote from (>150 km) several major urban areas in the United States. Background and focusing corrected Hg fluxes and flux ratios (modern to background) in the near-urban lakes (68 ?? 6.9 ??g m -2 yr -1 and 9.8 ?? 4.8, respectively) greatly exceed those in the remote lakes (14 ?? 9.3 ??g m -2 yr -1 and 3.5 ?? 1.0) and the fluxes are strongly related to distance from the nearest major urban area (r 2 = 0.87) and to population and Hg emissions within 50-100 km of the lakes. Comparison to monitored wet deposition suggests that dry deposition is a major contributor of Hg to lakes near major urban areas. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FGD gypsum application: Impacts on soil P from city parks in the Tampa area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling excessive P loss from agricultural fields has become a major issue in recent years. However, managed city parks may also contribute to P loss. Thus, a study was conducted at three different city parks located in the Tampa Area to evaluate the use of FGD gypsum as an amendment to reduce w...

  17. EPA Brownfields Grant Will Aid City of Spokane with Plans to Revitalize Hillyard Industrial Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - March 17, 2015) The City of Spokane, Washington has been selected to receive a $200,000 Brownfields Area-Wide Planning (AWP) grant from EPA to help move towards the goal of revitalizing a former industrial property in their city.

  18. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laney, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study is a geohydrologic reconnaissance of about 170 square miles in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area from Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada. The study is one of a series that describes the geohydrology of the recreation area and that indentifies areas where water supplies can be developed. Precipitation in this arid area is about 5 inches per year. Streamflow is seasonal and extremely variable except for that in the Colorado River, which adjoins the area. Pan evaporation is more than 20 times greater than precipitation; therefore, regional ground-water supplies are meager except near the Colorado River, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave. Large ground-water supplies can be developed near the river and lakes, and much smaller supplies may be obtained in a few favorable locations farther from the river and lakes. Ground water in most of the areas probably contains more than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, but water that contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids can be obtained within about 1 mile of the lakes. Crystalline rocks of metamorphic, intrusive and volcanic origin crop out in the area. These rocks are overlain by conglomerate and mudstone of the Muddy Creek Formation, gravel and conglomerate of the older alluvium, and sand and gravel of the Chemehuevi Formation and younger alluvium. The crystalline rocks, where sufficiently fractured, yield water to springs and would yield small amounts of water to favorably located wells. The poorly cemented and more permeable beds of the older alluvium, Chemehuevi Formation, and younger alluvium are the better potential aquifers, particularly along the Colorado River and Lakes Mead and Mohave. Thermal springs in the gorge of the Colorado River south of Hoover Dam discharge at least 2,580 acre-feet per year of water from the volcanic rocks and metamorphic and plutonic rocks. The discharge is much greater than could be infiltrated in the drainage basin above the springs

  19. Mineral resources of the Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area, Fremont County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Tysdal, R.G. ); Peters, T.J. )

    1988-01-01

    The authors report on the 350-acre Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area in the southern part of the Madison Range. Fremont County, Idaho, and is about 17 miles north of the hamlet of Islan Park. The southwestern part of the wilderness study area, along the Madison Range Fault, is rated as having a moderate energy resource potential for geothermal water, and the remainder of the study area has a low potential for this resource.

  20. Contamination and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Lake Bed Sediment of a Large Lake Scenic Area in China

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Li; Xu, Liang; Fu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of heavy metals to lake bed sediment of scenic areas may pose risks on aquatic ecosystems and human health, however very few studies on risk assessment have been reported for scenic areas. Accordingly, this study determined concentration levels, and assessed contamination characteristics and risks, of heavy metals in lake bed sediment of National Scenic Areas Songhuahu (NSAS) in China. The concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were determined in 29 bed sediment samples. Results showed that the mean values of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were 92.69, 90.73, 38.29, 46.77, and 49.44 mg/kg, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that organic matter was a major factor influencing distribution of heavy metals. The results for enrichment factors indicated that contamination rates and anthropogenic inputs of single heavy metals decreased in the order Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn; results of Nemerow integrated pollution index suggested that 72.41% of sampling sites were exposed to low to moderately integrated pollution, and 27.59% of sampling sites were exposed to strongly integrated pollution. According to results for potential ecological risk index, ecological risks of single and all the heavy metals in bed sediment from all the sampling sites were low. Human risks were assessed with hazardous quotients, and the results suggested that exposure of heavy metals to bed sediment posed no or little risk to human health, and the pathway of ingestion significantly contributed to human health risks. PMID:27455296

  1. Nature in cities. Renaturalization of riverbanks in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, Anna Marta; Mascarenhas, Jorge Morarji R. Dias

    2016-12-01

    Most of the rehabilitations of river sections with their banks in cities has often been inappropriate. The reason for this is that designers do not understand the natural functioning of a river and they are synthesizing and sterilizing these urban spaces, distorting its natural functioning. Besides, there are clear proofs that these rehabilitations are useless, contributing to the devaluation of the river ecosystem without improving its relationships with the city. The other effect of the water lines destructions are the educational terms, broadcasting a wrong idea of the functioning of the river. This article tries to show briefly, how a river works, what arethe natural characteristicswhich should be valued by a rehabilitation and what has gone wrong in recent rehabilitation works. Using the theoretical drawings, based on examples from real life, and supported by photographs, the authors present also the possible negative consequences of the urban mistakes for the sake of operating of cities. The paper shows some techniques of natural engineering, using natural materials and vegetation that may be employed. This may become a green intervention, making these techniques much more economic and educational, improving life quality thanks to public access to attractive parks and squares by rivers.

  2. Spatial heterogeneity in statistical power to detect changes in lake area in Alaskan National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicol, Samuel; Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the number and size of high-latitude lakes have decreased throughout many regions; however, individual lake trends have been variable in direction and magnitude. This spatial heterogeneity in lake change makes statistical detection of temporal trends challenging, particularly in small analysis areas where weak trends are difficult to separate from inter- and intra-annual variability. Factors affecting trend detection include inherent variability, trend magnitude, and sample size. In this paper, we investigated how the statistical power to detect average linear trends in lake size of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 %/year was affected by the size of the analysis area and the number of years of monitoring in National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska. We estimated power for large (930–4,560 sq km) study areas within refuges and for 2.6, 12.9, and 25.9 sq km cells nested within study areas over temporal extents of 4–50 years. We found that: (1) trends in study areas could be detected within 5–15 years, (2) trends smaller than 2.0 %/year would take >50 years to detect in cells within study areas, and (3) there was substantial spatial variation in the time required to detect change among cells. Power was particularly low in the smallest cells which typically had the fewest lakes. Because small but ecologically meaningful trends may take decades to detect, early establishment of long-term monitoring will enhance power to detect change. Our results have broad applicability and our method is useful for any study involving change detection among variable spatial and temporal extents.

  3. Consumptive Water-Use Coefficients for the Great Lakes Basin and Climatically Similar Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Kimberly H.; Runkle, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    Consumptive water use is the portion of water withdrawn (for a particular use) that is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. This report, which is organized by water?use categories, includes consumptive?use coefficients for the Great Lakes Basin (including Canada) and for areas climatically similar to the Great Lakes Basin. This report also contains an annotated bibliography of consumptive water?use coefficients. Selected references are listed for consumptive?use data from elsewhere in the world. For the industrial water?use category, the median consumptive?use coefficients were 10 percent for the Great Lakes Basin, climatically similar areas, and the world; the 25th and 75th percentiles for these geographic areas were comparable within 6 percent. The combined domestic and public?supply consumptive?use statistics (median, 25th and 75th percentiles) were between 10 to 20 percent for the various geographic areas. Although summary statistics were similar for coefficients in the livestock and irrigation water?use categories for the Great Lakes Basin and climatically similar areas, statistic values for the world on a whole were substantially lower (15 to 28 percent lower). Commercial and thermoelectric power consumptive?use coefficient statistics (median, 25th, and 75th percentile) also were comparable for the Great Lakes Basin and climatically similar areas, within 2 percent. References for other countries were not found for commercial and thermoelectric power water?use categories. The summary statistics for the mining consumptive?use coefficients varied, likely because of differences in types of mining, processes, or equipment.

  4. Mapping ecosystem service indicators in a Great Lakes estuarine Area of Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries provide multiple ecosystem services from which humans benefit. Currently, thirty-six Great Lakes estuaries in the United States and Canada are designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) due to a legacy of chemical contamination, degraded habitat, and non-point-source polluti...

  5. EPA Awards New Great Lakes Restoration Funding for Projects in the Clinton River Area of Concern

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    No. 15-OPA166 HARRISON TOWNSHIP, MICH. (Nov. 9, 2015) -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of new funding for major Great Lakes Restoration Initiative projects in the Clinton River Area of Concern totaling nearly $20 m

  6. A STUDY OF THE NEED FOR A JUNIOR COLLEGE IN THE SALT LAKE METROPOLITAN AREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, RALPH B.

    A POPULATION INCREASE OF 71 PERCENT IS EXPECTED IN UTAH BETWEEN 1960 AND 1980. THE GREATEST GROWTH IS EXPECTED IN THE SALT LAKE METROPOLITAN AREA. THE COLLEGE AGE GROUP (18 TO 21 YEARS) WILL INCREASE BY 80 PERCENT BETWEEN 1960 AND 1970. IF CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATES ARE USED, THE PROPOSED JUNIOR COLLEGE COULD EXPECT AN ENROLLMENT OF APPROXIMATELY…

  7. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. 162.210 Section 162.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION...

  8. Monitored landscape change of Lake Baiyangdian wetland with dynamic reed area based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; He, Lei; Zhang, Shengwei; Lei, Yuping

    2009-09-01

    Lake Baiyangdian, a largest wetland ecosystem in North China Plain, has dried up on seven occasions since the 1960s. In recent years, more than one billion of cubic meters of water from upstream reservoirs and Yellow river have been transported to the lake to rescue the shrinking wetlands. Since the Lake Baiyangdian was actually composed of 143 small lakes and more than 70 villages with large or small area of cropland, dynamic distribution of aquatic plants in wetland such as reed and associated growth condition of these allowed to monitor the changes of wetland landscape and water quality to support the policy applications of water conveyance and wetland environmental treatment and control. Assisted with ground survey analyses and Landsat TM image, the MODIS 250 m time series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), given its combination of medium spatial and high temporal resolution, were applied to detect the unique rapid growth stage of reed in the spring from adjacent crops such as winter wheat, cotton, and spring maize, of which has a similar phenology in development of leaf area index, and dynamic reed areas were mapped in recent decade. Landscape changes of the wetland were analyzed using maps of reed area and hydrological data.

  9. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN: INFLUENCE OF THE CHICAGO/GARY URBAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative importance of the Chicago/Gay urban area was investigated to determine its impact on atmospheric mercury (Hg) concentrations and wet deposition in the Lake Michigan basin. Event wet-only precipitation, total particulate, and vapor phase samples were collected for ...

  10. Great Lakes Area Resource Center. Final Technical Report. June 1, 1974-May 31, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The final technical report of the Great Lakes Regional Resource Center summarizes special education activities in five major areas: state program development, educational appraisal, educational programing, sharing resources, and project accountability and administration. Explained are project goals of enhancing development, demonstration,…

  11. 77 FR 25890 - Safety Zone; 2012 Memorial Day Tribute Fireworks, Lake Charlevoix, Boyne City, Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... No. USCG-2012-0337] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Memorial Day Tribute Fireworks, Lake Charlevoix... May 26, 2012, fireworks will be launched from a point on Lake Charlevoix to commemorate Memorial Day. The Captain of the Port, Sector Sault Sainte Marie, has determined that the Memorial Day...

  12. 33 CFR 334.845 - Wisconsin Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore from Manitowoc and Sheboygan... Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore from Manitowoc.... (b) The regulation. (1) During specific, infrequent periods when Military exercises will be...

  13. Paleolimnological and geochronological studies of salt lakes of Crimea, the Black Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subetto, D. A.; Sapelko, T. V.; Kuznetsov, D. D.; Ludikova, A. V.; Gerasimenko, N.; Stolba, V.; Bakhmutov, V.

    2009-04-01

    1. Crimea is one of the few places in the northern Black Sea region with mineral lakes with sediments that can give information about paleoclimate and environmental changes over a long time period. All of these lakes are shallow (c. 1-1.5 m), saline of marine origin (former marine bays and lagoons), the emergence of which took place in ‘historical' time (c. 5000 yrs ago). 2. The thickness of sediments is reaching up to 20-25 m. The recovery of long sediment sequences permits comparative study of the complex interactions among humans, climate and environment in the Crimea. Moreover, it provides an opportunity to establish a direct chronological link between major ethno-historical and economic processes on the one hand and climatic changes such as wet-dry circles that affected the whole area on the other. 3. Two lake sediment sequences have been recovered from the Crimean Peninsula ((Lake Saki (45° 06',8N; 33° 33',2E, water depth ca 0.8 m, recovered sediments 4.2 m) and Lake Dzharylgach(45° 34',7N; 32° 51',7E, water depth ca 0.8 m, recovered sediments 4.15 m)) during the field campaign 2005, as part of the Joint Danish-Russian-Ukraine project called "Northern Black Sea in the 1st millennium BC: human history and climate changes". In 2006, a detailed examination of the cores was carried out by the team members from the Institute of Limnology, RAS, St Petersburg, the National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, and the Institute of Physics of the Earth, NASU, Kiev. The detailed examination of the cores, which includes varve counting, lithostratigraphy, geochemistry, pollen, diatom and ostracods analyses is presently being carried out. The AMS 14C dating is being processed by the Radiocarbon Laboratory, Institute of Physics and Astronomy. 4. In the both studied lakes, marine sediments overlain by mineralized lake sediments were recovered. The oldest dates from marine sediment from both studied sequences are 5500-5370 cal BP (L.Saki) and 7200-7050 cal BP (L

  14. Caldera resurgence during magma replenishment and rejuvenation at Valles and Lake City calderas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ben; Wilcock, Jack; Stix, John

    2012-10-01

    A key question in volcanology is the driving mechanisms of resurgence at active, recently active, and ancient calderas. Valles caldera in New Mexico and Lake City caldera in Colorado are well-studied resurgent structures which provide three crucial clues for understanding the resurgence process. (1) Within the limits of 40Ar/39Ar dating techniques, resurgence and hydrothermal alteration at both calderas occurred very quickly after the caldera-forming eruptions (tens of thousands of years or less). (2) Immediately before and during resurgence, dacite magma was intruded and/or erupted into each system; this magma is chemically distinct from rhyolite magma which was resident in each system. (3) At least 1 km of structural uplift occurred along regional and subsidence faults which were closely associated with shallow intrusions or lava domes of dacite magma. These observations demonstrate that resurgence at these two volcanoes is temporally linked to caldera subsidence, with the upward migration of dacite magma as the driver of resurgence. Recharge of dacite magma occurs as a response to loss of lithostatic load during the caldera-forming eruption. Flow of dacite into the shallow magmatic system is facilitated by regional fault systems which provide pathways for magma ascent. Once the dacite enters the system, it is able to heat, remobilize, and mingle with residual crystal-rich rhyolite remaining in the shallow magma chamber. Dacite and remobilized rhyolite rise buoyantly to form laccoliths by lifting the chamber roof and producing surface resurgent uplift. The resurgent deformation caused by magma ascent fractures the chamber roof, increasing its structural permeability and allowing both rhyolite and dacite magmas to intrude and/or erupt together. This sequence of events also promotes the development of magmatic-hydrothermal systems and ore deposits. Injection of dacite magma into the shallow rhyolite magma chamber provides a source of heat and magmatic volatiles

  15. The Cottonwood Lake study area, a long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.

    2012-01-01

    The Cottonwood Lake study area is one of only three long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring sites in the prairie pothole region of North America; the other two are Orchid Meadows in South Dakota and St. Denis in Saskatchewan. Of the three, Cottonwood Lake has, by far, the longest continuous data-collection record. Research was initiated at the study area in 1966, and intensive investigations of the hydrology, chemistry, and biology of prairie pothole wetlands continue at the site today. This fact sheet describes the study area, provides an overview of wetland ecology research that has been conducted at the site in the past, and provides an introduction to current work being conducted at the study area by USGS scientists.

  16. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    PubMed

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  17. 36 CFR 7.48 - Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the air in powerless flight is allowed except in harbors, swim beaches, developed areas, and in other... person may launch and operate a personal watercraft in park waters or beach a personal watercraft on park... the Willow Beach Harbor to Hoover Dam, prohibited from the first Tuesday following Labor Day...

  18. 36 CFR 7.48 - Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the air in powerless flight is allowed except in harbors, swim beaches, developed areas, and in other... person may launch and operate a personal watercraft in park waters or beach a personal watercraft on park... the Willow Beach Harbor to Hoover Dam, prohibited from the first Tuesday following Labor Day...

  19. 36 CFR 7.57 - Lake Meredith National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.57 Section 7.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... devices designed to carry persons through the air in powerless flight is allowed except in locations designated as closed to this activity. The superintendent may designate times and locations where...

  20. 36 CFR 7.57 - Lake Meredith National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.57 Section 7.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... devices designed to carry persons through the air in powerless flight is allowed except in locations designated as closed to this activity. The superintendent may designate times and locations where...

  1. 36 CFR 7.57 - Lake Meredith National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.57 Section 7.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... devices designed to carry persons through the air in powerless flight is allowed except in locations designated as closed to this activity. The superintendent may designate times and locations where...

  2. Social differences in avoidable mortality between small areas of 15 European cities: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health and inequalities in health among inhabitants of European cities are of major importance for European public health and there is great interest in how different health care systems in Europe perform in the reduction of health inequalities. However, evidence on the spatial distribution of cause-specific mortality across neighbourhoods of European cities is scarce. This study presents maps of avoidable mortality in European cities and analyses differences in avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods with different levels of deprivation. Methods We determined the level of mortality from 14 avoidable causes of death for each neighbourhood of 15 large cities in different European regions. To address the problems associated with Standardised Mortality Ratios for small areas we smooth them using the Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Ecological regression analysis was used to assess the association between social deprivation and mortality. Results Mortality from avoidable causes of death is higher in deprived neighbourhoods and mortality rate ratios between areas with different levels of deprivation differ between gender and cities. In most cases rate ratios are lower among women. While Eastern and Southern European cities show higher levels of avoidable mortality, the association of mortality with social deprivation tends to be higher in Northern and lower in Southern Europe. Conclusions There are marked differences in the level of avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods of European cities and the level of avoidable mortality is associated with social deprivation. There is no systematic difference in the magnitude of this association between European cities or regions. Spatial patterns of avoidable mortality across small city areas can point to possible local problems and specific strategies to reduce health inequality which is important for the development of urban areas and the well-being of their inhabitants. PMID:24618273

  3. Inventory of peat resources: an area of Beltrami and Lake of the Woods counties, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the Minnesota Peat Inventory Project's (MPIP) reconnaissance-level survey of an area of Beltrami and Lake of the Woods counties. Peatlands cover about 314,000 hectares (775,000 acres) of this area and constitute about 12 percent of the state's total peat resource. The survey identifies the location and amount of fuel-grade and horticultural peat in the two county area. The report provides a general discussion of peatlands and describes the field and laboratory procedures of this peatland survey and presents a map of the peat resources in the surveyed area. 28 references, 12 figures, 12 tables.

  4. Spatio-temporal variation in the tap water isotope ratios of Salt Lake City: a novel indicator of urban water system structure and dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameel, M. Y.; Bowen, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Public water supply systems are the life-blood of urban areas. How we use urban water systems affects more than human health and well-being. Our water use can alter a city's energy balance, including how much solar energy is absorbed as heat or reflected back into space. The severity of these effects, and the need to better understand connections between climate, water extraction, water use, and water use impacts, is strongest in areas of climatic aridity and substantial land-use change, such as the rapidly urbanizing areas of Utah. We have gathered and analyzed stable water isotope data from a series of semi-annual hydrological surveys (spring and fall, 2013 and 2014) in urban tap water sampled across the Salt Lake Valley. Our study has led to four major findings thus far: 1) Clear and substantial variation in tap water isotopic composition in space and time that can be linked to different water sources and management practices within the urban area, 2) There is a strong correlation between the range of observed isotope values and the population of water districts, reflecting use of water from multiple local and non-local sources in districts with high water demand, 3) Water isotopes reflect significant and variable loss of water due to evaporation of surface water resources and 4) Overall, tap water contains lower concentrations of the heavy H and O isotopes than does precipitation within the basin, reflecting the connection between city water supplies and mountain water sources. Our results highlight the utility of isotopic data as an indicator of heterogeneities within urban water systems, management practices and their variation across a major metropolitan area, and effects of climate variability on urban water supplies

  5. The epidemiology of illness and injury at the alpine venues during the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Allen, Todd L; Jolley, Scott J; Cooley, Vernon J; Winn, Robert T; Harrison, Jeffery D; Price, Richard R; Rich, J Charles

    2006-02-01

    The Emergency Medicine literature has described levels of medical care for mass gatherings in the United States, including for the Los Angeles 1984 Summer and Calgary 1988 Winter Olympic Games. However, there are limited data to describe the type and number of illness or injury that may occur during mass gatherings in an alpine winter environment. To describe the epidemiology of illness and injury seen among spectators at the alpine and snowboarding venues during the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympic Games, we conducted a retrospective review of the Salt Lake City 2002 Olympic Medical Care database for all patient encounters during the operational period of the Games at the alpine and snowboarding venues. The three venues included were: Deer Valley Resort (DVR), Park City Mountain Resort (PCM), and Snowbasin Resort (SBA). Each venue had a medical clinic located on site for spectators and another for athletes. Physicians, nurses, emergency medical technicians, and therapists staffed the clinics. The database was created by Inter-mountain Health Care (IHC) in conjunction with Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympic staff and consisted of descriptive reports of all patient encounters from all venues including demographic, epidemiology, and outcome information. IHC maintains the database, and was the sole medical provider for the Games. Each venue had at least 6 days of competition events. Over the 19 days of the Olympiad, a total of 410,160 spectators and 3,961 competitive athletes attended the three venues. There were 841 spectators evaluated and treated at the venue clinics, and mobile medical staff treated 262 spectators. The top five spectator clinic diagnostic categories were: sprain/strain (n=108), miscellaneous trauma (n=103), respiratory (n=88), miscellaneous medical (n=69), and digestive (n=52). Fifty spectators required transport to a hospital for additional care: 27 required transfer by ground ambulance and the remainder were transported by private vehicle. The

  6. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  7. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  8. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  9. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  10. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  11. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  12. The flora of the Cottonwood Lake Study Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, D.M.; Euliss, N.H.; Lane, S.P.; Goldade, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The 92 ha Cottonwood Lake Study Area is located in south-central North Dakota along the eastern edge of a glacial stagnation moraine known as the Missouri Coteau. The study area has been the focus of biologic and hydrologic research since the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service purchased the site in 1963. We studied the plant communities of the Cottonwood Lake Study Area from 1992 to 2001. During this time period, the vascular flora of the study area consisted of 220 species representing 51 families. Over half of the species were perennial forbs (117 species). Perennial grasses (26 species) and annual forbs (22 species) made up the next two largest physiognomic groupings. The flora, having a mean Coefficient of Conservatism of 4.6 and a Floristic Quality Index of 62, consisted of 187 native species. Thirty-three species were non-natives. Our annotated list should provide information useful to researchers, graduate students, and others as they design and implement future studies in wetlands and uplands both in and around the Cottonwood Lake Study Area.

  13. Landslide susceptibility in the Tully Valley area, Finger Lakes region, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, Stefan; Wieczorek, Gerald E.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of a large landslide in the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York, an investigation was undertaken to determine the factors responsible for the landslide in order to develop a model for regional landslide susceptibility. The April 27, 1993 Tully Valley landslide occurred within glacial lake clays overlain by till and colluvium on gentle slopes of 9-12 degrees. The landslide was triggered by extreme climatic events of prolonged heavy rainfall combined with rapid melting of a winter snowpack. A photoinventory and field checking of landslides within a 415 km2 study area, including the Tully Valley, revealed small recently-active landslides and other large dormant prehistoric landslides, probably Pleistocene in age. Similar to the larger Tully Valley landslide, the smaller recently-active landslides occurred in red, glacial lake clays very likely triggered by seasonal rainfall. The large dormant landslides have been stable for long periods as evidenced by slope denudational processes that have modified the landslides. These old and ancient landslides correspond with proglacial lake levels during the Pleistocene, suggesting that either inundation or rapid drainage was responsible for triggering these landslides. A logistic regression analysis was performed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment to develop a model of landslide susceptibility for the Tully Valley study area. Presence of glacial clays, slope angle, and glacial lake levels were used as explanatory variables for landslide incidence. The spatial probability of landsliding, categorized as low, moderate and high, is portrayed within 90-m square cells on the susceptibility map.

  14. Calculation of area and volume for the south part of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife Resources, collected bathymetric data for the south part of Great Salt Lake during 2002-04 using a single-beam, high-definition fathometer and real-time differential global positioning system. About 7.6 million depth measurements were collected along more than 930 miles (1,690 kilometers) of survey transects. Sound-velocity profiles were obtained in conjunction with the bathymetric data to provide time-of-travel corrections to the depth calculations. Data were processed with commercial hydrographic software and exported into geographic information system (GIS) software for mapping and calculation of area and volume. Area and volume calculations show a maximum area of about 508,000 acres (2,056 square kilometers) and a maximum volume of about 9,257,000 acre-feet (11.42 cubic kilometers) at a water-surface altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters). Minimum water-surface altitude of the south part of Great Salt Lake is just below 4,167 feet (1,279 meters) in the area just south of the Union Pacific railroad causeway halfway between Promontory Point and the western edge of the lake. At this altitude, and continuing up to about 4,176 feet (1,279 meters), the south part of the lake is separated into two areas by a ridge extending from Promontory Point to Hat Island. Calculations for area and volume are based on a low altitude of 4,167 feet (1,279 meters) to a high altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters).

  15. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) INTO CENTRAL PARK LAKE, NEW YORK CITY, OVER A CENTURY OF DEPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion–derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur–content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  16. Definition of the Catchment Area for a Small Rural Hospital Near a Large City

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Practicing physicians, hospital directors, members of the hospital's board of directors and government health care planners can benefit from an accurate description of a hospital catchment area. The sociodemographic and geographic characteristics of the catchment area of Wakefield, PQ.'s 31-bed Gatineau Memorial Hospital (GMH) were studied. A randomized, door-to-door survey was conducted among permanent residents in the catchment area. The response rate was 96.1%. We found language to be an important and complex determinant of hospital utilization patterns. Orientation towards the city also affected the pattern of hospital use; those who lived between Wakefield and Ottawa-Hull were more likely to use a city hospital, as were those who had recently moved to the area, or who commuted to work in the city. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21279011

  17. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in

  18. Calculation of area and volume for the north part of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, Fire, and State Lands, collected bathymetric data for the north part of Great Salt Lake during the spring and early summer of 2006 using a single-beam, high-definition fathometer and real-time differential global positioning system. About 5.2 million depth measurements were collected along more than 765 miles (1,230 kilometers) of survey transects. Sound-velocity profiles were obtained in conjunction with the bathymetric data to provide time-of-travel corrections to the depth calculations. Data were processed with commercial hydrographic software and exported into geographic information system (GIS) software for mapping and calculation of area and volume. Area and volume calculations show a maximum area of about 385,000 acres (1,560 square kilometers) and a maximum volume of about 5,693,000 acre-feet (about 7 cubic kilometers) at a water-surface altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters). Minimum natural water-surface altitude of the north part of Great Salt Lake is just below 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) in the area just north of the Union Pacific railroad causeway halfway between Saline and the western edge of the lake. The north part of Great Salt Lake generally grades gradually to the west and north and is bounded by steep scarps along its eastern border. Calculations for area and volume are based on a low altitude of 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) to a high altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters).

  19. Hyperspectral remote sensing of evaporate minerals and associated sediments in Lake Magadi area, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodikara, Gayantha R. L.; Woldai, Tsehaie; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; Kuria, Zack; van der Meer, Freek; Shepherd, Keith D.; van Hummel, G. J.

    2012-02-01

    Pleistocene to present evaporitic lacustrine sediments in Lake Magadi, East African Rift Valley, Kenya were studied and mapped using spectral remote sensing methods. This approach incorporated surface mineral mapping using space-borne hyperspectral Hyperion imagery together with laboratory analysis, including visible, near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VNIR) measurements and X-ray diffraction for selected rock and soil samples of the study area. The spectral signatures of Magadiite and Kenyaite, which have not been previously reported, were established and the spectral signatures of trona, chert series, volcanic tuff and the High Magadi bed were also analyzed. Image processing techniques, MNF (Minimum Noise Fraction) and MTMF (Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering) using a stratified approach (image analysis with and without the lake area), were used to enhance the mapping of evaporates. High Magadi beds, chert series and volcanic tuff were identified from the Hyperion image with an overall mapping accuracy of 84.3%. Even though, the spatial distribution of evaporites and sediments in Lake Magadi area change in response to climate variations, the mineralogy of this area has not been mapped recently. The results of this study shows the usefulness of the hypersspectral remote sensing to map the surface geology of this kind of environment and to locate promising sites for industrial open-pit trona mining in a qualitative and quantitative manner.

  20. Variability of rainfall over Lake Kariba catchment area in the Zambezi river basin, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchuru, Shepherd; Botai, Joel O.; Botai, Christina M.; Landman, Willem A.; Adeola, Abiodun M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, average monthly and annual rainfall totals recorded for the period 1970 to 2010 from a network of 13 stations across the Lake Kariba catchment area of the Zambezi river basin were analyzed in order to characterize the spatial-temporal variability of rainfall across the catchment area. In the analysis, the data were subjected to intervention and homogeneity analysis using the Cumulative Summation (CUSUM) technique and step change analysis using rank-sum test. Furthermore, rainfall variability was characterized by trend analysis using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistic. Additionally, the rainfall series were decomposed and the spectral characteristics derived using Cross Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Wavelet Coherence (WC) analysis. The advantage of using the wavelet-based parameters is that they vary in time and can therefore be used to quantitatively detect time-scale-dependent correlations and phase shifts between rainfall time series at various localized time-frequency scales. The annual and seasonal rainfall series were homogeneous and demonstrated no apparent significant shifts. According to the inhomogeneity classification, the rainfall series recorded across the Lake Kariba catchment area belonged to category A (useful) and B (doubtful), i.e., there were zero to one and two absolute tests rejecting the null hypothesis (at 5 % significance level), respectively. Lastly, the long-term variability of the rainfall series across the Lake Kariba catchment area exhibited non-significant positive and negative trends with coherent oscillatory modes that are constantly locked in phase in the Morlet wavelet space.

  1. The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area, California - an updated geophysical perspective of heat sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, W.D.; Blakely, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area encompasses a large dry-steam production area in The Geysers field and a documented high-temperature, high-pressure, water-dominated system in the area largely south of Clear Lake, which has not been developed. An updated view is presented of the geological/geophysical complexities of the crust in this region in order to address key unanswered questions about the heat source and tectonics. Forward modeling, multidimensional inversions, and ideal body analysis of the gravity data, new electromagnetic sounding models, and arguments made from other geophysical data sets suggest that many of the geophysical anomalies have significant contributions from rock property and physical state variations in the upper 7 km and not from "magma' at greater depths. Regional tectonic and magmatic processes are analyzed to develop an updated scenario for pluton emplacement that differs substantially from earlier interpretations. In addition, a rationale is outlined for future exploration for geothermal resources in The Geysers-Clear Lake area. -from Authors

  2. Comparison of three methods for long-term monitoring of boreal lake area using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David

    2012-01-01

    Programs to monitor lake area change are becoming increasingly important in high latitude regions, and their development often requires evaluating tradeoffs among different approaches in terms of accuracy of measurement, consistency across multiple users over long time periods, and efficiency. We compared three supervised methods for lake classification from Landsat imagery (density slicing, classification trees, and feature extraction). The accuracy of lake area and number estimates was evaluated relative to high-resolution aerial photography acquired within two days of satellite overpasses. The shortwave infrared band 5 was better at separating surface water from nonwater when used alone than when combined with other spectral bands. The simplest of the three methods, density slicing, performed best overall. The classification tree method resulted in the most omission errors (approx. 2x), feature extraction resulted in the most commission errors (approx. 4x), and density slicing had the least directional bias (approx. half of the lakes with overestimated area and half of the lakes with underestimated area). Feature extraction was the least consistent across training sets (i.e., large standard error among different training sets). Density slicing was the best of the three at classifying small lakes as evidenced by its lower optimal minimum lake size criterion of 5850 m2 compared with the other methods (8550 m2). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the use of additional spectral bands and a more sophisticated method not only required additional processing effort but also had a cost in terms of the accuracy and consistency of lake classifications.

  3. A study of vital and health statistics of the Kainji Lake Area of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adekolu-John, E O

    1988-09-01

    A survey of vital and health statistics, and the evaluation of collection of these data in the registration centres of Kainji Lake Area, are presented. Forty-two per cent of all deaths occurred below 10 years of age, with the largest percentage occurring below 5 years of age. The leading causes of all deaths were malaria, gastro-intestinal disorders and measles. Occurrence of an epidemic was found to be significant to the overall mortality. The role of traditional healers in the control of childhood mortality is discussed. About 34% of the women had married more than once and 56% of the divorces occurred after the first marriage. The causes of divorces were largely due to loss of affection and neglect. The number of deliveries in the hospitals was more than the number of registered births and no death was registered at the centres. A unique system of collection of vital information was suggested for the Kainji Lake Area.

  4. Bathymetric map, area/capacity table, and sediment volume estimate for Millwood Lake near Ashdown, Arkansas, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Joseph M.; Green, W. Reed

    2013-01-01

    Millwood Lake, in southwestern Arkansas, was constructed and is operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for flood-risk reduction, water supply, and recreation. The lake was completed in 1966 and it is likely that with time sedimentation has resulted in the reduction of storage capacity of the lake. The loss of storage capacity can cause less water to be available for water supply, and lessens the ability of the lake to mitigate flooding. Excessive sediment accumulation also can cause a reduction in aquatic habitat in some areas of the lake. Although many lakes operated by the USACE have periodic bathymetric and sediment surveys, none have been completed for Millwood Lake. In March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, surveyed the bathymetry of Millwood Lake to prepare an updated bathymetric map and area/capacity table. The USGS also collected sediment thickness data in June 2013 to estimate the volume of sediment accumulated in the lake.

  5. Pseudocholinesterase Enzyme Deficiency in Adıyaman City Area

    PubMed Central

    Abdullayev, Ruslan; Küçükebe, Ömer Burak; Kaya, Recai; Çelik, Bülent; Kuşderci, Hatice; Duran, Mehmet; Uludağ, Öznur; Öterkuş, Mesut; Buyrukcan, Aysel; Sabuncu, Ülkü; Arpacı, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pseudocholinesterase (PChE) is an enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of succinylcholine. In case of its deficiency, the effect of succinylcholine that is approximately 5–10 min is prolonged up to few hours. The use of succinylcholine has been declined recently. However, it is still actively used in some special conditions and in developing countries. In this study, incidence of PChE enzyme deficiency around Adiyaman city was investigated and presented with the literature review. Methods After obtaining an approval from the investigational board of our hospital (Adiyaman University Medical School, Biomedical Research Ethics Board, 30.12.2012, Nr: B.30.2.ADY.0.20.00-600/51), patients undergoing any elective operation under general anaesthesia in the Adiyaman University Medical School Hospital between March and December 2013 were recruited for the study. After obtaining the patients’ written consents, blood PChE, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinine, international normalisation ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) values of the patients were analysed. Possible association of the PChE deficiency with other values was also investigated. The normal value of PChE was taken as 4260–11250 for females aged 16–40 years and 5320–12920 U L−1 for other patients. Results The study was completed with 964 patients, 702 (72.8%) of whom were females. PChE enzyme levels were under the normal in 7.2% of the patients. There were no correlation between patient group, ALT, INR, aPTT and creatinine elevation with PChE deficiency (p>0.05), whereas AST and urea level elevation was significantly associated with PChE deficiency (p<0.05). The risk of PChE deficiency was 4.5 and 9 times higher in the patients with the elevation of AST and urea levels, respectively. Conclusion Pathological elevations of AST and urea that are a part of normal pre-operative biochemical analysis of blood will indicate the

  6. Recreation Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 9. Shenango River Lake Project Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    specific problems and examines possible solutioins; and it does not include the methodologies for deter- mining and monitoring social and resource...Lake Peru enta ’ of Users Responding: Reasons NotPleasant Unpleasant Nmortnt General Reasons Characteristics and behavior of other people 73...t - - - - - Make area’s existence- less ObVious 6n3 Site Planning Tch n iques Redes -ign a-e-t a-ccommodate fewer users 1050 -- ’.1 Des igni

  7. The Archaeology of Coralville Lake, Iowa. Volume 4. Recreation Area Survey. (Interim Report 2).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    at least one buried soil evidenced by a buried - argillic (clay enriched) horizon. This landform has been for the most part destroyed by previous...subsurface investigations showed an eluvial horizon with an underlying argillic Bt horizon. At this time, no evidence supports the existence of a buried...subsurface argillic horizon. The potential for recovering buried stable surfaces at this recreation area appears remote. LAKE MacBRIDE STATE PARK

  8. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies that were collected during 1983 include water-surface temperature, sediment temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperature, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short-and long-wave radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  9. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies, including: water-surface temperature, sediment temperature dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short- and long-wave radiation. Data were collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  10. RECREATION Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 1. Barkley Lock and Dam, Lake Barkley Project Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Area Jul 1980 Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the enthusiasm and excellent cooperation of the resource managers , rangers, and other Corps...recreation carrying capacity-related information for the Lake Barkley Project. The information is based upon: 1) user and management surveys conducted...WES was the Project Monitor. Dr. Adolph Anderson, WES, was Program Manager of the Environmental Laboratory (EL) Recreation Research Program. The

  11. An Initial Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Discrimination of Agricultural, Forested Wetlands, and Urban Land Cover. [Poinsett County, Arkansas; and Reelfoot Lake and Union City, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The capabilities of TM data for discriminating land covers within three particular cultural and ecological realms was assessed. The agricultural investigation in Poinsett County, Arkansas illustrates that TM data can successfully be used to discriminate a variety of crop cover types within the study area. The single-date TM classification produced results that were significantly better than those developed from multitemporal MSS data. For the Reelfoot Lake area of Tennessee TM data, processed using unsupervised signature development techniques, produced a detailed classification of forested wetlands with excellent accuracy. Even in a small city of approximately 15,000 people (Union City, Tennessee). TM data can successfully be used to spectrally distinguish specific urban classes. Furthermore, the principal components analysis evaluation of the data shows that through photointerpretation, it is possible to distinguish individual buildings and roof responses with the TM.

  12. Preliminary tephra-fall records from three lakes in the Anchorage, Alaska area: advances towards a regional tephrochronostratigraphic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K. L.; Kaufman, D. S.; Schiff, C. J.; Kathan, K.; Werner, A.; Hancock, J.; Hagel, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment cores recovered from three kettle lakes, all within 10 km of Anchorage, Alaska contain a record of tephra fall from major eruptive events of Cook Inlet volcanoes during the past 11250 yr. Prominent tephra layers from multiple cores within each lake were first correlated within each basin using physical properties, major-oxide glass geochemistry, and constrained by bracketing radiocarbon age. Distinct tephra from each lake were then correlated among all three lakes using the same criteria to develop a composite tephrostratigraphic framework for the Anchorage area. Lorraine Lake, the northern-most lake contains 17 distinct tephra layers; Goose Lake, the eastern most lake contains 10 distinct tephra layers; and Little Campbell Lake, to the west, contains 7 distinct tephra layers. Thinner, less-prominent tephra layers, reflecting smaller or more distant eruptions, also occur but are not included as part of this study. Of the 33 tephra layers, only two could be confidently correlated among all three lakes, and four other correlative deposits were recognized in two of the three lakes. The minimum number of unique major tephra-fall events in the Anchorage area is 22 in the past 11200 years, or about 1 event every 500 years. This number underestimates the actual number of eruptions because not attempt was made to locate crypto-tephra. All but perhaps one tephra deposit originated from Cook Inlet volcanoes with the most prolific source being Mount Spurr/Crater Peak, which is accountable for at least 8 deposits. Combining radiocarbon ages to produce an independent age model for each lake is in progress and will aid in confirming correlations and assigning detailed modeled-tephra age and uncertainty to each tephra layer.

  13. Aspects of the bottom sediment of Lake Nakaumi and Honjo area ~ featuring with organic matter and the Sulfides ~

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, R.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Nakaumi is a brackish water located at southwest Japan. Seawater from the Sea of Japan inflows through Sakai-strait, and river water flows through the Oohashi River into this lake. Lake Nakaumi is characterized with hypoxic and/or anoxic condition of bottom water derived with the distinct stratification of salinity in summer season. In this lake, a public project had been carried out for land reclamation since 1963. Honjo Area located to the north part of Lake Nakaumi, was semi-separated from Lake Nakaumi by reclamation dikes constructed for this project at 1981. However, this public project was aborted with the change of social conditions. To the effective utilization of the area, the partial removal of dike was carried out. Seawater from Sakai-strait flows directly into Honjo Area again. Environmental change of the lake is expected by this inflow of the seawater in Lake Nakaumi and Honjo Area after this restoration. It is well known that the surface sediment reflects the environment of lake bottom. The organic matter and the sulfides in sediment are good indicators of sedimentation environment. In this study, we analyzed them by several methods and grasped the bottom environment of both areas after the removal of dikes. We examined the impact of the restoration to both areas by comparing the observations with the past data. Surface sediment samples in Lake Nakaumi and Honjo Area were obtained at 77 and 40 stations, respectively. We collected surface sediment (about 1cm) were for each station, and analyzed total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) as organic matter, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in pore water, total sulfide (TS) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) as sulfides. TOC contents of Lake Nakaumi and Honjo Area range within 0.0-5.1% and 0.2-4.9%, respectively. TN contents range within 0.0-0.6 % and 0.1-0.6 %. TS contents range within 0.1-2.6% and 0.0-2.0 %. H2S contents range within 0.3-119.0 ppm and 0.5-140.4 ppm. AVS contents range within 0

  14. The Geysers-Clear Lake area, California: thermal waters, mineralization, volcanism, and geothermal potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Burns, M.G.; Goff, F.E.; Peters, E.K.; Thompson, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Manifestations of a major thermal anomaly in the Geysers-Clear Lake area of northern California include the late Pliocene to Holocene Clear Lake Volcanics, The Geysers geothermal field, abundant thermal springs, and epithermal mercury and gold mineralization. The epithermal mineralization and thermal springs typically occur along high-angle faults within the broad San Andreas transform fault system that forms the western boundary of the North American plate in this area. The young volcanic rocks overlie Mesozoic marine rocks of the Great Valley sequence which have been thrust above the coeval Franciscan Complex and penecontemporaneously dropped back down along low-angle detachment faults. Geothermal power production has peaked at The Geysers and pressure declines indicate significant depletion of the fluid resource. It is proposed that recently discovered, isotopically shifted steam in the northwest Geysers area indicates the presence not of deep connate water but rather of boiled-down, boron-rich Franciscan evolved meteoric water. This water is likely to be present in limited quantities and will not provide a significant hot water resource for geothermal power production at The Geysers field or from the main Clear Lake volcanic field. -from Authors

  15. Perylene in Lake Biwa sediments originating from Cenococcum geophilum in its catchment area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Sakagami, Nobuo; Torimura, Masaki; Watanabe, Makiko

    2012-10-01

    Perylene, which is composed of five benzene rings, is commonly found in sediments throughout the world at concentrations and distributions that are different from those of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The only information available on the origin of perylene comes from 4,9-dihydroxyperylene-3,10-quinone (DHPQ), which originates from fungal component symbiosis or from parasites on plants; however, there is no direct evidence of a mechanism of perylene formation. In this study, we examined the relationship between sedimentary perylene and Cenococcum geophilum (C. geophilum) in a catchment area at Lake Biwa. Sclerotium grains of C. geophilum containing DHPQ were found in this catchment area (approximately 40 balls kg-1 dried soil for >1 mm-ϕ), and small sclerotium grains were frequently found in the sediment. In the sediment sample, we also found broken particles containing perylene, and they had a porous structure characteristic of sclerotium grains. Furthermore, the particles contained DHPQ in different transformation stages to perylene via 3,10-perylenequinone (3,10-PQ). This finding was consistent with results from elemental analysis (oxygen/carbon). Because a remarkable amount of DHPQ originating from C. geophilum also exists in the humic acids of soils and because the inputs of compounds to the lake depend strongly on the rivers, perylene in the Lake Biwa sediment originates mainly from the DHPQ of C. geophilum in its catchment area.

  16. Highly-resolved Modeling of Emissions and Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Fine Particulate Matter in Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate, high-resolution data on air pollutant emissions and concentrations are needed to understand human exposures and for both policy and pollutant management purposes. An important step in this process is also quantification of uncertainties. We present a spatially explicit and highly resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah, and trace gas concentration estimates for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particles (PM2.5) within Salt Lake City. We assess the validity of this approach by comparing measured concentrations against simulated values derived from combining the emissions inventory with an atmospheric model. The emissions inventory for the criteria pollutants was constructed using the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The spatial and temporal allocation methods from the Emission Modeling Clearinghouse data set are used to downscale the NEI data from annual to hourly scales and from county-level to 500 m x 500 m resolution. Onroad mobile source emissions were estimated by combining a bottom-up emissions calculation approach for large roadway links with a top-down spatial allocation approach for other roadways. Vehicle activity data for road links were derived from automatic traffic responder data. The emissions inventory for CO2 was obtained from the Hestia emissions data product at an hourly, building, facility, and road link resolution. The AERMOD and CALPUFF dispersion models were used to transport emissions and estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly temporal and 500 m x 500 m spatial resolution. Modeled results were compared against measurements from a mobile lab equipped with trace gas measurement equipment traveling on pre-determined routes in the Salt Lake City area. The comparison between both approaches to concentration estimation highlights spatial locations and hours of high variability/uncertainty. Results presented here will inform understanding of variability and

  17. THE MEASUREMENT OF PM2.5, INCLUDING SEMI-VOLATILE COMPONENTS, IN THE EMPACT PROGRAM: RESULTS FROM THE SALT LAKE CITY STUDY. (R827993)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Salt Lake City EPA Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT) project, initiated in October 1999, is designed to evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed real-time continuous monitor (RAMS) for total (non-volatile plus semi-volatile) PM<...

  18. Detecting changes in surface water area of Lake Kyoga sub-basin using remotely sensed imagery in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsubuga, F. W. N.; Botai, Joel O.; Olwoch, Jane M.; Rautenbach, C. J. deW; Kalumba, Ahmed M.; Tsela, Philemon; Adeola, Abiodun M.; Sentongo, Ausi A.; Mearns, Kevin F.

    2017-01-01

    Detection of changes in Earth surface features, for example lakes, is important for understanding the relationships between human and natural phenomena in order to manage better the increasingly scarce natural resources. This work presents a procedure of using modified normalised difference water index (MNDWI) to detect fluctuations of lake surface water area and relate it to a changing climate. The study used radiometrically and geometrically rectified Landsat images for 1986, 1995 and 2010 encompassing the Kyoga Basin lakes of Uganda, in order to investigate the changes in surface water area between the respective years. The standard precipitation index (SPI) and drought severity index (DSI) are applied to show the relationship between variability of surface water area and climate parameters. The present analysis reveals that surface water area fluctuation is linked to rainfall variability. In particular, Lake Kyoga sub-basin lakes experienced an increase in surface water area in 2010 compared to 1986. This work has important implications to water resources management for Lake Kyoga and could be vital to water resource managers across Ugandan lakes.

  19. Mapping areas at risk of diffuse phosphorus losses to water: a pilot study of Lake Haderslev Dam, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Hans Estrup; Heckrath, Goswin; Thodsen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Haderslev Dam is a 272 ha lake in southern Denmark with a high recreational value. For decades the lake has been severely eutrophicated due to excessive phosphorus loading. Major point sources were cut off in the early 1990s and an upstream wetland was recreated. However, the ecological quality remains unsatisfactory. In this study we estimate the importance of agriculture on diffuse phosphorus (P) input to the lake by modelling combined with independent estimates for contributions from scattered dwellings not connected to a sewer and from background losses. We apply a newly developed Danish P index to the lake catchment for mapping of risk areas for diffuse phosphorus losses. For risk areas we suggest mitigation measures and estimate the effect of the mitigation measures on the total P loading of the lake as well as the associated costs.

  20. 76 FR 27895 - Safety Zone; 2011 Memorial Day Tribute Fireworks, Lake Charlevoix, Boyne City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-A008 Safety Zone; 2011 Memorial Day Tribute Fireworks, Lake... commemorate Memorial Day. The Captain of the Port, Sector Sault Sainte Marie, has determined that the Memorial.... Discussion of Rule To mitigate the risks associated with the Memorial Day Tribute Fireworks Display,...

  1. Limnological and water-quality data from Wonder Lake, Chilchukabena Lake, and Lake Minchumina, Denali National Park and Preserve and surrounding area, Alaska, June 2006-August 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, D.A.; Arp, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Growing visitor traffic and resource use, as well as natural and anthropogenic land and climatic changes, can place increasing stress on lake ecosystems in Denali National Park and Preserve. Baseline data required to substantiate impact assessment in this sub-arctic region is sparse to non-existent. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a water-quality assessment of several large lakes in and around the Park from June 2006 to August 2008. Discrete water-quality samples, lake profiles of pH, specific conductivity, dissolved-oxygen concentration, water temperature, turbidity, and continuous-record temperature profile data were collected from Wonder Lake, Chilchukabena Lake, and Lake Minchumina. In addition, zooplankton, snow chemistry data, fecal coliform, and inflow/outflow water-quality samples also were collected from Wonder Lake.

  2. The quagga mussel crisis at Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada (U.S.A.).

    PubMed

    Hickey, Valerie

    2010-08-01

    Parks are cornerstones of conservation; and non-native invasive species drive extensive changes to biological diversity in parks. Knowing this, national park staff at Lake Mead National Recreation Area in the southwestern United States had a program in place for early detection of the non-native, invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). Upon finding the mussel in January 2007, managers moved quickly to access funding and the best available science to implement a response. Managers considered four options--doing nothing, closing the park, restricting movement on the lakes, and educating and enforcing park visitors--and decided to focus on education and enforcing existing laws. Nonetheless, quagga spread throughout the park and soon began to appear throughout the western United States. I examined why efforts to control the expansion failed and determined the general lessons to be learned from this case. Concentrating human visitation on the lakes through land-use zoning opened a pathway for invasion, reduced management options, and led to the rapid spread of quagga. To reconcile competing mandates to protect nature and provide recreation, zoning in parks has become a common practice worldwide. It reduces stress on some areas of a park by restricting and thus concentrating human activity in particular areas. Concentrating the human activity in one area does three things: cements pathways that repeatedly import and export vectors of non-native invasive species; creates the disturbed area necessary to enable non-native invasive species to gain a foothold; and, establishes a source of invasions that, without appropriate controls, can quickly spread to a park's wilderness areas.

  3. Floods of May to June 1983 along the northern Wasatch Front, Salt Lake City to North Ogden, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindskov, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Determinations of peak discharge for floods of May to June 1983 were made for 11 streams along the northern Wasatch Front from Salt Lake City to North Ogden. At nine of the streams, the floods during the spring of 1983 equaled or exceeded the 100-year flood. The peak discharge at Stone Creek was 40 times the maximum previously known flood, and the peak discharges at the other sites ranged from slightly greater to about five times that previously known. In addition to the outstanding peak discharges, streamflow at the 11 sites commonly remains high for days, weeks, or even a month.The floods resulted from retention of an abnormally large snowpack until rain combined with above normal temperature caused rapid melting. The peak discharges and continued high flows damaged homes, highways, and drainage canals.

  4. Floods of May to June, 1983, along the northern Wasatch Front, Salt Lake City to North Ogden, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindskov, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Determinations of peak discharge for floods of May to June 1983 were made for 11 streams along the northern Wasatch Front from Salt Lake City to North Ogden. At nine of the streams, the floods during the spring of 1983 equaled or exceeded the 100-year flood. The peak discharge at Stone Creek was 40 times the maximum previously known flood, and the peak discharges at the other sites ranged from slightly greater to about five times that previously known. In addition to the outstanding peak discharges, streamflow at the 11 sites commonly remains high for days, weeks, or even a month.The floods resulted from retention of an abnormally large snowpack until rain combined with above normal temperature caused rapid melting. The peak discharges and continued high flows damaged homes, highways, and drainage canals.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  6. CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE SECTION 4 AREA AT THE RIO ALGOM AMBROSIA LAKE FACILITY NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Adams

    2010-02-12

    The objectives of the confirmatory survey were to verify that remedial actions were effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately described the final radiological conditions of the RAM Ambrosia Lake, Section 4 Areas.

  7. Assessing the effects of legacy contaminants on egg and nestling survival of tree swallows in Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are affected by many stressors, some of which are environmental contaminants including PCBs, PBDEs, persistent organochlorine pesticides, dioxins, benzenes, and other chemicals. These toxicants can accumulate in aquatic biota and ultimately tra...

  8. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in amenable mortality in urban areas of Spanish cities, 1996–2007

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While research continues into indicators such as preventable and amenable mortality in order to evaluate quality, access, and equity in the healthcare, it is also necessary to continue identifying the areas of greatest risk owing to these causes of death in urban areas of large cities, where a large part of the population is concentrated, in order to carry out specific actions and reduce inequalities in mortality. This study describes inequalities in amenable mortality in relation to socioeconomic status in small urban areas, and analyses their evolution over the course of the periods 1996–99, 2000–2003 and 2004–2007 in three major cities in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia). Methods All deaths attributed to amenable causes were analysed among non-institutionalised residents in the three cities studied over the course of the study periods. Census tracts for the cities were grouped into 3 socioeconomic status levels, from higher to lower levels of deprivation, using 5 indicators obtained from the 2001 Spanish Population Census. For each city, the relative risks of death were estimated between socioeconomic status levels using Poisson’s Regression models, adjusted for age and study period, and distinguishing between genders. Results Amenable mortality contributes significantly to general mortality (around 10%, higher among men), having decreased over time in the three cities studied for men and women. In the three cities studied, with a high degree of consistency, it has been seen that the risks of mortality are greater in areas of higher deprivation, and that these excesses have not significantly modified over time. Conclusions Although amenable mortality decreases over the time period studied, the socioeconomic inequalities observed are maintained in the three cities. Areas have been identified that display excesses in amenable mortality, potentially attributable to differences in the healthcare system

  9. Geologic investigations in the Lake Valley area, Sierra County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the area of the historic Lake Valley mining district and townsite, Sierra County, New Mexico, for its potential for undiscovered mineral resources. The four chapters of this report describe the geology of the area, present the results of geophysical investigations carried out to aid in interpreting subsurface geology, describe the mining history and character of the region's ore deposits, and present geochemical data on potential for contamination from abandoned mine dumps in the mining district.

  10. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urban Trace Gases and Pollutants Observed with a Light Rail Vehicle Platform in Salt Lake City, UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, L.; Crosman, E.; Fasoli, B.; Leclair-Marzolf, L.; Jacques, A.; Horel, J.; Lin, J. C.; Bowling, D. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Urban environments are characterized by both spatial complexity and temporal variability, each of which present challenges for measurement strategies aimed at constraining estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and air quality. To address these challenges we initiated a project in December 2014 to measure trace species (CO2, CH4, O3, and Particulate Matter) by way of a Utah Transit Authority (UTA) light rail vehicle whose route traverses the Salt Lake Valley in Utah on an hourly basis, retracing the same route through commercial, residential, suburban, and rural typologies. Light rail vehicles present advantages as a measurement platform, including the absence of in-situ fossil fuel emissions, repeated transects across a urban region that provides both spatial and temporal information, and relatively low operating costs. We present initial results from the first year of operations including the spatiotemporal patterns of greenhouse gases and pollutants across Salt Lake City, UT with an emphasis on criteria pollutants, identification of sources, and future applications of this measurement platform.

  11. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  13. Lake Urmia Shrinkage and its Effect on the Settlement of the Surrounding Areas Investigated Using Radar and Optical Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motagh, M.; Shamshiri, R.; Hosseini, F.; Sharifi, M. A.; Baes, M.

    2014-12-01

    With a total area of more than 50000 km^2 Lake Urmia basin in northwest of Iran was once one of the biggest salt lakes in the world. The lake has been shrinking in the recent years, losing in turn dramatically its area. A lot of factors have been attributed to this shrinking including construction of dams on the rivers feeding the lake and overexploitation of groundwater for agricultural and industrial purposes. In this study we first utilized time-series analysis of Landsat images to precisely quantify surface changes in the region between 1984 and 2013. We then analyzed a number of SAR images from 2002 to 2014 including 30 ASAR images from Envisat, 10 PALSAR images from ALOS, and more than 35 TerraSAR-X (TSX) in both Stripmap and Spot modes to assess surface ground deformation. Ground deformation was evaluated for both agricultural regions around the lake and Lake Urmia Causeway (LUC), connecting two provinces of East and West Azerbaijan on both sides of the lake. The InSAR results of the LUC embankments is further investigated using Finite Element approach to better understand the relation between soil parameters, lake level changes and settlement of the LUC. The classification results using optical imagery analysis show that human and anthropogenic activities have resulted in shrinking of Lake Urmia by more than 60% over the past 30 years. The agricultural areas around the lake are dominated by ground subsidence reaching to 10 cm/yr in places. The LUC embankments also show large deformation with peak settlement of more than 5 cm/yr over the last decade. FEM simulation shows that consolidation due to dissipation of excess pore pressure in embankments can satisfactorily explain its surface deformation.

  14. Assessing Seasonal and Inter-Annual Variations of Lake Surface Areas in Mongolia during 2000-2011 Using Minimum Composite MODIS NDVI

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sinkyu; Hong, Suk Young

    2016-01-01

    A minimum composite method was applied to produce a 15-day interval normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily 250 m reflectance in the red and near-infrared bands. This dataset was applied to determine lake surface areas in Mongolia. A total of 73 lakes greater than 6.25 km2in area were selected, and 28 of these lakes were used to evaluate detection errors. The minimum composite NDVI showed a better detection performance on lake water pixels than did the official MODIS 16-day 250 m NDVI based on a maximum composite method. The overall lake area detection performance based on the 15-day minimum composite NDVI showed -2.5% error relative to the Landsat-derived lake area for the 28 evaluated lakes. The errors increased with increases in the perimeter-to-area ratio but decreased with lake size over 10 km2. The lake area decreased by -9.3% at an annual rate of -53.7 km2 yr-1 during 2000 to 2011 for the 73 lakes. However, considerable spatial variations, such as slight-to-moderate lake area reductions in semi-arid regions and rapid lake area reductions in arid regions, were also detected. This study demonstrated applicability of MODIS 250 m reflectance data for biweekly monitoring of lake area change and diagnosed considerable lake area reduction and its spatial variability in arid and semi-arid regions of Mongolia. Future studies are required for explaining reasons of lake area changes and their spatial variability. PMID:27007233

  15. Assessing Seasonal and Inter-Annual Variations of Lake Surface Areas in Mongolia during 2000-2011 Using Minimum Composite MODIS NDVI.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sinkyu; Hong, Suk Young

    2016-01-01

    A minimum composite method was applied to produce a 15-day interval normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily 250 m reflectance in the red and near-infrared bands. This dataset was applied to determine lake surface areas in Mongolia. A total of 73 lakes greater than 6.25 km2in area were selected, and 28 of these lakes were used to evaluate detection errors. The minimum composite NDVI showed a better detection performance on lake water pixels than did the official MODIS 16-day 250 m NDVI based on a maximum composite method. The overall lake area detection performance based on the 15-day minimum composite NDVI showed -2.5% error relative to the Landsat-derived lake area for the 28 evaluated lakes. The errors increased with increases in the perimeter-to-area ratio but decreased with lake size over 10 km(2). The lake area decreased by -9.3% at an annual rate of -53.7 km(2) yr(-1) during 2000 to 2011 for the 73 lakes. However, considerable spatial variations, such as slight-to-moderate lake area reductions in semi-arid regions and rapid lake area reductions in arid regions, were also detected. This study demonstrated applicability of MODIS 250 m reflectance data for biweekly monitoring of lake area change and diagnosed considerable lake area reduction and its spatial variability in arid and semi-arid regions of Mongolia. Future studies are required for explaining reasons of lake area changes and their spatial variability.

  16. SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA AT THE USCG SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chrome source area is located beneath an old electroplating shop at the United States Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC . This electroplating shop was in
    use for approximately 30 years until 1984 and was the source of discharges of chromic and sulfuric...

  17. EPA Brownfields Grant Will Aid City of St. Helens with Plans to Revitalize Waterfront Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - March 17, 2015) The City of St. Helens, Oregon has been selected to receive a $200,000 Brownfields Area-Wide Planning (AWP) grant from EPA to help move towards the goal of revitalizing a former industrial property along the Columbia River waterf

  18. Hydrogeology of shallow basin-fill deposits in areas of Salt Lake Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    A study of recently developed residential/commercial areas of Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was done from 1999 to 2001 in areas in which shallow ground water has the potential to move to a deeper aquifer that is used for public supply. Thirty monitoring wells were drilled and sampled in 1999 as part of the study. The ground water was either under unconfined or confined conditions, depending on depth to water and the presence or absence of fine-grained deposits. The wells were completed in the shallowest water-bearing zone capable of supplying water. Monitoring-well depths range from 23 to 154 feet. Lithologic, geophysical, hydraulic-conductivity, transmissivity, water-level, and water-temperature data were obtained for or collected from the wells.Silt and clay layers noted on lithologic logs correlate with increases in electrical conductivity and natural gamma radiation shown on many of the electromagnetic-induction and natural gamma logs. Relatively large increases in electrical conductivity, determined from the electromagnetic-induction logs, with no major changes in natural gamma radiation are likely caused by increased dissolved-solids content in the ground water. Some intervals with high electrical conductivity correspond to areas in which water was present during drilling.Unconfined conditions were present at 7 of 20 monitoring wells on the west side and at 2 of 10 wells on the east side of Salt Lake Valley. Fine-grained deposits confine the ground water. Anthropogenic compounds were detected in water sampled from most of the wells, indicating a connection with the land surface. Data were collected from 20 of the monitoring wells to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the shallow ground-water system. Hydraulic-conductivity values of the shallow aquifer ranged from 30 to 540 feet per day. Transmissivity values of the shallow aquifer ranged from 3 to 1,070 feet squared per day. There is a close linear relation between transmissivity determined

  19. Hot dry rock resources of the Clear Lake Area, Northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.

    1994-10-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area of northern California is underlain by an asthenospheric upwarp. The upwarp was generated at a slabless window trailing the northward-moving Mendocino triple junction. The geothermal area lies immediately east of the Rodgers Creek rather than the San Andreas fault because of a transform jump in progress. Decompression melting of the mantle has led to basaltic underplating, and crustal anatexis. The high heat flow is due to conduction through a thin lithosphere and the latent heat of solidifying basalt, while the uniformity is due to the distribution of sources over a wide area of large flatlying sills, The Hot Dry Rock resource has heat flow exceeding 4 HFU over an area exceeding 800 km2.

  20. Road Climate in Cities: A Study of the Stockholm Area, South-East Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Torbjörn; Bogren, Jörgen; Green, Cecilia

    2001-12-01

    The difference between air and road surface temperature in urban and rural areas is an important consideration when modelling the road climate. In this study the effect of the urban heat island in the Stockholm area on road climate is examined. Factors such as distance from the city centre, traffic and topography are analysed in order to assess their impact on the spatial variation of road and air temperature.

  1. Reconnaissance investigation of the Lisburne Group in the Cobblestone Creek area, Chandler Lake quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Whalen, Michael T.; Edited by Wartes, M. A.; Decker, P. L.

    2015-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group in the Cobblestone Creek area, Chandler Lake Quadrangle, yields insights into its resource potential and regional relations. Locally porous vuggy dolostone with hydrocarbon reservoir potential occurs in the lower Lisburne in the three most southerly of five thrust sheets, and contains traces of dead oil in two of these sheets. The dolostones are coarse crystalline, commonly cross-bedded, and at least in part of Osagean (late Early Mississippian) age; they have pelmatozoan grainstone protoliths that likely formed in sand shoals of the midramp to inner ramp. Similar, coeval porous dolostones occur in the Lisburne from Skimo Creek to Itkillik Lake, ~70 km west and 10 km east of the Cobblestone Creek area, respectively. We also examined the uppermost Lisburne Group at several localities in the Cobblestone Creek area, mainly in the northernmost thrust sheet where the rocks are as young as Morrowan (Early Pennsylvanian). Cobblestone sections contain more supportstone than equivalent strata at Skimo Creek, and overlying Permian successions also differ between the two areas. These lithologic contrasts may reflect different rates of tectonically controlled subsidence, and (or) changes in sediment input, along the late Paleozoic continental margin.

  2. Geology and ground water of the Red Lake area, Navajo Indian Reservation, Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.; McClymonds, N.E.; Harshbarger, John William

    1962-01-01

    The Red Lake area in the Navajo Indian Reservation, Arizona and New Mexico, was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine if 1 mgd (mil- lion gallons per day) of water could be obtained for the requirements of a proposed sawmill. Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies indicated three favorable areas where ground water may be developed. Test holes were drilled under contract in the areas, and pumping tests indicate that 500,000 gpd (gal- lons per day) is available from alluvium along Tohdildonih Wash near Frog Rock, 100,000 gpd is available from the Shinarump member of the Chinle forma- tion and the De Chelly sandstone near Red Lake, and 800,000 gpd is available from alluvium and cinder beds in lapiUi tuff in Buell Park, an eroded diatreme. The diatreme at Buell Park is about 2% miles in diameter. It was formed by several explosions in which lapilli tuff and cinders were erupted. These materials, together with later basaltic intrusive and extrusive rock, now fill the diatreme. The tuff and cinders are water bearing, 'and they receive re- charge from rainwater and snowmelt moving through overlying alluvium and from storage in the De Chelly sandstone which encloses the east half of the diatreme. The quality of water from all areas is suitable for domestic use. However, special treatment may be necessary to make the water suitable for pulp processing.

  3. Sustainable natural resource management and environmental assessment in the Salt Lake (Tuz Golu) Specially Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Dengiz, Orhan; Ozcan, Hesna; Koksal, E Selim; Baskan, Oguz; Kosker, Yakup

    2010-02-01

    The Salt Lake Specially Protected Area is a unique ecosystem for both agricultural activities and natural life in Turkey. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a conceptual land use strategy and methodology, taking into account ecological factors for regional development in the Salt Lake Specially Protected Area. A detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis was done to create a comprehensive database including land use, land suitability, and environmental factors (soil, climate, water quality, fertilizing status, and heavy metal and pesticide pollution). The results of the land suitability survey for agricultural use showed that, while 62.6% of the study area soils were classified as best and relatively good, about 15% were classified as problematic and restricted lands, only 22.2% of the study area soils were not suitable for agricultural uses. However, this is not enough to derive maximum benefit with minimum degradation. Therefore, environmental factors and ecological conditions were combined to support this aim and to protect the ecosystem. Excessive irrigation practices, fertilizer and pesticide application, and incorrect management practices all accelerate salinization and degradation. In addition to this, it was found that a multi-layer GIS analysis made it easy to develop a framework for optimum land use and could increase the production yield preserving the environmental conditions. Finally, alternative management and crop patterns were undertaken to sustain this unique ecosystem, considering water, soil, climate, land use characteristics, and to provide guidance for planners or decision makers.

  4. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  5. White Lake AOC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  6. Planning Interventions for Lake Conservation: A Case of Shahpura Lake, Bhopal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoth, Navneet; Nagaich, Anugrah Anilkumar

    2015-09-01

    With due increment in the development process of India, the problems related to environment are under constant increment and its contamination has now became a great threat for the rich ecology of the country. Particularly, the problems regarding the water quality are now becoming more acute and complicated due to increasing urbanization, industrialization, siltation, agricultural run-off and discharge of untreated sewage water. The city Bhopal in India having named as the city of lakes, is also experiencing similar issues. The famous characteristic lakes of Bhopal are under great environmental stress due to pollution from various sources. The Shahpura lake is one such lake, situated well within the city. A number of wards and colonies surrounding the lake boundary discharge their sewage and silage into the existing drainage network of the area, which ultimately finds its way into the lake through open drains. The main source of contamination in the lake is sewage fed drains, which are dumped into the lake during the summers. Besides this, other activities like bathing, cloth washing, cattle bathing and religious activities like idol immersion etc. also paves the way for high concentration of harmful chemicals in the lake. This work mainly discusses the existing situation and causes of water pollution in the Shahpura lake of Bhopal. It also brings into light the constitutional safeguards related to Lake Conservation in India and reviews their practical implications. In the end, it focuses on recommending the lake conservation strategies for the case of Shahpura lake; and suggests measures that could be adopted elsewhere to prevent the issue of lake pollution from various sources, emphasizing the importance of lakes.

  7. Discharge and nutrient transport between lakes in a hydrologically complex area of Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 2010-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Wakeman, Eric; Maki, Ryan P.

    2016-01-01

    An acoustic Doppler velocity meter (ADVM) was deployed in the narrows between Namakan and Kabetogama Lakes in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, from November 3, 2010, through October 3, 2012. The ADVM can account for wind, seiche, and changing flow direction in hydrologically complex areas. The objectives were to (1) estimate discharge and document the direction of water flow, (2) assess whether specific conductance can be used to determine flow direction, and (3) document nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations at the narrows. The discharge direction through the narrows was seasonal. Water generally flowed out of Kabetogama Lake and into Namakan Lake throughout the ice-covered season. During spring, water flow was generally from Namakan Lake to Kabetogama Lake. During the summer and fall, the water flowed in both directions, affected in part by wind. Water flowed into Namakan Lake 70% of water year 2011 and 56% of water year 2012. Nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations were highest during the summer months when water-flow direction was unpredictable. The use of an ADVM was effective for assessing flow direction and provided flow direction under ice. The results indicated the eutrophic Kabetogama Lake may have a negative effect on the more pristine Namakan Lake. The results also provide data on the effects of the current water-level management plan and may help determine if adjustments are necessary to help protect the aquatic ecosystem of Voyageurs National Park.

  8. High concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in water and sediments of car wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kwach, B O; Lalah, J O

    2009-11-01

    Mean concentrations of selected USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and water samples from Car Wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria in Kenya have been determined using GC-FID and GC-MS. Sampling was done during the rainy season in April 2006. The PAH concentrations in sediment and water ranged from 0.04 to 31.95 microg/g dry weight and 3.32 to 55.8 microg/L, respectively, depending upon the sampling location. The total concentration levels of PAHs in both the sediment and water phase in this study were found to be much higher compared with those reported from other regions worldwide, revealing significant PAH pollution of Car Wash and Kisat areas of Kisumu city bay as a consequent of anthropogenic activities as described in the text. The GC-detected PAHs were confirmed by GC-MS.

  9. Archeological Investigations in the Lower Pool Area of the La Farge Lake Project Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is the area which would be flooded if aa cofferdam were built to enable the completion of the proposed Kickapoo dam. The Lower Pool area was...to the National Register of Historic Places. These sites have potential for yielding valuable archaeological information which would enhance our understanding of prehistoric settlement in the Upper Kickapoo Valley. (Author)

  10. Mineral resources of the Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area, Fremont County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Tysdal, R.G.; Kulik, D.M.; Peters, T.J.

    1988-06-10

    A mineral-resource survey of the 350-acre Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area (ID-035-077) was made in 1986-87. No identified resources (known) or currently active claims exist within or adjacent to the wilderness study area. There is potential for several types of undiscovered mineral resources within the study area. The southwestern part of the wilderness study area, along the Madison Range fault, is rated as having a moderate energy-resource potential for geothermal water; the remainder of the study area has a low potential for resources of this commodity. A small outcrop of marble in the southernmost part of the study area has a low mineral-resource potential for talc; for talc in marble possibly concealed beneath the study area the mineral-resource potential is rated as unknown. The study area has a low mineral-resource potential for iron in hematite-mineralized amphibolite gneiss, and for gold, silver, and uranium. The area has no mineral-resource potential for phosphate, because the host strata have been eroded; and no resource potential for oil and gas.

  11. Gravity map of Kalabsha area, northwest of Aswan Lake, and its structural significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahman, E. M.; Tealeb, A.; Ahmed, H. A.

    A detailed gravity survey was carried out in one of the seismo-active areas at the northwestern region of the High Dam Lake (Kalabsha area) to study its subsurface structure. In order to understand the seismicity of the area, the establishment of a geodynamic model from geological and geodetic data is of great importance. After a series of adjustments and corrections of the measured gravity data, free-air and Bouguer anomaly maps were constructed for the Kalabsha area, and several interpretation techniques were applied to analyse these anomalies. The results of the analysis indicate that the Kalabsha area is affected by several faults trending mainly E-W and N-S. The active area located west of Gebel Marawa is bounded by a set of faults striking NE-SW, N-S and E-W. The throws of these faults range from 160 to 370 m. The minimum depth to the basement complex is about 200 m and its maximum depth is around 600 m. The thickness of the sedimentary column (Nubia sandstone) in the Kalabsha area decreases due west and increases toward the southern and eastern parts of the area. The results explain the tectonic framework of the area well.

  12. Primary studies of trace quantities of green vegetation in Mono Lake area using 1990 AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhi-Kang; Elvidge, Chris D.; Groeneveld, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Our primary results in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve indicate that high spectral resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data may provide a substantial advantage in vegetation, based on the chlorophyll red edge feature from 700-780 nm. The chlorophyll red edge was detected for green vegetation cover as low as 4.8 percent. The objective of our studies in Mono Lake area is to continue the experiments performed in Jasper Ridge and to examine the persistence of red edge feature of trace quantities of green vegetation for different plant communities with non-uniform soil backgrounds.

  13. Response of phytoplankton communities to acidification and recovery in Killarney Park and the Experimental Lakes Area, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Findlay, David L

    2003-04-01

    It has been widely speculated that controls of SO2 emissions would stimulate recovery of acidified freshwater lakes in Canada, the United States and Europe. Phytoplankton communities from 22 lakes near Killarney Park Ontario, covering a pH range from 4.5-7.7, were studied from 1998-2000 and compared to data from experimentally acidified (pH decreased 6.7 to 4.5) and recovered (pH increased to 6.0) Lake 302 South at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario to assess recovery from acidification. Based on historical data, pH levels have rebounded to above 6.0 in several lakes in the Killarney area that were previously acidified to pH 5.0-5.5. Phytoplankton biomass was not correlated to pH, but there was a highly significant relationship between species richness and pH. Recovery trajectories were observed in a subset of 6 lakes, combining species diversity data from the present study with historical data. Correspondence analysis indicated that several of the lakes that experienced increased pH have shifted towards phytoplankton assemblages typical of circumneutral environments.

  14. Mineral and geothermal resource potential of Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake roadless areas Plumas, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Muffler, L.J.P.; Clynne, M.A.; Cook, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas indicate no potential for metallic or non-metallic mineral resources in the areas and no potential for coal or petroleum energy resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area is subject to non-competitive geothermal lease applications. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park, which contains extensive areas of fumaroles, hot springs, and hydrothermally altered rock; voluminous silicic volcanism occurred here during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. Geochemical data and geological interpretation indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Morgan and Growler Hot Springs (immediately west of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area) are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, substantial geothermal resources are likely to be discovered in Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and cannot be ruled out for Heart Lake Roadless Area.

  15. Soil occupation and atmospheric variations over Sobradinho Lake area. Part two: a regional modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, M. F.; da Silva Dias, M. A. F.; da Silva Aragão, M. R.

    2006-11-01

    The impact of the changes on soil cover and land use brought about by the construction of the Sobradinho Dam in the semi-arid region of the São Francisco River Hydrographic Basin is analyzed by means of a numerical model RAMS. Disregarding the influence of a large scale flow, a set of factors were responsible for the creation of a rather complex circulation system that includes mountain-valley winds, lake breeze (LB) and non-conventional circulation all induced by the surface non-homogeneous aspect. Results have demonstrated that the implementation of works of such magnitude brings about environmental changes in an area that stretches far beyond the surroundings of the reservoir. The soil cover alterations due to the ever increasing development of the area with the presence of irrigated crops in a sparsely vegetated region ( caatinga) does affect land surface characteristics, occasioning for that matter the splitting of the available energy into latent and sensible heat fluxes. LB behavior varies in accordance with atmospheric conditions and also in view of the type of vegetation found in the lake surrounding areas. Hydro availability in root zones, even under adverse atmospheric conditions (high temperature and low air humidity) brings up the high rates of evaporation and plant transpiration that contribute towards the increase of humidity and the fall of temperature in lower atmospheric layers.

  16. Landsat classification of the barren hydrolittoral areas of Lake Yli-Kitka, north-eastern Finland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, J.; Jantunen, H.; Lampinen, J.

    1987-01-01

    As a part of the project 'Landsat-studies for Mapping the Variables within Water Areas' this study deals with the classification possibilities of evaluating and mapping depth relations and bottom materials within the barren and clear-watered shores of Lake Yli-Kitka, North-Eastern Finland. It has been discovered that it is possible to distinguish open water areas with a water depth of more than about half of the Secchi disk depth from those of shallower hydrolittoral areas. The morainic, sandy and only slightly vegetated subareas of the shallow shores and shoals can possibly be identified by using a simple classification procedure. The data used were recorded by the coarse-resolution Landsat MSS imagery system, and better results are expected after the experiences of the Landsat TM data and the availability of the SPOT material.

  17. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and..., Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area: All waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal within the anchorage basin at Chesapeake...

  18. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  19. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  20. Some characteristics of the earthquake swarms in the lake Awan area, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassoup, A.

    2003-04-01

    The earthquake swarms beneath the northern part of the Lake Aswan are located along a tectonic fault with hypocentral distribution from 3 to 30 km depths in the crust. This seismicity is separated into shallow and deep seismic zones. Shallow events have focal depths of less than 10 km. Deep events extend from 10 to 30 km. A 3-dimensional P-waves velocity analysis demonstrates that the deep events are distributed within a high velocity anomaly. The temporal seismicity sequence (1982-1999) is correlated with seasonal variation of the water level using spectral analysis. The results show phase shifts of 1.3 months for the shallow and 3 months for the deep seismicity. The fractal evolution of the spatial hypocentral- distribution (DS) is examined. DS is determined using the correlation dimension, in tandem with b values of the maximum likelihood method. Both are obtained in a set of discrete time windows moving through the catalogue of events with magnitude range MD (2.3 < MD < 4.6). DS ranges between 0.85 and 1.15 with a mean value of 0.95, whereas b-value ranges from 0.7 to 1.6 with a mean value 0.88. The correlation between DS and b is not evident here. However, these two parameters are remarkably decreased prior to the occurrence of the larger earthquake (MD d 3.9) in the Aswan catalogue. In addition the annual variation histogram for energy released by earthquakes (E) in the lake Aswan area is obtained. It shows concentration of E in the earlier part of the catalogue. Key words: Seismicity characteristics, tectonic setting, and Lake Aswan area.

  1. Damage costs produced by electric power plants: an externality valuation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Macías, P; Islas, J

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

  2. Partners in flight bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Butcher, G.; Fitzgerald, J.; Shieldcastle, J.

    2001-01-01

    1 November 2001. Conservation of bird habitats is a major focus of effort by Partners in Flight, an international coalition of agencies, citizens, and other groups dedicated to 'keeping common birds common'. USGS worked on a planning team to publish a bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain ecoregion (PIF 16), which includes large portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan and parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The conservation plan outlines specific habitat restoration and bird population objectives for the ecoregion over the next decade. The plan provides a context for on-the-ground conservation implementation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the US Forest Service, states, and conservation groups. Citation: Knutson, M. G., G. Butcher, J. Fitzgerald, and J. Shieldcastle. 2001. Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for The Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16). USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center in cooperation with Partners in Flight, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Download from website: http://www.blm.gov/wildlife/pifplans.htm. The Upper Great Lakes Plain covers the southern half of Michigan, northwest Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and small portions of southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. Glacial moraines and dissected plateaus are characteristic of the topography. Broadleaf forests, oak savannahs, and a variety of prairie communities are the natural vegetation types. A oDriftless Areao was not glaciated during the late Pleistocene and emerged as a unique area of great biological diversity. Priority bird species for the area include the Henslow's Sparrow, Sedge Wren, Bobolink, Golden-winged Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black-billed Cuckoo, and Red-headed Woodpecker. There are many large urban centers in this area whose growth and sprawl will continue to consume land. The vast majority of the presettlement forest and

  3. Geothermal exploration assessment and interpretation, Upper Klamah Lake Area, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1980-09-01

    Data from public and private sources on the Klamath Basin geothermal resource are reviewed, synthesized, and reinterpreted. In this, the second and final phase of the work, geological, remote sensing, geochemical, temperature gradient, gravity, aeromagnetic, and electrical resistivity data sets are examined. These data were derived from surveys concentrated on the east and west shores of Upper Klamath Lake. The geological, remote sensing, and potential field data suggest a few northeast-trending discontinuities, which cross the regional north-westerly strike. The near-surface distribution of warm water appears to be related to the intersections of these lineaments and northwest-trending faults. The groundwater geochemical data are reviewed and the various reservoir temperature estimates compared. Particular attention is given to specific electrical conductivities of waters as an interpretational aid to the subsurface resistivity results. A clear trend emerges in the Klamath Falls/Olene Gap area; hotter waters are associated with higher specific conductivities. In the Nuss Lake/Stukel Mountain area the opposite trend prevails, although the relationship is somewhat equivocal.

  4. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  5. Holocene pollen and sediment record from the tangle lakes area, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, Thomas A.; Sims, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Pollen and sediments have been analyzed from a 5.5 meter‐length core of lacustrine sediments from Tangle Lakes, in the Gulkana Upland south of the Alaska Range (63 ° 01 ‘ 46”; N. latitude, 146° 03 ‘ 48 “ W. longitude). Radiocarbon ages indicate that the core spans the last 4700 years. The core sediments are sandy silt and silty clay; the core shows distinct rhythmic laminations in the lower 398 cm. The laminae appear to be normally graded; peat fibers and macerated plant debris are more abundant near the tops of the laminae. Six volcanic‐ash layers are present in the upper 110 cm of the core.Present‐day vegetation of the Tangle Lakes area is mesic shrub tundra and open spruce woodland, with scattered patches of shrub willow (Salix), balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), spruce (Picea), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and alder (Alnus). Pollen analysis of 27 core samples suggests that this vegetation type has persisted throughout the past 4700 years, except for an apparently substantial increase in Picea beginning about 3500 years B.P. Percentages of Picea pollen are very low (generally 1–3 percent) in the lower 2 meters of core (ca. 4700 to 3500 years B.P.), but rise to 13–18 percent in the upper 3.4 meters (ca. 3500 years B.P. to present). Previously reported data from this area indicate that Picea trees initially arrived in the Tangle Lakes area about 9100 years B.P., at least 2.5 to 3 thousand years after deglaciation of the region. The present investigation suggests that Picea trees became locally scarce or died out sometime after about 9000 years B.P. but before 4700 years B.P., then reinvaded the area about 3500 years B.P. If this extrapolated age for the Picea reinvasion is accurate it suggests that local expansion of the Picea population coincides with the onset of a Neoglacial interval of cooler, moister climate. This is an unexpected result, because intervals of cooler climate generally coincide with lowering of the altitudinal limit of

  6. Residential moves by elderly persons to U.S. central cities, suburbs, and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Golant, S M

    1987-09-01

    The 1975-1980 migration stream and net migration patterns of persons younger than 65 and 65 + were examined using data from the 1980 U.S. Census. Central cities and suburbs of metropolitan areas (SMSAs) and nonmetropolitan areas (NonSMSAs) were distinguished as origins and destinations. Most elderly movers relocated within a fairly limited geographic context and revealed strong preferences for metropolitan living. Suburban locations were more favored than central city locations. Net migration findings may provide misleading interpretations of older movers' locational choices. The migration patterns of the 65 + population were similar to those of the 45- to 64-year-old population but differed from those of the more youthful U.S. populations. These findings highlight migration streams of elderly movers who likely have experienced changed in their life styles or personal resources.

  7. Road-impacted sediment and water in a Lake Ontario watershed and lagoon, City of Pickering, Ontario, Canada: An example of urban basin analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nick; Meriano, Mandana

    2010-03-01

    The world is increasingly urban but there are few studies of how contaminated water and sediment move through urban basins with their built landscapes and complexly disturbed geology. The central Canadian city of Pickering, Ontario sprawls across a small (27 km 2) densely urbanized (pop: 53,000) watershed and is underlain by Pleistocene glacial sediments and thick artificial fill deposits. Almost 80% of the area is hardened by impervious cover; road and rail lines cover 40% and include Canada's busiest highway (12-lane Highway 401: 177,000 vehicles per day in 2003). The basin discharges to Lake Ontario through a small (85 ha) shallow (< 3.5 m) lagoon (Frenchman's Bay). A 3-D steady state finite element groundwater numerical model (FEFLOW) was applied to 200 cored and geophysically-logged (gamma and resistivity) boreholes and 3400 digital water wells. It identifies the subsurface stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphic function of deposits and the rates of groundwater flow. Year-round monitoring of groundwater, creek and lagoon water quality shows that transportation infrastructure is the primary source of contaminated water and sediment. Some 7600 tonnes of de-icing salt are applied to watershed roads each year; 52% accumulates in groundwater where it continues to be released as brackish baseflow to creeks in summer. The remainder is rapidly delivered by surface runoff to Frenchman's Bay where chloride contents are more than double the average values in waters across the Great Lakes. Highway 401 is the largest single source of salt contamination to the lagoon; it receives 26% of all road salt applied to the watershed but covers just 1.3% of its area. Prominent spikes in chloride content (> 2000 mg L - 1 ) occur during winter thaws in creeks downstream of the highway. Enhanced stream bank erosion as a consequence of flashy storm runoff from road surfaces moves ˜ 100 tonnes of contaminated sediment to Frenchman's Bay each year. Instantaneous suspended sediment

  8. Geological applications of LANDSAT-1 imagery to the Great Salt Lake area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Smith, A. F.

    1975-01-01

    The ERTS program has been designed as a research and development tool to demonstrate that remote sensing from orbital altitudes is a feasible and practical approach to efficient management of earth resources. From this synoptic view and repetitive coverage provided by ERTS imagery of the Great Salt Lake area, large geological and structural features, trends, and patterns have been identified and mapped. A comparative analysis of lineaments observed in September and December data was conducted, existing mineral locations were plotted, and areas considered prospective for mineralization based on apparent structure-mineralization relationships were defined. The additional information obtained using ERTS data provides an added source of information to aid in the development of more effective mineral exploration programs.

  9. 33 CFR 334.750 - Ben's Lake, a tributary of Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force Base; restricted area. 334.750 Section 334.750 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.750 Ben's Lake, a tributary of Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force..., without the permission of the Commander, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, or his authorized...

  10. 33 CFR 334.750 - Ben's Lake, a tributary of Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force Base; restricted area. 334.750 Section 334.750 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.750 Ben's Lake, a tributary of Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force..., without the permission of the Commander, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, or his authorized...

  11. Recreation Expenditures and Sales in the Pigeon Lake Area of Alberta: A Case of "Trickle-Up?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Karl M.; Ironside, R. Geoffrey

    1976-01-01

    When residents of a large city buy or rent cottages at a near-by resort area, very few economic benefits accrue to the local community since major, large expenditures are made in the city. The problem and possible solutions are discussed in this article. (JD)

  12. Sediment transport in the Feather River, Lake Oroville to Yuba City, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porterfield, George; Busch, Robert D.; Waananen, Arvi O.

    1978-01-01

    Regulation of the Feather River by Oroville Dam and reservoir in northeast California (beginning in 1967) changed the streamflow and sediment discharge downstream from the dam. Changes in channel geometry to adjust to the new regimen were still in process in 1975. Streamflow and sediment concentration and discharge had decreased. Median streamflow at Feather River near Gridley and Feather River at Yuba City, 27 miles and 49 miles downstream from the dam, had not changed, although the frequency of flow rates less than median increased and the frequency of flow rates greater than median, and which transport most sediment, decreased. Sediment-transport data indicate an increase in sediment yield from the 1965-67 period to the 1968-75 period in the basin downstream from Gridley to Yuba City , although the quantity of sediment transported was reduced owing to removal of sediment by Oroville Dam and to reduced streamflow. The increase in yield, assuming no change in tributary inflow, may be attributed partly to channel erosion accelerated by the clear-water releases and to the change in frequency and magnitude of flow rates. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... considered the factors in 12 U.S.C. 4564(b). A statement documenting HUD's considerations and findings with... of mortgages financing housing in areas that are underserved in terms of mortgage credit. (b)...

  14. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... considered the factors in 12 U.S.C. 4564(b). A statement documenting HUD's considerations and findings with... of mortgages financing housing in areas that are underserved in terms of mortgage credit. (b)...

  15. Deterioration of marble. A retrospective analysis of tombstone measurements in the New York City area

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Patterson, D.E.; Baer, N.S.

    1985-03-01

    A data base of tombstone thickness and depth of emblem inscription at Veterans Administration cemeteries has been compiled by New York University. A subset of measurements for two cemeteries in the vicinity of New York City was selected for analysis in this study. For comparable meteorological conditions, different weathering rates of fine grain marble tombstones were observed for the two cemeteries. Tombstones in the Cypress Hills cemetery, which is located within an industrial area, were observed to have higher rates than similar stones in the semi-rural area of the Long Island cemetery. By using a retrospective air-quality model, which is described in another publication, to predict SO/sub 2/ concentrations in New York City from 1880 to 1980, concentration trends of SO/sub 2/ were estimated for both cemeteries. A linear relationship was found to exist between the weathering rates and estimated SO/sub 2/ concentrations. A value of 10 mm per century per ppm of SO/sub 2/ was derived as the best estimate for the weathering coefficient of fine grain marble for the New York City area.

  16. Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesnykh, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was

  17. Environmental change and peatland forest dynamics in the Lake Sentarum area, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshari, Gusti; Kershaw, A. Peter; van der Kaars, Sander; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2004-10-01

    Four short pollen and charcoal records from sites within and around Lake Pemerak on the margins of the Danau (Lake) Sentarum National Park in inland West Kalimantan, supported by modern surface samples from the Reserve, provide a partial picture of lowland equatorial vegetation and environments over at least the last 40 000 years. They demonstrate general stability in the distribution of wetland and ombrotrophic (or raised) peatlands through the recorded period with dominance throughout of peatland and swamp forest. However, there was marked variation in sediment accumulation rates and in the floristic composition of the vegetation. The period prior to the last glacial maximum appears to have been the time of most active peatland growth and contrasts with the perception, from previous studies on largely coastal and subcoastal peatlands in Indonesia, that the Holocene was the time of major tropical peat accumulation. A general increase in charcoal, just prior to about 30 000 years ago, suggests that burning became more frequent, and is attributed to initial human impact rather than climate change. The subsequent latest Pleistocene period, embracing the Last Glacial Maximum, is marked by a peak in montane-submontane rainforest taxa, strongly indicating a substantial lowering of temperature. It appears that much of the Holocene is not recorded but recommencement of peat accumulation is evident within the last few thousand years. At the time of fieldwork access to the central part of the Lake Sentarum system was inhibited by strong El Niño drought conditions, but this area has the potential to provide a longer and more continuous history of environmental change for the region. Copyright

  18. Anthropogenic mercury deposition in Flin Flon Manitoba and the Experimental Lakes Area Ontario (Canada): A multi-lake sediment core reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Johan A; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; Evans, Marlene; Yang, Fan; Keating, Jonathan; Parsons, Matthew T

    2017-05-15

    High-resolution records of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) deposition were constructed from 9 lakes located 5-75km from the Flin Flon, Manitoba smelter (formerly one of North America's largest atmospheric Hg point sources) and 5 lakes in Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario; a region remote from major Hg point sources. Anthropogenic Hg deposition, as both a flux and inventory, was determined after accounting for lake-specific natural Hg background concentrations, changes in sedimentation and sediment focusing. Results show that records of anthropogenic flux and inventory of Hg were remarkably consistent among the ELA lakes, but varied by 2 orders of magnitude among Flin Flon lakes. The relation between Hg inventories (normalized for prevailing wind direction) and distance from the smelter was used to estimate the total Hg fallout within a 50km radius in 5year time-steps, thus providing a quantitative spatial-temporal Hg depositional history for the Flin Flon region. The same relation solved for 8 cardinal directions weighted by the inverse of the previously applied wind direction normalization generates a map of Hg inventory and deposition on the landscape (Supplementary video). This novel application of sediment core data constructs a landscape model and allows for a visualization of contaminant deposition with respect to a point major source in both space and time. The propensity for Hg to undergo long-range, even global transport explains why Hg deposition within 50km of Flin Flon was ~11% of estimated releases. That is until smelter releases were reduced >10-fold (post-2000), after which observed deposition exceeded smelter releases, suggesting landscape re-emission/remobilization of legacy Hg is a major ongoing regional source of Hg.

  19. [Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of lake water and geothermal spring water in arid area of south Tibet].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Shen, Li-Cheng; Wang, Peng

    2014-08-01

    The condition of water cycles in Tibet Plateau is a complex process, and the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes contain important information of this process. Based on the analysis of isotopic composition of freshwater lake, saltwater lake and geothermal water in the southern Tibetan Plateau, this study investigated water cycling, composition and variation of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and the influencing factors in the study area. The study found that the mean values of delta18O and deltaD in Daggyaima lake water (-17.0 per thousand for delta18O and -138. 6 per thousand for deltaD), Langcuo lake water (-6.4 per thousand for delta18O and -87.4 per thousand for deltaD) and Dagejia geothermal water (-19.2 per thousand for delta18 and -158.2 per thousand for deltaD) all showed negative delta18O and deltaD values in Tibetan Plateau by the influence of altitude effects. Lake water and geothermal water were influenced by evaporation effects in inland arid area, and the slope of evaporation line was less than 8. Deuterium excess parameters of lake water and geothermal water were all negative. The temperature of geothermal reservoirs in Dagejia geothermal field was high,and oxygen shift existed in the relationship of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes.

  20. Lake evolution of the terminal area of Shiyang River drainage in arid China since the last glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, Q.; Chen, F.-H.; Zhu, Y.; Madsen, D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of geomorphology and sedimentology, and analyses of radiocarbon dates, grain size and carbonate of the sediment at the present-dry closed basin in the terminal area of Shiyang River in arid China were conducted to recover the history of palaeolake change since the last glacial. The terminal area was covered by eolian sand before 13,000 14C BP. Lacustrine deposits covered the eolian sand after 13,000 14C BP, but were succeeded rapidly by eolian or fluvial deposits ca. 11,200-10,000 BP. This fact plus the grain-size distribution and CaCO3 content showed that climate was extremely dry during the last glacial, but wet-dry oscillations characterized the late glacial. A single coalescent lake, over 45 m deep and 2130 km2, formed between 10,000-6400 14C BP in the basin. The lake disintegrated into several shallow carbonate lakes or swamps gradually after 6400 14C BP. Eolian sand reached into the most part of the basin during the period. The lake evolution in the area generally reflects the East Asian summer monsoon history forced by Northern hemisphere insolation. Short time-scale lake fluctuations also existed in the area since the last glacial. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  1. Water management sustainability in reclaimed coastal areas. The case of the Massaciuccoli lake basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Guidi, Massimo; Pistocchi, Chiara; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    The lake of Massaciuccoli (7 km2 wide and about 2 m deep) and its palustrine nearby areas (about 13 km2 wide) constitute a residual coastal lacustrine and marshy area largerly drained by 1930. In terms of hydrological boundaries, the lake watershed is bordered by carbonate to arenaceous reliefs on the east, by a sandy coastal shallow aquifer on the west (preventing groundwater salinisation), while south and north by the Serchio River and the Burlamacca-Gora di Stiava channels alignment respectively. Since reclamation of the peaty soils started, subsidence began (2 to 3 m in 70 years), leaving the lake perched and central respect the low drained area, now 0 to -3 m below m.s.l., and requiring 16 km embankment construction. During the dry summer season, the lake undergoes a severe water stress, that, along with nutrients input, causes the continuous ecosystem degradation resulting in water salinisation and eutrophication. Water stress results in a head decrease below m.s.l., causing seawater intrusion along the main outlet, and reaching its highest point at the end of the summer season (common head values between -0.40 and -0.5 a.m.s.l.). The water budget for an average dry season lasting about 100 days was computed, considering a 10% error, in order to understand and evaluate all the components leading to the above mentioned water stress by means of several multidisciplinary activities during the years 2008-2009. They started with a thoroughly literature review, continued with hydrological, hydrogeochemical monitoring and testing (both for surface water and the shallow aquifer) and agronomical investigations (to characterize cropping systems, evapotranspiration rates and irrigation schemes). All the collected data were then processed by means of statistical methods, time series analysis, numerical modelling of the shallow aquifer and hydrological modelling. The results demonstrate the presence of two interrelated hydrological sub-systems: the lake and the reclaimed

  2. Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Salt Lake City, situated near the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake, is host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, which open Friday, February 8. Venues for five of the scheduled events are at city (indoor) locations, and five in mountain (outdoor) facilities. All ten can be found within the area contained in these images. Some of the outdoor events take place at Ogden, situated north of Salt Lake City and at Park City, located to the east. Salt Lake City is surrounded by mountains including the Wasatch Range to the east, and the temperature difference between the Great Salt Lake and the overlying atmosphere enhances the moisture content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in greater snowfall in neighboring areas compared to more distant locales. In addition to the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent in these images. The distinctly different coloration between the northern and southern arms of the Great Salt Lake is the result of a rock-filled causeway built in 1953 to support a permanent railroad. The causeway has resulted in decreased circulation between the two arms and higher salinity on the northern side. The southern part of the lake includes the large Antelope Island, and at full resolution a bridge connecting it to the mainland can be discerned. These images are natural color views acquired on February 8, 2001 and June 16, 2001, respectively. Each image represents an area of about 220 kilometers x 285 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  4. Mitigating and Tracking Black Carbon Exposure at Schools in the Mountain View Corridor of Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, P. T.; Brown, S. G.; Vaughn, D.; DeWinter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a short lived climate forcer and is associated with human health effects. We measured BC inside and outside at four schools in Salt Lake City during two studies in 2011-2014. In addition, PM2.5 was measured indoor and outdoor at one school, and gaseous air toxics outdoor at one school. The schools are within 500 m of a planned major freeway, and two of them will adjoin the freeway. The objectives included determining the outdoor and indoor concentrations of BC, the likely sources of BC, and once the freeway is built, the change in ambient BC at the schools. We determined the current state of air quality outdoors at these schools, to provide baseline data for comparison when the major freeway is operational, and indoors as a baseline before installing improved filtration to reduce BC in classrooms. Using MATES IV cancer risk values, we found that diesel particulate matter, as indicated by ambient, outdoor BC measurements, was responsible for 84% of the cancer risk at the schools. The HVAC system was moderately effective at filtrating PM mass (73% reduction), but very poor at filtering BC (7%-34% reduction), indicating that air toxics risk is similar indoors and outdoors. Improved filtration devices could potentially mitigate this risk, and improved filtration systems have been recommended for the schools. Lastly, we used the difference in absorption at two Aethalometer channels to determine that the majority of BC (> 90%) during the spring through fall is from fossil fuel emissions.

  5. Characteristics of triple and quadruple toe-loops performed during the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics.

    PubMed

    King, Deborah; Smith, Sarah; Higginson, Brian; Muncasy, Barry; Scheirman, Gary

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare triple (T) and quadruple (Q) toe-loop figure skating jumps and quantify basic characteristics of these jumps to provide information to coaches that will assist them in teaching quadruple toe-loops to elite figure skaters. High-speed video was taken during men's practice and competition sessions at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics; three-dimensional analyses of selected triple and quadruple jumps were completed. The most significant difference between triple and quadruple toe-loops was an increase in rotational velocity in the air. Additionally, increased vertical velocity at take-off and subsequent time in the air were also observed. Three main conclusions were developed: 1) The timing of rotation of the hips and shoulders was different for quadruple toe-loops compared to triples with the differences being observed before toe-pick; 2) Increases in rotational velocity occurred primarily as a result of the skaters assuming different body positions from take-off through landing which resulted in tighter rotating positions for longer durations of the jump; 3) Greater vertical velocity was gained during the propulsive phase due to the extension of the legs during the press off the ice.

  6. The influence of urban reconstruction in urban heat island effect: Cangxia area of Fuzhou City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fei; Xu, Hanqiu

    2010-09-01

    The urban development is usually accompanied with the re-planning and reconstruction of the old urban area, which is one of the key issues of the urban development program. Over the past decade, Fuzhou City of Fujian province, SE China, has speeded up its reconstruction progress. The Cangxia area, located in the southwestern of the city, was replaned and reconstructed to improve people's living conditions because the area was full of intensively-built squatter settlements. In order to study the thermal environmental changes of the Cangxia area before and after the reconstruction, three Landsat TM images of 1986, 1996 and 2006 were utilized to perform feature extractions of the thermal-related information of the area, such as the land surface temperature (LST), impervious surface area (ISA) and vegetation coverage. The quantitative analysis on the relationship between ISA and LST suggested a positive exponential relationship between the two factors. With the assistance of the Urban-Heat-Island Ratio Index (URI), the digital image processing on the three multi-temporal images revealed the spatial and temporal variations of the urban heat island (UHI) effect in the investigated area from 1986 to 2006. The results showed that after the launch of the reconstruction project of this squatter settlement-dominated area, the UHI effect in the area had been greatly mitigated in the past 20 years, since the URI value had been decreased from 0.648 in 1986 to 0.245 in 2006. This owes greatly to the significant decrease in high-density ISAs and the notable increase in vegetation covers. The reconstruction is of benefit to the UHI mitigation of the Cangxia area.

  7. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  8. Applications of ERTS imagery to mappings sediments of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppe, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    ERTS images were compared to surficial geologic maps, prepared through traditional field studies. Lithologic boundaries, bedrock outcrops, bedrock structures, and geomorphologic features were examined. An area southeast of the Twin Cities, located chiefly in northern Dakota County was studied, as well as the New Brighton 15-minute quadrangle located in portions of Ramsey and Anoka Counties. Visual comparison of geologic maps and ERTS imagery demonstrated the limitations of this approach to geological investigations. Bedrock outcrops and bedrock structure in the metropolitan area do not appear on ERTS imagery. However, certain glacial sediments can be identified and are potentially mappable. Certain geomorphological features were also discernable.

  9. Geologic and hydrologic aspects of tunneling in the Twin Cities area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norvitch, Ralph F.; Walton, Matt S.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the results of a pilot study of geologic and hydrologic aspects of tunneling in part of the Minneapolis-St. Paul (Twin Cities) metropolitan area, Minnesota. The Minnesota Geological Survey collected, compiled and interpreted geologic and engineering-test data and the U.S. Geological Survey complies and interpreted hydrologic data. The report was prepared on behalf of the U.S. Department of Transportation and funding was provided by that agency. A similar pilot study was recently made in the Los Angeles area, California (Yerkes and others, 1977).

  10. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.

    2013-12-01

    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  11. 75 FR 80372 - Proposed Amendment of Restricted Areas R-2907A and R-2907B, Lake George, FL; and R-2910...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 73 Proposed Amendment of Restricted Areas R-2907A and R-2907B, Lake George, FL; and R-2910, Pinecastle, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... limits of restricted areas R-2907A and R-2907B, Lake George, FL; and restricted area R-2910,...

  12. Identification of Focal Mechanisms of Seisms Occurring in the San Salvador Volcano-Ilopango Lake Area Between 1994 and March 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Mendez Martinez, Luz de; Portillo, Mercy

    2009-04-19

    We studied the geographic area located in the central part of El Salvador, between the San Salvador Volcano (Quezaltepec) and Ilopango Lake. Its latitude is between 13 deg. 36' and 13 deg. 54', and longitude is between -89 deg. 18' and -88 deg. 57'. This area is directly affected by the WNW axis, the most prominent weak tectonic system in the region. Our research aimed to determine the focal mechanisms of seisms occurring in the studied area between 1994 and March 2005. Our analysis provided information about displacement types of the geological faults, using the wave impulse P method and computer applications ARCGIS and SEISAN, with the subroutine FOCMEC. Information of the studied seisms was obtained from the National Service of Territorial Studies (SNET) database. Geographic models used in the preparation of maps are from the geographic information system of the School of Physics at the University of El Salvador. The 37 focal mechanisms on the map of faults were identified in digital seismographs to determinate the arrival polarity of the wave P for each seism station. Data from the focal mechanisms were analyzed and correlated with their replications. The analysis allowed us to identify evidences to consider the fault continuity not reported by the last geological mission in El Salvador conducted in the 1970s. The fault continuity is located northwest of the studied geographical area, between San Salvador City and the San Salvador Volcano. The compression and strain axes for this area are two main horizontal force axes. The average orientation for the strain axis is NNE-SSW, and WNW-SEE for the compression axis. There is also important seismic activity in the Ilopango Lake and surrounding area. However, data did not allow us to make any inference. The tensors distribution resulted in a high dispersion corresponding to typical fauces models.

  13. 77 FR 49712 - Amendment to Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... under 1 CFR part 51, subject to the annual revision of FAA Order 7400.9 and publication of conforming..., Class B airspace area (76 FR 52905). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... resolution data having been provided to support taking this action. ] This Class B airspace area...

  14. Contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions to acid precipitation formation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, L.; Barrera, G.; Castellanos, L.; Moreno, D.

    1996-12-31

    The emissions of precursor compounds that contribute significantly the formation of acid precipitation in urban areas are associated with the burning of fossils fuels from mobile, area and point sources. In Mexico City, these include services, institutions and residences aggregated as area sources, as well as industrial point sources, including smelting, refinement of petroleum and power generation. In addition, dusts from soil erosion and lack of vegetation in the urban landscape contribute to modification of natural rain water. It is common knowledge that acid precipitation characterizes a large variety of compounds, as much related to precursor emissions as to prevailing environmental factors. This study attempts to establish the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions during the rainy season by analysis of spatial and temporal distributions, as of different ions in solution with rain water, as well as the modeling of wind patterns, as represented by using the arc/info software. This study`s results also show the geographic areas impacted by the acid rain phenomenon and the acidification rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the past 3 years.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 386 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 425 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 consisted of a large pile of concrete rubble from the original Hard Target and construction debris associated with the Tornado Rocket Sled Tests. CAU 425 was closed in accordance with the FFACO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2002). CAU 425 was closed by implementing the following corrective actions: The approved corrective action for this unit was clean closure. Closure activities included: (1) Removal of all the debris from the site. (2) Weighing each load of debris leaving the job site. (3) Transporting the debris to the U.S. Air Force Construction Landfill for disposal. (4) Placing the radioactive material in a U.S. Department of Transportation approved container for proper transport and disposal. (5) Transporting the radioactive material to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. (6) Regrading the job site to its approximate original contours/elevation.

  16. Determinants, Health Problems, and Food Insecurity in Urban Areas of the Largest City in Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    Craveiro, Isabel; Alves, Daniela; Amado, Miguel; Santos, Zélia; Fortes, Argentina Tomar; Delgado, António Pedro; Correia, Artur; Gonçalves, Luzia

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization processes are intertwined with nutritional transition because there is easier access to food of low nutritional quality at reduced prices, changing dietary patterns and leading to an increase of non-communicable chronic diseases. This study aims to understand the perceptions for high blood pressure, obesity, and alcoholism, describing some interactions of these dimensions in the problem of food security in the city of Praia. A qualitative study was carried out under the framework of the research project “UPHI-STAT: Urban Planning and Health Inequalities—moving from macro to micro statistics”. Ten focus groups were conducted in three urban areas with distinct characteristics in the city of Praia, with a total of 48 participants. Participants reported frequent consumption of foods with poor nutritional quality, understanding the potential danger in terms of food security in the city of Praia. Easy access to and high levels of alcohol consumption, and poor quality of traditional drinks were mentioned by participants in the study areas. The impact of the economic situation on the possibility of access to safe and healthy options emerged as a differentiating factor. PMID:27879689

  17. Gasoline distribution cycle and vapor emissions in Mexico City metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, M.M.; Secora, I.S.; Gallegos, J.R.M.; Grapain, V.M.G.; Villegas, F.M.R.; Flores, L.A.M.

    1997-12-31

    Ozone in the main air pollutant in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). This kind of pollution is induced by the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. According to Official Statistics National Air Pollution Quality Standard is exceeded over 300 days a year. Volatile hydrocarbons are generated in the cycle of storage transport and distribution of fuel (Gasoline Distribution Cycle). Above 17 millions of liters are handled daily in MCMA. Evaporative emission control is a complex task involving: floating roof tanks and vapor recovery units installation at bulk terminals and implementation of Phase 1 and Phase 2 vapor recovery systems at service stations. Since 1990, IMP has been involved in researching vapor emissions associated to gasoline storage and distribution cycle. Besides, the authors evaluate several technologies for bulk terminals and service stations. In this job, the authors present the results of an evaluation according to Mexican Official Standard of 500 vehicles. The gasoline vapors are trapped during refueling of cars and they are conduced to an equipment that includes an activated charcoal canister in order to adsorb them. Another Activated charcoal canister adsorbs ambient air as a reference. Experimental results showed that refueling hydrocarbon emissions are between 0.4 and 1.2 grams per liter with averages of 0.79 and 0.88 grams per liter according with two different gasoline types. These results were applied to Mexico City Vehicular fleet for the gasoline distribution cycle in order to obtain a total volatile hydrocarbon emission in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

  18. Determinants, Health Problems, and Food Insecurity in Urban Areas of the Largest City in Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Craveiro, Isabel; Alves, Daniela; Amado, Miguel; Santos, Zélia; Fortes, Argentina Tomar; Delgado, António Pedro; Correia, Artur; Gonçalves, Luzia

    2016-11-22

    Urbanization processes are intertwined with nutritional transition because there is easier access to food of low nutritional quality at reduced prices, changing dietary patterns and leading to an increase of non-communicable chronic diseases. This study aims to understand the perceptions for high blood pressure, obesity, and alcoholism, describing some interactions of these dimensions in the problem of food security in the city of Praia. A qualitative study was carried out under the framework of the research project "UPHI-STAT: Urban Planning and Health Inequalities-moving from macro to micro statistics". Ten focus groups were conducted in three urban areas with distinct characteristics in the city of Praia, with a total of 48 participants. Participants reported frequent consumption of foods with poor nutritional quality, understanding the potential danger in terms of food security in the city of Praia. Easy access to and high levels of alcohol consumption, and poor quality of traditional drinks were mentioned by participants in the study areas. The impact of the economic situation on the possibility of access to safe and healthy options emerged as a differentiating factor.

  19. Response of lake chemistry to changes in atmospheric deposition and climate in three high-elevation wilderness areas of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Turk, John T.; Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in precipitation chemistry and hydrologic and climatic data were examined as drivers of long-term changes in the chemical composition of high-elevation lakes in three wilderness areas in Colorado during 1985-2008. Sulfate concentrations in precipitation decreased at a rate of -0.15 to -0.55 μeq/l/year at 10 high-elevation National Atmospheric Deposition Program stations in the state during 1987-2008 reflecting regional reductions in SO2 emissions. In lakes where sulfate is primarily derived from atmospheric inputs, sulfate concentrations also decreased although the rates generally were less, ranging from -0.12 to -0.27 μeq/l/year. The similarity in timing and sulfur isotopic data support the hypothesis that decreases in atmospheric deposition are driving the response of high-elevation lakes in some areas of the state. By contrast, in lakes where sulfate is derived primarily from watershed weathering sources, sulfate concentrations showed sharp increases during 1985-2008. Analysis of long-term climate records indicates that annual air temperatures have increased between 0.45 and 0.93°C per decade throughout most mountainous areas of Colorado, suggesting climate as a factor. Isotopic data reveal that sulfate in these lakes is largely derived from pyrite, which may indicate climate warming is preferentially affecting the rate of pyrite weathering.

  20. Response of lake chemistry to changes in atmospheric deposition and climate in three high-elevation wilderness areas of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M.A.; Turk, J.T.; Clow, D.W.; Campbell, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in precipitation chemistry and hydrologic and climatic data were examined as drivers of long-term changes in the chemical composition of high-elevation lakes in three wilderness areas in Colorado during 1985-2008. Sulfate concentrations in precipitation decreased at a rate of -0.15 to -0.55 ??eq/l/year at 10 high-elevation National Atmospheric Deposition Program stations in the state during 1987-2008 reflecting regional reductions in SO2 emissions. In lakes where sulfate is primarily derived from atmospheric inputs, sulfate concentrations also decreased although the rates generally were less, ranging from -0.12 to -0.27 ??eq/l/year. The similarity in timing and sulfur isotopic data support the hypothesis that decreases in atmospheric deposition are driving the response of high-elevation lakes in some areas of the state. By contrast, in lakes where sulfate is derived primarily from watershed weathering sources, sulfate concentrations showed sharp increases during 1985-2008. Analysis of long-term climate records indicates that annual air temperatures have increased between 0.45 and 0.93??C per decade throughout most mountainous areas of Colorado, suggesting climate as a factor. Isotopic data reveal that sulfate in these lakes is largely derived from pyrite, which may indicate climate warming is preferentially affecting the rate of pyrite weathering. ?? 2010 US Government.

  1. The Economic Impact of Higher Education on the Kansas City Metropolitan Area 1988-1989. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education, MO.

    A study was formally requested by the Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education Institutional Research Directors' Group in the spring of 1990, to examine the economic impact of higher education on the Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, metropolitan area. An economic impact model was used which includes the four major components of direct…

  2. A Comparison of 20th Century and Holocene Historical Lake Areas and Implications for Reconstruction of Holocene Moisture Balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, C. P.; Ferreira, M.; Shuman, B.; Ito, E.

    2005-12-01

    Low lake stands during the Holocene document a period of drier than modern conditions in the upper Midwest after 8000 cal yr B.P. Here, we seek to compare the magnitudes and spatial extent of these mid-Holocene water-level changes with the changes that occurred during the 1930s Dust Bowl drought. The comparison allows us to consider the potential range of hydrologic conditions in the mid-continent, and to detect similarities or differences between the two periods as a way to learn more about the climatic controls on the mid-Holocene moisture-balance. (How good an analog is the 1930s drought for the mid-Holocene aridity?) Each lake record, however, is unique and comparisons among lakes have been hindered by local hydrologic influences and sedimentary processes. We therefore test the simple methodological assumption that the stratigraphic records of small lakes may be used in concert to produce valid and meaningful maps of Holocene moisture balance. First we confirm that broad regional trends in lake area reflect long-term moisture balance patterns by studying the 1930s aerial photography. Second, we confirm that regionally coherent patterns of sedimentary change related to past water levels can be detected for the mid-Holocene via GPR profiles. Changes in open water surface area in response to the 1930's drought are quantified and mapped for over 300 small (1km sq. or less) lakes of northern and central Minnesota in order to determine if small basins responded to drought with explainable regional coherency. A map of percent area change (between AD 1930 and 2003) reveals that coherent trends in surface area response reflect the gradient of moisture balance change over the same period. We found a trend in percent surface area change from east to west with western lakes completely drying out (>100% change), a wider variability of responses in central Minnesota, and eastern lakes undergoing almost no change (<10%). GPR profiles were collected on two east-west transects

  3. Continuous measurement of carbon black in a densely populated area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, O.; Ortinez, A.; Castro, T.; Espinoza, M. D. L. L.; Saavedra, I.; Carabali-Sandoval, G. A., Sr.; Páramo, V. H.; Gavilán, A.; Martínez-Arroyo, A.

    2014-12-01

    The black carbon (BC) is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels and is an important short-lived climate forcer because it absorbs solar radiation altering the Earth's radiative budget and climate. It is also an atmospheric pollutant that promotes reactions of other compounds in the atmosphere. Despite its importance for health and climate, in Mexico there are very few studies on ambient concentrations of BC in urban areas and virtually no information of continuous measurements over long periods (more than a month of measurements). So, in order to develop more efficient local and regional mitigation strategies and policies that allow reducing ambient concentrations of BC, it is necessary to know BC seasonal evolution, contribution to radiative budget and impacts on health. This study shows continuous measurements (from July 2013 to July 2014) of BC to perform an analysis of seasonal variations. The selected monitoring site is located at Iztapalapa, a densely populated area with high traffic on the southeastern part of Mexico City. BC concentrations were obtained by two aethalometers (Magee Scientific Company, models AET31 and AET42) placed 15 meters above the ground. The aethalometers operate in the wavelength range of 370-950 nm and use a standard value of mass absorption coefficient MAC = 10.8 m2/g to calculate BC environmental concentration. To correct the aethalometers readings to the conditions of Mexico City, it was employed MAC = to 6.7 m2/g, which was determined for PM2.5 with a carbon analyzer (UIC, Inc.) and represents the mass absorption coefficient of soot emitted in Mexico City. The average value of the corrected concentration of BC in Mexico City during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 was 5.39 ± 1.89 μg/m3 (1.6 higher than readings recorded by aethalometers), which is greater than that measured in Shanghai in 2014 (annual average 2.33 μg/m3) and those reported for some U.S. cities; the value implies a potential danger to the health of

  4. Continuous measurement of carbon black in a densely populated area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Oscar; Ortinez, Abraham; Castro, Telma; Espinosa, Maria; Saavedra, Isabel; Alvarez, Harry; Basaldud, Roberto; Paramo, Víctor; Martínez, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The black carbon (BC) is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels and is an important short-lived climate forcer because it absorbs solar radiation altering the Earth's radiative budget and climate. It is also an atmospheric pollutant that promotes reactions of other compounds in the atmosphere. Despite its importance for health and climate, in Mexico there are very few studies on ambient concentrations of BC in urban areas and virtually no information of continuous measurements over long periods (more than a month of measurements). So, in order to develop more efficient local and regional mitigation strategies and policies that allow reducing ambient concentrations of BC, it is necessary to know BC seasonal evolution, contribution to radiative budget and impacts on health. This study shows continuous measurements (from July 2013 to July 2014) of BC to perform an analysis of seasonal variations. The selected monitoring site is located at Iztapalapa, a densely populated area with high traffic on the southeastern part of Mexico City. BC concentrations were obtained by two aethalometers (Magee Scientific Company, models AET31 and AET42) placed 15 meters above the ground. The aethalometers operate in the wavelength range of 370-950 nm and use a standard value of mass absorption coefficient MAC = 10.8 m2/g to calculate BC environmental concentration. To correct the aethalometers readings to the conditions of Mexico City, it was employed MAC = to 6.7 m2/g, which was determined for PM2.5 with a carbon analyzer (UIC, Inc.) and represents the mass absorption coefficient of soot emitted in Mexico City. The average value of the corrected concentration of BC in Mexico City during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 was 5.39 ± 1.89 μg/m3 (1.6 higher than readings recorded by aethalometers), which is greater than that measured in Shanghai in 2014 (annual average 2.33 μg/m3) and those reported for some U.S. cities; the value implies a potential danger to the health of

  5. Glacial areas, lakes areas, and snowlines from 1975-2012: Status of the Cordillera Vilcanota, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap, northern central Andes, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshaw, Maiana Natania

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes of southern Peru have received limited attention compared to glaciers in other regions (both near and far), yet remain of vital importance to agriculture, fresh water, and hydropower supplies of downstream communities. Little is known about recent glacial-area changes and how the glaciers in this region respond to climate changes, and, ultimately, how these changes will affect lake and water supplies. To remedy this, we have used 144 multi-spectral satellite images spanning almost four decades, from 1975-2012, to obtain glacial and lake-area outlines for the understudied Cordillera Vilcanota region, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap. In a second step, we have estimated the snowline altitude of the Quelccaya Ice Cap using spectral unmixing methods. We have made the following four key observations: First, since 1988 glacial areas throughout the Cordillera Vilcanota have been declining at a rate of 5.46 +/- 1.70 km2/yr (22-year average, 1988-2010, with 95 % confidence interval). The Quelccaya Ica Cap, specifically, has been declining at a rate of 0.67 +/- 0.18 km2/yr since 1980 (31-year average, 1980-2011, also with 95 % confidence interval); Second, decline rates for individual glacierized regions have been accelerating during the past decade (2000-2011) as compared to the preceding decade (1990-2000); Third, the snowline of the Quelccaya Ice Cap is retreating to higher elevations as glacial areas decrease, by a total of almost 300 m between its lowest recorded elevation in 1989 and its highest in 1998; and fourth, as glacial regions have decreased, 61 % of lakes connected to glacial watersheds have shown a roughly synchronous increase in lake area, while 84 % of lakes not connected to glacial watersheds have remained stable or have declined in area. Our new and detailed data on glacial and lake areas over 37 years provide an important spatiotemporal assessment of climate variability in this area. These data can be integrated into further

  6. Glacial areas, lake areas, and snowlines from 1975 to 2012: status of the Cordillera Vilcanota, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap, northern central Andes, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshaw, M. N.; Bookhagen, B.

    2013-02-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes of southern Peru have received limited attention compared to glaciers in other regions (both near and far), yet remain of vital importance to agriculture, fresh water, and hydropower supplies of downstream communities. Little is known about recent glacial-area changes and how the glaciers in this region respond to climate changes, and, ultimately, how these changes will affect lake and water supplies. To remedy this, we have used 144 multi-spectral satellite images spanning almost four decades, from 1975-2012, to obtain glacial and lake-area outlines for the understudied Cordillera Vilcanota region, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap. In a second step, we have estimated the snowline altitude of the Quelccaya Ice Cap using spectral unmixing methods. We have made the following four key observations: first, since 1988 glacial areas throughout the Cordillera Vilcanota have been declining at a rate of 5.46 ± 1.70 km2 yr-1 (22-yr average, 1988-2010, with 95% confidence interval). The Quelccaya Ica Cap, specifically, has been declining at a rate of 0.67 ± 0.18 km2 yr-1 since 1980 (31-yr average, 1980-2011, also with 95% confidence interval); Second, decline rates for individual glacierized regions have been accelerating during the past decade (2000-2011) as compared to the preceding decade (1990-2000); Third, the snowline of the Quelccaya Ice Cap is retreating to higher elevations as glacial areas decrease, by a total of almost 300 m between its lowest recorded elevation in 1989 and its highest in 1998; and fourth, as glacial regions have decreased, 61% of lakes connected to glacial watersheds have shown a roughly synchronous increase in lake area, while 84% of lakes not connected to glacial watersheds have remained stable or have declined in area. Our new and detailed data on glacial and lake areas over 37 yr provide an important spatiotemporal assessment of climate variability in this area. These data can be integrated into further studies

  7. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  8. Analyses and descriptions of geochemical samples, Mountain Lake Wilderness Study Area, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mei, Leung; Fletcher, J.D.; Rait, Norma; Lesure, F.G.

    1978-01-01

    Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 64 elements on 95 stream sediment and 122 rock samples from Mountain Lake Wilderness Study Area, Giles and Craig Counties, Virginia and Monroe County, West Virginia, are reported here in detail. Locations for all samples are in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of rock samples are also included. Rocks analysed are mostly sandstone. Samples of hematitic sandstone of the Rose Hill Formation and limonite-cemented sandstone of the Rocky Gap Sandstone contain high values of iron; these rocks are submarginal iron resources. Some of these iron-rich samples have a little more barium, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and/or zinc than in average sandstone, but they do not suggest the presence of economic deposits of these metals. A few samples of Tuscarora Quartzite contain moderate amounts of manganese. These are from a submarginal manganese resource. No other obviously anomalous-values related to mineralized rock are present in the data.

  9. Integrating UAV Flight outputs in Esri's CityEngine for semi-urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anca, Paula; Vasile, Alexandru; Sandric, Ionut

    2016-04-01

    One of the most pervasive technologies of recent years, which has crossed over into consumer products due to its lowering prince, is the UAV, commonly known as drones. Besides its ever-more accessible prices and growing functionality, what is truly impressive is the drastic reduction in processing time, from days to ours: from the initial flight preparation to the final output. This paper presents such a workflow and goes further by integrating the outputs into another growing technology: 3D. The software used for this purpose is Esri's CityEngine, which was developed for modeling 3D urban environments using existing 2D GIS data and computer generated architecture (CGA) rules, instead of modeling each feature individually. A semi-urban areas was selected for this study and captured using the E-Bee from Parrot. The output point cloud elevation from the E-Bee flight was transformed into a raster in order to be used as an elevation surface in CityEngine, and the mosaic raster dataset was draped over this surface. In order to model the buildings in this area CGA rules were written using the building footprints, as inputs, in the form of Feature Classes. The extrusion heights for the buildings were also extracted from the point cloud, and realistic textures were draped over the 3D building models. Finally the scene was shared as a 3D web-scene which can be accessed by anyone through a link, without any software besides an internet browser. This can serve as input for Smart City development through further analysis for urban ecology Keywords: 3D, drone, CityEngine, E-Bee, Esri, scene, web-scene

  10. The Cinder Lake Intrusive Complex, Knee Lake area, Central Manitoba: a Syenite- Carbonatite Association from a Neoarchean Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakhmouradian, A. R.; Böhm, C. O.; Kressall, R. D.; Lenton, P. G.

    2009-05-01

    The Cinder Lake intrusive complex is the only known occurrence of feldspathoid rocks in Manitoba. These rocks were initially mapped in the southeastern part of the Lake by Elbers (in Gilbert, 1985) and Lenton (1985), but have not been adequately studied. On the basis of new field, petrographic and geochemical evidence acquired in 2008, three discrete intrusive phases can be presently identified at Cinder Lake: fine-grained aegirine-nepheline syenite, fine-grained biotite-vishnevite syenite and syenitic pegmatite. There is also convincing mineralogical and geochemical evidence for the presence of unexposed clinopyroxenite and carbonatitic units genetically associated with the alkaline syenitic rocks. The evidence for the presence of unexposed carbonatite includes pervasive calcitization of the syenitic rocks, occurrence of rare-earth minerals (britholite, monazite and REE-rich apatite) in association with Sr-rich calcite in metasomatised pegmatite, and andradite veins crosscutting the syenites. The geochemistry of the Cinder Lake rocks is most consistent with the HFSE-depleted, potassic, high-Ba/La and high-Th/Nb signature of arc magmas (Edwards et al., 1994). In common with island-arc and continental-margin phonolites, the Cinder Lake syenites are potassic rocks with a chondritic Zr/Hf ratio, strong enrichment in Ba relative to La and Th relative to Nb. Uranium-lead dating of zircon crystals recovered from the biotite-vishnevite syenite yielded an age of 2705±2 Ma, interpreted as the timing of syenite emplacement. This value is close to the age of the incipient accretion of subprovinces in the northwestern Superior province at 2.70-2.71 Ga (Davis et al. 2005). Given this age relationship, the Cinder Lake complex is probably derived from magmas produced in a Neoarchean subduction zone underlying the North Caribou microcontinent. The regional geological setting of the complex (abundance of tonalite and granodiorite among the plutonic rocks and the predominance of

  11. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and in preparing emergency response plans. The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group of California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping (NSHM) Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault to the east of the study area. Earthquake scenarios are intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. They are not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquakes possible. Earthquake scenarios are both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider them in regional emergency response plans. Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM).For the Hilton Creek Fault, two alternative scenarios were developed in addition to the NSHM scenario to account for different opinions in how far north the fault extends into the Long Valley Caldera. For each scenario, ground motions were calculated using the current standard practice

  12. [Application of niche theory in evaluation of main tourism scenic areas in Zhangjiajie City].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yan-ping; Xiang, Chang-guo; Chen, You-lian

    2010-05-01

    Five tourism scenic areas in Zhangjiajie City were selected as research objects, and fifty kinds of resource conditions affecting the development of tourism scenic area were taken as evaluation indices. Through disposing and consolidating the indices level by level, an analysis was made on the niche breadth and niche overlap of the five tourism scenic areas at three levels (I, II, and III). In the five scenic areas, index level had significant effects on the niche breadth (F = 10.278, P = 0.006), but less effects on the relative niche breadth, suggesting that in the evaluation of the development potential of tourism scenic area, relative niche breadth was more reasonable than absolute niche breadth. From level III to level I, the niche overlap of the five scenic areas was increasing, indicating that level choice would affect the evaluation of the actual niche overlap of the scenic areas. With the progressive refinement of the indices to certain level, and when the difference between observed and Monte Carlo-simulated Pianka indices achieved to significant level, this index level could be used as the minimum standard of the refinement, and the simulated niche overlap could be taken as an important reference in the competition evaluation of tourism scenic area.

  13. [Vertical distribution and source analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan city].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Cai-Xiang; Zhao, Xu; Xiang, Qing-Qing; Li, Jia-Le

    2012-12-01

    Nine profile soil samples were collected from Xiaodian sewage irrigation area in Taiyuan city, and the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to analyze the vertical distribution. The results showed that the OCPs were mainly accumulated in the surface soil layer (0-30 cm) with the maximum concentration of 98.56 ng x g(-1), and HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans and methoxychlor were the predominant contaminants compared with other pesticides in the surface soil, which accounted for 85.1% in total OCPs. The concentrations of OCPs were clearly decreased with the increasing of the depth to the top layer in the most profile soils. Beta-HCH and DDE (sum of o,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDE) were the main contaminants in HCH pesticides and DDT pesticides, respectively. Composition analysis indicated that new DDT sources might be introduced into the groundwater irrigation and swamp area recently, and the main source of HCHs and DDTs was the residual of history use in other areas. Most profile soils were defined silt loam in study area. The correlations between the concentration of sigma OCPs and the total organic carbon (TOC) were positively significant in sewage irrigation area and groundwater irrigation area, but they were not significantly correlated in swamp area and background area.

  14. From Schistosomiasis Vector Habitats Identification to Human Transmission Risk Mapping, in the Poyang Lake Area (Jiangxi Province, PR China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, T.; Huber, C.; Yesou, H.

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis (Bilharzias) is the most frequent disease after malaria in the world. This disease hit 200 million people, and threats 600 million people. In China, Schistosomiasis japonicum, a serious communicable parasitic disease, is endemic along the Yangtze River basin, including monsoon lakes. Risky transmission areas are conditioned by the S. japonicum vector’s presence and human activities and presence. On Poyang Lake, marshlands are the principal area of its development. The aim of this work is to answer : Where are areas suitable for vector’s disease development ? Where and what are the human activities the most exposed to disease transmission ? Where are urban areas with the higher level of disease transmission risk ? How data crossing can be useful for identification of areas with the higher transmission risk level ?

  15. Hydrogeology of Ambrosia Lake-San Mateo area, McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Brod, R.C.; Stone, W.J.

    1981-11-06

    The Ambrosia Lake-San Mateo area is located about 10 mi north of Grants, New Mexico, in the heart of the Grants uranium region, which spans the southern edge of the San Juan Basin. The climate is semiarid and local streams are ephemeral, except where discharge from mines or tailings ponds has made them perennial. Ground water is thus the main source of water in the area. Major aquifers include alluvium, sandstones of the Mesaverde Group, sandstones of the Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Bluff Sandstone, Todilto Limestone, Chinle Formation, San Andres Limestone, and Glorieta Sandstone. Although shallow unconfined ground water flows southwesterly, deeper, confined ground water flows toward the northeast and east. Ground water in the area generally has a total-dissolved-solids content of 400 to 2000 mg/L; waters in the notheast are more saline (2000 to 5000 mg/L). Because the uranium occurs in a regional artesian aquifer (Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation), extensive dewatering is required: approximately 164 mgd. A new state law brings mine dewatering under the jurisdiction of the State Engineer and permits use of excess uranium-mine water. Private or municipal wells presently provide adequate supplies of water for most domestic and stock purposes.

  16. Odonata Diversity and Synanthropy in Urban Areas: A Case Study in Avellaneda City, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramos, L S; Lozano, F; Muzón, J

    2017-04-01

    The increase of human population, especially in urban areas, correlates with an alarming destruction of green spaces. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which urbanization processes affect biodiversity is crucial in integrating the environment in a proper urban planning. The main urban center of Argentina is known as the Greater Buenos Aires (GBA), and it includes the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and 24 surrounding districts. Avellaneda, one of the districts of the GBA, is an important urban and industrial center with green areas and low level of urbanization on the coastal area of the Río de la Plata. This paper provides the first Odonata inventory for Avellaneda, determines the species' level of synanthropy with the Nuorteva index, and assess the Odonata species replacement along a latitudinal gradient on the occidental margin of the Río de la Plata.

  17. Spatiotemporal comparison of highly-resolved emissions and concentrations of carbon dioxide and criteria pollutants in Salt Lake City, Utah for health and policy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Gurney, K. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Fasoli, B.; Bares, R.; o'Keefe, D.; Song, T.; Huang, J.; Horel, J.; Crosman, E.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    as the emissions. Modeled results were compared against stationary measurements and from equipment mounted atop a light rail car in the Salt Lake City area. The comparison between both approaches to emissions estimation and resulting concentrations highlights spatial locations and hours of high variability and uncertainty.

  18. Environmental implications on the oxygenation of gasoline with ethanol in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Vera, M; Díaz, L; Guzmán, E; Ramos, F; López-Salinas, E

    2001-05-15

    Motor vehicle emission tests were performed on 12 in-use light duty vehicles, made up of the most representative emission control technologies in Mexico City: no catalyst, oxidative catalyst, and three way catalyst. Exhaust regulated (CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons) and toxic (benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene) emissions were evaluated for MTBE (5 vol %)- and ethanol (3, 6, and 10 vol %)-gasoline blends. The most significant overall emissions variations derived from the use of 6 vol % ethanol (relative to a 5% MTBE base gasoline) were 16% decrease in CO, 28% reduction in formaldehyde, and 80% increase in acetaldehyde emissions. A 26% reduction in CO emissions from the oldest fleet (< MY 1991, without catalytic converter), which represents about 44% of the in-use light duty vehicles in Mexico city, can be attained when using 6 vol% ethanol-gasoline, without significant variation in hydrocarbons and NOx emissions, when compared with a 5% vol MTBE-gasoline. On the basis of the emissions results, an estimation of the change in the motor vehicle emissions of the metropolitan area of Mexico city was calculated for the year 2010 if ethanol were to be used instead of MTBE, and the outcome was a considerable decrease in all regulated and toxic emissions, despite the growing motor vehicle population.

  19. Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

    2004-12-01

    Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

  20. Atmospheric Mercury Transport Across Southern Lake Michigan: Influence from the Chicago/Gary Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Dvonch, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The local and regional impacts of mercury emissions from major urban and industrial areas are critical to quantify in order to further understand mercury cycling in the environment. The Chicago/Gary urban area is one such location in which mercury emissions from industrial sources are significant and regional mercury transport needs to be further examined. Speciated atmospheric mercury was measured in Chicago, IL and Holland, MI from July to November 2007 to better characterize the impact of Chicago/Gary on southwest Michigan. Previous work under the 1994-1995 Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS) indicated that the highest levels of mercury deposition in southwest Michigan occurred with transport from the Chicago/Gary area, particularly with rapid transport where less mercury was deposited close to sources(1). However, at that time it was not possible to measure reactive gas phase mercury (RGM), a highly-soluble form of mercury in industrial emissions that is readily removed from the atmosphere. Since the LMMBS, the development of speciated mercury systems has made it possible to continuously monitor gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), particulate mercury (HgP), and RGM. These measurements are useful for understanding atmospheric mercury chemistry and differentiating between local and regional source impacts due to the different behaviors of reactive and elemental mercury. Results from 2007 show that, on average, Hg0 and HgP were 1.5 times higher and RGM was 2 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Mean mercury wet deposition was nearly 3 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Meteorological analysis indicates that transport across the lake from Chicago/Gary occurred frequently during the study. Additional measurements of O3, SO2, meteorological parameters, event mercury and trace element precipitation samples, and modeled back-trajectories are used to discern regional transport events from local deposition and characterize the impact of the Chicago/Gary urban

  1. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetation in urban areas of Quezon City, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Ian A; Gabiana, Christella C; Dumo, Joan Ruby E; Salmo, Severino G; Guzman, Maria Aileen Leah G; Valera, Nestor S; Espiritu, Emilyn Q

    2017-04-01

    Limited data have been published on the chemistry of urban soils and vegetation in the Philippines. The aim of this study is to quantify the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in soils and vegetation in the urban landscape of Quezon City, Philippines, and to elucidate the relationships between soil properties and the concentration of heavy metals pertaining to different land uses [i.e., protected forest (LM), park and wildlife area (PA), landfill (PL), urban poor residential and industrial areas (RA), and commercial areas (CA)]. Soil (0-15 cm) and senescent plant leaves were collected and were analyzed for soil properties and heavy metal concentrations. Results revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in urban soils were higher in areas where anthropogenic activities or disturbance (PL, RA, and CA) were dominant as compared to the less disturbed areas (LM and PA). Organic matter and available phosphorous were strongly correlated with heavy metal concentrations, suggesting that heavy metal concentrations were primarily controlled by these soil properties. The average foliar heavy metal concentrations varied, ranging from 0 to 0.4 mg/kg for Cd, 0-10 mg/kg for Cr, 2-22 mg/kg for Cu, 0-5 mg/kg for Pb, and 11-250 mg/kg for Zn. The concentrations of Cd and Cr exceeded the critical threshold concentrations in some plants. Leaves of plants growing in PL (i.e., landfill) showed the highest levels of heavy metal contamination. Our results revealed that anthropogenic activities and disturbance caused by the rapid urbanization of the city are major contributors to the heavy metal accumulation and persistence in the soils in these areas.

  2. Tabrizicola aquatica gen. nov. sp. nov., a novel alphaproteobacterium isolated from Qurugöl Lake nearby Tabriz city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Tarhriz, Vahideh; Thiel, Vera; Nematzadeh, Ghorbanali; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Imhoff, Johannes F; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2013-12-01

    A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from Qurugöl Lake near Tabriz city. The bacterium grew chemoorganolheterotrophically and chemolithoautotrophically. However, photo-organoheterotrophic, photo-lithoautotrophic and fermentative growth could not be demonstrated. The presence of photosynthesis genes pufL and pufM was not shown and photosynthesis pigments were not formed. Strain RCRI19(T) grew without NaCl and tolerated up to 3 % NaCl. Growth occurred at pH 6-9 (optimum, pH 7) and 15-55 °C (optimum 40-45 °C). Vitamins were not required for growth. The major fatty acids are C18:1 ω7C, 11-methyl C18:1 ω7C, C18:0 3-OH. The predominant respiratory quinone is ubiquinone Q-10. The G+C content of genomic DNA is 65.9 mol%. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed that strain RCRI19(T) has the highest similarities with uncultured environmental sequences followed by members of the genera Rhodobacter (≤95.75 %), Haematobacter (≤95.53 %), Gemmobacter (≤95.17 %) and Falsirhodobacter (94.60 %) in the family Rhodobacteraceae. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain RCRI19(T) and the closest phylogenetically related strain, Rhodobacter blasticus LMG 4305(T), was 20 %. Based on its phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and considering that it does not form photosynthetic pigments and is unable to grow phototrophically, it is concluded that strain RCRI19(T) cannot be included into the genus Rhodobacter and any of the other related genera. Therefore, we propose to place the new bacterium into a new genus and species for which the name Tabrizicola aquatica gen. nov. and sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RCRI19(T) (=BCCM/LMG 25773(T )= JCM 17277(T )= KCTC 23724(T)).

  3. Characterization and modeling of illite crystal particles and growth mechanisms in a zoned hydrothermal deposit, Lake City, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, D.J.; Eberl, D.D.; McCarty, D.K.; Meeker, G.P.

    2002-01-01

    Mean thickness measurements and crystal-thickness distributions (CTDs) of illite particles vary systematically with changes in hydrothermal alteration type, fracture density, and attendant mineralization in a large acid-sulfate/Mo-porphyry hydrothermal system at Red Mountain, near Lake City, Colorado. The hydrothermal illites characterize an extensive zone of quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration beneath two deeply rooted bodies of magmatic-related, quartz-alunite altered rock. Nineteen illites from a 3000 ft vertical drill hole were analyzed by XRD using the PVP-10 intercalation method and the computer program MudMaster (Bertaut-Warren-Averbach technique). Mean crystallite thicknesses, as determined from 001 reflections, range from 5-7 nanometers (nm) at depths from 0-1700 ft, then sharply increase to 10-16 nm at depths between 1800-2100 ft, and decrease again to 4-5 nm below this level. The interval of largest particle thickness correlates strongly with the zone of most intense quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration (QSP) and attendant high-density stockwork fracturing, and with the highest concentrations of Mo within the drill core. CTD shapes for the illite particles fall into two main categories: asymptotic and lognormal. The shapes of the CTDs are dependent on conditions of illite formation. The asymptotic CTDs correspond to a nucleation and growth mechanism, whereas surface-controlled growth was the dominant mechanism for the lognormal CTDs. Lognormal CTDs coincide with major through-going fractures or stockwork zones, whereas asymptotic CTDs are present in wallrock distal to these intense fracture zones. The increase in illite particle size and the associated zone of intense QSP alteration and stockwork veining was related by proximity to the dacitic magma(s), which supplied both reactants and heat to the hydrothermal system. However, no changes in illite polytype, which in other studies reflect temperature transitions, were observed within this interval.

  4. Measurements of Criteria Pollutants in Suburban Locations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fentanes, O.; Sanchez, A.; Garcia, A.; Martinez, A.

    2004-12-01

    In the town of Santa Ana in the southern part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) at an approximate height of 370 meters above the Valley of Mexico, a series of criteria pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, temperature and relative humidity) were measured during the MCMA-2003 field campaign during April 2003. Santa Ana is considered a border site, agriculture being the predominant activity. The generated data in Santa Ana was compared with those from two representative atmospheric monitoring stations from the southeast zone (CENICA Supersite) and southwest (Revolucion Station) of Mexico City. The carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations measured in Santa Ana are atypical for a rural area. The sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are characteristic of the local activity. The average obtained during the measurement time for carbon monoxide was 0.86 ppm, the presence of the contaminant was within a 0.3 to 1.5 ppm range, 5 to 95 percentile, and does not follow the observed behavior of the monitoring stations that are located inside the urban area, although during the night (10 pm to 6 am) the carbon monoxide in Santa Ana was preset in levels from 0.4 to 1.5 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles, average 0.92 ppm, above the reported concentrations at Revolucion Station, levels from 0.1 to 1.7 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles; average 0.72 ppm. The presence of this contaminant can be attributed to transportation and accumulation phenomena. The ozone daytime behavior is similar to the one observed in the CENICA and Revolucion stations, but with a lower magnitude, the daily maximum generally occuring 2 or 3 hours after the urban stations. The one-hour average maximum values were 133 ppb in Santa Ana area and 188 ppb in the city. During the night the average concentrations were 37 ppb in Santa Ana and 17 ppb in the urban area. Nevertheless, the ozone average value in Santa Ana

  5. 33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the regulated navigation area (RNA). All navigable waters on Lake Champlain 300 yards to the north... conditions apply within this RNA: (1) No vessel may operate at a speed in excess of five knots. (2) All.... (2) The COTP may temporarily suspend all vessel traffic through the RNA, temporarily...

  6. 33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the regulated navigation area (RNA). All navigable waters on Lake Champlain 300 yards to the north... conditions apply within this RNA: (1) No vessel may operate at a speed in excess of five knots. (2) All.... (2) The COTP may temporarily suspend all vessel traffic through the RNA, temporarily...

  7. 75 FR 4102 - Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House State Historic Park General Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House State Historic Park General Plan/Resource Management Plan AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and the California Department of...

  8. Predators and Prey: Jordan Lake State Recreation Area. An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Henry, III; Stamm, Daniel K.

    This document provides hands-on environmental education activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of Jordan Lake State Recreation Area. The activity packet, designed for grades K-3, meets curriculum objectives of the standard course of study established by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. It includes on-site…

  9. Ground-water exploration and test pumping in the Halma-Lake Bronson area Kittson County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiner, George R.

    1963-01-01

    Large quantities of water suitable for most industrial purposes are available in the Halma-Lake Bronson area. Yields of 1,000 to 2,000 gpm could probably be obtained from wells located by an adequate program of exploratory drilling and test pumping.

  10. Guess What's for Dinner. Falls Lake State Recreation Area: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Paul; Martin, Merri

    This activity guide, developed to provide hands-on environmental education activities geared towards the Falls Lake State Recreation Area in North Carolina, is targeted for grades 3, 4, and 5 and meets curriculum objectives of the standard course of study established by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Three types of activities…

  11. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    PubMed

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should

  12. Fuel-based motor vehicle emission inventory for the metropolitan area of Mexico city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifter, I.; Díaz, L.; Múgica, V.; López-Salinas, E.

    The level and nature of air pollution varies substantially from city to city. Hence, the first requirement is the creation of an adequate knowledge base on local air quality on which to develop an air quality policy. Because the availability of data used in traditional on-road mobile source estimation methodologies is limited in Mexico, an alternative methodology was implemented to estimate motor vehicle emissions. In the year 2000, on-road gasoline powered vehicle emissions in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC), were characterized using fuel sales as a measure of vehicle activity, and exhaust emissions factors from remote sensing measurements. In a similar way, remote sensing data obtained by researchers of the University of Denver back in 1991 and 1994 were used to estimate a fuel-based emission inventory for those years. Average emissions factors were estimated in 113.5±13, 13.1±1.9 and 9.84±2.3 g l -1 for CO, hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x), respectively, based on remote sensing measurements of 42,800 vehicles. For year 2000 light and medium gasoline vehicles exhaust emissions contributed with 2065, 238, and 179 metric ton day-1 of CO, HC and NO x, respectively. The inventory is 48% and 26% lower in CO and NO x, respectively, than official inventory estimates for the year 1998 using travel-based models. Calculated CO reduction from 1991 to 1994 is approximately 46% while the atmospheric CO measurements, as indicator of mobile activity, in the same period decrease 51%. For the period 1994-2000 the reductions were 36% and 31%, respectively. The calculations indicate a continually decreasing inventory over the study period, and represents and ideal alternative for locations such as Mexican cities lacking the resources to develop an emissions model.

  13. Geologic map of the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone in the vicinity of Lake Pillsbury and adjacent areas of Mendocino, Lake, and Glenn Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlin, Henry N.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.; Sawyer, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    The Lake Pillsbury area lies in the eastern part of the northern California Coast Ranges, along the east side of the transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates (fig. 1). The Bartlett Springs Fault Zone is a northwest-trending zone of faulting associated with this eastern part of the transform boundary. It is presently active, based on surface creep (Svarc and others, 2008), geomorphic expression, offset of Holocene units (Lienkaemper and Brown, 2009), and microseismicity (Bolt and Oakeshott, 1982; Dehlinger and Bolt, 1984; DePolo and Ohlin, 1984). Faults associated with the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone at Lake Pillsbury are steeply dipping and offset older low to steeply dipping faults separating folded and imbricated Mesozoic terranes of the Franciscan Complex and interleaved rocks of the Coast Range Ophiolite and Great Valley Sequence. Parts of this area were mapped in the late 1970s and 1980s by several investigators who were focused on structural relations in the Franciscan Complex (Lehman, 1978; Jordan, 1975; Layman, 1977; Etter, 1979). In the 1980s the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped a large part of the area as part of a mineral resource appraisal of two U.S. Forest Service Roadless areas. For evaluating mineral resource potential, the USGS mapping was published at a scale of 1:62,500 as a generalized geologic summary map without a topographic base (Ohlin and others, 1983; Ohlin and Spear, 1984). The previously unpublished mapping with topographic base is presented here at a scale of 1:30,000, compiled with other mapping in the vicinity of Lake Pillsbury. The mapping provides a geologic framework for ongoing investigations to evaluate potential earthquake hazards and structure of the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone. This geologic map includes part of Mendocino National Forest (the Elk Creek Roadless Area) in Mendocino, Glenn, and Lake Counties and is traversed by several U.S. Forest Service Routes, including M1 and M6 (fig. 2). The study

  14. Land-surface subsidence in the area of Moses Lake near Texas City, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrysch, R.K.; Bonnet, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    Probable future subsidence was calculated by two methods for two loading situations. In the first loading situation, the artesian head in the middle Chicot aquifer, in the Alta Loma Sand (Rose, 1943), and in the Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at respective rates of 1, 3, and 3 feet per year until 1980 and then cease. In the second loading situation, the artesian head in the middle Chicot aquifer, in the Alta Loma Sand, and in the Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at respective rates of 1, 3, and 3 feet per year until 1990 and then cease. 

  15. Comparison between microwave coherent and incoherent scattering models for wetland vegetation in Poyang Lake area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Liao, Jingjuan

    2014-11-01

    In order to reveal more deeply the scattering characteristics of wetland vegetation and determine the microwave scattering model suitable for the inversion of wetland vegetation parameters, the comparison and analysis between microwave coherent and incoherent scattering models for wetland vegetation in Poyang Lake area were performed in this paper. In the research, we proposed a coherent scattering model exclusive for wetland vegetation, in which, Generalized Rayleigh-Gans (GRG) approach and infinite-length dielectric cylinder were used to calculate single-scattering matrices of wetland vegetation leaves and stalks. In addition, coherent components produced from interaction among the scattering mechanisms and different scatterers were also considered and this coherent model was compared with Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS) model. The measured data collected in 2011 in Poyang Lake wetland were used as the input parameters of the coherent and incoherent models. We simulated backscattering coefficients of VV, VH and HH polarization at C band and made a comparison between the simulation results and C-band data from the Radarsat-2 satellite. For both coherent and incoherent scattering model, simulation results for HH and VV polarization were better than the simulation results for HV polarization. In addition, comparisons between coherent and incoherent scattering models proved that the coherence triggered by the scattering mechanism and different scatterers can't be ignored. In the research, we analyzed differences between coherent and incoherent scattering models with change of incident angle. In most instances, the difference between coherent and incoherent scattering models is of the order of several dB.

  16. Hydrology, nutrient concentrations, and nutrient yields in nearshore areas of four lakes in northern Wisconsin, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Hunt, Randall J.; Greb, Steven R.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Krohelski, James T.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of shoreline development on water quality and nutrient yields in nearshore areas of four lakes in northern Wisconsin were investigated from October 1999 through September 2001. The study measured surface runoff and ground-water flows from paired developed (sites containing lawn, rooftops, sidewalks, and driveways) and undeveloped (mature and immature woods) catchments adjacent to four lakes in northern Wisconsin. Water samples from surface runoff and ground water were collected and analyzed for nutrients. Coupled with water volumes, loads and subsequent yields of selected constituents were computed for developed and undeveloped catchments. The median runoff from lawn surfaces ranged from 0.0019 to 0.059 inch over the catchment area. Median surface runoff estimates from the wooded catchments were an order of magnitude less than those from the lawn catchments. The increased water volumes from the lawn catchments resulted in greater nutrient loads and subsequent annual nutrient yields from the developed sites. Soil temperature and soil moisture were measured at two sites with mixed lawn and wooded areas. At both of these sites, the area covered with a lawn commonly was warmer than the wooded area. No consistent differences in soil moisture were found. A ground-water model was constructed to simulate the local flow systems at two of the paired catchments. Model simulations showed that much of the ground water delivered to the lake originated from distant areas that did not contribute runoff directly to the lake. Surface runoff and ground-water nutrient concentrations from the lawn and wooded catchments did not have apparent patterns. Some of the median concentrations from lawns were significantly different (at the 0.05 significance level) from those at wooded catchments. Water wells and piezometers were sampled for chemical analyses three times during the study period. Variability in the shallow ground-water chemistry over time in the lawn samples was

  17. Hydrology and snowmelt simulation of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas, Summit County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.; Susong, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing residential and commercial development is placing increased demands on the ground- and surface-water resources of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas in the southwestern corner of Summit County, Utah. Data collected during 1993-95 were used to assess the quantity and quality of the water resources in the study area.Ground water within the study area is present in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated valley fill. The complex geology makes it difficult to determine the degree of hydraulic connection between different blocks of consolidated rocks. Increased ground-water withdrawal during 1983- 95 generally has not affected ground-water levels. Ground-water withdrawal in some areas, however, caused seasonal fluctuations and a decline in ground-water levels from 1994 to 1995, despite greater-than-normal recharge in the spring of 1995.Ground water generally has a dissolved-solids concentration that ranges from 200 to 600 mg/L. Higher sulfate concentrations in water from wells and springs near Park City and in McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek than in other parts of the study area are the result of mixing with water that discharges from the Spiro Tunnel. The presence of chloride in water from wells and springs near Park City and in streams and wells near Interstate Highway 80 is probably caused by the dissolution of applied road salt. Chlorofluorocarbon analyses indicate that even though water levels rise within a few weeks of snowmelt, the water took 15 to 40 years to move from areas of recharge to areas of discharge.Water budgets for the entire study area and for six subbasins were developed to better understand the hydrologic system. Ground-water recharge from precipitation made up about 80 percent of the ground-water recharge in the study area. Ground-water discharge to streams made up about 40 percent of the surface water in the study area and ground-water discharge to springs and mine tunnels made up about 25 percent. Increasing use of

  18. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  19. PAH distributions in sediments in the oil sands monitoring area and western Lake Athabasca: Concentration, composition and diagnostic ratios.

    PubMed

    Evans, Marlene; Davies, Martin; Janzen, Kim; Muir, Derek; Hazewinkel, Rod; Kirk, Jane; de Boer, Dirk

    2016-06-01

    Oil sands activities north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, have intensified in recent years with a concomitant debate as to their environmental impacts. The Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program and its successor, the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM), are the primary aquatic programs monitoring this industry. Here we examine sediment data (collected by Ekman grabs) to investigate trends and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), supplementing these data with sediment core studies. Total PAH (ΣPAH) concentrations were highest at Shipyard Lake (6038 ± 2679 ng/g) in the development center and lower at Isadore's Lake (1660 ± 777 ng/g) to the north; both lakes are in the Athabasca River Valley and lie below the developments. ΣPAH concentrations were lower (622-930 ng/g) in upland lakes (Kearl, McClelland) located further away from the developments. ΣPAH concentrations increased at Shipyard Lake (2001-2014) and the Ells River mouth (1998-2014) but decreased in nearshore areas at Kearl Lake (2001-2014) and a Muskeg River (2000-2014) site. Over the longer term, ΣPAH concentrations increased in Kearl (1934-2012) and Sharkbite (1928-2010) Lakes. Further (200 km) downstream in the Athabasca River delta, ΣPAH concentrations (1029 ± 671 ng/g) increased (1999-2014) when %sands were included in the regression model; however, 50 km to the east, concentrations declined (1926-2009) in Lake Athabasca. Ten diagnostic ratios based on anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, indeno[123-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, dibenzothiophene and retene were examined to infer spatial and temporal trends in PAH sources (e.g., combustion versus petrogenic) and weathering. There was some evidence of increasing contributions of unprocessed oil sands and bitumen dust to Shipyard, Sharkbite, and Isadore's Lakes and increased combustion sources in the Athabasca River delta. Some CCME interim

  20. Geological and geochemical investigations of uranium occurrences in the Arrastre Lake area of the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; Houston, R.S.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Hopkins, D.M.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Metasedimentary rocks of Precambrian X age in and near the Snowy Range wilderness study area of southeastern Wyoming are lithologically and chronologically similar to those on the north shore of Lake Huron in Canada. The rocks in Canada contain major deposits of uranium in quartz-pebble conglomerates near the base of the metasedimentary sequence. Similar conglomerates in the Deep Lake Formation in the Medicine Bow Mountains of southeastern Wyoming are slightly radioactive and may contain deposits of uranium and other valuable heavy metals. During the summer of 1976, a geological and geochemical pilot study was conducted in the vicinity of Arrastre Lake in the Medicine Bow Mountains to determine the most effective exploration methods for evaluating the uranium potential of the Snowy Range wilderness study area. The area around Arrastre Lake was selected because of the presence of a radioactive lens within a quartz-pebble conglomerate of the Deep Lake Formation. The results of the survey indicate possible uranium mineralization in the subsurface rocks of this formation. The radon content of the dilute waters of the area is much higher than can be accounted for by the uranium content of the surface rocks. Two sources for the high content of the radon are possible. In either case, the high values of radon obtained in this study are a positive indication of uranium mineralization in the subsurface rocks. The determination of the radon content of water samples is the recommended geochemical technique for uranium exploration in the area. The determination of uranium in water and in organic-rich bog material is also recommended.

  1. 78 FR 21343 - New Ski Area Water Rights Clause

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Forest Service New Ski Area Water Rights Clause AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... Lake City, Utah; and one in Lake Tahoe, California, to provide initial public input on a new water... Service will consider in developing a new ski area water rights clause. There will be another...

  2. Intense methane ebullition from open water area of a shallow peatland lake on the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Wu, Yan; Chen, Huai; He, Yixin; Wu, Ning

    2016-01-15

    Methane fluxes from a shallow peatland lake (3450 m a.s.l., 1.6 km(2) in area, maximum depth <1m) on eastern Tibetan Plateau were measured with floating chamber method during May to August, 2009. The overall average of methane emission rate during the study period was 34.71±29.15 mg CH4 m(-2) h(-1). The occurrence of ebullition among the overall methane flux from Lake Medo was about 74%. The average rate of ebullition was 32.45±28.31 mg CH4 m(-2) h(-1), which accounted for 93% of the overall average of methane emission. Significant seasonal variation was found for occurrence (P<0.05) and rate (P<0.01) of ebullition, both peaking synchronously in mid-summer. Both the occurrence and rate of ebullition were found positively related to sediment temperature but negatively related to lake water depth. The high methane production in the lake sediment was likely fueled by organic carbon loaded from surrounding peatlands to the lake. The shallowness of the water column could be another important favorable factor for methane-containing bubble formation in the sediment and their transportation to the atmosphere. The methane ebullition must have been enhanced by the low atmospheric pressure (ca. 672 hPa) in the high-altitude environment. For a better understanding on the mechanism of methane emission from alpine lakes, more lakes on the Tibetan Plateau should be studied in the future for their methane ebullition.

  3. A study on the levels of radioactivity in fish samples from the experimental lakes area in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Rennie, Michael D; Sadi, Baki; Zhang, Weihua; St-Amant, Nadereh

    2016-03-01

    To better understand background radiation levels in country foods, a total of 125 fish samples were collected from three lakes (Lake 226, Lake 302 and Lake 305) in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario of Canada during the summer of 2014. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) as well as anthropogenic radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured. This study confirmed that (210)Po is the dominant contributor to radiation doses resulting from fish consumption. While concentrations of (210)Pb and (226)Ra were below conventional detection limits, (210)Po was measured in almost all fish samples collected from the ELA. The average concentration was about 1.5 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs. An average (137)Cs level of 6.1 Bq/kg fw was observed in freshwater fishes harvested in the ELA, almost twice that of samples measured in the National Capital Region of Canada in 2014 and more than 20 times higher than the levels observed in marine fish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 and 2014. However, it is important to note that the concentrations of (137)Cs in fish samples from these inland lakes are considered very low from a radiological protection perspective. The resulting radiation dose for people from fish consumption would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. The results indicate that fishes from inland lakes do not pose a radiological health concern.

  4. Ground-water/surface-water interaction in nearshore areas of Three Lakes on the Grand Portage Reservation, northeastern Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of general water-flow directions in lake watersheds and how they may change seasonally can help water-quality specialists and lake managers address a variety of water-quality and aquatic habitat protection issues for lakes. Results from this study indicate that ground-water and surface-water interactions at the study lakes are complex, and the ability of the applied techniques to identify ground-water inflow and surface-water outseepage locations varied among the lakes. Measurement of lake-sediment temperatures proved to be a reliable and relatively inexpensive reconnaissance technique that lake managers may apply in complex settings to identify general areas of ground-water inflow and surface-water outseepage.

  5. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Nicole A; Zhao, Anthony; Munshi-South, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970's. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970's were not detected in 2015. These results indicate that

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

  7. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Nicole A.; Zhao, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970’s. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970’s were not detected in 2015. These results indicate

  8. Distribution of dermatophytes from soils of urban and rural areas of cities of Paraiba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos de; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; Santos, Jozemar Pereira dos

    2013-01-01

    The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH.

  9. Chemical contamination of soils in the New York City area following Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Mandigo, Amy C; DiScenza, Dana J; Keimowitz, Alison R; Fitzgerald, Neil

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a unique data set of lead, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in soil samples collected from the metropolitan New York City area in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Initial samples were collected by citizen scientists recruited via social media, a relatively unusual approach for a sample collection project. Participants in the affected areas collected 63 usable samples from basements, gardens, roads, and beaches. Results indicate high levels of arsenic, lead, PCBs, and PAHs in an area approximately 800 feet south of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Superfund site at Newtown Creek. A location adjacent to the Gowanus Canal, another Superfund site, was found to have high PCB concentrations. Areas of high PAH contamination tended to be near high traffic areas or next to sites of known contamination. While contamination as a direct result of Hurricane Sandy cannot be demonstrated conclusively, the presence of high levels of contamination close to known contamination sites, evidence for co-contamination, and decrease in number of samples containing measureable amounts of semi-volatile compounds from samples collected at similar locations 9 months after the storm suggest that contaminated particles may have migrated to residential areas as a result of flooding.

  10. Thermally Released Arsenic in Porewater from Sediments in the Cold Lake Area of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Javed, Muhammad Babar; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-03-01

    Elevated arsenic (As) in aquifers in close proximity to in situ oil sands extraction in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada is attributed to high temperature steam (~200 °C) injected into oil sands deposits to liquefy bitumen. Heat propagated from hot injection wells alters physicochemical properties of the surrounding sediments and associated porewater. Seven sediments from four different cores drilled up to ~300 m depth collected from different locations in the area were used to study the thermal effect (~200 °C) on As distribution in the sediments and its release into porewater. Sediments were moistened with synthetic aquifer or deionized water according to the moisture regimes present in aquitard, aquifer and fractured zones. Heat application greatly released As in the porewater (500-5200 and 1200-6600 μg L(-1)) from aquifer and fractured sediments, respectively. Mass balance of As chemical fractionation showed that ~89-100% of As in porewater was released from exchangeable and specifically adsorbed As in the sediments. Heat application also altered As distribution in the sediments releasing As from exchange surfaces and amorphous Fe oxides to soluble As fraction. The results provide great insight into As release mechanisms warranting development of strategies to mitigate groundwater As contamination during industrial operation.

  11. Great Lakes: EPA Needs to Define Organizational Responsibilities Better for Effective Oversight and Cleanup of Contaminated Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    sediment . The 1978 agreement as amended contains 17 annexes that define in detail the specific programs and activities that the two governments agreed...of Areas of Concern Date Reported to IJC Area of Concern State Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Ashtabula River OH 1991 Black River OH 1994 Buffalo River NY...1989 1989 Clinton River MI 1988 1995 Cuyahoga River OH 1992 Deer Lake MI 1987 Eighteenmile Creek NY 1997 1997 Fox River WI 1988 Grand Calumet River IN

  12. A model to locate potential areas for lake sturgeon spawning habitat construction in the St. Clair–Detroit River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennion, David; Manny, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    In response to a need for objective scientific information that could be used to help remediate loss of fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair River and Detroit River International Areas of Concern, this paper summarizes a large-scale geographic mapping investigation. Our study integrates data on two variables that many riverine fishes respond to in selecting where to spawn in these waters (water flow velocity and water depth) with available maps of the St. Clair–Detroit River System (SC–DRS). Our objectives were to locate and map these two physical components of fish habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers and Lake St. Clair using a geographic information system (GIS) and to identify where, theoretically, fish spawning habitat could be remediated in these rivers. The target fish species to which this model applies is lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), but spawning reefs constructed for lake sturgeon in this system have been used for spawning by 17 species of fish. Our analysis revealed areas in each river that possessed suitable water velocity and depth for fish spawning and therefore could theoretically be remediated by the addition of rock-rubble substrate like that used at two previously remediated sites in the Detroit River at Belle Isle and Fighting Island. Results of our analysis revealed that only 3% of the total area of the SC–DRS possesses the necessary combination of water depth and high flow velocity to be indicated by the model as potential spawning habitat for lake sturgeon.

  13. Uranium in Holocene valley-fill sediments, and uranium, radon, and helium in waters, Lake Tahoe-Carson Range area, Nevada and California, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Been, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Uraniferous Holocene sediments occur in the Carson Range of Nevada and California, U.S.A., between Lake Tahoe and Carson Valley. The hosts for the uranium include peat and interbedded organic-rich sand, silt, and mud that underly valley floors, fens, and marshes along stream valleys between the crest of the range and the edge of Lake Tahoe. The known uranium accumulations extend along the Carson Range from the area just southeast of South Lake Tahoe northward to the area just east of Carson City; however, they almost certainly continue beyond the study area to the north, west, and south. Due to the young age of the accumulations, uranium in them is in gross disequilibrium with its highly radioactive daughter products. These accumulations have thus escaped discovery with radiation detection equipment in the past. The uranium content of these sediments approaches 0.6 percent; however, the average is in the range of 300-500 ppm. Waters associated with these sediments locally contain as much as 177 ppb uranium. Modest levels of helium and radon also occur in these waters. Uraniferous waters are clearly entering the private and public water supply systems in some parts of the study area; however, it is not known how much uranium is reaching users of these water supplies. Many of the waters sampled in the study area exceed the published health effects guidance level of the Environmental Protection Agency. Regulatory standards for uranium in waters have not been published, however. Much uranium is stored in the sediments along these stream valleys. Estimates for a marsh and a fen along one drainage are 24,000 and 15,000 kg, respectively. The potential effects of man-induced environmental changes on the uranium are uncertain. Laboratory studies of uraniferous sediment rich in organic matter may allow us to evaluate the potential of liberating uranium from such sediments and creating transient increases in the level of uranium moving in water in the natural environment

  14. New Magnetic and Geochemical Results on Topsoils of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pichar, E.; Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Morton, O.; Hernandez, E.; Lozano-Santa-Cruz, R.; Gonzalez, G.; Beramendi, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J. H.

    2008-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico city is a region well known for intense industrial and commercial activity. The potential sources of the heavy metal pollutants are assumed to be petroleum processing, production of iron material, manufacturing, coal combustion, commercial and automobile exhaust. New samples were collected from industrial, roadside, residential and public parks in the urban areas around the city and added to two previous field campaigns (2003 and 2005). Localities selected for the study represent, presumably, different heavy metal pollution levels and sources. At each sampling point, the top 2 cm layer of the soil profile was collected with a stainless steel trowel and stored in a plastic bag. The elements Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined by EDXRF (Philips PW1400 apparatus) on bulk- sample pressed, boric-acid backed pellets. Metal concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cr, and V were analyzed by ICP-MS with a VG Elemental PQ3 instrument. Magnetic mineralogy in bulk soil samples was investigated by low-field susceptibility using a Kappabridge KLY2. Remanent magnetizations (ARM and IRM) and Hysteresis loops of micro samples had been carried out at room temperature. Bivariate analysis on different ratios of magnetic parameters was employed to characterize the pollution sources.

  15. Water-level data for the industrial area northwest of Delaware City, Delaware, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly, C.A.; Hinaman, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    Water-level data for 171 wells and one surface-water site on Red Lion Creek in the industrial area northwest of Delaware City, Delaware, are presented for 1993 and 1994. Eight sets of synoptic ground- water-level measurements collected between April 1993 and September 1994, and locations and field notes for the 171 wells are presented. A hydrograph from December 19, 1993 through November 8, 1994 is presented for one surface-water site on Red Lion Creek in the industrial area. Hydrographs from October 15, 1993 through November 8, 1994 are presented for eight wells screened in the water- table aquifer. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collected the synoptic ground-water-level measurements. The U.S. Geological Survey collected the continuously recorded water-level data.

  16. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [The Everglades agricultural area, Lake Okeechobee, and the Suwanee River basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Transparencies, prints, and computer compatible tapes of temperature differential and thermal inertia for the winter of 1978 to 1979 were obtained. Thermal inertial differences in the South Florida depicted include: drained organic soils of the Everglades agricultural area, undrained organic soils of the managed water conservation areas of the South Florida water management district, the urbanized area around Miami, Lake Okeechobee, and the mineral soil west of the Everglades agricultural area. The range of wetlands and uplands conditions within the Suwanee River basin was also identified. It is shown that the combination of wetlands uplands surface features of Florida yield a wide range of surface temperatures related to wetness of the surface features.

  17. Platinum in PM2.5 of the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Martínez-Trejo, Lida; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; García-Arreola, María Elena

    2014-10-01

    The increase in platinum (Pt) in the airborne particulate matter with size ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) in urban environments may be interpreted as result of the abrasion and deterioration of automobile catalyst. Nowadays, about four million vehicles in Mexico City use catalytic converters, which means that their impact should be considered. In order to evaluate the contribution of Pt to environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC), airborne PM2.5 was collected at five different sites in the urban area (NW, NE, C, SW, SE) in 2011 during April (dry-warm season), August (rainy season) and December (dry-cold season). Analytical determinations were carried out using a ICP-MS with a collision cell and kinetic energy discrimination. The analytical and instrument performance was evaluated with standard road dust reference material (BCR-723). Median Pt concentration in the analyzed particulate was is 38.4 pg m(-3) (minimal value 1 pg m(-3) maximal value 79 pg m(-3)). Obtained Pt concentrations are higher than those reported for other urban areas. Spatial variation shows that SW had Pt concentration significantly higher than NW and C only. Seasonal variation shows that Pt median was higher in rainy season than in both dry seasons. A comparison of these results with previously reported data of PM10 from 1991 and 2003 in the same studied area shows a worrying increase in the concentration of Pt in the air environment of MAMC.

  18. An appraisal of potential water salvage in the Lake McMillan Delta area, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Edward Riley; Havens, John S.

    1974-01-01

    The Lake McMillan delta area is located between Artesia and Lake McMillan on the Pecos River in Eddy County, N. Mex. Alluvium, which is more than 200 feet thick in places, is the principal water-bearing formation and is part of the 'shallow aquifer' of the Roswell basin. Recharge to the shallow aquifer is by infiltration from the Pecos River, by irrigation water, by precipitation, and by ground water that moves into the area. Discharge from the shallow aquifer is by wells, by transpiration from phreatophytes, and by evaporation from swampy areas. Saltcedar growth in the area increased during the study period from about 13,700 acres in 1952 to about 17,100 acres in 1960, a 25-percent increase. Most of this increase was in the areal-density range of zero to 30 percent. The estimated average transpiration of phreatophytes in the Artesia to Lake McMillan reach is about 29,000 acre-feet of water per year from ground-water sources. In the reach from Artesia to the Rio Pefiasco, where the regional water table is above the Pecos River, saltcedar eradication might salvage from 10,000 to 20,000 acre-feet of water per year for use downstream. From the Rio Pefiasco to Lake McMillan the river is perched above the water table; therefore, elimination of the saltcedar probably would not increase flow in the river, nor would drains be effective. Clearing in this reach, however, might increase the flow at Major Johnson Springs below Lake McMillan. Floodways through this reach would eliminate some evapotranspiration but might increase the amount of sediment deposited by floodwaters in bake McMillan.

  19. Analysis and simulation of ground-water flow in Lake Wales Ridge and adjacent areas of central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, Dann K.

    1996-01-01

    The Lake Wales Ridge is an uplands recharge area in central Florida that contains many sinkhole lakes. Below-normal rainfall and increased pumping of ground water have resulted in declines both in ground-water levels and in the water levels of many of the ridge lakes. A digital flow model was developed for a 3,526 square-mile area to help understand the current (1990) ground-water flow system and its response to future ground-water withdrawals. The ground-water flow system in the Lake Wales Ridge and adjacent area of central Florida consists of a sequence of sedimentary aquifers and confining units. The uppermost water-bearing unit of the study area is the surficial aquifer. This aquifer is generally unconfined and is composed primarily of clastic deposits. The surficial aquifer is underlain by the confined intermediate aquifer and confining units which consists of up to three water-bearing units composed of interbedded clastics and carbonate rocks. The lowermost unit of the ground- water flow system, the confined Upper Floridan aquifer, consists of a thick, hydraulically connected sequence of carbonate rocks. The Upper Floridan aquifer is about 1,200 to 1,400 feet thick and is the primary source for ground-water withdrawals in the study area. The generalized ground-water flow system of the Lake Wales Ridge is that water moves downward from the surficial aquifer to the intermediate aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the central area, primarily under the ridges, with minor amounts of water flow under the flatlands. The water flows laterally away fromn the central area, downgradient to discharge areas to the west, east, and south, and locally along valleys of major streams. Upward leakage occurs along valleys of major streams. The model was initially calibrated to the steady-state conditions representing September 1989. The resulting calibrated hydrologic parameters were then tested by simulating transient conditions for the period October 1989 through 1990. A

  20. Response of lake chemistry to atmospheric deposition and climate in selected Class I wilderness areas in the western United States, 1993-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Air Resource Management, conducted a study to evaluate long-term trends in lake-water chemistry for 64 high-elevation lakes in selected Class I wilderness areas in Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming during 1993 to 2009. Understanding how and why lake chemistry is changing in mountain areas is essential for effectively managing and protecting high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. Trends in emissions, atmospheric deposition, and climate variables (air temperature and precipitation amount) were evaluated over a similar period of record. A main objective of the study was to determine if changes in atmospheric deposition of contaminants in the Rocky Mountain region have resulted in measurable changes in the chemistry of high-elevation lakes. A second objective was to investigate linkages between lake chemistry and air temperature and precipitation to improve understanding of the sensitivity of mountain lakes to climate variability.

  1. OSA Proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Held in Salt Lake City, Utah on 6 - 8 March, 1992. Volume 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    Multiple Quantum-Well Modulator Arrays for Neural Network and Photonic Switching Applications ........................ 210 M. A. Z Rejman- Greene , E G. Scott...34. Kobe, Japan, April 12-14, 1990 16. OSCAR Annual Report, Part A2-CS5 2. N.F. Whitehead, OFC󈨞, January 22-26, 17. M. Gustavsson , A. Karlsson and L... Gustavsson and L. Thylen, Top. Meeting Topical Meetings on Photonic Switching, on Photonic Swithcing, Salt Lake City, 1-3 Kobe, Japan, April 12-14, 1990

  2. Installation restoration program final remedial investigation report IRP sites 8 and 10. 151st air refueling group Utah Air National Guard, Salt Lake City, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the results from a Remedial Investigation (RI) for two sites at the Utah Air National Guard (UANG) Base located in Salt Lake City, Utah. The two sites investigated are identified as Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Site 8, a former underground storage tank (UST) location, and IRP Site 10, an existing petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) yard. The RI was conducted as outlined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan prepared by Stone Webster and submitted to and approved by the ANG in May 1993. The field work associated with the RI was performed in June, July, and August 1995.

  3. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  4. Mapping the Sea Floor of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS) Offshore of New York City

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford

    2002-01-01

    The area offshore of New York City has been used for the disposal of dredged material for over a century. The area has also been used for the disposal of other materials such as acid waste, industrial waste, municipal sewage sludge, cellar dirt, and wood. Between 1976 and 1995, the New York Bight Dredged Material Disposal Site, also known as the Mud Dump Site (MDS), received on average about 6 million cubic yards of dredged material annually. In September 1997 the MDS was closed as a disposal site, and it and the surrounding area were designated as the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS). The sea floor of the HARS, approximately 9 square nautical miles in area, currently is being remediated by placing a minimum 1-m-thick cap of clean dredged material on top of the surficial sediments that are contaminated from previous disposal of dredged and other materials. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to map the sea floor geology of the HARS and changes in the characteristics of the surficial sediments over time.

  5. SESPE-FRAZIER, DIABLO, MATILIJA, DRY LAKES, SAWMILL-BADLANDS, CUYAMA, ANTIMONY, AND QUATAL ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frizzell, Virgil A.; Hale, William N.

    1984-01-01

    The study area, consisting of the Sespe-Frazier, Diablo, Matilija, Dry Lakes, Sawmill-Badlands, Cuyama, Antimony, and Quatal Roadless Areas, occupies about 872 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. Studies indicate that the Sespe-Frazier Roadless Area contains demonstrated resources of gold, gypsum, phosphate and bentonite; deposits in the Cuyama Roadless Area have demonstrated resources of gypsum; mines in the Antimony Roadless Area have demonstrated resources of antimony, gold, silver, and marble; and the Quatal Roadless Area has demonstrated resources of bentonite. The Sespe-Frazier Roadless Area has substantiated potential for geothermal resources suitable for direct-heat purposes, probable and substantiated potential for oil and gas resources, and probable potential for gold resources. Small areas of probable resource potential for antimony and gold were identified in Antimony Roadless Area.

  6. 78 FR 60698 - Safety Zone, Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series; Thompson Bay, Lake Havasu City, AZ.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series; Thompson... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone within the navigable waters of Thompson Bay in Lake Havasu... Thompson Bay, Lake Havasu, AZ for The Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series. This safety zone is necessary...

  7. Natural radioactivity in surface soil samples from dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Asgharizadeh, F; Ghannadi, M; Samani, A B; Meftahi, M; Shalibayk, M; Sahafipour, S A; Gooya, E S

    2013-09-01

    The study was carried out to determine radioactivity concentrations in surface soil samples of the city of Tehran and associated potential radiological hazards. The natural radionuclide ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) contents were determined for 50 locations throughout the geological surface formations in a representative area in the city of Tehran, Iran, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometric analysis. The range of activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil from the studied areas varies from 30.5±0.6 to 45.4±0.9, 27.3±0.5 to 57.1±1.1 and 328.0±4.6 to 768.5±13.4 Bq kg(-1) with overall mean values of 38.8±0.7, 43.4±0.8 and 555.1±8.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index to quantify the internal exposure to radon and its daughter products, as well as the gamma activity concentration index for each sample are 143.6±4.6 Bq kg(-1), 0.39, 0.49 and 0.53, respectively. The average estimated radium equivalent is comparable with reported values for many countries in the world. Therefore, these areas may not pose radiological risks to the inhabitants due to harmful effects of the ionising radiation from the natural radioactivity in soil. The calculated average external and internal hazard indexes were found to be less than unity, as a recommended safe level. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for calculating the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air at 1 m above the ground level. The absorbed dose rates resulting from those concentrations ranged from 48.1 to 88.7 nGy h(-1). Assuming a 20 % occupancy factor proposed by UNSCEAR, 2000, the corresponding effective dose rates in outdoor air equivalent to the population were calculated to be between 0.06 and 0.11 mSv y(-1). The measurement results and calculated values obtained from this study indicate that the dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran, have background radioactivity levels within natural

  8. Quality and sources of shallow ground water in areas of recent residential development in Salt Lake Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Residential and commercial development of about 80 square miles that primarily replaced undeveloped and agricultural areas occurred in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, from 1963 to 1994. This study evaluates the occurrence and distribution of natural and anthropogenic compounds in shallow ground water underlying recently developed (post 1963) residential and commercial areas. Monitoring wells from 23 to 153 feet deep were installed at 30 sites. Water-quality data for the monitoring wells consist of analyses of field parameters, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Dissolved-solids concentration ranged from 134 to 2,910 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in water from the 30 monitoring wells. Dissolved arsenic concentration in water from 12 wells exceeded the drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter. Water from monitoring wells in the northwestern part of the valley generally contained higher arsenic concentrations than did water from other areas. Nitrate concentration in water sampled from 26 of the 30 monitoring wells (86.7 percent) was higher than a background level of 2 mg/L, indicating a possible human influence. Nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 to 13.3 mg/L.Fifteen of the 104 pesticides and pesticide degradation products analyzed for were detected in 1 or more water samples from the monitoring wells. No pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or guidelines for 2002. The high detection frequency of atrazine, a restricted-use pesticide, in residential areas on the west side of Salt Lake Valley may be the result of application in agricultural or industrial areas that have been converted to residential uses or application in areas upgradient from the residential areas that was then transported by ground water.Fifteen of the 86 volatile organic compounds analyzed for were detected in 1 or

  9. Hazard Map in Huaraz-Peru due to a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood from Palcacocha Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; Chisolm, R. E.; McKinney, D. C.; Rivas, D.

    2013-12-01

    the hazard we implement a combination of criteria from different countries (Switzerland, Austria and the U.S.), these criteria consider that the level of flooding hazard in an urban area is a function of the maximum velocity and inundation depth. We have found that 30,000 people, approximately one third of the city of Huaraz, could be affected by a GLOF from Lake Palcacocha.

  10. Analysis of modern and Pleistocene hydrologic exchange between Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and the Saginaw Lowlands area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoaglund, J. R.; Kolak, J.J.; Long, D.T.; Larson, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Two numerical models, one simulating present groundwater flow conditions and one simulating ice-induced hydraulic loading from the Port Huron ice advance, were used to characterize both modern and Pleistocene groundwater exchange between the Michigan Basin and near-surface water systems of Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and the surrounding Saginaw Lowlands area. These models were further used to constrain the origin of saline, isotopically light groundwater, and porewater from the study area. Output from the groundwater-flow model indicates that, at present conditions, head in the Marshall aquifer beneath Saginaw Bay exceeds the modern lake elevation by as much as 21 m. Despite this potential for flow, simulated groundwater discharge through the Saginaw Bay floor constitutes only 0.028 m3 s-1 (???1 cfs). Bedrock lithology appears to regulate the rate of groundwater discharge, as the portion of the Saginaw Bay floor underlain by the Michigan confining unit exhibits an order of magnitude lower flux than the portion underlain by the Saginaw aquifer. The calculated shoreline discharge of groundwater to Saginaw Bay is also relatively small (1.13 m3 s-1 or ???40 cfs) because of low gradients across the Saginaw Lowlands area and the low hydraulic conductivities of lodgement tills and glacial-lake clays surrounding the bay. In contrast to the present groundwater flow conditions, the Port Huron ice-induced hydraulic-loading model generates a groundwater-flow reversal that is localized to the region of a Pleistocene ice sheet and proglacial lake. This area of reversed vertical gradient is largely commensurate with the distribution of isotopically light groundwater presently found in the study area. Mixing scenarios, constrained by chloride concentrations and ??18O values in porewater samples, demonstrate that a mixing event involving subglacial recharge could have produced the groundwater chemistry currently observed in the Saginaw Lowlands area. The combination of models and

  11. A comparison of sediment toxicity test methods at three Great Lake Areas of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, G. Allen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Burnett, LouAnn C.; Henry, Mary; Hinman, Mark L.; Klaine, Stephen J.; Landrum, Peter F.; Ross, Phillipe; Tuchman, Marc

    1996-01-01

    The significance of sediment contamination is often evaluated using sediment toxicity (bioassay) testing. There are relatively few “standardized” test methods for evaluating sediments. Popular sediment toxicity methods examine the extractable water (elutriate), interstitial water, or whole (bulk) sediment phases using test species spanning the aquatic food chain from bacteria to fish. The current study was designed to evaluate which toxicity tests were most useful in evaluations of sediment contamination at three Great Lake Areas of Concern. Responses of 24 different organisms including fish, mayflies, amphipods, midges, cladocerans, rotifers, macrophytes, algae, and bacteria were compared using whole sediment or elutriate toxicity assays. Sediments from several sites in the Buffalo River, Calumet River (Indiana Harbor), and Saginaw River were tested, as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Project. Results indicated several assays to be sensitive to sediment toxicity and able to discriminate between differing levels of toxicity. Many of the assay responses were significantly correlated to other toxicity responses and were similar based on factor analysis. For most applications, a test design consisting of two to three assays should adequately detect sediment toxicity, consisting of various groupings of the following species: Hyalella azteca, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Hexagenia bilineata, Diporeia sp., Hydrilla verticillata, or Lemna minor.

  12. Lakeview uranium area, Lake County, Oregon - constraints on genetic modelling from a district-scale perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenburger, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Extent-of-outcrop geologic mapping (1:12,000) on the Cox Flat 7.5-minute quadrangle establishes the stratigraphy and structure near the White King uranium mine, about 25 km northwest of Lakeview, Lake County, Oregon. Bedrock includes an Oligocene andesitic volcanic/sedimentary section, four late Oligocene rhyodacitic ignimbrite sequences, a late Oligocene/Miocene tuffaceous section, locally thick early to late Miocene basaltic flows, and an interbedded sequence of late Miocene (about 7-8 Ma old) felsic tuffs and thin basalt flows. Relatively intense down-to-the northeast normal faulting and southwestward stratal tilting resulted from a pre-Basin-and-Range extensional tectonic regime with an ENE least-principal stress orientation. This faulting and tilting began after the late Oligocene ignimbrite volcanism and before the spread of Coleman Rim-equivalent basalt flows. The interpreted geology constrains genetic models, resource estimates, and exploration strategies for uranium occurrences in the Lakeview area. Fault- and fracture-controlled hydrothermal uranium deposits are restricted to favorable stratigraphic horizons of the Miocene section with the important exception of porous and permeable upper portions of the late Oligocene section. Previous models have stressed the importance of intrusive rhyolite plug domes as sources of uranium and/or heat in ore genesis and targeted exploration efforts at dome contacts. Mass balance and other arguments show that an association with rhyolite domes is not a necessary criterion for ore formation or exploration.

  13. Hydrogeochemical investigations in a drained lake area: the case of Xynias basin (Central Greece).

    PubMed

    Charizopoulos, Nikos; Zagana, Eleni; Stamatis, Georgios

    2016-08-01

    In Xynias drained Lake Basin's area, central Greece, a hydrogeochemical research took place including groundwater sampling from 30 sampling sites, chemical analysis, and statistical analysis. Groundwaters present Ca-Mg-HCO3 as the dominant hydrochemical type, while their majority is mixed waters with non-dominant ion. They are classified as moderately hard to hard and are characterized by oxidizing conditions. They are undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, siderite, and magnesite and oversaturated in respect to calcite, aragonite, and dolomite. Nitrate concentration ranges from 4.4 to 107.4 mg/L, meanwhile 13.3 % of the samples exceed the European Community (E.C.) drinking water permissible limit. The trace elements Fe, Ni, Cr, and Cd present values of 30, 80, 57, and 50 %, respectively, above the maximum permissible limit set by E.C. Accordingly, the majority of the groundwaters are considered unsuitable for drinking water needs. Sodium adsorption ratio values (0.04-3.98) and the electrical conductivity (227-1200 μS/cm) classify groundwaters as suitable for irrigation uses, presenting low risk and medium soil alkalization risk. Factor analysis shows that geogenic processes associated with the former lacustrine environment and anthropogenic influences with the use of fertilizers are the major factors that characterized the chemical composition of the groundwaters.

  14. DOE feasibility report on Lake Calumet area refuse-to-energy facility

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-18

    Site analyses and literature reviews were conducted to determine the feasibility of building an energy-producing municipal waste incinerator at Calumet Lake, Illinois. The amount of burnable waste produced within 5 and 10 miles of the near-Chicago site, the composition and heating value of this solid waste, and the air pollution impacts of waste incineration were determined, and the economic value of recovered material or of steam and electricity produced at the plant are discussed. It is concluded that there is sufficient refuse in the area to support a refuse processing center, that increasng landfill costs make such a center economically attractive, and that the Btu content of the refuse is adequate to produce steam for heat and power use. Replacing existing oil-fired power plants with this facility would result in an 88% reduction in current pollutant emission levels. There is a ready market for steam that could be produced. It is recommended that steps be taken to implement the establishment of the proposed waste processing center. (LCL)

  15. [Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of nitrogen losses in hilly area of Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Gao, Chao; Yao, Qi; Han, Long-Xi; Shen, Xia

    2006-08-01

    Four typical land uses in hilly area of Taihu Lake were studied on temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of nitrogen losses in surface runoff under natural rainfall through experiment in situ. The medium value of event mean concentration (EMC) of ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+) -N) which dominated agricultural N in surface runoff accounted for 44.5% of total nitrogen (TN), while nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-) -N) accounted for 1.8%. Concentration of nitrogen in runoff had significantly seasonal variation which was related to meteorologic conditions such as rainfall, temperature, and agricultural activities. Temporal variabilities of site mean concentration (SMC) for TN, NH4(+) -N, NO3(-) -N and NO2(-) -N were decreased sequentially. The highest SMC value of TN, NH(+) -N and NO3(-) -N in upland runoff and N2(-) -N in bamboo grove were observed. The spatial distribution of nitrogen losses was determined by fertilizer application and vegetation coverage. Spatial variabilities for SMC of nitrogen were less than temporal variabilities. It was found that transportation fluxes of nitrogen in surface runoff from upland and vegetable plot were higher than that from chestnut orchard and bamboo forest which have significantly related to surface runoff volume.

  16. Nitrogen export from an agriculture watershed in the Taihu Lake area, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Zhu, J G; Zhu, J Y; Gao, X; Dou, Y J; Hosen, Y

    2004-01-01

    Temporal changes in nitrogen concentrations and stream discharge, as well as sediment and nitrogen losses from erosion plots with different land uses, were studied in an agricultural watershed in the Taihu Lake area in eastern China. The highest overland runoff loads and nitrogen losses were measured under the upland at a convergent footslope. Much higher runoff, sediment and nitrogen losses were observed under upland cropping and vegetable fields than that under chestnut orchard and bamboo forest. Sediment associated nitrogen losses accounted for 8-43.5% of total nitrogen export via overland runoff. N lost in dissolved inorganic nitrogen forms (NO(3-)-N + NH4+-N) accounted for less than 50% of total water associated nitrogen export. Agricultural practices and weather-driven fluctuation in discharge were main reasons for the temporal variations in nutrient losses via stream discharge. Significant correlation between the total nitrogen concentration and stream discharge load was observed. Simple regression models could give satisfactory results for prediction of the total nitrogen concentrations in stream water and can be used for better quantifying nitrogen losses from arable land. Nitrogen losses from the studied watershed via stream discharge during rice season in the year 2002 were estimated to be 10.5 kg N/ha using these simple models.

  17. Securing water for the cities.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management.

  18. On the intensification of precipitation over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaña Rueda, V.

    2013-05-01

    Precipitation over the western part of Mexico during the twentieth century has shown a sustained trend towards more intense precipitation events. The number of intense storms over this part of the city has increased from less than ten per year at the beginning of the twentieth century to more than twenty in recent decades. This appears to be the case of precipitation over most of the urban area of the Mexico Valley. The change in the local hydrological cycle appears to be related to the rapid expansion of the urban area during the last century that has more than doubled in fifty years. The Heat Island effect has various effects that affect the atmospheric stability in the boundary layer, the capacity to contain more moisture. On the other hand, the summer moisture flux into the Mexico Valley has increased in recent decades. These various factors contribute to more intense storms forming at the northeastern part of the Valley. As they travel across the urban area, they intensify, particularly at the foothills of the western mountains of the Metropolitan area. Therefore, the dynamical analysis and prediction of these storms need more than just higher spatial resolution models.

  19. 330 NORTH & CENTER STREET (990 EAST) (8E1684E, SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    330 NORTH & CENTER STREET (990 EAST) (8-E-16-8-4E, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST OVER THE CEMETERY. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  20. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Iedema, M. J.; Cowin, J. P.; Gaspar, D. J.; Wang, C.; Laskin, A.

    2005-08-01

    Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2-2.0 µm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 field campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot