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Sample records for lake tana ethiopia

  1. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats.

    PubMed

    Anteneh, W; Getahun, A; Dejen, E; Sibbing, F A; Nagelkerke, L A J; De Graaf, M; Wudneh, T; Vijverberg, J; Palstra, A P

    2012-07-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from these rivers and probably developed a new strategy of lacustrine spawning (macro-spatial segregation). One species (L. intermedius) probably spawns in the lake as well as in the rivers. Between the early 1990s and 2000s, the riverine spawners showed a decline of 75% in both biomass and number in both fishery independent surveys and in commercial catches. Reproductive migration makes fishes vulnerable to fisheries and other threats like habitat modifications. Lacustrine spawners are probably more resilient as they are not known to form spawning aggregations that can easily be exploited by fishermen. In addition, upstream rivers and catchments around Lake Tana are highly degraded by erosion and recently subjected to intensive habitat modification for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation. This article reviews results of field studies on the Labeobarbus spawning migration from Lake Tana to spawning rivers, giving emphasis on segregation and homing. It also summarizes existing and emerging threats which form potential causes for the decline of the migratory Labeobarbus species. Knowledge gaps on the reproductive biology are identified for further investigation.

  2. Water balance of a lake with floodplain buffering: Lake Tana, Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessie, Mekete; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Lakes are very important components of the earth's hydrological cycle, providing a variety of services for humans and ecosystem functioning. For a sustainable use of lakes, a substantial body of knowledge on their water balance is vital. We present here a detailed daily water balance analysis for Lake Tana, the largest lake in Ethiopia and the source of the Blue Nile. Rainfall on the lake is determined by Thiessen polygon procedure, open water evaporation is estimated by the Penman-combination equation and observed inflows for the gauged catchments as well as outflow data at the two lake outlets are directly used. Runoff from ungauged catchments is estimated using a simple rainfall-runoff model and runoff coefficients. Hillslope catchments and floodplains are treated separately, which makes this study unique compared to previous water balance studies. Impact of the floodplain on the lake water balance is analyzed by conducting scenario-based studies. We found an average yearly abstraction of 420 × 106 m3 or 6% of river inflows to the lake by the floodplain in 2012 and 2013. Nearly 60% of the inflow to the lake is from the Gilgel Abay River. Simulated lake levels compare well with the observed lake levels (R2 = 0.95) and the water balance can be closed with a closure error of 82 mm/year (3.5% of the total lake inflow). This study demonstrates the importance of floodplains and their influence on the water balance of the lake and the need of incorporating the effects of floodplains and water abstraction for irrigation to improve predictions.

  3. Sediment budget including the role of floodplains: the case of Lake Tana Basin (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemma, Hanibal; Admasu, Teshager; Dessie, Mekete; Fentie, Derbew; Poesen, Jean; Lanckriet, Sil; Adgo, Enyew; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Based on the collection of a large new dataset, we quantify the sediment 1) mobilized on the hillslopes surrounding Lake Tana (Ethiopia), 2) stored on the floodplains, 3) transported into the lake, 4) deposited in the lake and 5) delivered out of the lake so as to establish a sediment budget. In 2012 and 2013, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and discharge measurements were made at 13 monitoring stations, including two lake outlets. 4635 SSC samples were collected and sediment rating curves that account for land cover conditions and rainfall seasonality were established for the 11 river stations, and mean monthly SSC was calculated for the outlets. Effects of the floodplain on rivers' sediment yield (SY) were investigated using the measurements at the upper and lower stations of Gilgel Abay, Gumara, Megech and Rib Rivers. SY from ungauged rivers was assessed using a model that includes catchment area and rainfall, whereas bedload and direct sediment input from lake shores were estimated. As a result, the gross annual SY from both gauged and ungauged rivers, bedload and lake shores was ca. 3.14 million tons, dominantly from Gilgel Abay and Gumara Rivers. The 0.48 million tons sedimentation in floodplains indicate that the floodplains serve as sediment sink. Moreover, annually about 1.09 million tons of sediment leaves the lake through the two outlets. Annual deposition in Lake Tana was about 1.56 million tons with a trapping efficiency of 60%. Furthermore, SSC and SY are generally higher at the beginning of the rainy season because soil in cultivated fields is bare and loose due to frequent ploughing and seedbed preparation. Later on in the season, increased crop and vegetation cover lead to a decrease in sediment supplies. Based on the established sediment budget and its calculated components, one can conclude that the expected lifetime of Lake Tana (20,396 years) is longer than what was anticipated in earlier studies.

  4. Preliminary insight into the age and origin of the Labeobarbus fish species flock from Lake Tana (Ethiopia) using the mtDNA cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Martin; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Samallo, Johannis; Sibbing, Ferdinand

    2010-02-01

    The high diversity of Cyprinid fish in Ethiopia's Lake Tana appears to be an example of ecological differentiation and assortative mating leading to rapid sympatric speciation. Lake Tana's Labeobarbus species flock consists of 15 morphological and ecological distinct species. This is the first attempt to determine the age and origin and inter-species relationships of Lake Tana's Labeobarbus species using the mtDNA cytochrome b gene. Analysis of cytchrome b sequences shows that Lake Tana's species flock appears to be young but the present dataset did not unequivocally support monophyly of Lake Tana's species. Additional markers are needed to determine whether Lake Tana's labeobarbs originated from a single or multiple incursion(s) of ancestral L. intermedius in the Lake Tana drainage basin, or the disruption of an ancient continuous riverine population by the emergence of the Tissisat waterfalls. Adaptive radiation and speciation within Lake Tana's Labeobarbus species flock may have occurred in the last 10,000-25,000years, following the desiccation of Lake Tana around 17,000years ago, at the same time as Lake Victoria, however, obtaining more data using other (nuclear) markers is urgently required. PMID:19878730

  5. Preliminary insight into the age and origin of the Labeobarbus fish species flock from Lake Tana (Ethiopia) using the mtDNA cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Martin; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Samallo, Johannis; Sibbing, Ferdinand

    2010-02-01

    The high diversity of Cyprinid fish in Ethiopia's Lake Tana appears to be an example of ecological differentiation and assortative mating leading to rapid sympatric speciation. Lake Tana's Labeobarbus species flock consists of 15 morphological and ecological distinct species. This is the first attempt to determine the age and origin and inter-species relationships of Lake Tana's Labeobarbus species using the mtDNA cytochrome b gene. Analysis of cytchrome b sequences shows that Lake Tana's species flock appears to be young but the present dataset did not unequivocally support monophyly of Lake Tana's species. Additional markers are needed to determine whether Lake Tana's labeobarbs originated from a single or multiple incursion(s) of ancestral L. intermedius in the Lake Tana drainage basin, or the disruption of an ancient continuous riverine population by the emergence of the Tissisat waterfalls. Adaptive radiation and speciation within Lake Tana's Labeobarbus species flock may have occurred in the last 10,000-25,000years, following the desiccation of Lake Tana around 17,000years ago, at the same time as Lake Victoria, however, obtaining more data using other (nuclear) markers is urgently required.

  6. Climatic variability, plasticity, and dispersal: A case study from Lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Grove, Matt; Lamb, Henry; Roberts, Helen; Davies, Sarah; Marshall, Mike; Bates, Richard; Huws, Dei

    2015-10-01

    The numerous dispersal events that have occurred during the prehistory of hominin lineages are the subject of longstanding and increasingly active debate in evolutionary anthropology. As well as research into the dating and geographic extent of such dispersals, there is an increasing focus on the factors that may have been responsible for dispersal. The growing body of detailed regional palaeoclimatic data is invaluable in demonstrating the often close relationship between changes in prehistoric environments and the movements of hominin populations. The scenarios constructed from such data are often overly simplistic, however, concentrating on the dynamics of cyclical contraction and expansion during severe and ameliorated conditions respectively. This contribution proposes a two-stage hypothesis of hominin dispersal in which populations (1) accumulate high levels of climatic tolerance during highly variable climatic phases, and (2) express such heightened tolerance via dispersal in subsequent low-variability phases. Likely dispersal phases are thus proposed to occur during stable climatic phases that immediately follow phases of high climatic variability. Employing high resolution palaeoclimatic data from Lake Tana, Ethiopia, the hypothesis is examined in relation to the early dispersal of Homo sapiens out of East Africa and into the Levant. A dispersal phase is identified in the Lake Tana record between c. 112,550 and c. 96,975 years ago, a date bracket that accords well with the dating evidence for H. sapiens occupation at the sites of Qafzeh and Skhul. Results are discussed in relation to the complex pattern of H. sapiens dispersal out of East Africa, with particular attention paid to the implications of recent genetic chronologies for the origin of non-African modern humans. PMID:26472274

  7. Hydrologic history of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: insights from hydrogen isotopes in lipids and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schefuß, E.; Castaneda, I. S.; Schouten, S.; Herold, M.; Lohmann, G.; Marshall, M. H.; Lamb, H. F.

    2009-04-01

    To investigate hydrologic changes in eastern North Africa since the Last Glacial, we analysed hydrogen isotope compositions of terrestrial plant lipids from samples of core 03TL3 taken in the center of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Lake Tana is located at 1840 meters altitude in the Ethiopian highlands and the source of the Blue Nile. Under present-day conditions, the eastern North African highlands only receive seasonal rainfall when the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone is in its northernmost position during boreal summer. Previous investigations indicated that Lake Tana desiccated at ca. 17,000 years ago (Heinrich event 1) [1]. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope analyses of plant-wax derived n-alkanes with a high Carbon Preference Index reveal large variations (-80 to -155 permil VSMOW). Heaviest hydrogen isotope compositions, suggesting most arid conditions, were detected in sediments from 15,700 years ago. Following desiccation, the lake was reduced to a shallow, central swamp with strong evaporation. Lowest hydrogen isotope compositions, suggesting most humid conditions, were detected for the period associated with the Younger Dryas (ca. 12,000 years ago). These data are in contrast to seismic data, which suggest a lake level regression during this phase [1]. Transport of previously deposited sediments from shallow, near-shore lake areas to the central coring site is a possible explanation for this discrepancy. For the Holocene, in contrast, no evidence for re-deposition of sediments is detected. From 5,200 years ago towards the present, hydrogen isotope compositions increased by about 20 permil. This isotopic change is compared to results from atmospheric isotope modelling. A General Circulation Model (ECHAM4) equipped with an isotope tracer module to directly simulate 18O and deuterium in precipitation was used to generate maps of monthly rainfall amounts and isotope compositions [2]. Calculations were done for the pre-industrial and the mid-Holocene period. Boundary

  8. Combined 3D hydrodynamic and watershed modelling of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargahi, Bijan; Setegn, Shimelis Gebriye

    2011-02-01

    SummaryThe growing high demand for Lake Tana water portends a disturbing future. The main objective of this paper is to make a contribution to the development of a sustainable use of the water of Lake Tana. A fully three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was combined with a watershed model and together, these models were successfully validated for the year 2006. The flow structure is characterized by large recirculation and secondary flow regions. Secondary flows are induced by hydrodynamic instabilities occurring at the interfaces of layers with a velocity gradient and the interaction with the irregularities of the bed. The weak stratification process in Lake Tana is characterized by a classic summer profile, which is more pronounced during January-February. Mixing processes in the lake are controlled by wind, the mixing energy induced by both river inflows and the lake outlet, and convective mixing due to the negative buoyancy. An alarming fall of the water levels in Lake Tana was found in response to the planned water withdrawal. The long flushing time (19 months) will not allow a fast decay of contaminated materials released into the lake. The flow structure will not be significantly modified by the planned water withdrawal but the flushing time will decrease. The hydrodynamics of Lake Tana resemble a closed system similar to a shallow reservoir with an overflow type outlet. The implication is that the lake is vulnerable to changes in external conditions and sustainable use of the water resource of the lake will require awareness of this vulnerability. The combined watershed and hydrodynamic models would be effective tools to achieve this awareness. It is also necessary to address the impact of climate change on the fate of the lake. These are all difficult challenges that need to be addressed to safeguard the sensitive eco-system of the area.

  9. Biting flies and Trypanosoma vivax infection in three highland districts bordering lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sinshaw, A; Abebe, G; Desquesnes, M; Yoni, W

    2006-11-30

    An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis in cattle, small ruminants and Equidae, and to identify biting flies; potential mechanical vectors of trypanosomes in the three districts of Bahir Dar Zuria, Dembia and Fogera, bordering lake Tana, Ethiopia. About 1509 cattle, 798 small ruminants and 749 Equidae were bled for the prevalence study using the buffy-coat method and the measurement of the hematocrit value. Sixty-six NGU and 20 monoconical traps were deployed for the fly survey. The results indicated the presence of trypanosomes in 6.1% (92/1509) of the cattle with a maximum during the late rainy season (9.6%) than the early dry season (3.6%) at Fogera district. Prevalence at the district level varied from 4% to 9.6%. Only one sheep (1/122) and one goat (1/676) were found positive for T. vivax-like trypanosomes and none of the Equidae was positive. All the trypanosomes encountered in cattle belong to the single species of T. vivax. The PCV was negatively associated with detection of T. vivax (21.6% in infected versus 25.4% in non-infected cattle). A total of 55,398 biting flies were caught of which 49,353 (89.08%) belong to Stomoxys, 4715 (8.51%) to horse flies and 1330 (2.4%) to Chrysops species. There was no tsetse fly. Species identification has indicated the presence of Atylotus agrestis, Chrysops streptobalia, Stomoxys calcitrans, S. nigra, S. pulla, S. pallida, S. sitiens, S. taeniata, S. uruma, Haematopota lasiops and Hippobosca variegata. The overall apparent density was 214.7flies/trap/day. Seasonal comparison showed higher fly catches in the late rainy season than the early dry season. This study indicated that T. vivax infections culminate in cattle at the same time as mechanical vectors such as Stomoxys sp. and Atylotus agrestis. Therefore, attention towards T. vivax infection in cattle is essential to control the impact of the disease on productivity. A further study on biting flies is recommended. PMID

  10. Estimating ungauged catchment flows from Lake Tana floodplains, Ethiopia: an isotope hydrological approach.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Seifu; Admasu, Girum; Travi, Yves

    2011-03-01

    The isotope balance approach, which used (18)O content of waters, has been used as an independent tool to estimate inflow to Lake Tana of surface water flows from ungauged catchment of Lake Tana (50% of the total area) and evaporative water loss in the vast plains adjoining the lake. Sensitivity analysis has been conducted to investigate the effects of changes in the input parameters on the estimated flux. Surface water inflow from ungauged catchment is determined to be in the order of 1.698×10(9) m(3)a(-1). Unaccounted water loss from the lake has been estimated at 454×10(6) m(3)a(-1) (equivalent to 5% of the total via surface water). Since the lake is water tight to groundwater outflow, the major error introduced into the water balance computation is related to evaporative water loss in water from the flood plains. If drained, the water which is lost to evaporation can be used as an additional water resource for socio-economic development in the region (tourism, agriculture, hydropower, and navigation). Hydrological processes taking place in the vast flood plains of Lake Tana (origin of salinity, groundwater surface water interaction, origin of flood plain waters) have been investigated using isotopes of water and geochemistry as tracers. The salinity of shallow groundwaters in the flood plains is related to dissolution of salts accumulated in sediments covering former evaporation pools and migration of trace salt during recharge. The waters in the flood plains originate from local rainfall and river overflows and the effect of backwater flow from the lake is excluded. Minimum linkage exists between the surface waters in the flood plains and shallow groundwaters in alluvio lacustrine sediments suggesting the disappearance of flood waters following the rainy season, which is related to complete evaporation or drainage than seepage to the subsurface. There is no groundwater outflow from the lake. Inflow of groundwater cannot be ruled out. Discharge of groundwater

  11. Multi-objective regionalisation for lake level simulation, the case of Lake Tana in the Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rientjes, T. H. M.; Perera, B. U. J.; Haile, A. T.; Reggiani, P.

    2010-09-01

    The aim in this study is to simulate lake levels of Lake Tana by solving the water balance at daily time step. Since 42% of the basin is ungauged regionalisation procedures are applied. We examine the predictive capability of a regionalisation approach that combines multi-objective calibration of a simple conceptual model and multi regression analyses to establish relations between model parameters and catchment characteristics. Recently few studies are presented on lake level simulation of Lake Tana. In these studies the water balance of the lake is closed by estimation of runoff contributions from ungauged catchments. Studies partly relied on simple ad-hoc procedures of area comparison to estimate runoff from ungauged catchments. In this study a regional model is developed that relies on principles of similarity of catchments. For runoff modelling the HVB-96 model is selected while multi-objective model calibration is by a Monte Carlo procedure. Assessment of the lake water balance was established by comparing measured to estimated lake levels. Results of daily lake level simulation show a water balance closure term of 85 mm and a relative volume error of 2.17%. Results show runoff from ungauged catchments of 527 mm per year for the simulation period 1994 to 2003 that is approximately 30% of Lake Tana stream flow inflow. Compared to previous works this closure term is smallest.

  12. Overland flow generation on deep soils in Ethiopia (Lake Tana basin): role of soil texture and plough pan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Dessie, Mekete; Monsieurs, Elise; Poesen, Jean; Admasu, Teshager; Verhoest, Niko; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    Different applications of rainfall/runoff models in Lake Tana basin (Ethiopia) tend to show that on hill slopes there are vast areas that yield a high runoff response and that behave as if the soil would be nearly impervious (up to 20 % of the hilly catchments). This is well beyond the area occupied by rock outcrops. Duricrusts or hardpans of pedogenetic origin are absent in this environment on basaltic rock with mild tropical climate: no silcretes, calcretes or even ferricretes are known to occur in the basin. Field observations show that runoff response from tilled farmlands can however be unexpectedly high, even when deep theoretically well drained Nitisols occur. In the rainy season, rills and ephemeral gullies are created and these often expose a rock-hard plough pan at some 15 cm depth. Due to repeated tillage at constant depth, the downward pressure of the tip of the ox-drawn ard plough compacts the soil aggregates that are located just below the tilled horizon. In this poster we will discuss the need to not only evaluate the effect of soil texture when interpreting rainfall-runoff relations, but also to investigate the structural and hydrological characteristics of such plough pans.

  13. Gully head development controlled by land surface management in Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsieurs, Elise; Nyssen, Jan; Dessie, Mekete; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Deckers, Jozef; Adgo, Enyew; Poesen, Jean

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to level areas where drainage ditches mainly aim at lowering the level of the phreatic surface when it comes near or at the surface, digging ditches to divert runoff water on sloping cropland is a physical soil conservation practice to protect the land from uncontrolled runoff and hence decrease the risk of topsoil and seedling erosion. However, researchers are still divided about the balance of the positive and negative effects which can be both on-site and off-site. A case study area was chosen around Wanzaye (North Ethiopia) where three different cropland-management practices were studied in 75 catchments: (i) the catchment-wide use of stone bunds on the contour, (ii) the use of slightly sloping drainage furrows (feses), and (iii) the combined use of stone bunds and feses. A standardized procedure for topographical threshold analysis was applied to study the impact of different land management practices on gully head development in cropland. Topographical thresholds for gully head development reflect the vulnerability of lands to gullying, i.e. s > kA^-b, where s represents slope gradient of the soil surface, A the drainage area at the gully head, b an exponent, and k the resistance of the land to gully head development. The lowest k-values are found for feses catchments, which implies that catchments with the exclusive use of drainage ditches are the most vulnerable to gully head development compared to mixed catchments and stone bund catchments. Yet, on-site sheet and rill erosion are reduced by the use of feses as they reduce the runoff gradient.

  14. Assessment of hydrological controls on gully formation near Lake Tana, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebebu, T. Y.; Abiy, A. Z.; Dahlke, H. E.; White, E. D.; Collick, A. S.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    For the past five decades, gully erosion has been one of the dominant degradation processes in the Ethiopian Highlands. Gully erosion negatively affects soil resources, lowers soil fertility in intergully areas, reduces the pastureland available for livestock, and aggravates siltation of reservoirs. Assessing the location and rate of gully development and changes in the controlling factors (climate, soil, hydrology and land cover) of gully erosion will help explain the faced acceleration in land degradation. The study was performed in a gully system in the 800 ha Debre-Mewi watershed south of Bahir Dar, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Analyses comprised monitoring gully development through profile measurements, air photograph interpretations, and semi-structured interview techniques. Gully hydrological processes were investigated based on measurements of gully runoff and water levels in 24 piezometers in the gully contributing area. The Debre-Mewi gully is a still actively eroding gully system. A comparison of the gully area estimated from a 0.5 m resolution Quickbird image with the current gully area, walked with a Garmin GPS, showed that the eroded gully area increased by 30% from 0.51 ha in 2005 to 0.735 ha in 2008. Based on measurements of several gully cross-sections an approximate gully volume of 7985 m3 could be estimated. Using the watershed area of the gully system of 14.29 ha and an average gully erosion rate of 24.8 t ha-1 a- 1 could be estimated. Gully erosion rates accelerated since 1991 through the increased degradation of the vegetation cover and clearance of the indigenous vegetation on the hillsides, leading to an increase of surface and subsurface runoff from the hillsides to the wet valley bottoms. Gully heads retreat into the hillslope through concentrated runoff during the rainy season erodes existing soil pipes and cracks in the vicinity of the gully head and banks. The formation of subsurface soil pipes is likely triggered through abrupt changes in

  15. Flash Floods Simulation Using a Physical based hydrological Model at the Eastern Nile Basin: Case studies; Wadi Assiut, Egypt and Wadi Gumara, Lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, M.; Sefelnasr, A.; Yilmaz, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Flash flood is a natural hydrological phenomenon which affects many regions of the world. The behavior and effect of this phenomenon is different from one region to the other regions depending on several issues such as climatology and hydrological and topographical conditions at the target regions. Wadi assiut, Egypt as arid environment, and Gumara catchment, Lake Tana, Ethiopia, as humid conditions have been selected for application. The main target of this work is to simulate flash floods at both catchments considering the difference between them on the flash flood behaviors based on the variability of both of them. In order to simulate the flash floods, remote sensing data and a physical-based distributed hydrological model, Hydro-BEAM-WaS (Hydrological River Basin Environmental Assessment Model incorporating Wadi System) have been integrated used in this work. Based on the simulation results of flash floods in these regions, it was found that the time to reach the maximum peak is very short and consequently the warning time is very short as well. It was found that the flash floods starts from zero flow in arid environment, but on the contrary in humid arid, it starts from Base flow which is changeable based on the simulated events. Distribution maps of flash floods showing the vulnerable regions of these selected areas have been developed. Consequently, some mitigation strategies relying on this study have been introduced. The proposed methodology can be applied effectively for flash flood forecasting at different climate regions, however the paucity of observational data.

  16. Hydrological response to climate change for Gilgel Abay River, in the Lake Tana Basin -Upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dile, Yihun Taddele; Berndtsson, Ronny; Setegn, Shimelis G

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to have severe effects on water availability in Ethiopia. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of climate change on the Gilgel Abay River, Upper Blue Nile Basin. The Statistical Downscaling Tool (SDSM) was used to downscale the HadCM3 (Hadley centre Climate Model 3) Global Circulation Model (GCM) scenario data into finer scale resolution. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was set up, calibrated, and validated. SDSM downscaled climate outputs were used as an input to the SWAT model. The climate projection analysis was done by dividing the period 2010-2100 into three time windows with each 30 years of data. The period 1990-2001 was taken as the baseline period against which comparison was made. Results showed that annual mean precipitation may decrease in the first 30-year period but increase in the following two 30-year periods. The decrease in mean monthly precipitation may be as much as about -30% during 2010-2040 but the increase may be more than +30% in 2070-2100. The impact of climate change may cause a decrease in mean monthly flow volume between -40% to -50% during 2010-2040 but may increase by more than the double during 2070-2100. Climate change appears to have negligible effect on low flow conditions of the river. Seasonal mean flow volume, however, may increase by more than the double and +30% to +40% for the Belg (small rainy season) and Kiremit (main rainy season) periods, respectively. Overall, it appears that climate change will result in an annual increase in flow volume for the Gilgel Abay River. The increase in flow is likely to have considerable importance for local small scale irrigation activities. Moreover, it will help harnessing a significant amount of water for ongoing dam projects in the Gilgel Abay River Basin.

  17. Hydrological Response to Climate Change for Gilgel Abay River, in the Lake Tana Basin - Upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dile, Yihun Taddele; Berndtsson, Ronny; Setegn, Shimelis G.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to have severe effects on water availability in Ethiopia. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of climate change on the Gilgel Abay River, Upper Blue Nile Basin. The Statistical Downscaling Tool (SDSM) was used to downscale the HadCM3 (Hadley centre Climate Model 3) Global Circulation Model (GCM) scenario data into finer scale resolution. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was set up, calibrated, and validated. SDSM downscaled climate outputs were used as an input to the SWAT model. The climate projection analysis was done by dividing the period 2010-2100 into three time windows with each 30 years of data. The period 1990-2001 was taken as the baseline period against which comparison was made. Results showed that annual mean precipitation may decrease in the first 30-year period but increase in the following two 30-year periods. The decrease in mean monthly precipitation may be as much as about -30% during 2010-2040 but the increase may be more than +30% in 2070-2100. The impact of climate change may cause a decrease in mean monthly flow volume between -40% to -50% during 2010-2040 but may increase by more than the double during 2070-2100. Climate change appears to have negligible effect on low flow conditions of the river. Seasonal mean flow volume, however, may increase by more than the double and +30% to +40% for the Belg (small rainy season) and Kiremit (main rainy season) periods, respectively. Overall, it appears that climate change will result in an annual increase in flow volume for the Gilgel Abay River. The increase in flow is likely to have considerable importance for local small scale irrigation activities. Moreover, it will help harnessing a significant amount of water for ongoing dam projects in the Gilgel Abay River Basin. PMID:24250755

  18. Late Pleistocene desiccation of Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Henry F.; Bates, C. Richard; Coombes, Paul V.; Marshall, Michael H.; Umer, Mohammed; Davies, Sarah J.; Dejen, Eshete

    2007-02-01

    High-resolution seismic data from Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile in northern Ethiopia, reveal a deep sedimentary sequence divided by four strong reflectors. Data from nearshore cores show that the uppermost strong reflector represents a stiff silt unit, interpreted as a desiccation surface. Channel cuts in this surface, bordered by levee-like structures, are apparent in the seismic data from near the lake margin, suggesting fluvial downcutting and over-bank deposition during seasonal flood events. Periphytic diatoms and peat at the base of a core from the deepest part of the lake overlie compacted sediments, indicating that desiccation was followed by development of shallow-water environments and papyrus swamp in the central basin between 16,700 and 15,100 cal BP. As the lake level rose, open-water evaporation from the closed lake caused it to become slightly saline, as indicated by halophytic diatoms. An abrupt return to freshwater conditions occurred at 14,750 cal BP, when the lake overflowed into the Blue Nile. Further reflection surfaces with downcut structures are identifiable in seismic images of the overlying sediments, suggesting at least two lesser lake-level falls, tentatively dated to about 12,000 and 8000 cal BP. Since Lake Victoria, the source of the White Nile, was also dry until 15,000 cal BP, and did not reach overflow until 14,500 cal BP, the entire Nile system must have been reduced to intermittent seasonal flow until about 14,500 cal BP, when baseflow was re-established with almost simultaneous overflow of the headwater lakes of both the White and Blue Nile rivers. Desiccation of the Nile sources coincides with Heinrich event 1, when cessation of northward heat transport from the tropical Atlantic disrupted the Atlantic monsoon, causing drought in north tropical Africa. The strong reflectors at deeper levels in the seismic sequence of Lake Tana may represent earlier desiccation events, possibly contemporaneous with previous Late

  19. Water Resources in Lake Tana Basin: Statistical Analysis of Hydrological and Meteorological Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigabu, T. B.; Hörmann, G.; Fohrer, N.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, time series environmental flow analysis is becoming one of the most important tasks in ecohydrology in order to design process based system solutions. Thus, the purpose of this research paper was to understand temporal and spatial variability of stream flows, rainfall, and inflows and outflows to and from the Lake Tana basin. Autocorrelation and cross correlation tests were applied for the long years' daily stream flows and rainfall using R languages. These methods were used to see how the stream flow or rainfall data were serially correlated and rainfall, stream flow and lake level time series data were cross correlated with each other. Autocorrelation tests of daily rainfall were carried out for many rainfall stations and the outputs indicate that there are no spikes showing significant seasonal signals. The annual rainfall map was produced for the whole catchment based on long years' records at different stations inside the catchment using inverse distance weighted interpolation (IDW) method in the GIS environment. Based on this map there is high spatial variability of annual rainfall in the catchment. The average maximum, minimum and mean annual rainfall values are 1506.4, 798.7, and 1238.1 mm respectively. According to the cross correlation tests done for stream flow & rainfall, better correlations were observed after 15 to 30 days lag time due to late response of the catchment for runoff generation. The study also prevailed that the Lake Tana water level and Blue Nile discharge at Bahir Dar station have positive cross correlation with maximum value at time lag of zero. There is a dramatic drop in the lake level and stream flow volume at the same location since 2000 due to human induced local climate forcing. In general, this research indicates that there is high temporal and spatial variability in rainfall, Lake water level and stream flows.

  20. Geology and geochronology of the Tana Basin, Ethiopia: LIP volcanism, super eruptions and Eocene-Oligocene environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prave, A. R.; Bates, C. R.; Donaldson, C. H.; Toland, H.; Condon, D. J.; Mark, D.; Raub, T. D.

    2016-06-01

    New geological and geochronological data define four episodes of volcanism for the Lake Tana region in the northern Ethiopian portion of the Afro-Arabian Large Igneous Province (LIP): pre-31 Ma flood basalt that yielded a single 40Ar/39Ar age of 34.05 ± 0.54 / 0.56 Ma; thick and extensive felsic ignimbrites and rhyolites (minimum volume of 2- 3 ×103 km3) erupted between 31.108 ± 0.020 / 0.041 Ma and 30.844 ± 0.027 / 0.046 Ma (U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS zircon ages); mafic volcanism bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar ages of 28.90 ± 0.12 / 0.14 Ma and 23.75 ± 0.02 / 0.04 Ma; and localised scoraceous basalt with an 40Ar/39Ar age of 0.033 ± 0.005 / 0.005 Ma. The felsic volcanism was the product of super eruptions that created a 60-80 km diameter caldera marked by km-scale caldera-collapse fault blocks and a steep-sided basin filled with a minimum of 180 m of sediment and the present-day Lake Tana. These new data enable mapping, with a finer resolution than previously possible, Afro-Arabian LIP volcanism onto the timeline of the Eocene-Oligocene transition and show that neither the mafic nor silicic volcanism coincides directly with perturbations in the geochemical records that span that transition. Our results reinforce the view that it is not the development of a LIP alone but its rate of effusion that contributes to inducing global-scale environmental change.

  1. Assessing the implications of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services: A case study in the Lake Tana basin.

    PubMed

    Dile, Yihun Taddele; Karlberg, Louise; Daggupati, Prasad; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Wiberg, David; Rockström, Johan

    2016-01-15

    Water harvesting systems have improved productivity in various regions in sub-Saharan Africa. Similarly, they can help retain water in landscapes, build resilience against droughts and dry spells, and thereby contribute to sustainable agricultural intensification. However, there is no strong empirical evidence that shows the effects of intensification of water harvesting on upstream-downstream social-ecological systems at a landscape scale. In this paper we develop a decision support system (DSS) for locating and sizing water harvesting ponds in a hydrological model, which enables assessments of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services in meso-scale watersheds. The DSS was used with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for a case-study area located in the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia. We found that supplementary irrigation in combination with nutrient application increased simulated teff (Eragrostis tef, staple crop in Ethiopia) production up to three times, compared to the current practice. Moreover, after supplemental irrigation of teff, the excess water was used for dry season onion production of 7.66 t/ha (median). Water harvesting, therefore, can play an important role in increasing local- to regional-scale food security through increased and more stable food production and generation of extra income from the sale of cash crops. The annual total irrigation water consumption was ~4%-30% of the annual water yield from the entire watershed. In general, water harvesting resulted in a reduction in peak flows and an increase in low flows. Water harvesting substantially reduced sediment yield leaving the watershed. The beneficiaries of water harvesting ponds may benefit from increases in agricultural production. The downstream social-ecological systems may benefit from reduced food prices, reduced flooding damages, and reduced sediment influxes, as well as enhancements in low flows and water quality. The benefits of water

  2. Assessing the implications of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services: A case study in the Lake Tana basin.

    PubMed

    Dile, Yihun Taddele; Karlberg, Louise; Daggupati, Prasad; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Wiberg, David; Rockström, Johan

    2016-01-15

    Water harvesting systems have improved productivity in various regions in sub-Saharan Africa. Similarly, they can help retain water in landscapes, build resilience against droughts and dry spells, and thereby contribute to sustainable agricultural intensification. However, there is no strong empirical evidence that shows the effects of intensification of water harvesting on upstream-downstream social-ecological systems at a landscape scale. In this paper we develop a decision support system (DSS) for locating and sizing water harvesting ponds in a hydrological model, which enables assessments of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services in meso-scale watersheds. The DSS was used with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for a case-study area located in the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia. We found that supplementary irrigation in combination with nutrient application increased simulated teff (Eragrostis tef, staple crop in Ethiopia) production up to three times, compared to the current practice. Moreover, after supplemental irrigation of teff, the excess water was used for dry season onion production of 7.66 t/ha (median). Water harvesting, therefore, can play an important role in increasing local- to regional-scale food security through increased and more stable food production and generation of extra income from the sale of cash crops. The annual total irrigation water consumption was ~4%-30% of the annual water yield from the entire watershed. In general, water harvesting resulted in a reduction in peak flows and an increase in low flows. Water harvesting substantially reduced sediment yield leaving the watershed. The beneficiaries of water harvesting ponds may benefit from increases in agricultural production. The downstream social-ecological systems may benefit from reduced food prices, reduced flooding damages, and reduced sediment influxes, as well as enhancements in low flows and water quality. The benefits of water

  3. Seroepidemiology of Selected Arboviruses in Febrile Patients Visiting Selected Health Facilities in the Lake/River Basin Areas of Lake Baringo, Lake Naivasha, and Tana River, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Lwande, Olivia; Orindi, Benedict; Irura, Zephania; Ongus, Juliette; Sang, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Arboviruses cause emerging and re-emerging infections affecting humans and animals. They are spread primarily by blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes, ticks, midges, and sandflies. Changes in climate, ecology, demographic, land-use patterns, and increasing global travel have been linked to an upsurge in arboviral disease. Outbreaks occur periodically followed by persistent low-level circulation. Aim: This study was undertaken to determine the seroepidemiology of selected arboviruses among febrile patients in selected lake/river basins of Kenya. Methods: Using a hospital-based cross-sectional descriptive survey, febrile patients were recruited and their serum samples tested for exposure to immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies against Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), West Nile virus (WNV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Samples positive for CHIKV and WNV were further confirmed by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results: Of the 379 samples examined, 176 were IgG positive for at least one of these arboviruses (46.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.4–51.5%). Virus-specific prevalence for CCHF, RVF, WN, and CHIK was 25.6%, 19.5%, 12.4%, and 2.6%, respectively. These prevalences varied significantly with geographical site (p<0.001), with Tana recording the highest overall arboviral seropositivity. PRNT results for Alphaviruses confirmed that the actual viruses circulating in Baringo were Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and CHIKV, o'nyong nyong virus (ONNV) in Naivasha, and SFV and Sindbis virus (SINDV) in Tana delta. Among the flaviviruses tested, WNV was circulating in all the three sites. Conclusion: There is a high burden of febrile illness in humans due to CCHFV, RVFV, WNV, and CHIKV infection in the river/lake basin regions of Kenya. PMID:25700043

  4. Field temperature measurements at Erta'Ale Lava Lake, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Caillet, Marc; Haefeli, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The shield volcano Erta'Ale, situated in the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia, is known for its active lava lake. In February 2001, our team visited this lake, located inside an 80-m-deep pit, to perform field temperature measurements. The distribution and variation of temperature inside the lake were obtained on the basis of infrared radiation measurements performed from the rim of the pit and from the lake shores. The crust temperature was also determined from the lake shores with a thermocouple to calibrate the pyrometer. We estimated an emissivity of the basalt of 0.74 from this experiment. Through the application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we then obtained an estimate of the total radiative heat flux, constrained by pyrometer measurements of the pit, and visual observations of the lake activity. Taking into account the atmospheric convective heat flux, the convected magma mass flux needed to balance the energy budget was subsequently derived and found to represent between 510 and 580 kg s-1. The surface circulation of this mass flux was also analyzed through motion processing techniques applied to video images of the lake. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-002-0224-3.

  5. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  6. Lake evaporation estimates in tropical Africa (Lake Ziway, Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Legesse, Dagnachew; Gasse, Françoise; Travi, Yves; Chernet, Tesfaye

    2001-05-01

    Estimates of evaporation from an open shallow lake in tropical Africa (Lake Ziway, Main Ethiopian Rift) are made by using monthly hydrometeorological data available for the past three decades. On the one hand, annual average estimates are inferred from three climatic approaches, which can be applied in areas with limited meteorological data. The lake energy balance yields an evaporation rate of 1780 mm yr -1, assuming a Bowen ratio of 0.15 (that of Lake Victoria). The Penman method gives an annual evaporation rate of 1870 mm. The complementary relationship lake evaporation model (CRLE) applied on monthly averaged values of air temperature, air humidity and sunshine duration gives 1730 mm yr -1. The sensitivity of each method to changes in input variables is analyzed in order to test the stability of the resulting estimates. This helps discuss uncertainties and possible inter-annual variations of the evaporation rate. On the other hand, the monthly lake level records together with precipitation and river discharge data between 1969 and 1990, allow us to estimate the water balance, providing an annual rate of 1937 mm for the combined evaporation and groundwater losses. The chloride budget is used to discriminate the groundwater from the evaporation loss. It gives us an annual evaporation rate of 1740 mm and a corresponding groundwater loss of 200 mm yr -1. The groundwater loss estimate is of the same order of magnitude as the surface outflow, but the associated error in the former is significant because the result is sensitive to the poorly known chloride content of river inflows. Our results can be used to forecast the impact of increased water consumption in the basin.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the Labeobarbus intermedius complex (Pisces, Cyprinidae) from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Beshera, K A; Harris, P M

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of populations of the Labeobarbus intermedius complex (hexaploid barb) was investigated using 88 complete and 71 partial cytochrome b (cytb) sequences originating from 21 localities in five major drainages in Ethiopia and two localities in northern Kenya. The samples included 14 of the 15 Labeobarbus species described from Lake Tana. Discrete phylogeographic analyses of 159 cytb sequences employing Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations using Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees (BEAST) supported the monophyly of the L. intermedius complex, including the Lake Tana species. This analysis, in combination with statistical parsimony analysis, identified two mitochondrial DNA lineages within the complex. Divergence dating employing coalescent simulations suggested that the geographic split in the L. intermedius complex that led to the formation of these lineages occurred during the Pleistocene (c. 0.5 M b.p.), consistent with the timing of volcano-tectonic events postulated to have shaped the current landscape of East Africa.

  8. Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…

  9. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Afework Bitew, Aschalew; Abera, Bayeh; Seyoum, Walle; Endale, Befekadu; Kiber, Tibebu; Goshu, Girma; Admass, Addiss

    2016-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.1–89%). STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7–70.2%). The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3–36.6%), 29.4% (25–31%) and 3.1% (1.8–5.4%), respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1–18.1%). Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5–5.5). Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13%) and 18 (4.9%) of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place. PMID:27203749

  10. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L∞, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that

  11. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L∞, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that

  12. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of Akaki River, Lake Awassa, and Lake Ziway, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Kebede Nigussie; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Redi-Abshiro, Mesfin; Ambushe, Abayneh Ataro; McCrindle, Robert Ian; Moyo, Stanley

    2015-07-01

    The quantification of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out in sediment samples collected from Akaki River, Lake Awassa, and Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. The concentration of PAHs in the samples was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, after microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), using acetone/n-hexane (1:1, v/v) mixture. The accuracy of the method was determined by extracting and analyzing New York/New Jersey waterway sediment standard reference material (SRM 1944). The measured concentrations of PAHs in SRM 1944 agreed well with the certified values. In samples from Akaki River, Lake Awassa, and Lake Ziway, the total content of PAHs determined ranged from 0 to 3070 ng/g (average 534 ng/g), 24.9 to 413 ng/g (average 169 ng/g), and 15.0 to 305 ng/g (average 175 ng/g), respectively. Source ratios indicated that the PAHs were mainly from petrogenic origin. Sediments from all sampling sites indicated negligible levels of toxicity with no risk of adverse biological effects. PMID:26122125

  13. Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however.

  14. Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however. PMID:12177998

  15. STS-65 Earth observation of Omo River Delta, Lake Turkana in Ethiopia / Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of Omo River Delta and Lake Turkana in Ethiopia / Kenya. The Omo Delta at the north end of Lake Turkana (Rudolph) is one of the long-term environmental study sites of the Space Shuttle program. The environmental interest in this instance is the documentation of the delta's extension into the lake. This delta extension, or aggradation, is felt to be the result of large-scale soil erosion in the recently deforested areas of Ethiopia in the watershed of the Omo River. Using digitized, rectified, machine-classified, and mensurated NASA photography, it has been determined that the Omo Delta has increased in area by approximately 400% to about 1,800 square kilometers since it was first photographed during the Gemini program in 1965. This photograph documents the long-term and increasing turbidity of Lake Turkana and the continuing delta extension southward by both the northwest and northeast distributaries of the Om

  16. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Lake Turkana, Kenya and Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Ethiopia is constructing a series of dams on the Omo River. The Gibe I and Gibe II dams are completed, and the Gibe III dam began filling its reservoir in 2015. Studies are ongoing to understand the interactions between regulated flows as a result of the dams and rainfall on the water levels of Lake Turkana. Scientists use many years’ worth of data to get a better understanding of the lake’s natural variability and how that variability might be affected by dams, irrigation, and rainfall.

  17. Occurrence, distribution, and ecological risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in surface sediments of Lake Awassa and Lake Ziway, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Kebede N; Ambushe, Abayneh A; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan S; Redi-Abshiro, Mesfin; McCrindle, Robert I

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-assisted acid digestion and modified aqua regia (HNO3:HCl:HF:H3BO3) leaching techniques were used for the determination of 15 potentially toxic elements (V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Sn, Hg and Pb) in sediment samples from Lake Awassa and Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. The digests were subsequently analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Mercury was directly determined in the solid samples using an elemental mercury analyzer. The precision and accuracy of the digestion procedures were verified using certified reference materials. The experimental results were in good agreement with the certified values (P < 0.05) and the recoveries were quantitative (>90%). The average relative standard deviations were below 10%. There is significant correlation between the two lakes at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Using the sediment quality guidelines, both lakes are heavily polluted with Zn and some of the sites are heavily polluted with Cu, Ni and Pb. Based on effect range low (ERL) - effect range medium (ERM), in both lakes for Ag were greater than the ERM, indicating that the areas could be toxic to aquatic organisms, while for Cr, Cu, As and Hg the values were less than ERL. PMID:25438135

  18. Organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in fish from Lake Awassa, Ethiopia: Insights from stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Watanabe, Kensuke; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-05-01

    The levels and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals were studied in muscle and liver of three fish species, with two trophic levels, from Lake Awassa, Ethiopia. DDTs were the predominant organic pollutant in all species with a maximum level of 73.28 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). p,p'-DDE was the predominate congener and showed a significant (p<0.001) relationship with δ(15)N, which indicates that DDTs could biomagnified in the food web of the lake. Generally, high levels of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) were found in liver samples as compared to muscles. The levels of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb in liver samples showed negative correlation with δ(15)N. They were found markedly higher in the lower trophic level fish species (p<0.05) that indicates biodilution whereas; Zn level showed positive correlation with δ(15)N.

  19. The ecohydrological biotechnology (SBFS) for reduction of dioxin-induced toxicity in Asella lake, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbaniak, M.; Zerihun Negussie, Y.; Zalewski, M.

    2012-04-01

    The transfer of dioxins along river continuum is a well know process which indicated permanent increase of their content in the river sediments. Despite this, there is still lack of empirical data highlighting the role of lakes and reservoirs in dioxins transfer along river continuum. Using the ecohydrology as a framework for water problem solving, the reduction of dioxins bioaccumulation in aquatic food chain should be based on two steps: 1) a reduction of dioxins emission to the water ecosystems and 2) an understanding of the role that the factors determining dioxins accumulation, transportation and transformation in the river and lake/reservoir system play for implementation of ecohydrological biotechnologies and system solutions. From limnological perspective lakes and reservoirs are considered as traps for organic and mineral sediments and bounded with them nutrients and other polluting substances. As effect of long term ecological succession the amount of sedimented matter, nutrients and loads and concentrations of pollutants usually increases. Such situation was observed in Asella lake, located in the Arsi zone of the Oromia region about 175 kilometers from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. As the results of above processes the high concentration of dioxin concentrations in the sediments was observed, inducing decline in the water resources use. During this study the spatial pattern of dioxins concentration and toxicity (measured as WHO TEQ concentration) in the sediments of Asella river and lake taken before (in 2009) and after (in 2010) construction of Sequentional BioFiltering System (SBFS) were compared. The determination of dioxin concentrations were followed according to US EPA 1613 and 1668 Methods. Among the samples collected in the 2009 year, the contamination of lake sediments amounted for 127.65 ng kg-1 dry weight (d.w.), whereas concentration of dioxins in samples taken at the lake outflow decreased to the value of 26.65 ng kg-1 d.w. The WHO

  20. Seismic characteristics of variable convection at Erta ´Ale lava lake, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua; Carniel, Roberto; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Malone, Steve

    2006-05-01

    The active summit lava lake of Erta ´Ale volcano, Ethiopia, offers a unique opportunity to study magma convection. In February 2002, we collected a multiparametric set of seismic, thermal and video data. These data indicate that the lake cycled between periods characterized by low (0.01-0.08 m s - 1 ) and high (0.1-0.4 m s - 1 ) convection rates, typically lasting tens to hundreds of minutes. Three seismometers placed around the active crater recorded continuous tremor with a dominant frequency of 2 Hz, and energy at frequencies from 0.8 to 12 Hz. Here, we characterize the seismic signature of each regime by its spectral content, wavefield polarization, and tremor source location. For both regimes, the wavefield is mostly rectilinear. Azimuths and incidence angles are consistent with P waves originating in one of two locations: the north edge of the active lava lake, or a region 100-150 m ENE of the lava lake. Because both regimes are dominated by a low frequency, rectilinearly polarized wavefield, we investigate the source location using a method that solves for location and isotropic source power by a weighted least-squares amplitude-based inversion of seismic data. We find that tremor source regions are unique to each convective regime, although some location overlap exists when tremor is located in short time windows. Wavefield composition suggests that the convective phases may share a common source process, but their differing locations indicate that either the source region is non-stationary, or a second source skews the location during the high convective phase. Tremor polarization and location suggests that the low-frequency tremor is caused by bubble coalescence and bursting in a conduit whose surface is the lava lake. The higher frequency signal associated with the high convective regime is associated with a scattered, more complex wavefield superimposed on the low-frequency background tremor, caused by bubble bursting and cracking of cooled crust at

  1. Gas-driven lava lake fluctuations at Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) revealed by MODIS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergniolle, Sylvie; Bouche, Emmanuella

    2016-09-01

    The long-lived lava lake of Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) is remotely monitored by moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometers (MODIS) installed on satellites. The Normalised Thermal Index (NTI) (Wright et al. Remote Sens Environ 82:135-155 2002) is shown to be proportional to the volume of the lava lake based on visual observations. The lava lake's variable level can be plausibly related to a stable foam, i.e. a mixture composed of densely packed non-coalescing bubbles in suspension within a liquid. This foam is trapped at the top of the magma reservoir, and its thickness changes in response to the gas flux feeding the foam being successively turned on and off. The temporal evolution of the foam thickness, and the resulting variation of the volume of the lava lake, is calculated numerically by assuming that the gas flux feeding the foam, initially constant and homogeneous since December 9, 2002, is suddenly stopped on December 13, 2002 and not restarted before May 2003. The best fit between the theoretical foam thickness and the level of the lava lake deduced from the NTI provides an estimate of both the reservoir radius, 155-170 m, and the gas flux feeding the foam, 5.5×10-3-7.2×10-3 m 3 s -1 when existing. This is in agreement with previous estimates from acoustic measurements (Bouche et al. Earth Planet Sci Lett 295:37-48 2010). The very good agreement between the theoretical foam thickness and that deduced from MODIS data shows for the first time the existence of a regime based on the behaviour of a stable foam, whose spreading towards the conduit ("wide" conduit condition), can explain the long-lived activity. Our predictive model, which links the gas flux at the vent to the foam spreading, could potentially be used on any volcano with a long-lived activity. The underlying gas flux and the horizontal surface area of the magma reservoir can then be deduced by combining modelling to continuous measurements of gas flux. The lava lake, when high, often shows

  2. Teaching the right hydrology with minimum resources in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Collick, Amy; Wondie, Ayalew; Jemberu, Tsehai

    2010-05-01

    This presentation will highlight our experience in teaching 19 Master's students from diverse backgrounds hydrology and watershed management in Ethiopia. Although the program was based at Bahir Dar University on the shores of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, the students received an US degree. The goal was to train professionals who can help to institute more effective and sustainable watershed management practices in Ethiopia. Teaching hydrology was a challenge. From the literature and personal observation, it was obvious that the traditional techniques of predicting runoff based on infiltration excess runoff and SCS curve number method were not satisfactory. Saturation excess runoff was more likely. However there was no research to prove that it actually was the case. In class we taught both runoff principles but stressed the saturation excess runoff. It was impossible to convince the students that the techniques that came from the western world be incorrect. For their Masters thesis, eight students did field research on runoff and erosion processes in watershed (some of which has a long record of discharge and sediment data). The students recorded water table heights, measured infiltration rates and determined where most erosion took place in the landscape. Based on this data they modeled the previously observed discharge successful using a saturation excess type model. From these studies we could establish that saturation in the landscape had a great effect on both runoff and sediment losses. As result of the field work, students had changed their mind about the appropriateness of using for example the SCS curve number method in Ethiopian highlands Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that we do not need a lot of funds to teach students the right hydrology. However, there is no substitute for going out in the field and experiencing what the right hydrology is by studying the processes in the landscape itself. By simply teaching in class, students will and cannot accept

  3. High-resolution sedimentary record of the last deglaciation from a high-altitude lake in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiercelin, J.-J.; Gibert, E.; Umer, M.; Bonnefille, R.; Disnar, J.-R.; Lézine, A.-M.; Hureau-Mazaudier, D.; Travi, Y.; Keravis, D.; Lamb, H. F.

    2008-03-01

    Sedimentological and geochemical studies conducted on a 15.82-m long core collected from Lake Garba Guracha (Ethiopia) associated with a precise AMS- 14C time-scale document a unique record of the sedimentary processes linked to the progressive retreat of a high-altitude glacier in the Bale Mountains since 17,000 yr cal BP. Lake sedimentation is interpreted as the result of discharges of meltwater and glaciogenic sediment which progressively filled the accommodation space generated by glacier retreat within the basin. Monogenic sediment originated from glacial erosion of the trachytic tuff forming the cirque floor. Ice melting ended progressively between 12,600 and 11,800 cal BP, as suggested by the decrease in sedimentation energy followed by a sharp change in sedimentary facies. From 11,800 cal BP, the lake reached its maximum development and clastic input was replaced by organic-rich sedimentation. This relates to a major increase of lake productivity, which lasted up to 4500 cal BP. From this period, a lowering in productivity reflects the widespread dryness which occurred throughout the East African tropics.

  4. The role of large bubbles detected from acoustic measurements on the dynamics of Erta 'Ale lava lake (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouche, E.; Vergniolle, S.; Staudacher, T.; Nercessian, A.; Delmont, J.-C.; Frogneux, M.; Cartault, F.; Le Pichon, A.

    2010-06-01

    The activity at the surface of the lava lake on Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) shows that large bubbles are regularly breaking at a fixed position on the lava lake. This is also where the small lava fountains are sometimes produced. Since this location is likely to be directly above the volcanic conduit feeding the lava lake, we have done continuous measurements between March 22 and 26, 2003 to understand the degassing of a volcano in permanent activity. The bubble size has been first estimated from videos, which once combined with the acoustic pressure, can constrain the source of the sound. The gas volume and overpressure stayed roughly constant, between 36-700 m3 and 4 × 103-1.8 × 104 Pa, respectively. Simultaneous thermal measurements showed regular peaks, which occurred when the crust was broken by a large bubble, hence gave a direct indication on the typical return time between the bubbles (1 h). These spherical cap bubbles had a high Reynolds number, 4600-20000, therefore a wake, periodically unstable, formed and detached from the bubble bottom. The bubbly wake, if the detachment occurs close to the surface, can explain the duration of lava fountains, measured on the videos. The periodic arrival of bubbly wakes, which mostly detach from the driving spherical cap within the lava lake, could explain the absence of cooling at Erta 'Ale, Erebus (Antartica), Villarica (Chile) and Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of Congo) without invoking a convective downflow of magma in the conduit, as previously done.

  5. GIS based mapping of land cover changes utilizing multi-temporal remotely sensed image data in Lake Hawassa Watershed, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigatu Wondrade; Dick, Øystein B; Tveite, Havard

    2014-03-01

    Classifying multi-temporal image data to produce thematic maps and quantify land cover changes is one of the most common applications of remote sensing. Mapping land cover changes at the regional level is essential for a wide range of applications including land use planning, decision making, land cover database generation, and as a source of information for sustainable management of natural resources. Land cover changes in Lake Hawassa Watershed, Southern Ethiopia, were investigated using Landsat MSS image data of 1973, and Landsat TM images of 1985, 1995, and 2011, covering a period of nearly four decades. Each image was partitioned in a GIS environment, and classified using an unsupervised algorithm followed by a supervised classification method. A hybrid approach was employed in order to reduce spectral confusion due to high variability of land cover. Classification of satellite image data was performed integrating field data, aerial photographs, topographical maps, medium resolution satellite image (SPOT 20 m), and visual image interpretation. The image data were classified into nine land cover types: water, built-up, cropland, woody vegetation, forest, grassland, swamp, bare land, and scrub. The overall accuracy of the LULC maps ranged from 82.5 to 85.0 %. The achieved accuracies were reasonable, and the observed classification errors were attributable to coarse spatial resolution and pixels containing a mixture of cover types. Land cover change statistics were extracted and tabulated using the ERDAS Imagine software. The results indicated an increase in built-up area, cropland, and bare land areas, and a reduction in the six other land cover classes. Predominant land cover is cropland changing from 43.6 % in 1973 to 56.4 % in 2011. A significant portion of land cover was converted into cropland. Woody vegetation and forest cover which occupied 21.0 and 10.3 % in 1973, respectively, diminished to 13.6 and 5.6 % in 2011. The change in water body was very

  6. GIS based mapping of land cover changes utilizing multi-temporal remotely sensed image data in Lake Hawassa Watershed, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigatu Wondrade; Dick, Øystein B; Tveite, Havard

    2014-03-01

    Classifying multi-temporal image data to produce thematic maps and quantify land cover changes is one of the most common applications of remote sensing. Mapping land cover changes at the regional level is essential for a wide range of applications including land use planning, decision making, land cover database generation, and as a source of information for sustainable management of natural resources. Land cover changes in Lake Hawassa Watershed, Southern Ethiopia, were investigated using Landsat MSS image data of 1973, and Landsat TM images of 1985, 1995, and 2011, covering a period of nearly four decades. Each image was partitioned in a GIS environment, and classified using an unsupervised algorithm followed by a supervised classification method. A hybrid approach was employed in order to reduce spectral confusion due to high variability of land cover. Classification of satellite image data was performed integrating field data, aerial photographs, topographical maps, medium resolution satellite image (SPOT 20 m), and visual image interpretation. The image data were classified into nine land cover types: water, built-up, cropland, woody vegetation, forest, grassland, swamp, bare land, and scrub. The overall accuracy of the LULC maps ranged from 82.5 to 85.0 %. The achieved accuracies were reasonable, and the observed classification errors were attributable to coarse spatial resolution and pixels containing a mixture of cover types. Land cover change statistics were extracted and tabulated using the ERDAS Imagine software. The results indicated an increase in built-up area, cropland, and bare land areas, and a reduction in the six other land cover classes. Predominant land cover is cropland changing from 43.6 % in 1973 to 56.4 % in 2011. A significant portion of land cover was converted into cropland. Woody vegetation and forest cover which occupied 21.0 and 10.3 % in 1973, respectively, diminished to 13.6 and 5.6 % in 2011. The change in water body was very

  7. From the Sound of Erta Ale Lava Lake (Ethiopia) to Eruption Dynamics Into a Magma Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouche, E.; Vergniolle, S.

    2007-12-01

    The basaltic volcano of Erta Ale, located on the East African Rift, has a permanent lava lake whose behaviour presents similarity with a shallow magma reservoir. In March 2003, continuous measurements of acoustic pressure, images from video, temperature, seismicity and wind velocity were perfomed to quantify degassing of the lava lake in order to understand the eruptive behaviour of this volcano. The videos show that two types of gas bubbles break at the lava lake surface. Modelling acoustic pressure gives bubble overpressure and size. Bubbles are either large (radius 2 m) and overpressurised (4.104 Pa) or of intermediate size (radius 1 m) and weakly overpressurised (450 Pa). The large bubbles come from the conduit at the base of the lava lake whereas bubbles of intermediate size are produced by the destabilisation of a foam accumulated below the crust overlying the lava lake. Hence, their overpressure is related to capillary pressure of the rising small bubbles, suggesting that their diameter is 3.6 mm. The formation of bubbles of intermediate size is related to the local foam coalescence because of foam sluggish drainage. However, overpressure of intermediate size bubbles shows sudden peaks every eighteen hours, up to 6000 Pa. Each peak is related to a massive coalescence of a foam having reached its critical thickness. This involves a much larger number of bubbles than foam drainage, hence a much larger overpressure and energy. The rapid and massive coalescence leads to a sudden withdrawal of the foam. The disappearence of the foam suppress the buoyancy that sustained the cold and dense crust at the top of the lava lake, forcing the crust to sink. The average gas flux (6.10-3 m3s-1) is estimated over an eighteen-hour cycle from modelling the frequency of sound waves. Furthermore the diameter of the small bubbles deduced from the overpressure on synthetic waveforms can be combined with gas volume fraction observed on videos to estimate the gas flux between 3

  8. Estimating eruption temperature from thermal emission spectra of lava fountain activity in the Erta'Ale (Ethiopia) volcano lava lake: Implications for observing Io's volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, A.G.; Keszthelyi, L.; McEwen, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    We have analysed high-spatial-resolution and high-temporal-resolution temperature measurements of the active lava lake at Erta'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, to derive requirements for measuring eruption temperatures at Io's volcanoes. Lava lakes are particularly attractive targets because they are persistent in activity and large, often with ongoing lava fountain activity that exposes lava at near-eruption temperature. Using infrared thermography, we find that extracting useful temperature estimates from remote-sensing data requires (a) high spatial resolution to isolate lava fountains from adjacent cooler lava and (b) rapid acquisition of multi-color data. Because existing spacecraft data of Io's volcanoes do not meet these criteria, it is particularly important to design future instruments so that they will be able to collect such data. Near-simultaneous data at more than two relatively short wavelengths (shorter than 1 ??m) are needed to constrain eruption temperatures. Resolving parts of the lava lake or fountains that are near the eruption temperature is also essential, and we provide a rough estimate of the required image scale. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Estimating eruption temperature from thermal emission spectra of lava fountain activity in the Erta'Ale (Ethiopia) volcano lava lake: Implications for observing Io's volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, Ashley G.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2011-01-01

    We have analysed high-spatial-resolution and high-temporal-resolution temperature measurements of the active lava lake at Erta'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, to derive requirements for measuring eruption temperatures at Io's volcanoes. Lava lakes are particularly attractive targets because they are persistent in activity and large, often with ongoing lava fountain activity that exposes lava at near-eruption temperature. Using infrared thermography, we find that extracting useful temperature estimates from remote-sensing data requires (a) high spatial resolution to isolate lava fountains from adjacent cooler lava and (b) rapid acquisition of multi-color data. Because existing spacecraft data of Io's volcanoes do not meet these criteria, it is particularly important to design future instruments so that they will be able to collect such data. Near-simultaneous data at more than two relatively short wavelengths (shorter than 1 μm) are needed to constrain eruption temperatures. Resolving parts of the lava lake or fountains that are near the eruption temperature is also essential, and we provide a rough estimate of the required image scale.

  10. Estimating eruption temperature from thermal emission spectra of lava fountain activity in the Erta'Ale (Ethiopia) volcano lava lake: Implications for observing Io's volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Keszthelyi, Laszlo; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2011-11-01

    We have analysed high-spatial-resolution and high-temporal-resolution temperature measurements of the active lava lake at Erta'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, to derive requirements for measuring eruption temperatures at Io's volcanoes. Lava lakes are particularly attractive targets because they are persistent in activity and large, often with ongoing lava fountain activity that exposes lava at near-eruption temperature. Using infrared thermography, we find that extracting useful temperature estimates from remote-sensing data requires (a) high spatial resolution to isolate lava fountains from adjacent cooler lava and (b) rapid acquisition of multi-color data. Because existing spacecraft data of Io's volcanoes do not meet these criteria, it is particularly important to design future instruments so that they will be able to collect such data. Near-simultaneous data at more than two relatively short wavelengths (shorter than 1 μm) are needed to constrain eruption temperatures. Resolving parts of the lava lake or fountains that are near the eruption temperature is also essential, and we provide a rough estimate of the required image scale.

  11. Ecological correlates of abundance in the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus).

    PubMed

    Wieczkowski, Julie

    2004-07-01

    I investigated the ecological correlates of abundance in the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus), one of the world's most endangered primates, with the goal of recommending management strategies. I systematically selected 31 forest fragments throughout the mangabey's 60-km distribution along the lower Tana River in southeastern Kenya. Within the 31 fragments, I measured vegetation structure, food abundance, and human forest product use in 107 belt transects, and conducted 370 mangabey surveys. I used a weighted multiple regression analysis to determine whether there was a dependence between the selected forest attributes and the mean number of mangabey groups per fragment. Fragment area and density of trees > or =10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) were the only variables that significantly correlated with the variation in mangabey abundance. No additional variables were significant when the analysis was limited to forest fragments inside the Tana River Primate National Reserve (TRPNR) or to fragments outside the TRPNR. When I estimated the resources available before recent human forest product use by adding nonharvested and harvested variables, the total basal area of the top 15 food species became significant. This was only within the TRPNR, however. Management, therefore, should focus on increasing forest area, density of trees > or =10 cm DBH, and coverage of food trees throughout the mangabey's distribution. Solutions must be found for the problem of forest clearing, and forest product use must be better managed to protect the habitat of this critically endangered primate. The significance of food abundance only within the TRPNR suggests a need to collect dietary data from mangabey groups in fragments toward the southern limit of the mangabey's distribution, where plant species composition differs from that in fragments in which dietary data have been previously collected. PMID:15258957

  12. Bed Shear Stress under Complex Flow Conditions - The Case of Megech River, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehari, Michael; Dessie, Mekete; Abate, Mengiste

    2014-05-01

    Bed shear stress is a fundamental variable in river studies to link flow conditions to sediment transport. It is, however, difficult to estimate this variable accurately, particularly in complex flow conditions. This study compares shear stress estimated from the log profile, the depth-slope product and outputs from a two-dimensional hydraulic model. Vertical velocity profile observations from Megech River (one of the main rivers flowing into Lake Tana, upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia) using SEBA Mini current meter M1attached with signal counter Z6-SEBA HAD under typical field conditions are used to evaluate the precision of different methods for estimating local boundary shear stress from velocity measurements. Results show that the velocity profile approach gives consistently lesser shear stress estimates. A comparison of the shear stress distributions derived using the two-dimensional hydraulic model and those estimated using the 1D reach-averaged equation (i.e. the depth-slope product) shows a close correspondence. Mean shear stresses determined using local depth and mean channel slope are only 14% greater than those values determined for the same data using local predictions of both depth and energy slope. As the overall mean shear stress provides a useful index of flow strength, this comparison suggests a good level of confidence in using the reach averaged one-dimensional equation, for which data can easily be collected from cross sectional surveys. However, the variance of the modelled shear stress distribution shows some differences by a factor of 3 to that calculated using the mean channel slope because of the larger uncertainity associated with point depth measurements. Although such models using 1D reach averaged equations are limited to different channel characteristics adhering to diverse model assumptions, they can still provide a useful tool for river-rehabilitation design and assessment, including sediment transport studies.

  13. Concentrations and human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in edible fish species from a Rift Valley lake-Lake Ziway, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Yared B; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Watanabe, Kensuke P; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Fish consumption is known to have several health benefits for humans. However, the accumulation of organic pollutants, like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) could pose health hazards. Thus, OCPs in edible fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, Carassius spp., and Clarias gariepinus) from Lake Ziway, an Ethiopian Rift Valley Lake were investigated to assess the potential human health hazards of these contaminants. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes, and heptachlors were observed with ΣOCPs concentration ranging from 1.41 to 63.8 ng g(-1) ww. DDTs were the predominant contaminants (0.9 to 61.9 ng g(-1) ww), followed by HCHs. The predominance of DDTs may be attributed to their current use in vector control and contamination from past usage. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCPs from all fish species were much lower than the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), indicating that consumption of fish is at little risk to human health at present. However, the cancer risk estimates in the area of concern and the hazard ratios (HRs) of HCHs, DDTs, and heptachlors exceeded the threshold value of one, indicating daily exposure to these compounds is a potential concern. This may result in a lifetime cancer risk greater than of 1 in 10(6). PMID:24836883

  14. Organic and inorganic carbon fluxes in a tropical river system (Tana River, Kenya) during contrasting wet seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geeraert, Naomi; Omengo, Fred O.; Bouillon, Steven; Borges, Alberto V.; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    overall C flux: while POC dominated during wet seasons without flooding (60-70%), DIC was the dominant transported C pool (55-67%) when flooding took place. This is not only due to the loss of POC associated with overbank sediment deposition but also to the downstream increase of the DIC flux during flooding, which we attribute to the in-stream decomposition of organic carbon as well as to the decomposition of organic matter in flooded environments (oxbow lakes, backswamps, ...). Similarly, the downstream increase of the DOC flux during flooding is likely to be caused by the release of DOC from flooded soils. We conclude that flooding events significantly altered both the magnitude and speciation of C fluxes in the lower Tana River, as they were found to lead to a general reduction of the POC flux, and simultaneously resulted in substantial lateral inputs of both DIC and DOC. The effect of flooding on carbon retention by rivers can only correctly be assessed if all three carbon fractions are accounted for.

  15. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  16. Gastrointestinal parasites of critically endangered primates endemic to Tana River, Kenya: Tana River red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) and crested mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus).

    PubMed

    Mbora, David N M; Munene, Elephas

    2006-10-01

    We conducted fecal egg counts of gastrointestinal parasites of 2 critically endangered primates endemic to the forest of Tana River, Kenya. We aimed to use the fecal egg counts as proxies to quantify the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites between the 2 primates. The Tana River red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) and crested mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus) are of similar body size, but their behavioral ecology is very different. We predicted that mangabeys would have a higher prevalence of parasites because they are mostly terrestrial omnivores, live in larger social groups, and therefore range widely. We detected 10 nematodes and 3 protozoans in mangabeys and 7 nematodes and 2 protozoans in colobus. We detected a higher number of different parasite species in individual mangabeys, and 4 of the 5 nematodes requiring intermediate hosts were found in mangabeys. The overall prevalence of parasites was higher for mangabeys, but this difference was not statistically significant. For colobus, we found a trend whereby the number of different parasite species in individual monkeys was higher in males and in lactating females. However, there was no difference in the prevalence of parasites between the sexes or between lactating and nonlactating females.

  17. Impact of vetch cover crop on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demelash, Nigus; Klik, Andreas; Holzmann, Hubert; Ziadat, Feras; Strohmeier, Stefan; Bayu, Wondimu; Zucca, Claudio; Abera, Atikilt

    2016-04-01

    Cover crops improve the sustainability and quality of both natural system and agro ecosystem. In Gumara-Maksegnit watershed which is located in Lake Tana basin, farmers usually use fallow during the rainy season for the preceding chickpea production system. The fallowing period can lead to soil erosion and nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted during growing seasons 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the effect of cover crops on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia. The plot experiment contained four treatments arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications: 1) Control plot (Farmers' practice: fallowing- without cover crop), 2) Chickpea planted with Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer with 46 k ha-1 P2O5 and 23 k ha-1 nitrogen after harvesting vetch cover crop, 3) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop incorporated with the soil as green manure without fertilizer, 4) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop and incorporated with the soil as green manure and with 23 k ha-1 P2O5 and 12.5 k ha-1 nitrogen. Each plot with an area of 36 m² was equipped with a runoff monitoring system. Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as cover crop at the onset of the rain in June and used as green manure. The results of the experiment showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences on the number of pods per plant, above ground biomass and grain yield of chick pea. However, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) on average plant height, average number of branches and hundred seed weight. Similarly, the results indicated that cover crop has a clear impact on runoff volume and sediment loss. Plots with vetch cover crop reduce the average runoff by 65% and the average soil loss decreased from 15.7 in the bare land plot to 8.6 t ha-1 with plots covered by vetch. In general, this result reveales that the cover crops, especially vetch, can be used to improve chickpea grain yield

  18. Hydrologic interconnection between the volcanic aquifer and springs, Lake Tana basin on the Upper Blue Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigate, Fenta; Van Camp, Marc; Kebede, Seifu; Walraevens, Kristine

    2016-09-01

    Hydrochemical and stable isotope (δ18O, δ2H) data were used to identify the recharge sources of major springs and the hydraulic interconnection between the volcanic aquifer and springs in the Gilgel Abay catchment and adjacent areas. The hydrochemical data analysis showed that all water samples of springs and shallow wells have freshwater chemistry, Casbnd HCO3 to Casbnd Mgsbnd HCO3 types. This is mainly controlled by dissolution/hydrolysis of silicate minerals. The analyzed stable isotope data indicate that springs water, except Dengel Mesk, Kurt Bahir and Bility springs, and well waters, except Dangila well, fall close to the LMWL. This clearly shows that the infiltrated rainwater did not undergo much evaporation and δ18O values for spring water and groundwater are nearly equal to the value of Ethiopian summer rainfall, which is -2.5‰. Therefore, generally both stable isotope and hydrochemical data show the recharge source to springs and shallow groundwater is primarily from precipitation. Furthermore, data suggest that rock-water interaction has remained relatively limited, pointing to relatively short residence times, and local recharge rather than regional recharge.

  19. Sediment deposition and associated organic carbon dynamics in a tropical River system; the Tana River (Kenya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omengo, Fred; Alleman, Tine; Geeraert, Naomi; Bouillon, Steven; Govers, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Floodplains are known to play a potentially important role in regulating the downstream transport of sediments, carbon, and nutrients in river systems. We investigated sediment and carbon transport, retention and deposition in the floodplains of the lower Tana River (Kenya), between the two main downstream gauging stations Garissa and Garsen. The Tana River is the largest river in Kenya and runs for more than 1,000 km from Kenya's highlands (Mt Kenya and the Aberdare mountains). The catchment covers around 100,000km² and the hydrology is controlled by the shifting of intertropical convergence Zone (ITCZ), leading to a bimodal precipitation cycle. Sediment cores were taken at various sites within the floodplains, and analysed for bulk density, organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen content, stable isotope signatures (δ13C) of organic C, and grain size distribution. We determined 137Cs and 210Pbxs activities in order to estimate historical sedimentation rates and to quantify the post-depositional losses of organic carbon. In addition, we measured fresh sediment deposition rates immediately after an extended period of flooding, along with associated flood heights and the distance relative to the main River . Fresh sediment deposition rates ranged between 1mm and 15mm for the period of study at an average rate of 1.13 gcm-3 (dry weight). This varied with distance of the floodplain from the main river and its elevation relative to the full bank. The fresh deposited sediment had an average organic carbon content of 1.55 ± 0.42%. Sediment cores showed a strong downcore gradient in OC content, from 3 - 12%C in the top layers to typically less than 0.5 % below 50 cm. The C:N ratios varied from 8 to 16 with majority averaging 9-11. Stable isotope signatures (δ13C) of organic C varied between -28‰ to -16‰ for the deeper core samples. 137Cs and 210Pbxs profiles indicate a vertical accretion at an average rate of 0.6 cm per year in the sites measured so far. The Tana river

  20. Interpretation of fault system in the Tana Sag, Kenya, using edge recognition techniques and Euler deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qing; Dong, Yunpeng; Cheng, Shunyou; Han, Li; Xu, Hai-hong; Chen, Hao

    2014-10-01

    The recognition of fault structures in gravity anomaly data is the most important step in the interpretation of geological and geophysical data. Edge detection and edge enhancement are commonly used for researching the edge locations of geological bodies. The edge recognition techniques applied in this paper are the tilt angle (TA) and its horizontal derivative (TA-THDR), as well as the normalized vertical derivative of the total horizontal derivative (NVDR-THDR), in which higher order derivative was involved. The results of TA and its total horizontal derivative provide detailed information to reflect the deeper sources boundaries more accurately and effectively. The information outside the geological body edges obtained from the NVDR-THDR results is eliminated by using a threshold value greater than 0, which improves the horizontal resolution to detect the fault structures with smaller scale or deeper depth. However, tilt angle and its horizontal derivative are found to be sensitive to noise, as the higher order derivative is. The noise effect is reduced by using upward continuation during the processing of the measure gravity data. To better recognize the fault system, we have compared the results obtained from the derivative mode of Euler deconvolution technique with those from TA and its total horizontal derivative and NVDR-THDR. Application to the Tana Sag demonstrates that the results correspond well with those inferred from previous work. The faults within Tana Sag can be divided into large-scale NW (NWW) trending and small-scale NE (NEE) trending, with the latter generally cutting off the former. And we also have found that the comparative analysis of edge recognition techniques and the ED method can extract richer information on source body edges and identify more horizontal fault locations than previous methods. These three techniques have agreed closely in detecting the edge boundaries of the deeper sources with clear precision.

  1. Investigating the terrestrial-atmospheric water balance for the Tana River basin, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerandi, Noah; Laux, Patrick; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The fully coupled atmospheric-hydrological WRF-Hydro modeling system is applied to the Tana River basin (TRB) in East Africa for the period 2011-2014 in order to analyze the terrestrial-atmospheric water balance components and their feedback mechanisms. The outputs from the fully coupled modeling system are compared to those of the WRF stand-alone model. The study area encompasses the Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment (3279 km²) in the upper TRB. Our model set up consists of two domains at 25 km and 5 km horizontal resolution covering East Africa and the study area, respectively. The WRF-Hydro inner domain is enhanced with hydrological routing at a 500 m horizontal grid resolution. The simulated monthly precipitation over the subcatchment compared with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data gives an overall correlation coefficient of 0.8/0.7 for fully coupled/stand-alone model and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.5 mm/day for both models for the entire simulation period. Overall the models yield more annual total precipitation compared to TRMM. The two models are drier during the March, April, May (MAM) season and wetter during the October, November, December (OND) season. Compared to observation stations, both modeling systems provide a correlation coefficient of 0.6 for precipitation. The simulated and observed discharges at the Tana Rukanga gauge, located in the subcatchment, exhibit a correlation coefficient of 0.5 at daily resolution. The WRF-Hydro also overestimates the cumulated discharge (2011-2014) by about 50 %. The analysis of the atmospheric water balance in both WRF and WRF-Hydro simulation reveals a positive moisture divergence during the MAM and OND rainy seasons. Precipitation recycling and efficiency measures derived from the atmospheric water budget are also investigated.

  2. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  3. Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bariabagar, H

    1978-01-01

    2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction.

  4. Journey of Ethiopia Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay Tessema, Solomon

    2015-08-01

    Ancient astronomy had contributed away for the modern development of astronomy. The history of astronomy development in Ethiopian was liked with different beliefs and culture of the society. The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians. Even though, Ethiopian’s contributions for astronomy in the world were immense but the journey of modern astronomy is still in the infant stage. The modern astronomy and space program in Ethiopia was started in 2004 in well organized form from three individuals to the public. In the past eleven years of journey of astronomy development in Ethiopia was the most challenging from national to international level. After strong struggle of a few committed individuals for the past eleven years the development of astronomy is completely changed from dark age to bright age. This paper will try to address the details of journey of astronomy in Ethiopia.

  5. Typhoid fever in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Getenet; Asrat, Daniel; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abrham; Wain, John

    2008-12-01

    This review focuses on the reports of salmonellosis by investigators in different parts of Ethiopia, in particular focusing on the levels of typhoid fever. Many of the reports are published in local journals that are not available online. There have been seven studies which diagnosed typhoid fever by laboratory culture and there is no coordinated epidemiological surveillance. All conducted research and reports from different health institutions in Ethiopia indicate that typhoid fever was still a common problem up to the most recent study in 2000 and that the extensive use of first-line drugs has led to the development of multiple drug resistance. In the sites covered by this review, the total number of published cases of typhoid fever dropped over time reflecting the decline in research capacity in the country. Data on the proportion of patients infected by different serovars of Salmonella suggest that the non-Typhi serovars of Salmonella are increasing. The published evidence suggests that typhoid fever is a current public health problem in Ethiopia although population based surveys, based on good microbiological diagnosis, are urgently needed. Only then can the true burden of enteric fever be estimated and the benefit of public health control measures, such as health education, safe water provision, improved food hygienic practices and eventually vaccination, be properly assessed.

  6. Deposition and fate of organic carbon in floodplains along a tropical semiarid lowland river (Tana River, Kenya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omengo, Fred O.; Geeraert, Naomi; Bouillon, Steven; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Inland waters organic carbon (OC) burial by sedimentation has recently been shown to be an important component in river catchment carbon (C) budgets. However, data on OC burial by sedimentation are hitherto largely limited to temperate zones. We investigated the deposition and fate of sediment-associated OC in the floodplains of the tropical lowland Tana River (Kenya), between two main gaging stations (Garissa and Garsen). Freshly deposited surface sediments and sediment cores were sampled and analyzed for OC, total nitrogen content, stable isotope signatures (δ13C) of OC, and grain size distribution. In addition, we incubated sediment cores to quantify CO2 production as a proxy for OC mineralization. While the floodplain receives sediment with a relatively low OC content (1.56 ± 0.42%), sediments are enriched with OC inputs from floodplain vegetation to levels above 3%. Sediment cores show a sharp decrease of OC with depth, from 3 to 12% OC in the (sub) surface to less than 1% OC below approximately 60 cm depth. Relatively elevated OC mineralization rates (0.14 ± 0.07 mol. CO2 kgC-1 d-1) were recorded. We used these data to make a first assessment of the C burial efficiency of the Tana River floodplain. In contrast to what is observed in temperate environments, over 50% of C present in the top layers is lost in less than a century. While significant amounts of OC are buried in the Tana River floodplain, the high rates of postdepositional loss limit the development of a long-term C sink within this tropical floodplain.

  7. Deposition and fate of organic carbon in floodplains along a tropical semi-arid lowland river (Tana River, Kenya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omengo, Fred; Geeraert, Naomi; Boullion, Steven; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Inland organic carbon (OC) burial by sedimentation has recently been shown to be an important component in river catchment carbon(C) budget. However, data on OC burial by sedimentation are hitherto largely limited to temperate zones. We investigated the deposition and fate of sediment-associated OC in the floodplains of a tropical lowland Tana river (Kenya), between two main gauging stations (Garissa and Garsen). Freshly deposited surface sediments and sediment cores were sampled and analysed for OC and total nitrogen content, stable isotope signatures (δ13C) of OC, and grain size distribution. In addition, we incubated sediment cores to quantify CO2 production as a proxy of OC mineralization. The floodplain receives sediment with a relatively low OC content (1.56±0.42%), sediments are enriched with OC inputs from floodplain vegetation to levels above 3%. Sediment cores show a sharp decrease of OC with depth, from 3 - 12%C in the (sub) surface to less than 1%OC below ~60cm depth. Relatively high and deep OC mineralization rates (0.14±0.07mol CO2 kg-1C d-1) were recorded. We used our data to make a first assessment of the carbon burial efficiency of the Tana river floodplain: in contrast to what is observed in temperate environments, over 50% of carbon present in the top layers is lost in less than a century. While significant amounts of OC are deposited in the Tana river floodplain, the high post-depositional loss limits the long-term C sink.

  8. Distribution and origin of suspended matter and organic carbon pools in the Tana River Basin, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamooh, F.; Van den Meersche, K.; Meysman, F.; Marwick, T. R.; Borges, A. V.; Merckx, R.; Dehairs, F.; Schmidt, S.; Nyunja, J.; Bouillon, S.

    2012-08-01

    We studied patterns in organic carbon pools and their origin in the Tana River Basin (Kenya), in February 2008 (dry season), September-November 2009 (wet season), and June-July 2010 (end of wet season), covering the full continuum from headwater streams to lowland mainstream sites. A consistent downstream increase in total suspended matter (TSM, 0.6 to 7058 mg l-1 and particulate organic carbon (POC, 0.23 to 119.8 mg l-1 was observed during all three sampling campaigns, particularly pronounced below 1000 m above sea level, indicating that most particulate matter exported towards the coastal zone originated from the mid and low altitude zones rather than from headwater regions. This indicates that the cascade of hydroelectrical reservoirs act as an extremely efficient particle trap. Although 7Be / 210Pbxs ratios/age of suspended sediment do not show clear seasonal variation, the gradual downstream increase of suspended matter during end of wet season suggests its origin is caused by inputs of older sediments from bank erosion and/or river sediment resuspension. During wet season, higher TSM concentrations correspond with relatively young suspended matter, suggesting a contribution from recently eroded material. With the exception of reservoir waters, POC was predominantly of terrestrial origin as indicated by generally high POC : chlorophyll a (POC : Chl a) ratios (up to ~41 000). Stable isotope signatures of POC (δ13CPOC ranged between -32 and -20‰ and increased downstream, reflecting an increasing contribution of C4-derived carbon in combination with an expected shift in δ13C for C3 vegetation towards the more semi-arid lowlands. δ13C values in sediments from the main reservoir (-19.5 to -15.7‰) were higher than those found in any of the riverine samples, indicating selective retention of particles associated with C4 fraction. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest during the end of wet season (2.1 to 6.9 mg l-1), with stable isotope

  9. Hydrological research in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, M.

    2012-12-01

    Almost all major development problems in Ethiopia are water-related: food insecurity, low economic development, recurrent droughts, disastrous floods, poor health conditions, and low energy condition. In order to develop and manage existing water resources in a sustainable manner, knowledge is required about water availability, water quality, water demand in various sectors, and the impacts of water resource projects on health and the environment. The lack of ground-based data has been a major challenge for generating this knowledge. Current advances in remote sensing and computer simulation technology could provide alternative source of datasets. In this talk, I will present the challenges and opportunities in using remote sensing datasets and hydrological models in regions such as Africa where ground-based datasets are scarce.

  10. Ethiopia between famines.

    PubMed

    Forbes, C

    1990-08-01

    The author reports observations made during a visit with colleagues in Ethiopia. On the heels of the country's famine, she was surprised to see fertile land on an excursion 3 hours north of Addis Ababa. The harvest was expected to suffice for a 3-month period. While foreign technical and financial aid no doubt helped save countless lives during the famine, other serious health problems still remain in the country. In particular, the writer notes the ongoing high rates of maternal and infant mortality (IMR). The national IMR of 168/1000 live births is heavily fueled by diarrheal illness, infectious disease, and malaria. Nationally, only 15% of 2 year olds have completed an immunization program. Women have a 1:30 chance of dying in pregnancy or during childbirth, with over 1/2 due to illegal abortions and other maternal health problems. While family planning may be available, cultural norms limit the number of subscribers. Leprosy remains a significant problem, and AIDS was gaining notice in 1989. Moreover, drug supply constraints and the paucity of national medical doctors help stymie any efforts toward positive change. The writer encourages continued foreign aid. PMID:2387725

  11. Youth services in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Meredith, P

    1990-12-01

    Departing from the usual family planning education format in teenage counseling, the IPPF is funding youth centers providing contraception as well as education in Ethiopia, Kenya, Togo, Tunisia, and Turkey. The development concern is for a cost efficient and effective center with minimal criticism. 2 experimental Mexican models were used in the Ethiopian youth centers. Both models utilize young adult coordinators who supervise young promoters, however each operates differently. Mexican staff trained their African counterparts and a detailed project manual will be available soon. The Ethiopian youth centers utilizing NGO's and the private sector have been permitted freedom from central control. Alarming statistics include: 20.8% of pregnancies are teenaged; 20.8% of hospital reported abortions are teenaged; the contraceptive prevalence rate is 2%; population increased by 3% per year with the average children per woman of 7.5. Addis Ababa's youth project provides services to mostly zone 5 school aged adolescents who are informed and eager to purchase condoms, although they are not able to purchase them commercially. Revolutionary Ethiopian Youth Association (REYA) with its 200,000 membership, is increasing its contribution to expanding the network of promoters. Promoters are used to register those receiving free condoms, but the recommendation to cease this practice of registration is in, and replace it with the sale of 50 US cents per condom.

  12. Floods and wetlands: combining a water-balance model and remote-sensing techniques to characterize hydrological processes of ecological importance in the Tana River Delta (Kenya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, C.; Duvail, S.; Belaud, G.; Moussa, R.; Grünberger, O.; Albergel, J.

    2012-10-01

    The Tana River Delta (TRD) provides a multitude of ecosystem services for the local communities including fishing, farming and livestock keeping. The hydrological regime of its river determines for a large part the environmental health of the delta. The development of upstream irrigation schemes and hydroelectric infrastructure can seriously impact the ecological status of the TRD. The Tana Inundation Model (TIM) presented here is the first known hydrological model of the TRD. Using it, we quantify essential hydrological variables of ecological importance for 2002-2011 such as flood extent and duration, flood timing and frequency, flood peaks and water height. TIM also provides an annual water balance. The model simulates river inflows and outflows, precipitation, overland flow, evapotranspiration and infiltration. The TRD is characterized by scarce hydrological data and a high cloud cover limiting the use of many remote sensing techniques. The methodology therefore combined a conventional water-balance analysis with the extraction of inundation extents from MODIS satellite imagery at a medium spatial and temporal resolution. In non extreme years and for the actual configuration of the Tana River, the flooded area exceeds 560 km2. Floods over 200 km2 occur approximately every two years, with a mean duration of less than 25 days. River discharge from the upper catchment counts for over 96% of the total water inflow. This study provides the first known estimates of these variables for the Tana River Delta and is therefore primordial for the management of the water and other natural resources of the zone. The hydrological model based on the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) is generic enough to be applied to other catchments with scarce hydrological data.

  13. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  14. Ethiopia: Country Status Report (Revision).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the distribution of Amharic, the sole official language and medium of elementary instruction, and Tigrinya, Oromo, Wolayto, Somali, Sidamo, Hadiyya, and English, the medium of secondary and higher education instruction. The relationship of language usage patterns to…

  15. Oleaginous yeasts from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Abate, Dawit; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Pohl, Carolina; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2016-12-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms can produce high amounts of oil (>20 % of their biomass) under suitable cultivation conditions. In this research work 200 samples were collected from soil, plant surfaces (leaves, flowers and fruits), waste oils from traditional oil milling houses and dairy products (cheese, milk and yoghurt) in Ethiopia. Three hundred and forty yeast colonies were isolated from these samples. By applying Sudan III staining tests, 18 strains were selected as possible oleaginous yeasts. The 18 strains were identified and characterized for their lipid production as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. They were identified using morphological and physiological methods as well as sequencing the 3'end of the small-subunit rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS; ITS 1, ITS 2 and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene), and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The 18 yeasts were identified as Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus (syn, Cryptococcus curvatus) (PY39), Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) (SY89), Rhodotorula dairenensis (SY94) and Rhodotourula mucilaginosa (SY09, SY18, SY20, PY21, PY23, PY25, SY30, PY32, SY43, PY44, SY52, PY55, PY61, SY75 and PY86). Under nitrogen-limited cultivation conditions, R. mucilaginosa PY44 produced the highest biomass (15.10 ± 0.54 g/L), while R. mucilaginosa PY32 produced the lowest biomass (10.32 ± 0.18 g/L). The highest lipid yield of 6.87 ± 0.62 g/L and lipid content of 46.51 ± 0.70 % were attained by C. curvatus (syn, C. curvatus) PY39. On the other hand, R. mucilaginosa PY61 gave the lowest lipid yield (2.06 ± 0.52 g/L) and R. mucilaginosa SY52 gave the lowest lipid content of 16.99 ± 0.85 %. The results in this research work suggest that much more oleaginous yeasts can be isolated from Ethiopian environment. On the basis of their substantial lipid production abilities, the three oleaginous yeast strains PY39, SY89 and SY18 were selected and

  16. Oleaginous yeasts from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Abate, Dawit; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Pohl, Carolina; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2016-12-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms can produce high amounts of oil (>20 % of their biomass) under suitable cultivation conditions. In this research work 200 samples were collected from soil, plant surfaces (leaves, flowers and fruits), waste oils from traditional oil milling houses and dairy products (cheese, milk and yoghurt) in Ethiopia. Three hundred and forty yeast colonies were isolated from these samples. By applying Sudan III staining tests, 18 strains were selected as possible oleaginous yeasts. The 18 strains were identified and characterized for their lipid production as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. They were identified using morphological and physiological methods as well as sequencing the 3'end of the small-subunit rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS; ITS 1, ITS 2 and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene), and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The 18 yeasts were identified as Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus (syn, Cryptococcus curvatus) (PY39), Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) (SY89), Rhodotorula dairenensis (SY94) and Rhodotourula mucilaginosa (SY09, SY18, SY20, PY21, PY23, PY25, SY30, PY32, SY43, PY44, SY52, PY55, PY61, SY75 and PY86). Under nitrogen-limited cultivation conditions, R. mucilaginosa PY44 produced the highest biomass (15.10 ± 0.54 g/L), while R. mucilaginosa PY32 produced the lowest biomass (10.32 ± 0.18 g/L). The highest lipid yield of 6.87 ± 0.62 g/L and lipid content of 46.51 ± 0.70 % were attained by C. curvatus (syn, C. curvatus) PY39. On the other hand, R. mucilaginosa PY61 gave the lowest lipid yield (2.06 ± 0.52 g/L) and R. mucilaginosa SY52 gave the lowest lipid content of 16.99 ± 0.85 %. The results in this research work suggest that much more oleaginous yeasts can be isolated from Ethiopian environment. On the basis of their substantial lipid production abilities, the three oleaginous yeast strains PY39, SY89 and SY18 were selected and

  17. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  18. Radargrammetry helps fight hunger in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanshie, Tadesse K.; Romeijn, Paul P.; Nezry, Edmond; Yakam-Simen, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the operational implementation of radargrammetry for the production of Digital Elevation Models, or DEMs, to areas of rugged topography. The Southern Ethiopian Highlands east of lake Abaya, with elevations between ca. 900 and 4,400 meters, were mapped. Currently available topographical maps are of insufficient quality to assist a study of the area's unique land use system, which is arguably the oldest and most durably sustained land use system of the planet. Without external inputs or terracing, the land use system maintains soil fertility and staves-off hunger. It has been doing so during the past 30 years of unrest and civil war, in one of the most crowded regions of Ethiopia. However, the central role of the staple crop enset within the land use system and its production cycles has hardly been the subject of scientific study. Understanding of this system is most likely to be relevant to enhancement of health and productivity in many regions of the world. Upon the request of the Agricultural Bureau for Gedeo Zone, geocoded and georeferenced topographical maps with accuracy of 20 meters (x, y and z) were made by PRIVATEERS N.V. on the basis of RADARSAT multi-incidence (S2/S7) images. These maps are now incorporated as the basic layer within the Bureau's GIS system. Map production techniques proved to be cost effective and relevant; especially for mountainous areas with poor accessability where correct geographic information is not available. The ease of orientation proved of invaluable help to rationalize execution and planning of cost-effective environmental field work and reporting.

  19. Stratigraphic, chronological and behavioural contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Desmond; Beyene, Yonas; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; Gilbert, Henry; Defleur, Alban; Suwa, Gen; Katoh, Shigehiro; Ludwig, Kenneth R; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Asfaw, Berhane; White, Tim D

    2003-06-12

    Clarifying the geographic, environmental and behavioural contexts in which the emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens occurred has proved difficult, particularly because Africa lacked adequate geochronological, palaeontological and archaeological evidence. The discovery of anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils at Herto, Ethiopia, changes this. Here we report on stratigraphically associated Late Middle Pleistocene artefacts and fossils from fluvial and lake margin sandstones of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Afar Rift, Ethiopia. The fossils and artefacts are dated between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago by precise age determinations using the 40Ar/39Ar method. The archaeological assemblages contain elements of both Acheulean and Middle Stone Age technocomplexes. Associated faunal remains indicate repeated, systematic butchery of hippopotamus carcasses. Contemporary adult and juvenile Homo sapiens fossil crania manifest bone modifications indicative of deliberate mortuary practices. PMID:12802333

  20. The seismicity of Ethiopia; active plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohr, P.

    1981-01-01

    Ethiopia, descended from the semimythical Kingdom of Punt, lies at the strategic intersection of Schmidt's jigsaw puzzle where the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the African Rift System meet. Because of geologically recent uplift combined with rapid downcutting erosion by rivers, notably the Blue Nile (Abbay), Ethiopia is the most mountainous country in Africa. It is also the most volcanically active, while its historical seismicity matches that of the midocean ridges. And, in a sense, Ethiopia is host to an evoloving ocean ridge system. 

  1. Some structural aspects of urbanization in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1987-07-01

    This article studies the emerging patterns of urbanization in Ethiopia. Over the period from 1967-1984, a number of structural changes have occurred which are likely to play a dominant role in the future urban growth in Ethiopia. In spite of its long history of settled population, Ethiopia did not witness sustained growth of urban centers. Ethiopia is 1 of the least urbanized areas in the Third World. A 3rd aspect of urbanization in Ethiopia is the wide range of regional differentials in the level of urbanization. Most of the urban population is concentrated in 2 administrative regions--Shoa and Eritrea. A more balanced urban growth may, inter alia, involve a better spread in terms of higher education, industrialization, provision of health and social services, and the development of communication and commercial infrastructure. Another striking feature of urbanization in Ethiopia is that growth has not been disproportionately concentrated in the largest urban centers. The largest urban centers have not assumed an inordinately higher level of primacy. The basic form of the curve depicting the relationship between the size of a locality and its rank has remained unchanged over the period. The post-revolution land reforms and the new socioeconomic structure emerging from reorganization of the society appear to have a rural-urban migration inhibiting effect. Some of the country's regional differentials may be associated with environmental factors.

  2. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: An Evolving Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  3. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

  4. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  5. Valuing investments in sustainable land management using an integrated modelling framework to support a watershed conservation scheme in the Upper Tana River, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunink, Johannes E.; Bryant, Benjamin P.; Vogl, Adrian; Droogers, Peter

    2015-04-01

    We analyse the multiple impacts of investments in sustainable land use practices on ecosystem services in the Upper Tana basin (Kenya) to support a watershed conservation scheme (a "water fund"). We apply an integrated modelling framework, building on previous field-based and modelling studies in the basin, and link biophysical outputs to economic benefits for the main actors in the basin. The first step in the modelling workflow is the use of a high-resolution spatial prioritization tool (Resource Investment Optimization System -- RIOS) to allocate the type and location of conservation investments in the different subbasins, subject to budget constraints and stakeholder concerns. We then run the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the RIOS-identified investment scenarios to produce spatially explicit scenarios that simulate changes in water yield and suspended sediment. Finally, in close collaboration with downstream water users (urban water supply and hydropower) we link those biophysical outputs to monetary metrics, including: reduced water treatment costs, increased hydropower production, and crop yield benefits for upstream farmers in the conservation area. We explore how different budgets and different spatial targeting scenarios influence the return of the investments and the effectiveness of the water fund scheme. This study is novel in that it presents an integrated analysis targeting interventions in a decision context that takes into account local environmental and socio-economic conditions, and then relies on detailed, process-based, biophysical models to demonstrate the economic return on those investments. We conclude that the approach allows for an analysis on different spatial and temporal scales, providing conclusive evidence to stakeholders and decision makers on the contribution and benefits of the land-based investments in this basin. This is serving as foundational work to support the implementation of the Upper Tana-Nairobi Water Fund

  6. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  7. Indian Ocean Climate event brings floods to East Africa's lakes and the Sudd Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, Charon; Murtugudde, Ragu; Allan, Tony

    During an El Niño, the expected rainfall increase over most of the Lake Victoria catchment area is ˜15-25%. However, due to anomalous warming of the western equatorial Indian Ocean during 1997, strong convection developed over parts of the Horn and eastern Africa. This resulted in a much larger 20-160% precipitation excess during the “short rainy” season. Satellite radar altimetry data reveals that not only did Lake Victoria rise by ˜1.7 m, but that the rainfall event similarly affected lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Turkana. In addition, the seasonal level minima of the Sudd marshes and Lakes T'ana and Nasser continue to increase. Such a rainfall event will have severe, long-term consequences for the natural surface flows and storages along the White Nile. Based on the hydrological impacts of the historic 1961 East Africa event, we can expect the current high levels of Lake Victoria to be maintained for the remainder of this decade. In addition, we anticipate a major expansion of the permanent swamp regions of the Sudd marshes over the forthcoming seasons. Blue Nile flows, further enhanced by the above-average 1998 rainfall season, can also be expected to remain high, at least until early 1999.

  8. Contribution of MODIS satellite imagery in modelling the flooding patterns of the coastal wetlands of the Tana River, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, C.; Duvail, S.; Belaud, G.; Albergel, J.; Moussa, R.; Grunberger, O.

    2012-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, much of the arid and semi-arid lands are used by pastoralist groups as seasonal grazing zones. In such a context, wetlands are a vital resource as they act as retreat zones during the dry seasons when water and fodder resources are scarce. At a larger scale, wetlands also render numerous services including groundwater recharge, water quality improvement and climate regulation. As regular floods are the underlying factor determining the healthiness of wetland ecosystems, it is important to understand their dynamics for a better water resource management at the catchment scale in the context of increased water abstraction and hydroelectric infrastructure development. Yet, this is challenging in many places because of scarce or poor quality data and a often difficult access to the zone. In tropical or coastal areas, frequent cloud cover can also limit the use of remote sensing data. The MODIS instruments on board the Terra and Aqua satellites offer high temporal resolution images at a moderate spatial resolution in the visible and infrared spectrum. In particular the MOD09A1 and MYD09A1 500m, 8-day synthesis products select the best possible observation for each 8-day period thus decreasing poor quality pixels due to cloud cover in an image while retaining a high frequency coverage. Here we assess their potential use to monitor floods in the Tana River Delta (TRD), Kenya. In this study, all 8-day synthesis products from 2001 to 2011 were screened and selected for low cloud cover. The total flooded surface was then extracted from each image using the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (Xu, 2006) to obtain time-series inundation maps from 2002 onward. In a third step, the images were used, combined with river-flow data, to analyse the hydrological system of the area. The maximal extent, start and end inundation dates were determined for the major floods of the past decade. There were major differences in these characteristics for medium to large

  9. Early Childhood in Ethiopia: Initiatives in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit

    2007-01-01

    This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…

  10. Communities and community genetics in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinalmalformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975

  11. Connecting Children with Modern Urban Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Jane

    1998-01-01

    An author relates memorable experiences of living in Ethiopia and describes how her brother's friendship with a poor boy in the city of Addis Ababa who cared for pigeons led to a children's book. Includes a descriptive list of books on pigeons, Africa, pets and wild animals, and cities, and a list of books by the author. (AEF)

  12. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modelling in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessie, M.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Pauwels, V. R. N.; Admasu, T.; Poesen, J.; Adgo, E.; Deckers, J.; Nyssen, J.

    2014-05-01

    Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data scarce regions of the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall-runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin) to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall-runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile basin) were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44-48%) in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18-19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay) and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation) and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics well the rainfall-runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile basin and brings a useful result

  13. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modeling in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessie, M.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Pauwels, V. R. N.; Admasu, T.; Poesen, J.; Adgo, E.; Deckers, J.; Nyssen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data-scarce regions such as the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall-runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile Basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin) to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall-runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile Basin) were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44-48%) in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18-19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay) and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation) and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics the rainfall-runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile Basin well and yields a useful

  14. Developing a Near-Continuous Estimation of Volumetric Fluctuations in Tropical Lakes and Reservoirs Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, T.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes and reservoirs play an integral role in water resources management by storing large quantities of water commonly used for irrigation, hydroelectric power, water supply, and flood mitigation. Knowing the exact quantity of stored water and necessary water for each of these usages is a critical component of sustainable water resources management. However, limited amounts of hydrologic data in developing nations, most of which are located in the tropics, hinders the accurate monitoring of water storage and allocation. Recent improvements in remote sensing have greatly enhanced the ability to calculate volumetric fluctuations of lakes and reservoirs at given points through time but are limited by temporal resolution as well as the computational time required for image processing. This study utilizes the newly developed MODISTools package for the programming language R in conjunction with satellite altimetry from three different altimetry databases to estimate lake and reservoir volumes at eight day intervals over a 15 year period. The study specifically examines three large lakes and reservoirs: Balbina Reservoir in the Amazon River Basin, Lake Tana in the Nile River Basin, and Tonle Sap Lake in the Mekong River Basin. Altimetry-based water level estimations are validated by in situ water level data from monitoring stations while surface area estimations are validated by Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) generated bathymetric maps with corresponding stage-area relationships. Preliminary results indicate that both remotely sensed water levels and surface areas agree well with in situ measurements, supporting the appropriateness of this methodology.

  15. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  16. Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.

    PubMed

    Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success.

  17. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  18. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual…

  19. Lake Eyre

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...   View Larger Image Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. ... the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have ...

  20. Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    If you live in Europe and buy roses, there is a good chance that they were grown in Kenya specifically, in one of the colossal greenhouses that blot out the once wild shores of Lake Naivasha, 90km north-west of Nairobi. Some 25% of Europe's cut flowers come from Kenya. After a tentative start in the 1980s the industry is now the country's third-largest foreign-currency earner, bringing in $120m a year. But the recent violence in Kenya is having a major impact on the flower growers. A local trade union says 3,000 of the 30,000 workers employed in Naivasha's flower farms have abandoned their jobs. Kenya emerged as a flower power when Israel scaled down its own industry. It has since lost business to neighboring Ethiopia, which offers tax breaks and better security, but Naivasha's perfect intensity of sunlight and days of near-constant length should keep it on top.

    The ASTER image was acquired February 2, 2008, covers an area of 25 x 26.6 km, and is located near 0.8 degrees south latitude, 36.4 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Performance of the WRF model to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in East Africa: a case study for the Tana River basin in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerandi, Noah Misati; Laux, Patrick; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the ability of the regional climate model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in simulating the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in the Tana River basin (TRB) in Kenya, East Africa. The impact of two different land use classifications, i.e., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) at two horizontal resolutions (50 and 25 km) is investigated. Simulated precipitation and temperature for the period 2011-2014 are compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Research Unit (CRU), and station data. The ability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Research Unit (CRU) data in reproducing in situ observation in the TRB is analyzed. All considered WRF simulations capture well the annual as well as the interannual and spatial distribution of precipitation in the TRB according to station data and the TRMM estimates. Our results demonstrate that the increase of horizontal resolution from 50 to 25 km, together with the use of the MODIS land use classification, significantly improves the precipitation results. In the case of temperature, spatial patterns and seasonal cycle are well reproduced, although there is a systematic cold bias with respect to both station and CRU data. Our results contribute to the identification of suitable and regionally adapted regional climate models (RCMs) for East Africa.

  2. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  3. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  4. Evaluation of stream water quality data generated from MODIS images in modeling total suspended solid emission to a freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Ayana, Essayas K; Worqlul, Abeyou W; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2015-08-01

    Modeling of suspended sediment emission into freshwater lakes is challenging due to data gaps in developing countries. Existing models simulate sediment concentration at a gauging station upstream and none of these studies had modeled total suspended solids (TSS) emissions by inflowing rivers to freshwater lakes as there are no TSS measurements at the river mouth in the upper Blue Nile basin. In this study a 10year TSS time series data generated from remotely sensed MODIS/Terra images using established empirical relationship is applied to calibrate and validate a hydrology model for Lake Tana in Upper Blue Nile Basin. The result showed that at a monthly time scale TSS at the river mouth can be replicated with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NS) of 0.34 for calibration and 0.21 for validation periods. Percent bias (PBIAS) and ratio of the root-mean-square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR) are all within range. Given the inaccessibility and costliness to measure TSS at river mouths to a lake the results found here are considered useful for suspended sediment budget studies in water bodies of the basin. PMID:25863508

  5. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - Assessing trade-offs from reservoir operation and irrigation investments in Kenya's Tana Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-08-01

    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing allocations is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks firstly to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly, it seeks to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of proposed new rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To approximate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management simulation model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume-dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for eight objectives covering the provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services. Trade-off plots allow decision-makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets and irrigation investment options by visualising their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against the disturbance of ecosystems and local livelihoods that depend on them. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to come at a high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of "water-energy-food nexus" resource security issues.

  6. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - assessing trade-offs for reservoir operation and irrigation investment in Kenya's Tana basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing on allocation is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly we seek to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of new proposed rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To identify the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for objectives covering provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services which underpin tourism and local livelihoods. Visual analytic plots allow decision makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets by understanding their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against disturbance of the flow regime which supports ecosystem services. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to be Pareto-optimal, but at high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of water-energy-food "nexus" challenges.

  7. Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Taddese, G

    2001-06-01

    Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation.

  8. Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J

    2005-01-20

    Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland.

  9. Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J

    2005-01-20

    Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland. PMID:15662421

  10. Lake Constance

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Lake Constance, Europe     View ... This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Lake Constance covers an area measuring 355 kilometers x 287 kilometers, and ... wastewater and fertilizers. This leads to overproduction of algae and aquatic plants, exhaustion of available oxygen, loss of some fish ...

  11. Molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia: new phylogenetic lineages found in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although Ethiopia ranks seventh among the world’s 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries, little is known about strain diversity and transmission. In this study, we present the first in-depth analysis of the population structure and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In the present study, 244 M. tuberculosis isolates where analysed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit - variable number tandem repeat 24-loci typing and spoligotyping methods to determine phylogenetic lineages and perform cluster analysis. Clusters of strains with identical genotyping patterns were considered as an indicator for the recent transmission. Results Of 244 isolates, 59.0% were classified into nine previously described lineages: Dehli/CAS (38.9%), Haarlem (8.6%), Ural (3.3%), LAM (3.3%), TUR (2.0%), X-type (1.2%), S-type (0.8%), Beijing (0.4%) and Uganda II (0.4%). Interestingly, 31.6% of the strains were grouped into four new lineages and were named as Ethiopia_3 (13.1%), Ethiopia_1 (7.8%), Ethiopia_H37Rv like (7.0%) and Ethiopia_2 (3.7%) lineages. The remaining 9.4% of the isolates could not be assigned to the known or new lineages. Overall, 45.1% of the isolates were grouped in clusters, indicating a high rate of recent transmission. Conclusions This study confirms a highly diverse M. tuberculosis population structure, the presence of new phylogenetic lineages and a predominance of the Dehli/CAS lineage in Northwest Ethiopia. The high rate of recent transmission indicates defects of the TB control program in Northwest Ethiopia. This emphasizes the importance of strengthening laboratory diagnosis of TB, intensified case finding and treatment of TB patients to interrupt the chain of transmission. PMID:23496968

  12. A Secret Decoder Ring for Volcanic Tremor: Method and Application to Erta 'Ale, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. P.; Carniel, R.; Malone, S. D.

    2009-12-01

    A new method of analyzing volcanic tremor is presented, which uses properties of undecimated wavelet packet transforms to filter, decompose, and recover signals from continuous multichannel data. The method preserves many standard properties that are used to characterize tremor, such as wavefield polarization and seismic energy. In this way, we can better understand the (potentially many) seismic sources that combine to form continuous volcanic tremor, and we can specifically address the problem of what causes changing tremor spectral content. Using example data from two experiments at Erta 'Ale, Ethiopia, this method suggests that continuous volcanic tremor generally has multiple, simultaneously active seismic sources, not all of which are persistent. Our analysis suggests that continuous tremor was simultaneously generated at Erta 'Ale by magma flow in a conduit, degassing at a system of fumaroles, gas bubbles coalescing in the shallow, active lava lake, and degassing in a crater that formerly held a lava lake. Evidence for these diverse seismic sources can be seen in both the 2002 and 2003 data. Energy-based location of recovered signals from 2003 strongly supports this interpretation. The spectral transitions seen at Erta 'Ale in 2002 are resolved using this method, and result from secondary signals introduced during rapid convection. The signal which we interpret as being generated by magma flow in a conduit did not change between the two convective regimes. Thus, the recovered signals from the 2002 data argue strongly that changes in the rate of lava lake convection (and corresponding spectral changes) were driven entirely by shallow processes in the lava lake, rather than changing properties of the magma supply. This example demonstrates that using wavelet-based methods to understand the sources of continuous volcanic tremor can prove useful in understanding volcanic behavior, as well as detecting signals that relate to unrest.

  13. Rainfall and runoff variability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time

  14. Viral diseases in Ethiopia: a review.

    PubMed

    Aseffa, A

    1993-10-01

    Ethiopia is endemic for many viral diseases. Serosurveys have demonstrated the high prevalence rate of hepatitis B virus. There are also indications of high transmission for hepatitis C, hepatitis E and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The population is exposed to poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, measles, rubella and mumps early in life. Rotaviral diarrhoea is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Vast areas of the country are endemic for yellow fever and rabies. The extent of many other viral diseases in the country is unknown. There is a need for a well organised national laboratory to assess the impact of vaccination efforts and to support control as well as surveillance measures within the country.

  15. Viral diseases in Ethiopia: a review.

    PubMed

    Aseffa, A

    1993-10-01

    Ethiopia is endemic for many viral diseases. Serosurveys have demonstrated the high prevalence rate of hepatitis B virus. There are also indications of high transmission for hepatitis C, hepatitis E and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The population is exposed to poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, measles, rubella and mumps early in life. Rotaviral diarrhoea is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Vast areas of the country are endemic for yellow fever and rabies. The extent of many other viral diseases in the country is unknown. There is a need for a well organised national laboratory to assess the impact of vaccination efforts and to support control as well as surveillance measures within the country. PMID:8187657

  16. Diagenetic contrast of sandstones in hydrocarbon prospective Mesozoic rift basins (Ethiopia, UK, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, A.

    2014-11-01

    Diagenetic studied in hydrocarbon-prospective Mesozoic rift basins were carried out in the Blue Nile Basin (Ethiopia), Ulster Basin (United Kingdom) and Hartford Basin (United States of America). Alluvial fan, single and amalgamated multistorey meandering and braided river, deep and shallow perennial lake, shallow ephemeral lake, aeolian and playa mud-flat are the prominent depositional environments. The studied sandstones exhibit red bed diagenesis. Source area geology, depositional environments, pore-water chemistry and circulation, tectonic setting and burial history controlled the diagenetic evolution. The diagenetic minerals include: facies-related minerals (calcrete and dolocrete), grain-coating clay minerals and/or hematite, quartz and feldspar overgrowths, carbonate cements, hematite, kaolinite, illite-smectite, smectite, illite, chlorite, actinolite, laumontite, pyrite and apatite. Diversity of diagenetic minerals and sequence of diagenetic alteration can be directly related to depositional environment and burial history of the basins. Variation in infiltrated clays, carbonate cements and clay minerals observed in the studied sandstones. The alluvial fan and fluviatile sandstones are dominated by kaolinite, illite calcite and ferroan calcite, whereas the playa and lacustrine sandstones are dominated by illite-smectite, smectite-chlorite, smectite, chlorite, dolomite ferroan dolomite and ankerite. Albite, pyrite and apatite are predominantly precipitated in lacustrine sandstones. Basaltic eruption in the basins modified mechanically infiltrated clays to authigenic clays. In all the studied sandstones, secondary porosity predominates over primary porosity. The oil emplacement inhabited clay authigenesis and generation of secondary porosity, whereas authigenesis of quartz, pyrite and apatite continued after oil emplacement.

  17. Comparative Hydrology in Ethiopia: a learning experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.

  18. The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; Woldegabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane

    2013-01-29

    The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6-1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ∼1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world's earliest with an age of ∼1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ∼1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714

  19. The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R.; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane

    2013-01-01

    The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6–1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ∼1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world’s earliest with an age of ∼1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ∼1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714

  20. Principles of lake sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

  1. Lake Powell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

    The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Geochronology of the Turkana depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Francis H; McDougall, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Turkana Depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rest on basement rocks that yield K/Ar cooling ages between 433 and 522 Ma. Proven Cretaceous strata are exposed in Lokitaung Gorge in northwest Kenya. Eocene basalts and rhyolites in Lokitaung Gorge, the Nabwal Hills, and at Kangamajoj, date between 34 and 36 Ma, recording the earliest volcanism in the region. Oligocene volcanic rocks, with associated fossiliferous sedimentary strata at Eragaleit, Nakwai, and Lokone, all west of Lake Turkana, are 23 to 28 Ma old, as is the Langaria Formation east of Lake Turkana. Lower and Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences are present both east and west of Lake Turkana, where ages from 17.9 to 9.1 Ma have been measured at many levels. Upper Miocene strata are presently known only at Lothagam, with ages ranging from 7.4 to 6.5 Ma. Deposition of Pliocene strata of the Omo Group begins in the Omo-Turkana, Kerio, and South Turkana basins -4.3 Ma ago and continues in parts of those basins until nearly the present time, but with some gaps. These strata are linked through volcanic ash correlations at many levels, as are Pleistocene strata of the Omo Group (principally the Shungura, Koobi Fora, and Nachukui formations). (40) Ar/(39) Ar dates on many volcanic ash layers within the Omo Group, supplemented by K/Ar ages on intercalated basalts and paleomagnetic polarity stratigraphy, provide excellent age control from 4.2 to 0.75 Ma, although there is a gap in the record between -1 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Members I to III of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo Valley record deposition between 0.2 and 0.1 Ma ago; Member IV, correlative with the Galana Boi Formation, was deposited principally between 12 and 7 ka BP. PMID:22170691

  3. Geochronology of the Turkana depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Francis H; McDougall, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Turkana Depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rest on basement rocks that yield K/Ar cooling ages between 433 and 522 Ma. Proven Cretaceous strata are exposed in Lokitaung Gorge in northwest Kenya. Eocene basalts and rhyolites in Lokitaung Gorge, the Nabwal Hills, and at Kangamajoj, date between 34 and 36 Ma, recording the earliest volcanism in the region. Oligocene volcanic rocks, with associated fossiliferous sedimentary strata at Eragaleit, Nakwai, and Lokone, all west of Lake Turkana, are 23 to 28 Ma old, as is the Langaria Formation east of Lake Turkana. Lower and Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences are present both east and west of Lake Turkana, where ages from 17.9 to 9.1 Ma have been measured at many levels. Upper Miocene strata are presently known only at Lothagam, with ages ranging from 7.4 to 6.5 Ma. Deposition of Pliocene strata of the Omo Group begins in the Omo-Turkana, Kerio, and South Turkana basins -4.3 Ma ago and continues in parts of those basins until nearly the present time, but with some gaps. These strata are linked through volcanic ash correlations at many levels, as are Pleistocene strata of the Omo Group (principally the Shungura, Koobi Fora, and Nachukui formations). (40) Ar/(39) Ar dates on many volcanic ash layers within the Omo Group, supplemented by K/Ar ages on intercalated basalts and paleomagnetic polarity stratigraphy, provide excellent age control from 4.2 to 0.75 Ma, although there is a gap in the record between -1 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Members I to III of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo Valley record deposition between 0.2 and 0.1 Ma ago; Member IV, correlative with the Galana Boi Formation, was deposited principally between 12 and 7 ka BP.

  4. Health Care Seeking Behavior in Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Begashaw, Bayu; Tessema, Fasil; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural and urban populations have disparate socio-demographic and economic characteristics, which have an influence on equity and their health seeking behavior. We examined and compared the health care seeking behavior for perceived morbidity between urban and rural households in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Analytic cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural households living in Esera district of Southwest Ethiopia. A random sample of 388 head of households (126 urban and 262 rural) were selected. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used for data collection with face-to-face interview. In addition to descriptive methods, binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with health seeking behavior at p value of less than 0.05. Results Of the sample household heads, 377 (97.2%) (119 urban and 258 rural) were successfully interviewed. Among these, 58.4% (95% CI, 53.3–63.3%) of the households sought care from modern health care that was lower among rural (48.1%) than urban (80.7%) households. The prevalence of self-treatment was 35.3% in urban and 46.1% in rural households. Among the factors considered for modern health care utilization, higher monthly income (AOR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.04–15.4), perceived severity of disease (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.8), acute duration of disease (AOR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.4–33.3) and short distance from health facilities (AOR, 3; 95% CI, 1.2–8.4) among rural and being married (AOR, 11.3; 95% CI, 1.2–110.2) and perceived severity of disease (AOR, 6.6; 95% CI, 1.1–10.9) among urban households showed statistically significant association. Conclusions The general health seeking behavior of households on perceived morbidity was satisfactory but lower in rural compared to urban households. Self-medication was also widely practiced in the study area. The findings signal the need to work more on accessibility and promotion of healthcare seeking behavior especially among rural households

  5. Establishing space research capability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosinger, T.; Damtie, B.; Usoskin, I. G.

    It is often considered by various sources and institutions around the world that promotion of space physics activities in a developing country like Ethiopia is a waste of time and resources. It has, of course, some sense: developing countries should put all their efforts in improving the standard of life, infrastructure and basic education. However, it is straightforward to realize that nowadays improvement in any of the basic needs of developing countries is related to high technology (e.g. mobile phones, GPS, remote sensing). This means that a developing country has to take care of recruiting specialists among their own people who can take part in the decision making processes which are increasingly of global nature. Moreover, many citizens of developing countries are studying and working abroad attaining high expertise. As a matter of fact, there are more Ethiopians with PhD in physics working abroad than in the country. These people are lost for the benefit of their own country if there is no need for their profession in their home country. There is no doubt that the main task of improving the standard of living cannot be achieved without development and social transformation of the society, which can take place efficiently in a self-adopting and dynamic process. In line with the above argument, we have initiated the establishment of the Washera Space Physics Laboratory (WASPL) at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. It is a collaboration project between Oulu University and Addis Ababa University. The laboratory is expected to start operation of a pulsation magnetometer and photometer in September 2004. Other types of standard geophysical instruments are to be installed in subsequent missions. The project is of mutual interest of both parties. The equatorial ionosphere is still a poorly investigated region of our near Earth's space. In a first pilot investigation the existence and properties of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) in the equatorial ionosphere

  6. Integration of mother and child health services in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Walley, J D; McDonald, M

    1991-01-01

    In Wollo region of Ethiopia, various non-governmental officers have been working closely with each other and with the Regional Health Department to implement the policy of daily integrated mother and child health services. The record cards, registers, procedures and training courses of the separate 'vertically' organized services were brought together to enable the development of a model integrated service. There were improvements in accessibility, acceptability and output of the services. The system was evaluated by a joint Ministry of Health and UNICEF team, and was adopted for use in the rest of Ethiopia.

  7. Solar UV-treatment of water samples for stripping-voltammetric determination of trace heavy metals in Awash river, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woldemichael, Gelaneh; Tulu, Taffa; Flechsig, Gerd-Uwe

    2016-03-01

    We report about testing a new mobile and sustainable water sample digestion method in a preliminary field trial in Ethiopia. In order to determine heavy metals at the ultra-trace level by stripping voltammetric techniques in water samples from Awash River, we applied our new method of solar UV-assisted sample pretreatment to destroy the relevant interfering dissolved organic matter. The field tests revealed that 24 h of solar UV irradiation were sufficient to achieve the same sample pretreatment results as with classic digestion method based on intense and hard UV. Analytical results of this study suggest that both a hydroelectric power station and agrichemical applications at Koka Lake have increased the levels of the investigated metals zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, cobalt, nickel, and uranium. PMID:27441266

  8. Discovering the African freshwater "torpedo": legendary Ethiopia, religious controversies, and a catfish capable of reanimating dead fish.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco; Finger, Stanley; Barbara, Jean-Gaël

    2011-07-01

    The electric catfishes of African rivers and lakes, once depicted on Egyptian tomb art, have been largely overlooked in histories and reviews of electric fish biology and animal electricity. This article examines how Westerners, especially Dominican and Jesuit missionaries, discovered them in Ethiopia and other parts of Africa at the beginning of the seventeenth century. What transpired took place against the backdrop of tales involving the Bible, Prester John's mythical empire, and imaginary animals with fabulous powers. In effect, how they were found is related to attempts to convert Ethiopian Christians to true Catholicism, hopes of discovering great riches, and opportunities to trade, and not with the efforts of skilled natural philosophers to document and conduct experiments on the wildlife of this continent. Nevertheless, the early descriptions by Europeans circulated, and during the next century these catfishes began to be used in experiments that helped to make animal electricity a reality. PMID:21736441

  9. Pliocene volcano-tectonics and paleogeography of the Turkana Basin, Kenya and Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhn, Ronald L.; Brown, Francis H.; Gathogo, Patrick N.; Haileab, Bereket

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of hominin fossil sites in the Turkana Basin, Kenya is intimately linked to the history of the Omo River, which affected the paleogeography and ecology of the basin since the dawn of the Pliocene. We report new geological data concerning the outlet channel of the Omo River between earliest Pliocene and final closure of the Turkana Basin drainage system in the latest Pliocene to earliest Quaternary. Throughout most of the Pliocene the Omo River entered the Turkana Basin from its source in the highlands of Ethiopia and exited the eastern margin of the basin to discharge into the Lamu embayment along the coast of the Indian Ocean. During the earliest Pliocene the river's outlet was located in the northern part of the basin, where a remnant outlet channel is preserved in basalts that pre-date eruption of the Gombe flood basalt between 4.05 and 3.95 Ma. The outlet channel was faulted down to the west prior to 4.05 Ma, forming a natural dam behind which Lake Lonyumun developed. Lake Lonyumun was drained between 3.95 and 3.9 Ma when a new outlet channel formed north of Loiyangalani in the southeastern margin of the Turkana Basin. That outlet was blocked by Lenderit Basalt lava flows between 2.2 and 2.0 Ma. Faulting that initiated either during or shortly after eruption of the Lenderit Basalt closed the depression that is occupied by modern Lake Turkana to sediment and water. Several large shield volcanoes formed east of the Turkana Basin beginning by 2.5-3.0 Ma, volcanism overlapping in time, but probably migrating eastward from Mount Kulal on the eastern edge of the basin to Mount Marsabit located at the eastern edge of the Chalbi Desert. The mass of the volcanic rocks loaded and depressed the lithosphere, enhancing subsidence in a shallow southeast trending depression that overlay the Cretaceous and Paleogene (?) Anza Rift. Subsidence in this flexural depression guided the course of the Omo River towards the Indian Ocean, and also localized

  10. Sawflies of Ethiopia (Hymenoptera: Argidae, Tenthredinidae).

    PubMed

    Koch, Frank; Pauly, Alain; Hora, Zewdu A; Boevé, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-24

    Sawflies were collected in Ethiopia during 2010-2013. Three species represent new records for the country: Arge deckerti Koch, 2005, Athalia excisa Koch, 2006 and Xenapates nigrifrons Koch, 2012. Arge flavifrons Mocsáry, 1909, syn. n. and A. transvaalensis Cameron, 1911, syn. n. are subjective synonyms of A. micheli (Buysson, 1900) that is re-described here. Athalia fumosa Gribodo, 1879 sp. rev. is recognized as a valid species and is removed from synonymy with A. scioensis Gribodo, 1879. Distega braunsi Enslin, 1911 syn. n. and D. brunniventris Enslin, 1913 syn. n. are subjective synonyms of D. montium Konow, 1907. Pseudoneacidiophora Koch, 1998 is a new junior synonym of Kivua Forsius, 1934 (syn. n.), resulting in the new combination Kivua pleuritica (comb. n.) for Athalia pleuritica Forsius, 1927. Kivua camerunensis nom. n. is proposed for P. bicolor Koch, 1998 (preoccupied in Kivua by K. bicolor (Pasteels, 1949) (Bicrista bicolor Pasteels)), the second species formerly included in Pseudoneacidiophora. The female of Distega abyssinica Pasteels, 1955 is described for the first time. An annotated and illustrated list including six distribution maps is given for Ethiopian sawflies. It is composed of 34 species belonging to the genus Arge (Argidae), and seven genera of Tenthredinidae: Athalia (Athaliinae), Kivua, Neacidiophora, Xenapates (Allantinae), Distega, Trisodontophyes (Blennocampinae), and Dulophanes (Selandriinae). Some ecological aspects of Athalia species are discussed, especially for the most abundantly collected A. vollenhoveni Gribodo, 1879.

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide.

  12. Quaternary glaciation of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Henry A.; Mitchell, Wishart A.; Osmaston, J. A. Nigel

    2005-09-01

    Central Ethiopia comprises a high plateau at 2000-3000 m, formed from Tertiary lava flows and bisected by the Eastern African Rift. Ten volcanic mountains rise to altitudes of just over 4000 m, but on only three has Quaternary glaciation been substantiated by published field observations. On the Bale Mountains (4400 m), a previous report based on limited evidence proposed an ice-cap extending to 600 km2. Based on aerial photographs and ground surveys, this paper reports evidence of a more complex situation. A wide spread of large erratic boulders on the plateau records a central ice cap of 30 km2, though ice probably extended for a further 40 km2. Further north two groups of deeply incised and clearly glaciated valleys contain moraines and roches moutonnées (60 km2). On interfluves between them and on the open north slopes are moraines from an earlier stage of the same glaciation or from a distinct older event. Altogether about 180 km2 may have been glaciated. Cores dated by 14C from inside and outside the glaciated area suggest that at least the northern valley glaciers may date from the Last Glacial Maximum. Estimated equilibrium line altitudes for these glaciers and the ice-cap are 3750-4230 m. Copyright

  13. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  14. Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia: A Critical Analysis of Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semela, Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of teacher preparation in Ethiopia on top of a closer scrutiny of current teacher education reforms. In particular, it presents teacher education within the context of policy implementation over the last six decades by highlighting key reforms and how these reforms impacted the…

  15. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  16. What Community Participation in Schooling Means: Insights from Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift-Morgan, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…

  17. Molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Baneth, Gad; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Hailu, Asrat; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the first molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis in local breeds of cattle in Ethiopia. A conventional PCR utilizing major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene and an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) were used to characterize T. orientalis and to assess the infection intensity, respectively. Of 232 blood samples tested, T. orientalis DNA was detected in only 2.2% of samples using conventional PCR; two genotypes buffeli (1.3%; 3/232) and type 5 (0.9%; 2/232) of T. orientalis were detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the buffeli MPSP sequences from Ethiopia were closely related to those reported from Kenya, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, and type 5 sequences from Ethiopia grouped with those from Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Thailand. A higher number of samples (3.9%; 9/232) were test-positive by MT-PCR and four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of T. orientalis were detected. The average intensity of infections with genotypes buffeli (DNA copy numbers 11,056) and type 5 (7508) were significantly higher (P<0.0001) than the pathogenic genotype ikeda (61 DNA copies). This first insight into T. orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia using MPSP gene provides a basis for future studies of T. orientalis in various agroclimatic zones and of the impact of oriental theilerosis on cattle in this and other countries of Africa. PMID:27034193

  18. Household Constraints on Schooling by Gender: Empirical Evidence from Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Pauline; Al-Samarrai, Samer

    2001-01-01

    Examines individual and household characteristics that affect the probability of a boy or girl attending and completing primary school in two regions of Ethiopia. Finds that school attendance was related to household wealth, parents' education, and child's nutritional status, while completion was affected more by economic constraints and, for…

  19. Quality Education Reform and Aid Effectiveness: Reflections from Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw

    2011-01-01

    Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…

  20. Adult Basic Literacy "Initiatives" in Ethiopia: Change and Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenea, Ambissa

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…

  1. Surveillance of Bacterial Meningitis, Ethiopia, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Mihret, Wude; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Merid, Yared; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Workeabeba; Moges, Beyene; Tenna, Admasu; Woldegebriel, Fitsum; Yidnekachew, Melaku; Mekonnen, Wondale; Ahmed, Arslan; Yamuah, Lawrence; Silamsaw, Mezgebu; Petros, Beyene; Oksnes, Jan; Rosenqvist, Einar; Ayele, Samuel; Aseffa, Abraham; Caugant, Dominique A; Norheim, Gunnstein

    2016-01-01

    Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012-2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed.

  2. Surveillance of Bacterial Meningitis, Ethiopia, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Mihret, Wude; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Merid, Yared; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Workeabeba; Moges, Beyene; Tenna, Admasu; Woldegebriel, Fitsum; Yidnekachew, Melaku; Mekonnen, Wondale; Ahmed, Arslan; Yamuah, Lawrence; Silamsaw, Mezgebu; Petros, Beyene; Oksnes, Jan; Rosenqvist, Einar; Ayele, Samuel; Aseffa, Abraham; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2016-01-01

    Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012–2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed. PMID:26689450

  3. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  4. Education for International Understanding: The Case of Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Paris (France).

    This study reviews Ethiopia's efforts, experiences, and achievements with respect to developing education for international understanding over the past two decades in response to the United Nations recognition of the role education plays in promoting peace. It is an overture aimed at sharing ideas and experiences with all concerned for the…

  5. Higher Education in Ethiopia: Expansion, Quality Assurance and Institutional Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2014-01-01

    This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly…

  6. Situation Report--Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…

  7. Determinants of Children's Schooling: The Case of Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,…

  8. A review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Tiao, N; Gebreyes, W A; Jones, J L

    2012-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide zoonosis. In this paper published information on toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia is reviewed. Limited data indicate that the prevalence of T. gondii in humans in Ethiopia is very high, up to 41% of children aged 1-5 years were reported to be seropositive. There is little information on seroprevalence data in pregnant women and no data on congenital toxoplasmosis in children. About 1 million adults in Ethiopia are considered to be infected with HIV with less than one-third likely receive highly active antiviral therapy. Based on a conservative T. gondii seroprevalence of 50%, thousands might die of concurrent opportunistic infections, including toxoplasmosis. However, exact figures are not available, and most serological surveys are not current. Serological surveys indicate up to 79% of goats and sheep have T. gondii antibodies. However, there is no information on losses due to toxoplasmosis in livestock or the presence of viable T. gondii in any host in Ethiopia.

  9. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  10. Geology and mineral potential of Ethiopia: a note on geology and mineral map of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Solomon; Milesi, Jean-Pierre; Deschamps, Yves

    2003-05-01

    This work presents a geoscientific map and database for geology, mineral and energy resources of Ethiopia in a digital form at a scale of 1:2,000,000, compiled from several sources. The final result of the work has been recorded on CD-ROM in GIS format so that the map and the database could be available to users on a personal computer. Metallic resources (precious, rare, base and ferrous-ferroalloy metals) are widely related to the metamorphic meta-volcano-sedimentary belts and associated intrusives belonging to various terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, accreted during the East and West Gondwana collision (Neoproterozoic, 900-500 Ma). Industrial minerals and rock resources occur in more diversified geological environments, including the Proterozoic basement rocks, the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments and recent (Cenozoic) volcanics and associated sediments. Energy resources (oil, coal, geothermal resources) are restricted to Phanerozoic basin sediments and Cenozoic volcanism and rifting areas.

  11. Gully Development in North Ethiopia's Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Amaury; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Meire, Ellen; de Dapper, Morgan; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku

    2010-05-01

    Understanding trends in gully erosion, and the relation with changes in its triggers, is important to make sustainable development possible in semi-arid regions suffering from low food security and threatened by climatic deterioration. The reconstruction of long-term (1868-2009) patterns in gully erosion in North Ethiopia and environmental control, i.e. LUC changes and rainfall pattern changes, requires an extensive database of ground-based photographs (1868-1975), aerial photographs (1964-1992), satellite images (1972-2009), meteorological station data (1950s-2009) and field measurements. Quantifying gully erosion networks and volumes is done from an integrated analysis of historical ground-based photographs, aerial photographs and IKONOS imagery. Therefore, new methodologies are being developed based on fieldwork, digital photogrammetry and Geographic Information Science techniques. LUC mapping and change analysis for periods prior to satellite imagery and aerial photography is done by developing a new methodology that georeferences LUC boundaries identified on historical photographs to the horizontal plane of the map. For the LANDSAT LUC analysis (1972-2000), images dated 1974-5 were calibrated using photographs of the same period. Therefore, a methodology was developed that involves the development of spectral signatures based on LUC observed on the photographs, and the recording of the location of those LUC units by GPS. Rainfall pattern changes will be analyzed from Rainfall Estimates(2001-2009) and meteorological station data. Early results show that gully erosion was already extensive in the late 19th century, caused by a largely degraded environment and that critical gully expansion occurred after the mid 20th century. Little care was given to land management in 1868 resulting in very low vegetation cover which depleted to a minimum in dry spells like in the 1980s. In recent decades land management practices result in an environmental recovery and

  12. Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The wild plants and animals and the natural systems that support them in the Great Lakes region are valuable resources of considerable local, regional, and national interest. They are also, in part, transboundary resources that the U.S. shares with its Canadian neighbors to the north. The way these resources are changing over time is inadequately known and is a concern for resource users and for those charged with managing and protecting these unique and valuable resources. This chapter describes the wild plants and animals and the systems that support them in the Great Lakes region; addresses their condition; and points out the gaps in our knowledge about them that, if filled, would aid in their conservation and appropriate use.

  13. Ethiopia: between Sub-Saharan Africa and western Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Lovell, A; Moreau, C; Yotova, V; Xiao, F; Bourgeois, S; Gehl, D; Bertranpetit, J; Schurr, E; Labuda, D

    2005-05-01

    Ethiopia is central to population genetic studies investigating the out of Africa expansion of modern humans, as shown by Y chromosome and mtDNA studies. To address the level of genetic differentiation within Ethiopia, and its relationship to Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia, we studied an 8 kb segment of the X-chromosome from 72 chromosomes from the Amhara, Oromo and Ethiopian Jews, and compared these results with 804 chromosomes from Middle Eastern, African, Asian and European populations, and 22 newly typed Saharawi. Within Ethiopia the two largest ethnic groups, the Amhara and Oromo, were not found to be statistically distinct, based on an exact test of haplotype frequencies. The Ethiopian Jews appear as an admixed population, possibly of Jewish origin, though the data remain equivocal. There is evidence of a close relationship between Ethiopian and Yemenite Jews, likely a result of indirect gene flow. Within an African and Eurasian context, the distribution of alleles of a variable T(n) repeat, and the spread of haplotypes containing Africa-specific alleles, provide evidence of a genetic continuity from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Near East, and furthermore suggest that a bottleneck occurred in Ethiopia associated with an out of Africa expansion. Ethiopian genetic heterogeneity, as evidenced by principal component analysis of haplotype frequencies, most likely resulted from periods of subsequent admixture. While these results are from the analysis of one locus, we feel that in association with data from other marker systems they add a complementary perspective on the history of Ethiopia.

  14. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  15. Assessment of siltation and nutrient enrichment of Gilgel Gibe dam, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Devi, Rani; Tesfahune, Esubalew; Legesse, Worku; Deboch, Bishaw; Beyene, Abebe

    2008-03-01

    Gilgel Gibe hydroelectric power dam was located in the submerging part of the Addis Ababa, Jimma highway in Ethiopia which is about 55 km far from Jimma was constructed in 2004. A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2005 to assess the siltation and nutrient enrichment level of the dam. It was found from the study that siltation and nutrient enrichment were the major problems in this reservoir. The sheet erosion of catchment area was found to be 4.47x10(7) ton/year and hence 2210 ton/km(2). The contribution of the sediment load deposition of the Gilgel Gibe River to the dam was 277,437 ton/year and the total sediment load was 4.50x10(7)ton/year and this amount could cover 3.75x10(7) m(3)/year of the dam. From the analysis of water samples of Gilgel Gibe dam, the concentrations of ammonia, chlorophyll a, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH and temperature were found within the permissible limits as prescribed by WHO standards, but other parameters like phosphate, nitrate, sulphate, total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS) and visibility were much higher than the permissible limits. Due to the high concentration of suspended and sediment load, the secchi disc visibility of Gilgel Gibe dam was 0.72 m which indicated that it was well within the range of eutrophic lakes.

  16. Identification of variable convective regimes at Erta Ale Lava Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Carniel, Roberto; Jones, Josh

    2005-04-01

    During February 17-19, 2002, we collected a combined thermal and seismic data set for persistent lava lake activity at Erta Ale volcano, Ethiopia. These data indicate that the lake cycled between periods characterized by low (0.01-0.08 m s -1) and high (0.1-0.4 m s -1) surface velocities, typically lasting tens to hundreds of minutes. These periods of high and low velocity motion define periods of vigorous and sluggish convection, respectively. Spectral analysis revealed that vigorous convection periods were characterized by high frequencies and energies in the thermal data and an increased presence of high-frequency energy in the seismic data. The data show that vigorous periods were characterized by formation of hot, short-lived, plastic crusts, and sluggish periods by cooler, longer lived, brittle crusts. Here, the higher transit velocity across the lake surface from upwelling zones of crust formation to downwelling zones of crust destruction during the vigorous periods decreases the crust lifetime. This in turn decreases the total cooling and thickening experienced by a plate of crust moving across the lake surface. Two scenarios can be envisaged to explain such convection cycles. The first relates variable convection rates to changes in the volume flux and rheology of magma entering the lake. In the second, cyclic convection is set up by the generation of convective instabilities within the lake. In this case, cooling of a surface layer generates a slow moving, viscous, increasingly dense convection layer at the lake surface which is consumed and replaced during overturn.

  17. Population level mental distress in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of a situational analysis for a research programme on the integration of mental health care into primary care (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care-PRIME), we conducted a baseline study aimed at determining the broad indicators of the population level of psychosocial distress in a predominantly rural community in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 1497 adults selected through a multi-stage random sampling process. Population level psychosocial distress was evaluated by estimating the magnitude of common mental disorder symptoms (CMD; depressive, anxiety and somatic symptoms reaching the level of probable clinical significance), harmful use of alcohol, suicidality and psychosocial stressors experienced by the population. Results The one-month prevalence of CMD at the mild, moderate and severe threshold levels was 13.8%, 9.0% and 5.1% respectively. The respective one-month prevalence of any suicidal ideation, persistent suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 13.5%, 3.8% and 1.8%. Hazardous use of alcohol was identified in 22.4%, significantly higher among men (33.4%) compared to women (11.3%). Stressful life events were widespread, with 41.4% reporting at least one threatening life event in the preceding six months. A similar proportion reported poor social support (40.8%). Stressful life events, increasing age, marital loss and hazardous use of alcohol were associated with CMD while stressful life events, marital loss and lower educational status, and CMD were associated with suicidality. CMD was the strongest factor associated with suicidality [e.g., OR (95% CI) for severe CMD = 60.91 (28.01, 132.48)] and the strength of association increased with increase in the severity of the CMD. Conclusion Indicators of psychosocial distress are prevalent in this rural community. Contrary to former assumptions in the literature, social support systems seem relatively weak and stressful life events common

  18. Tephrochronology of the Western Margin, Gona, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinsasser, L. L.; Quade, J.; Levin, N.; McIntosh, W.; Simpson, S. W.; Semaw, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project (GPRP) area includes many rich fossil localities that are of great consequence to the study of human evolution. Genetic estimates of the divergence between human and chimpanzee lineages indicate that this split happened between 5 and 7 Mya. The sedimentary deposits at Gona range in age from .15 Ma to 4.5 Ma at the base of the Sagantole Formation, with additional minor sedimentary deposits in the underlying Adu-Asa Formation. These older sedimentary deposits occur as small, disconnected packages interlayered with lava flows and are repeated due to NS-trending, west-dipping normal faults that accommodated extension in the Afar rift. New 40Ar-39Ar dates on tuffs from the Adu-Asa Formation indicate that the oldest hominid fossils thus found at Gona are around 5.5 Ma, and that all of the fossil sites in the Adu-Asa Formation identified thus far are approximately the same age. One tuff, named the Belewa, is dated at 5.51+/- .03 Ma, while the Kobo'o tuff, which outcrops to the west and thus is lower in the section, is dated at 5.42 +/-.07 Ma. Both dates are from sanidine and errors are at the 2 sigma level. In addition to these 40Ar-39Ar dates for the Adu-Asa Formation, the relative ages of many deposits have been clarified through studies of the major element geochemistry of glass shards from ashfall tuffs, which occur as beds within the sedimentary deposits. These geochemical comparisons, along with detailed stratigraphic sections through many sedimentary packages, have allowed the identification and correlation of four major tuffs, including the Belewa and Kobo'o tuffs, throughout the pre-4.5 Ma deposits of the Gona project area. Such studies may also lead to larger-scale correlations between the Gona project and other paleoanthropological projects in Ethiopia. Additional work on the tephrochronology and stratigraphy in the younger Sagantole, Hadar, and Busidima Formations has furthered our understanding of those deposits

  19. Sheep production and marketing system in southern Ethiopia: the case of Awassazuria district.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Estefanos; Negesse, Tegene; Abebe, Girma

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted in Awassazuria district of southern Ethiopia to characterize sheep production system. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Using purposive sampling, a total of 120 households from the district were included in the survey. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result indicated that Kajima neighbourhood has more (p<0.05) grazing land than the others. Communal grazing, roadside grazing, enset (false banana, Ensete ventricosum), banana leaf and private grazing land were major feed resources for sheep. Lake Awassa and tap water were permanent water sources. Watering frequency of sheep varies from once a day to once in 4 days. Sheep are primarily kept to generate income and equilibrate benefit and risk and for home consumption. The criteria used by the households for purchase and sale of sheep are physical characteristics (coat colour, horn and tail) (46.7 %), body conformation (35 %), age (10.8 %) and known local ecotype (7.5 %). The reasons of slaughter of sheep include festival (55 %), childbirth (18.3 %), wedding (12.5 %), mutton for home (9 %), circumcision (5 %) and for guest (1.7 %). Farmers fatten sheep for New Year (60 %), Easter (30.8 %), Christmas and Arefa (Eid al-Adha celebration (Feast of the Sacrifice); <10 %). The reasons for expansion of sheep flock in the future were market price, high market demand, immediate return, ease of management, equilibrium between benefits and risks and suitability for home consumption, ranked in decreasing order of importance. The sheep production in southern Ethiopia is constrained by shortage of grazing land (23.3 %), recurrent drought (17.5 %), disease and parasite (15 %), marketing (10.8 %), water shortage (9 %) and other constraints including predators and lack of input, capital and lack of extension service. The presence of diversified and environmentally adaptable sheep breeds, high demand of mutton in the Awassa town and presence of nutritious and unutilized

  20. The ICDP-Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): new data from the Chew Bahir site in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Melanie; Dean, Jonathan; Asrat, Asfawossen; Cohen, Andrew; Foerster, Verena; Just, Janna; Klasen, Nicole; Lamb, Henry; Schäbitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin; Viehberg, Finn; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    There are currently few long, continuous, Pleistocene records from East Africa, meaning it has been difficult to establish the relative influence of low- versus high-latitude forcing on East African climate and climatic conditions at the time of anatomically modern human origin and subsequent dispersal. We have been attempting to address these gaps in our knowledge by analysing lake sediments taken from Chew Bahir, an area of playa mudflats in southern Ethiopia close to the site of the oldest-known anatomically modern human fossils at Omo-Kibish. In March 2014, Chew Bahir was cored to a depth of ~40 metres, and the resulting sediment sequence is estimated to cover the last ~115ka. In December 2014, a nearby site was drilled to a depth of ~280 metres as part of the International Continental scientific Drilling Programme - Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP). The oxygen and carbon isotope composition of endogenic calcite and other data from these cores will be presented. The data show some significant changes in water balance variability, the period prior to 70ka appears very unstable with some significant periods of drought and flood. Between 70-20ka the lake was stable and evaporative. The last 20ka years was wetter.

  1. Infecundity and subfertility among the rural population of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaghiorghis, H

    1991-10-01

    A 1980-81 survey of the rural population of Ethiopia found high levels of infecundity and subfertility, although there was considerable variation by region, ethnicity and age of women. Higher levels of infecundity were geographically concentrated in a broad belt that ran from the south and south-west of the country, across to the north-east. The analyses suggest that infecundity is influenced by ecological factors, more than by ethnicity.

  2. Flow, melt and fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Wookey, James; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay

    2014-05-01

    Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and use shear-wave splitting tomography to invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due aligned melt due to sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominate the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal magma storage dominate the signal and little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment, possibly due to a lack of mantle lithosphere. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is absent beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates in the upper mantle.

  3. Hydroclimate Forecasts in Ethiopia: Benefits, Impediments, and Ways Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.

  4. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  5. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction....

  6. Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Formal Vocational Education Programs in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malle, Abebe Yehualawork; Pirttimaa, Raija; Saloviita, Timo

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia, individuals with disabilities have limited access to educational and vocational training opportunities. This study investigates prevailing challenges and opportunities for the participation of students with disabilities in vocational education programs in Ethiopia. Data for the study were gathered from the five biggest regions out of…

  7. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction....

  8. Instructional Language Policy in Ethiopia: Motivated by Politics or the Educational Needs of Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.; Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language…

  9. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…

  10. Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

  11. Divorce in Ethiopia: the impact of early marriage and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Tilson, D; Larsen, U

    2000-07-01

    Forty-five per cent of first marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years, and two-thirds of women who divorce do so within the first 5 years of marriage. This paper looks at two factors that may have an impact on the risk of divorce in Ethiopia: early age of first marriage, and childlessness within the first marriage. Data used were from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia. A total of 8757 women of reproductive age (15-49) were analysed. Life table analysis was used to determine the median age at first marriage, first birth and the median duration of marriage. Cox models were analysed to determine the differentials of divorce. The results of this analysis showed that both early age at marriage and childlessness have a significant impact on the risk of divorce. An inverse relationship was found between age at marriage and risk of divorce. Having a child within the first marriage also significantly reduced the risk of divorce. In addition, several cultural and socioeconomic variables were significant predictors of divorce.

  12. Evolution, distribution, and characteristics of rifting in southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-04-01

    Southern Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.

  13. Divorce in Ethiopia: the impact of early marriage and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Tilson, D; Larsen, U

    2000-07-01

    Forty-five per cent of first marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years, and two-thirds of women who divorce do so within the first 5 years of marriage. This paper looks at two factors that may have an impact on the risk of divorce in Ethiopia: early age of first marriage, and childlessness within the first marriage. Data used were from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia. A total of 8757 women of reproductive age (15-49) were analysed. Life table analysis was used to determine the median age at first marriage, first birth and the median duration of marriage. Cox models were analysed to determine the differentials of divorce. The results of this analysis showed that both early age at marriage and childlessness have a significant impact on the risk of divorce. An inverse relationship was found between age at marriage and risk of divorce. Having a child within the first marriage also significantly reduced the risk of divorce. In addition, several cultural and socioeconomic variables were significant predictors of divorce. PMID:10979229

  14. Exploring Agro-Climatic Trends in Ethiopia Using CHIRPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreros, D. H.; Funk, C. C.; Brown, M. E.; Korecha, D.; Seid, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) uses the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) to monitor agricultural food production in different regions of the world. CHIRPS is a 1981-present, 5 day, approximately 5km resolution, rainfall product based on a combination of geostationary satellite observations, a high resolution climatology and in situ station observations. Furthermore, FEWS NET has developed a gridded implementation of the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), a water balance measurement indicator of crop performance. This study takes advantage of the CHIRPS' long term period of record and high spatial and temporal resolution to examine agro-climatic trends in Ethiopia. We use the CHIRPS rainfall dataset to calculate the WRSI for the boreal spring and summer crop seasons, as well as for spring-summer rangelands conditions. We find substantial long term rainfall declines in the spring and summer seasons across southeastern and northeastern Ethiopia. Crop Model results indicate that rainfall declines in the cropped regions have been associated with water deficits during the critical grain filling periods in well populated and/or highly vulnerable parts of eastern Ethiopia. WRSI results in the pastoral areas indicate substantial reductions in rangeland health during the later part of the growing seasons. These health declines correspond to the regions of Somaliland and Afar that have experienced chronic severe food insecurity since 2010. Key words: CHIRPS, satellite estimated rainfall, agricultural production

  15. Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year−1 and downward trends in rainfall of − 0.4 mm month−1 year−1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.

  16. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  17. Lake Volta, Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Lake Volta in Ghana was acquired March 31, 2002 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Lake Volta is one of the world's largest artificially created lakes. Lake Volta is actually a reservoir formed from the damming of the Volta River, and extends 250 miles north of the Akosombo Dam. The lake covers an area of 8,482 square km. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Linking long-term gully and river channel dynamics to environmental change using repeat photography (Northern Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Amaury; Nyssen, Jan; De Dapper, Morgan; Haile, Mitiku; Billi, Paolo; Munro, R. Neil; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

    2011-06-01

    In the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia gully occurrence is linked to poverty-driven unsustainable use of the land in a vulnerable semi-arid and mountainous environment, where intensive rainfall challenges the physical integrity of the landscape. Trends in gully and river channel erosion, and their relation to triggering environmental changes can proffer valuable insights into sustainable development in Northern Ethiopia. In order to assess the region-wide change in gully and river channel morphology over 140 years, a set of 57 historical photographs taken in Tigray, and, clearly displaying gully cross-sections, were precisely repeated from 2006 till 2009. Ninety-two percent of the gully and river sections (n = 38) increased in cross-sectional area during the studied period, especially after 1975. Two repeatedly photographed catchments of Lake Ashenge and Atsela allowed a detailed study of gully development from 1936 until 2009. A conceptual hydrogeomorphic model was devised for these catchments and validated for the Northern Ethiopian Highlands. Three major phases can be distinguished in the hydrological regime of the catchments. In the first phase, between 1868 (or earlier) and ca. 1965, the relatively stable channels showed an oversized morphology inherited from a previous period when external forcing in environmental conditions had caused the channels to shape. In the second phase (ca. 1965 - ca. 2000), increased aridity and continued vegetation clearance accelerated the channel dynamics of the gully and river system. The third phase (ca. 2000 - present) started after the large-scale implementation of soil and water conservation measures. In 2009, 23% of the gully and river sections were stabilizing. This paper validates previous research indicating severe land degradation in the second half of the 20th century. Additionally, it demonstrates that the recent erosive cycle started around 1965 and, that at the present time, improved land management stabilizes

  19. Natural resources and their prospects in the closed basins of rift valley marginal grabens in northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaza, Hailemariam; Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Zenebe, Amanuel; Deckers, Jozef; Vaneetvelde, Veerle; Lanckriet, Sil; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    With increasing population, producing more food and fibers has led to an expansion of the area under cultivation. For this, much attention is given to low-lying flat areas in search of suitable agricultural lands. The objectives of this paper are therefore: (1) to review the opportunities and challenges of natural resources in the marginal grabens for rural development; (2) to highlight the knowledge gaps and priorities in research and development in the marginal grabens, and (3) to supplement the literature review through repeat transect walks, focus group discussions and interviews across the western rift valley of northern Ethiopia. The paper shows that marginal grabens along the rift valleys are rich both in blue and green water resources due to their topographical and geological characteristics. Spate irrigation has been a growing water management practice to respond to soil moisture deficit. Besides, marginal grabens are fertile plains as a result of alluvial deposition that could be suitable for agricultural development. However, rainfall variability and groundwater withdrawal lead to graben basin closure and salinization. Notably, riverbed incisions and sediment deposition affects drainage systems and water supply in the marginal grabens. As a result, socioeconomic and natural capital of the marginal graben farmers are continuously threatened. Thus, the benefits of natural resources for rural development in the marginal grabens along the rift valley can be optimized if the current bottlenecks are converted into opportunities. A better understanding of the complex marginal graben system via a robust land evaluation framework will improve livelihoods of the communities that live in the (closed) marginal grabens. Keywords: population pressure, marginal grabens, endorheic lakes, salinization, Ethiopia

  20. Assessment of Late Quaternary strain partitioning in the Afar Triple Junction: Dobe and Hanle grabens, Ethiopia and Djibouti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polun, S. G.; Stockman, M. B.; Hickcox, K.; Horrell, D.; Tesfaye, S.; Gomez, F. G.

    2015-12-01

    As the only subaerial exposure of a ridge - ridge - ridge triple junction, the Afar region of Ethiopia and Djibouti offers a rare opportunity to assess strain partitioning within this type of triple junction. Here, the plate boundaries do not link discretely, but rather the East African rift meets the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts in a zone of diffuse normal faulting characterized by a lack of magmatic activity, referred to as the central Afar. An initial assessment of Late Quaternary strain partitioning is based on faulted landforms in the Dobe - Hanle graben system in Ethiopia and Djibouti. These two extensional basins are connected by an imbricated accommodation zone. Several fault scarps occur within terraces formed during the last highstand of Lake Dobe, around 5 ka - they provide a means of calibrating a numerical model of fault scarp degradation. Additional timing constraints will be provided by pending exposure ages. The spreading rates of both grabens are equivalent, however in Dobe graben, extension is partitioned 2:1 between northern, south dipping faults and the southern, north dipping fault. Extension in Hanle graben is primarily focused on the north dipping Hanle fault. On the north margin of Dobe graben, the boundary fault bifurcates, where the basin-bordering fault displays a significantly higher modeled uplift rate than the more distal fault, suggesting a basinward propagation of faulting. On the southern Dobe fault, surveyed fault scarps have ages ranging from 30 - 5 ka with uplift rates of 0.71, 0.47, and 0.68 mm/yr, suggesting no secular variation in slip rates from the late Plestocene through the Holocene. These rates are converted into horizontal stretching estimates, which are compared with regional strain estimated from velocities of relatively sparse GPS data.

  1. Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Ethiopia and Chad.

    PubMed

    Mura, Alessandra; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ginesta, Jacques; Lafrance, Bertrand; Magnan, Stéphan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    DNA extracted from 363 ticks collected in Ethiopia and 9 ticks collected in Chad, Africa were screened by PCR to detect DNA from spotted fever group rickettsiae. Fifteen ticks (4.1%) collected in Ethiopia and one tick (11%) collected in Chad tested positive when PCR targeting the gltA and ompA rickettsial genes was performed. PCR-positive products of the gltA and ompA genes were used for DNA sequencing. Rickettsia africae was detected in 12/118 Amblyomma lepidum and in 1/2 A. variegatum. Also, 2/12 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes collected in Ethiopia and one H. marginatum rufipes collected in Chad were positive for R. aeschlimannii. Our results confirm the previously reported presence of R. africae in Ethiopia and also show the first evidence of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected in Ethiopia and Chad.

  2. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria.

  3. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria. PMID:25843811

  4. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  5. Analysis of the Junction of the East African Rift and the Cretaceous-Paleogene Rifts in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariita, N. O.; Tadesse, K.; Keller, G. R.

    2003-12-01

    younger EAR. For example there is significant crustal thinning in the Lake Turkana area of the northern Kenya segment of the EAR system. In regard to the recent EAGLE experiment in Ethiopia, we are ivestigating if the transition from relatively thick crust (~40 km) to thinned, rifted crust is as abrupt in Ethiopia as it is in Kenya.

  6. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  7. Lakes Ecosystem Services Online

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

  8. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  9. Discrete Wavelet Packet Transforms and volcanic tremor: method and application to Erta 'Ale, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. P.; Carniel, R.; Malone, S.

    2005-12-01

    The time-varying properties of volcanic tremor demand advanced techniques capable of analyzing changes in both time and frequency domains. Specifically, rapid data preprocessing techniques with the ability to distinguish signal from noise are especially valuable in analyzing the temporal, spatial, and spectral properties of these signals. To this end, we use the Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform and the Best Shift Basis algorithm to select an orthonormal basis for continuous volcanic tremor data, then apply a simple statistical test to eliminate frequency bands that primarily consist of Gaussian white noise. We then use the Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform to compute and analyze features in the detail coefficients of each "signal" band. Because MODWPT detail coefficients are equivalent to a time series convolved with a zero phase filter, we apply standard polarization and amplitude-based location techniques to each frequency band's detail coefficients to analyze possible source locations and mechanisms. To demonstrate the usefulness of these techniques, we present a sample analysis of data from Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, recorded on a temporary network in November 2003. Data were sampled at 100 Hz and the DWPT was computed with the LA(16) wavelet to a maximum level of j = 7. The optimal basis for this data set consists of 54 frequency bands, but only 9 contain meaningful "signal" energy. We identify two frequency bands whose locations suggest a distributed source; three frequency bands whose signals may come from the lava lake itself; three high-frequency bands of scattered energy; and one very high frequency band of non-Gaussian instrument noise. Finally, we discuss optimization efforts, computational efficiency, and the feasibility of using similar wavelet methods to preprocess data in real time or near real time.

  10. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact.

  11. Differentiating flow, melt, or fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.

    2014-05-01

    is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.

  12. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia.

  13. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia. PMID:25481716

  14. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  15. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…

  16. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  17. Lake Layers: Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…

  18. Diarrhoea morbidity in an urban area of southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getaneh, T; Assefa, A; Tadesse, Z

    1997-08-01

    A diarrhoea morbidity survey was conducted in children between the ages of six and 59 months in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia. Nearly 37% of the 820 children surveyed had one or more episodes of diarrhoea over a period of one month preceding the study. Although several factors showed significant association with diarrhoea morbidity on bivariate analysis, child's age, immunisation status, father's ethnicity, family income and availability of latrine were the only significant variables on multivariate analysis. Based on the study results feasible intervention measures are recommended.

  19. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Background Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. Methods The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. Results A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001), wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001) and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001) from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade. Conclusion Economic growth

  20. Erosion-driven environmental degradation in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, N.; Willenbring, J.; Terwilliger, V. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Tigray Plateau of Northern Ethiopia is a key region for the study of relationships between climate, land use and the rise and fall of complex societies. Tigray has been the home to a succession of highly developed and powerful kingdoms and has a long history of agriculture, dating back to ~ 6,000 yrs BP. Unfortunately its mountainous topography makes the region particularly susceptible to accelerated erosion and mass wasting from intense land use practices and its location along the ITCZ and the East African rift system make the area prone to climatic changes. Today, after 6,000 years of agriculture, of which the last ~3,000 years have involved intense land use, the once fertile Tigray region is now highly degraded with frequent famine and some of the highest rates of soil erosion in the world. We find, based on a comparison of background (long-term) and anthropogenic short-term time-averaged erosion rates that deforestation and a transition to cropland farming likely increased rates of localized upstream erosion and downstream deposition by up to an order of magnitude greater than the natural background rates. We define three distinct periods of note in terms of rates and patterns of Holocene erosion and deposition in the east Tigray Plateau of Ethiopia. First, we take note of the depositional record and paleo-flaural reconstructions of a time of regional climate change yet little landuse change in Ethiopia, 7,500 - 6,000 cal yr BP (Late Prehistory and the beginning of the migration of peoples out of the Sahara and into Sudan and the highlands of Ethiopia). Second, we look at the stratigraphic record of the beginning of intense landuse and cultivation in the gently sloping lowland areas, 3200 -2300 Cal yrs BP (Pre-Aksumite period and the establishment of the first large centralized government in the upper Highlands). Third, we identify from the geological record a period of deforestation and farming of higher elevation, steep sloped hillsides and terraces 2300

  1. Food of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Erkkila, Leo F.; Tetzloff, Clifford L.

    1965-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,492 lake trout and 83 siscowets collected from Lake Superior. Data are given on the food of lake trout of legal size (17 inches or longer) by year, season, and depth of water, and on the relation between food and size among smaller lake trout. Fish contributed 96.7 to 99.9 per cent of the total volume of food in the annual samples. Ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) were most common (52.2 to 87.5 per cent of the volume) in 1950 to 1953 and American smelt ranked first (65.6 per cent of the volume) in 1963. Cottids were in 8.9 to 12.3 per cent of the stomachs in 1950 to 1953 but in only 4.3 per cent in 1963. Insects ranked second to fish in occurrence (9.6 per cent for the combined samples) and crustaceans followed at 3.9 per cent. The greatest seasonal changes in the food of lake trout were among fish caught at 35 fathoms and shallower. The occurrence of Coregonus increased from 34.6 per cent in February-March to 71.1 per cent in October-December. Smelt were in 76.9 per cent of the stomachs in February-March but in only 2.2 per cent in October-December. Cottids, Mysis relicta, and insects were most common in the July-September collections. Lake trout taken at depths greater than 35 fathoms had eaten a higher percentage of Cottidae and Coregonus than had those captured in shallower water. Smelt, ninespine sticklebacks, Mysis, and insects were more frequent in stomachs of lake trout from less than 35 fathoms. Crustaceans comprised more than 70 per cent of the total volume of food for 4.0- to 7.9-inch lake trout but their importance decreased as the lake trout grew larger. Pontoporeia affinis was the most common in the stomachs of 4.0- to 6.9-inch lake trout and Mysis held first rank at 7.0 to 12.9 inches. Ostracods were important only to 4.0- to 4.9-inch lake trout. As the lake trout became larger, the importance of fish grew from 4.4-per cent occurrence at 5.0 to 5.9 inches to 93.9 per cent at 16.0 to 16.9 inches. Smelt were most commonly eaten by

  2. Dynamically downscaled multi-model ensemble seasonal forecasts over Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asharaf, Shakeel; Fröhlich, Kristina; Fernandez, Jesus; Cardoso, Rita; Nikulin, Grigory; Früh, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Truthful and reliable seasonal rainfall predictions have an important social and economic value for the east African countries as their economy is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and pastoral systems. Only June to September (JJAS) seasonal rainfall accounts to more than 80% crop production in Ethiopia. Hence, seasonal foresting is a crucial concern for the region. The European Provision of Regional Impact Assessment on a seasonal to decadal timescale (EUPORIAS) project offers a common framework to understand hindcast uncertainties through the use of multi-model and multi-member simulations over east Africa. Under this program, the participating regional climate models (RCMs) were driven by the atmospheric-only version of the ECEARTH global climate model, which provides hindcasts of a five-months period (May to September) from 1991-2012. In this study the RCMs downscaled rainfall is evaluated with respect to the observed JJAS rainfall over Ethiopia. Both deterministic and probabilistic based forecast skills are assessed. Our preliminary results show the potential usefulness of multi-model ensemble simulations in forecasting the seasonal rainfall over the region.

  3. Outbreak of tungiasis following a trip to Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Grupper, M; Potasman, I

    2012-09-01

    Tungiasis is a skin disease caused by the ectoparasite sand flea Tunga penetrans. Although tungiasis is an important health problem in endemic areas, mainly South America and sub-Saharan Africa, it is reported uncommonly in travelers. We describe an outbreak of tungiasis in a group of travelers to Ethiopia. Following the diagnosis of tungiasis in a member of a group of 17 Israeli travelers to Ethiopia, other affected members were identified by photograph assisted self diagnosis. The characteristics, including relevant demographic and epidemiologic data were recorded using a telephone interview and computerized questionnaire, and analyzed subsequently. The attack rate of tungiasis in the travel group was 53% (9 patients). Most of the patients (89%) wore open sandals during prolonged periods of their journey, but the pattern of shoeware use was similar in unaffected group members. An insect bite was not felt by any patient. The median number of skin lesions was one, and most lesions were located on the foot (7 of 9 travelers), but the hands were also affected in 2 travelers. All skin lesions healed without a need for a major intervention and without major sequela within 5 weeks of their appearance. Tungiasis may be underdiagnosed in travelers. Medical personnel should include tungiasis in pre-travel recommendations, and post-travel assessment. PMID:23031181

  4. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission.

  5. Patterns of caesarean-section delivery in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mashalla, Yohana J.S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Setting The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services. Objective The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS) delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Results Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socio-economic standing. Conclusion Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions. PMID:27542289

  6. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714

  7. Participatory Forest Management in Ethiopia: Learning from Pilot Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-04-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

  8. Soil erosion assessment and control in Northeast Wollega, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adugna, A.; Abegaz, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas and target locations for appropriate development of soil and water conservation measures. Fieldwork and household survey were conducted to identify major determinants of soil erosion control. Six principal factors were used to calculate soil loss per year, such as rainfallerosivity, soil erodiblity, slope length, slope steepness, crop management and erosion-control practices. The soil losses have shown spatio-temporal variations that range from 4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in forest to 65.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in cropland. Results from the analysis of stepwise multiple linear regression show that sustainable soil erosion control are determined byknowledge of farmers about soil conservation, land tenure security and off-farm income at community level. Thus, policy aim at keeping land productivity will need to focus on terracing, inter-cropping and improved agro-forestry practices.

  9. New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity.

    PubMed

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Gibert, Luis; Melillo, Stephanie M; Ryan, Timothy M; Alene, Mulugeta; Deino, Alan; Levin, Naomi E; Scott, Gary; Saylor, Beverly Z

    2015-05-28

    Middle Pliocene hominin species diversity has been a subject of debate over the past two decades, particularly after the naming of Australopithecus bahrelghazali and Kenyanthropus platyops in addition to the well-known species Australopithecus afarensis. Further analyses continue to support the proposal that several hominin species co-existed during this time period. Here we recognize a new hominin species (Australopithecus deyiremeda sp. nov.) from 3.3-3.5-million-year-old deposits in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. The new species from Woranso-Mille shows that there were at least two contemporaneous hominin species living in the Afar region of Ethiopia between 3.3 and 3.5 million years ago, and further confirms early hominin taxonomic diversity in eastern Africa during the Middle Pliocene epoch. The morphology of Au. deyiremeda also reinforces concerns related to dentognathic (that is, jaws and teeth) homoplasy in Plio-Pleistocene hominins, and shows that some dentognathic features traditionally associated with Paranthropus and Homo appeared in the fossil record earlier than previously thought. PMID:26017448

  10. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance. PMID:24069773

  11. Nonlinear vegetation cover changes in the North Ethiopian Highlands: Evidence from the Lake Ashenge closed basin.

    PubMed

    Lanckriet, Sil; Rucina, Stephen; Frankl, Amaury; Ritler, Alfons; Gelorini, Vanessa; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation cover changes in African drylands are often thought to result from population growth, social factors and aridification. Here we show that long-term vegetation proxy records can help disentangling these main driving factors. Taking the case of North Ethiopia, we performed an integrated investigation of land cover changes over the last four centuries around the endorheic Lake Ashenge, as derived from pollen analysis and repeat photography complemented with information from historical sources. Pollen and sediment analysis of radiocarbon-dated lake deposits shows a phase of environmental destabilization during the 18th century, after a more stable previous period. This is evidenced by decreases of tree pollen (Juniperus, Olea, Celtis, Podocarpus<5%), increases in Poaceae (>40%) and deposition of coarser silt lake sediments (>70%). Quantitative analysis of 30 repeated landscape photographs around the lake indicates a gradual decline of the vegetation cover since a relative maximum during the mid-19th Century. Vegetation cover declined sharply between the 1950s and the 1980s, but has since begun to recover. Overall, the data from around Lake Ashenge reveal a nonlinear pattern of deforestation and forest regrowth with several periods of vegetation cover change over the past four centuries. While there is forcing of regional drought and the regional land tenure system, the cyclic changes do not support a simplified focus on aridification or population growth. PMID:26117500

  12. Nonlinear vegetation cover changes in the North Ethiopian Highlands: Evidence from the Lake Ashenge closed basin.

    PubMed

    Lanckriet, Sil; Rucina, Stephen; Frankl, Amaury; Ritler, Alfons; Gelorini, Vanessa; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation cover changes in African drylands are often thought to result from population growth, social factors and aridification. Here we show that long-term vegetation proxy records can help disentangling these main driving factors. Taking the case of North Ethiopia, we performed an integrated investigation of land cover changes over the last four centuries around the endorheic Lake Ashenge, as derived from pollen analysis and repeat photography complemented with information from historical sources. Pollen and sediment analysis of radiocarbon-dated lake deposits shows a phase of environmental destabilization during the 18th century, after a more stable previous period. This is evidenced by decreases of tree pollen (Juniperus, Olea, Celtis, Podocarpus<5%), increases in Poaceae (>40%) and deposition of coarser silt lake sediments (>70%). Quantitative analysis of 30 repeated landscape photographs around the lake indicates a gradual decline of the vegetation cover since a relative maximum during the mid-19th Century. Vegetation cover declined sharply between the 1950s and the 1980s, but has since begun to recover. Overall, the data from around Lake Ashenge reveal a nonlinear pattern of deforestation and forest regrowth with several periods of vegetation cover change over the past four centuries. While there is forcing of regional drought and the regional land tenure system, the cyclic changes do not support a simplified focus on aridification or population growth.

  13. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, F.L.; Wells, F.C.; Shelby, W.J.; McPherson, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are impoundments on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and are a source of water for municipal industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Small vertical temperature variations in both lakes were attributed to shallow depths in the lakes and short retention times of water in the lakes during the summer months. The largest areal variations in dissolved oxygen generally occur in Lake Austin during the summer as a result of releases of water from below the thermocline in Lake Travis. Except for iron, manganese, and mercury, dissolved concentrations of trace elements in water collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake did not exceed the primary or secondary drinking water standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Little or no effect of stormwater runoff on temperature, dissolved oxygen, or minor elements could be detected in either Lake Austin or Town Lake. Little seasonal or areal variation was noted in nitrogen concentrations in Lake Austin or Town lake. Total phosphorus concentrations generally were small in both lakes. Increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected after storm runoff inflow in Town Lake, but not in Lake Austin; densities of fecal-coliform bacteria increased in Lake Austin and Town Lake, but were substantially greater in Town Lake than in Lake Austin. 18 refs., 38 figs., 59 tabs.

  14. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles; Ebener, Mark P.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.

  15. Hydrologic modelling for Lake Basaka: development and application of a conceptual water budget model.

    PubMed

    Dinka, Megersa O; Loiskandl, Willibald; Ndambuki, Julius M

    2014-09-01

    Quantification of fluxes of water into and out of terminal lakes like Basaka has fundamental challenges. This is due to the fact that accurate measurement and quantification of most of the parameters of a lake's hydrologic cycle are difficult. Furthermore, quantitative understanding of the hydrologic systems and hence, the data-intensive modelling is difficult in developing countries like Ethiopia due to limitation of sufficient recorded data. Therefore, formulation of a conceptual water balance model is extremely important as it presents a convenient analytical tool with simplified assumptions to simulate the magnitude of unknown fluxes. In the current study, a conceptual lake water balance model was systematically formulated, solved, calibrated, and validated successfully. Then, the surface water and groundwater interaction was quantified, and a mathematical relationship developed. The overall agreement between the observed and simulated lake stage at monthly time step was confirmed based on the standard performance parameters (R(2), MAE, RMSE, E(f)). The result showed that hydrological water balance of the lake is dominated by the groundwater (GW) component. The net GW flux in recent period (post-2000s) accounts about 56% of the total water inflow. Hence, GW plays a leading role in the hydrodynamics and existence of Lake Basaka and is mostly responsible for the expansion of the lake. Thus, identification of the potential sources/causes for the GW flux plays a leading role in order to limit the further expansion of the lake. Measurement of GW movement and exchange in the area is a high priority for future research. PMID:24816590

  16. Hydrologic modelling for Lake Basaka: development and application of a conceptual water budget model.

    PubMed

    Dinka, Megersa O; Loiskandl, Willibald; Ndambuki, Julius M

    2014-09-01

    Quantification of fluxes of water into and out of terminal lakes like Basaka has fundamental challenges. This is due to the fact that accurate measurement and quantification of most of the parameters of a lake's hydrologic cycle are difficult. Furthermore, quantitative understanding of the hydrologic systems and hence, the data-intensive modelling is difficult in developing countries like Ethiopia due to limitation of sufficient recorded data. Therefore, formulation of a conceptual water balance model is extremely important as it presents a convenient analytical tool with simplified assumptions to simulate the magnitude of unknown fluxes. In the current study, a conceptual lake water balance model was systematically formulated, solved, calibrated, and validated successfully. Then, the surface water and groundwater interaction was quantified, and a mathematical relationship developed. The overall agreement between the observed and simulated lake stage at monthly time step was confirmed based on the standard performance parameters (R(2), MAE, RMSE, E(f)). The result showed that hydrological water balance of the lake is dominated by the groundwater (GW) component. The net GW flux in recent period (post-2000s) accounts about 56% of the total water inflow. Hence, GW plays a leading role in the hydrodynamics and existence of Lake Basaka and is mostly responsible for the expansion of the lake. Thus, identification of the potential sources/causes for the GW flux plays a leading role in order to limit the further expansion of the lake. Measurement of GW movement and exchange in the area is a high priority for future research.

  17. Biomagnification of DDT and its metabolites in four fish species of a tropical lake.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Ermias; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Borgstrøm, Reidar; Salbu, Brit; Gebremariam, Zinabu; Dadebo, Elias; Skipperud, Lindis; Eklo, Ole Martin

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations and biomagnifications of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites were examined in four fish species (Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, and Carassius auratus) from Lake Ziway, Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Paired stomach content analysis, and stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ(15)N, ‰) and carbon (δ(13)C, ‰) were used to study the trophic position of the fish species in the lake. 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDD were the main DDTs identified in the fish samples, with 4,4'-DDE as the most predominant metabolite, with mean concentration ranging from 1.4 to 17.8 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). The concentrations of DDTs found in fish from Lake Ziway were, in general lower than those found in most studies carried out in other African Lakes. However, the presence of DDT in all tissue samples collected from all fish species in the lake indicates the magnitude of the incidence. Moreover, the observed mean 4,4'-DDE to 4,4'-DDT ratio below 1 in C. auratus from Lake Ziway may suggest a recent exposure of these species to DDT, indicating that a contamination source is still present. 4,4'-DDE was found to biomagnify in the fish species of the lake, and increases with trophic level, however, the biomagnification rate was generally lower than what has been reported from other areas. Significantly higher concentrations of 4,4'-DDE were found in the top consumer fish in Lake Ziway, C. gariepinus than in O. niloticus (t=2.6, P<0.01), T. zillii (t=2.5, P<0.02) and C. auratus (t=2.2, P<0.03).

  18. Adult Literacy for Development in Ethiopia: A Review of Policy and Performance at Mid-Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    When Ethiopia launched its National Literacy Campaign (NLC) in July 1979, it was announced that illiteracy would be removed from the urban areas of the country by 1982 and from rural Ethiopia by 1987. By the end of the 12th round of the NLC in February 1985, 16.9 million youths and adults had been covered by the campaign, and 12 million (almost…

  19. Environmental change and human occupation of southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya during the last 20,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Verena; Vogelsang, Ralf; Junginger, Annett; Asrat, Asfawossen; Lamb, Henry F.; Schaebitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin H.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of the impact of climate-driven environmental change on prehistoric human populations is hampered by the scarcity of continuous paleoenvironmental records in the vicinity of archaeological sites. Here we compare a continuous paleoclimatic record of the last 20 ka before present from the Chew Bahir basin, southwest Ethiopia, with the available archaeological record of human presence in the region. The correlation of this record with orbitally-driven insolation variations suggests a complex nonlinear response of the environment to climate forcing, reflected in several long-term and short-term transitions between wet and dry conditions, resulting in abrupt changes between favorable and unfavorable living conditions for humans. Correlating the archaeological record in the surrounding region of the Chew Bahir basin, presumably including montane and lake-marginal refugia for human populations, with our climate record suggests a complex interplay between humans and their environment during the last 20 ka. The result may contribute to our understanding of how a dynamic environment may have impacted the adaptation and dispersal of early humans in eastern Africa.

  20. International Clinical Trial Day and clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed

    2014-12-19

    Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

  1. International Clinical Trial Day and clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa. PMID:25526797

  2. Key informants' perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia's health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  3. Stage fluctuations of Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, Leo B.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes lake-stage fluctuations of 83 gaged lakes in Wisconsin and presents techniques for estimating stage fluctuation at ungaged lakes. Included are stage information at 83 lakes and stage-frequency data for 32 of these lakes that had sufficient record for analysis. Lakes are classified by a hydrologic-topographic lake classification scheme as ground-water flowthrough (GWF) lakes, surface-water drainage (SWD) lakes, and surface-water flow-through (SWF) lakes. Lakes within the same class were found to have similar water-level fluctuations. The lake-stage records indicate that most annual maximums occur during the months of May and June for all three classes. Annual minimum lake levels generally occur in September for surface-water drainage lakes, in March for surface-water flowthrough lakes, and in November for ground-water flow-through lakes. Data for each lake include location, period of water-level record, hydrologic classification, drainage area, surface area, lake volume, maximum depth, long-term mean stage and its standard deviation, maximum and minimum observed lake stage, and the average annual lake-stage fluctuation.

  4. Evaporation Estimation of Rift Valley Lakes: Comparison of Models

    PubMed Central

    Melesse, Assefa M.; Abtew, Wossenu; Dessalegne, Tibebe

    2009-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing the latent heat flux. In addition, most available ET models depend on intensive meteorological information for ET estimation. Such data are not available at the desired spatial and temporal scales in less developed and remote parts of the world. This limitation has necessitated the development of simple models that are less data intensive and provide ET estimates with acceptable level of accuracy. Remote sensing approach can also be applied to large areas where meteorological data are not available and field scale data collection is costly, time consuming and difficult. In areas like the Rift Valley regions of Ethiopia, the applicability of the Simple Method (Abtew Method) of lake evaporation estimation and surface energy balance approach using remote sensing was studied. The Simple Method and a remote sensing-based lake evaporation estimates were compared to the Penman, Energy balance, Pan, Radiation and Complementary Relationship Lake Evaporation (CRLE) methods applied in the region. Results indicate a good correspondence of the models outputs to that of the above methods. Comparison of the 1986 and 2000 monthly lake ET from the Landsat images to the Simple and Penman Methods show that the remote sensing and surface energy balance approach is promising for large scale applications to understand the spatial variation of the latent heat flux. PMID:22303142

  5. Hydrology of Indiana lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perrey, Joseph Irving; Corbett, Don Melvin

    1956-01-01

    The stabilization of lake levels often requires the construction of outlet control structures. A detailed study of past lake-level elevations and other hydologic date is necessary to establish a level that can be maintained and to determine the means necessary for maintaining the established level. Detailed lake-level records for 28 lakes are included in the report, and records for over 100 other lakes data are available in the U.S. Geological Survey Office, Indianapolis, Ind. Evaporation data from the four Class A evaporation station of the U. S. Weather Bureau have been compiled in this report. A table showing the established legal lake level and related data is included.

  6. Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake Ontario were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake Ontario from Lake Erie makes Lake Ontario unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.

  7. David Morrison on Lake Vostok

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. David Morrison discusses the implications of research possibilities at Lake Vostok, one of the largest subglacial lakes located over two miles beneath the ice in Antarctica. The lake has been c...

  8. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  9. Conceptual design of first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, T.D.; Melaku, M.; Betemariam, G.

    1996-12-31

    The Aluto-Langano Geothermal Pilot Plant will be the first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia. Its purpose is to utilize existing wells, drilled about a decade ago, to generate additional electricity for the power system and to prove the capability of the Aluto-Langano field to support expansion to 30 MWe. This paper discusses the evaluation of possible production wells, in combination with three power cycle options, leading to selection of a preferred development concept. Despite the small size of the pilot plant, the high elevation of the site, and the very high gas content of the field, a condensing unit was selected. Particular design features proposed for the steamfield and power plant are explained, including those that reflect the pilot plant nature of the project.

  10. What Time is it? Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tiruneh, Yordanos M.; Wilson, Ira B.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and explored the sociocultural context in which they relate to their regimen requirements. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 105 patients on ART and observations held at the study clinic. We analyzed data using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Our findings indicate that study participants are highly adherent to dose but less adherent to dose schedule. Strict dose time instructions were reported as stressful and unrealistic. The discrepancy between adherence to dose and dose schedule could be explained by time perception, difficulty with the strictness of medication regimens, or beliefs about dose timing adherence. Care providers should acknowledge the complexities of medication practices and engage in shared decision-making to incorporate patients’ perspectives and identify effective interventions. PMID:26873491

  11. The tale of the hearts: deciding on abortion in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Meselu Taye; Hilden, Per Kristian; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary Ethiopia, abortion decision-making is a challenging process involving moral and/or religious dilemmas, as well as considerations of health and safety. Amidst widespread condemnation of female premarital sex and clear moral sanction against induced abortion, young Ethiopian women are nevertheless sexually active and induced abortions are still sought and performed, with the potential for grave physical harm and social stigmatization. This paper examines young unmarried Ethiopian women's narratives of abortion decision-making. In particular, it identifies and explores the operations of a particular discursive shape from within in such narratives, here described as The tale of the hearts. Analysing The tale of the hearts as a decision-making resource, it is argued, allows us to explore the particular, local, historical and cultural character of Ethiopian women's abortion decision-making dilemmas and the culturally available resources contributing to their resolution.

  12. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  13. Factors associated with place of death in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying at home is highly prevalent in Africa partly due to lack of accessibility of modern health services. In turn, limited infrastructure and health care deliveries in Africa complicate access to health services. A weak infrastructure and limited health facilities with lower quality in Ethiopia resulted poor health service utilization and coverage, high morbidity and mortality rates. We examined whether people in Addis Ababa died in health facilities and investigated the basic factors associated with place of death. Methods We used verbal autopsy data of 4,776 adults (age>14 years) for the years 2006–2010 from the Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program (AAMSP). The main data source of AAMSP is the burial surveillance from all cemeteries in Addis Ababa. We provide descriptive statistics of place of adult deaths and discussed their covariates using multivariate analyses. Results Only 28.7% died at health facilities, while the remaining died out of health facilities. There was an increase trend in the proportion of health facility deaths from 25.3% in 2006 to 32.5% in 2010. The risk of health facility death versus out of health facility deaths decreased with age. Compared with those who had no education educated people were more likely to die at health facilities. The chance of in health facility death was a little higher for females than males while religion, occupational status and ethnicity of the deceased had no any significance difference in place of death. Conclusion Both demographic and social factors determine where adults will die in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The majority of people in Addis Ababa died out of health facilities. The health system should also give special attention to the emerging non communicable diseases like cancer for effective treatment of patients. PMID:23530478

  14. Gravity field and isostatic state of Ethiopia and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Over 35,000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models against geologic structures over a part of the Afro-Arabian shield. The area of Ethiopia covers an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ≈5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and the Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinesz (flexural rigidity D = 10 22 Nm) models. The isostatic residual anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expressions of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity in the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. The small mean isostatic residual anomaly (about 8 mGal) and the isostatic analysis show a slight positive bias indicating under compensation. The undercompensation may imply that there are upper crustal features that are not compensated regionally (probably supported by the rigidity of the lithosphere) and isostatic disequilibrium in the region. Therefore, the high topography of Ethiopia and East African plateau is partly compensated by thicker crust (broad negative isostatic regional anomaly) and partly by dynamic forces. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and quantitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  15. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  16. Child survival during the 2002-2003 drought in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    De Waal, A; Taffesse, A Seyoum; Carruth, L

    2006-01-01

    Droughts in Ethiopia have commonly been associated with increased child mortality. Early indications were that the 2002/03 drought, which affected 13.2 million people, was no exception, despite a large relief operation. Humanitarian agencies reported sharp increases in child deaths and pockets of acute distress in some hard-hit localities. In response, the 2004 Ethiopia Child Survival Survey (ECSS) was designed to investigate the impact of the drought on child survival in the general population. The survey covered 4816 households in both drought-affected and non-drought affected, as well as rural and urban localities. Data from the ECSS indicate that child mortality was indeed higher in drought-affected areas. However, a closer analysis reveals that this differential is attributable to chronic conditions in those localities, rather than the immediate impact of the 2002/03 drought. Multivariate analysis was used to construct a model for the determinants of child survival in the sample population. Household-level demographic factors, household-level food and livelihood security, community-level economic production, and access to potable water, were predictive of child survival. Additionally, household receipt of food aid had a small but significant positive association with child survival, even though the ECSS cannot determine either the underlying causal mechanisms of this association or the role of confounding factors. Nonetheless, it is remarkable that the most extensive drought in the country's modern history passed without a measurable increase in child mortality among the general population. Yet Ethiopian children still suffer unacceptably high rates of chronic malnutrition and poor life chances, and large populations continue to live at the brink of destitution and calamity.

  17. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  18. The changing face of obstetric fistula surgery in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jeremy; Ayenachew, Fekade; Ballard, Karen D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the incidence and type of obstetric fistula presenting to Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia over a 4-year period. Study design This is a 4-year retrospective survey of obstetric fistula treated at three Hamlin Fistula Hospitals in Ethiopia, where approximately half of all women in the country are treated. The operation logbook was reviewed to identify all new cases of obstetric fistula presenting from 2011 to 2015. New cases of urinary fistula were classified by fistula type (high or low), age, and parity of the woman. Results In total, 2,593 new cases of urinary fistulae were identified in the study period. The number of new cases fell by 20% per year over the 4 years (P<0.001). A total of 1,845 cases (71.1%) were low (ischemic) fistulae, and 804 cases (43.6%) of these had an extreme form of low circumferential fistula. A total of 638 (24.6%) women had a high bladder fistula, which predominantly occurs following surgery, specifically cesarean section or emergency hysterectomy, and 110 (4.2%) women had a ureteric fistula. The incidence of high fistulae increased over the study period from 26.9% to 36.2% (P<0.001). A greater proportion of multiparous women had a high bladder fistula (70.3%) compared with primigravid women (29.7%) (P<0.001). Conversely, a greater proportion of primiparous women experienced a low circumferential fistulae (68.6%) compared with multiparous women (31.4%) (P<0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a decline in the number of Ethiopian women being treated for new obstetric urinary fistulae. However, the type of fistula being presented for treatment is changing, with a rise in high fistulae that very likely occurred following cesarean section and a decline in the classic low fistulae that arise following obstructed childbirth. PMID:27445505

  19. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included randomly selected primary school students. Hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Hemocue haemoglobinometer. A child was identified as anemic if the hemoglobin concentration was <11.5 g/dl for children (5–11 yrs) and < 12 g/dl for child older than 12 years age. Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to calculate prevalence ratios. Result The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.1% (95% CI: 24.98, 29.14): 13.8% had mild, 10.8% moderate, and 2.3% severe anemia. Children with in the age group of 5-9 years (APR, 1.083; 95% CI, 1.044- 1.124) were at higher risk for anemia. Paternal education (Illiterate, 1.109; 1.044 - 1.178) was positively associated with anemia. Children who had irregular legume consumption (APR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.022 -1.118) were at higher risk for anemia. Conclusion About a quarter of school children suffer from anemia and their educational potential is likely to be affected especially for those with moderate and severe anemia. Child age, irregular legume consumption, and low paternal schooling were associated with anemia. Intervention programmes aimed to reduce anemia among school children are crucial to ensure proper growth and development of children. PMID:25902055

  20. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  1. Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of

  2. Assessing the Potential Hydrological Impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana Water Level Using Multi-Source Satellite Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Senai, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Turkana, the largest desert lake in the world, is fed by ungauged or poorly gauged river systems. To meet the demand of electricity in the East African region, Ethiopia is currently building the Gibe III hydroelectric dam on the Omo River, which supplies more than 80% of the inflows to Lake Turkana. On completion, the Gibe III dam will be the tallest dam in Africa with a height of 241 m. However, the nature of interactions and potential impacts of regulated inflows to Lake Turkana are not well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable in-situ datasets. In this study, we used 12 years (1998–2009) of existing multi-source satellite and model-assimilated global weather data. We use calibrated multi-source satellite data-driven water balance model for Lake Turkana that takes into account model routed runoff, lake/reservoir evapotranspiration, direct rain on lakes/reservoirs and releases from the dam to compute lake water levels. The model evaluates the impact of Gibe III dam using three different approaches such as (a historical approach, a knowledge-based approach, and a nonparametric bootstrap resampling approach) to generate rainfall-runoff scenarios. All the approaches provided comparable and consistent results. Model results indicated that the hydrological impact of the dam on Lake Turkana would vary with the magnitude and distribution of rainfall post-dam commencement. On average, the reservoir would take up to 8–10 months, after commencement, to reach a minimum operation level of 201 m depth of water. During the dam filling period, the lake level would drop up to 2 m (95% confidence) compared to the lake level modelled without the dam. The lake level variability caused by regulated inflows after the dam commissioning were found to be within the natural variability of the lake of 4.8 m. Moreover, modelling results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam would depend on the initial lake level at the time of

  3. Lessons from a Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethals, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)

  4. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  5. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  6. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... backdrops for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for ... western edge of the Rocky Mountains and eastern rim of the Great Basin. This early-winter image pair was acquired by the Multi-angle ...

  7. The lakes of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

  9. Lake Wobegon Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraleda, Jorge; Stork, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater…

  10. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  11. Lake Superior revisited 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCallum, Wayne R.; Selgeby, James H.

    1987-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community has changed substantially since the early 1960s, when control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) became effective. Self-reproducing stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in many inshore areas, although they have not yet reached pre-sea lamprey abundance; offshore lake trout are probably at or near pre-sea lamprey abundance. Stocks of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) appear to have fully recovered; commercial catches are at or above historical levels. Lake herring (Coregonus artedii) are recovering rapidly in U.S. waters and are abundant in western Canadian waters. The population of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which declined in the 1970s, is recovering. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) are becoming more abundant as a result of increased stocking in U.S. waters and are reproducing in most suitable tributaries; they have become significant in anglers' creels.

  12. Lakes and reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Taub, F.B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume in the Ecosystems of the World series studies lakes and reservoirs. The book opens with a discussion of the ecosystem processes that are common to all lakes and reservoirs and then proceeds to a description of mathematical models of these processes. The chapters concentrate on lakes and reservoirs in different parts of the world, ranging from polar to tropical lakes, and in many of the chapters the effects of human activities such as dam construction, increased nutrient inputs, toxic contaminants and fish introduction, are also considered. The book concludes with a summary of the efforts at lake restoration that are being undertaken in many communities in an attempt to undo the damage that has resulted from some of these activities.

  13. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  14. Spatial patterns in PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Brown, Edward H.; Eck, Gary W.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994–1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), five species of prey fish eaten by lake trout in Lake Michigan, at three nearshore sites in the lake. Despite the lack of significant differences in the PCB concentrations of alewife, rainbow smelt, bloater, slimy sculpin, and deepwater sculpin from the southeastern nearshore site near Saugatuck (Michigan) compared with the corresponding PCB concentrations from the northwestern nearshore site near Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), PCB concentrations in lake trout at Saugatuck were significantly higher than those at Sturgeon Bay. The difference in the lake trout PCB concentrations between Saugatuck and Sturgeon Bay could be explained by diet differences. The diet of lake trout at Saugatuck was more concentrated in PCBs than the diet of Sturgeon Bay lake trout, and therefore lake trout at Saugatuck were more contaminated in PCBs than Sturgeon Bay lake trout. These findings were useful in interpreting the long-term monitoring series for contaminants in lake trout at both Saugatuck and the Wisconsin side of the lake.

  15. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Water-quality data collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake, following runoff, generally were not adequate to fully determine the effects of runoff on the lakes. Data collection should not to be limited to fixed-station sampling following runoff, and both lakes need to be sampled simultaneously as soon as possible following significant precipitation.

  16. Taphonomy of fossils from the hominin-bearing deposits at Dikika, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jessica C; McPherron, Shannon P; Bobe, René; Reed, Denné; Barr, W Andrew; Wynn, Jonathan G; Marean, Curtis W; Geraads, Denis; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2015-09-01

    Two fossil specimens from the DIK-55 locality in the Hadar Formation at Dikika, Ethiopia, are contemporaneous with the earliest documented stone tools, and they collectively bear twelve marks interpreted to be characteristic of stone tool butchery damage. An alternative interpretation of the marks has been that they were caused by trampling animals and do not provide evidence of stone tool use or large ungulate exploitation by Australopithecus-grade hominins. Thus, resolving which agents created marks on fossils in deposits from Dikika is an essential step in understanding the ecological and taphonomic contexts of the hominin-bearing deposits in this region and establishing their relevance for investigations of the earliest stone tool use. This paper presents results of microscopic scrutiny of all non-hominin fossils collected from the Hadar Formation at Dikika, including additional fossils from DIK-55, and describes in detail seven assemblages from sieved surface sediment samples. The study is the first taphonomic description of Pliocene fossil assemblages from open-air deposits in Africa that were collected without using only methods that emphasize the selective retention of taxonomically-informative specimens. The sieved assemblages show distinctive differences in faunal representation and taphonomic modifications that suggest they sample a range of depositional environments in the Pliocene Hadar Lake Basin, and have implications for how landscape-based taphonomy can be used to infer past microhabitats. The surface modification data show that no marks on any other fossils resemble in size or shape those on the two specimens from DIK-55 that were interpreted to bear stone tool inflicted damage. A large sample of marks from the sieved collections has characteristics that match modern trampling damage, but these marks are significantly smaller than those on the DIK-55 specimens and have different suites of characteristics. Most are not visible without magnification

  17. Taphonomy of fossils from the hominin-bearing deposits at Dikika, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jessica C; McPherron, Shannon P; Bobe, René; Reed, Denné; Barr, W Andrew; Wynn, Jonathan G; Marean, Curtis W; Geraads, Denis; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2015-09-01

    Two fossil specimens from the DIK-55 locality in the Hadar Formation at Dikika, Ethiopia, are contemporaneous with the earliest documented stone tools, and they collectively bear twelve marks interpreted to be characteristic of stone tool butchery damage. An alternative interpretation of the marks has been that they were caused by trampling animals and do not provide evidence of stone tool use or large ungulate exploitation by Australopithecus-grade hominins. Thus, resolving which agents created marks on fossils in deposits from Dikika is an essential step in understanding the ecological and taphonomic contexts of the hominin-bearing deposits in this region and establishing their relevance for investigations of the earliest stone tool use. This paper presents results of microscopic scrutiny of all non-hominin fossils collected from the Hadar Formation at Dikika, including additional fossils from DIK-55, and describes in detail seven assemblages from sieved surface sediment samples. The study is the first taphonomic description of Pliocene fossil assemblages from open-air deposits in Africa that were collected without using only methods that emphasize the selective retention of taxonomically-informative specimens. The sieved assemblages show distinctive differences in faunal representation and taphonomic modifications that suggest they sample a range of depositional environments in the Pliocene Hadar Lake Basin, and have implications for how landscape-based taphonomy can be used to infer past microhabitats. The surface modification data show that no marks on any other fossils resemble in size or shape those on the two specimens from DIK-55 that were interpreted to bear stone tool inflicted damage. A large sample of marks from the sieved collections has characteristics that match modern trampling damage, but these marks are significantly smaller than those on the DIK-55 specimens and have different suites of characteristics. Most are not visible without magnification

  18. Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopia and Sudan): Sediment budgets and erosion patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Ali Abdel Megid, Ada; El Kammar, Ahmed

    2006-12-01

    Detrital modes of modern Nile sands, together with estimates of sediment volumes trapped in Sudanese reservoirs, allow us to calculate sediment loads of major tributaries (Blue Nile, White Nile, Atbara) and erosion rates in the Nile catchment. A tridimensional array of high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral data was obtained on both levee (suspended load) and bar (bedload) deposits, analysed separately for each grain-size subclass at 0.5 Φ intervals. From available information on sediments stored in the Roseires, Khashm el Girba and Lake Nasser reservoirs between 1964 and 1990, the total Nile load is reassessed at 230 ± 20 10 6 t/a, an estimate two to four times higher than figures reported so far, on which previous estimates of sediment yields and erosion rates were based. Of such huge amount of detritus, 82 ± 10 10 6 t/a are contributed by River Atbara, which carries more volcanic rock fragments, brown augite and olivine from basaltic rocks, and 140 ± 20 10 6 t/a by the Blue Nile, which carries more K-feldspar and hornblende from amphibolite-facies basement rocks. The additional ≤ 10 7 t/a of almost purely quartzose sediments supplied by the rest of the Nile catchment, corresponding to insignificant average yields and erosion rates, represent the stable residue which survived extreme subequatorial weathering in southern Sudan swamps (White Nile, Bahr ez Zeraf, and Sobat sands) or fluvial and eolian recycling of ancient quartzarenites in hyperarid climates (Nubian sands). Sediment production is thus markedly focused on Ethiopian rift highlands, where rainfall is concentrated in a single July-August peak. High average yields and erosion rates (800 ± 150 t/km 2 a, 0.29 ± 0.05 mm/a) partly reflect anthropically-accelerated erosion caused by deforestation and intensive land use, and cannot be extrapolated far in the past. Erosion patterns may have changed repeatedly during Quaternary climatic oscillations, and possibly also in the longer term

  19. Seroepidemiological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in East and West Shewa Zones of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed zoonosis. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat, which is among the main risk factors for acquiring human infection, is a popular tradition in Ethiopia. However, studies on toxoplasmosis in food animals used for human consumption in Ethiopia are very scarce. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the seroprevalence and the risk factors of T. gondii infection in sheep in Ambo, Ada’a-Liben and Fentale districts of Central Ethiopia. Sera from 1130 sheep were analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii specific IgG antibodies using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the P30 antigen. A questionnaire was administered to assess potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. Association of seroprevalence with potential risk factors related to altitude, host and farm characteristics were analyzed by univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results Overall flock and animal level seroprevalences were 70.48% (160/227; 95% CI: 64.51, 76.46) and 31.59% (357/1130; 95% CI: 28.88, 34.31), respectively. The multivariable logistic regression model indicated that the probability of acquiring T. gondii was higher in sheep from highland (2300 – 3200 meters above sea level) [Odds ratio (OR) = 4.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65, 6.36; P < 0.001] and midland (OR = 4.54, 95% CI: 2.76, 7.49; P < 0.001) than from lowland (<1500 meters above sea level), in females than in males (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.43, P = 0.033), in adult than in young animals (OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.97, 4.35, P < 0.001), in small than in large flocks (OR = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.26, 8.86, P = 0.016), and in sheep that were given tap water (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 1.07, 15.42, P = 0.039) and river water (OR = 4.18, 95% CI: 1.54, 11.35, P = 0.005) than in those that drunk water from mixed sources (i.e., river, well, lake and pond). Conclusions The high flock and animal

  20. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts. PMID:26949190

  1. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts.

  2. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  3. Lake whitefish and lake herring population structure and niche in ten south-central Ontario lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carl, Leon M.; McGuiness, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    This study compares simple fish communities of ten oligotrophic lakes in south-central Ontario. Species densities and population size structure vary significantly among these lake communities depending on fish species present beyond the littoral zone. Lake whitefish are fewer and larger in the presence of lake herring than in their absence. Diet analysis indicates that lake whitefish shift from feeding on both plankton and benthic prey when lake herring are absent to a primarily benthic feeding niche in the presence of lake herring. When benthic round whitefish are present, lake whitefish size and density decline and they move lower in the lake compared to round whitefish. Burbot are also fewer and larger in lakes with lake herring than in lakes without herring. Burbot, in turn, appear to influence the population structure of benthic coregonine species. Lower densities of benthic lake whitefish and round whitefish are found in lakes containing large benthic burbot than in lakes with either small burbot or where burbot are absent. Predation on the pelagic larvae of burbot and lake whitefish by planktivorous lake herring alters the size and age structure of these populations. As life history theory predicts, those species with poor larval survival appear to adopt a bet-hedging life history strategy of long-lived individuals as a reproductive reserve.

  4. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  5. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    PubMed Central

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E.; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P.; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731

  6. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  8. Lake-groundwater relationships and fluid-rock interaction in the East African Rift Valley: isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, W. George; Gizaw, Berhanu; Arusei, Musa K.

    1996-05-01

    The assessment of water resources in the Rift Valley environment is important for population, agriculture and energy-related issues and depends on a good understanding of the relationship between freshwater lakes and regional groundwater. This can be hampered by the amount of fluid-rock interaction which occurs throughout the rift, obscuring original hydrochemical signatures. However, O and H stable isotope ratios can be used as tracers of infiltration over sometimes considerable distances, while showing that the volcanic edifices of the rift floor have varying effects on groundwater flow patterns. Specific cases from Kenya and Ethiopia are considered, including Lakes Naivasha, Baringo, Awasa and Zwai. In addition to their physical tracing role, stable isotopes can reveal information about processes of fluid-rock interaction. The general lack of O isotope shifting in rift hydrothermal systems suggests a high water:rock ratio, with the implication that these systems are mature. Carbon isotope studies on the predominantly bicarbonate waters of the rift show how they evolve from dilute meteoric recharge to highly alkaline waters, via the widespread silicate hydrolysis promoted by the flux of mantle carbon dioxide which occurs in most parts of the rift. There appears to be only minor differences in the C cycle between Kenya and Ethiopia.

  9. Ecology of playa lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  10. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teshale, Sori; Kumsa, Bersissa; Menandro, Maria Luisa; Cassini, Rudi; Martini, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Although ticks are widely distributed in all agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia, information on tick-borne pathogens is scarce. This study was conducted to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Rickettsia spp. in Rhipicephalus evertsi and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus collected from cattle and sheep at Bako, western Oromia, Ethiopia, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in Rh. decoloratus, whereas only A. ovis was detected in Rh. evertsi. Both tick species were found to harbor DNA belonging to Rickettsia spp., and Rickettsia africae. Our findings highlight the risk of infection of animals and humans with these zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in Ethiopia. PMID:27411938

  11. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces. PMID:25911028

  12. Establishing a Cosmic Ray Station and Other Space Research Facilities in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damtie, B.; Bosinger, T.; Usoskin, I.

    This paper describes the potential of Ethiopia in establishing space research facilities and conducting collaborative research and training. It also describes the goals and objectives of a proposed cosmic ray station in Ethiopia which would greatly improve the abilities of the existing worldwide network for heliospheric and cosmic ray research. The station will be located at the geomagentic equator, which is a very unique place for geomagnetic and heliospheric studies. Moreover, the paper presents an overview of the research and training activities in space physics and the successful collaborative project between Ethiopia and Finland, which facilitated the installation of a pulsation magnetometer and a photometer at Entoto Mountain in a suburb of the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa.

  13. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces.

  14. 2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Semaw, S; Renne, P; Harris, J W; Feibel, C S; Bernor, R L; Fesseha, N; Mowbray, K

    1997-01-23

    The Oldowan Stone tool industry was named for 1.8-million-year-old (Myr) artefacts found near the bottom of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Subsequent archaeological research in the Omo (Ethiopia) and Turkana (Kenya) also yielded stone tools dated to 2.3 Myr. Palaeoanthropological investigations in the Hadar region of the Awash Valley of Ethiopia, revealed Oldowan assemblages in the adjacent Gona River drainage. We conducted field work in the Gona study area of Ethiopia between 1992 and 1994 which resulted in additional archaeological discoveries as well as radioisotopic age control and a magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Gona sequence. These occurrences are now securely dated between 2.6-2.5 Myr. The stone tools are thus the oldest known artefacts from anywhere in the world. The artefacts show surprisingly sophisticated control of stone fracture mechanics, equivalent to much younger Oldowan assemblages of Early Pleistocene age. This indicates an unexpectedly long period of technological stasis in the Oldowan.

  15. The Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassibe, W.R.; Keck, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The western part of the conterminous United States is often thought of as being a desert without any large bodies of water. In the desert area of western Utah, however, lies Great Salt Lake, which in 1986 covered approximately 2,300 square miles and contained 30 million acre-feet of water (an acre-foot is the amount of water necessary to cover 1 acre of land with water 1 foot in depth or about 326,000 gallons). To emphasize its size, the Great Salt Lake is the largest lake west of the Mississippi River, larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware.

  16. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mirgissa; Bulto, Tesfaye; Tafesse, Zergu; Lingerh, Wassie; Ali, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women. Objective The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia. Methods A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11. Results Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited availability of supplies and equipment were found to maintain the preference to deliver at home. Conclusion The government’s endeavor to improve maternal health has generated positive results with more women now attending antenatal care. Yet over 80% of

  17. Erta Ale Lava Lake: Identification and Modelling of Variable Convective Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniel, R.; Harris, A. J.; Jones, J.

    2002-12-01

    After more than twenty years without access to Erta Ale volcano, field campaigns are once again feasible. Between February 15 and February 20, 2002, a combined thermal and seismic data set was recorded at Erta Ale volcano, Ethiopia, to study activity of the persistent lava lake. Analysis of continuous tremor and thermal fluctuations suggests that lava lake activity, as recorded by temperature variations, is related to seismic energy and spectral content. When we compare these parameters at timescales of minutes to hours, we find that correlations range from good to poor. However, these two parameters do not significantly correlate on timescales of a full day. Both thermal and seismic data indicate that the lava lake exhibits cyclical behavior between 20 to 80 minute periods characterized by low (~0.05 ms-1) and high (~0.2 ms-1) rates of convection, respectively. We use our measurements to constrain two models to explain these convection cycles. The first model relates variable convection rates to pulses in the rate at which magma is supplied to the lake. This model requires supply rates to cycle between high convection rate phases fed by a magma volume flux of 0.2 m3s-1 and low convection rate phases fed by a magma volume flux of 0.03 m3s-1. The second model assumes that supply to the lake is steady and that cyclic convection is set up by the generation of convective instabilities within the lake. In this case, cooling of the surface layer generates a slow moving, viscous convection cell at the lake surface overlying a faster moving convection cell of lower viscosity. Recharge of the lower cell increases the buoyancy of the lower layer, and eventually triggers an overturn event. At this point the surface of the low viscosity cell extends to the lake surface and the high viscosity cell sinks to be drained from the lake. We find that the second model, whereby cyclic convection is generated by processes acting within the lake, is more plausible.

  18. Can lake sensitivity to desiccation be predicted from lake geometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Aminnezhad, Mousa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-08-01

    Declining lake levels (Aral Sea syndrome) can be caused by changes in climate, increased water use or changed regulation patterns. This paper introduces a novel lake geometry index (LGI) to quantify lake hydrological characteristics. The index was developed using a large representative dataset of lake hypsographic characteristics from 152 lakes and man-made reservoirs. Using the LGI index, lakes can be classified into five groups: groups 1-4 when LGI is 0.5-2.5, 2.5-4.5, 4.5-6.5 and 6.5-8.5, respectively, and group 5 when LGI is >8.5. Naturally shallow and vast lakes and wetlands fall into the first group and deep man-made reservoirs in narrow valleys are in group 5. The response of three different lake systems (LGI 0.75, 2.75 and 6.5) to different water flow scenarios was then simulated using the water balance equation. From this, the index 'potential lake area' (Apot) was developed to show lake responses to changed hydro-climatological conditions. Apot and LGI can be used to classify lakes into open or closed systems. Simulations showed that lakes with low LGI have a shorter response time to flow and climate changes. As a result, the impact of water balance restoration is faster for lakes with low LGI than for lakes with high LGI. The latter are also more vulnerable to climate variation and change.

  19. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-02-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led to mixed feelings among the Ethiopian public. While some laud the opportunities and advantages these new institutions bring, others are apprehensive that the quality of education might be compromised by an expansion motivated by monetary gain. This article sheds light on these paradoxes and provides suggestions for policy and practices.

  20. Challenges to the Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade we have extensively studied coastal ecosystems in the Great Lakes. Some research efforts have linked coastal receiving systems to conditions in their contributing watersheds; others have focused on developing invasive species detection and monitoring strat...

  1. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  2. Lake Superior, Duluth, MN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This view shows the west end of Lake Superior and Duluth, MN (47.0N, 91.0W). Portions of Minnesota, Michigan and Ontario, Canada are in the scene. The Duluth metropolitan area is at the west end of the lake. The discoloration plume in the water at Duluth is the result of tailings from the iron ore smelters that process the iron ore from the nearby open pit mines seen near the upper left corner of the photo.

  3. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  4. Predictors of institutional delivery in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Woldie, Mirkuzie; Tafese, Fikru

    2013-01-01

    Background Women are more liable to die during or following delivery than during pregnancy but use of both delivery services and post-partum care is low. Objective To find out the prevalence and predictors of institutional delivery in Wolaita Sodo (Sodo) town, southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to look at 844 women who had given birth in the previous five years in Sodo town. The study employed a multistage-sampling scheme. Codes were given for all identified women in selected kebeles (neighbourhoods) and a simple random-sampling technique was used after generating random numbers using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). SPSS was then used to carry out binary- and multiple logistic regressions. A 95% CI for the odds ratio was applied to judge the presence of relationships between variables. Results The prevalence of institutional delivery-service utilisation in Sodo town was 62.2%. Husband educational status, parity, number of antenatal clinic visits, perceived quality of care and knowledge regarding pregnancy danger signs were independent predictors of utilisation of institutional delivery services. Conclusion Institutional delivery service utilisation in Sodo town was much higher than the national figure. Findings in this study showed that promotion of antenatal care, involvement of men in maternal healthcare, provision of health education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and improvement of service quality are recommended in order to sustain or even improve the current level of utilisation in the town.

  5. Pictorial approaches for measuring time use in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Yuta J.; Fortmann, Lea; Gugerty, Mary Kay; Smith-Nilson, Marla; Cook, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Time use researchers working in least developed countries (LDCs) face difficulties collecting data from illiterate populations who may conceptualize time differently than those in industrialized countries. We identify existing gaps in time use data collection methods and discuss two novel, pictorial methods to collect time use data from these populations. The first method is a modified recall interview modeled on participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods that asks respondents to place macaroni on pictures of activity categories in proportion to the amount of time spent on that activity during the previous day. The second is a simplified pictorial time diary that uses a timer and sequentially-numbered stickers to re-create the temporal order of activities in 30-minute increments. The latter method also avoids recall bias problems. We present time use data collected in 2009 using these methods in a study examining the impacts of water infrastructure on women and children’s time use in rural Ethiopia. In total, we collected information using the first method from 263 household members over age 10, including 167 water collectors, and pilot-tested the pictorial diary approach with 10 adult respondents. PMID:25620832

  6. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  7. Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

    2014-12-01

    Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face. PMID:25132572

  8. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-06-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa.

  9. Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haile-Selassie, Y

    2001-07-12

    Molecular studies suggest that the lineages leading to humans and chimpanzees diverged approximately 6.5-5.5 million years (Myr) ago, in the Late Miocene. Hominid fossils from this interval, however, are fragmentary and of uncertain phylogenetic status, age, or both. Here I report new hominid specimens from the Middle Awash area of Ethiopia that date to 5.2-5.8 Myr and are associated with a wooded palaeoenvironment. These Late Miocene fossils are assigned to the hominid genus Ardipithecus and represent the earliest definitive evidence of the hominid clade. Derived dental characters are shared exclusively with all younger hominids. This indicates that the fossils probably represent a hominid taxon that postdated the divergence of lineages leading to modern chimpanzees and humans. However, the persistence of primitive dental and postcranial characters in these new fossils indicates that Ardipithecus was phylogenetically close to the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans. These new findings raise additional questions about the claimed hominid status of Orrorin tugenensis, recently described from Kenya and dated to approximately 6 Myr.

  10. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Berta Badi, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general.

  11. Census in a rural area of Ethiopia: methodology and results.

    PubMed

    Materia, E; Mehari, W; Mele, A; Rosmini, F; Stazi, M A; Damen, H M; Basile, G; Kifle, T; Miuccio, G; Ferrigno, L

    1993-01-01

    A census and an ecologic survey were performed in 39 villages of a rural district of Arsi Region, Ethiopia, in difficult field circumstances. Information on age, ethnic group, education and family relationship, as well as data on health facilities and availability of basic services were collected. Supervised students, working in teams, were used as interviewers. Communities were involved through plenary meetings and community health agents participated in the data collection process. A total of 64,714 people in 12,152 households were registered. The repeatability of age assessment was investigated by comparing the results from two villages with data obtained in a pilot study carried out 6 months earlier. The technical error was only 0.80 and 1.67 in the 0-5 and 6-15 age-groups, respectively. Three percent of the total population was under one year, less than previously estimated. This may, in part, be due to the family planning programme in the region. Eighteen percent of the households were headed by females. School attendance was less common among females and in the Oromo ethnic group. The availability of basic services, including safe water and basic sanitation supplies, was very poor in the area.

  12. Volcanic outcrops of southeast Ethiopia and the Ogaden Dyke Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mège, Daniel; Purcell, Peter; Jourdan, Fred; Pochat, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    A new map of Tertiary volcanics occurrences in the Ogaden region of southeast Ethiopia and adjacent areas of Somalia has been prepared. Outcrop areas, mapped using satellite images and helicopter-­-supported field work in 2008, are more widespread than previously recognized, while magnetic and drill data reveal the vast subsurface extent of the magmatism. Several spectacular 'meandering' outcrops, over 100 km long, are undoubtedly exhumed canyon-­-filling flows and magnetic data show that many other apparently isolated outcrops are actually part of similar flows, the bulk of which are now subsurface. Age dating and well intersections show several volcanic episodes, with the major outpouring occurring across a broad peneplain in the Oligocene. Geological and aeromagnetic mapping, and 40Ar/39Ar age dating, reveal a dyke swarm extending SSE from the southern Afar margin more than 600 km across the Somali Plate, and coeval with dyke injection in the Red Sea rift at ~25 Ma. The Ogaden Dyke Swarm, which occurs in an area historically considered remote from the impact of the Afro-­-Arabian rifting and volcanism, appears associated with the Marda Fault and marks a zone of crustal dilation along the Red Sea trend across the Horn of Africa. Contemporaneous rifts, also trending WNW/ESE and over 120 km long, occur in NE Somalia, confirming the predominantly NE/SW-­-directed crustal stress regime in the Ogaden and adjacent region at this time.

  13. Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

    2014-12-01

    Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face.

  14. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Berta Badi, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general. PMID:27656213

  15. Marriage through abduction ('Telefa') in rural north west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getahun, H

    2001-04-01

    A community based cross sectional study was conducted in a rural district of North West Ethiopia between February and April 1997 to determine the magnitude of marriage through abduction ('Telefa') and identify problems associated with it. Randomly selected and currently married 1,168 women were interviewed. The prevalence of marriage through abduction was 6.2% (72/1168). All the abductions reported were only once in lifetime during the first marriage. The median age at first marriage of abducted women was 13 years with a range of 13 (Minimum = 7 and Maximum 20). About two third (66.7%) of abducted women had been married more than once in their life time. Following a multivariate analysis in a logistic regression model abducted women were likely to be victims of abortion [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.71 (1.10-3.05)], marital instability [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.87 (1.10-3.18)], rape [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 7.77 (3.78-15.95)] and domestic violence [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.69 (1.11-2.81)]. The recognition of the magnitude and the associated health problems of marriage through abduction (Telefa) is important. Appropriate strategies that address the health needs of abducted women must be designed. Enforcing the judiciary system to discourage this harmful practice and empowerment of young girls and rural women is needed. PMID:11501287

  16. Level and differentials of fertility in Awassa town, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Samson; Betre, Mulugeta

    2009-03-01

    A cross-sectional, descriptive study with internal comparison was conducted among 1376 women of reproductive age with the objective of assessing the level and determinants of fertility in Awassa town, Ethiopia. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) was 3.4 and the mean Child Ever Born (CEB) was 1.72 and 3.02 among all women and married women. Regarding proximate determinants of fertility, the mean age at first marriage and duration of postpartum infecundability were 17.75 years and 12.3 months, respectively. Further, Contraceptive Prevalence Rate among married women was 41.2% and Total Abortion Rate was 0.02. Sociodemographic characteristics of mothers like poor educational status, absence of income, rural place of birth, early marriage, and other variables like history of child death, negative husbands' attitude towards contraceptive use, poor educational status of husbands, need for additional children, were found to have significant association with high fertility; accordingly, these variables need to addressed in activities against high fertility. PMID:20687268

  17. Genetic characterization of Moniezia species in Senegal and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Diop, Gora; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Ito, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Genetic diversity of Moniezia spp. from domestic ruminants in Senegal and Ethiopia was investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA). A total of 64 adult tapeworms were collected from sheep, goat and cattle, and the tapeworms from cattle were all morphologically identified as Moniezia benedeni. On the other hand, the tapeworms obtained from sheep and goat were identified as Moniezia expansa or could not be identified because of the lack of diagnostic morphologic character, i.e. interproglottidal glands (IPGs). Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 gene sequences revealed that the worms from sheep/goat and cattle formed distinct clades, and three mitochondrial lineages were confirmed within the sheep/goat tapeworms. The maximum pairwise divergences among the three mitochondrial linages were about 3% in cox1 and 0.1% in SSU rDNA, while that between the worms from sheep/goat and cattle reached 13% in cox1 and 2.7% in SSU rDNA. All of the three mitochondrial lineages contained tapeworms morphologically identified as M. expansa, and the tapeworms without IPGs were confirmed in one of the three lineages, indicating the tapeworms without IPGs were also M. expansa.

  18. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Tewodros Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-07-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.

  19. Post-rifting relaxation in the Afar region, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooner, Scott L.; Bennati, Laura; Calais, Eric; Buck, W. Roger; Hamling, Ian J.; Wright, Tim J.; Lewi, Elias

    2009-11-01

    Crustal accretion at divergent plate boundaries typically occurs via the periodic intrusion of dikes, but their emplacement and the associated deformation are rarely observed. The few existing observations at subaerial rifts show that these diking events are followed by a decadal-scale period with extension rates faster than the secular divergent plate motion. This transient accelerated deformation has been explained by continued subsurface magma injection or by relaxation, in the viscoelastic mantle, of the stress changes imparted by dike opening. For the first time, GPS measurements were collected within a few months of a rifting event at a major plate boundary, the September 2005, 60 km-long dike intrusion in the Dabbahu segment, Afar, Ethiopia. Extension rates for the first 3 years greatly exceed the plate motion (Nubia-Arabia) secular divergence rate, even at sites located more than 60 km from the rift axis. Here we show that these observations are consistent with stress relaxation in a viscoelastic upper mantle with a viscosity of about 5 × 1018 Pa·s overlain by a 12-14 km-thick elastic crust. The alternative model of continued diking requires continuous opening well below the Moho and is therefore unlikely. Instead, magma injection in Afar since June 2006 has taken the form of smaller discrete diking events, tapping into a mid-crustal melt reservoir under the segment center.

  20. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Getu Melese, Kidest; Gebrie, Mignote Hailu; Berta Badi, Martha; Fekadu Mersha, Wubalem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general. PMID:27656213

  1. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deribew, Ketema; Tekeste, Zinaye; Petros, Beyene

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P<0.05). The mean hemoglobin concentration between Plasmodium falciparum and S. haematobium infected children showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community. PMID:23620856

  2. Epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Innocent, G T; Trawford, A F; Reid, S W J; Love, S

    2010-05-11

    A cross-sectional coprological survey in the tropical regions of Ada, Akaki, Bereh and Boset, and a retrospective post-mortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Faecal samples from 803 donkeys were collected, and the number of liver flukes recovered from 112 donkeys at post-mortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. There was a high prevalence of fasciolosis irrespective of the age of the donkeys. The overall prevalence of the infection was 44.4% in coprologically examined donkeys, and the prevalence in the donkeys examined post-mortem was 41.9%. The infection prevalence was significantly higher in Bereh and Ada regions than in Akaki and Boset regions. Bereh with 72.6% and Boset with 21.5% showed a significantly higher and lower infection prevalence, respectively, than the rest of the regions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between different age groups of donkeys in the infection prevalence (P>0.05) but infection intensity was significantly higher in donkeys 8 years old and above (P<0.0001). Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were identified.

  3. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4–2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965

  4. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jonathan G; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wilson, Jessica N

    2013-06-25

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa.

  5. Strengthening Pharmaceutical Care Education in Ethiopia Through Instructional Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Tadeg, Hailu; Downing, Don; Suleman, Sultan; Bedada, Worku; Paulos, Getahun; Mekonnen, Hailemeskel; Negussu, Mekonnen; Bartlein, Rebecca; Stergachis, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and initial outcomes of a pharmaceutical care training-of-trainers course developed to assist Ethiopian pharmacy faculty members and graduate students in the development of curriculum and provision of pharmaceutical care services of relevance to this low-income country. Design. In this collaboration, US and Ethiopian faculty members worked together in a week-long seminar and in hospital ward rounds to develop and offer a course to facilitate faculty members, curricular, and service development in pharmaceutical care in Ethiopia. Assessment. Assessments were conducted during the seminar, immediately post-seminar, at 3 months post-seminar, and at 1 year post-seminar. An examination was administered at the conclusion of the course to assess immediate learning outcomes for the graduate students. Post-course assessments of short-term (3-month) and longer-term (12-month) impact were conducted to identify pharmaceutical care services that had been implemented to assess knowledge and skill gained during the seminar. Correspondence between seminar participants and the US faculty members as well as graduate student thesis projects provided further evidence of changes at 3 and 12 months post-course. Conclusion. Pharmaceutical care training was developed for Ethiopian faculty members through a seminar and hospital ward rounds. Enhancements have been added to curricula for bachelor in pharmacy students and select pharmaceutical care services have been implemented through master's thesis projects. PMID:21969720

  6. Overview: Ancient Lake Creede

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bethke, Philip M.; Hay, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Lake Creede was moderately saline closed-basin lake that developed in the 26.9 Ma Creede caldera in the San Juan Mountains in the southwest Colorado. The volcaniclastic sediments deposited within the late Oligocene lake were first described and named as the Creede Formation by Emmons and Larsen (1923). The lake and its sedimentary fill are of interest first as representatives of a caldera-hosted lake in a silicic volcanic terrane, and second because of the likely involvement of lake fluids or related pore waters in the deposition of the 25 Ma silver and base-metal ores of the Creede mining district north of the Creede caldera (Fig. 1), as proposed Bethke and Rye (1979). Much of the material presented in this volume is based on observation of core samples and on downhole geophysical measurements obtained as part of a U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program in the moat of the Creede caldera. These core and downhole studies are supplemented by outcrop studies, some initiated in support of the drilling program (Bethke and Lipman, 1987), and by conceptual studies of the evolution of the Creede caldera and its surrounding landscape. Not surprisingly, not all authors agree on all interpretation. Most disagreements are pointed out in this overview chapter, and may present opportunities for future study.

  7. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  8. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  9. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  10. Availability of lake trout reproductive habitat in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A decades-long program to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the four lower Great Lakes produced excellent fisheries supported by stocked fish. These fish spawned widely and small numbers of their offspring were collected intermittently from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario, but no self-sustaining stocks were established. Irt this paper we address habitat sufficiency as a factor in the failure of stocked lake trout to established self-sustaining populations in the four lower Great Lakes. We present the previously unpublished results of lake trout spawning habitat surveys conducted at seven sites in the Great Lakes since 1987 and we compare them with the published results of similar surveys conducted at 24 other sites in the four lower lakes since 1981. Our evaluation indicates all but two of these sites can support the production of viable fry from spawnings by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are stocked in the Great Lakes. However, some of the best spawning, egg, and fry habitat in the lower Great Lakes seems to be at deeper offshore sites that may be unattractive to these shallow-water strains. Thus, we suggest also stocking the lower four lakes with strains from Lake Superior that might more fully exploit the best spawning habitat at these deeper, offshore sites.

  11. Contaminants in American alligator eggs from Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Percival, H.F.; Jennings, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A larger sample of eggs was collected in 1985, but only from Lakes Griffin, a lake where eggs were relatively clean, and Apopka, where eggs were most contaminated. In 1985, hatching success of artificially incubated eggs was lower for Lake Apopka, and several organochlorine pesticides were higher than in eggs from Lake Griffin. However, within Lake Apopka, higher levels of pesticides in chemically analyzed eggs were not associated with reduced hatching success of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Therefore, it did not appear that any of the pesticides we measured were responsible for the reduced hatching of Lake Apopka eggs.

  12. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  13. Big lake records preserved in a little lake's sediment: An example from Silver Lake, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, T.G.; Loope, W.L.; Pierce, W.; Jol, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    We reconstruct postglacial lake-level history within the Lake Michigan basin using soil stratigraphy, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), sedimentology and 14C data from the Silver Lake basin, which lies adjacent to Lake Michigan. Stratigraphy in nine vibracores recovered from the floor of Silver Lake appears to reflect fluctuation of water levels in the Lake Michigan basin. Aeolian activity within the study area from 3,000 years (cal yr. B.P.) to the present was inferred from analysis of buried soils, an aerial photograph sequence, and GPR. Sediments in and around Silver Lake appear to contain a paleoenvironmental record that spans the entire post-glacial history of the Lake Michigan basin. We suggest that (1) a pre-Nipissing rather than a Nipissing barrier separated Silver Lake basin from the Lake Michigan basin, (2) that the Nipissing transgression elevated the water table in the Silver Lake basin about 6,500 cal yr. B.P., resulting in reestablishment of a lake within the basin, and (3) that recent dune migration into Silver Lake is associated with levels of Lake Michigan.

  14. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  15. Movements of adult lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahrer, Jerold F.

    1968-01-01

    Returns from mature lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) tagged in western Lake Superior in 1959 and 1962-65 described here suggest that trout disperse widely from the spawning grounds after spawning and return in subsequent years. Although the data were not extensive, returns from lake trout tagged near Keweenaw Point in 1950 and off Marquette, Michigan, in 1952 suggested similar movement. Loftus stated that river-spawning lake trout of eastern Lake Superior returned annually to the same spawning streams. Movements of lake trout must be understood to manage and evaluate the rehabilitation of lake trout stocks in Lake Superior, especially when the trout move across interstate and international boundaries and are subject to different fishing regulations and fishing pressures.

  16. Crater Lake revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.

    2003-01-01

    Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.

  17. The Wandering Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  18. Examining indirect effects of lake trout recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the recovery of lake trout populations in Lake Superior, there are indications of decreased forage fish abundance and density-dependence in lake trout. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 60 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 60 m...

  19. Multiplying a Force for Good? the Impact of Security Sector Management Postgraduate Education in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…

  20. Molecular characterization of Xanthomonas strains responsible for bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...

  1. Assessing gully widening and its control in the Debri-Mawi Watershed, northern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...

  2. Khat Use and Its Impact on Academic Performance: The Case of Jimma University, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abafita, Jemal; Chala, Badassa Wolteji; Eba, Kasahun; Kim, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The use or misuse of addictive substances like khat has become widespread among the youths especially in countries where the substance is produced and/or consumed. In this paper, we examine whether khat use has any impact on the academic achievement of university students with particular reference to undergraduates in Jimma University, Ethiopia.…

  3. Challenges and Opportunities in Mainstreaming Environmental Education into the Curricula of Teachers' Colleges in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waktola, Daniel Kassahun

    2009-01-01

    Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…

  4. Developing a Lifelong Learning System in Ethiopia: Contextual Considerations and Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen

    2014-01-01

    Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national…

  5. Reflections on Meeting the Needs of Children with Disabilities in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…

  6. Interrogating the Continuing Professional Development Policy Framework in Ethiopia: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2016-01-01

    The continuing professional development (CPD) of teachers has increasingly come to be considered an important component of teacher policy reforms throughout much of the world. As part of its comprehensive school improvement and teacher development programmes, Ethiopia has recently developed a national policy framework on CPD for teachers. Arguing…

  7. Ethnocentrism and Ethnic-Based Peer Preferences in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Implications for Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admasu Gebru, Demewoz

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…

  8. Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

    2012-01-01

    We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…

  9. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  10. "Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

  11. Multi-criteria assessment of community-based fluoride-removal technologies for rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Osterwalder, Lars; Johnson, C Annette; Yang, Hong; Johnston, Richard B

    2014-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally-occurring fluoride in groundwater pose a serious health risk to millions of people living in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. In the absence of low-fluoride water resources of sufficient capacity, fluoride removal from drinking water is the accepted mitigation option. To date, five different community-level fluoride-removal technologies have been implemented in Ethiopia, although only a few units have been found in a functional state in the field. Which technology should be promoted and up-scaled is the subject of controversial debate amongst key stakeholders. This paper describes a multi-criteria decision analysis exercise, which was conducted with the participation of stakeholders in Ethiopia during a one-day workshop, to assess in an objective and transparent manner the available technology options. Criteria for technology comparison were selected and weighted, thus enabling the participants to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies and hear the views of other stakeholders. It was shown that there is no single most-preferable, technical solution for fluoride removal in Ethiopia. Selection of the most suitable solution depends on location-specific parameters and on the relative importance given to different criteria by the stakeholders involved. The data presented in this paper can be used as reference values for Ethiopia.

  12. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  13. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  14. Assessment of Challenges and Opportunity of Basketball Developments in Some Selected Regions in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufa, Gemechu Beker

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…

  15. Reflections on the Teacher Education System Overhaul (TESO) Program in Ethiopia: Promises, Pitfalls, and Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mekonnen, Dawit M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 the Ethiopian education system experienced wide-ranging reform that touches every aspect of the system. This reform is called TESO (Teacher Education System Overhaul). Designed to address educational problems in Ethiopia, TESO introduced significant structural changes and promised to bring a "paradigm shift" in the Ethiopian educational…

  16. The Impacts of an Integrated Community Development Program in Southern Ethiopia--A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Ning

    2013-01-01

    With funding through grants and donations, an international development organization has provided developmental services to a woreda in southern Ethiopia since the early 1980s. This study is intended to assess the outcome and impact of the program and address the following questions: (1) Did direct beneficiaries of the CDTP program exhibit better…

  17. The Invisibility of Children's Paid and Unpaid Work: Implications for Ethiopia's National Poverty Reduction Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household…

  18. Review of Malaria Epidemics in Ethiopia using Enhanced Climate Services (ENACTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, A.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a disease directly linked to temperature and rainfall. In Ethiopia, the influence of climate variables on malaria transmission and the subsequent role of ENSO in the rise of malaria incidence are becoming more recognized. Numerous publications attest to the extreme sensitivity of malaria to climate in Ethiopia. The majority of large-scale epidemics in the past were associated with climatic factors such as temperature and rainfall. However, there is limited information on climate variability and ENSO at the district level to aid in public health decision-making. Since 2008, the National Meteorogy Agency (NMA) and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) have been collaborating on improving climate services in Ethiopia. This collaboration spurred the implementation of the Enhancing National Climate Services (ENACTS) initiative and the creation of the IRI Data Library (DL) NMA Ethiopia Maproom. ENACTS provides reliable and readily accessible climate data at high resolutions and the Maproom uses ENACTS to build a collection of maps and other figures that monitor climate and societal conditions at present and in the recent past (1981-2010). A recent analysis exploring the relationship of rainfall and temperature ENACTS products to malaria epidemics in proceeding rainy seasons within 12 woredas found above normal temperature anomalies to be more readily associated with epidemics when compared to above normal rainfall anomalies, regardless of the ENSO phase (Figure 1-2).

  19. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  20. Health, Nutrition and Informal Education of Pre-School Children in South-West Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    This report discusses the roles of health, nutrition and informal education in the preschool education of children in southwest Ethiopia. Information for the report is drawn from data from a study of traditional maternity and child care in the Southern Shewa region of the country. Mother and child health is a priority in Ethiopian health planning.…

  1. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

  2. Political Geographies of Academic Development in Jamaica, Ethiopia and Japan: Reflections on the Impossibilities of Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…

  3. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in an Urban Area of Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Mohamed Dohe, Abdulahi

    2014-01-01

    This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. PMID:25215230

  4. Pastoral mobility and policy recommendations for livestock herding in the Borana pastoral system in southern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livelihoods of pastoralists in the Borana Zone of southern Ethiopia have become increasingly vulnerable as a result of stressors like accelerating population growth, shrinking resource availability, sedentarization, and increased frequency and severity of drought. A research team from the USDA Agric...

  5. Omotic Peoples and the Early History of Agriculture in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…

  6. Stigma in Ethiopia: association with depressive symptoms in people with HIV.

    PubMed

    Endeshaw, Meheret; Walson, Judd; Rawlins, Sarah; Dessie, Abere; Alemu, Shitaye; Andrews, Nancy; Rao, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Rates of depression among people living with HIV can be as high as 50%. In many settings, HIV-related stigma has been associated with depressive symptoms which may lead to poor engagement in care and ultimately, poorer health outcomes. Stigma is a major issue in Ethiopia but data examining the relationship between stigma and depression in Ethiopia are lacking. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between stigma of HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms in Gondar, Ethiopia. We interviewed patients who presented for routine HIV care at Gondar University Hospital during the study period, examining depressive symptoms and HIV/AIDS-related stigma using standardized measures. Multiple-regression was used to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms, stigma, and gender. Of 55 patients included in this analysis, 63.6% were female and most participants had limited formal education (69%, less than 12th grade education). The majority reported experiencing both stigma (78%) and depressive symptoms (60%) ranging in severity from mild to moderately severe. Higher levels of HIV-related stigma were significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = 0.464, p ≤ 0.001). Although gender was associated with stigma, it was not associated with depressive symptoms (β = -0.027, p > 0.05). Results suggest the importance of psychosocial issues in the lives of people with HIV in Ethiopia.

  7. Global ENT Outreach: Taking Ear, Nose, and Throat Treatment and Surgery Techniques to Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The author, as an otolaryngologist and the Director of Global ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Outreach, traveled to Ethiopia to help 11 children who could not breathe because of respiratory papillomas blocking their airways and who had been hospitalized for years. The disease, called juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, is what affected these 11…

  8. Impediments to Educative Practicum: The Case of Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie

    2011-01-01

    The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The…

  9. Social Actors and Victims of Exploitation: Working Children in the Cash Economy of Ethiopia's South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abebe, Tatek; Kjorholt, Anne Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural…

  10. Globalization of psychology: Implications for the development of psychology in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Swancott, Rachel; Uppal, Gobinderjit; Crossley, Jon

    2014-10-01

    The present article reports on the variation of mental health resources across the globe and considers the merits or otherwise of the process of globalization in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with a specific emphasis on Ethiopia. Although globalization has gained momentum in recent years, there is a concern that the globalization of Western mental health frameworks is problematic, as these concepts have been developed in a different context and do not accommodate the current diversity in understanding in LMIC countries. The importance of understanding the mental health frameworks of LMIC like Ethiopia, prior to considering if and how aspects of high-income countries (HIC) conceptualizations may be appropriately imported, is therefore reflected upon. Traditional approaches in managing mental health difficulties and possible reasons for the limited engagement with clinical psychology in Ethiopia are considered. Current developments within the fields of mental health and clinical psychology in Ethiopia are discussed, and the need to develop more local research in order to increase understanding and evaluate treatment interventions is recognized. Further consideration and debate by Ethiopian mental health professionals as well as those from HIC are recommended, to promote both reciprocal learning and new local discourses about mental health.

  11. Evaluation of sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali against Fusarium thapsinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-eight sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali along with resistant (Sureno and SC719) and susceptible (RTx430 and RTx2536) checks were evaluated in replicated plots for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum at Isabela, Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions such as temperature, relative hum...

  12. The Unfolding Trends and Consequences of Expanding Higher Education in Ethiopia: Massive Universities, Massive Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessema, Kedir Assefa

    2009-01-01

    There have been significant increases in the number of universities and student enrollments in the last fifteen years in Ethiopia. The numerical gains have brought about improved access to higher education for students. The expansion has also diversified fields of study and opened opportunities to pursue higher degrees to a significant number of…

  13. Application of Instrumental Enrichment Cognitive Intervention Program with Deaf Immigrant Children from Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Lea; Kozulin, Alex

    R. Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment (IE) Program was used as a tool of cognitive educational intervention with 10 deaf children (ages 7 to 15), all recent immigrants from Ethiopia to Israel. The group's special education needs resulted from their deafness, lack of formal educational experience, lack of previous exposure to sign language or…

  14. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  17. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  20. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  1. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  2. Spirituality, social capital and service: Factors promoting resilience among Expert Patients living with HIV in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hussen, Sophia Ahmed; Tsegaye, Mulugeta; Argaw, Meron Gurji; Andes, Karen; Gilliard, Danielle; del Rio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) in Ethiopia and other developing nations face numerous challenges to their health and well-being, including poverty, limited healthcare infrastructure, and high levels of societal stigma. Despite these challenges, resilient trajectories have been observed even within such resource-limited settings. In Ethiopia, such resilience is exemplified by the ‘Expert Patients’, HIV-positive lay health workers who function as adherence counsellors, health educators, outreach workers and community advocates. We conducted a multi-method qualitative study with 20 Expert Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in order to understand pathways to resilience in this select population. Participants described 3 key mechanisms of resilient coping: (1) The use of spirituality and faith-based practices to manage psychological difficulties associated with living with HIV; (2) Utilisation of social capital from family and community networks as a buffer against the psychological and economic consequences of societal stigma; and (3) Serving others as a mechanism for finding optimism and purpose in life. Interventions designed to facilitate and/or augment these social processes in the wider community may be promising strategies for improving health among PLHIV in Ethiopia and other resource-limited settings. PMID:24520996

  3. Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersi, Afra Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

  4. CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--EXPERIENCES, NEEDS, AND INTEREST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDSTROEM, LARS-OLOF

    THIS REPORT ON THE SALIENT FEATURES AND CONCERNS OF CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--(1) DISCUSSES ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT, (2) SURVEYS CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES (POSTAL SERVICES, ROADS, INSTRUCTIONAL RADIO AND TELEVISION,…

  5. Socioeconomic Status and Hypertension among Teachers and Bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fikadu, Girma; Lemma, Seblewengel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The social and economic changes taking place in developing countries are influencing the pace at which hypertension and its risk factors are expanding. As opposed to the already established inverse association in developed nations, the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension in developing countries is poor and inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. This study is based on a cross-sectional study conducted to assess the prevalence of NCDs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was undertaken among workers of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia and teachers of public schools in 2010. Results. Majority of participants were teachers (70.3%). Most of the respondents (54.1%) earn an annual income between 15,000 ETB and 48,000 ETB, and 51.9% of them have educational status of first degree and above. Among the socioeconomic factors income was strongly associated with the odds of having hypertension (AOR: 2.17 with 95% CI: 1.58-2.98). Conclusions. Higher burden of hypertension is observed among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Promotion of healthy behaviors and interventions that target higher income groups needs to be put in place. PMID:27313874

  6. Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

  7. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION TO THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF ETHIOPIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KERBRET, MAKONNEN

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AND A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD WAS MADE THROUGH INTENSIVE LIBRARY RESEARCH. GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE BASED ON THE REVIEW SUBMITTED TO A JURY OF EXPERTS FOR VERIFICATION. REVISED GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE THEN DEVELOPED FOR GUIDING AND IMPLEMENTING THE…

  8. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  9. National Lakes Assessment: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Lakes Assessment A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Lakes presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s lakes. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the pub...

  10. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  11. Low-land Gully Formation in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijkee, Pim; Keesstra, Saskia; Mekonnen Gethahun, Mulatie

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation and related processes such as gullying, flooding and sedimentation, are global phenomena. Their economic consequences however are more severe in developing countries, which lack resources for prevention and mitigation. In Ethiopia, therefore, gully erosion as a form of land degradation is a prime issue. Over the past decade, gullies have formed in the foothills of the Minizr sub-catchment in the highlands of North-Western Ethiopia. Local extension workers have reported increased gully growth rates in the past five years in the downslope foothill areas. This study answers the following questions: has the gully growth rate indeed increased over the past five years compared to historical rates? What is the mechanism behind gully formation in the study area? In addition, this study looked at three possible root causes for increased erosion rates: changing land use, an increase in the ground water level, and the implementation of soil and water conservation measures in the watershed of the study area. The merit of this study is twofold. First, it shows the applicability of a fast, accessible and accurate way to digitally represent gullies through the use of video footage and photogrammetry. Secondly, it shows the dominant processes in gully formation in the area, allowing for a justified selection of measures to halt further gully growth and rehabilitate existing gullies. Two medium and one large gully were selected for detailed analysis. All gullies were located in gently-sloped areas (0-5%), with Vertisol-dominated soils. Gully shape and volume were derived using terrestrial photogrammetry in AgiSoft PhotoScan Professional. Still frames exported from video footage served as input. Approximately 30 points per gully were sampled weekly for soil moisture content over the course of September, November, and December 2014. In addition, the sites were checked for signs of subsurface flow at the end of the rainy season and again 3 months into the dry season

  12. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the

  13. Afro-alpine forest cover change on Mt. Guna (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birhanu, Adugnaw; Frankl, Amaury; Jacob, Miro; Lanckriet, Sil; Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    High mountain forests, such as the afro-alpine Erica arborea L. forests in Ethiopia, are very important for the livelihood of local communities, in relation to their impacts on the water balance of mountain ecosystems and surrounding agricultural areas. On volcanoes, the dominance of volcanic tuffs on the slopes, as well as that of gelifracts near the top further enhances infiltration, making it recharge areas. Earlier forest cover change studies in the Ethiopian highlands mainly deal with the lower vegetation belts. In this study, 3.37 km² on the western slopes of Mount Guna (one of the dozens of Miocene shield volcanoes that exist on top of the Ethiopian plateau) was mapped. The slope has an elevation between 3200 at its base and 4113 m a.s.l. at the peak. The present forest cover was recorded from high-resolution georeferenced satellite imagery from Google Maps and field data (2015), while historical forest cover was studied from georeferenced aerial photographs of 1982. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted to identify the trend of forest cover change and management practices. Whereas burning of the Erica forest for sake of land clearance (a typical practice on all Ethiopian mountains until the 1980s) most strikingly took place for three consecutive days in 1975, large-scale deforestation resulting from agricultural expansion and livestock pressure continued thereafter. However, between 2000 and 2014, due to active involvement of local and governmental institutions there was a slight regeneration of the vegetation and the Erica forest. Protection and regeneration of the forest was particularly efficient after it was given into custody of an orthodox church established in 1999 at the lower side of the forest. Overall, the study revealed that human and livestock pressures are the strongest drivers of deforestation. Furthermore, the study indicated that integrating the actions of local and governmental institutions is key for the protection of the

  14. The Isostatic State of Ethiopia and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2003-04-01

    Over 35000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models and perform geologic correlations over a large section of the Afro-Arabian shield. Ethiopia is an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ca. 5000km Afro-Arabian rift and it includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinsez models. These anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expression of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity over the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. A series of NW-SE and E-W trending features are evident in the different isostatic residual maps. These parallel features include, from north to south, the Najid fault system, Red Sea axial zone, Melka Werer cross structure, the Anza rift and the Aswa shear zone. Additional NW-SE structures are apparent in the southern rift system, although these features are somewhat diffuse. Curvature enhanced maps are also useful for mapping fracture zones, major gravity lineaments and, in some cases, orientation of faults. Important areas from a metallogenesis point of view have been identified for further examination. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and qualitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  15. Adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklu, T.; Desalegn, F.; Tesfay, M.; Klinkenberg, E.; Mulugeta, A.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Mekelle Zone, Tigray Region, in Ethiopia. Objective: To investigate adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment. Design: A cross-sectional study in health facilities providing anti-tuberculosis treatment was conducted. Adherence was measured in three ways: through self-reported missed doses, by visual analogue scale whereby patients rate their own adherence and by record review. A patient was considered to be adherent if 90% or more of the prescribed medication was taken. Result: Of 278 TB patients included, 101 were in the intensive and 177 in the continuation phase. Respectively 67 (24.1%), 130 (46.8%) and 80 (28.8%) patients had smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB. Self-report of missed doses and record review indicated adherence of respectively 273 (97.3%) and 271 (97.5%) patients. By visual analogue scale, 250 (91.6%) patients rated themselves as adherent. History of drug side effects (aOR 0.25, 95%CI 0.08–0.77) and knowledge about TB prevention (aOR 0.19, 95%CI 0.05–0.8) were independently associated with being adherent in this setting. Conclusion: Adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment was high in our study. Adherence support should be given to the poor, the elderly, patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, alcohol abusers and smokers. Health education on TB prevention should be given to all TB patients regularly. PMID:26478511

  16. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Alemi; Hassen, Kalkidan; Nigussie Teklehaymanot, Aderajew

    2016-01-01

    Background Most obstetric complications occur unpredictably during the time of delivery, but they can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities. Despite the Ethiopian government’s efforts to expand health service facilities and promote health institution-based delivery service in the country, an estimated 85% of births still take place at home. Objective The review was conducted with the aim of generating the best evidence on the determinants of institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia. Methods The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed, HINARI, Mendeley reference manager, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Review Manager V5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using I2 test. Results People living in urban areas (OR =13.16, CI =1.24, 3.68), with primary and above educational level of the mother and husband (OR =4.95, CI =2.3, 4. 8, and OR =4.43, CI =1.14, 3.36, respectively), who encountered problems during pregnancy (OR =2.83, CI =4.54, 7.39), and living at a distance <5 km from nearby health facility (OR =2.6, CI =3.33, 6.57) showed significant association with institutional delivery service utilization. Women’s autonomy was not significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Conclusion and recommendation Distance to health facility and problems during pregnancy were factors positively and significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Promoting couples education beyond primary education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery through available communication networks such as health development army and promotion of antenatal care visits and completion of four standard visits by pregnant women were recommended. PMID:27672342

  17. Recent rift-related volcanism in Afar, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, David J.; Barnie, Talfan D.; Pyle, David M.; Oppenheimer, Clive; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Lewi, Elias; Kidane, Tesfaye; Carn, Simon; Hamling, Ian

    2010-04-01

    Rift zones are the most common magmatic environment on Earth. However opportunities to observe active rifting are rare, and consequently the volcanological characteristics of rift systems are not well understood. An ongoing phase of magmatic rifting along a section of the Red Sea system in Afar, Ethiopia, presents an exceptional opportunity to constrain relationships between volcanism and crustal growth. Here, by integrating analyses of satellite images (i.e. MODIS, OMI, ASTER, and ALI) with field observations, we characterise two recent (August 2007 and June 2009) basaltic fissure eruptions in Afar and evaluate the role and significance of volcanism in the rifting process. Both events were brief (36-72 h) and erupted 4.4-18 × 10 6 m 3 of lava from a fissure system 4-6.5 km in length. Data from the spaceborne Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) suggests total SO 2 emissions for each eruption of 26 ± 5 kt (2007) and 34 ± 7 kt (2009), consistent with complete degassing of the erupted magma volumes. Using geodetic models for the intrusive activity in Afar we estimate the partitioning of magma between intrusive and extrusive components, up to July 2009, to be ˜ 180:1. Comparing the first-order volcanic characteristics and the intrusive-extrusive volume balance for the Afar volcanism with data from the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting cycle (Iceland) suggests that the volcanic flux in Afar will rise significantly over the next few years as the stresses are increasingly relieved by dyking, and subsequent dykes are able to propagate more easily to the surface. As a consequence, basaltic fissure eruptions in this section of the Afar rift will become of increasing large magnitude as the rifting event matures over the next 5-10 yr. Using available models of magmatic rifting we forecast the likely size and location of future eruptions in Afar.

  18. River sedimentation and channel bed characteristics in northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Biadgilgn; Billi, Paolo; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Lanckriet, Sil; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sedimentation and flood hazard are common in ephemeral streams which are characterized by flashy floods. The purposes of this study was to investigate the temporal variability of bio-climatic factors in controlling sediment supply to downstream channel reaches and the effect of bridges on local hydro-geomorphic conditions in causing the excess sedimentation and flood hazard in ephemeral rivers of the Raya graben (northern Ethiopia). Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was analyzed for the study area using Landsat imageries of 1972, 1986, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2012). Middle term, 1993-2011, daily rainfall data of three meteorological stations, namely, Alamata, Korem and Maychew, were considered to analyse the temporal trends and to calculate the return time intervals of rainfall intensity in 24 hours for 2, 5, 10 and 20 years using the log-normal and the Gumbel extreme events method. Streambed gradient and bed material grain size were measured in 22 river reaches (at bridges and upstream). In the study catchments, the maximum NDVI values were recorded in the time interval from 2000 to 2010, i.e. the decade during which the study bridges experienced the most severe excess sedimentation problems. The time series analysis for a few rainfall parameters do not show any evidence of rainfall pattern accountable for an increase in sediment delivery from the headwaters nor for the generation of higher floods with larger bedload transport capacities. Stream bed gradient and bed material grain size data were measured in order to investigate the effect of the marked decrease in width from the wide upstream channels to the narrow recently constructed bridges. The study found the narrowing of the channels due to the bridges as the main cause of the thick sedimentation that has been clogging the study bridges and increasing the frequency of overbank flows during the last 15 years. Key terms: sedimentation, ephemeral streams, sediment size, bridge clogging

  19. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Alemi; Hassen, Kalkidan; Nigussie Teklehaymanot, Aderajew

    2016-01-01

    Background Most obstetric complications occur unpredictably during the time of delivery, but they can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities. Despite the Ethiopian government’s efforts to expand health service facilities and promote health institution-based delivery service in the country, an estimated 85% of births still take place at home. Objective The review was conducted with the aim of generating the best evidence on the determinants of institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia. Methods The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed, HINARI, Mendeley reference manager, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Review Manager V5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using I2 test. Results People living in urban areas (OR =13.16, CI =1.24, 3.68), with primary and above educational level of the mother and husband (OR =4.95, CI =2.3, 4. 8, and OR =4.43, CI =1.14, 3.36, respectively), who encountered problems during pregnancy (OR =2.83, CI =4.54, 7.39), and living at a distance <5 km from nearby health facility (OR =2.6, CI =3.33, 6.57) showed significant association with institutional delivery service utilization. Women’s autonomy was not significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Conclusion and recommendation Distance to health facility and problems during pregnancy were factors positively and significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Promoting couples education beyond primary education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery through available communication networks such as health development army and promotion of antenatal care visits and completion of four standard visits by pregnant women were recommended.

  20. Dairy technology adoption in smallholder farms in "Dejen" district, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, H; Dehninet, G; Kelay, B

    2010-02-01

    Factors influencing dairy technology adoption and impact on milk yield were studied in 240 smallholder farms in Dejen district, Ethiopia. The majority of the smallholders had more than 20 years of farming experience and were living at more than 10 km distance from market or trading centers (67% and 54% in that order). The dairy technologies studied included the use of crossbred animals, improved feed technologies and improved management practices. Application of acaricides, deworming, vaccination, heat-detection and haymaking had wide application (more than 80% adoption levels) while urea straw treatment, silage making, rotational grazing and fodder beet development were the least practiced ones. Only 20 percent of the cows were crossbred animals. It has been found that higher level of technology adoption is associated with better milk yield regardless of the breed of cattle (local or crossbred) owned by the farmers. Milk yields in local breeds increased by 0.07 times when the number of technologies increased by one unit. In crossbred cows, this rate of increase was five fold higher (0.38 times for one unit increase). Correlation coefficients between and within farm household characteristics and technologies adoption were, generally, significant. Male-headed households adopted significantly higher number of technologies than female-headed households (P < 0.001). Technology adoption rates increased significantly with increased education level and family size and decreasing distance from market or trade centers (P < 0.01). The level of technology adoption by smallholder farmers is still unsatisfactory and is highly dependent on gender, family size and level of education of smallholder farmers and location of farms.

  1. Microscopic examination and smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Keflie, Tibebe Seyoum; Ameni, Gobena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis causes illness among millions of people each year and ranks as the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of microscopic examination and estimate risk of transmission of TB by smear negative pulmonary TB patients. Methods A cross-sectional study and retrospective data analysis on TB were undertaken in Northwest Shewa, Ethiopia. Microscopic examination, bacterial culture and PCR were performed. The statistical analysis was made by using STATA software version 10. Results A total of 92 suspected TB cases was included in the study. Of these, 27.17% (25/92) were positive for microscopic examination and 51% (47/92) for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic examination with 95% CI were 48.94% (34.08% to 63.93%) and 95.56% (84.82 to 99.33%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92% (73.93% to 98.78%) and 64.18% (51.53% to 75.53%), respectively. Of 8150 pulmonary TB cases in the retrospective study, 58.9% was smear negative. The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335). Conclusion The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low. The poor sensitivity of this test together with the advent of HIV/AIDS elevated the prevalence of smear negative pulmonary TB. This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission. PMID:25810798

  2. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. PMID:27104923

  3. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences.

  4. Key informants’ perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia’s health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  5. Burden of Podoconiosis in Poor Rural Communities in Gulliso woreda, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Getahun; Tekola Ayele, Fasil; Daniel, Takele; Ahrens, Christel; Davey, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is an environmental lymphoedema affecting people living and working barefoot on irritant red clay soil. Podoconiosis is relatively well described in southern Ethiopia, but remains neglected in other parts of the Ethiopian highlands. This study aimed to assess the burden of podoconiosis in rural communities in western Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gulliso woreda (district), west Ethiopia. A household survey in the 26 rural kebeles (villages) of this district was conducted to identify podoconiosis patients and to measure disease prevalence. A more detailed study was done in six randomly selected kebeles to describe clinical features of the disease, patients' experiences of foot hygiene, and shoe wearing practice. 1,935 cases of podoconiosis were registered, giving a prevalence of 2.8%. The prevalence was higher in those aged 15–64 years (5.2%) and in females than males (prevalence ratio 2.6∶1). 90.3% of patients were in the 15–64 year age group. In the detailed study, 335 cases were interviewed and their feet assessed. The majority of patients were farmers, uneducated, and poor. Two-third of patients developed the disease before the age of thirty. Almost all patients (97.0%) had experienced adenolymphangitis (ALA - red, hot legs, swollen and painful groin) at least once during the previous year. Patients experienced an average of 5.5 ALA episodes annually, each of average 4.4 days, thus 24 working days were lost annually. The incidence of ALA in podoconiosis patients was higher than that reported for filariasis in other countries. Shoe wearing was limited mainly due to financial problems. Conclusions We have documented high podoconiosis prevalence, frequent adenolymphangitis and high disease-related morbidity in west Ethiopia. Interventions must be developed to prevent, treat and control podoconiosis, one of the core neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia. PMID:21666795

  6. Environmental Impact of Controlled-Source Explosions in Ethiopia (Project EAGLE): Surface Shaking, Ground Velocities, and Effects on Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Les, A.; Klemperer, S. L.; Keranen, K.; Khan, A.; Maguire, P.

    2003-12-01

    In January 2003, as part of the Ethiopia-Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment (EAGLE) we conducted a refraction and wide-angle reflection survey of the Main Ethiopian Rift. 757 RefTek "Texan" seismographs with vertical geophones were deployed in 400 km-long axial and cross-rift lines, with another 231 in a central 3D array 100 km in diameter. An 80-instrument passive array of intermediate and broadband sensors was active during our experiment. We recorded 19 borehole shots loaded in nominal 50-meter boreholes, 2 quarry shots, and 2 lake shots. The shots ranged in size from 50-5750 kg, with the most common shot size being 1 tonne. Prior to loading each shot-hole, we measured distances between shots and the nearest structure, typically un-reinforced mud-and-wood houses, occasionally concrete irrigation ditches and aqueducts. We then used semi-empirical formulae derived by Oriard (Hendron and Oriard, 1972) to calculate expected maximum and minimum bounds on ground velocity at these structures, and selected an appropriate shot size to keep the predicted velocity below the "threshold for cosmetic damage", or 2 inches per second, at the most vulnerable structure. The Oriard formulae are derived from measurements associated with blasting for mining and civil engineering purposes and may not accurately predict the ground velocity from the source depths and explosive type used in the EAGLE and other controlled-source experiments. A detailed, trace-by-trace analysis of maximum ground velocities at our closest seismographs can provide data that will be useful in planning future large-scale seismic experiments. Preliminary results from traces within 20 km of our borehole shots suggest that maximum recorded ground velocities were within or below the maximum-minimum range predicted by Oriard, and hence that larger shot sizes could have been used with acceptable risks. A lake shot fired at the optimum depth (84 m for a 1 tonne shot) produced ground velocities that exceeded

  7. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  8. Lake v. Arnold.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    Court Decision: 232 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 360, 2000 Nov 7 (date of decision). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit agreed with the lower court that the husband of a mentally disabled woman who was involuntarily sterilized by her parents at age 16 was not entitled to a loss of consortium claim because the injury occurred before the couple was married, both he and his wife were aware of the injury before they married and there was not subsequent harm from the initial injury (sterilization) after the Lakes' marriage. At age 16, Lake, a mentally disabled woman, was taken to a hospital by her father and stepmother and was permanently sterilized. The claim by Lake and her husband against her parents, hospital, and physicians that her civil rights were violated because the sterilization was nonconsensual was dismissed by the court on statute of limitation grounds.

  9. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  10. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and…

  11. The Great Lakes whitefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Elliot, Charles

    1942-01-01

    In every one of the Great Lakes- Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior- the most valuable fishes are declining, and there is no evidence that this trend will be reversed. Under existing conditions of a diversity of regulations that vary between states and between the two countries, and with the present methods of fishing, the Great Lakes fisheries are doomed. This chapter deals with the common whitefish, a valuable species which many believe to be the next that will go unless positive action is forthcoming soon.

  12. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  13. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  14. Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.

  15. Genetically Divergent Types of the Wheat Leaf Fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a Center of Tetraploid Wheat Diversity.

    PubMed

    Kolmer, J A; Acevedo, M A

    2016-04-01

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya, from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. Single-uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single leaf rust resistance genes and for molecular genotypes with 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Nine virulence phenotypes were described among the 193 isolates tested for virulence. Phenotype BBBQJ, found only in Ethiopia, was predominantly collected from tetraploid wheat. Phenotype EEEEE, also found only in Ethiopia, was exclusively collected from tetraploid wheat and was avirulent to the susceptible hexaploid wheat 'Thatcher'. Phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS, found in both Ethiopia and Kenya, were predominantly collected from common wheat. Phenotypes CCMSS, CCPSS, and CBMSS were found in Ethiopia from common wheat at low frequency. Phenotypes TCBSS and TCBSQ were found on durum wheat and common wheat in Kenya. Four groups of distinct SSR genotypes were described among the 48 isolates genotyped. Isolates with phenotypes BBBQJ and EEEEE were in two distinct SSR groups, and isolates with phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS were in a third group. Isolates with CCMSS, CCPSS, CBMSS, TCBSS, and TCBSQ phenotypes were in a fourth SSR genotype group. The diverse host environment of Ethiopia has selected and maintained a genetically divergent population of P. triticina.

  16. Dyke swarm emplacement in the Ethiopian Large Igneous Province: not only a matter of stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mège, Daniel; Korme, Tesfaye

    2004-05-01

    In the Tana-Belaya area, western Ethiopia, field data and satellite imagery reveal the existence of two dyke swarms, the NE-SW Serpent-God dyke swarm, and the NW-SE Dinder dyke swarm. Both swarms are thought to have the same age, 30 Ma, and are likely to have contributed to feeding the traps. After a description of the swarms, this paper examines their relationships with the basement structures. The two dyke swarms follow major lithospheric weakness zones. The Serpent-God dyke swarm follows the Pan-African Tulu Dimtu ductile shear zone, and the Dinder dyke swarm follows a large NW-SE-trending Precambrian fracture zone already reactivated during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic as the northern boundary of the Blue Nile Rift. Because the dyke swarms are adjacent but their orientation differs, the stress trajectory patterns during their emplacement were spatially variable at local scale. Therefore, rather than plate-boundary processes, the origin of stress is thought to be primarily related to the Ethiopian plume. Postulating (in the absence of more data relating to the magma chambers that fed the traps) that dyke orientation is the result of an axisymmetric stress field, the location of the stress source can be placed close to Lake Tana, which is the centre of the Ethiopian broad negative regional Bouguer anomaly. The dykes in the Tana-Belaya area provide the first clues to the orientation of the stress field that prevailed in the early history of the Ethiopian mantle plume, and to some of the factors that guided the distribution of the trap feeders.

  17. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  18. Temperature Trends in Montane Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; Sadro, S.; Jellison, R.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term temperature trends in lakes integrate hydrological and meteorological factors. We examine temperature trends in a small montane lake with prolonged ice-cover and large seasonal snowfall and in a large saline lake. Emerald Lake, located in the Sierra Nevada (California), is representative of high-elevation lakes throughout the region. No significant trend in outflow temperature was apparent from 1991to 2012. Snowfall in the watershed accounted for 93% of the variability in average summer lake temperatures. Mono Lake (California) lies in a closed, montane basin and is hypersaline and monomictic or meromictic. Temperature profiles have been collected from 1982 to 2010. In the upper water column, the July-August-September water temperatures increased 0.8-1.0°C over the 29 years. This rate of warming is less than published estimates based on satellite-derived skin temperatures and will discussed in the context of general limnological interpretation of temperature trends.

  19. Lake Michigan: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey in the nearshore of Lake Michigan at a 20 meter contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The nearly 1200 km survey was conducted Sep 8-15, 2010. We also conducted six cross-contour tows. Along the survey tracks we sampled fixed stat...

  20. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  1. The People's Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    1975-01-01

    Citizen action to stop the disposal of taconite tailings into Lake Superior was unsuccessful when the courts settled in the favor of industry. Although citizen research revealed a form of asbestos, as well as other toxic chemicals in the discharged wastes, company representatives stated that there were no health hazards. (MA)

  2. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  3. Temperate Lakes Discovered on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Wilson, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered two temperate lakes on Titan using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Three key features help to identify these surface features as lakes: morphology, albedo, and specular reflection. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes mean liquid can accumulate and remain stable outside of the poles. We first identify a lake surface by looking for possible shorelines with a lacustrine morphology. Then, we apply a simple atmospheric correction that produces an approximate surface albedo. Next, we prepare cylindrical projection maps of the brightness of the sky as seen from any points on the surface to identify specular reflections. Our techniques can then be applied to other areas, such as Arrakis Planitia, to test for liquid. Currently, all the known lakes on Titan are concentrated at the poles. Lakes have been suggested in the tropic zone by Griffith et al. Our discovery of non-transient, temperate lakes has important implications for Titan's hydrologic cycle. Clouds have been recorded accumulating in the mid-latitudes and areas have been darkened by rainfall but later brightened after evaporation (Turtle et al. 2011). Stable temperate lakes would affect total rainfall, liquid accumulation, evaporation rates, and infiltration. Polaznik Macula (Figure 1) is a great candidate for lake filling, evaporation rates, and stability. References: Griffith, C., et al.: "Evidence for Lakes on Titan's Tropical Surface". AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #42, Vol. 42, pp. 1077, 2010. Turtle, E. P., et al.: "Rapid and Extensive Surface Changes Near Titan's Equator: Evidence of April Showers". Science, Vol. 331, pp. 1414-, 2011. Figure 1: Polaznik Macula is the large, dark area central to the figure. The encircled dark blue areas represent positively identified lake regions in the T66 flyby. The light blue areas represent lake candidates still under analysis. The green circle marks a non-lake surface feature enclosed by a

  4. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deribe, Kebede; Cano, Jorge; Newport, Melanie J.; Golding, Nick; Pullan, Rachel L.; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P.; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J.; Aseffa, Abraham; Hay, Simon I.; Reithinger, Richard; Enquselassie, Fikre; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues. Methodology Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008–2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district) health offices’ reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence. Principal Findings Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2–51.7) million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3–64.8% of Ethiopia’s national population) lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis. Conclusions Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental

  5. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  6. Movements of hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.; Dryer, William R.; King, George R.

    1965-01-01

    The history of stocking of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Great Lakes is reviewed. The study of movements is based on capture of 24,275 fin-clipped lake trout taken in experimental gill nets and trawls and commercial gill nets. Yearling lake trout planted from shore dispersed to 15-fath (27-m) depths in 3A? hr. Most fish remained within 2 miles (3.2 km) of the planting site 2 months, but within 4 months some fish had moved as much as 17 miles (27 km). The highest abundance of planted lake trout was in areas 2-4 miles (3.2-6.4 km) from the planting site even 3 years after release. Distance moved and size of fish were not correlated. Dispersal of lake trout begins at planting and probably continues until the fish are mature. Most movement was eastward in southern Lake Superior and followed the counterclockwise surface currents. Movement is most rapid in areas of strong currents and slowest in areas of weak currents or eddies. Movement to areas west of the Keweenaw Peninsula was insignificant from plantings in Keweenaw Bay and nil from other plantings farther east. Lake trout planted in the eastern third of the lake dispersed more randomly than those planted farther west. Few fish moved farther offshore than the 50-fath (91-m) contour. Lake trout planted in Canadian waters made insignificant contributions to populations in US waters.

  7. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-03-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence.

  8. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-03-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  9. Village poultry production systems in the central highlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dessie, T; Ogle, B

    2001-12-01

    Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), supported by checklists and intensive case studies on individual households, was carried out in three villages at three different altitudes in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The chicken production system in each village is described and the problems are discussed. More than 60% of the families kept chickens, and in most cases the women owned and managed the birds and controlled the cash from the sales. The production systems followed were mainly low-input and small-scale, with 7-10 mature birds per household, reared in the back yards with inadequate housing, feeding and health care. The average egg production per clutch was 15-20, with 3-4 clutches per year. The mean number of eggs set per bird was 12.9 +/- 2.2 (n = 160), depending on the size of the bird and season, and the hatching rate was 80.9% +/- 11.1%, range 44%-100% (n = 160). Poultry meat and eggs were generally accepted and appreciated in all three villages. In addition to the small amount of cash income they provide, scavenging chickens have nutritional, cultural and social functions. The flock composition, price of poultry and poultry products, disease outbreaks and hatching of chicks were strongly affected by season. Disease was cited as the most important problem by most of the members of the community, followed by predation, lack of feed, poor housing, insufficient water and parasites. Disease periodically decimated the flocks, and consequently, about 50% of the eggs produced were incubated in order to replace the birds that had died. The major source of loss in the system was the high mortality of chicks (61%) that occurred between hatching and the end of brooding at 8 weeks of age. The system was characterized by no or few inputs and a low output level. The major input was the cost of foundation stock, but after that virtually no cost was involved. The major source of feed for the birds was from the scavenging feed resource base, which comprised table

  10. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:24086614

  11. Village chickens management in Wolaita zone of southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli

    2013-02-01

    Little effort has been made to improve village chickens housing, feeding, and health care. Due to this, the amount of output obtained is usually low. The aim of this study was to elicit farmers' knowledge on the routine husbandry practices of village chickens. One hundred nineteen farmers were one-on-one interviewed in the highland and lowland areas of Wolaita zone (southern Ethiopia) to generate the dataset used in this analysis. We found that all the respondents supplemented the scavenging chickens with locally available feed resources. However, the amount of supplementary feeds provided hardly meets the nutritional requirement of the flock. As a result, farmers were forced to practice a sort of preferential feeding mainly based on laying performance and the scavenging ability of different classes of the family flock. Moreover, there is a wide difference in the amount and type of feed available among seasons. This variation has forced farmers to resort on strategic supplementation to overcome the adverse effect of inherent feed (grain) scarcity on chickens' performance especially during wet season. Feed loss should be kept at a minimum by using feeding troughs, and a fraction of money obtained from selling of the chickens and eggs needs to be set aside to purchase feed. The risk of disease was higher during main rain season (June to September). Besides providing sanitary condition and feed supplementation, capacitating the veterinary service and validating the efficacy of ethno-veterinary practices through objective studies is required to improve the health status of village chickens. Majority of the farmers use rudimentary types of in-house built shelters to protect their chickens from adverse effects of bad weather, predation, and theft. This indicates the importance of constructing proper types of shelters from locally (freely) available or inexpensive materials. The existing tradition of responsibility sharing among family members while doing the routine

  12. Potential strategies for recovery of lake whitefish and lake herring stocks in eastern Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldenburg, K.; Stapanian, M.A.; Ryan, P.A.; Holm, E.

    2007-01-01

    Lake Erie sustained large populations of ciscoes (Salmonidae: Coregoninae) 120 years ago. By the end of the 19th century, abundance of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) had declined drastically. By 1925, the lake herring (a cisco) population (Coregonus artedii) had collapsed, although a limited lake herring fishery persisted in the eastern basin until the 1950s. In the latter part of the 20th century, the composition of the fish community changed as oligotrophication proceeded. Since 1984, a limited recovery of lake whitefish has occurred, however no recovery was evident for lake herring. Current ecological conditions in Lake Erie probably will not inhibit recovery of the coregonine species. Recovery of walleye (Sander vitreus) and efforts to rehabilitate the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Erie will probably assist recovery because these piscivores reduce populations of alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which inhibit reproductive success of coregonines. Although there are considerable spawning substrates available to coregonine species in eastern Lake Erie, eggs and fry would probably be displaced by storm surge from most shoals. Site selection for stocking or seeding of eggs should consider the reproductive life cycle of the stocked fish and suitable protection from storm events. Two potential sites in the eastern basin have been identified. Recommended management procedures, including commercial fisheries, are suggested to assist in recovery. Stocking in the eastern basin of Lake Erie is recommended for both species, as conditions are adequate and the native spawning population in the eastern basin is low. For lake herring, consideration should be given to match ecophenotypes as much as possible. Egg seeding is recommended. Egg seeding of lake whitefish should be considered initially, with fingerling or yearling stocking suggested if unsuccessful. Spawning stocks of whitefish in the western basin of Lake

  13. Lake Mead--clear and vital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wessells, Stephen M.; Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lake Mead – Clear and Vital” is a 13 minute documentary relating the crucial role of science in maintaining high water quality in Lake Mead. The program was produced coincident with release of the Lakes Mead and Mohave Circular a USGS publication covering past and on-going research in the lakes and tributaries of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

  14. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  15. Lake Erie...Take a Bow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Maureen; Dunlevy, Margie

    This elementary school teaching unit was developed as a part of a series of teaching units that deal with Lake Erie. This unit was developed to enable children to: (1) identify the Great Lakes and pick out Lake Erie on a map; (2) demonstrate knowledge of Lake Erie's origin and geography; (3) list some uses of Lake Erie; and (4) give examples of…

  16. The volcano seismic crisis in Afar, Ethiopia, starting September 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayele, Atalay; Jacques, Eric; Kassim, Mohammed; Kidane, Tesfaye; Omar, Ahmed; Tait, Stephen; Nercessian, Alexandre; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; King, Geoffrey

    2007-03-01

    We describe the seismo-volcanic crisis that occurred in northern Afar in late 2005, which involved 15 earthquakes greater than M5 and a small explosive silicic eruption from a vent called Da'Ure (at 12.651°N., 40.519°N) close to Dabbahu volcano. The purpose is to pull together the different sources of information into a coherent preliminary interpretation of what happened. The main geophysical data are the locations of the largest earthquakes, and a radar interferogram of unusually high quality that reveals injection of a 60 km long dyke with surface deformation expressed as normal faulting. Subsidence occurred around the Dabbahu volcanic edifice. Most of the dyke is likely to have been basaltic rather than silicic although the eruption was silicic. The volume of the subsidence represents at most 25% of the magma injected into the dyke. The silicic eruption was possibly triggered by interaction of basaltic magma with a shallow silicic reservoir. At about the same time as the eruption and dyking episode, some activity appears also to have taken place at the lava lake at Erta Ale volcano, some 150 km to the north of the eruption site. We evaluate the possibility that there may be some link by calculating stresses associated with opening of the fissure and looking at the activity of the lava lake as revealed by the thermal anomaly seen by weather satellites.

  17. Fecundity of hatchery lake trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzsimons, John D.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Fecundity (egg number) was determined from 26 stocked (617-800 mm, total length) lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) collected in western Lake Ontario during September 1992. Previous to this study, fecundity was evaluated only once in Lake Ontario using native stocks in 1927. The following relationships between fecundity and total length (TL) and weight (W) were obtained. Fecundity = -12,492 + 25.87 TL(mm) and Fecundity = -1,010 + 1,307 W(kg). Relative fecundity (number of eggs per kg of body weight) was unrelated to body weight and averaged 1,592 eggs kg-1. Fecundity of contemporary lake trout based on length was significantly lower than that of historic native stocks, but was similar to contemporary stocked lake trout in Lake Superior.

  18. Lake-wide distribution of Dreissena in Lake Michigan, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Guy W.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.

    2001-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center has conducted lake-wide bottom trawl surveys of the fish community in Lake Michigan each fall since 1973. These systematic surveys are performed at depths of 9 to 110 m at each of seven index sites around Lake Michigan. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations have expanded to all survey locations and at a level to sufficiently contribute to the bottom trawl catches. The quagga (Dreissena bugensis), recently reported in Lake Michigan, was likely in the catches though not recognized. Dreissena spp. biomass ranged from about 0.6 to 15 kg/ha at the various sites in 1999. Dreissenid mussels were found at depths of 9 to 82 m, with their peak biomass at 27 to 46 m. The colonization of these exotic mussels has ecological implications as well as potential ramifications on the ability to sample fish consistently and effectively with bottom trawls in Lake Michigan.

  19. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for

  20. A status report of veterinary education in Ethiopia: perceived needs, past history, recent changes, and current and future concerns.

    PubMed

    Mayen, Friederike

    2006-01-01

    Ethiopia, which owns the most important livestock resources in Africa, opened its first faculty of veterinary medicine in 1979. In 2003, in response to a government mandate to increase the number of veterinarians, four new veterinary faculties were founded, but these facilities still have very limited resources. Currently, quality standards and controls for veterinary studies are not established in Ethiopia, and the country does not have any type of veterinary council or oversight body to establish such standards or the essential evaluation and credentialing procedures. The veterinary degree, as currently obtained in Ethiopia, is not internationally recognized. A second specific concern for veterinary education in Ethiopia is that it is not well adapted to the special needs of the country. Clearly, quality control of veterinary education needs to be established, and teaching methods and materials need to be adapted to the special needs of the country. So far, the veterinary faculty in Ethiopia has been more interested in partnerships with universities from developed countries than in partnerships and cooperation with other African universities. In 2002, after six years of cooperation with a German university, the Veterinary Faculty at Addis Ababa started its own post-graduate program, with some key contributions from foreign instructors and some foreign funding. While this has been a service to Ethiopian veterinary medicine, the cooperation of the Ethiopian veterinary schools with African universities must also be strengthened. Overall, the good efforts to date in Ethiopian veterinary medicine have only barely scratched the surface of its critical needs. In order to meet Ethiopia's needs for both a reliable and high-quality veterinary education and a trustworthy animal disease surveillance mechanism, it is important that veterinary education in Ethiopia be improved. PMID:16849305

  1. State of Michigan, Lake Michigan and Lake Huron, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Almost the entire state of Michigan and most of lakes Michigan and Huron (45.5N, 83.5W) can be seen in this single midwinter view of the Great Lakes region. Even under midwinter snow and ice conditions, the distinctive silhouette of the state of Michigan is still easy to recognize as well as Lakes Michigan and Huron. The Canadian province of Ontario is at the top of the scene on the opposite shore from Michigan.

  2. Emergency medical services capacities in the developing world: preliminary evaluation and training in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Pozner, Charles N; Bayleygne, Tesfaye M; Davis, Mark A; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Noble, Vicki E; Halpern, Pinchas

    2003-01-01

    In December 1999, a group of emergency physicians from the United States, Israel, and Ethiopia met for the Second Annual Symposium on Emergency Medicine and to perform an initial evaluation of the prehospital care system in Addis Ababa. The symposium was structured into a workshop on prehospital care and a clinical seminar for emergency medicine providers. This article describes the current prehospital infrastructure in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This serves as the basis for more specific needs assessments and training interventions, which are ongoing. The authors present a list of priorities for the development of an emergency medical services (EMS) system for Addis Ababa that was generated in partnership with local government and the World Health Organization. The article contrasts these initial recommendations with those found in the literature on the development of EMS systems in developing nations.

  3. Late Miocene hominin teeth from the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area, Afar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott W; Kleinsasser, Lynnette; Quade, Jay; Levin, Naomi E; McIntosh, William C; Dunbar, Nelia; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, significant collections of Latest Miocene hominin fossils have been recovered from Chad, Kenya, and Ethiopia. These fossils have provided a better understanding of earliest hominin biology and context. Here, we describe five hominin teeth from two periods (ca. 5.4 Million-years-ago and ca. 6.3 Ma) that were recovered from the Adu-Asa Formation in the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area in the Afar, Ethiopia that we assign to either Hominina, gen. et sp. indet. or Ardipithecus kadabba. These specimens are compared with extant African ape and other Latest Miocene and Early Pliocene hominin teeth. The derived morphology of the large, non-sectorial maxillary canine and mandibular third premolar links them with later hominins and they are phenetically distinguishable and thus phyletically distinct from extant apes. PMID:25795338

  4. River-margin habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus at Aramis, Ethiopia 4.4 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Gani, M Royhan; Gani, Nahid D

    2011-01-01

    The nature and type of landscape that hominins (early humans) frequented has been of considerable interest. The recent works on Ardipithecus ramidus, a 4.4 million years old hominin found at Middle Awash, Ethiopia, provided critical information about the early part of human evolution. However, habitat characterization of this basal hominin has been highly contested. Here we present new sedimentological and stable isotopic (carbon and oxygen) data from Aramis, where the in situ, partial skeleton of Ar. ramidus (nicknamed 'Ardi') was excavated. These data are interpreted to indicate the presence of major rivers and associated mixed vegetations (grasses and trees) in adjacent floodplains. Our finding suggests that, in contrast to a woodland habitat far from a river, Ar. ramidus lived in a river-margin forest in an otherwise savanna (wooded grassland) landscape at Aramis, Ethiopia. Correct interpretation of habitat of Ar. ramidus is crucial for proper assessment of causes and mechanisms of early hominin evolution, including the development of bipedalism.

  5. River-margin habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus at Aramis, Ethiopia 4.4 million years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gani, M. Royhan; Gani, Nahid D.

    2011-12-01

    The nature and type of landscape that hominins (early humans) frequented has been of considerable interest. The recent works on Ardipithecus ramidus, a 4.4 million years old hominin found at Middle Awash, Ethiopia, provided critical information about the early part of human evolution. However, habitat characterization of this basal hominin has been highly contested. Here we present new sedimentological and stable isotopic (carbon and oxygen) data from Aramis, where the in situ, partial skeleton of Ar. ramidus (nicknamed 'Ardi') was excavated. These data are interpreted to indicate the presence of major rivers and associated mixed vegetations (grasses and trees) in adjacent floodplains. Our finding suggests that, in contrast to a woodland habitat far from a river, Ar. ramidus lived in a river-margin forest in an otherwise savanna (wooded grassland) landscape at Aramis, Ethiopia. Correct interpretation of habitat of Ar. ramidus is crucial for proper assessment of causes and mechanisms of early hominin evolution, including the development of bipedalism.

  6. Why are current efforts to eliminate female circumcision in Ethiopia misplaced?

    PubMed

    Boyden, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the eradication challenges of female circumcision in Ethiopia. It argues that despite an overall decline in the practice nationally, eradication efforts have caused significant quandaries for girls and their families. The most common justification by far for its continuance is that circumcision confirms a girl's social place by proving her readiness for marriage and adulthood and thereby ensures her protection against material want. Hence, intervention has often resulted in the transformation, rather than the elimination, of the practice, the exchange of one type of risk for another, or even increased risk to girls. In discussing policy, the paper argues that there has been a misapplication of the risk concept in the promotion of change in Ethiopia. It calls for risk definitions and interventions that are more holistic, correspond more closely with children's social realities and take into account the phenomenological dimensions of experience. PMID:23030606

  7. Trends and differentials of adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia: evidences from 2005 Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Gurmu, Eshetu; Dejene, Tariku

    2012-12-01

    Adolescent childbearing has undesirable consequences. Dropping out of school, high rates of abortion, maternal mortality and morbidity are noted consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. The objective of this study, which is based on the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data, is to analyze the levels, trends and differentials of adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia. A multilevel logistic regression was fitted to analyze the determinants of adolescent childbearing. Adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia has shown a generally declining trend over time. The decline was more marked in the periods following the adoption of the national population policy in the country. Further, it was lower in urban areas and among women who have secondary and above level of education, but higher among women not working and those engaged in agricultural activities. Housewives and women working in the agricultural sector should be given attention to reduce the risks and consequences of adolescent motherhood. PMID:23444553

  8. [Nutritional deficiencies affecting children of the Third World. The example of Ethiopia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Vahlquist, B

    1977-10-01

    For the large non-privileged population groups in developing countries and diet shows many deficiencies, often with major disturbances of health as a consequence. This is particularly true for the children. The monotony and the bulkiness of the traditional diet, the often sparse number of meals as well as periodic deteriorations of the food situation ("hungry season") all contributes to make the nutritional situation precarious. The vicious circle between PEM and infections contribute in a major way to the high mortality rate among preschool children in developing countries. In this paper a review is given of different nutritional deficiency diseases affecting children in the Third World. The practical illustrations derive mainly from Ethiopia. During the period between 1962-1975 there has been lively cooperation in the field of nutritional research between Ethiopia and Sweden.

  9. Anaesthesia in Ethiopia: providers' perspectives on the current state of the service.

    PubMed

    Bashford, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of surgical and anaesthetic safety in low-resource settings is hampered by a lack of reliable information on the current provision of these services. Ethiopia is one of the world's poorest countries and, despite large amounts of both foreign and domestic investment, still reports some of the worst health outcomes. However, information on anaesthesia and surgical provision is sparse. This work reproduces a questionnaire study, first used in Uganda in 2006, to survey practising anaesthetists regarding the current state of anaesthesia services across Ethiopia. The results indicate that a large proportion of centres remain unable to provide safe general, spinal, paediatric and obstetric anaesthesia, at all levels of hospital and across almost all of the country's regions. In addition to a lack of equipment and pharmaceuticals, anaesthetists report problems with professional recognition and a lack of access to continuing professional development as key barriers to service development. PMID:24240776

  10. Late Miocene hominin teeth from the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area, Afar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott W; Kleinsasser, Lynnette; Quade, Jay; Levin, Naomi E; McIntosh, William C; Dunbar, Nelia; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, significant collections of Latest Miocene hominin fossils have been recovered from Chad, Kenya, and Ethiopia. These fossils have provided a better understanding of earliest hominin biology and context. Here, we describe five hominin teeth from two periods (ca. 5.4 Million-years-ago and ca. 6.3 Ma) that were recovered from the Adu-Asa Formation in the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area in the Afar, Ethiopia that we assign to either Hominina, gen. et sp. indet. or Ardipithecus kadabba. These specimens are compared with extant African ape and other Latest Miocene and Early Pliocene hominin teeth. The derived morphology of the large, non-sectorial maxillary canine and mandibular third premolar links them with later hominins and they are phenetically distinguishable and thus phyletically distinct from extant apes.

  11. A Unique Plasmodium falciparum K13 Gene Mutation in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bayih, Abebe Genetu; Getnet, Gebeyaw; Alemu, Abebe; Getie, Sisay; Mohon, Abu Naser; Pillai, Dylan R

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is the first line to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide. Artemisinin treatment failures are on the rise in southeast Asia. Delayed parasite clearance after ACT is associated with mutations of the P. falciparum kelch 13 gene. Patients (N = 148) in five districts of northwest Ethiopia were enrolled in a 28-day ACT trial. We identified a unique kelch 13 mutation (R622I) in 3/125 (2.4%) samples. The three isolates with R622I were from Negade-Bahir and Aykel districts close to the Ethiopia-Sudan border. One of three patients with the mutant strain was parasitemic at day 3; however, all patients cleared parasites by day 28. Correlation between kelch 13 mutations and parasite clearance was not possible due to the low frequency of mutations in this study. PMID:26483118

  12. Development of a scalable mental healthcare plan for a rural district in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte; Medhin, Girmay; Alem, Atalay; Selamu, Medhin; Giorgis, Tedla W.; Shibre, Teshome; Teferra, Solomon; Tegegn, Teketel; Breuer, Erica; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Thornicroft, Graham; Prince, Martin; Lund, Crick

    2016-01-01

    Background Developing evidence for the implementation and scaling up of mental healthcare in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) like Ethiopia is an urgent priority. Aims To outline a mental healthcare plan (MHCP), as a scalable template for the implementation of mental healthcare in rural Ethiopia. Method A mixed methods approach was used to develop the MHCP for the three levels of the district health system (community, health facility and healthcare organisation). Results The community packages were community case detection, community reintegration and community inclusion. The facility packages included capacity building, decision support and staff well-being. Organisational packages were programme management, supervision and sustainability. Conclusions The MHCP focused on improving demand and access at the community level, inclusive care at the facility level and sustainability at the organisation level. The MHCP represented an essential framework for the provision of integrated care and may be a useful template for similar LMIC. PMID:26447174

  13. High salinity alters chloroplast morpho-physiology in a freshwater Kirchneriella species (Selenastraceae) from Ethiopian Lake Awasa.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, Lorenzo; Baldisserotto, Costanza; Pantaleoni, Laura; Billi, Paolo; Fasulo, Maria P; Pancaldi, Simonetta

    2007-12-01

    Plants differ in their ability to tolerate salt stress. In aquatic ecosystems, it is important to know the responses of microalgae to increased salinity levels, especially considering that global warming will increase salinity levels in some regions of the Earth, e.g., Ethiopia. A green microalga, Kirchneriella sp. (Selenastraceae, Chlorophyta), isolated from freshwater Lake Awasa in the Rift Valley, Ethiopia, was cultured in media amended with 0, 0.4, 1.9, 5.9, and 19.4 g NaCl·L(-1) adjusted with NaCl to five salinity levels adjusted with NaCl. Growth was monitored for 3 mo, then samples were collected for photosynthetic pigment determinations, microspectrofluorimetric analyses, and micro- and submicroscopic examinations. The best growth was found at 1.9 g NaCl·L(-1). In the chloroplast, excess NaCl affected the coupling of light harvesting complex II and photosystem II (LHCII-PSII), but changes in thylakoid architecture and in the PSII assembly state allowed sufficient integrity of the photosynthetic membrane. The mucilaginous capsule around the cell probably provided partial protection against NaCl excess. On the whole, the microalga is able to acclimate to a range of NaCl concentrations, and this plasticity indicates that Kirchneriella sp. may survive future changes in water quality. PMID:21636392

  14. Genetic diversity of Diporeia in the Great Lakes: comparison of Lake Superior to the other Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abundances of Diporeia have dropped drastically in the Great Lakes, except in Lake Superior, where data suggest that population counts actually have risen. Various ecological, environmental, or geographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the greater abundance of Lake Supe...

  15. Explosive Volcanism in Io's Lava Lakes - The Key To Constraining Eruption Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; McEwen, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    Active lava lakes are open volcanic systems, where lava circulates between a magma chamber and the surface. Rare on Earth, lava lakes may be common on Io, the highly volcanic jovian moon (e.g., [1]). Io’s low atmospheric pressure means that activity within Io’s lava lakes may be explosive, exposing lava at near-liquid temperatures (currently poorly constrained for Io). Lava lakes are therefore important targets for future missions to Io [2, 3]. With this in mind, hand-held infrared imagers were used to collect thermal emission data from the phonolite Erebus (Antarctica) lava lake [4] and the basalt lava lake at Erta’Ale (Ethiopia). Temperature-area distributions and the integrated thermal emission spectra for each lava lake were determined from the data. These calculated spectra have been used to test models developed for analysis of remote sensing data of lava lakes and lava flows on both Earth and Io, where no ground-truth exists. The silicate cooling model [5] assumes, for the lava lake model variant, that the existing surface crust has been created at a fixed rate. Model output consists of a synthesized thermal emission spectrum, estimate of surface age range, and a rate of surface crust area formation. The cooling model provides accurate reproductions of actual thermal spectra and the total emitting area to within a few percent of actual emitting area. Model resurfacing rates broadly agree with observed behaviour at both lakes. Despite different composition lavas, the short-wavelength infrared thermal emission spectra from the two terrestrial lava lakes studied are very similar in shape, and, importantly, bear a striking similarity to spectra of Pele, an Io volcano that has been proposed to be a persistent, active lava lake [6] and which is the source of a 300-km high dust and gas plume. Our study of the cooling of the hottest lava exposed at Erta’Ale yields constraints on the ability of multispectral imagers to determine eruption temperature. We find

  16. Aeolian sand preserved in Silver Lake: a new signal of Holocene high stands of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Loope, Walter L.

    2005-01-01

    Aeolian sand within lake sediment from Silver Lake, Michigan can be used as a proxy for the timing of high lake levels of Lake Michigan.We demonstrate that the sand record from Silver Lake plotted as percent weight is in-phase with the elevation curve of Lake Michigan since the mid-Holocene Nipissing Phase. Because fluctuations in Lake Michigan's lake level are recorded in beach ridges, and are a response to climate change, the aeolian sand record within Silver Lake is also a proxy for climate change. It appears that increases in dune activity and lake sand are controlled by similar climatic shifts that drive fluctuations in lake level of Lake Michigan. High lake levels destabilize coastal bluffs that drive dune sand instability, and along with greater wintertime storminess, increase niveo-aeolian transport of sand across lake ice. The sand is introduced into the lake each spring as the ice cover melts.

  17. Life history of lake herring in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Beil, Joseph

    1964-01-01

    The average annual commercial catch of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in U.S. waters of Lake Superior was nearly 12 million pounds in 1929-61. This production contributed 62.4 percent of the total U.S. take of lake herring for the Great Lakes. About 90 percent of the annual catch is taken from small-mesh gill nets during the November-December spawning season. The life-history studies were based on 12,187 fish collected in 1950-62; past growth was computed for 3,779 specimens collected from commercial landings at: Duluth, Minn.; Bayfield, Wis.; and Portage Entry and Marquette, Mich.

  18. Evidence of spring spawning lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service began research on the life history, population dynamics, and stock delineation of siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush siscowet in Lake Superior. Siscowet were captured with gill nets in 80-150 m of water on 23-26 April 1992 north of the Apostle Islands in western Lake Superior. Of 91 captured siscowets, one male had fully developed testes in nearly ripe condition and one female had eggs running from the vent. This observation represents the earliest dates that lake trout of any morphotype have been found in spawning or near-spawning condition.

  19. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (P<0.05) and explained 32.87% of the explainable proportion of the heterogeneity noted between studies The prevalence was found to be higher in goats in lowland agro-ecology. Region wise the highest estimate was calculated for Amhara (6.4%) followed by Oromia (4.7%), Tigray (3.6%) and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR) (3.1%). Significant difference was noted between Amhara and SNNPR. The study further revealed that mites of the genus Sarcoptes, Demodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested. PMID:26872931

  20. Reduction in child mortality in Ethiopia: analysis of data from demographic and health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Tanya; Rohde, Sarah; Besada, Donela; Kerber, Kate; Manda, Samuel; Loveday, Marian; Nsibande, Duduzile; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Kinney, Mary; Zembe, Wanga; Leon, Natalie; Rudan, Igor; Degefie, Tedbabe; Sanders, David

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine changes in under–5 mortality, coverage of child survival interventions and nutritional status of children in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2011. Using the Lives Saved Tool, the impact of changes in coverage of child survival interventions on under–5 lives saved was estimated. Methods Estimates of child mortality were generated using three Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2011. Coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions were calculated and the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate child lives saved in 2011. Results The mortality rate in children younger than 5 years decreased rapidly from 218 child deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval 183 to 252) in the period 1987–1991 to 88 child deaths per 1000 live births in the period 2007–2011 (78 to 98). The prevalence of moderate or severe stunting in children aged 6–35 months also declined significantly. Improvements in the coverage of interventions relevant to child survival in rural areas of Ethiopia between 2000 and 2011 were found for tetanus toxoid, DPT3 and measles vaccination, oral rehydration solution (ORS) and care–seeking for suspected pneumonia. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 60 700 child deaths averted in 2011, primarily attributable to decreases in wasting rates (18%), stunting rates (13%) and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions (13%). Conclusions Improvements in the nutritional status of children and increases in coverage of high impact interventions most notably WASH and ORS have contributed to the decline in under–5 mortality in Ethiopia. These proximal determinants however do not fully explain the mortality reduction which is plausibly also due to the synergistic effect of major child health and nutrition policies and delivery strategies. PMID:27175280

  1. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yallew, Walelegn Worku; Kumie, Abera; Yehuala, Feleke Moges

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years). A total of 650 (71.6%) patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1). Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4%) were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was statistically significant. Conclusion It was observed that the prevalence of HAI was high in the teaching hospitals. Surgical site infections and pneumonia were the most common types of HAIs. Hospital management should give more attention to promoting infection prevention practice for better control of HAIs in teaching hospitals.

  2. Health at the borders: Bayesian multilevel analysis of women's malnutrition determinants in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Altare, Chiara; Masquelier, Bruno; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background Women's malnutrition, particularly undernutrition, remains an important public health challenge in Ethiopia. Although various studies examined the levels and determinants of women's nutritional status, the influence of living close to an international border on women's nutrition has not been investigated. Yet, Ethiopian borders are regularly affected by conflict and refugee flows, which might ultimately impact health. Objective To investigate the impact of living close to borders in the nutritional status of women in Ethiopia, while considering other important covariates. Design Our analysis was based on the body mass index (BMI) of 6,334 adult women aged 20–49 years, obtained from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). A Bayesian multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to capture the clustered structure of the data and the possible correlation that may exist within and between clusters. Results After controlling for potential confounders, women living close to borders (i.e. ≤100 km) in Ethiopia were 59% more likely to be underweight (posterior odds ratio [OR]=1.59; 95% credible interval [CrI]: 1.32–1.90) than their counterparts living far from the borders. This result was robust to different choices of border delineation (i.e. ≤50, ≤75, ≤125, and ≤150 km). Women from poor families, those who have no access to improved toilets, reside in lowland areas, and are Muslim, were independently associated with underweight. In contrast, more wealth, higher education, older age, access to improved toilets, being married, and living in urban or lowlands were independently associated with overweight. Conclusions The problem of undernutrition among women in Ethiopia is most worrisome in the border areas. Targeted interventions to improve nutritional status in these areas, such as improved access to sanitation, economic and livelihood support, are recommended. PMID:27388539

  3. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods We conducted interviews with 28 adult family members of women who died from maternal causes, as well as 13 stakeholders (government officials, civil society, and a UN agency); and held 10 focus group discussions with 87 community members. Data were analyzed using NVivo10 software for qualitative analysis. Results We found that newborns and children whose mothers died from maternal causes face nutrition deficits, and are less likely to access needed health care than children with living mothers. Older children drop out of school to care for younger siblings and contribute to household and farm labor which may be beyond their capacity and age, and often choose migration in search of better opportunities. Family fragmentation is common following maternal death, leading to tenuous relationships within a household with the births and prioritization of additional children further stretching limited financial resources. Currently, there is no formal standardized support system for families caring for vulnerable children in Ethiopia. Conclusions Impacts of maternal mortality on children are far-reaching and have the potential to last into adulthood. Coordinated, multi-sectorial efforts towards mitigating the impacts on children and families following a maternal death are lacking. In order to prevent impacts on children and families, efforts targeting maternal mortality must address inequalities in access to care at the community, facility, and policy levels. PMID:26001276

  4. Development of a Community-Based Rehabilitation Intervention for People with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte; Mideksa, Gemechu; Eaton, Julian; Patel, Vikram; De Silva, Mary J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is a multi-sectoral strategy to improve the functioning and quality of life of people with disabilities. The RISE (Rehabilitation Intervention for people with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia) trial will evaluate the effectiveness of CBR for people with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the components of CBR that are both feasible and likely to prove effective in low and middle-income countries such as Ethiopia are unclear. Methods In this study intervention development work was undertaken to design a CBR intervention that is acceptable and feasible in the local context. The development work consisted of five phases. 1: Identify potential components of CBR for schizophrenia, 2: Situational analysis, 3: Determine feasibility of CBR (Theory of Change workshops with experts and local stakeholders), 4: Determine acceptability of CBR (16 in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with people with schizophrenia, caregivers, health workers and community leaders) and 5: Synthesise results to finalise intervention. A Theory of Change map was constructed showing the causal pathway for how we expect CBR to achieve its impact. Results People with schizophrenia in rural Ethiopia experience family conflict, difficulty participating in work and community life, and stigma. Stakeholders perceived CBR to be acceptable and useful to address these problems. The focus of CBR will be on the individual developing the skills and confidence to perform their previous or desired roles and activities. To ensure feasibility, non-health professionals will be trained to deliver CBR and provide supervision, rather than mental health specialists. Novel components of CBR for schizophrenia included family intervention and dealing with distressing symptoms. Microfinance was excluded due to concerns about stress and exploitation. Community mobilisation was viewed as essential to ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of CBR. Conclusion

  5. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (P<0.05) and explained 32.87% of the explainable proportion of the heterogeneity noted between studies The prevalence was found to be higher in goats in lowland agro-ecology. Region wise the highest estimate was calculated for Amhara (6.4%) followed by Oromia (4.7%), Tigray (3.6%) and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR) (3.1%). Significant difference was noted between Amhara and SNNPR. The study further revealed that mites of the genus Sarcoptes, Demodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested.

  6. Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-06-01

    Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders. PMID:26119541

  7. Opportunities for Enhancing Seasonal Prediction in Ethiopia and Challenges in Addressing Sectoral Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taye, M. T.; Block, P.

    2015-12-01

    Ethiopia's National Meteorological Association (NMA) regularly issues season-ahead precipitation predictions nationally in support of sectoral applications including agriculture, reservoir management, and disaster risk management. Current NMA prediction techniques rely strongly on an analogue approach conditioned on the current El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) state. We explore simple to complex techniques for improving these ENSO-based predictions, building on current methods. We will also briefly discuss stated disconnects between NMA's predictions and adoption into sectoral decision-making.

  8. Epidemiological and clinical correlates of malaria-helminth co-infections in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many areas of the world, including Ethiopia, malaria and helminths are co-endemic, therefore, co-infections are common. However, little is known how concurrent infections affect the epidemiology and/or pathogenesis of each other. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effects of intestinal helminth infections on the epidemiology and clinical patterns of malaria in southern Ethiopia where both infections are prevalent. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006 at Wondo Genet Health Center and Bussa Clinic, southern Ethiopia. Consecutive blood film positive malaria patients (N=230) and malaria negative asymptomatic individuals (N=233) were recruited. Malaria parasite detection and quantification was diagnosed using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films, respectively. Helminths were detected using direct microscopy and formol-ether concentration techniques. Coarse quantification of helminths ova was made using Kato Katz method. Results The over all magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection was high irrespective of malaria infection (67% among malaria positive patients versus 53.1% among malaria non-infected asymptomatic individuals). Trichuris trichiura infection was associated with increased malaria prevalence while increased worm burden of helminths as expressed by egg intensity was associated with increased malaria parasitaemia which could be a potential factor for development of severe malarial infection with the course of the disease. Majority (77%) of the subjects had multiple helminths infection. T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, and hookworm infestation accounted for 64.5, 57.7 %, 28.4%, and 12.2% of the infections, respectively. Conclusions Populations in malaria-endemic areas of southern Ethiopia are multi-parasitized with up to four helminths. Mass deworming may be a simple practical approach in endemic areas in reducing the risk of severe malarial attack particularly for those at high risk

  9. Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-06-01

    Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders.

  10. Energy in rural Ethiopia: Consumption patterns, associated problems, and prospects for a sustainable energy strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Mulugetta, Y.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides a picture of energy resources and their current use in rural Ethiopia and presents an analysis of energy supply patterns and consumption trends. This exercise aims to build an empirical knowledge of real energy systems in the country and also to synthesize and analyze the general and specific problems that exist within the current energy system. Based on these lines of analysis, a series of technical and policy-oriented recommendations for rural energy development are discussed.

  11. PALEOANTHROPOLOGY. Comment on "Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia".

    PubMed

    Hawks, John; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee R

    2015-06-19

    Villmoare et al. (Reports, 20 March 2015, p. 1352) report on a hominin mandible from the Ledi-Geraru research area, Ethiopia, which they claim to be the earliest known representative of the genus Homo. However, certain measurements and observations for Australopithecus sediba mandibles presented are incorrect or are not included in critical aspects of the study. When correctly used, these data demonstrate that specimen LD 350-1 cannot be unequivocally assigned to the genus Homo.

  12. Establishment of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in sugarcane fields of Ethiopia and origin of founding population.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Y; Mitchell, A; Conlong, D E; Muirhead, K A

    2008-06-01

    Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is used as a classical biological control agent against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious exotic pest of cereal crops in eastern and southern Africa. This parasitoid has been introduced into several African countries for the control of C. partellus in maize, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), but it has never been released in Ethiopia. It is hypothesized that it spread into Ethiopia from populations released in Kenya and Somalia to become the predominant parasitoid of C. partellus in maize and sorghum fields of the country. In recent surveys conducted in Ethiopia, C. flavipes was recovered from C. partellus in sugarcane, Saccharum L. spp. hybrids, at a site >2,000 km from the nearest known release sites in Kenya and Somalia. These findings question published hypotheses that estimate the dispersal rate of C. flavipes to be 60 km per year in Africa, and they suggest that since its release in Africa this parasitoid has developed strains adapted to searching particular host plants infested by particular stem borers. The anomalies between our results and previous reports evoked the hypothesis that C. flavipes in Ethiopian sugarcane might be a different strain. To test this hypothesis, we compared partial COI gene sequences of C. flavipes collected from sugarcane in Ethiopia and those of specimens from other African countries to determine the origin of the Ethiopian population. In addition, COI sequences were obtained for C. flavipes from other continents. The C. flavipes population established in Ethiopian sugarcane is most closely related to the populations released against C. partellus in maize in other parts of Africa, which were derived from the original population imported from Pakistan. The dispersal rate of the parasitoid was estimated to be >200 km per year. PMID:18613566

  13. Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bikilla, Asfaw Demissie; Jerene, Degu; Robberstad, Bjarne; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2009-01-01

    Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG) for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. PMID:19615069

  14. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yallew, Walelegn Worku; Kumie, Abera; Yehuala, Feleke Moges

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years). A total of 650 (71.6%) patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1). Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4%) were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was statistically significant. Conclusion It was observed that the prevalence of HAI was high in the teaching hospitals. Surgical site infections and pneumonia were the most common types of HAIs. Hospital management should give more attention to promoting infection prevention practice for better control of HAIs in teaching hospitals. PMID:27601932

  15. Hydrology of Lake County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Darwin D.; Hughes, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lake County includes a 1,150 square-mile area consisting of ridges, uplands, and valleys in central-peninsular Florida. About 32 percent of the county is covered by lakes, swamps, and marshes. Water requirements in 1970 averaged about 54 million gallons per day. About 85 percent of the water was obtained from wells; about 15 percent from lakes. The Floridan aquifer supplies almost all the ground water used in Lake County. Annual recharge to the Floridan aquifer averages about 7 inches over the county; runoff average 8.5 inches. The quality of ground and surface water in Lake County is in general good enough for most uses; however, the poor quality of Floridan-aquifer water in the St. John River Valley probably results from the upward movement of saline water along a fault zone. Surface water in Lake County is usually less mineralized than ground water but is more turbid and colored. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake.

    PubMed

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (~51,000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ~69-84% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (96-97% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages.

  17. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  18. Method for lake restoration

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, Gaynor W.; Mercer, Basil W.

    1979-01-01

    A process for removing pollutants or minerals from lake, river or ocean sediments or from mine tailings is disclosed. Magnetically attractable collection units containing an ion exchange or sorbent media with an affinity for a chosen target substance are distributed in the sediments or tailings. After a period of time has passed sufficient for the particles to bind up the target substances, a magnet drawn through the sediments or across the tailings retrieves the units along with the target substance.

  19. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  20. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  1. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  2. THOUSAND LAKES WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; McHugh, Edward L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Thousand Lakes Wilderness in northern California indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Volcanic stone and cinders occur, but similar materials are found in abundance outside the wilderness. The wilderness is in the Cascade Volcanic Province, a setting locally favorable for geothermal resource potential. No geothermal potential was identified in the wilderness; subsurface potential cannot be evaluated without regional studies and drilling.

  3. Magnitude and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence against Women and Its Outcome in Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deribe, Kebede; Beyene, Biruk Kebede; Tolla, Anbessu; Memiah, Peter; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Background Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with serious consequences. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of IPV in Southwest Ethiopia in predominantly rural community. Methods This community based cross-sectional study was conducted in May, 2009 in Southwest Ethiopia using the World Health Organization core questionnaire to measure violence against women. Trained data collectors interviewed 851 ever-married women. Stata version 10.1 software and SPSS version 12.0.1 for windows were used for data analysis. Result In this study the life time prevalence of sexual or physical partner violence, or both was 64.7% (95%CI: 61.4%–67.9%). The lifetime sexual violence [50.1% (95% CI: 46.7%–53.4%)] was considerably more prevalent than physical violence [41.1% (95%:37.8–44.5)]. A sizable proportion [41.5%(95%CI: 38.2%–44.8%)] of women reported physical or sexual violence, or both, in the past year. Men who were controlling were more likely to be violent against their partner. Conclusion Physical and sexual violence is common among ever-married women in Southwest Ethiopia. Interventions targeting controlling men might help in reducing IPV. Further prospective longitudinal studies among ever-married women are important to identify predictors and to study the dynamics of violence over time. PMID:22558376

  4. Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Adane

    2013-01-01

    On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors. PMID:23580251

  5. Reflections on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wondie, Yemataw

    2014-10-01

    The introduction and development of psychology in Ethiopia has been mainly limited to Addis Ababa University in the capital city, and also to educational and school psychology which was highly influenced by the field of education at this pioneering university. Similarly, mental health services have been principally developed at the Amanuel Mental Hospital in Addis Ababa that has existed since the 1950s. However, the expansion of higher learning institutions on one hand, and the apparent growing prevalence of mental illness on the other, seem to have contributed to the development of both mental health training and services in other regional cities and towns. Although the influence of the education-oriented psychological training of the Addis Ababa University is still present, clinical psychology education and services are now being started in other universities. One of these is the master's programme in clinical psychology opened for the first time in the University of Gondar. This article sheds light on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and addresses some of the issues raised about the factors that have influenced its development such as traditional beliefs, poverty and comparisons between mental health in lower middle-income countries and higher middle-income countries ( Uppal et al., 2014 ). The paper also proposes future directions for the education, research, infrastructure and services of clinical psychology and mental health in Ethiopia.

  6. Multisector Nutrition Program Governance and Implementation in Ethiopia: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Tessema, Masresha; Hailu, Tesfaye; Zerfu, Dilnesaw; Belay, Adamu; Ayana, Girmay; Kuche, Desalegn; Moges, Tibebu; Assefa, Tsehai; Samuel, Aregash; Kassaye, Tarik; Fekadu, Habtamu; Van Wassenhove, Joan

    2015-12-01

    Governments globally are stressing both direct nutrition interventions combined with nutrition sensitive policies and programs to combat malnutrition. Governance at all levels has been identified as a critical element in ensuring success of national nutrition plans. For example, the most recent National Nutrition Program (NNP) in Ethiopia discusses the essentiality of governance and coordination at all levels. The research uses a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with key informant. The research discussed in this article focuses on governance structures from national to regional to district level in Ethiopia with an emphasis on translation of a strategy and implementation of the NNP. This article concentrates primarily on results from the national and regional levels. Data at both the national and regional levels indicate that there is general agreement on the nature of the nutrition problems in Ethiopia. At all levels of government, under nutrition, food insecurity, and micronutrient deficiencies were listed as the main nutrition problems. The challenges in governance and implementation identified at both the national and regional levels, however, varied. The implementation of the 2013 NNP was in its early stages at the time of this research. While there was palpable energy around the launch of the NNP, respondents indicated issues related to leadership, coordination, collaboration, advocacy, and budget would be challenges in sustaining momentum. PMID:26531747

  7. Multisector Nutrition Program Governance and Implementation in Ethiopia: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Tessema, Masresha; Hailu, Tesfaye; Zerfu, Dilnesaw; Belay, Adamu; Ayana, Girmay; Kuche, Desalegn; Moges, Tibebu; Assefa, Tsehai; Samuel, Aregash; Kassaye, Tarik; Fekadu, Habtamu; Van Wassenhove, Joan

    2015-12-01

    Governments globally are stressing both direct nutrition interventions combined with nutrition sensitive policies and programs to combat malnutrition. Governance at all levels has been identified as a critical element in ensuring success of national nutrition plans. For example, the most recent National Nutrition Program (NNP) in Ethiopia discusses the essentiality of governance and coordination at all levels. The research uses a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with key informant. The research discussed in this article focuses on governance structures from national to regional to district level in Ethiopia with an emphasis on translation of a strategy and implementation of the NNP. This article concentrates primarily on results from the national and regional levels. Data at both the national and regional levels indicate that there is general agreement on the nature of the nutrition problems in Ethiopia. At all levels of government, under nutrition, food insecurity, and micronutrient deficiencies were listed as the main nutrition problems. The challenges in governance and implementation identified at both the national and regional levels, however, varied. The implementation of the 2013 NNP was in its early stages at the time of this research. While there was palpable energy around the launch of the NNP, respondents indicated issues related to leadership, coordination, collaboration, advocacy, and budget would be challenges in sustaining momentum.

  8. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species in Dairy Calves in Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Karim, Robiul; Anberber, Manyazewal; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Erko, Berhanu; Zhang, Longxian; Tilahun, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    The burden of cryptosporidiosis due to Cryptosporidium parvum is well documented in HIV-positive patients in Ethiopia. However, the role of animals in zoonotic transmission of the disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium species in dairy calves; to assess the role of cattle in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using modified Ziehl-Neelson staining method and PCR targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 9.4% (42/449) and 15.8% (71/449) as detected by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. The prevalence of infection varied significantly across the study areas with the higher prevalence being observed in Chancho 25.4% (30/118). Crossbred calves had significantly higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium than indigenous zebu. Genotyping results revealed the presence of C. andersoni (76.1%), C. bovis (19.7%) and C. ryanae (4.2%). The occurrence of these Cryptosporidium species appeared to be age-related. C. andersoni constituted 92.1% of the Cryptosporidium infection in calves older than 3 months. Sequence analysis also showed the existence of intra-species variation at SSU rRNA gene. Findings of the current study indicate that cattle may not be an important source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in central Ethiopia. Further molecular studies are needed to support this observation from other part of the country. PMID:27135243

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ROTAVIRUS DIARRHEA AMONG CHILDREN AGED LESS THAN 5 YEARS IN RURAL SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Alegria, Iñaki; Tessema, Dalu; Mohamed, Nuri; Tissiano, Gabrel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Reyes, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus infection among children aged less than 5 years in rural southern Ethiopia. We conducted a hospital-based, prospective study among children aged less than 5 years with acute diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration attending the outpatient department of Gambo Rural Hospital, Ethiopia during September-November 2012. Three hundred fourteen children were included in the study, of whom 137 (43.6%) had rotavirus infection. The average age of children with rotavirus infection was lower than those without it [odds ratio (OR): 0.94]. Finding severe dehydration on skin pinch test (adjusted OR: 3.76) and having diarrhea for !3 days (adjusted OR: 2.50) were associated with rotavirus infection. The mortality rate was 4.4% among rotavirus infection children and 0% among non-rotavirus diarrhea cases (p=0.006). Rotavirus infection should be suspected in children with severe dehydration on a skin pinch test and among those presenting with diarrhea for 3 days in rural southern Ethiopia. PMID:26521516

  10. Long-term, deep-mantle support of the Ethiopia-Yemen Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sembroni, Andrea; Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Molin, Paola; Abebe, Bekele

    2016-04-01

    Ethiopia is a key site to investigate the interactions between mantle dynamics and surface processes because of the presence of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), Cenozoic continental flood basalt volcanism, and plateau uplift. The role of mantle plumes in causing Ethiopia's flood basalts and tectonics has been commonly accepted. However, the location and number of plumes and their impact on surface uplift are still uncertain. Here, we present new constraints on the geological and topographic evolution of the Ethiopian Plateau (NW Ethiopia) prior to and after the emplacement of the large flood basalts (40-20 Ma). Using geological information and topographic reconstructions, we show that the large topographic dome that we see today is a long-term feature, already present prior the emplacement of the flood basalts. We also infer that large-scale doming operated even after the emplacement of the flood basalts. Using a comparison with the present-day topographic setting we show that an important component of the topography has been and is presently represented by a residual, non-isostatic, dynamic contribution. We conclude that the growth of the Ethiopian Plateau is a long-term, probably still active, dynamically supported process. Our arguments provide constraints on the processes leading to the formation of one of the largest igneous plateaus on Earth.

  11. Long-term, deep-mantle support of the Ethiopia-Yemen Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sembroni, Andrea; Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Molin, Paola; Abebe, Bekele

    2016-02-01

    Ethiopia is a key site to investigate the interactions between mantle dynamics and surface processes because of the presence of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), Cenozoic continental flood basalt volcanism, and plateau uplift. The role of mantle plumes in causing Ethiopia's flood basalts and tectonics has been commonly accepted. However, the location and number of plumes and their impact on surface uplift are still uncertain. Here we present new constraints on the geological and topographic evolution of the Ethiopian Plateau (NW Ethiopia) prior to and after the emplacement of the large flood basalts (40-20 Ma). Using geological information and topographic reconstructions, we show that the large topographic dome that we see today is a long-term feature, already present prior to the emplacement of the flood basalts. We also infer that large-scale doming operated even after the emplacement of the flood basalts. Using a comparison with the present-day topographic setting, we show that an important component of the topography has been and is presently represented by a residual, nonisostatic, dynamic contribution. We conclude that the growth of the Ethiopian Plateau is a long-term, probably still active, dynamically supported process. Our arguments provide constraints on the processes leading to the formation of one of the largest igneous plateaus on Earth.

  12. An Assessment of Reservoir Filling Policies under a Changing Climate for Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A.; Block, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability and change cause unsteady hydrologic response, commonly experienced through varying river flows. These variations affect the performance and reliability of water resources dependent systems, including domestic, agriculture, energy, and the environment, with economic implications. Long-term design and operation of these systems is therefore inherently uncertain, producing copious risks at time-scales of months to decades. Yet evaluation of system performance under non-stationary climate conditions is typically ignored. Here we demonstrate the potential performance of Ethiopia's forthcoming Grand Renaissance hydropower dam on the Blue Nile River, subject to coincident climate change and reservoir filling policies. Presently, no agreed-upon reservoir retention policy exists between Ethiopia and downstream countries, even though construction has already begun. We will present a tool designed to allow users to select expected future climate conditions and reservoir filling rates, from a stochastic perspective. Additionally, the maximum reservoir volume may also be varied. Major outputs include hydropower generation and downstream flow for use by policy-makers. Ethiopia's desire to rapidly expand hydropower dams on the Nile constitutes an enormous financial investment and latent risk, with further implications on streamflow reduction to Sudan and Egypt, and a need for multi-national energy contracts, necessitating proper advanced planning.

  13. Assessment of solar and wind energy resources in Ethiopia. I. Solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, F.; Mulugetta, Y.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes how data from a variety of sources are merged to present new countrywide maps of the solar energy distribution over Ethiopia. The spatial coverage of stations with radiation data was found to be unsatisfactory for the purpose of a countrywide solar energy assessment exercise. Therefore, radiation had to be predicted from sunshine hours by employing empirical models. Using data from seven stations in Ethiopia, linear and quadratic correlation relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and sunshine hours per day have been developed. These regional models show a distinct improvement over previously employed countrywide models. To produce a national solar-energy distribution profile, a spatial extension of the radiation/sunshine relationships had to be carried out. To do this, the intercepts(a) and slopes(b) of each of the seven linear regression equations and another six from previous studies, completed in neighbouring Sudan, Kenya and Yemen, were used to interpolate the corresponding values to areas between them. Subsequent to these procedures, 142 stations providing only sunshine data were assigned their `appropriate` a and b values to estimate the amount of solar radiation received, which was then used to produce annual and monthly solar radiation distribution maps for Ethiopia. The results show that in all regions solar energy is an abundant resource. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The deep seismic structure of the Ethiopia/Afar hotspot and the African superplume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Samantha E.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2013-07-01

    The Ethiopia/Afar hotspot has been frequently explained as an upper mantle continuation of the African superplume, with anomalous material in the lower mantle under southern Africa, rising through the transition zone beneath eastern Africa. However, the significantly larger amplitude low velocity anomaly in the upper mantle beneath Ethiopia/Afar, compared to the anomalies beneath neighboring regions, has led to questions about whether or not along-strike differences in the seismic structure beneath eastern Africa and western Arabia are consistent with the superplume interpretation. Here we present a new P-wave model of the hotspot's deep structure and use it to evaluate the superplume model. At shallow (< ˜400 km) depths, the slowest velocities are centered beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift, and we attribute these low velocities to decompression melting beneath young, thin lithosphere. At deeper depths, the low velocity structure trends to the northeast, and the locus of the low velocity anomaly is found beneath Afar. The northeast-trending structure with depth is best modeled by northeastward flow of warm superplume material beneath eastern Africa. The combined effects of shallow decompression melting and northeastward flow of superplume material explain why upper mantle velocities beneath Ethiopia/Afar are significantly slower than those beneath neighboring East Africa and western Arabia. The superplume interpretation can thus explain the deep seismic structure of the hotspot if the effects of both decompression melting and mantle flow are considered.

  15. "We prefer greeting rather than eating:" life in an elder care center in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teka, Alemnesh; Adamek, Margaret E

    2014-12-01

    In Ethiopia where family care is a centuries-long tradition, living in an elder care institution invariably brings social devaluation. Accordingly, this study explored the psychosocial needs of older adults in a residential elder care center in Ethiopia from the perspective of both staff and residents. Three focus group discussions of 24 residents and interviews with 5 staff persons revealed that elders were living a subsistence lifestyle, eating the same meal every day, mostly cutoff from the surrounding community, and lacking basic amenities. Despite the absence of basic amenities, residents yearned even more so for meaningful social interaction. Psychosocial support was both undervalued and underutilized by staff members, and thus, residents' psychosocial well-being appeared to be at risk. The addition of social workers in institutional care in Ethiopia may help to promote improved living standards. Advocacy is needed on behalf of residents to establish and implement guidelines on care and support of residents in old age homes. As elders in developing countries are living longer--a growing number with disabilities--at the same time that informal supports are waning, the need for developing long term care policies is becoming critical.

  16. PLusiinae (Excl. Abrostolini) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Ethiopia. A faunistical survey with biogeographical comments.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Ronkay, Laszlo; Behounek, Gottfried; Müller, Günter C

    2015-01-01

    The extensive survey in different regions of Ethiopia between 1987-1990 and 2005-2011 resulted in the recognition of 39 species of Plusiinae. The majority of the species belong to two large genera, Ctenoplusia (15 species) and Thysanoplusia (16 species). A new synonymy is established, Plusiotricha gorilla (Holland, 1894) is proved to represent the female sex of Plusiotricha livida Holland, 1894 (syn. nov.). The present paper does not include the records of the species of the tribe Abrostolini. Eighteen species are recorded for the first time from Ethiopia. Twenty species of the identified taxa are known only from tropical and subtropical Africa, while the areas of ten species extend from Africa to the Arabian Peninsula or even further to the north. Eight species are widespread not only in Africa but also in the Palearctic and Oriental regions. One species-Autographa gamma, a well-known Palearctic pest of different vegetables-is found in the Afrotropical region only in Ethiopia, at medium and high mountain elevations but not in the tropical lowlands. PMID:26623895

  17. Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Adane

    2013-01-01

    On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors.

  18. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species in Dairy Calves in Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Karim, Robiul; Anberber, Manyazewal; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Erko, Berhanu; Zhang, Longxian; Tilahun, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    The burden of cryptosporidiosis due to Cryptosporidium parvum is well documented in HIV-positive patients in Ethiopia. However, the role of animals in zoonotic transmission of the disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium species in dairy calves; to assess the role of cattle in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using modified Ziehl-Neelson staining method and PCR targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 9.4% (42/449) and 15.8% (71/449) as detected by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. The prevalence of infection varied significantly across the study areas with the higher prevalence being observed in Chancho 25.4% (30/118). Crossbred calves had significantly higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium than indigenous zebu. Genotyping results revealed the presence of C. andersoni (76.1%), C. bovis (19.7%) and C. ryanae (4.2%). The occurrence of these Cryptosporidium species appeared to be age-related. C. andersoni constituted 92.1% of the Cryptosporidium infection in calves older than 3 months. Sequence analysis also showed the existence of intra-species variation at SSU rRNA gene. Findings of the current study indicate that cattle may not be an important source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in central Ethiopia. Further molecular studies are needed to support this observation from other part of the country. PMID:27135243

  19. Landsat analysis of lake quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Fisher, L. T.; Holmquist, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    The trophic status of a number of inland lakes in Wisconsin has been assessed. The feasibility of using both photographic and digital representations of Landsat imagery was investigated during the lake classification project. The result of the investigation has been a semi-automatic data acquisition and handling system which, in conjunction with an analytical categorization scheme, can be used to classify all the significant lakes in the state.

  20. Crater Lake: blue through time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

  1. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  2. Glacioisostasy and Lake-Level Change at Moosehead Lake, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balco, G.; Belknap, D.F.; Kelley, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Reconstructions of glacioisostatic rebound based on relative sea level in Maine and adjacent Canada do not agree well with existing geophysical models. In order to understand these discrepancies better, we investigated the lake-level history of 40-km-long Moosehead Lake in northwestern Maine. Glacioisostasy has affected the level of Moosehead Lake since deglaciation ca. 12,500 14C yr B.P. Lowstand features at the southeastern end and an abandoned outlet at the northwestern end of the lake indicate that the lake basin was tilted down to the northwest, toward the retreating ice sheet, by 0.7 m/km at 10,000 14C yr B.P. Water level then rose rapidly in the southeastern end of the lake, and the northwestern outlet was abandoned, indicating rapid relaxation of landscape tilt. Lowstand features at the northwestern end of the lake suggest that the lake basin was tilted to the southeast at ca. 8750 14C yr B.P., possibly as the result of a migrating isostatic forebulge. After 8000 14C yr B.P., water level at the southeastern end was again below present lake level and rose gradually thereafter. We found no evidence suggesting that postglacial climate change significantly affected lake level. The rebound history inferred from lake-level data is consistent with previous interpretations of nearby relative sealevel data, which indicate a significantly steeper and faster-moving ice-proximal depression and ice-distal forebulge than geophysical models predict. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  3. Lake Charles CCS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leib, Thomas; Cole, Dan

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  4. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  5. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative

  6. The tectonostratigraphy, granitoid geochronology and geological evolution of the Precambrian of southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yibas, B.; Reimold, W. U.; Armstrong, R.; Koeberl, C.; Anhaeusser, C. R.; Phillips, D.

    2002-02-01

    Two distinct tectonostratigraphic terranes, separated by repeatedly reactivated deformation zones, are recognised in the Precambrian of southern Ethiopia: (1) granite-gneiss terrane, which is classified into sub-terranes and complexes, and (2) ophiolitic fold and thrust belts. The granite-gneiss terrane consists of para- and orthoquartzofeldspathic gneisses and granitoids, intercalated with amphibolites and sillimanite-kyanite-bearing schists. The paragneisses resemble gneisses from northern Kenya that were derived from sediments that filled the Kenyan sector of the "Mozambique Belt basin" between 1200 and 820 Ma. The volume of sediments formed during this period is comparatively small in southern Ethiopia, implying that the "Mozambique Belt basin" became progressively narrower northwards. The granitoid rocks in the study area vary from granitic gneisses to undeformed granites and range compositionally from diorites to granites. The granitoid gneisses form an integral part of the granite-gneiss terrane, but are rare in the ophiolitic fold and thrust belts. The ophiolitic fold and thrust belts are composed of mafic, ultramafic and metasedimentary rocks in various proportions. Undeformed granitoids are also developed in these belts. Eight granitoids from southern Ethiopia have been dated by U-Pb single zircon SHRIMP and laser probe 40Ar- 39Ar dating. The SHRIMP ages range from ˜880 to 526 Ma, and are interpreted as close approximations of the respective magmatic emplacement ages. The 40Ar- 39Ar data range from 550 to 500 Ma. The available geochronological data and field studies allowed classification of the granitoids of the Precambrian of southern Ethiopia into seven generations: Gt1 (>880 Ma); Gt2 (800-770 Ma); Gt3 (770-720 Ma); Gt4 (720-700 Ma); Gt5 (700-600 Ma); Gt6 (580-550 Ma); and Gt7 (550-500 Ma). The period 550-500 Ma (Gt7) is marked by emplacement of late- to post-tectonic and post-orogenic granitoids and presumably represents the latest tectonothermal

  7. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia

  8. Holocene lake-level fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Placzek, C.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17?? 22???S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (<350 yr). Diatomites associated with highstands several meters above the modern lake level indicate wet episodes. Maximum Holocene lake level was attained before 6100 14C yr B.P. and ended ???2700 14C yr B.P. Moderately high lake levels occurred at 1700 and 1300 14C yr B.P. The highstand at Lake Aricota during the middle Holocene is coeval with a major lowstand at Lake Titicaca (16?? S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  9. Gillnet selectivity for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Selgeby, James H.; Helser, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    Gillnet selectivity for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was estimated indirectly from catches in nets of 102-, 114-, 127-, 140-, and 152-mm stretch measure. Mesh selectivity was modeled as a nonlinear response surface that describes changes in the mean, standard deviation, and skewness of fish lengths across mesh sizes. Gillnet selectivity for lake trout was described by five parameters that explained 88% of the variation in wedged and entangled catches, 81% of the variation in wedged catches, and 82% of the variation in entangled catches. Combined catches of wedged and entangled lake trout were therefore described more parsimoniously than separate catches of wedged and entangled lake trout. Peak selectivity of wedged and entangled fish increased from 588 to 663 mm total length as mesh size increased from 102 to 152 mm, and relative selectivity peaked at a total length of 638 mm. The estimated lake trout population size-frequency indicated that gillnet catches were negatively biased toward both small and large lake trout. As a consequence of this bias, survival of Lake Superior lake trout across ages 9-11 was underestimated by about 20% when the catch curve was not adjusted for gillnet selectivity.

  10. Geographical distributions of lake trout strains stocked in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Schaner, Ted

    1996-01-01

    Geographical distributions of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocked at seven locations in U.S. waters and at four locations in Canadian waters of Lake Ontario were determined from fish caught with gill nets in September in 17 areas of U.S. waters and at 10 fixed locations in Canadian waters in 1986-95. For fish of a given strain stocked at a given location, geographical distributions were not different for immature males and immature females or for mature males and mature females. The proportion of total catch at the three locations nearest the stocking location was higher for mature fish than for immature fish in all 24 available comparisons (sexes combined) and was greater for fish stocked as yearlings than for those stocked as fingerlings in all eight comparisons. Mature fish were relatively widely dispersed from stocking locations indicating that their tendency to return to stocking locations for spawning was weak, and there was no appreciable difference in this tendency among strains. Mature lake trout were uniformly distributed among sampling locations, and the strain composition at stocking locations generally reflected the stocking history 5 to 6 years earlier. Few lake trout moved across Lake Ontario between the north and south shores or between the eastern outlet basin and the main lake basin. Limited dispersal from stocking sites supports the concept of stocking different genetic strains in various parts of the lake with the attributes of each strain selected to match environmental conditions in the portion of the lake where it is stocked.

  11. HABITAT: LAKE SUPERIOR - STATE OF THE LAKE 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation briefly describes the state of research and management in Lake Superior concerning fisheries and their association to habitat. It discusses a general habitat classification for the lake and an increasing interest in the nearshore, summarizing the status of cont...

  12. Biology of young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1956-01-01

    Experimental fishing with gill nets of 5 mesh sizes (2 3/8 to 3 inches) in Lake Michigan in 1930-32 yielded more than 16,000 young lake trout. Data are presented here on age, growth, length-weight relationship, abundance, geographical and bathymetric distribution, and other details of their biology.

  13. The near extinction of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1957-01-01

    Comparisons in 1949 and 1950 of numbers of legal-sized lake trout caught in large-mesh nets with numbers of small fish taken in chub nets showed that both large and small lake trout declined over the same period, and that by these years the decline may have been greater among small than among legal-sized fish.

  14. Delineation of sympatric morphotypes of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Seth A.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Three morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush are recognized in Lake Superior: lean, siscowet, and humper. Absolute morphotype assignment can be difficult. We used a size-free, whole-body morphometric analysis (truss protocol) to determine whether differences in body shape existed among lake trout morphotypes. Our results showed discrimination where traditional morphometric characters and meristic measurements failed to detect differences. Principal components analysis revealed some separation of all three morphotypes based on head and caudal peduncle shape, but it also indicated considerable overlap in score values. Humper lake trout have smaller caudal peduncle widths to head length and depth characters than do lean or siscowet lake trout. Lean lake trout had larger head measures to caudal widths, whereas siscowet had higher caudal peduncle to head measures. Backward stepwise discriminant function analysis retained two head measures, three midbody measures, and four caudal peduncle measures; correct classification rates when using these variables were 83% for leans, 80% for siscowets, and 83% for humpers, which suggests the measures we used for initial classification were consistent. Although clear ecological reasons for these differences are not readily apparent, patterns in misclassification rates may be consistent with evolutionary hypotheses for lake trout within the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  15. ARE LAKES GETTING WARMER? REMOTE SENSING OF LARGE LAKE TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies (Levitus et al., 2000) suggest a warning of the world ocean over the past 50 years. Freshwater lakes could also be getting warmer but thermal measurements to determine this are lacking. Large lake temperatures are vertically and horizontally heterogeneous and vary ...

  16. The Lake Ohrid SCOPSCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bernd; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Leng, Melanie J.; Francke, Alexander; Baumgarten, Henrike; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Giacco, Biagio; Lacey, Jack H.; Leicher, Niklas; Levkov, Zlatko; Lindhorst, Katja; Reed, Jane M.; Zhang, Xiaosen; Sadori, Laura; Vogel, Hendrik; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wonik, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP SCOPSCO project at Lake Ohrid in Macedonia and Albania was one of the most successful lake drilling campaigns worldwide. Drilling took place from April to June 2013 and yielded more than 2000 m of sediments from four different sites in the lake. The maximum penetration was 569 m below lake floor and the overall recovery at all drill sites was > 95 %. Almost two years after the drilling operation, core opening and processing as well as biological and geological analyses are still ongoing. However, most of the cores from the main drill site, the so-called DEEP site in the centre of the lake, are meanwhile opened and reveal a unique record of lake history. The extraordinary quality of seismic, borehole logging and core data allows us to achieve the major goals of the SCOPSCO project. Seismic data, diatoms and coarse-grained sediments in the basal cores indicate that Lake Ohrid had no marine origin, as it was speculated in the past. The data show that Lake Ohrid established in a highly dynamic pull-apart basin with varying fluvial and shallow water conditions. On top of these basal sediments, borehole logging data, XRF scanning data, carbonate, and the amount of organic matter indicate a complete and high resolution succession of glacial / interglacial cycles and interspersed stadials and interstadials. This allows us to determine the establishment of Lake Ohrid by means of chronostratigraphic tuning to about 1.3 to 1.5 Ma ago. Additional, independent age control is given by paleomagnetic data and by numerous tephra layers, which can be correlated with well-dated proximal tephra deposits in Italy. The uppermost 350 m of the sediment record contain more than 30 tephras, which makes the Lake Ohrid record to the rosetta stone of distal Italian tephra deposits in the Balkan region. The unique sediment record of Lake Ohrid is fundamental to obtain crucial information on the overall goal of the SCOPSCO project, i.e. to clarify why Lake Ohrid has one of highest

  17. Great Salt Lake sets record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The level of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, broke its 1873 record on May 12, 1986, rising to 1283.7 m above mean sea level, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Heavy snowpack remains in the lake's drainage basin, and the lake is likely to continue rising into June. “It could well go up another foot [i.e., ˜0.3 m],” this season, according to Ted Arnow, USGS district chief in Utah.The Utah state legislature convened a special session on May 13 to discuss measures to control the flooding. Last year, the legislature began to consider funding a plan to pump water from the Great Salt Lake to form a large, shallow pond in the desert 48 km to the west. Because the lake's level was predicted to drop this year, however, the lawmakers postponed action on the issue (Eos, September 10, 1985, p. 641). The Rose Park area of Salt Lake City, which lies below the lake's current level, has been diked, but groundwater is backing up into Rose Park and has to be pumped out over the dikes, Arnow said. Also, trains that use the Southern Pacific railroad causeway, which crosses the lake, have had to be temporarily rerouted south of the lake during storms. The causeway has been progressively raised since 1983, but engineers now say that they can raise it no further because the added weight will make it sink into the lake, Arnow said. If the lake rises much higher, the interstate highway that runs by it might also have to shut down temporarily during storms, he added.

  18. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  19. Forecasting Lake-Effect Snow in the Great Lakes Using NASA Satllite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the forecast of the lake effect snow in the Great Lakes region using models and infrared estimates of Great Lake Surface Temperatures (GLSTs) from the MModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on Terra and Aqua satellites, and other satellite data. This study analyzes Lake Erie and Lake Ontario which produce storm total snowfall ranged from 8-18 inches off of Lake Ontario and 10-12 inches off of Lake Erie for the areas downwind.

  20. Genetic and tagging evidence for movement of walleyes between Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.; Haas, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) from Lake Erie differed in allele frequencies from walleyes in Lake St. Clair (N = 1,680; 25 loci); however, only slight differences were found among walleyes from different spawning sites in each lake. Analyses of allele frequency data from samples of nonspawning walleyes taken in Lake St. Clair provided conditional maximum likelihood estimates that 86% of these walleyes were from Lake St. Clair and 14% from Lake Erie (SD = 19.7%) in 1983 and that 63% were from Lake St. Clair and 37% were from Lake Erie (SD = 20.0%) in 1984. About 30% of 1,159 recoveries of walleyes tagged in Lake Erie were taken from the Detroit River northward to southern Lake Huron, thus demonstrating extensive mixing of stocks from Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair. Additionally, tags recovered from the upper half of the St. Clair River provided an estimate of mixed stock composition of 76% Lake St. Clair fish and 24% Lake Erie fish. Analyses of tags returned during successive spawning seasons showed that walleyes strongly tended to return to suspected natal spawning areas. The tagging data thus corroborate the genetic evidence that walleye stocks from Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie are different, and that large numbers of Lake Erie walleyes enter Lake St. Clair during nonspawning seasons and return to their Lake Erie spawning sites each year. Western Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair walleyes should be considered as separate stocks for management purposes.