Science.gov

Sample records for lakes waters radiation

  1. Vertical distribution of radiation dose rates in the water of a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal radiation dose rates were measured with glass dosemeters housed in watertight cases at various depths in the water of Lake Obuchi, a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, during fiscal years 2011-2013 to assess the background external radiation dose to aquatic biota in the lake. The mean radiation dose in the surface water of the lake was found to be 27 nGy h(-1), which is almost the same as the absorption dose rate due to cosmic ray reported in the literature. Radiation dose rates decreased exponentially with water depth down to a depth of 1 m above the bottom sediment. In the water near the sediment, the dose rate increased with depth owing to the emission of γ-rays from natural radionuclides in the sediment.

  2. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, F.L.; Wells, F.C.; Shelby, W.J.; McPherson, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are impoundments on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and are a source of water for municipal industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Small vertical temperature variations in both lakes were attributed to shallow depths in the lakes and short retention times of water in the lakes during the summer months. The largest areal variations in dissolved oxygen generally occur in Lake Austin during the summer as a result of releases of water from below the thermocline in Lake Travis. Except for iron, manganese, and mercury, dissolved concentrations of trace elements in water collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake did not exceed the primary or secondary drinking water standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Little or no effect of stormwater runoff on temperature, dissolved oxygen, or minor elements could be detected in either Lake Austin or Town Lake. Little seasonal or areal variation was noted in nitrogen concentrations in Lake Austin or Town lake. Total phosphorus concentrations generally were small in both lakes. Increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected after storm runoff inflow in Town Lake, but not in Lake Austin; densities of fecal-coliform bacteria increased in Lake Austin and Town Lake, but were substantially greater in Town Lake than in Lake Austin. 18 refs., 38 figs., 59 tabs.

  3. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Water-quality data collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake, following runoff, generally were not adequate to fully determine the effects of runoff on the lakes. Data collection should not to be limited to fixed-station sampling following runoff, and both lakes need to be sampled simultaneously as soon as possible following significant precipitation.

  4. Water quality in Lake Lanier

    SciTech Connect

    Callaham, M.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Thirteen water quality tests measuring five categories of pollution were conducted twice monthly from May, 1987 to April, 1990 at eight locations on Lake Sidney Lanier to establish baseline data and detect trends. Additionally, sediment and water samples were analyzed for ten toxic metals. Sampling stations were located at or near the point of entry of streams into the Lake. Oxygen demanding pollutants were highest in urban streams and phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations were highest in streams having poultry processing operations within their watersheds. Indicators of siltation increased coincidentally with highway construction in one watershed. Fecal coliform bacteria counts decreased at Flat Creek and increased in the Chattahoochee River. Zinc and copper occurred in water samples at levels of detectability. Sediment samples from several locations contained metal concentrations which warrant further study.

  5. Temporal and spatial variations in radiation and energy balance across a large freshwater lake in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Wei; Cao, Chang; Gao, Zhiqiu; Hu, Zhenghua; Liu, Shoudong; Shen, Shuanghe; Wang, Linlin; Xiao, Qitao; Xu, Jiaping; Yang, Dong; Lee, Xuhui

    2014-04-01

    The surface radiation and energy exchange processes are important drivers of lake evaporation and the associated hydrological cycle. In this paper, we investigated the temporal and spatial variations in evaporation and the associated radiation and energy fluxes across Lake Taihu, China with an eddy covariance mesonet consisting of three lake sites and one land site. The results indicate that on the diurnal scale, water heat storage showed a similar behavior to net radiation with comparable magnitudes and fueled the substantial nighttime evaporation (48% of annual evaporation). Unlike boreal deep lakes, the monthly mean sensible and latent heat flux was tightly coupled with seasonal variations in net radiation at this large (size 2400 km2), subtropical (30.9-31.6°N) shallow (mean depth 1.9 m) Lake Taihu. On the monthly to annual scales, the radiation and energy fluxes showed little spatial variations across the lake, indicating a lack of sensitivity to wind speed, water depth, water quality and the presence of submerged macrophytes. The annual mean Bowen ratio (0.12-0.13) of the lake was lower than those found in the literature for subtropical and northern lakes and also much lower than that observed at the adjacent land site (0.58). The experimental data were used to evaluate the performance of 19 lake evaporation models of varying complexities.

  6. Lake water quality mapping from Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In the project described remote sensing was used to check the quality of lake waters. The lakes of three Landsat scenes were mapped with the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. From the MDAS color coded maps, the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. The lake was closely checked, and the presence of 100 cows in the springs which fed the lake could be identified as the pollution source. The laboratory and field work involved in the lake classification project is described.

  7. Influence of lake morphology on water quality.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sheela A; Janaki, Letha; Joseph, Sabu; Justus, J; Vimala, Sheeja Ramakrishnan

    2011-11-01

    Lakes are seriously affected due to urban pollution. The study of the morphological features of a lake system helps to identify its environmental status. The objective of the present study is to analyse the influence of morphometry on water quality in a lake (Akkulam-Veli Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala). The morphological features namely mean depth, surface area, volume, shoreline length, shoreline development and index of basin permanence have been evaluated. Correlation analysis has been conducted to determine the relationship between morphological features and water quality. Regression analysis has been conducted to find out the extent of influence of morphometric features on water quality. The study revealed that the lake is less affected by wind-induced wave action due to various reasons. The depth and volume have significant role in the water quality. The nitrogen fixation of blue green algae can be observed from the morphological features. The morphology has greater role in the water quality of a lake system. PMID:21387171

  8. Influence of lake morphology on water quality.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sheela A; Janaki, Letha; Joseph, Sabu; Justus, J; Vimala, Sheeja Ramakrishnan

    2011-11-01

    Lakes are seriously affected due to urban pollution. The study of the morphological features of a lake system helps to identify its environmental status. The objective of the present study is to analyse the influence of morphometry on water quality in a lake (Akkulam-Veli Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala). The morphological features namely mean depth, surface area, volume, shoreline length, shoreline development and index of basin permanence have been evaluated. Correlation analysis has been conducted to determine the relationship between morphological features and water quality. Regression analysis has been conducted to find out the extent of influence of morphometric features on water quality. The study revealed that the lake is less affected by wind-induced wave action due to various reasons. The depth and volume have significant role in the water quality. The nitrogen fixation of blue green algae can be observed from the morphological features. The morphology has greater role in the water quality of a lake system.

  9. Lake-level variability and water availability in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Booth, Robert K.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    years ago. Within that record is a quasi-periodic rise and fall of about 160 ? 40 years in duration and a shorter fluctuation of 32 ? 6 years that is superimposed on the 160-year fluctuation. Recorded lake-level history from 1860 to the present falls within the longer-term pattern and appears to be a single 160-year quasi-periodic fluctuation. Independent investigations of past climate change in the basin over the long-term period of record confirm that most of these changes in lake level were responses to climatically driven changes in water balance, including lake-level highstands commonly associated with cooler climatic conditions and lows with warm climate periods. The mechanisms underlying these large hydroclimatic anomalies are not clear, but they may be related to internal dynamics of the ocean-atmosphere system or dynamical responses of the ocean-atmosphere system to variability in solar radiation or volcanic activity. The large capacities of the Great Lakes allow them to store great volumes of water. As calculated at chart datum, Lake Superior stores more water (2,900 mi3) than all the other lakes combined (2,539 mi3). Lake Michigan's storage is 1,180 mi3; Lake Huron's, 850 mi3; Lake Ontario's, 393 mi3; and Lake Erie's, 116 mi3. Seasonal lake-level changes alter storage by as much as 6 mi3 in Lake Superior and as little as 2.1 mi3 in Lake Erie. The extreme high and low lake levels measured in recorded lake-level history have altered storage by as much as 31 mi3 in Lake Michigan-Huron and as little as 9 mi3 in Lake Ontario. Diversions of water into and out of the lakes are very small compared to the total volume of water stored in the lakes. The water level of Lake Superior has been regulated since about 1914 and levels of Lake Ontario since about 1960. The range of Lake Superior water-level fluctuations and storage has not been altered greatly by regulation. However, fluctuations on Lake Ontario have been reduced from 6.6 ft preregulation

  10. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, S.J.; Elder, J.F.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Kammerer, P.A.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, D.M.; Rose, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about the physical, che-nical, and biological characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected includes measurements of lake stage and in-lake water quality. Graphs of Secchi depths, and total-phosphorus and chlorophyll-a concentrations versus time are included for lakes with two or more years of data. Descriptive information for each lake includes location of the lake, drainage area of the lake's watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published in two other volunres: "Water Resources Data-Wisconsin, 1994, St. Lawrence River Basin" (Volume 1) and "Water Resources Data-Wisconsin, 1994, Upper Mississippi River Basin" (Volume 2). 

  11. Comparative hatching success of lake trout eggs in Lake Michigan water and well water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol C.; Mac, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the influence of water from southern Lake Michigan on the survival of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs by comparing the hatching success of eggs from the same source incubated in water from Lake Michigan, or from the laboratory well. It is concluded that the observed differences in hatching are probably attributable to chemical constituents of water from the lake (eg, chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals and other industrial and agricultural chemicals).

  12. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about the physical and chemical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected includes measurements of lake stage and in-lake water quality. Graphs of Secchi depths, surface totalphosphorus and chlorophyll-a concentrations versus time are included for lakes with two or more years of data. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, drainage area of the lake's watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published in another volume: "Water Resources Data-Wisconsin, 1996."

  13. Ultraviolet radiation and bio-optics in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hargreaves, B.R.; Girdner, S.F.; Buktenica, M.W.; Collier, R.W.; Urbach, E.; Larson, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake, Oregon, is a mid-latitude caldera lake famous for its depth (594 m) and blue color. Recent underwater spectral measurements of solar radiation (300-800 nm) support earlier observations of unusual transparency and extend these to UV-B wavelengths. New data suggest that penetration of solar UVR into Crater Lake has a significant ecological impact. Evidence includes a correlation between water column chlorophyll-a and stratospheric ozone since 1984, the scarcity of organisms in the upper water column, and apparent UV screening pigments in phytoplankton that vary with depth. The lowest UV-B diffuse attenuation coefficients (K d,320) were similar to those reported for the clearest natural waters elsewhere, and were lower than estimates for pure water published in 1981. Optical proxies for UVR attenuation were correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration (0-30 m) during typical dry summer months from 1984 to 2002. Using all proxies and measurements of UV transparency, decadal and longer cycles were apparent but no long-term trend since the first optical measurement in 1896. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.L.; Elder, J.F.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Mergener, E.A.; Robertson, D.M.; Rose, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available throught the World Wide Web on the Internet. The Wisconsin District's home page is at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/. Information on the Wisconsin District's Lakes Program is found at wi.water.usgs.gov/lake/index.html.

  15. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    lead by Rose, W. J.; Elder, J.F.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Mergener, E.A.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available throught the World Wide Web on the Internet. The Wisconsin District's home page is at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/. Information on the Wisconsin District's Lakes Program is found at wi.water.usgs.gov/lake/index.html.

  16. Water-quality and lake stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available throught the World Wide Web on the Internet. The Wisconsin District's home page is at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/. Information on the Wisconsin District's Lakes Program is found atwi.water.usgs.gov/lake/index.html.

  17. Water-Quality and Lake-Stage Data for Wisconsin Lakes, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wisconsin Water Science Center Lake-Studies Team: Rose, W. J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Marsh, S.B.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2007 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2007 is called 'water year 2007.' The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake?s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published in another volume: 'Water Resources Data-Wisconsin, 2007.'

  18. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  19. Acidification of lake water due to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosley, L. M.; Zammit, B.; Jolley, A. M.; Barnett, L.

    2014-04-01

    Droughts are predicted to increase in many river systems due to increased demand on water resources and climate variability. A severe drought in the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia from 2007 to 2009 resulted in unprecedented declines in water levels in the Lower Lakes (Ramsar-listed ecosystem of international importance) at the end of the river system. The receding water exposed large areas (>200 km2) of sediments on the lake margins. The pyrite (FeS2) in these sediments oxidised and generated high concentrations of acidity. Upon rewetting of the exposed sediments, by rainfall or lake refill, surface water acidification (pH 2-3) occurred in several locations (total area of 21.7 km2). High concentrations of dissolved metals (Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn), which greatly exceeded aquatic ecosystem protection guidelines, were mobilised in the acidic conditions. In many areas neutralisation of the surface water acidity occurred naturally during lake refill, but aerial limestone dosing was required in two areas to assist in restoring alkalinity. However acidity persists in the submerged lake sediment and groundwater several years after surface water neutralisation. The surface water acidification proved costly to manage and improved water management in the Murray-Darling Basin is required to prevent similar events occurring in the future.

  20. Survival of lake trout eggs and fry reared in water from the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol Cotant; Seelye, James G.

    1985-01-01

    As part of continuing studies of the reproductive failure of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan, we measured the survival of lake trout eggs and fry of different origins and reared in different environments. Eggs and milt were stripped from spawning lake trout collected in the fall of 1980 from southeastern Lake Michigan, northwestern Lake Huron, south central Lake Superior, and from hatchery brood stock. Eggs from all sources were incubated, and the newly hatched fry were reared for 139 days in lake water from each of the three upper Great Lakes and in well water. Survival of eggs to hatching at all sites was lowest for those from Lake Michigan (70% of fertilized eggs) and highest for eggs from Lake Superior (96%). Comparisons of incubation water from the different lakes indicated that hatching success of eggs from all sources was highest in Lake Huron water, and lowest in Lake Michigan water. The most notable finding was the nearly total mortality of fry from eggs of southeastern Lake Michigan lake trout. At all sites, the mean survival of Lake Michigan fry through 139 days after hatching was only 4% compared to near 50% for fry from the other three sources. In a comparison of the rearing sites, little influence of water quality on fry survival was found. Thus, the poor survival was associated with the source of eggs and sperm, not the water in which the fry were reared.

  1. Water-Quality and Lake-Stage Data for Wisconsin Lakes, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Marsh, S.B.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2006 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 is called 'water year 2006.' The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake's watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published in another volume: 'Water Resources Data-Wisconsin, 2006.' Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available through the World Wide Web on the Internet. The Wisconsin Water Science Center's home page is at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/. Information on the

  2. The effects of using ground water to maintain water levels of Cedar Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLeod, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    There were no identifiable changes in measured physical and chemical characteristics of lake water during sustained pumping of ground water into the lake, nor were there identifiable changes in the number or makeup of the phytoplankton community. Differences in physical and chemical characteristics of lake water and ground water added to the lake probably were not great enough to cause changes within the lake.

  3. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin Lakes, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available throught the World Wide Web on the Internet. The Wisconsin District's home page is at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/. Information on the Wisconsin District's Lakes Program is found at wi.water.usgs.gov/lake/index.html and wi.water.usgs.gov/projects/ index.html.

  4. 2008 Water Quality Analysis of Otisco Lake, New York.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfman, J. D.; Hoering, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Water quality and trophic status of the Finger Lakes in western and central New York State is critical because these lakes serve as drinking water supplies to the local communities and are critical for the tourist, recreational and agricultural economy of the region. A 2008 limnological survey of the eight largest Finger Lakes indicated that the water quality of Otisco Lake was the worst compared to Honeoye, Canandaigua, Keuka, Seneca, Cayuga, Owasco and Skaneateles Lakes base on the measured parameters. Surface and bottom water were collected from at least two sites in each lake on a monthly basis during the May to October field season. The water was analyzed for total suspended sediment (TSS), total phosphate (TP), soluble reactive phosphate (SRP), nitrates, dissolved silica, chlorophyll-a, pH, conductivity, alkalinity and major ions following standard limnological techniques. In addition, secchi disk depths, plankton tows and CTD profiles were collected at each site. Our SeaBird SBE-25 CTD collected profiles of conductivity, temperature, depth, pH, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), dissolved oxygen, fluorescence and turbidity. The 2008 data collected by September 1 revealed that Otisco Lake has the lowest mean secchi disk depths (2.9m vs. 4.4, 7.2, 6.8, 3.6, 3.6, 3.9, 7.5; mean values in order of the lake listing above) of the studied lakes. High mean TSS (2.5 mg/L vs. 1.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.9, 1.7, 1.3, 0.6), high mean TP (13 ug/L vs. 17.6, 8.5, 6.2, 10.3, 8.3, 8.1, 3.8), and moderate mean SRP (0.3 ug/L vs. 2.3, 1.0, 0.5, 1.0, 0.8, 0.7, 0.7) concentrations contribute to and correlate with high mean chlorophyll-a concentrations (3.6 ug/L vs. 2.9, 1.2, 1.5, 5.1, 4.0, 2.2, 0.6), fluorescence peak concentrations, and seasonally anoxic bottom waters. Honeoye was the only other lake with an anoxic hypolimnion (bottom waters). The highest concentration of SRP and TSS were measured on June 3 and correlated with a significant rain event four days prior to sampling

  5. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water years 2008−2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Olson, Daniel L.; Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series.The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes during water years 2008–2011. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2008 is called "water year 2008." Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are presented in this report for water years from 2008–2011. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are available via the "USGS Annual Water Data Report" Web site: http://wdr.water.usgs.gov/.

  6. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Marsh, S.B.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical charac-teristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measure-ments of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series graphs of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive infor-mation for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake's watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks.

  7. Atmospheric radiation model for water surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Gaskill, D. W.; Lierzer, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An atmospheric correction model was extended to account for various atmospheric radiation components in remotely sensed data. Components such as the atmospheric path radiance which results from singly scattered sky radiation specularly reflected by the water surface are considered. A component which is referred to as the virtual Sun path radiance, i.e. the singly scattered path radiance which results from the solar radiation which is specularly reflected by the water surface is also considered. These atmospheric radiation components are coded into a computer program for the analysis of multispectral remote sensor data over the Great Lakes of the United States. The user must know certain parameters, such as the visibility or spectral optical thickness of the atmosphere and the geometry of the sensor with respect to the Sun and the target elements under investigation.

  8. Water Level Fluctuations of Lake Enriquillo and Lake Saumatre in Response to Environmental Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poteau, D.; Romero Luna, E. J.; Walter, M. T.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2011-12-01

    The water levels of Lake Saumatre in Haiti and Lake Enriquillo in the Dominican Republic have been increasing continuously for the past 5-10 years. As result roads and lake shore agriculture are flooded and there is an interest in determining the causes of the continuous lake growth and finding solutions to reverse the trend Various theories haven proposed for growth of the lakes such as climate change and deforestation. Deforestation would affect the hydrological balance by means of changing infiltration rates. To examine the temporal variations in the lake, the lake surface areas during the past 30 years were obtained from available satellite data and converted into volumes. These lake surface areas showed a steady increase starting in 2003 for Lake Saumatre and in 2008 for Lake Enriquillo. Land cover change obtained by means of remote sensing for the years of 1986 and 2010 showed no significant change and could therefore be ruled out as a cause for the lake levels increases. A simple water balance model that had been validated for monsoon climates matched the lake level volumes fluctuations well for the last 30 years including the recent rise in lake levels. Thus the lake level increases could be directly related to the greater precipitation starting some 10 years ago. The difference in starting time of lake level rise between the two lakes could be explained by a larger storage capacity in the a Lake Enriquillo watershed compared to the Lake Saumatre watershed

  9. Labeling lake water with tritium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  10. Integrated Ecosystem Assessment: Lake Ontario Water Management

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Singkran, Nuanchan; Mills, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Ecosystem management requires organizing, synthesizing, and projecting information at a large scale while simultaneously addressing public interests, dynamic ecological properties, and a continuum of physicochemical conditions. We compared the impacts of seven water level management plans for Lake Ontario on a set of environmental attributes of public relevance. Methodology and Findings Our assessment method was developed with a set of established impact assessment tools (checklists, classifications, matrices, simulations, representative taxa, and performance relations) and the concept of archetypal geomorphic shoreline classes. We considered each environmental attribute and shoreline class in its typical and essential form and predicted how water level change would interact with defining properties. The analysis indicated that about half the shoreline of Lake Ontario is potentially sensitive to water level change with a small portion being highly sensitive. The current water management plan may be best for maintaining the environmental resources. In contrast, a natural water regime plan designed for greatest environmental benefits most often had adverse impacts, impacted most shoreline classes, and the largest portion of the lake coast. Plans that balanced multiple objectives and avoided hydrologic extremes were found to be similar relative to the environment, low on adverse impacts, and had many minor impacts across many shoreline classes. Significance The Lake Ontario ecosystem assessment provided information that can inform decisions about water management and the environment. No approach and set of methods will perfectly and unarguably accomplish integrated ecosystem assessment. For managing water levels in Lake Ontario, we found that there are no uniformly good and bad options for environmental conservation. The scientific challenge was selecting a set of tools and practices to present broad, relevant, unbiased, and accessible information to guide

  11. Analysis of Poyang Lake water balance and its indication of river-lake interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zengxin; Huang, Yuhan; Xu, Chong-Yu; Chen, Xi; Moss, Elica M; Jin, Qiu; Bailey, Alisha M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, water shortage is becoming one of the most serious problems in the Poyang Lake. In this paper, the long-term water balance items of the Poyang Lake have been analyzed to reveal the coupling effects of Three Gorges Dam (TGD) and droughts on the water balance of Poyang Lake. The results indicate that: (1) the water balance items of Poyang Lake vary greatly, e.g. lake precipitation and inflow decrease during the past several decades while evaporation and water consumption increase significantly; (2) the water balance of Poyang Lake has been affected by the operation of TGD. Negative lake water balance in recent years leads to a serious water shortage problem in the Poyang Lake. Moreover, the operation of TGD also changed the river-lake relationship in the lower Yangtze River basin; (3) the coupling effects of drought and TGD on the lake water balance has been analyzed by using composite analysis method and it can be found that the operation of TGD has significantly altered the lake water balance. But it is not the only factor that affects the lake water balance, and the droughts might cause their relations to be much more complicated. PMID:27652128

  12. Analysis of Poyang Lake water balance and its indication of river-lake interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zengxin; Huang, Yuhan; Xu, Chong-Yu; Chen, Xi; Moss, Elica M; Jin, Qiu; Bailey, Alisha M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, water shortage is becoming one of the most serious problems in the Poyang Lake. In this paper, the long-term water balance items of the Poyang Lake have been analyzed to reveal the coupling effects of Three Gorges Dam (TGD) and droughts on the water balance of Poyang Lake. The results indicate that: (1) the water balance items of Poyang Lake vary greatly, e.g. lake precipitation and inflow decrease during the past several decades while evaporation and water consumption increase significantly; (2) the water balance of Poyang Lake has been affected by the operation of TGD. Negative lake water balance in recent years leads to a serious water shortage problem in the Poyang Lake. Moreover, the operation of TGD also changed the river-lake relationship in the lower Yangtze River basin; (3) the coupling effects of drought and TGD on the lake water balance has been analyzed by using composite analysis method and it can be found that the operation of TGD has significantly altered the lake water balance. But it is not the only factor that affects the lake water balance, and the droughts might cause their relations to be much more complicated.

  13. Water Budget and Salinity of Walker Lake, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, James M.

    1995-01-01

    Walker Lake is one of the rare perennial, terminal lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States. The lake is the terminus for all surface- water and ground-water flow in the Walker River Basin Hydrographic Region that is not consumed by evaporation, sublimation, or transpiration. The concentration of dissolved solids (salts) in the lake-surface altitude depend primarily on the amounts of water entering and evaporation from the lake. Because Walker Lake is a terminal sink--it has no documented surface- or ground-water outflow--dissolved solids that enter it accumulate as the lake water evaporates. Declining lake levels, owing to natural and anthropogenic processes, have resulted in most Great Basin terminal lakes being too saline to support fish. In Nevada, the only terminal lakes that contain fish are Pyramid Lake, Ruby Lake, and Walker Lake. Dissolved-solids concentration in Walker Lake increased from about 2,500 milligrams per liter in 1882 to 13,300 milli- grams per liter in July 1994 (U.S. Geological Survey analysis), as the lake-surface altitude declined from about 4,080 to 3,944 feet above sea level. This dramatic increase in dissolved-solids concentration threatens the Walker Lake ecosystem and the fish that depend on this ecosystem.

  14. The Role of Ecological Research in Great Lakes Water Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk will present some current ecological research in the Great Lakes. It will focus on how research examines aspects of water quality that relate to Basin-Lake and Human-Water interactions in the context of water sustainability issues for the Great Lakes.

  15. Appearance of aldehydes in the surface layer of lake waters.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Agata; Nawrocki, Jacek; Szeląg-Wasielewska, Elżbieta

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results concerning the changes in the content of aldehydes in samples of lake water collected near the lake surface. The study of lake waters was undertaken to explain which physicochemical parameters of the environment have the greatest influence on the level of aldehydes, which of the aldehydes are most often met in surface water and in what concentrations. We observed that formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and acetone were commonly present in surface water samples, while semi-volatile and poorly soluble aldehydes such as nonanal and decanal were observed seasonally. The contents of total aldehydes varied in a wide range, from 55 to 670 μg/l, and the concentration of total organic carbon varied significantly from 3 to 18 mg /l, but there was no evident correlation between them in all of samples. The total content of aldehydes did not depend on the meteorological parameters such as air temperature, UV radiation and ozone concentration; however, it was noted that the level of carbonyl concentration is related to the period of intense precipitation: in the period of very low precipitations, the highest contents of total aldehydes were determined in all of the water samples, and in the periods of intense precipitations, the content of total aldehydes was drastically smaller.

  16. Radiative temperature measurements at Kupaianaha lava lake, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Luke P.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Gradie, Jonathan C.; Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-04-01

    The radiative temperature of the surface of Kupaianaha lava lake is computed using field spectroradiometer data. Observations were made during periods of active overturning. The lake surface exhibits three stages of activity. Magma fountaining and overturning events characterize stage 1, which exhibits the hottest crustal temperatures and the largest fractional hot areas. Rifting events between plates of crust mark stage 2; crustal temperatures in this stage are between 100 C and 340 C, and fractional hot areas are at least an order of magnitude smaller than those in stage 1. Stage 3 is characterized by quiescent periods when the lake is covered by a thick crust. This stage dominates the activity of the lake more than 90 percent of the time. The results of this study are relevant for satellite and airborne measurement of the thermal characteristics of active volcanoes, and indicate that the thermal output of a lava lake varies on a time scale of seconds to minutes.

  17. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit for... speed not greater than— (i) 12 statute miles per hour (10.4 knots) between Fort Gratiot Light and...

  18. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit for... speed not greater than— (i) 12 statute miles per hour (10.4 knots) between Fort Gratiot Light and...

  19. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit for... speed not greater than— (i) 12 statute miles per hour (10.4 knots) between Fort Gratiot Light and...

  20. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit for... speed not greater than— (i) 12 statute miles per hour (10.4 knots) between Fort Gratiot Light and...

  1. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit for... speed not greater than— (i) 12 statute miles per hour (10.4 knots) between Fort Gratiot Light and...

  2. The water balance of the East African Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xungang

    The East African Great Lakes are important indicators of climatic and environmental change in an area where standard meteorological data are scarce. Three large lakes, Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi are studied in order to build water balance relations between lake level and over-lake rainfall. By analyzing the satellite observations, the characteristics of the regional and mesoscale circulations are studied through analysis of convective activity and cloudiness over the lakes. Using a regression approach, the relationship between catchment rainfall and cold cloud frequency is found. Assuming the same convective mechanism operates for each lake and its catchment, the over-lake rainfall is calculated using the catchment rainfall, which has long records. Evaporation is estimated for each lake by energy-budget and Penman methods and a sensitivity study is also carried out. The available tributary inflow and lake outflow data of Lake Victoria are expressed by rainfall and lake level terms. For Lake Victoria, the water balance model is reformulated as a lake level model. The model is first used to predict the lake level changes as a validation. Then it is inverted so that the over-lake rainfall can be reconstructed from known lake levels in both modern times and historical times. In modern times, the precision is on the order of 1% for the calculated mean rainfall and a few percent for the calculated annual rainfall.

  3. Distribution of haloacetic acids in the water columns of the Laurentian Great Lakes and Lake Malawi.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian F; Spencer, Christine; Marvin, Christopher H; MacTavish, David C; Muir, Derek C G

    2002-05-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are persistent and mildly phytotoxic compounds that have been detected in many aquatic environments, including the waters of the Great Lakes. Sources of HAAs, especially of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), are not well understood. In this study we assessed the influence of urbanization on the concentrations and profiles of HAAs in the Laurentian Great Lakes and in Lake Malawi, an African Great Lake. Vertical depth profiles for these compounds were taken for each of the Great Lakes with additional profiles taken 2 years later for Lakes Erie and Ontario. The results showed that while TFA was relatively constant throughout the water column, the chloroacetic acids (CAAs) varied with depth. There was a trend of increasing TFA proceeding from Lake Superior to Lake Ontario (18-150 ng/L). Total CAA concentrations were relatively constant throughout the lakes (approximately 500 ng/L) with dichloroacetic acid being the most abundant. No bromoacetic acids were detected. In the Detroit River, a connecting channel between Lakes Huron and Erie, the TFA values were similar to those in Lake Huron, but the CAAs levels were higher than in the upstream lakes and dependent on location, indicating inputs from urban areas along the river. These results were compared to those from Lake Malawi, which has a high population density within the watershed but no heavy industry. CAAs were nondetectable, and TFA concentrations were just at the detection limit (1 ng/L). Total HAA in the water column of Lakes Superior and Huron was compared to annual precipitation inputs at a site situated near both lakes. For Lake Huron, precipitation was a minor contributor to the total HAA inventory of the lake, but for Lake Superior precipitation could be the major contributor to the mass of HAA in this lake. Generally, high HAA levels paralleled the degree of industrial activity in the adjacent waters.

  4. LANDSAT-BASED WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF PYRAMID LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT) in cooperation with federal, state and local entities has been able to increase stream flow, establish water quality standards and improve fish habitat in the Truckee River, a primary source of water for pyramid Lake. In the past, pyramid Lake wat...

  5. Great Lakes Water Protection Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Kirk, Mark Steven [R-IL

    2013-03-14

    07/16/2014 Committee on Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Water and Wildlife. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Water supply planning in the Lake Michigan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Doug; Wickenkamp, Jeff

    Standing in Chicago, Illinois, and gazing across the vastness of Lake Michigan, it is hard to imagine that communities in the surrounding region could be concerned about running short of water. However, international treaties, U.S. Supreme Court decrees, and interstate agreements restrict diversions of water from the Great Lakes in an effort to maintain lake levels. This forces the region to use alternative sources of water to serve the rapidly growing population.Local governments in the southern Lake Michigan region, and likely elsewhere in the Lake Michigan region, need to acquire and integrate data and information regarding the region's water supply into planning processes.

  7. Fertilization of eggs of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lake water: Effect of PCBs (Aroclor 1254)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; Berlin, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Various studies indicate that PCBs appear to have an adverse effect on the viability of fertilized eggs and subsequent early life stages of lake trout and related species. Our tests detected no impairment of fertilization of lake trout eggs in PCB-dosed lake water. The concentration of PCBs in the fertilization medium that we used was more than 20 times as high as estimated ambient levels in southeastern Lake Michigan and it appears unlikley that ambient levels of PCBs in the water at fertilization would contribute significantly to the apparent widespread reproductive failure of lake trout there.

  8. 33 CFR 162.134 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules. 162.134 Section 162.134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.134 Connecting waters from...

  9. 33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters...

  10. 33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters...

  11. 33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters...

  12. 33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters...

  13. 33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters...

  14. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes located above the tree line attenuate UV-A radiation more strongly than typical temperate alpine lakes.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Ximena; Lazzaro, Xavier; Coronel, Jorge S

    2013-09-01

    Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are physically harsh ecosystems. Located above the treeline (≥4000 m a.s.l.), they share common features with temperate alpine lakes, which impose extreme conditions on their aquatic organisms: e.g., strong winds, broad diel variations in water temperature, and intense solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, because of their latitude, they differ in two major ecological characteristics: they lack ice cover during the winter and they do not present summer water column stratification. We sampled 26 tropical high-altitude Andean lakes from three regions of the Bolivian Eastern Andes Cordillera during the wet period (austral summer). We performed an ordination to better describe the typology of Andean lakes in relation to the environmental variables, and we assessed the relationships among them, focussing on the UV-A transparency (360 nm) throughout the water column. We found a positive correlation between UV-A transparency calculated as Z(1%) (the depth which reaches 1% of the surface UV-A), the lake maximum depth and Secchi transparency (r = 0.61). Z(1%) of UV-A was smaller in shallow lakes than in deep lakes, indicating that shallow lakes are less transparent to UV-A than deep lakes. We hypothesize that, compared to shallow lakes, deep lakes (maximum depth > 10 m) may have lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (that absorb UV radiation) due to lower temperature and reduced macrophyte cover. Based on our data, tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are less transparent to UV-A (K(d) range = 1.4-11.0 m(-1); Z(1%) depth range = 0.4-3.2 m) than typical temperate alpine lakes (1-6 m(-1), 3-45 m, respectively). Moreover, they differ in vertical profiles of UV-A, chlorophyll-a, and temperature, suggesting that they may have a distinct ecological functioning. Such peculiarities justify treating tropical high-altitude Andean lakes as a separate category of alpine lakes. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes have been poorly

  15. Patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Masnado, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes, we examined laboratory contaminant analysis data of muscle tissue samples from Lake Michigan (n=317) and Lake Superior (n=53) fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and dieldrin, reported as mg/kg wet weight in 620 mm to 640 mm mean length Lake Michigan lake trout, decreased over time. Mean total PCB concentration declined exponentially from 9.7 in 1975 to 1.9 in 1990. Total chlordane concentration declined 63 percent from 0.48 in 1983 to 0.18 in 1990, and dieldrin declined 52 percent during this same period, from 0.21 to 0.10. The bioaccumulation rate of PCBs is significantly lower for lake trout inhabiting Lake Michigan's midlake reef complex, compared to lake trout from the nearshore waters of western Lake Michigan. Organochlorine compound concentrations were greater in Lake Michigan lake trout than Lake Superior fish. Lake Superior lean lake trout and siscowet exhibited similar rates of PCB bioaccumulation despite major differneces in muscle tissue lipid content between the two subspecies. The lack of a significant difference in the PCB bioaccumulation rates of lean trout and siscowet suggests that lipid content may not be an important factor influencing PCB bioaccumulation in lake trout, within the range of lipid concentrations observed. Relative concentrations of the various organochlorine contaminants found in lake trout were highly correlated, suggesting similar mass balance processes for these compounds. Evidence presented revealing spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination may be of value in reestablishing self-sustaining populations of lake trout in Lake Michigan.

  16. Hydrology, water quality, and nutrient loads to Lake Catherine and Channel Lake, near Antioch, Lake County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Johnson, Gary P.; Schrader, David L.

    2000-01-01

    From April 21, 1998, through April 30, 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fox Waterway Agency, conducted an investigation designed to characterize the hydrology, water quality, hydrologic budget, sediment budget, and nutrient budget of Lake Catherine and Channel Lake, Lake County, Illinois. These lakes are the northernmost lakes of the Fox Chain of Lakes. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake are divided into two basins by a submerged ridge but are continuous at the surface. The lakes are marginally to moderately eutrophic. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake have a combined volume of 7,098 acre-feet at a stage of about 736.5 feet above sea level. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake are subject to thermal stratification. Although most of the water in the lakes is well oxidized, nearly anoxic conditions were present at the bottom of Lake Catherine and Channel Lake during part of the summer in 1998. Water enters Lake Catherine and Channel Lake as inflow from surface water in the watershed (61.9 percent), inflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (20.7 percent), direct precipitation (8.2 percent), inflow from storm drains (7.2 percent), and inflow of ground water (2.0 percent). Water exits Lake Catherine and Channel Lake as outflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (87.8 percent), evaporation (7.2 percent), and as outflow to ground water (5.0 percent). About 5,200 pounds of phosphorus and 107,200 pounds of nitrogen compounds were added to the lakes during the period of investigation. Phosphorus compounds were derived from primarily internal regeneration (40.2 percent), inflow from surface water in the watershed (30.9 percent), inflow from storm drains (12.5 percent), and inflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (9.8 percent). Inflowing ground water, waterfowl excrement, precipitation, and atmospheric deposition of particulate matter account for 6.6 percent of the phosphorus load. Nitrogen was derived from inflow of surface

  17. Water quality of Rogers Lake, Dakota County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Have, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Analyses of water from Rogers Lake suggest that sodium and chloride concentrations were higher than in ground water or in water in some surrounding lakes . Sodium ranged from 7.2 to 55 milligrams per liter, and chloride ranged from 15 to 30 milligrams per liter. Concentrations were highest in March 1978, when most of the lake water was frozen. Much of the sodium and chloride may have been derived from road salts used for deicing.

  18. Physicochemical and analytical data for tributary water, lake water, and lake sediment, Lake Arrowhead, Clay and Archer Counties, Texas, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jennifer T.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Haynie, Monti M.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Arrowhead is a reservoir about 24 kilometers southeast of Wichita Falls, Texas, that provides drinking water for the city of Wichita Falls and surrounding areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, did a study in 2006 to assess conditions contributing to elevated arsenic concentrations in Lake Arrowhead. This report describes the sampling and analytical methods, quality assurance, and physicochemical and analytical data. Physiochemical properties were measured in and water samples were collected from five tributaries to Lake Arrowhead (Little Wichita River, West Little Post Oak Creek, East Little Post Oak Creek, Deer Creek, and an unnamed tributary) immediately after storms. Lake water measuring and sampling were done approximately monthly from January through September 2006 at three deep-water sites and seasonally, in January and August 2006, at three shallow-water sites. Cores of lake bottom sediment were collected from five sites on August 30, 2006. Arsenic concentrations in tributary water samples ranged from 1.5 to 6.3 and 0.5 to 4.8 micrograms per liter for unfiltered and filtered samples, respectively. The highest arsenic concentrations were in samples collected from the West Little Post Oak Creek sampling site. Physicochemical properties in lake water varied with depth and season. Dissolved arsenite plus arsenate concentrations in lake water samples generally were between 3 and 5 micrograms per liter. Arsenite concentrations typically were below the laboratory reporting level of 0.6 microgram per liter. There were no detections of monomethylarsonate or dimethylarsinate. The concentration of arsenic in lake sediment samples ranged from 4.4 to 11.2 milligrams per kilogram, with a median of 6.4 milligrams per kilogram. The median arsenic concentration of the five top-interval sediment samples was 8.8 milligrams per kilogram, which generally is higher than the concentrations estimated to be on suspended sediment in

  19. Rapid and highly variable warming of lake surface waters around the globe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Catherine; Sharma, Sapna; Gray, Derek; Hampton, Stephanie; Read, Jordan S.; Rowley, Rex J.; Schneider, Philipp; Lenters, John D.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Kraemer, Benjamin M.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Straile, Dietmar; Dong, Bo; Adrian, Rita; Allan, Mathew G.; Anneville, Orlane; Arvola, Lauri; Austin, Jay; Bailey, John L.; Baron, Jill S.; Brookes, Justin D; de Eyto, Elvira; Dokulil, Martin T.; Hamilton, David P.; Havens, Karl; Hetherington, Amy L.; Higgins, Scott N.; Hook, Simon; Izmest'eva, Lyubov R.; Jöhnk, Klaus D.; Kangur, Külli; Kasprzak, Peter; Kumagai, Michio; Kuusisto, Esko; Leshkevich, George; Livingstone, David M.; MacIntyre, Sally; May, Linda; Melack, John M.; Mueller-Navara, Doerthe C.; Naumenko, Mikhail; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; North, Ryan P.; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Rigosi, Anna; Rimmer, Alon; Rogora, Michela; Rudstam, Lars G.; Rusak, James A.; Salmaso, Nico; Samal, Nihar R.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Schladow, Geoffrey; Schmid, Martin; Schmidt, Silke R.; Silow, Eugene A.; Soylu, M. Evren; Teubner, Katrin; Verburg, Piet; Voutilainen, Ari; Watkinson, Andrew; Williamson, Craig E.; Zhang, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this first worldwide synthesis of in situ and satellite-derived lake data, we find that lake summer surface water temperatures rose rapidly (global mean = 0.34°C decade−1) between 1985 and 2009. Our analyses show that surface water warming rates are dependent on combinations of climate and local characteristics, rather than just lake location, leading to the counterintuitive result that regional consistency in lake warming is the exception, rather than the rule. The most rapidly warming lakes are widely geographically distributed, and their warming is associated with interactions among different climatic factors—from seasonally ice-covered lakes in areas where temperature and solar radiation are increasing while cloud cover is diminishing (0.72°C decade−1) to ice-free lakes experiencing increases in air temperature and solar radiation (0.53°C decade−1). The pervasive and rapid warming observed here signals the urgent need to incorporate climate impacts into vulnerability assessments and adaptation efforts for lakes.

  20. Water balance of a lake with floodplain buffering: Lake Tana, Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessie, Mekete; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Lakes are very important components of the earth's hydrological cycle, providing a variety of services for humans and ecosystem functioning. For a sustainable use of lakes, a substantial body of knowledge on their water balance is vital. We present here a detailed daily water balance analysis for Lake Tana, the largest lake in Ethiopia and the source of the Blue Nile. Rainfall on the lake is determined by Thiessen polygon procedure, open water evaporation is estimated by the Penman-combination equation and observed inflows for the gauged catchments as well as outflow data at the two lake outlets are directly used. Runoff from ungauged catchments is estimated using a simple rainfall-runoff model and runoff coefficients. Hillslope catchments and floodplains are treated separately, which makes this study unique compared to previous water balance studies. Impact of the floodplain on the lake water balance is analyzed by conducting scenario-based studies. We found an average yearly abstraction of 420 × 106 m3 or 6% of river inflows to the lake by the floodplain in 2012 and 2013. Nearly 60% of the inflow to the lake is from the Gilgel Abay River. Simulated lake levels compare well with the observed lake levels (R2 = 0.95) and the water balance can be closed with a closure error of 82 mm/year (3.5% of the total lake inflow). This study demonstrates the importance of floodplains and their influence on the water balance of the lake and the need of incorporating the effects of floodplains and water abstraction for irrigation to improve predictions.

  1. Drainage water phosphorus losses in the great lakes basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The great lakes are one of the most important fresh water resources on the planet. While forestry is a primary land use throughout much of the great lakes basin, there are portions of the basin, such as much of the land that drains directly to Lake Erie, that are primarily agricultural. The primary ...

  2. Eutrophication of lake waters in China: cost, causes, and control.

    PubMed

    Le, C; Zha, Y; Li, Y; Sun, D; Lu, H; Yin, B

    2010-04-01

    Lake water eutrophication has become one of the most important factors impeding sustainable economic development in China. Knowledge of the current status of lake water eutrophication and determination of its mechanism are prerequisites to devising a sound solution to the problem. Based on reviewing the literature, this paper elaborates on the evolutional process and current state of shallow inland lake water eutrophication in China. The mechanism of lake water eutrophication is explored from nutrient sources. In light of the identified mechanism strategies are proposed to control and tackle lake water eutrophication. This review reveals that water eutrophication in most lakes was initiated in the 1980s when the national economy underwent rapid development. At present, the problem of water eutrophication is still serious, with frequent occurrence of damaging algal blooms, which have disrupted the normal supply of drinking water in shore cities. Each destructive bloom caused a direct economic loss valued at billions of yuan. Nonpoint pollution sources, namely, waste discharge from agricultural fields and nutrients released from floor deposits, are identified as the two major sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, all control and rehabilitation measures of lake water eutrophication should target these nutrient sources. Biological measures are recommended to rehabilitate eutrophied lake waters and restore the lake ecosystem in order to bring the problem under control.

  3. The effects of simulated solar UVB radiation on early developmental stages of the Northwestern Salamander (Ambystoma gracile) from three lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Hoffman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) has received much attention as a factor that could play a role in amphibian population declines. UV can be hazardous to some amphibians, but the resultant effects depend on a variety of environmental and behavioral factors. In this study, the potential effects of UV on the Northwestern Salamander, Ambystoma gracile, from three lakes were assessed in the laboratory using a solar simulator. We measured the survival of embryos and the survival and growth of larvae exposed to four UV treatments in controlled laboratory studies, the UV absorbance of egg jelly, oviposition depths in the lakes, and UV absorbance in water samples from the three lakes. Hatching success of embryos decreased in the higher UV treatments as compared to the control treatments, and growth of surviving larvae was significantly reduced in the higher UVB irradiance treatments. The egg jelly exhibited a small peak of absorbance within the UVB range (290–320 nm). The magnitude of UV absorbance differed among egg jellies from the three lakes. Oviposition depths at the three sites averaged 1.10 m below the water surface. Approximately 66% of surface UVB radiation was attenuated at 10-cm depth in all three lakes. Results of this study indicate that larvae may be sensitive to UVB exposure under laboratory conditions; however, in field conditions the depths of egg deposition in the lakes, absorbance of UV radiation by the water column, and the potential for behavioral adjustments may mitigate severe effects of UV radiation.

  4. The role of solar UV radiation in the ecology of alpine lakes.

    PubMed

    Sommaruga, R

    2001-09-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 290-400 nm) is a crucial environmental factor in alpine lakes because of the natural increase of the UVR flux with elevation and the high water transparency of these ecosystems. The ecological importance of UVR, however, has only recently been recognized. This review, examines the general features of alpine lakes regarding UVR, summarizes what is known about the role of solar UVR in the ecology of alpine lakes, and identifies future research directions. Unlike the pattern observed in most lowland lakes, variability of UV attenuation in alpine lakes is poorly explained by differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, and depends mainly on optical characteristics (absorption) of the chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Within the water column of lakes with low DOC concentrations (0.2-0.4 mg l(-1)), UV attenuation is influenced by phytoplankton whose development at depth (i.e. the deep chlorophyll maximum) causes important changes in UV attenuation. Alpine aquatic organisms have developed a number of strategies to minimize UV damage. The widespread synthesis or bioaccumulation of different compounds that directly or indirectly absorb UV energy is one such strategy. Although most benthic and planktonic primary producers and crustacean zooplankton are well adapted to high intensities of solar radiation, heterotrophic protists, bacteria, and viruses seem to be particularly sensitive to UVR. Understanding the overall impact of UVR on alpine lakes would need to consider synergistic and antagonistic processes resulting from the pronounced climatic warming, which have the potential to modify the UV underwater climate and consequently the stress on aquatic organisms.

  5. The importance of ground water in the Great Lakes Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grannemann, N.G.; Hunt, R.J.; Nicholas, J.R.; Reilly, T.E.; Winter, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is a major natural resource in the Great Lakes Region that helps link the Great Lakes and their watershed. This linkage needs to be more fully understood and quantified before society can address some of the important water-resources issues in the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes constitute the largest concentration of unfrozen fresh surface water in the western hemisphere—about 5,440 mi3. Because the quantity of water in the lakes is so large, ground water in the Great Lakes Basin is often overlooked when evaluating the hydrology of the region. Ground water, however, is more important to the hydrology of the Great Lakes and to the health of ecosystems in the watershed than is generally recognized.Although more than 1,000 mi3 of ground water are stored in the basin—a volume of water that is approximately equal to that of Lake Michigan—development of the groundwater resource must be carefully planned. Development of the ground-water resource removes water from storage and alters the paths of ground-water flow. Ground water that normally discharges to streams, lakes, and wetlands can be captured by pumping (the most common form of development), which may deplete or reduce inflows to the Great Lakes.Ground water is important to ecosystems in the Great Lakes Region because it is, in effect, a large, subsurface reservoir from which water is released slowly to provide a reliable minimum level of water flow to streams, lakes, and wetlands. Ground-water discharge to streams generally provides good quality water that, in turn, promotes habitat for aquatic animals and sustains aquatic plants during periods of low precipitation. Because of the slow movement of ground water, the effects of surface activities on ground-water flow and quality can take years to manifest themselves. As a result, issues relative to ground water are often seemingly less dire than issues related to surface water alone.Ground water is a major natural resource in the Great Lakes Region

  6. Comparison of the hydrogeology and water quality of a ground-water augmented lake with two non-augmented lakes in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.; Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrologic effects associated with augmenting a lake with ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer were examined in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida, from June 1996 through May 1999. The hydrogeology, ground-water flow patterns, water budgets, and water-quality characteristics were compared between a lake that has been augmented for more than 30 years (Round Lake) and two nearby non-augmented lakes (Dosson Lake and Halfmoon Lake). Compared to the other study lakes, Round Lake is in a more leakage-dominated hydrogeologic setting. The intermediate confining unit is thin or highly breached, which increases the potential for vertical ground-water flow. Round Lake has the least amount of soft, organic lake-bottom sediments and the lake bottom has been dredged deeper and more extensively than the other study lakes, which could allow more leakage from the lake bottom. The area around Round Lake has experienced more sinkhole activity than the other study lakes. During this study, three sinkholes developed around the perimeter of the lake, which may have further disrupted the intermediate confining unit. Ground-water flow patterns around Round Lake were considerably different than the non-augmented lakes. For most of the study, ground-water augmentation artificially raised the level of Round Lake to about 2 to 3 feet higher than the adjacent water table. As a result, lake water recharged the surficial aquifer around the entire lake perimeter, except during very wet periods when ground-water inflow occurred around part of the lake perimeter. The non-augmented lakes typically had areas of ground-water inflow and areas of lake leakage around their perimeter, and during wet periods, ground-water inflow occurred around the entire lake perimeter. Therefore, the area potentially contributing ground water to the non-augmented lakes is much larger than for augmented Round Lake. Vertical head loss within the surficial aquifer was greater at Round Lake than the other

  7. Genotoxicity of drinking water from Chao Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Q.; Jiao, Q.C.; Huang, X.M.; Jiang, J.P.; Cui, S.Q.; Yao, G.H.; Jiang, Z.R.; Zhao, H.K.; Wang, N.Y.

    1999-02-01

    Genotoxic activity appears to originate primarily from reactions of chlorine with humic substances in the source waters. Comparisons of extracts of settled versus chlorinated water have confirmed that chlorinating during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the mutagenicity tests. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw, chlorinated (treated), and settled water from the Chao Lake region of China has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) induction in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and the micronucleus (MN) induction in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of silver carp. Extracts of raw and treated water but not the settled water are mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of three water samples show activity in the SCE and MN assays, especially the raw and treated water. These data show that contamination and chlorinating contribute mutagens to drinking water and suggest that the mammalian assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in aquatic environment than the Salmonella test.

  8. Towards the water level fluctuations of Lake Nam Co with a lumped watershed-lake model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binquan; Chen, Li; Liang, Zhongmin; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-04-01

    Hydrologic cycles of most inland lake watersheds on the Tibetan Plateau are not closely monitored due to lack of observation abilities in the harsh environment. Understanding the hydrologic processes of lake watersheds in the Tibetan Plateau could provide insights into the responses of Tibetan lake dynamics to climate change. An efficient approach for this purpose is to represent complex hydrologic behaviors of such Tibetan lake watersheds with simple and plausible hydrologic models. In this study, water level fluctuations of an inland saline lake in the central Tibetan Plateau, Nam Co, were investigated using a lumped watershed-lake model. This terminal lake is fed by both precipitation and glacier melt water from west slopes of Nyainqentanglha Ranges. The degree-day factor method was introduced to improve the model applicability in the glacier-covered basins. The model simulated the hydrologic processes as well as lake water budget of the Nam Co watershed. Remote sensing images (Landsat MSS, TM and ETM) from 1972 to 2008 were used to identify the boundaries of glacier and lake. Multi-source climate data (e.g., ground point observation, 0.25o gridded APHRODITE and TRMM 3B42 v7) were used to drive the hydrologic model at a monthly time step. It was found that both precipitation and air temperature experienced increasing trends with rates of 2.2 mm/year and 0.04 oC/year, respectively, for the period of 1963-2012. As a response to climate change, in the study basin, glaciers decreased by 51 km2 (-23%) while lakes expanded by 98 km2 (+5%) from 1972 to 2007. Results also showed that, during the period of 1961-2013, precipitation on lake, surface and subsurface runoff productions contributed 33%, 39% and 28%, respectively, to the total water mass gain of Lake Nam Co. As for its water sinks, lake water evaporation and groundwater outflow contributions were 63% and 23%, respectively. Consequently, a 14% of incoming water remained in the lake, producing an increase of the

  9. Improvements in lake water budget computations using Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Shih, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    A supervised multispectral classification was performed on Landsat data for Lake Okeechobee's extensive littoral zone to provide two types of information. First, the acreage of a given plant species as measured by satellite was combined with a more accurate transpiration rate to give a better estimate of evapotranspiration from the littoral zone. Second, the surface area coupled by plant communities was used to develop a better estimate of the water surface as a function of lake stage. Based on this information, more detailed representations of evapotranspiration and total water surface (and hence total lake volume) were provided to the water balance budget model for lake volume predictions. The model results based on information derived from satellite demonstrated a 94 percent reduction in cumulative lake stage error and a 70 percent reduction in the maximum deviation of the lake stage.

  10. Lake water quality mapping from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The lakes in three LANDSAT scenes were mapped by the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. Field checking the maps by three separate individuals revealed approximately 90-95% correct classification for the lake categories selected. Variations between observers was about 5%. From the MDAS color coded maps the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. This lake was closely checked and a pollution source of 100 cows was found in the springs which fed this lake. The theory, lab work and field work which made it possible for this demonstration project to be a practical lake classification procedure are presented.

  11. Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Søndergaard, Martin; Lauridsen, Torben L; Bjerring, Rikke; Olesen, Jørgen E; Jeppesen, Erik

    2012-06-01

    Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210), the strength in relationship (R2) between in-lake total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and the proportion of agricultural land use in the watershed increased markedly, from 10-12% to 39-42% for deep lakes and from 10-12% to 21-23% for shallow lakes, with the highest increase for TN. Relationships between TP and agricultural land use were even stronger for lakes with rivers in their watershed (55%) compared to lakes without (28%), indicating that rivers mediate a stronger linkage between landscape activity and lake water quality by providing a "delivery" mechanism for excess nutrients in the watershed. When examining the effect of different near-freshwater land zones in contrast to the entire watershed, relationships generally improved with size of zone (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m from the edge of lake and streams) but were by far strongest using the entire watershed. The proportion of agricultural land use in the entire watershed was best in explaining lake water quality, both relative to estimated nutrient surplus at agricultural field level and near-lake land use, which somewhat contrasts typical strategies of management policies that mainly target agricultural nutrient applications and implementation of near-water buffer zones. This study suggests that transport mechanisms within the whole catchment are important for the nutrient export to lakes

  12. Factors affecting phosphate adsorption to aluminum in lake water: implications for lake restoration.

    PubMed

    de Vicente, I; Jensen, H S; Andersen, F Ø

    2008-01-15

    Treatment of lake inlets or lake sediments with aluminum (Al) is being increasingly used for lake restoration but only few studies exist concerning competitive substances that might influence phosphate (PO(4)(3-)) removal from lake water. Therefore, chemical interferences of several ions (magnesium, silicate, chloride and humic acid) on PO(4)(3-) adsorption to Al(OH)(3) were studied. Interference of each ion was studied in artificial lake water, and the complex interactions occurring in natural water were studied in water from 30 Danish lakes at pH 7 in both cases. In the artificial lake water Al:P ratio was high as sediment P-pools were the targets while in the natural lake water Al addition was generally lower as only P present in the water was targeted (i.e. inlet water). The single-ion experiments evidenced that silicate (>200 microM) and humic acids significantly decreased the effectiveness of PO(4)(3-) adsorption to Al(OH)(3) by 10-13% at 450 microM Si and 17% at 1 mM C, respectively. NaCl did not influence adsorption of PO(4)(3-) to Al(OH)(3), however, PO(4)(3-) removal was slightly reduced in seawater, mainly due to the presence of Mg(2+). The studies on interferences in natural lake water showed that as long as the PO(4)(3-) concentration was low (<5 microM), silicate competed with PO(4)(3-) for adsorption sites on Al(OH)(3) but at higher PO(4)(3-) concentrations, color and DOC (as indicators of HA) were the main variables decreasing PO(4)(3-) removal from lake water. Inhibition of PO(4)(3-) precipitation in natural lake water appeared complex and did not allow for a simple calculation of Al dose from the concentration of potentially competitive ions. Recommendation for lake management is therefore still that precipitation assays should be carried out for any type of inlet or lake water prior to Al application.

  13. Alkalinity regulation in soft-water Florida lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, L.A.; Pollman, C.D.; Eilers, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Major ion chemistry data collected as part of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Eastern Lake Survey was examined to evaluate the mechanisms and extent of alkalinity regulation in 37 undisturbed, soft-water lakes in Florida. Comparison of major ion-Cl ratios in atmospheric deposition and in lake water shows the reactions resulting in retention of sulfate and nitrate are the dominant sources of alkalinity; production of organic acids and ammonium retention are the major alkalinity-consuming processes. Based on average reactions, enrichment of major cations accounted for only 12% of net alkalinity generation in the study lakes. In general, calcium and potassium were depleted in low-ANC lakes, presumably by in-lake sinks, and were enriched in most higher ANC lakes by ground water inputs. Differences in alkalinity among these lakes reflect hydrologic factors and the proximity of clay and carbonate deposits to the lake bed. Overall, net-alkalinity generation nearly balanced H+ predicted from evaporative concentration of atmospheric acid inputs; the close balance suggests that the alkalinity status of these lakes is very sensitive to changes in atmospheric loadings and groundwater alkalinity inputs.

  14. Water balance and irrigation water pumping of Lake Merdada for potato farming in Dieng Highland, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fadlillah, Lintang N; Widyastuti, M

    2016-08-01

    Lakes provide water resources for domestic use, livestock, irrigational use, etc. Water availability of lakes can be estimated using lake water balance. Lake water balance is calculated from the water input and output of a lake. Dieng Highland has several volcanic lakes in its surroundings. Lake Merdada in Dieng Highland has been experiencing extensive water pumping for several years more than other lakes in the surrounding area. It provides irrigation water for potato farming in Dieng Highland. The hydrological model of this lake has not been studied. The modeled water balance in this research uses primary data, i.e., bathymetric data, soil texture, and outflow discharge, as well as secondary data, i.e., rainfall, temperature, Landsat 7 ETM+ band 8 image, and land use. Water balance input components consist of precipitation on the surface area, surface (direct) runoff from the catchment area, and groundwater inflow and outflow (G net), while the output components consist of evaporation, river outflow, and irrigation. It shows that groundwater is the dominant input and output of the lake. On the other hand, the actual irrigation water pumping plays the leading role as human-induced alteration of outflow discharge. The maximum irrigation pumping modeling shows that it will decrease lake storage up to 37.14 % per month and may affect the ecosystem inside the lake. PMID:27384226

  15. Water balance and irrigation water pumping of Lake Merdada for potato farming in Dieng Highland, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fadlillah, Lintang N; Widyastuti, M

    2016-08-01

    Lakes provide water resources for domestic use, livestock, irrigational use, etc. Water availability of lakes can be estimated using lake water balance. Lake water balance is calculated from the water input and output of a lake. Dieng Highland has several volcanic lakes in its surroundings. Lake Merdada in Dieng Highland has been experiencing extensive water pumping for several years more than other lakes in the surrounding area. It provides irrigation water for potato farming in Dieng Highland. The hydrological model of this lake has not been studied. The modeled water balance in this research uses primary data, i.e., bathymetric data, soil texture, and outflow discharge, as well as secondary data, i.e., rainfall, temperature, Landsat 7 ETM+ band 8 image, and land use. Water balance input components consist of precipitation on the surface area, surface (direct) runoff from the catchment area, and groundwater inflow and outflow (G net), while the output components consist of evaporation, river outflow, and irrigation. It shows that groundwater is the dominant input and output of the lake. On the other hand, the actual irrigation water pumping plays the leading role as human-induced alteration of outflow discharge. The maximum irrigation pumping modeling shows that it will decrease lake storage up to 37.14 % per month and may affect the ecosystem inside the lake.

  16. Plutonium speciation in water from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of plutonium in Mono Lake water is enhanced by the presence of large concentrations of indigenous carbonate ions and moderate concentrations of fluoride ions. In spite of the complex chemical composition of this water, only a few ions govern the behavior of plutonium, as demonstrated by the fact that it was possible to duplicate plutonium speciation in a synthetic water containing only the principal components of Mono Lake water.

  17. Investigating microbial diversity and UV radiation impact at the high-altitude Lake Aguas Calientes, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Lorena; Chong, Guillermo; Demergasso, Cecilia; Farías, María Eugenia; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond; Minkley, Edwin, Jr.; Yu, Yeoungeob

    2007-09-01

    The High-Lakes Project is funded by the NAI and explores the highest perennial volcanic lakes on Earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several lakes ~6,000 m elevation. These lakes represent an opportunity to study the evolution of microbial organisms in relatively shallow waters not providing substantial protection against UV radiation. Aguas Calientes (5,870 m) was investigated (November 2006) and samples of water and sediment collected at 1, 3, 5, and 10 cm depth. An Eldonet UV dosimeter positioned on the shore records UV radiation and temperature, and is logging data year round. A UV SolarLight sensor allowed acquisition of point measurements in all channels at the time of the sampling. UVA, UVB, and PAR peaks between 11:00 am and 1:00 pm reached 7.7 mW/cm2, 48.5 μW/cm2, and 511 W/m2, respectively. The chemical composition of the water sample was analyzed. DNA was extracted and DGGE analyses with bacterial and archaeal 16S fragments were performed to describe microbial diversity. Antibiotic resistances were established previously in similar environments in Argentine Andean wetlands. In order to determine these resistances in our samples, they were inoculated onto LB and R2A media and onto R2A medium containing either chloramphenicol, ampicillin or tetracycline. Bacterial was higher than archeal cell number determined by RT-PCR in all the samples, reaching maximum total values of 5x10 5 cell mL-1. DGGE results from these samples and Licancabur summit lake (5,916 m) samples were also compared. Eight antibiotic-resistant Gram negative strains have been isolated with distinct resistance patterns.

  18. Water Quality of Eight Finger Lakes, New York: Changes from 2005 Through 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneill, K.; Halfman, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    A comparative study of eight Finger Lakes in central and western New York State, Honeoye, Canandaigua, Keuka, Seneca, Cayuga, Owasco, Skaneateles, and Otisco, revealed a strong correlation of water quality to the percentage of agricultural land in the watershed and varying rates of change in water quality over a four year period. The eight lakes were sampled monthly from May through October since 2005 with Otisco added in 2008. Surface and bottom water samples were collected at a minimum of two, deep-water sites in each lake, with additional sites in Owasco, Seneca and Cayuga. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for total phosphorous (TP), soluble reactive phosphate (SRP), dissolved silica (SRSi), nitrates, chlorophyll-a, total suspended solids (TSS), and major ion concentrations following standard limnological techniques. CTD profiles of conductivity, depth, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, photosynthetically active radiation, fluorescence and turbidity were also collected at each site, as well as secchi disk depths, plankton, and titrations for dissolved oxygen and alkalinity. Water quality rankings were assigned to each lake by comparing annual averages of dissolved nitrates, dissolved phosphorous, total phosphates, chlorophyll a, total suspended sediments and secchi disk depths resulting in a separate ranking for each year and each lake in the study. The percent of agricultural land in each watershed correlates more strongly to water quality than the size of or population in each watershed. Seneca Lake has gradually but steadily declined in water quality over the past four years, suggesting that nutrient loading is a critical problem in this watershed. Keuka, Skaneateles, Owasco, and to a lesser extent Canandaigua and Cayuga remained constant or improved slightly, most likely due to more stringent enforcement of water quality legislation in these watersheds. In 2007, water quality improved in Skaneateles and Owasco Lakes. At Owasco Lake, this observed

  19. The effects of water levels on Two Lake Ontario Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.; Osborn, Ronald G.; Auble, Gregor T.

    1990-01-01

    Lake Ontario's water levels have been regulated since 1959, after the completion of the St. Lawrence River navigation and hydropower development project. The plan used to guide the regulation (1958-D) has been in effect since 1963 (Bryce, 1982). The purpose of the regulation was to prevent extreme high-water levels which increased erosion on the south shore of Lake Ontario, while protecting the interests of commercial navigation and hydropower production in the St. Lawrence River (T. Brown, personal communication, member of the Board of Control). Major user groups have sought further reductions in the range of lake level fluctuations. However, the biological resources, especially the lake influenced wetlands, benefit from the waterlevel fluctuations. Great Lakes wetlands are the most important habitat for wildlife of the region (Tilton and Schwegler, 1978). We provide information here on the responses of wetland plant communities in two wetlands to changes in lake levels over time.

  20. WATER QUALITY AND BIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS, WITH AN EMPHASIS ON LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on MED's past and ongoing research in Lake Superior wetlands, and will include data on habitat, water quality, and biological condition of these systems. Comparisons of the condition of Lake Superior wetlands relative to those found around the Great ...

  1. Rock, Water, Critters: Lake Huron’s Groundwater-Fueled Submerged Sinkhole Ecosystems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddanda, B. A.; Ruberg, S. A.; Kendall, S.; Nold, S.; Hawley, N.

    2009-12-01

    Dissolution of the Paleozoic (~400 mya) carbonate bedrock in the Lake Huron Basin has produced numerous underwater karst sinkholes through which groundwater emerges onto the lake floor at various depths. Some of these submerged sinkholes adjacent to the coastline are visible from space (e.g., go to 45 5.181’N, 83 19.065’W or 45 11.921’N, 83 19.661’W in Google Earth). Recent underwater explorations have revealed unique hotspots of biogeochemical activity at several such submerged groundwater vents in Lake Huron. On average, the inflowing water is ten-fold higher in specific conductivity than ambient lake water (1.8 mS/cm in groundwater vs. 0.1 mS/cm in lake water) suggesting active groundwater venting to the lake floor. Fueled by venting groundwater containing high sulfate (>1000 mg/L in groundwater vs. <20mg/L in lake water) and low dissolved oxygen (<2 mg/L in groundwater vs. >8mg/L in lake water), these underwater ecosystems are characterized by sharp physical and chemical gradients and spectacularly colorful benthic microbial mats that overly carbon-rich sediments. Here, typical lake inhabitants are replaced by communities dominated by microorganisms - Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya that perform unique ecosystem functions. Lake Huron’s sinkhole ecosystems bear many similarities to geographically distant ecosystems such as deep-sea marine vents, subsurface sulfur springs and permanently ice-covered Antarctic lakes. In Lake Huron, shallow sunlit sinkholes are dominated by photosynthetic microorganisms and processes, while food webs in deep aphotic sinkholes are supported primarily by chemosynthesis. Metabolic processes occurring in sediment cores overlaid by purple cyanobacterial benthic mats from intermediate depth sinkholes receiving ~10-20% of surface solar radiation include oxygenic photosysnthesis, anoxygenic photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, sulfate reduction, sulfur oxidation, methanogenesis, and methane oxidation. Additional data from flow rates of

  2. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the primary production of natural phytoplankton assemblages in Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Gala, W R; Giesy, J P

    1991-12-01

    Inhibition of primary production of offshore Lake Michigan phytoplankton assemblages by solar ultraviolet radiation (SUVR) was observed from April to October in 1986 during in situ incubations in special Plexiglas chambers. Inhibition of primary production by SUVR was observed to a depth of 6 m and at intensities which were approximately 1% of the UV-B intensity at the lake surface. Significant inhibition of primary production by SUVR was restricted to the top third of the euphotic zone. The order of relative sensitivities of offshore Lake Michigan phytoplankton assemblages during different seasons to inhibition by SUVR were spring ED50 = 17.6 kJ/m2 UV-B) greater than fall (ED50 = 30.5 kJ/m2 UV-B) greater than summer (ED50 = 131.6 kJ/m2 UV-B). A hazard assessment model predicted a significant reduction (13%) in areal (total water column) primary production for offshore Lake Michigan due to current SUVR intensities. Concern about possible increased reduction of primary production in the North American Great Lakes due to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer appears to be unwarranted.

  3. Flame retardants and legacy chemicals in Great Lakes' water.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Dove, Alice; Romanak, Kevin; Backus, Sean; Hites, Ronald

    2014-08-19

    The Great Lakes have been the focus of extensive environmental research, but recent data on the aquatic concentrations of emerging compounds, such as flame retardants, are scarce. Water samples from 18 stations on the five Great Lakes were collected in 2011 and 2012 using XAD-2 resin adsorption and analyzed for PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and emerging flame retardants, including organophosphate flame retardants (OPEs). Total PCB concentrations ranged from 117 ± 18 pg/L in Lake Superior to 623 ± 113 pg/L in Lake Ontario. Among the organochlorine pesticides, the most abundant was dieldrin, with the highest average concentration of 99 ± 26 pg/L in Lake Erie, followed by p,p'-DDD with an average concentration of 37 ± 8 pg/L in Lake Ontario. Total PAH concentrations were higher in Lakes Erie and Ontario than in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior. Total PBDE concentrations were highest in Lake Ontario (227 ± 75 pg/L), and the most abundant congeners were BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-209. Total OPE concentrations ranged between 7.3 ± 4.5 ng/L in Lake Huron to 96 ± 43 ng/L in Lake Erie.

  4. Simulating ground water-lake interactions: Approaches and insights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Haitjema, H.M.; Krohelski, J.T.; Feinstein, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Approaches for modeling lake-ground water interactions have evolved significantly from early simulations that used fixed lake stages specified as constant head to sophisticated LAK packages for MODFLOW. Although model input can be complex, the LAK package capabilities and output are superior to methods that rely on a fixed lake stage and compare well to other simple methods where lake stage can be calculated. Regardless of the approach, guidelines presented here for model grid size, location of three-dimensional flow, and extent of vertical capture can facilitate the construction of appropriately detailed models that simulate important lake-ground water interactions without adding unnecessary complexity. In addition to MODFLOW approaches, lake simulation has been formulated in terms of analytic elements. The analytic element lake package had acceptable agreement with a published LAK1 problem, even though there were differences in the total lake conductance and number of layers used in the two models. The grid size used in the original LAK1 problem, however, violated a grid size guideline presented in this paper. Grid sensitivity analyses demonstrated that an appreciable discrepancy in the distribution of stream and lake flux was related to the large grid size used in the original LAK1 problem. This artifact is expected regardless of MODFLOW LAK package used. When the grid size was reduced, a finite-difference formulation approached the analytic element results. These insights and guidelines can help ensure that the proper lake simulation tool is being selected and applied.

  5. Quality of ground water around Vadnais Lake and in Lambert Creek watershed, and interaction of ground water with Vadnais Lake, Ramsey County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the seepage analysis and ground-water quality evaluation indicate that the effect of the quality of the surrounding ground water on the quality of Vadnais Lake probably was small. Ground water that discharged to the lake generally had lower concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and total dissolved solids than the lake. The mixing of ground water with the lake slightly diluted the lake with respect to these constituents.

  6. Exploding lakes and maleficent water in Grassfields legends and myth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanklin, Eugenia

    1989-11-01

    In August 1984 Lake Manoun 'exploded', killing 37 people. In August 1986 Lake Nyos 'exploded', killing more than 1700 people. Both explosions occurred in the rainy season, two years and six days apart. Have there been similar explosions in the Cameroon Grassfields in the past? This paper argues that such explosions have occurred, and have been recorded in area folklore in the form of migration stories that point unmistakably to the 'maleficent' activities of lakes and other bodies of water. Two migration stories are considered and compared: an ephemeral exploding lake that destroys the Bamessi people in the Kom story, and a crater lake in the Oku story, in which the lake is said to have 'left its bed' to destroy the people of Kijem. In examining the category of 'maleficent water', several types of potentially maleficent water are considered, including indigenous classifications of lakes as 'good' or 'bad', and stories about devils or witches associated with water. All suggest that the folklore motif of dangerous, destructive water may have its basis in observed fact. While this evidence is not conclusive, it is highly suggestive and, in combination with evidence that the area around Nyos is very recently settled, it lends credence to the supposition that the crater lakes of the area may have a 'life cycle' that involves changes of sometimes stupendous, often dangerous, proportions.

  7. Perchlorate in Lake Water from an Operating Diamond Mine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lianna J D; Ptacek, Carol J; Blowes, David W; Groza, Laura G; Moncur, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    Mining-related perchlorate [ClO4(-)] in the receiving environment was investigated at the operating open-pit and underground Diavik diamond mine, Northwest Territories, Canada. Samples were collected over four years and ClO4(-) was measured in various mine waters, the 560 km(2) ultraoligotrophic receiving lake, background lake water and snow distal from the mine. Groundwaters from the underground mine had variable ClO4(-) concentrations, up to 157 μg L(-1), and were typically an order of magnitude higher than concentrations in combined mine waters prior to treatment and discharge to the lake. Snow core samples had a mean ClO4(-) concentration of 0.021 μg L(-1) (n=16). Snow and lake water Cl(-)/ClO4(-) ratios suggest evapoconcentration was not an important process affecting lake ClO4(-) concentrations. The multiyear mean ClO4(-) concentrations in the lake were 0.30 μg L(-1) (n = 114) in open water and 0.24 μg L(-1) (n = 107) under ice, much below the Canadian drinking water guideline of 6 μg L(-1). Receiving lake concentrations of ClO4(-) generally decreased year over year and ClO4(-) was not likely [biogeo]chemically attenuated within the receiving lake. The discharge of treated mine water was shown to contribute mining-related ClO4(-) to the lake and the low concentrations after 12 years of mining were attributed to the large volume of the receiving lake.

  8. Physicochemical Characterization of Lake Spray Aerosol Generated from Great Lakes Water Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, A. P.; Axson, J. L.; May, N.; Pratt, K.

    2014-12-01

    Wave breaking across bodies of water releases particles into the air which can impact climate and human health. Similar to sea spray aerosols formed through marine wave breaking, freshwater lakes generate lake spray aerosol (LSA). LSA can impact climate directly through scattering/absorption and indirectly through cloud nucleation. In addition, these LSA are suggested to impact human health through inhalation of these particles during algal bloom periods characterized by toxic cyanobacteria. Few studies have been conducted to assess the physical and chemical properties of freshwater LSA. Herein, we discuss constructing a LSA generation system and preliminary physical and chemical characterization of aerosol generated from water samples collected at various sites across Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Superior, and Lake Michigan. Information on aerosol size distributions, number concentrations, and chemical composition will be discussed as a function of lake water blue-green algae concentration, dissolved organic carbon concentration, temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen concentration. These studies represent a first step towards evaluating the potential for LSA to impact climate and health in the Great Lakes region.

  9. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  10. Water quality of selected lakes in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington with respect to lake acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turney, G.L.; Dion, N.P.; Sumioka, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen lakes in Mount Rainier National Park were evaluated for general chemical characteristics, sensitivity to acidification by acidic precipitation, and degree of existing acidification. The lakes studies were Allen, one of the Chenuis group, Crescent , Crystal, Eleanor, Fan, one of the Golden group, Marsh, Mowich, Mystic, Shriner, and two unnamed lakes. The lakes were sampled in August 1983. Specific conductance values were generally 21 microsiemens/cm at 25 C or less, and dissolved solids concentrations were generally 20 mg/L or less. The major cations were calcium and sodium, and the major anion was bicarbonate. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 9.0 mg/L in 12 of the lakes. Allen Lake was the exception, having an alkalinity concentration of 27 mg/L. The pH values for all of the lakes ranged from 5.8 to 6.5. In most of the lakes, vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were relatively uniform. In the deeper lakes, temperature decreased with depth and dissolved-oxygen concentrations increased to about 20 feet, remained constant to 80 ft, then decreased with increasing depth. Exceptions to general water quality patterns were observed in three lakes. Allen Lake had a specific conductance value of 58 Microsiemens/cm. The lake of the Golden group was anaerobic at the bottom and had relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved metals, and a lower light transmission than the other lakes studied. One of the unnamed lakes had relatively high concentrations of phytoplankton and dissolved organic carbon and relatively low levels of light transmission. Comparisons of lake data to acid-sensitivity thresholds for specific conductance and alkalinity indicated that all of the lakes except Allen would be sensitive to acidic precipitation. The small sizes of the lakes, and their locations in basins of high precipitation and weathering-resistant rock types, enhance their sensitivity. None of the

  11. Preliminary water-quality characterization of lakes in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for comparing and characterizing lakes in Washington on the basis of water quality. The method can aid in selecting lakes for lake-restoration efforts. To simplify comparisons, a characteristic value (CV) was developed for each of 617 lakes in Washington using principal-component analysis. Three of 14 water-quality properties measured were used in this analysis because the principal component of the three properties accounted for 63 percent of the variance in the correlation matrix. The three properties were Secchi-disc visibility and concentrations of phosphorus and organic nitrogen. The significance of the derived CV 's was evaluated by regression of chlorophyll a concentration against CV. The resulting standard error of estimate of + or - 1.8 micrograms per liter of chlorophyll a indicated that the CV can be a useful index in assessing relative water-quality and trophic conditions among lakes. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Four year geochemical analysis of surface waters surrounding Horseshoe Lake and McLeod Lake at Mammoth Lakes, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, N. C.; Ellis, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    A natural analog to carbon sequestration, Mammoth Mountain and the surrounding area have been researched extensively, spanning over multiple scientific disciplines. Previous and current research endeavors provide further insight into the possible impacts and consequences of geological carbon sequestration. The focus of this study builds upon previous research, with a four year analyses on the varying fluxes that occur within the snowmelt season and the controls it has over the water chemistry within the area surrounding Horseshoe Lake and McLeod Lake. The flux of solute concentrations in both McLeod and Horseshoe Lake are governed by hydrologic processes that are connected to: (1) seasonal snowpack availability; (2) soil coverage; (3) hydrologic flow paths available during snowmelt season; (4) permeability of these flow paths; (5) interaction of snowmelt water and groundwater; and (6) the geology of the area. The purpose of this research is to identify the primary mechanism(s) that control the water chemistry of the local streams, Horseshoe Lake, and McLeod Lake. Preliminary data gathered in 2012 shows that low snowpack availability increases concentrations of ionic constituents in comparison previously collected data by graduate students in 2010-2011. Scatter plots of molar ratios of Mg/Na vs. Ca/Na show strong correlations to silicate weathering while plots of collected samples in 2012 suggests a mixing trend; with McLeod Lake and streams that discharge into Horseshoe Lake as end members. Ionic solute concentrations are relatively higher in streams that discharge into Horseshoe Lake compared to the lake itself. Water samples from Horseshoe Lake have higher alkalinity values in comparison to McLeod Lake (0.091 μg/L and 0.236 μg/L respectively), indicative of enhanced weathering. McLeod Lake solute concentrations appear to be dilute due to significant snowmelt contribution, supplied from nearby talus formations that are highly permeable. Data collected over the

  13. Characterization of lake water and ground water movement in the littoral zone of Williams Lake, a closed-basin lake in North central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Parkhurst, R.S.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Winter, T.C.; Antweiler, R.C.; Dean, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Williams Lake, Minnesota is a closed-basin lake that is a flow-through system with respect to ground water. Ground-water input represents half of the annual water input and most of the chemical input to the lake. Chemical budgets indicate that the lake is a sink for calcium, yet surficial sediments contain little calcium carbonate. Sediment pore-water samplers (peepers) were used to characterize solute fluxes at the lake-water-ground-water interface in the littoral zone and resolve the apparent disparity between the chemical budget and sediment data. Pore-water depth profiles of the stable isotopes ??18O and ??2H were non-linear where ground water seeped into the lake, with a sharp transition from lake-water values to ground-water values in the top 10 cm of sediment. These data indicate that advective inflow to the lake is the primary mechanism for solute flux from ground water. Linear interstitial velocities determined from ??2H profiles (316 to 528 cm/yr) were consistent with velocities determined independently from water budget data and sediment porosity (366 cm/yr). Stable isotope profiles were generally linear where water flowed out of the lake into ground water. However, calcium profiles were not linear in the same area and varied in response to input of calcium carbonate from the littoral zone and subsequent dissolution. The comparison of pore-water calcium profiles to pore-water stable isotope profiles indicate calcium is not conservative. Based on the previous understanding that 40-50 % of the calcium in Williams Lake is retained, the pore-water profiles indicate aquatic plants in the littoral zone are recycling the retained portion of calcium. The difference between the pore-water depth profiles of calcium and ??18O and ??2H demonstrate the importance of using stable isotopes to evaluate flow direction and source through the lake-water-ground-water interface and evaluate mechanisms controlling the chemical balance of lakes. Published in 2003 by John Wiley

  14. Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers , Senegal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambou, D.; Weihrauch, D.; Hellwing, V.; Diekkrüger, B.; Höllermann, B.; Gaye, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers, SenegalWater resources are critical to economic growth and social development. In most African countries, supply of drinking water to satisfy population needs is a key issue because of population growth and climate and land use change. During the last three decades, increasing population, changing patterns of water demand, and concentration of population and economic activities in urban areas has pressurize Senegal's freshwater resources. To overcome this deficit, Senegal turned, to the exploitation of the Lake Guiers. It is the sole water reservoir which can be used extensively as a stable freshwater. Its water is use for irrigating crops and sugar refinery and as a drinking water resource for urban centres, including Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, as well as for the local population and animal herds. To ensure sustainability, a greater understanding of Lake Guiers's water resources and effective management of its use will be required. In this study we developed and quantified future water situation (water availability and demand) in Lake Guiers under scenarios of climate change and population growth until 2050, using the water management model WEAP (Water Evaluation And Planning system). The results show that the pressure on Lake Guiers's water resources will increase, leading to greater competition between agriculture and municipal demand site. Decreasing inflows due to climate change will aggravate this situation. WEAP results offer basis to assister lake Guiers water resources manager for an efficient long-term planning and management. Keywords: climate change, population growth , IWRM, Lake Guiers, Senegal

  15. Water quality of four lakes in Lakeville, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tornes, L.H.; Have, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Water-quality characteristics were determined for four selected lakes to provide background data for evaluating changes that may occur in the lakes because of urbanization. Precipitation of calcium carbonate is suggested by high pH values and a decrease in the calcium concentration when magnesium, sodium, and chloride concentrations increase. Pollution is indicated by chloride concentrations that increased from 18 to 57 milligrams per liter in 1978. The eutrophic state of the lakes is suggested by dissolved oxygen supersaturated near the surface and less than 0.1 milligram per liter near the deepest parts of the lakes. Determination of the trophic state of the lakes provided trophic state indices as high as 69-2. Phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher in two of the lakes sampled. Anacystic and Oscillatoria were the dominant phytoplankton genera. Phytoplankton blooms occurred throughout the year with the highest sampled concentration yielding 890,000 cells per milliliter.

  16. Water Quality Investigations at Lake Merritt in Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, G.; Casino, C.; Johnson, K.; Huang, J.; Le, A.; Truisi, V. M.; Turner, D.; Yanez, F.; Yu, J. F.; Unigarro, M.; Vue, G.; Garduno, L.; Cuff, K.

    2005-12-01

    Lake Merritt is a saltwater tidal lagoon that forms a portion of a wildlife refuge in downtown Oakland, California. The general area was designated as the nation's first wildlife refuge in 1869, and is currently the home to over 90 species of migrating waterfowl, as well as a variety of aquatic wildlife. Situated within an area composed of compacted marine sediment located near the center of Oakland, Lake Merritt also serves as a major local catchment basin, receiving significant urban runoff from a 4,650 acre local watershed through 60 storm drains and four culverted creeks. Due to factors related to its geographical location, Lake Merritt has suffered from poor water quality at various times throughout its history. In fact, in May of 1999 the US Environmental Protection Agency designated Lake Merritt as a body of water whose beneficial uses are impaired, mainly due to high levels of trash and low levels of dissolved oxygen. As a contribution to continuing efforts to monitor and assess water quality of the Lake, we began a water quality investigation during the Summer of 2005, which included the measurement of dissolved oxygen concentrations of samples collected near its surface at over 85 different locations. These measurements were made using a sensor attached to a PASCO data- logger. The sensor measures the electric current produced by a chemical reaction in its probe, which is composed of a platinum cathode and a silver anode surrounded by an electrolyte solution. Results of these measurements were statistically analyzed, mapped, and then used in assessing the quality of Lake Merritt's water, particularly in relation to supporting aquatic biota. Preliminary analysis of results obtained so far indicates that the highest quality waters in Lake Merritt occur in areas that are closest to a source of San Francisco Bay water, as well as those areas nearby where water circulation is robust. Significantly high levels of dissolved oxygen were measured in an area that

  17. Water quality of Fremont Lake and New Fork Lakes, western Wyoming; a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Averett, R.C.; Mora, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Fremont Lake and New Fork Lakes in the New Fork River drainage of western Wyoming were selected for a comprehensive study of hydrologic processes affecting mountain lakes in the Rocky Mountains. Information is needed about lakes in this area to assess their response to existing and planned development. The concerns include regional issues such as acid precipitation from gas-sweetening plants, coal-fired powerplants, and smelters, as well as local issues, such as shoreline development and raising outlet control structures. Onsite measurements indicated strong thermal stratification in the lakes during the summer. Isothermal conditions occurred during December 1983 and May 1984. Mean phytoplankton concentrations were less than 5,000 cells/ml, and chlorophyll a concentrations were weakly correlated with phytoplankton concentrations. Zooplankton concentrations were small, less than 6 organisms/L. The numbers of benthic invertebrates/unit area in Fremont Lake were extremely small. The lake waters and inflow and outflow streams were chemically dilute solutions. Mean dissolved-solids concentrations were 13 mg/L in Fremont Lake and 24 mg/L in New Fork Lakes. Calcium and bicarbonate were the predominant ions. Concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen usually were less than detection limits. Trace-metals concentrations in the lakes were similar to those in precipitation and generally were small. Dissolved organic-carbon concentrations were about 1 mg/L. Concentrations of fulvic and humic acids were relatively large in the inlet of Fremont Lake during the spring. Pine Creek has deposited 800 metric tons of sediment, on an annual average, to the delta of Fremont Lake. Most sediment is deposited during spring runoff. (USGS)

  18. Monitoring water quality in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala using Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Cordova, A. I.; Christopher, S. A.; Griffin, R.; Limaye, A. S.; Irwin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent and spatially continuous water quality monitoring is either unattainable or challenging for developing nations if only standard methods are used. Such standard methods rely on in situ water sampling, which is expensive, time-consuming and point specific. Through the Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR), Lake Atitlan's water quality was first monitored in 2009 using Earth observation satellites. Lake Atitlan is a source of drinking water for the towns located nearby and a major touristic attraction for the country. Several multispectral sensors were used to monitor the largest algal bloom known to date for the lake, which covered 40% of the lake's 137 square kilometer surface. Red and Near-Infrared bands were used to isolate superficial algae from clean water. Local authorities, media, universities and local communities, broadly used the information provided by SERVIR for this event. It allowed estimating the real extent of the algal bloom and prompted immediate response for the government to address the event. However, algal blooms have been very rare in this lake. The lake is considered oligotrophic given its relatively high transparency levels that can reach 15 m in the dry season. To continue the support provided by SERVIR in the algal bloom event, an algorithm to monitor chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration under normal conditions was developed with the support of local institutions. Hyperspectral data from Hyperion on board EO-1 and in situ water quality observations were used to develop a semi-empirical algorithm for the lake. A blue to green band ratio successfully modeled Chl a concentration in Lake Atitlan with a relative error of 33%. This presentation will explain the process involved from providing an emergency response to developing a tailored tool for monitoring water quality in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala.

  19. Pathways of Snowmelt Water into an Ice-Covered Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, A.; MacIntyre, S.; Sadro, S.

    2015-12-01

    Discharge of water into ice-covered arctic lakes during snowmelt can be high, but no general framework exists to quantify the pathway of the flow into the lakes and the associated distribution of incoming resources including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) or greenhouse gases. In this study, we characterize the fate of the snowmelt water flowing into 1.5 km2 Toolik Lake, Alaska, in 2014 and 2015. We deployed arrays with temperature, conductivity, and oxygen sensors in the water column over the winter, performed high temporal and spatial resolution CTD surveys on four 500 m to 1 km long transect lines during spring, and obtained correlative meteorological and discharge data. During both study spring periods, we observed different snowmelt inflow regimes based on the discharge rate (low and high) which led to differences in the extent of vertical and horizontal dilution of the lake water. Our first estimates of horizontal dispersion of snowmelt water in Toolik Lake under a high discharge regime are in the upper range of values found for ice-covered lakes (O ~ (102) cm2 s-1). In both years, the incoming water spread over ~75% of the basin near the surface with associated loading of DOC and methane. Spring 2014 was typical of other years with a gradual snowmelt and restricted depth of penetration of the incoming water. In fact, the increased density gradient in the upper few meters created conditions which retarded subsequent mixing at ice off. In contrast, persistent high pressures over the Alaskan region caused an exceptionally warm spring and rapid snowmelt in 2015. The subsequent warming of stream waters meant that the within lake vertical density gradient was weakened and facilitated later mixing. The differences in magnitude of discharge and temperature of incoming water during the more average and the warm springs enable interpretations and predictions of the fate of solutes flowing into lakes during snowmelt under variable weather regimes.

  20. SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India E-mail:atulyakumarmohanty@yahoo.com Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are

  1. Water quality of Belton Lake, central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendieta, H.B.; Pate, Dale L.

    1982-01-01

    The maximum concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides or their degradation products detected in bottom sediments collected from the lake during four lake surveys included 1.1 micrograms per kilogram of DDT, 3.0 micrograms per kilogram of DDD, 11 micrograms per kilogram of DDE, and 2 micrograms per kilogram of chlordane.

  2. Water: Wisconsin lakes, streams and wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wisconsin has a tremendous diversity of aquatic habitat: headwater streams, large rivers, inland lakes, and two Great Lakes. Knowing the fundamentals of aquatic ecosystem science is critical to understand how these ecosystems function and to predict how they will respond to human...

  3. Time Series Analysis of Lake Surface Water Temperatures in Perialpine Austrian Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokulil, M.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term observations of surface water temperatures (SWT) collected by the Austrian Hydrographical Service are analysed for 24 Austrian lakes located in different climatic provinces. The lakes are situated north and south of the Alps, in the east bordering Hungary and in the west bordering Germany. All lakes are natural and are mainly embedded into calcareous rock formations at elevations between 100 and 900 m. Lakes largely vary in size, depth, retention time, flushing and mixing. Results indicate a rise in SWT parallel to air temperature (AT) since the mid-1960s. On an annual basis, changes in water temperature were the greatest in spring and summer. As a consequence of increasing water temperatures, the duration of thermal stratification expands, mixing and retention time are affected. Changes in the food web are expected to occur, but will strongly depend on local environmental conditions and will therefore be different for individual lakes. Trends in SWT are analysed in detail for four of the lakes having the longest data records (>100 years), representing different lake types and climate provinces.

  4. The Adaptive Radiation of Cichlid Fish in Lake Tanganyika: A Morphological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tetsumi; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the oldest of the Great Ancient Lakes in the East Africa. This lake harbours about 250 species of cichlid fish, which are highly diverse in terms of morphology, behaviour, and ecology. Lake Tanganyika's cichlid diversity has evolved through explosive speciation and is treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, the rapid differentiation of a single ancestor into an array of species that differ in traits used to exploit their environments and resources. To elucidate the processes and mechanisms underlying the rapid speciation and adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species assemblage it is important to integrate evidence from several lines of research. Great efforts have been, are, and certainly will be taken to solve the mystery of how so many cichlid species evolved in so little time. In the present review, we summarize morphological studies that relate to the adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika's cichlids and highlight their importance for understanding the process of adaptive radiation. PMID:21716857

  5. Effects of simulated solar UVB radiation on early developmental stages of the northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile) from three lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.; Pearl, C.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) has received much attention as a factor that could play a role in amphibian population declines. UV can be hazardous to some amphibians, but the resultant effects depend on a variety of environmental and behavioral factors. In this study, the potential effects of UV on the Northwestern Salamander, Ambystoma gracile, from three lakes were assessed in the laboratory using a solar simulator. We measured the survival of embryos and the survival and growth of larvae exposed to four UV treatments in controlled laboratory studies, the UV absorbance of egg jelly, oviposition depths in the lakes, and UV absorbance in water samples from the three lakes. Hatching success of embryos decreased in the higher UV treatments as compared to the control treatments, and growth of surviving larvae was significantly reduced in the higher UVB irradiance treatments. The egg jelly exhibited a small peak of absorbance within the UVB range (290-320 nm). The magnitude of UV absorbance differed among egg jellies from the three lakes. Oviposition depths at the three sites averaged 1.10 m below the water surface. Approximately 66 of surface UVB radiation was attenuated at 10-cm depth in all three lakes. Results of this study indicate that larvae may be sensitive to UVB exposure under laboratory conditions; however, in field conditions the depths of egg deposition in the lakes, absorbance of UV radiation by the water column, and the potential for behavioral adjustments may mitigate severe effects of UV radiation. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  6. Stable water isotopic composition of the Antarctic subglacial Lake Vostok: implications for understanding the lake's hydrology.

    PubMed

    Ekaykin, Alexey A; Lipenkov, Vladimir Y; Kozachek, Anna V; Vladimirova, Diana O

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the stable isotopic composition of water from the subglacial Lake Vostok using two different sets of samples: (1) water frozen on the drill bit immediately after the first lake unsealing and (2) water frozen in the borehole after the unsealing and re-drilled one year later. The most reliable values of the water isotopic composition are: -59.0 ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18, -455 ± 1 ‰ for deuterium and 17 ± 1 ‰ for d-excess. This result is also confirmed by the modelling of isotopic transformations in the water which froze in the borehole, and by a laboratory experiment simulating this process. A comparison of the newly obtained water isotopic composition with that of the lake ice (-56.2 ‰ for oxygen-18, -442.4 ‰ for deuterium and 7.2 ‰ for d-excess) leads to the conclusion that the lake ice is very likely formed in isotopic equilibrium with water. In turn, this means that ice is formed by a slow freezing without formation of frazil ice crystals and/or water pockets. This conclusion agrees well with the observed physical and chemical properties of the lake's accreted ice. However, our estimate of the water's isotopic composition is only valid for the upper water layer and may not be representative for the deeper layers of the lake, so further investigations are required.

  7. Water quality of lake Waramaug and surrounding watershed, Litchfield County, Connecticut. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K.P.; Grason, D.

    1992-01-01

    Lake Waramaug and its watershed in western Connecticut were sampled from March 1977 to March 1978 to develop information for a lake-management plan. Nutrient enrichment has degraded the lake water quality, resulting in increased algal population in recent years. Chemical analyses of surface-water inflow, ground-water inflow, and atmospheric deposition in the watershed indicate that surface-water inflow at the northeastern corner of the lake is the major source of nutrients discharged to the lake. Atmospheric deposition contains 0.01 to 0.47 milligrams per liter total phosphorus and 0.52 to 3.2 milligrams per liter total nitrogen. During the 7.3-month period of investigation, atmospheric deposition contributed 61,400 pounds of nitrogen and 3,150 pounds of phosphorus to the lake's watershed. Nutrient concentrations in ground water were relatively low, with total phosphorus ranging from 0.008 to 0.14 milligrams per liter.

  8. A drinking water crisis in Lake Taihu, China: linkage to climatic variability and lake management.

    PubMed

    Qin, Boqiang; Zhu, Guangwei; Gao, Guang; Zhang, Yunlin; Li, Wei; Paerl, Hans W; Carmichael, Wayne W

    2010-01-01

    In late May, 2007, a drinking water crisis took place in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China, following a massive bloom of the toxin producing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. in Lake Taihu, China's third largest freshwater lake. Taihu was the city's sole water supply, leaving approximately two million people without drinking water for at least a week. This cyanobacterial bloom event began two months earlier than previously documented for Microcystis blooms in Taihu. This was attributed to an unusually warm spring. The prevailing wind direction during this period caused the bloom to accumulate at the shoreline near the intake of the water plant. Water was diverted from the nearby Yangtze River in an effort to flush the lake of the bloom. However, this management action was counterproductive, because it produced a current which transported the bloom into the intake, exacerbating the drinking water contamination problem. The severity of this microcystin toxin containing bloom and the ensuing drinking water crisis were attributable to excessive nutrient enrichment; however, a multi-annual warming trend extended the bloom period and amplified its severity, and this was made worse by unanticipated negative impacts of water management. Long-term management must therefore consider both the human and climatic factors controlling these blooms and their impacts on water supply in this and other large lakes threatened by accelerating eutrophication.

  9. Hydrogeomorphic and Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality, Habitat, and Fish of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands represent a dynamic interface between coastal watersheds and the open lake. Compared to the adjacent lakes, these wetlands have generally warmer water, reduced wave energy, shallow bathymetry, higher productivity, and structurally complex vegetated h...

  10. The springs of Lake Pátzcuaro: chemistry, salt-balance, and implications for the water balance of the lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, James L.; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Garduno-Monroy, Victor H.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Pa??tzcuaro, the center of the ancient Tarascan civilization located in the Mexican altiplano west of the city of Morelia, has neither river input nor outflow. The relatively constant lake-salinity over the past centuries indicates the lake is in chemical steady state. Springs of the south shore constitute the primary visible input to the lake, so influx and discharge must be via sub-lacustrine ground water. The authors report on the chemistry and stable isotope composition of the springs, deeming them representative of ground-water input. The springs are dominated by Ca, Mg and Na, whereas the lake is dominated by Na. Combining these results with previously published precipitation/rainfall measurements on the lake, the authors calculate the chemical evolution from spring water to lake water, and also calculate a salt balance of the ground-water-lake system. Comparing Cl and ??18O compositions in the springs and lake water indicates that 75-80% of the spring water is lost evaporatively during evolution toward lake composition. During evaporation Ca and Mg are lost from the water by carbonate precipitation. Each liter of spring water discharging into the lake precipitates about 18.7 mg of CaCO3. Salt balance calculations indicate that ground water input to the lake is 85.9??106 m3/a and ground water discharge from the lake is 23.0??106 m3/a. Thus, the discharge is about 27% of the input, with the rest balanced by evaporation. A calculation of time to reach steady-state ab initio indicates that the Cl concentration of the present day lake would be reached in about 150 a. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ikaite precipitation by mixing of shoreline springs and lake water, Mono Lake, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Stine, S.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.; Stafford, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Metastable ikaite (CaCO3??6H2O) forms abundantly during winter months along the south shoreline of Mono Lake where shoreline springs mix with lake water. Ikaite precipitates because of its decreased solubility at low temperature and because of orthophosphate-ion inhibition of calcite and aragonite. During the spring some of the ikaite is transformed to anhydrous CaCO3 and is incorporated into tufa, but most is dispersed by wave action into the lake where it reacts to form gaylussite (Na2Ca(CO3)2?? 5H2O). Spring waters have low pH values, are dominantly Ca-Na-HCO3, have low radiocarbon activities, and are mixtures of deep-seated geothermal and cold groundwaters. Chemical modeling reveals that precipitation of CaCO3 can occur over a broad range of mixtures of spring and lake water with a maximum production occurring at 96% spring water and 4% lake water. Under these conditions all the Ca and a significant fraction of the CO3 of the precipitate is spring supplied. A radiocarbon age of 19,580 years obtained on a natural ikaite sample supports this conclusion. With the springs supplying a large and probably variable portion of the carbonate, and with apparent 14C age of the carbonate varying from spring to spring, tufa of similar actual antiquity may yield significantly different 14C dates, making tufa at this location unsuitable for absolute age dating by the radiocarbon method. ?? 1993.

  12. Fishery survey of U. S. waters of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1969-01-01

    Gill nets and trawls were fished by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries R/V Cisco during September 19-23, 1964, at several locations and depths in the offshore United States waters of Lake Ontario. Water temperatures were low (3.7-8.3 A?C) at all fishing stations except one (16.4 A?C). Supplementary data were provided by the Bureau's R/V Kaho in 1966. Alewives and smelt were common. Ciscoes were extremely scarce, but large; most of those caught were bloaters. Slimy sculpins were abundant, but no deepwater sculpins were caught. Yellow perch were scarce. Although the warm water species were inadequately sampled, trout-perch seemed to be abundant. Other species, all caught in small numbers, were lake trout, spottail shiners, burbot, threespine sticklebacks, and johnny darters from cold water and northern pike, lake chubs, white suckers, white bass, white perch, and rock bass from warm water.

  13. Water quality of Lake Tuscaloosa and streamflow and water quality of selected tributaries to Lake Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1982-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Lake Tuscaloosa, created in 1969 by the impoundment of North River, provides the primary water supply for Tuscaloosa, Alabama , and surrounding areas. This report describes the percent contribution of major tributaries to the mean inflow to the lake; water quality; and changes in water quality in the lake and selected tributaries. During base flow, about 60% of the total flow into Lake Tuscaloosa is contributed by Binion and Carroll Creeks, which drain only 22% of the Lake Tuscaloosa basin. Binion and Carroll Creek basins are underlain primarily by sand and gravel deposits of the Coker Formation. Mean inflow to the lake was 1,150 cu ft/sec during 1983, a wet year, and 450 cu ft/sec during 1985, a relatively dry year. More than 80% of the total inflow during both years was contributed by North River and Binion, Cripple, and Carroll Creeks. About 59% was contributed by North River during those years. Except for pH, sulfate, and dissolved and total recoverable iron and manganese, the water quality of the tributaries is generally within drinking water limits and acceptable for most uses. The water quality of Lake Tuscaloosa is generally within drinking water limits and acceptable for most uses. The maximum and median concentrations of sulfate increased every year at the dam from 1979 to 1985 (7.2 to 18 mg/L and 6.2 to 14 mg/L, respectively). The dissolved solids concentrations for water at the dam have varied (1979-86) from 27 to 43 mg/L; the sulfate, 5.2 to 18 mg/L; and the dissolved iron, 10 to 250 micrograms/L--all within the recommended drinking water limits. However, concentrations of dissolved manganese and total recoverable iron and manganese at the dam commonly exceeded the recommended drinking water limits. In November 1985, after the summer warmup and increase in biological activity, the water quality at five depth profiles sites on Lake Tuscaloosa was acceptable for most uses, generally. However, a dissolved oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L or less was

  14. Water quality of streams tributary to Lakes Superior and Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Jerome W.

    1968-01-01

    Water quality of streams tributary to Lakes Superior and Michigan was analyzed for 142 stations on 99 streams tributary to Lake Superior and 83 stations on 56 streams tributary to Lake Michigan during 1962-65. Concentrations of aluminum, copper, and iron were not affected greatly by flow or season. Magnesium, calcium, chlorides, total alkalinity, total hardness, and conductivity varied with the flow, temperature, and season; the lowest values were during the spring runoff and heavy rains, and the highest were during low water in late summer and the colder periods of winter. Concentrations of nitrate, silica, and sulfates were lowest in the spring and summer. Concentrations of tanninlike and ligninlike compounds were highest during the spring runoff and other high-water periods, and were lowest during freezeup when surface runoff was minimal. The pH values were highest from June to September and lowest during the spring runoff. Phenolphthalein alkalinity was detected primarily in the summer and coincided occasionally with low flows just before the spring thaw. Total hardness usually was lower in streams tributary to Lake Superior than in streams tributary to Lake Michigan. The total hardness was higher in the streams in Wisconsin than in the streams in Michigan along the west shore of Lake Michigan. It was lowest in the northernmost streams. The water quality of the streams in an area was related to the geological characteristics of the land.

  15. Trout Lake, Wisconsin: A water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets program site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2000-01-01

    The Trout Lake Watershed is in the Northern Highlands Lake District in north-central Wisconsin. The study area includes four subbasins with five lakes and two bog lakes. The objectives of the Trout Lake WEBB project are to (1) describe processes controlling water and solute fluxes in the Trout Lake watershed, (2) examine interactions among those processes and (3) improve the capability to predict changes in water and solute fluxes for a range of spatial and temporal scales (Elder and others, 1992).

  16. Gill net saturation by lake trout in Michigan waters of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Selgeby, James H.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted experimental fishing for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Michigan waters of Lake Superior to determine the importance of soak time on catch per effort (CPE) in numbers per kilometer of standard gill net. We modeled CPE as a nonlinear function of the number of nights between setting and lifting (soak time), in which the nets fill at a certain rate toward some maximum after which the nets cannot hold more fish. We found that lake trout CPE increased with soak time at a rate that varied with lake trout density toward a saturation level that was independent of lake trout density. The CPE values of nets soaked 2–5 nights divided by the CPE of nets soaked 1 night were significantly lower than would be expected had CPE increased as a linear function of the number of nights soaked. We derived a means for correcting gill-net CPE values for differing soak times to a common base of 1 night soaked. We concluded that it is inappropriate to assume lake trout catches in gill nets will increase in direct proportion to the number of nights soaked and recommend that CPE of lake trout in gill nets be corrected for soak time.

  17. Detecting acid precipitation impacts on lake water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftis, Jim C.; Taylor, Charles H.

    1989-09-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is planning to expand its long-term monitoring of lakes that are sensitive to acid deposition effects. Effective use of resources will require a careful definition of the statistical objectives of monitoring, a network design which balances spatial and temporal coverage, and a sound approach to data analysis. This study examines the monitoring objective of detecting trends in water quality for individual lakes and small groups of lakes. Appropriate methods of trend analysis are suggested, and the power of trend detection under seasonal (quarterly) sampling is compared to that of annual sampling. The effects of both temporal and spatial correlation on trend detection ability are described.

  18. Thermokarst lake waters across the permafrost zones of western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasypov, R. M.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Shirokova, L. S.

    2014-07-01

    This work describes the hydrochemical composition of thermokarst lake and pond ecosystems, which are observed in various sizes with different degrees of permafrost influence and are located in the northern part of western Siberia within the continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones. We analysed the elemental chemical composition of the lake waters relative to their surface areas (from 10 to 106 m2) and described the elemental composition of the thermokarst water body ecosystems in detail. We revealed significant correlations between the Fe, Al, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and various chemical elements across a latitude gradient covering approximately 900 km. Several groups of chemical elements that reflect the evolution of the studied water bodies were distinguished. Combining the data for the studied latitude profile with the information available in the current literature demonstrated that the average dissolved elemental concentrations in lakes with different areas depend specifically on the latitudinal position, which is presumably linked to (1) the elements leached from frozen peat, which is the main source of the solutes in thermokarst lakes, (2) marine atmospheric aerosol depositions, particularly near the sea border and (3) short-range industrial pollution by certain metals from the largest Russian Arctic smelter. We discuss the evolution of the chemical compositions observed in thermokarst lakes during their formation and drainage and predict the effect that changing the permafrost regime in western Siberia has on the hydrochemistry of the lakes.

  19. Consumptive Water Use in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    Great Lakes state agencies and organizations view understanding consumptive water use as a critical component in water-resource management. To assist them in developing a better understanding of the factors involved in consumptive use, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an inventory of consumptive-use coefficients for the Great Lakes Basin. This fact sheet highlights findings and data from a comprehensive report resulting from that inventory. This fact sheet includes information on water-use categories used to compile and organize consumptive-use coefficients, summary statistics for consumptive-use coefficients by category, and estimated water withdrawals and consumptive-use amounts for the Great Lakes States for 2000.

  20. Opportunistic fungi in lake water and fungal infections in associated human population in Dal Lake, Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Ganai, Bashir A; Lone, Bashir A

    2016-04-01

    Natural habitats of opportunistic fungal pathogens are outside of the host; therefore, it is critically important to understand their ecology and routes of transmission. In this study, we investigated the presence of human pathogenic opportunistic fungi in lake water and incidence of fungal infections in associated population in Kashmir, India. Six hundred forty water samples were taken on seasonal basis from a wide network of sampling stations of the lake for an extended period of two years for screening their occurrence. The samples were inoculated onto rose bengal agar, malt extract agar, potato dextrose agar and other specified culture media supplemented with Chloramphenicol and Streptomycin followed by incubation at 37 °C. All the samples were positive for fungi, which were later identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region aided by classical morphological culture techniques and physiological profiling. The whole process led to the isolation of sixteen species of opportunistic fungal pathogens belonging to genus Aspergillus, Candida, Penicillium, Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Mucor in decreasing order of prevalence. Furthermore, 20% population (n = 384) of Dal inhabitants was examined for possible fungal infections and it was observed that only 8.07% individuals were positive for fungal infections with 4.68% skin infection cases, 2.34% onychomycosis cases and 1.04% candidiasis cases. Scrapings from onychomycosis and candidiasis patients showed the presence of Aversicolor and Calbicans respectively, resembling exactly the strains isolated from the lake water. However, the skin infection was because of a dermatophyte not isolated for the lake water. Higher prevalence of infection (6.77%) was seen in people using lake water followed by a positive prevalence of 1.30% using tap water. The results of present study suggest that the lake inhabitants are at a greater risk of getting life threatening fungal diseases which may lead to

  1. Limnological and water-quality data from Wonder Lake, Chilchukabena Lake, and Lake Minchumina, Denali National Park and Preserve and surrounding area, Alaska, June 2006-August 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, D.A.; Arp, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Growing visitor traffic and resource use, as well as natural and anthropogenic land and climatic changes, can place increasing stress on lake ecosystems in Denali National Park and Preserve. Baseline data required to substantiate impact assessment in this sub-arctic region is sparse to non-existent. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a water-quality assessment of several large lakes in and around the Park from June 2006 to August 2008. Discrete water-quality samples, lake profiles of pH, specific conductivity, dissolved-oxygen concentration, water temperature, turbidity, and continuous-record temperature profile data were collected from Wonder Lake, Chilchukabena Lake, and Lake Minchumina. In addition, zooplankton, snow chemistry data, fecal coliform, and inflow/outflow water-quality samples also were collected from Wonder Lake.

  2. Analysis of the water balance of Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossent, J.; de Brabanter, W.; Bauwens, W.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Victoria is situated within an elevated plateau in the western part of Africa's Great Rift Valley and lies within the territory of three countries: Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. It is Africa's largest lake and the second widest fresh water lake in the world in terms of surface area. It is also the source of the longest branch of the River Nile, the White Nile. The lake's shallowness, limited river inflow, and large surface area relative to its volume make it vulnerable to climate changes and fluctuations of the water level. This affects the surrounding countries and their people a lot, especially in terms of their food supply and economy. The aim of this study was to get more information on the causes of these fluctuations by analysing the water balance of the lake for the period 1970-1974. It was based both on historical data and measurements and new calculations, and compared with previous studies (e.g. Suttcliffe and Parks, 1999). Precipitation and evaporation over the lake surface were calculated with the Thiessen Polygons method, using measurements from stations around the lake and on the islands. The total inflow of the lake is the sum of the contributions of twelve subbasins. One of these subcatchments, the Nzoia-catchment, was modeled with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), a physically based, semi-distributed river basin simulator, as a contribution to the development of a water balance model for Lake Victoria. To calculate the outflow at the Owen Falls Dam in Jinja (Uganda), gauge heights of the lake were used in combination with the "Agreed Curve" (the relationship between water level and flow that was set by the policy makers). As the lake is assumed to be a system with a closed mass balance, the combination of the variations in the above mentioned components resulted in changes of the lake's storage, leading to fluctuations of the water level. For the period 1970-1974 the calculated mean monthly evaporation is 133 mm, with a standard deviation

  3. GROUND WATER QUALITY SURROUNDING LAKE TEXOMA DURING DROUGHT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality data from 55 producing monitoring wells during drought conditions surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, was compared to assess the influence of drought on groundwater quality. The main water quality parameter measured was nitrate, an...

  4. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  5. Great Lakes nearshore-offshore: Distinct water quality regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared water quality of nearshore regions in the Laurentian Great Lakes to water quality in offshore regions. Sample sites for the nearshore region were from the US EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment and based on a criteria or sample-frame of within the 30-m depth co...

  6. Water-quality and Llake-stage data for Wisconsin Lakes, Water Year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Marsh, S.B.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2004 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 is called 'water year 2004.' The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake's watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published in another volume: 'Water Resources Data-Wisconsin, 2004.' Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available throught the World Wide Web on the Internet. The Wisconsin Water Science Center's home page is at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/. Information on the

  7. Water-quality reconnaissance of selected water-supply lakes in eastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Arruda, J.A.; Vahsholtz, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Data collected for 19 public water-supply lakes in eastern Kansas during spring-fall 1983 were statistically analyzed to describe relationships between water-quality constituents and lake and watershed physical characteristics. A large range was observed in mean concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, and chlorophyll a and in lake and watershed physical characteristics, such as age, surface area, watershed area, watershed-to-lake surface-area ratio, and average maximum depth. Pesticides were detected in 8 of the 19 lakes. Atrazine and Alachlor were the most commonly detected pesticides. Spearman rank-order correlation analyses showed possible relationships between mean concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, and chlorophyll a, and certain lake and watershed physical characteristics. Multiple-regression analysis produced significant relations between mean concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and percentage of watershed in protected cropland and age of lake (0.62 coefficient of determination), and between mean concentrations of total organic carbon and lake average maximum depth, lake-surface area, age of lake, and watershed-to-lake surface-area ratio (0.76 coefficient of determination). (USGS)

  8. Causes of declining survival of lake trout stocked in U.S. waters of Lake Superior in 1963-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Schram, Stephen T.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Selgeby, James H.; Taylor, William W.

    1996-01-01

    Survival of the 1963-1982 year-classes of stocked yearling lake trout Salvelinus namaycush declined significantly over time in Lake Superior. To investigate possible causes of this decline, a Ricker model of stock-recruitment was used to describe the catch per effort (CPE) of age-7 stocked lake trout in the Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior as functions of the numbers of yearlings stocked 6 years earlier (an index of density dependence), the density (CPE) of wild adult lake trout (an index of predation), and large-mesh (a?Y 114-mm stretch-measure) gill-net fishing effort (an index of fishing mortality). Declining CPE of stocked lake trout in Michigan and Wisconsin was significantly associated with increasing large-mesh gillnet fishing effort. Declining CPE of stocked lake trout in Minnesota was significantly associated with increasing density of wild lake trout. Declining survival of stocked lake trout may therefore have been caused by increased mortality in large-mesh gill-net fisheries in Michigan and Wisconsin, and by predation by wild lake trout that recently recolonized the Minnesota area. We recommend that experimental management be pursued to determine the relative importance of large-mesh gillnet fishing effort and of predation by wild lake trout on the survival of stocked lake trout in U.S. waters of Lake Superior.

  9. Ground-water movement and water quality in Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah, 1999-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, T.A.; Wright, S.J.; Stolp, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality data in Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah, were collected during August 1999 through August 2003. Water levels in Lake Point generally declined about 1 to 2 feet from July 2001 to July 2003, likely because of less-than-average precipitation. Ground water generally flows in two directions from the Oquirrh Mountains. One component flows north toward the regional topographic low, Great Salt Lake. The other component generally flows southwest toward a substantial spring complex, Factory/Dunne's Pond. This southwest component flows through a coarse gravel deposit believed to be a shoreline feature of historic Lake Bonneville. The dominant water-quality trend in Lake Point is an increase in dissolved-solids concentration with proximity to Great Salt Lake. The water type changes from calcium-bicarbonate adjacent to the Oquirrh Mountains to sodium-chloride with proximity to Great Salt Lake. Evaluation of chloride-bromide weight ratios indicates a mixture of fresher recharge waters with a brine similar to what currently exists in Great Salt Lake.

  10. Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  11. Lacustrine mollusc radiations in the Lake Malawi Basin: experiments in a natural laboratory for evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Damme, D.; Gautier, A.

    2013-09-01

    In terminal Pliocene-early Pleistocene times, part of the Malawi Basin was occupied by paleo-lake Chiwondo. Molluscan biostratigraphy situates this freshwater lake either in the East African wet phase between 2.7-2.4 Ma or that of 2.0-1.8 Ma. In-lake divergent evolution remained restricted to a few molluscan taxa and was very modest. The lacustrine Chiwondo fauna went extinct at the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern Lake Malawi malacofauna is depauperate and descends from ubiquistic southeast African taxa and some Malawi basin endemics that invaded the present lake after the Late Pleistocene mega-droughts. The Pleistocene aridity crises caused dramatic changes, affecting the malacofauna of all East African lakes. All lacustrine endemic faunas that had evolved in the Pliocene rift lakes, such as paleo-lake Chiwondo, became extinct. In Lake Tanganyika, the freshwater ecosystem did not crash as in other lakes, but the environmental changes were sufficiently important to trigger a vast radiation. All African endemic lacustrine molluscan clades that are the result of in-lake divergence are hence geologically young, including the vast Lavigeria clade in Lake Tanganyika (ca. 43 species).

  12. A simplified physically-based model to calculate surface water temperature of lakes from air temperature in climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.

    2012-12-01

    Modifications of water temperature are crucial for the ecology of lakes, but long-term analyses are not usually able to provide reliable estimations. This is particularly true for climate change studies based on Global Circulation Models, whose mesh size is normally too coarse for explicitly including even some of the biggest lakes on Earth. On the other hand, modeled predictions of air temperature changes are more reliable, and long-term, high-resolution air temperature observational datasets are more available than water temperature measurements. For these reasons, air temperature series are often used to obtain some information about the surface temperature of water bodies. In order to do that, it is common to exploit regression models, but they are questionable especially when it is necessary to extrapolate current trends beyond maximum (or minimum) measured temperatures. Moreover, water temperature is influenced by a variety of processes of heat exchange across the lake surface and by the thermal inertia of the water mass, which also causes an annual hysteresis cycle between air and water temperatures that is hard to consider in regressions. In this work we propose a simplified, physically-based model for the estimation of the epilimnetic temperature in lakes. Starting from the zero-dimensional heat budget, we derive a simplified first-order differential equation for water temperature, primarily forced by a seasonally varying external term (mainly related to solar radiation) and an exchange term explicitly depending on the difference between air and water temperatures. Assuming annual sinusoidal cycles of the main heat flux components at the atmosphere-lake interface, eight parameters (some of them can be disregarded, though) are identified, which can be calibrated if two temporal series of air and water temperature are available. We note that such a calibration is supported by the physical interpretation of the parameters, which provide good initial

  13. Remote sensing of Great Lakes water quality: Case studies of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron and western Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budd, Judith Wells

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have initiated ecosystem-level water quality changes in the Great Lakes. Increased water clarity, as well as decreased chlorophyll abundances, have fundamentally altered the optical characteristics of shallow coastal basins and bays. The occurrence of major blooms of blue-green algae (predominantly Microcystis) in western Lake Erie and Saginaw Bay have also affected water clarity. Whereas in situ water quality studies rely on point data from shipboard sampling, laboratory experiments and enclosures, the scale and magnitude of Dreissena and Microcystis effects on surface water quality suggest an additional research application that involves satellite remote sensing. My thesis is that remote sensing technology will facilitate timely and cost-effective analyses of Dreissena and Microcystis effects on water quality. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images estimate sea surface temperatures and reflectances in Saginaw Bay and western Lake Erie. The thermal bands document surface water mass movements over zebra mussel beds, whereas red and near-infrared channels estimate total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth. The thermal study traces thermal bar formation and movement offshore and the seasonal development of the warm coastal nearshore zone (Chapter 2). AVHRR reflectance imagery of Saginaw Bay from 1987 to 1993 documents the historical impact of Dreissena filtering on water quality variables (Chapter 3). A mixed general linear model describes seasonal and interannual changes in water quality before and after zebra mussels were established in Saginaw Bay. Imagery of extensive surface blooms of the toxic blue-green algae Microcystis in western Lake Erie illustrates AVHRR's ability to resolve spatial patterns (Chapter 4). Mean reflectances in the Maumee Bay region doubled from 2.0 percent in early August to 4.5 percent during mid-September, when the bloom was at its peak. Estimates of bloom spatial extent ranged from

  14. Water footprint concept for a sustainable water resources management in Urmia Lake basin, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, Anahita; Jarihani, Ben; Rezaie, Hossein; Aligholiniya, Tohid; Rasouli, Negar

    2015-04-01

    The fast shrinkage of Urmia Lake in West Azerbaijan, Iran is one of the most important environmental change hotspots. The dramatic water level reduction (up to 6 meters) has influential environmental, socio-economic and health impacts on Urmia plain and its habitants. The decline is generally blamed on a combination of drought, increased water diversion for irrigated agriculture within the lake's watershed and land use mismanagement. The Urmia Lake sub basins are the agricultural cores of the region and the agricultural activities are the major water consuming sections of the basin. Land use changes and mismanagement in the land use decisions and policies is one of the most important factors in lake shrinkage in recent decades. Fresh water is the main source of water for agricultural usages in the basin. So defining a more low water consuming land use pattern will put less pressure on limited water resources. The above mentioned fact in this study has been assessed through water footprint concept. The water footprint concept (as a quantitative measure showing the appropriation of natural resources) is a comprehensive indicator that can have a crucial role in efficient land use management. In order to evaluate the water use patterns, the water footprint of wheat (as a traditional crop) and apple (recently most popular) have been compared and the results have been discussed in the aspect of the impacts on Lake Urmia demands and its dramatic drying process. Results showed that, higher blue water consumption in such a regions that have severe blue water scarcity, is a major issue and the water consuming pattern must be modified to meet the lake demands. Lower blue water consumption through regionalizing crops for each area is an efficient solution to meet lake demands and consume lower amounts of blue water. So the proper land use practices can be an appropriate method to rescue the lake in a long time period.

  15. Discharge, water temperature, and selected meteorological data for Vancouver Lake, Vancouver, Washington, water years 2011-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, James R.; Marshall, Cameron A.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey partnered with the Vancouver Lake Watershed Partnership in a 2-year intensive study to quantify the movement of water and nutrients through Vancouver Lake in Vancouver, Washington. This report is intended to assist the Vancouver Lake Watershed Partnership in evaluating potential courses of action to mitigate seasonally driven blooms of harmful cyanobacteria and to improve overall water quality of the lake. This report contains stream discharge, lake water temperature, and selected meteorological data for water years 2011, 2012, and 2013 that were used to develop the water and nutrient budgets for the lake.

  16. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined...

  17. Summary of surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Cates, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    Available surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water-withdrawal data for the Spirit Lake Reservation were summarized. The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies. Although the quality of surface water on the reservation generally is satisfactory, no surface-water sources are used for consumable water supplies. Ground water on the reservation is of sufficient quality for most uses. The Tokio and Warwick aquifers have better overall water quality than the Spiritwood aquifer. Water from the Spiritwood aquifer is used mostly for irrigation. The Warwick aquifer provides most of the consumable water for the reservation and for the city of Devils Lake. Annual water withdrawals from the Warwick aquifer by the Spirit Lake Nation ranged from 71 million gallons to 122 million gallons during 2000-04.

  18. Lake water quality: Chapter 4 in A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tietjen, Todd; Holdren, G. Chris; Rosen, Michael R.; Veley, Ronald J.; Moran, Michael J.; Vanderford, Brett; Wong, Wai Hing; Drury, Douglas D.

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of the availability and quality of water in Lake Mead, it has become one of the most intensely sampled and studied bodies of water in the United States. As a result, data are available from sampling stations across the lake (fig. 4-1 and see U.S. Geological Survey Automated Water-Quality Platforms) to provide information on past and current (2012) water-quality conditions and on invasive species that influence—and are affected by—water quality. Water quality in Lakes Mead and Mohave generally exceeds standards set by the State of Nevada to protect water supplies for public uses: drinking water, aquatic ecosystem health, recreation, or agricultural irrigation. In comparison to other reservoirs studied by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for a national lake assessment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010), Lake Mead is well within the highest or ‘good’ category for recreation and aquatic health (see U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Lakes Assessment and Lake Mead for more details). While a small part of the lake, particularly Las Vegas Bay, is locally influenced by runoff from urbanized tributaries such as Las Vegas Wash, contaminant loading in the lake as a whole is low compared to other reservoirs in the nation, which are influenced by runoff from more heavily urbanized watersheds (Rosen and Van Metre, 2010).

  19. Sediment Transport and Water Quality Model of Cedar Lake, Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, S. C.; Jones, C. A.; Roberts, J. D.; Ahlmann, M.; Bucaro, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    The EPA-supported Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code, EFDC, is used to model hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and water quality in coastal regions, estuaries, rivers, and lakes. However, the empirical formulations used for sediment transport are not always adequate to accurately characterize cohesive sediment erosion and transport. New sediment transport subroutines have been incorporated into EFDC and the new model is called SNL-EFDC. The updated model provides an improved, coupled hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and water quality framework. The newly incorporated sediment transport subroutines facilitate direct use of measured erosion rate data from the Sediment Erosion with Depth Flume (SEDflume). Erosion rates are included as functions of both depth within the sediment bed and applied shear stresses. This bypasses problems associated with empirical erosion formulations often based on disaggregated particle size. Restoration alternatives are under consideration for Cedar Lake in Indiana and SNL-EFDC models its hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and water quality. The water quality model as implemented on Cedar Lake tracks algae, oxygen, temperature, carbon, phosphorous, and nitrogen kinetics, as well as, sediment bed diagenesis. Environmental conditions, wind, temperature, rainfall, and sunlight, were based on data collected in 2005. Tributary loading was modeled using L-THIA and provided influxes of water, nutrients (phosphorous, nitrogen, etc.), and sediments. The calibrated model was used to simulate a nine month period from March to November 2005. Results suggest that the model simulates sediments transport and associated water quality correctly. The calibrated model is being used to evaluate several restoration measures throughout the lake and watershed and their effect on water quality. Because Cedar Lake is a nitrogen limited lake, changes in the level of eutrophication from each measure are being tracked by calculating the Carlson trophic state index

  20. Microbial water quality of recreational lakes near Tbilisi, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Jaiani, Ekaterine; Kokashvili, Tamar; Mitaishvili, Nino; Elbakidze, Tinantin; Janelidze, Nino; Lashkhi, Nino; Kalandadze, Rusudan; Mikashavidze, Eteri; Natroshvili, Gulnara; Whitehouse, Chris A; Huq, Anwar; Tediashvili, Marina

    2013-06-01

    Microbial safety of recreational water is one of the major human public health issues in developing countries. Three water bodies, the Tbilisi Sea, Kumisi and Lisi lakes, in the South Caucasus region near Tbilisi, Georgia, were monitored in 2006-2009 to determine microbiological quality using standard methods. Microbial pollution indicators were determined in parallel with phytoplankton abundance and measurement of a number of physical-chemical parameters. Kumisi Lake, a brackish water body in an active agricultural area, appeared to be the most polluted, whereas the Tbilisi Sea, a freshwater reservoir was the least polluted. High values for fecal indicators in all three lakes in summer and early autumn were revealed. In our study, total enterococci counts (TEC) appeared to be a better indicator than either fecal or total coliform counts for the evaluation of fresh and brackish microbial water quality. We found significant correlation between total Vibrio counts and TEC for all three water bodies. Prevalence of somatic coliphages and V. cholerae-specific phages as additional water pollution indicator significantly correlated with abundance of the host bacteria. Particular phytoplankton groups in the lakes responded to the changes of fecal indicators; however, no correlation was observed between dominant zooplankton taxonomic groups and microbial parameters. PMID:23708580

  1. Determining lake surface water temperatures worldwide using a tuned one-dimensional lake model (FLake, v1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layden, Aisling; MacCallum, Stuart N.; Merchant, Christopher J.

    2016-06-01

    A tuning method for FLake, a one-dimensional (1-D) freshwater lake model, is applied for the individual tuning of 244 globally distributed large lakes using observed lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) derived from along-track scanning radiometers (ATSRs). The model, which was tuned using only three lake properties (lake depth, snow and ice albedo and light extinction coefficient), substantially improves the measured mean differences in various features of the LSWT annual cycle, including the LSWTs of saline and high altitude lakes, when compared to the observed LSWTs. Lakes whose lake-mean LSWT persists below 1 °C for part of the annual cycle are considered to be seasonally ice-covered. For trial seasonally ice-covered lakes (21 lakes), the daily mean and standard deviation (2σ) of absolute differences between the modelled and observed LSWTs are reduced from 3.07 °C ± 2.25 °C to 0.84 °C ± 0.51 °C by tuning the model. For all other trial lakes (14 non-ice-covered lakes), the improvement is from 3.55 °C ± 3.20 °C to 0.96 °C ± 0.63 °C. The post tuning results for the 35 trial lakes (21 seasonally ice-covered lakes and 14 non-ice-covered lakes) are highly representative of the post-tuning results of the 244 lakes. For the 21 seasonally ice-covered lakes, the modelled response of the summer LSWTs to changes in snow and ice albedo is found to be statistically related to lake depth and latitude, which together explain 0.50 (R2adj, p = 0.001) of the inter-lake variance in summer LSWTs. Lake depth alone explains 0.35 (p = 0.003) of the variance. Lake characteristic information (snow and ice albedo and light extinction coefficient) is not available for many lakes. The approach taken to tune the model, bypasses the need to acquire detailed lake characteristic values. Furthermore, the tuned values for lake depth, snow and ice albedo and light extinction coefficient for the 244 lakes provide some guidance on improving FLake LSWT modelling.

  2. Water color affects the stratification, surface temperature, heat content, and mean epilimnetic irradiance of small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of water color on lake stratification, mean epilimnetic irradiance, and lake temperature dynamics were examined in small, north-temperate lakes that differed widely in water color (1.5-19.8 m -1). Among these lakes, colored lakes differed from clear lakes in the following ways: (i) the epilimnia were shallower and colder, and mean epilimnetic irradiance was reduced; (ii) the diel temperature cycles were more pronounced; (iii) whole-lake heat accumulation during stratification was reduced. The depth of the epilimnion ranged from 2.5 m in the clearest lake to 0.75 m in the most colored lake, and 91% of the variation in epilimnetic depth was explained by water color. Summer mean morning epilimnetic temperature was ???2??C cooler in the most colored lake compared with the clearest lake. In clear lakes, the diel temperature range (1.4 ?? 0.7??C) was significantly (p = 0.01) less than that in the most colored lake (2.1 ?? 1.0??C). Change in whole-lake heat content was negatively correlated with water color. Increasing water color decreased light penetration more than thermocline depth, leading to reduced mean epilimnetic irradiance in the colored lakes. Thus, in these small lakes, water color significantly affected temperature, thermocline depth, and light climate. ?? 2006 NRC.

  3. Effects of conservation reserve program on runoff and lake water quality in an oxbow lake watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sediment and its associated pollutants entering a water body can be destructive to the ecological health of the system. Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to reduce these pollutants, but understanding the most effective practices is difficult. A case study of Beasley Lake Watershed, typica...

  4. The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement with an emphasis on annex 4 nutrients -and Lake Erie

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented will be an overview of the Great Lakes Water Quality Act of 2012 including a general description of the Annexes and the new Binational Governance. The talk will focus on the Annex 4 Nutrients Subcommittee and the Objectives and Targets Task Team efforts that have been ...

  5. Numerical methods for assessing water quality in lakes and reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mahamah, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    Water quality models are used as tools for predicting both short-term and long-term trends in water quality. They are generally classified into two groups based on the degree of empiricism. The two groups consists of the purely empirical types known as black-box models and the theoretical types called ecosystem models. This dissertation deals with both types of water quality models. The first part deals with empirical phosphorus models. The theory behind this class of models is discussed, leading to the development of an empirical phosphorus model using data from 79 western US lakes. A new approach to trophic state classification is introduced. The data used for the model was obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency National Eutrophication Study (EPA-NES) of western US lakes. The second portion of the dissertation discusses the development of an ecosystem model for culturally eutrophic Liberty Lake situated in eastern Washington State. The model is capable of simulating chlorophyll-a, phosphorus, and nitrogen levels in the lake on a weekly basis. For computing sediment release rates of phosphorus and nitrogen, equations based on laboratory bench-top studies using sediment samples from Liberty Lake are used. The model is used to simulate certain hypothetical nutrient control techniques such as phosphorus flushing, precipitation, and diversion.

  6. Measurement of Mercury Methylation in Lake Water and Sediment Samples

    PubMed Central

    Furutani, Akira; Rudd, John W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Biological mercury methylation was assayed by a new radiochemical technique in the water column and sediments of a mercury-contaminated lake. In 24 weeks during 1979, there were three episodes of methylating activity in surface floc and in water, each lasting 3 to 5 weeks. Periods of methylation in the water column coincided with surface sediment methylation and appeared to be related to overall microbial activity. Mercury was actively methylated in the presence of bound sulfide. PMID:16345649

  7. Hydrology, water quality, and phosphorus loading of Kirby Lake, Barron County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, William J.; Robertson, Dale M.

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, residents near Kirby Lake, located about five miles northwest of Cumberland, in Barron County, Wisconsin, formed the Kirby Lake Management District. The Lake District immediately began to gather information needed for the preparation of a comprehensive lake-management plan that would be used to protect the natural and recreational assets of the lake. The Lake District completed a land-use inventory of the watershed and an evaluation of available lake water-quality data. The land-use data were used to assess the potential contribution of nutrients to the lake from the watershed. The evaluation of lake water-quality data, which were collected as part of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) Self-Help Monitoring Program, indicated the lake has relatively good water quality. Before a comprehensive lake-management plan could be prepared, however, a better understanding of several aspects of the lake and its surroundings was needed. To address those aspects including the definition of the lake's hydrology and the principal sources of nutrients, and the relation of the lake's water quality to nutrient loading the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lake District and the WDNR (through a Lake Management Planning Grant), conducted a study of Kirby Lake and its watershed. This Fact Sheet presents the results of that study.

  8. Reduction of Waste Water in Erhai Lake Based on MIKE21 Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changjun; Liang, Qinag; Yan, Feng; Hao, Wenlong

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the ecological water environment in Erhai Lake, different monitoring sections were set to research the change of hydrodynamics and water quality. According to the measured data, MIKE21 Ecolab, the water quality simulation software developed by DHI, is applied to simulate the water quality in Erhai Lake. The hydrodynamics model coupled with water quality is established by MIKE21FM software to simulate the current situation of Erhai Lake. Then through the comparison with the monitoring data, the model parameters are calibrated and the simulation results are verified. Based on this, water quality is simulated by the two-dimensional hydrodynamics and water quality coupled model. The results indicate that the level of water quality in the north and south of lake is level III, while in the center of lake, the water quality is level II. Finally, the water environment capacity and total emmision reduction of pollutants are filtered to give some guidance for the water resources management and effective utilization in the Erhai Lake. PMID:23997684

  9. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of stable water isotopes in a large and shallow lake.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Wen, Xuefa; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Qitao; Xu, Jingzheng; Cao, Chang; Xu, Jiaping; Hu, Cheng; Shen, Jing; Liu, Shoudong; Lee, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    Stable isotopic compositions of lake water provide additional information on hydrological, meteorological and paleoclimate processes. In this study, lake water isotopic compositions were measured for more than three years in Lake Taihu, a large and shallow lake in southern China, to investigate the isotopic spatial and seasonal variations. The results indicated that (1) the whole-lake mean δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of the lake water varied seasonally from -48.4 ± 5.8 to -25.1 ± 3.2 ‰ and from -6.5 ± 0.9 to -3.5 ± 0.8 ‰, respectively, (2) the spatial pattern of the lake water isotopic compositions was controlled by the direction of water flow and not by local evaporation rate, and (3) using a one-site isotopic measurement to represent the whole-lake mean may result in unreasonable estimates of the isotopic composition of lake evaporation and the lake water residence time in poorly mixed lakes. The original data, documented here as an online supplement, provides a good reference for testing sensitivity of lake water budget to various isotopic sampling strategies. We propose that detailed spatial measurement of lake water isotopic compositions provides a good proxy for water movement and pollutant and alga transports, especially over big lakes. PMID:26983027

  10. Water quality studies: Hartwell lake 1992 summary report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huffstetler, C.J.; Carroll, J.H.; Jabour, W.E.

    1993-10-01

    This report documents the results of comprehensive water quality studies performed in Hartwell Lake (HW) during the period January through December 1992. Presented in this report are summaries and comparisons of water quality conditions observed during monthly in situ sampling trips and biannual chemical sampling trips within the main stem and two major embayments on Hartwell Lake. The onset of thermal stratification began in Hartwell Lake during early March and by mid-April, extensive stratification was present from the headwaters of each major embayment to the forebay. Anoxic conditions were observed in the middle reaches of the Seneca and Tugaloo Rivers during the July sampling trip. The greatest concentrations of chemical constituents within the two embayments were also recorded during the mid-July sampling period. By mid-October, stratification in the upstream regions had diminished due to normal seasonal cooling, but persisted in the deeper waters of the forebay until early November. Intensive physicochemical sampling during July, revealed increased concentrations of specific nutrients and organic carbons normally associated with anoxic conditions in the bottom waters of an embayment. Dissolved oxygen, Savannah River, Lake Hartwell, Water quality, Limnology.

  11. Water Quality and Hydrology of Silver Lake, Barron County, Wisconsin, With Special Emphasis on Responses of a Terminal Lake to Changes in Phosphorus Loading and Water Level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2009-01-01

    Silver Lake is typically an oligotrophic-to-mesotrophic, soft-water, terminal lake in northwestern Wisconsin. A terminal lake is a closed-basin lake with surface-water inflows but no surface-water outflows to other water bodies. After several years with above-normal precipitation, very high water levels caused flooding of several buildings near the lake and erosion of soil around much of the shoreline, which has been associated with a degradation in water quality (increased phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations and decreased water clarity). To gain a better understanding of what caused the very high water levels and degradation in water quality and collect information to better understand the lake and protect it from future degradation, the U.S. Geological Survey did a detailed study from 2004 to 2008. This report describes results of the study; specifically, lake-water quality, historical changes in water level, water and phosphorus budgets for the two years monitored in the study, results of model simulations that demonstrate how changes in phosphorus inputs affect lake-water quality, and the relative importance of changes in hydrology and changes in the watershed to the water quality of the lake. From 1987 to about 1996, water quality in Silver Lake was relatively stable. Since 1996, however, summer average total phosphorus concentrations increased from about 0.008 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to 0.018 mg/L in 2003, before decreasing to 0.011 mg/L in 2008. From 1996 to 2003, Secchi depths decreased from about 14 to 7.4 feet, before increasing to about 19 feet in 2008. Therefore, Silver Lake is typically classified as oligotrophic to mesotrophic; however, during 2002-4, the lake was classified as mesotrophic to eutrophic. Because productivity in Silver Lake is limited by phosphorus, phosphorus budgets for the lake were constructed for monitoring years 2005 and 2006. The average annual input of phosphorus was 216 pounds: 78 percent from tributary and

  12. Unexpected response of high Alpine Lake waters to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Thies, Hansjörg; Nickus, Ulrike; Mair, Volkmar; Tessadri, Richard; Tait, Danilo; Thaler, Bertha; Psenner, Roland

    2007-11-01

    Over the past two decades, we have observed a substantial rise in solute concentration at two remote high mountain lakes in catchments of metamorphic rocks in the European Alps. At Rasass See, the electrical conductivity increased 18-fold. Unexpectedly high nickel concentrations at Rasass See, which exceeded the limit in drinking water by more than 1 order of magnitude, cannot be related to catchment geology. We attribute these changes in lake water quality to solute release from the ice of an active rock glacier in the catchment as a response to climate warming. Similar processes occurred at the higher elevation lake Schwarzsee ob Sölden, where electrical conductivity has risen 3-fold during the past two decades. PMID:18044521

  13. Unexpected response of high Alpine Lake waters to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Thies, Hansjörg; Nickus, Ulrike; Mair, Volkmar; Tessadri, Richard; Tait, Danilo; Thaler, Bertha; Psenner, Roland

    2007-11-01

    Over the past two decades, we have observed a substantial rise in solute concentration at two remote high mountain lakes in catchments of metamorphic rocks in the European Alps. At Rasass See, the electrical conductivity increased 18-fold. Unexpectedly high nickel concentrations at Rasass See, which exceeded the limit in drinking water by more than 1 order of magnitude, cannot be related to catchment geology. We attribute these changes in lake water quality to solute release from the ice of an active rock glacier in the catchment as a response to climate warming. Similar processes occurred at the higher elevation lake Schwarzsee ob Sölden, where electrical conductivity has risen 3-fold during the past two decades.

  14. Biotic and abiotic factors related to lake herring recruitment in the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior, 1984-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoff, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Superior lake herring (Coregonus artedi) recruitment to 13-14 months of age in the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior varied by a factor of 5,233 during 1984-1998. Management agencies have sought models that accurately predict recruitment, but no satisfactory model had previously been developed. Lake herring recruitment was modeled to determine which factors most explained recruitment variability. The Ricker stock-recruitment model derived from only the paired stock and recruit data explained 35% of the variability in the recruitment data. The functional relationship that explained the greatest amount of recruitment variation (93%) included lake herring stock size, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population size, slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) biomass, the interaction of mean daily wind speed in April (month of hatch) and lake herring stock size, and mean air temperature in April (when lake herring are 12-months old). Model results were interpreted to mean that lake herring recruitment was affected negatively by: slimy sculpin predation on lake herring ova; predation on age-0 lake herring by lake trout; and adult cannibalism on lake herring larvae, which was reduced by increased wind speed. April temperature was the variable that explained the least amount of variability in recruitment, but lake herring recruitment was positively affected by a warm April, which shortened winter and apparently reduced first-winter mortality. Stock size caused compensatory, density-dependent mortality on lake herring recruits. Management efforts appear best targeted at stock size protection, and empirical data implies that stock size in the Wisconsin waters of the lake should be maintained at 2.1-15.0 adults/ha in spring, bottom-trawl surveys.

  15. Depressions and other lake-floor morphologic features in deep water, southern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Foster, D.S.; Harrison, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    The most common features are subcircular depressions, commonly compound, that are irregularly distributed across the lake floor. The depressions are most common in the southern basin of the lake where lacustrine sediments are more than a few meters thick, corresponding to water depths greater than about 90 m. We have divided the depressions into three types on the basis of their internal structure seen in seismic-reflection profiles. The depressions show varying degrees of muting, ranging from fresh to completely buried, suggesting a range in the time of their formation. The origin of the depressions is problematic, but their structure suggests collapse and(or) subsidence. -from Authors

  16. Microbial Metabolic Activity and Bioavailability of Dissolved Organic Matter Under the Impact of Intense UV Radiation in Pony Lake, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieser, M.; Foreman, C. M.; McKnight, D. M.; Miller, P. L.; Chin, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Pony Lake is a saline and hypereutrophic coastal pond located on Cape Royds in the McMurdo Sound area of Antarctica. This shallow lake is ice-covered except in midsummer, when strong winds typically cause thorough mixing of the water column. The source of water appears to be accumulated snow; water is lost by ablation of the ice cover and evaporation of lake water in midsummer. In the west the pond is bordered by an Adelie penguin rookery. Previous studies have shown that Pony Lake can have very high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (~ 100 mg C liter -1). Furthermore, Pony Lake is unique because it lacks terrestrial carbon inputs in the watershed, which makes this an excellent example of a system containing autochthonous microbially (algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria and viruses) derived organic matter. From an ecological perspective dissolved organic matter (DOM) acts as a carbon source for microorganisms, absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation, and can participate in biogeochemical redox reactions, whereas different fractions and chemical characteristics influence the bioavailability and chemical reactivity of DOM in aquatic ecosystems. While the DOM concentration in Pony Lake is high, the percentage of DOC accounted for by fulvics acid is low, as is observed in other lakes with algal derived DOC sources. Algal derived fulvic acids are yellowish in color, and absorb light to a lesser extend compared to terrestrially derived fulvic acids. Fulvic acids from Pony Lake are enriched with nitrogen. Over two field seasons we have investigated the influence of photolytic processes on the microbial utilization of DOM from Pony Lake, Antarctica. We have determined that the intense ultraviolet radiation in Antarctica rapidly photo-bleaches DOM, resulting in the loss of UV absorbing compounds, and rendering fractions of the DOM pool less biologically available to microbes. We monitored microbial community structure, abundance and primary and secondary production

  17. Reconnaissance of water quality of Lake Henry and Lake Meredith Reservoir, Crowley County, Southeastern Colorado, April-October 1987. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    The report describes the water-quality characteristics of Lake Henry and Lake Meredith, Reservoir and the comparison between the characteristics and the water-quality standards established for these reservoirs. Measurements of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and light transparency are reported for numerous sites in each lake. In addition, analyses of samples collected for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), major chemical constituents, trace elements, phytoplankton densities, and chlorophyll a concentrations in Lake Henry and Lake Meredith are included in the report.

  18. Impacts of population growth and economic development on water quality of a lake: case study of Lake Victoria Kenya water.

    PubMed

    Juma, Dauglas Wafula; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic-induced water quality pollution is a major environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems today. As a result of this, eutrophication of lakes occurs. Population and economic development are key drivers of water resource pollution. To evaluate how growth in the riparian population and in the gross domestic product (GDP) with unplanned development affects the water quality of the lake, this paper evaluates Lake Victoria Kenyan waters basin. Waters quality data between 1990 and 2012 were analyzed along with reviews of published literature, papers, and reports. The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), soluble phosphorus (PO4-P), chlorophyll a, and Secchi transparencies were evaluated as they are key water quality indicators. The NO3-N increased from 10 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 98 μg 1(-1) in 2008, while PO4-P increased from 4 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 57 μg l(-1) in 2008. The population and economic growth of Kenya are increasing with both having minimums in 1990 of 24.143 million people and 12.18 billion US dollars, to maximums in 2010 of 39.742 million people and 32.163 billion US dollars, respectively. A Secchi transparency is reducing with time, indicating an increasing pollution. This was confirmed by an increase in aquatic vegetation using an analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of 2000 and 2012 of Kenyan waters. This study found that increasing population and GDP increases pollution discharge thus polluting lakes. One of major factors causing lake water pollution is the unplanned or poor waste management policy and service.

  19. Human land uses enhance sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes primarily by influencing lake water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Yao, L.; Wang, Z.; Xiong, Z.; Liu, G.

    2015-10-01

    Sediment denitrification in lakes alleviates the effects of eutrophication through the removal of nitrogen to the atmosphere as N2O and N2. However, N2O contributes notably to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Human land uses (e.g. agricultural and urban areas) strongly affect lake water quality and sediment characteristics, which, in turn, may regulate lake sediment denitrification and N2O production. In this study, we investigated sediment denitrification and N2O production and their relationships to within-lake variables and watershed land uses in 20 lakes from the Yangtze River basin in China. The results indicated that both lake water quality and sediment characteristics were significantly influenced by watershed land uses. N2O production rates increased with increasing background denitrification rates. Background denitrification and N2O production rates were positively related to water nitrogen concentrations but were not significantly correlated with sediment characteristics and plant community structure. A significant positive relationship was observed between background denitrification rate and percentage of human-dominated land uses (HDL) in watersheds. Structural equation modelling revealed that the indirect effects of HDL on sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes were mediated primarily through lake water quality. Our findings also suggest that although sediments in Yangtze lakes can remove large quantities of nitrogen through denitrification, they may also be an important source of N2O, especially in lakes with high nitrogen content.

  20. A Water Balance Model for assessing Hydro Climatic Variability in Tropical Lake Systems: Application to Lake Babati and Lake Emakat, Nothern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pericles Mbanguka, Rene; Girons Lopez, Marc; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2013-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of lake hydrology is important to enhance the interpretation of information on past climatic variations retained in tropical lakes as well as to investigate the effect of future climate conditions on lake ecosystems. In this study, a lumped water balance model is developed to describe historical lake water levels and to investigate the impacts of hydro-climatological changes on Lake Emakat and Lake Babati, two closed tropical lakes in Northern Tanzania (East Africa). The model concept is based on maintaining the water mass balance of the lake system, which is simplified into three main modules: the lake, its catchment area and the connected groundwater reservoir. Water mass exchanges with the atmosphere occur through precipitation, the main input, and evaporation, calculated from meteorological variables using two different energy balance equations. The model also integrates lake and groundwater interaction, by letting the lake water surface balance with the water table in the surrounding groundwater reservoir after every time step. A FORTRAN code is used to solve the water balance equation on a year time step and give the lake volume change resulting from meteorological inputs. The associated lake surface area and lake level are then determined from a depth-volume-area relationship developed from a high resolution bathymetric and topographical maps of the lake and its catchment. The model parameters were calibrated using available meteorological data and corresponding lake level records. A sensitivity study to assess the relative importance of different hydro-meteorological parameters on the model response indicates that changes in cloud fraction have the largest impact on evaporation, the most important component of the water mass balance. This parameter, therefore, proved to be one of the ultimate control factors of the lakes water balance. The model application to Lake Emakat suggests that precipitation and cloud fraction changes

  1. Assessments of Water Quality in Mississippi Delta Lake Watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes watershed scale research by USDA-ARS National Sedimentation Laboratory scientists on the effects of conservation management on water quality and ecology in oxbow lakes of the Mississippi Delta Region, USA. The Mississippi Delta Region is located in the central portion of the U...

  2. ARSENIC CYCLING WITHIN THE WATER COLUMN OF A SMALL LAKE RECEIVING CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER DISCHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of arsenic discharged from contaminated ground water to a small, shallow lake at a hazardous waste site is controlled, in part, by the rate of ferrous iron oxidation-precipitation and arsenic sorption occurring near the lake chemocline. Laboratory experiments were condu...

  3. Determining lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) worldwide using a tuned 1-dimensional lake model (FLake, v1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layden, A.; MacCallum, S.; Merchant, C.

    2015-10-01

    FLake, a 1-dimensional freshwater lake model, is tuned for 244 globally distributed large lakes using lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) derived from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs). The model, tuned using only 3 lake properties; lake depth, albedo (snow and ice) and light extinction co-efficient, substantially improves the measured biases in various features of the LSWT annual cycle, including the LSWTs of saline and high altitude lakes. The daily mean absolute differences (MAD) and the spread of differences (±2 standard deviations) across the trial seasonally ice covered lakes (lakes with a lake-mean LSWT remaining below 1 °C for part of the annual cycle) is reduced from 3.01± 2.25 °C (pre-tuning) to 0.84 ± 0.51 °C (post-tuning). For non-seasonally ice-covered trial lakes (lakes with a lake-mean LSWT remaining above 1 °C throughout its annual cycle), the average daily mean absolute difference (MAD) is reduced from 3.55 ± 3.20 °C to 0.96 ± 0.63 °C. The post tuning results for the trial lakes (35 lakes) are highly representative of the post tuning results of the 244 lakes. The sensitivity of the summer LSWTs of deeper lakes to changes in the timing of ice-off is demonstrated. The modelled summer LSWT response to changes in ice-off timing is found to be strongly affected by lake depth and latitude, explaining 0.50 (R2adj, p = 0.001) of the inter-lake variance in summer LSWTs. Lake depth alone explains 0.35 (p =0.003) of the variance. The tuning approach undertaken in this study, overcomes the obstacle of the lack of available lake characteristic information (snow and ice albedo and light extinction co-efficient) for individual lakes. Furthermore, the tuned values for lake depth, snow and ice albedo and light extinction co-efficient for the 244 lakes provide guidance for improving LSWTs modelling in FLake.

  4. Microbiology of the subglacial Lake Vostok: first results of borehole-frozen lake water analysis and prospects for searching for lake inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Bulat, Sergey A

    2016-01-28

    This article examines the question of the possible existence of microbial life inhabiting the subglacial Lake Vostok buried beneath a 4 km thick Antarctic ice sheet. It represents the results of analysis of the only available frozen lake water samples obtained upon the first lake entry and subsequent re-coring the water frozen within the borehole. For comparison, results obtained by earlier molecular microbiological studies of accretion ice are included in this study, with the focus on thermophiles and an unknown bacterial phylotype. A description of two Lake Vostok penetrations is presented for the first time from the point of view of possible clean water sampling. Finally, the results of current studies of Lake Vostok frozen water samples are presented, with the focus on the discovery of another unknown bacterial phylotype w123-10 distantly related to the above-mentioned unknown phylotype AF532061 detected in Vostok accretion ice, both successfully passing all possible controls for contamination. The use of clean-room facilities and the establishment of a contaminant library are considered to be prerequisites for research on microorganisms from Lake Vostok. It seems that not yet recorded microbial life could exist within the Lake Vostok water body. In conclusion, the prospects for searching for lake inhabitants are expressed with the intention to sample the lake water as cleanly as possible in order to make sure that further results will be robust. PMID:26667905

  5. Water resources of Lake and Moody counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The primary sources of surface water in Lake and Moody Counties are the Big Sioux River and its intermittent tributaries, and Lakes Herman, Madison, and Brant. Seasonal variations in streamflow and lake levels are directly related to seasonal variations in precipitation. Dissolved-solids concentration in water from streams and lakes increases as streamflow decreases and lake levels decline. Eight glacial aquifers and four bedrock aquifers were delineated in Lake and Moody Counties. The Big Sioux, North Skunk Creek, Pipestone Creek, Battle Creek, and East Fork Vermillion aquifers are composed of glacial outwash. These aquifers are less than 60 feet below land surface, and are in hydraulic connection with the river or creek of the same name. The Rutland, Ramona, and Howard aquifers are composed of glacial outwash and are overlain by 50 to 470 feet of till. The four bedrock aquifers are the Niobrara, Codell, Dakota, and Quartzite wash. The average thickness of the Big Sioux, Pipestone Creek, North Skunk Creek, Battle Creek, and East Fork Vermillion aquifers ranges from 14 feet for the Battle Creek aquifer to 39 feet for the North Skunk Creek aquifer. The average thickness of the Rutland, Ramona, and Howard aquifers ranges from 18 feet for the Ramona aquifer to 40 feet for the Howard aquifer. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the Big Sioux, North Skunk Creek, and Pipestone Creek aquifers are calcium and bicarbonate. Predominant chemical constituents in the Battle Creek and East Fork Vermillion aquifers are calcium and sulfate. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the Rutland, Ramona, and Howard aquifers are calcium, sulfate and biocarbonate. The average thickness of the four bedrock aquifers ranges from 60 to 400 feet. The aquifers are under artesian conditions. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the Niobrara aquifer are calcium, sodium, and sulfate; from the Codell and Dakota aquifers are sodium and sulfate; and from the Quartzite

  6. Examining the influence of river-lake interaction on the drought and water resources in the Poyang Lake basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zengxin; Chen, Xi; Xu, Chong-Yu; Hong, Yang; Hardy, Jill; Sun, Zhonghua

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the Poyang Lake basin is in a prolonged drought which has placed immense pressure on the water resources utilization. In this paper, we explore the spatial and temporal distributions of extreme droughts in the Poyang Lake basin by using the methods of SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) and EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function) for the period of 1956-2009, which are influenced by regional precipitation anomalies and river-lake interaction due to water impounding of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). The results show that: (1) the Poyang Lake basin experienced six extreme droughts during the past 60 years, which lead to decreases in streamflow from five tributary rivers down to the Poyang Lake. The droughts in the 1960s and the 2000s were the most serious ones. However, there was an increasing trend of streamflow in the upper and middle Yangtze in the 1960s, and a decreasing trend appeared in the 2000s. The decline of streamflow in the upper Yangtze reaches has lowered the water level of lower Yangtze River which has caused more outflow from the Poyang Lake to the Yangtze River; (2) the operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) has altered the seasonal pattern of flow regimes in the Poyang Lake and significantly reduced the water level in the lower Yangtze River during the TGD impounding period from late September to early November; and (3) the conjunction of extreme droughts in the Poyang Lake and the upper Yangtze reaches coincided with the impounding of the TGD is the main cause of the low water level in the Poyang Lake. Although the impact of the recent droughts in the Poyang Lake and upper Yangtze reaches has played a crucial role in the low water level of Poyang Lake, more attention should be paid to its sensitivity to the influence of the large dam-induced changes in the interaction between river and lake, particularly during impounding periods.

  7. Radiation tolerance in water bears.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, D. D.; Sakashita, T.; Katagiri, C.; Watanabe, M.; Nakahara, Y.; Okuda, T.; Hamada, N.; Wada, S.; Funayama, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    Tardigrades water bears are tiny invertebrates forming a phylum and inhabit various environments on the earth Terrestrial tardigrades enter a form called as anhydrobiosis when the surrounding water disappears Anhyydrobiosis is defined as an ametabolic dry state and followed by recovering their activity when rehydrated Anhydrobiotic tardigrades show incredible tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions such as temperatures -273 r C to 151 r C vacuum high pressure 600 MPa and chemicals that include alcohols and methyl bromide In these views there have been some discussions about their potential for surviving outer space In the present study we demonstrated the survival limit not merely against gamma-rays but against heavy ions in the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum in order to evaluate the effects of radiations on them The animals were exposure to 500 to 7000 Gy of gamma-rays or 500 to 8000 Gy of heavy ions 4 He in their hydrated or anhydrobiotic state The results showed that both of hydrated and anhydrobiotic animals have high radio-tolerance median lethal dose LD50 48 h of gamma-rays or heavy ions in M tardigradum was more than 4000 Gy indicating that this species is categorized into the most radio-tolerant animals We suggest that tardigrades will be suitable model animals for extremophilic multicellular organisms and may provide a survival strategy in extraterrestrial environments

  8. 2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE DUE TO THE COMBINATION OF UNIT 24 BEING DOWN FOR REWINDING AND TWO UNITS COMING ON LINE UNEXPECTEDLY AT ROSS POWERHOUSE LED TO WATER FLOWING OVER THE SPILLGATES. EACH GATE IF 47 FEET WIDE AND 50 FEET HIGH, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  9. Hydrologic and climatologic factors affecting water levels of Devils Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiche, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    High water levels of Devils Lake, North Dakota, and other terminal lakes, have, in recent years, threatened highways, agricultural land, recreational cabins, and communities located near these lakes. This study was undertaken to describe the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin and to determine how to estimate future water level probabilities. Analysis of the available hydrologic and climatologic data indicates the water level of Devils Lake fluctuates largely in response to climatic variability. Average annual net storage gain has varied from 70 ,000 acre-feet for 1969-83 to as little as 4,530 acre-feet for 1931-40. In addition to the influence of climatic variability on the inflow to Devils Lake, an interconnected chain of lakes upstream of Devils Lake retains runoff and acts as an evaporation basin for runoff from the Devils Lake basin. During 1965-67, at least 112,000 acre-feet of water was stored in this upstream chain of lakes. A review of research conducted on other terminal lakes indicated that the water level in these lakes fluctuated primarily in response to climate variability. There is agreement between water level fluctuations of terminal lakes in Western North America and water level fluctuations of Devils lake during times of climatic extremes. No standardized methods are available for computing water level probabilities of terminal lakes. Most of the development of a method for determining future water level probabilities has been focused on Great Salt Lake, Utah. A number of techniques have been used to estimate the future water-level probabilities for Great Salt Lake; however, they provide a wide range in probability of occurrence for any given water level. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Investigating the Impact of UV Radiation on High-Altitude Shallow Lake Habitats, Life Diversity, and Life Survival Strategies: Clues for Mars' Past Habitability Potential?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, A.; Grin, E. A.; Hock, A.; Kiss, A.; Borics, G.; Kiss, K.; Acs, E.; Kovacs, G.; Chong, G.; Demergasso, C.

    2004-01-01

    We present data and results from an ongoing project of astrobiological high-altitude expeditions investigating the highest and least explored perennial lakes on Earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several volcanic crater lakes nearing and beyond 6,000 m in elevation. In the next five years, they will provide the first integrated long-term astrobiological characterization and monitoring of lacustrine environments and their biology for such altitude. These extreme lakes are natural laboratories. They provide the field data missing beyond 4,000 m to complete our understanding of terrestrial lakes and biota. Research on the effects of UV has been performed in lower altitude lakes and models of UV flux over time are being developed. Lakes showing a high content of dissolved organic material (DOM) shield organisms from UV. DOM acts as a natural sunscreen as it influences the water transparency, therefore is a determinant of photic zone depth. In sparsely vegetated alpine areas, lakes are clearer and offer less protection from UV to organisms living in the water. Transparent water and high UV irradiance may maximize the penetration and effect of UV radiation. Shallow-water communities in these lakes are particularly sensitive to UV radiation. The periphyton can live on various susbtrates. While on rocks, it includes immobile species that cannot seek low UV refuges unlike sediment-dwelling periphyton or alpine phytoflagellates which undergo vertical migration. Inhibition of algal photosynthesis by UV radiation has been documented in laboratory and showed that phytoplankton production is reduced by formation of nucleic acid lesions or production of peroxides and free oxygen radicals. of peroxides and free oxygen radicals. Our project is providing the field data that is missing from natural laboratories beyond 4,000 m and will complement the vision of the effects of UV on life and its adaptation modes (or lack thereof).

  11. Evaporation and transport of water isotopologues from Greenland lakes: The lake size effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiahong; Lauder, Alex M.; Posmentier, Eric S.; Kopec, Ben G.; Virginia, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of evaporative flux from a lake are used in many hydrological and paleoclimate studies that help constrain the water budget of a lake and/or to infer changes in climate conditions. The isotopic fluxes of evaporation from a water surface are typically computed using a zero dimensional (0-D) model originally conceptualized by Craig and Gordon (1965). Such models generally have laminar and turbulent layers, assume a steady state condition, and neglect horizontal variations. In particular, the effect of advection on isotopic variations is not considered. While this classical treatment can be used for some sections of large open surface water bodies, such as an ocean or a large lake, it may not apply to relatively small water bodies where limited fetch does not allow full equilibration between air from land and the water surface. Both horizontal and vertical gradients in water vapor concentration and isotopic ratios may develop over a lake. These gradients, in turn, affect the evaporative fluxes of water vapor and its isotopic ratios, which is not adequately predicted by a 0-D model. We observed, for the first time, the vertical as well as horizontal components of vapor and isotopic gradients as relatively dry and isotopically depleted air advected over the surfaces of several lakes up to a 5 km fetch under winds of 1-5 m/s in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. We modeled the vapor and isotopic distribution in air above the lake using a steady state 2-D model, in which vertical diffusive transport balances horizontal advection. The model was verified by our observations, and then used to calculate evaporative fluxes of vapor and its isotopic ratios. In the special case of zero wind speed, the model reduces to 1-D. Results from this 1-D model are compared with those from the 2-D model to assess the discrepancy in isotopic fluxes between advection and no advection conditions. Since wind advection above a lake alters the concentrations, gradients, and

  12. A sediment resuspension and water quality model of Lake Okeechobee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, R.T.; Martin, J.; Wool, T.; Wang, P.-F.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of sediment resuspension on the water quality of shallow lakes is well documented. However, a search of the literature reveals no deterministic mass-balance eutrophication models that explicitly include resuspension. We modified the Lake Okeeehobee water quality model - which uses the Water Analysis Simulation Package (WASP) to simulate algal dynamics and phosphorus, nitrogen, and oxygen cycles - to include inorganic suspended solids and algorithms that: (1) define changes in depth with changes in volume; (2) compute sediment resuspension based on bottom shear stress; (3) compute partition coefficients for ammonia and ortho-phosphorus to solids; and (4) relate light attenuation to solids concentrations. The model calibration and validation were successful with the exception of dissolved inorganic nitrogen species which did not correspond well to observed data in the validation phase. This could be attributed to an inaccurate formulation of algal nitrogen preference and/or the absence of nitrogen fixation in the model. The model correctly predicted that the lake is lightlimited from resuspended solids, and algae are primarily nitrogen limited. The model simulation suggested that biological fluxes greatly exceed external loads of dissolved nutrients; and sedimentwater interactions of organic nitrogen and phosphorus far exceed external loads. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that parameters affecting resuspension, settling, sediment nutrient and solids concentrations, mineralization, algal productivity, and algal stoichiometry are factors requiring further study to improve our understanding of the Lake Okeechobee ecosystem.

  13. Hydrology and water quality of Geneva Lake, Walworth County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Mergener, Elizabeth A.; Rose, William J.; Garrision, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    Direct measurements and indirect measurements based on sediment-core analyses indicate that the water quality of Geneva Lake has degraded in the last 170 years, the greatest effects resulting from urbanization. Sedimentation rates were highest between 1900 to 1930, and phosphorus concentrations were highest between the 1930s to early 1980s. As a result of the recent reduction in phosphorus loading, in-lake near-surface phosphorus concentrations decreased from 20.25 ?g/L to about 10.15 ?g/L and are similar to those estimated for the lake in the early 1900s. Concentrations of other chemical constituents associated with urban areas, however, have continually increased, especially in Williams Bay and Geneva Bay.

  14. Use of isotopic data to estimate water residence times of the Finger Lakes, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Robert L.; Kraemer, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    Water retention times in the Finger Lakes, a group of 11 lakes in central New York with similar hydrologic and climatic characteristics, were estimated by use of a tritium-balance model. During July 1991, samples were collected from the 11 lakes and selected tributary streams and were analyzed for tritium, deuterium, and oxygen-18. Additional samples from some of the sites were collected in 1990, 1992 and 1993. Tritium concentration in lake water ranged from 24.6 Tritium Units (TU) (Otisco Lake) to 43.2 TU (Seneca Lake).The parameters in the model used to obtain water retention time (WRT) included relative humidity, evaporation rate, tritium concentrations of inflowing water and lake water, and WRT of the lake. A historical record of tritium concentrations in precipitation and runoff was obtained from rainfall data at Ottawa, Canada, analyses of local wines produced during 1977-1991, and streamflow samples collected in 1990-1991. The model was simulated in yearly steps for 1953-1991, and the WRT was varied to reproduce tritium concentrations measured in each lake in 1991. Water retention times obtained from model simulations ranged from 1 year for Otisco Lake to 12 years for Seneca Lake, and with the exception of Seneca Lake and Skaneateles Lake, were in agreement with earlier estimates obtained from runoff estimates and chloride balances. The sensitivity of the model to parameter changes was tested to determine possible reasons for the differences calculated for WRT's for Seneca Lake and Skaneateles Lake. The shorter WRT obtained from tritium data for Lake Seneca (12 years as compared to 18 years) can be explained by a yearly addition of less than 3% by lake volume of ground water to the lake, the exact percentage depending on tritium concentration in the ground water.

  15. Groundwater - The Disregarded Component in Lake Water and Nutrient Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Meinikmann, K.; Pöschke, F.; Nuetzmann, G.; Rosenberry, D. O.

    2015-12-01

    Lake eutrophication is a large and still growing problem in many parts of the world, commonly due to anthropogenic sources of nutrients such as fertilizer, manure or sewage. Improved quantification of nutrient inputs is required to address this problem. Lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD) transports nutrients from catchments to lakes. Unfortunately, LGD has often been disregarded in lake nutrient studies due to many different reasons, although first reports of LGD are more than 40 years old. Most measurement techniques are based on separate determinations of seepage volume and nutrient concentration of exfiltrating groundwater; i.e., by multiplying both values. We review the international literature, give a brief overview of measurement techniques, and present typical volumes, concentrations and loads reported in literature. Furthermore, we describe the fate of nitrogen and phosphorus on their subsurface pathway from the catchment through the reactive aquifer-lake interface into the lake, and compare LGD related processes with those of two other groundwater-surface water interfaces: the hyporheic zone in streams and the interface between aquifer and marine systems where SGD (submarine groundwater discharge) occurs.

  16. Water quality and hydrology of Silver Lake, Oceana County, Michigan, with emphasis on lake response to nutrient loading

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Angela K.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Duris, Joseph W.; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Steinman, Alan D.

    2016-01-29

    The BATHTUB model was used to estimate future nutrient loading and eutrophication scenarios based on water-quality data collected from Silver Lake, groundwater, major tributaries, and atmospheric deposition. A separate septic load model was used to estimate the septic contribution to groundwater or directly to surface water, and the nutrient load estimates were modeled using the BATHTUB model to determine subsequent water-quality changes to Silver Lake. BATHTUB model scenarios based on measured data: The first BATHTUB scenario evaluated the condition of Silver Lake and the change to lake water quality (trophic status) as a result of changes in nutrient loading from different sources. Based on BATHTUB model simulations, if groundwater loading of phosphorus and nitrogen only were decreased by 75 percent, and all of the other nutrient inputs stayed the same, the future condition of Silver Lake would most likely remain

  17. Models for predicting recreational water quality at Lake Erie beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected from four Lake Erie beaches during the recreational seasons of 2004-05 and from one Lake Erie beach during 2000-2005 were used to develop predictive models for recreational water quality by means of multiple linear regression. The best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables including turbidity, rainfall, wave height, water temperature, day of the year, wind direction, and lake level. Two types of outputs were produced from the models: the predicted Escherichia coli concentration and the probability that the bathing-water standard will be exceeded. The model for one of beaches, Huntington Reservation (Huntington), was validated in 2005. For 2005, the Huntington model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedance of the standard than did current methods for assessing recreational water quality, which are based on the previous day's E. coli concentration. Predictions based on the Huntington model have been available to the public through an Internet-based 'nowcasting' system since May 30, 2006. The other beach models are being validated for the first time in 2006. The methods used in this study to develop and test predictive models can be applied at other similar coastal beaches.

  18. Water resources of the Red Lake Indian Reservation, northwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The quality of ground water is suitable for drinking and other household uses, and the quality of the surface water generally meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criteria necessary for the maintenance of aquatic life. The major ions in both ground and surface water are calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Lower and Upper Red Lakes are eutrophic to mesotrophic on the basis of their summer Secchi disk-transparency readings, which ranged from 2.6 to 8.2 feet. The concentration of total organic carbon in samples from Lower and Upper Red Lakes and four streams were below or, in the case of one stream, about equal to 30 milligrams per liter, which is indicative of water little affected by human activities. The sample with the highest organic carbon content was collected from a stream that drained peatlands, which were probably sources of organic matter in the runoff. The concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in samples collected from Lower and Upper Red Lakes in late summer was below 0.01 milligrams per liter, which is characteristic of water uncontaminated by animal wastes. Total phosphorus in these samples ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 milligrams per liter. Most of this phosphorus was in the particulate organic fraction because of the abundance of phytoplankton.

  19. Long-term water temperature reconstructions from mountain lakes with different catchment and morphometric features.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Tomi P; Nevalainen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Long-term water temperature records are necessary for better understanding climate change impacts on freshwaters. We reconstruct summer water temperatures from three climatically sensitive mountain lakes in Austria using paleolimnological methods aiming to examine long-term thermal dynamics and lakes' responses to regional climate variability since the Little Ice Age. Our results indicate divergent trends for the lakes. In two of the lakes, which are located at the sunny southern slope of mountains, water temperature has increased several degrees concurrent with the observed air temperature increase. In contrast, no change is observed in the reconstructed water temperatures of a shaded lake, located at the northern slope, where also the ecological and thermal changes are most subtle. The results indicate the importance of cold water inputs, such as snowmelt and groundwater, on lakes' thermal conditions and suggest that watershed characteristics and lake stratification play a major role in defining the lake-specific thermal regime. PMID:23965988

  20. Fleet dynamics of the commercial lake trout fishery in Michigan waters of Lake Superior during 1929-1961

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilberg, Michael J.; Bronte, Charles R.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding fishing fleet dynamics is important when using fishery dependent data to infer the status of fish stocks. We analyzed data from mandatory catch reports from the commercial lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) fishery in Michigan waters of Lake Superior during 1929-1961, a period when lake trout populations collapsed through the combined effects of overfishing and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation. The number of full-time fishermen increased during 1933-1943 and then decreased during 1943-1957. Addition of new fishermen was related to past yield, market prices, World War II draft exemptions, and lost fishing opportunities in Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. Loss of existing fishermen was related to declining lake trout density. Large mesh (a?Y 114-mm stretch-measure) gill net effort increased during 1929-1951 because fishermen fished more net inshore as lake trout density declined, even though catch per effort (CPE) was often higher in deeper waters. The most common gill net mesh size increased from 114-mm to 120-mm stretch-measure during 1929-1957, as lake trout growth increased. More effort was fished inshore than offshore and the amount of inshore effort was less variable over time than offshore effort. Relatively stable yield was maintained by increasing gill net effort and by moving some effort to better grounds. Because fishing-up caused yield and CPE to remain high despite declining lake trout abundance, caution must be used when basing goals for lake trout restoration on historical fishery indices.

  1. Monitoring eastern Oklahoma lake water quality using Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Clay

    The monitoring of public waters for recreational, industrial, agricultural, and drinking purposes is a difficult task assigned to many state water agencies. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) is only physically monitoring a quarter of the lakes it is charged with monitoring in any given year. The minimal sample scheme adopted by the OWRB is utilized to determine long-term trends and basic impairment but is insufficient to monitor the water quality shifts that occur following influx from rains or to detect algal blooms, which may be highly localized and temporally brief. Recent work in remote sensing calibrates reflectance coefficients between extant water quality data and Landsat imagery reflectance to estimate water quality parameters on a regional basis. Remotely-sensed water quality monitoring benefits include reduced cost, more frequent sampling, inclusion of all lakes visible each satellite pass, and better spatial resolution results. The study area for this research is the Ozark foothills region in eastern Oklahoma including the many lakes impacted by phosphorus flowing in from the Arkansas border region. The result of this research was a moderate r2 regression value for turbidity during winter (0.52) and summer (0.65), which indicates that there is a seasonal bias to turbidity estimation using this methodology and the potential to further develop an estimation equation for this water quality parameter. Refinements that improve this methodology could provide state-wide estimations of turbidity allowing more frequent observation of water quality and allow better response times by the OWRB to developing water impairments.

  2. Water Quality, Hydrology, and Response to Changes in Phosphorus Loading of Nagawicka Lake, a Calcareous Lake in Waukesha County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Horwatich, Judy A.

    2006-01-01

    Nagawicka Lake is a 986-acre, usually mesotrophic, calcareous lake in southeastern Wisconsin. Because of concern over potential water-quality degradation of the lake associated with further development in its watershed, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2002 to 2006 to describe the water quality and hydrology of the lake; quantify sources of phosphorus, including those associated with urban development; and determine the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lake. All major water and phosphorus sources were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lake. The Bark River, near-lake surface inflow, precipitation, and ground water contributed 74, 8, 12, and 6 percent of the inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lake primarily through the Bark River outlet (88 percent) or by evaporation (11 percent). The water quality of Nagawicka Lake has improved dramatically since 1980 as a result of decreasing the historical loading of phosphorus to the lake. Total input of phosphorus to the lake was about 3,000 pounds in monitoring year (MY) 2003 and 6,700 pounds in MY 2004. The largest source of phosphorus entering the lake was the Bark River, which delivered about 56 percent of the total phosphorus input, compared with about 74 percent of the total water input. The next largest contributions were from the urbanized near-lake drainage area, which disproportionately accounted for 37 percent of the total phosphorus input but only about 5 percent of the total water input. Simulations with water-quality models within the Wisconsin Lakes Modeling Suite (WiLMS) indicated the response of Nagawicka Lake to 10 phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included historical (1970s) and current (base) years (MY 2003-04) for which lake water quality and loading were known, six scenarios with percentage increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from

  3. Water Budgets for Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho, Water Years 2000-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.; Weakland, Rhonda J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, calculated annual water budgets and a mean annual water budget for Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho, for water years 2000 through 2005. Mean annual inflow to Coeur d'Alene Lake, including precipitation, was about 167,110 million cubic feet. Mean annual outflow, including evaporation, but excluding wastewater effluent to the Spokane River, was about 167,850 million cubic feet. The amount of water lost from Coeur d'Alene Lake and the Spokane River to the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie aquifer was estimated at 7,250 million cubic feet. Mean annual precipitation into Coeur d'Alene Lake was 3,267 million cubic feet, which exceeded mean annual evaporation of 2,483 million cubic feet. Withdrawals directly from the lake and from wells within a 1,000 foot buffer of the lakeshore for domestic and municipal water uses were reported. However, only the estimate for the consumptive use part of the withdrawals, 265 million cubic feet, was considered in the budget. Mean annual change in lake storage resulted in a net loss of about 49 million cubic feet. The mean annual residual value was about -8,310 million cubic feet.

  4. Crater lake habitat predicts morphological diversity in adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Recknagel, Hans; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2014-07-01

    Adaptive radiations provide an excellent opportunity for studying the correlates and causes for the origin of biodiversity. In these radiations, species diversity may be influenced by either the ecological and physical environment, intrinsic lineage effects, or both. Disentangling the relative contributions of these factors in generating biodiversity remains a major challenge in understanding why a lineage does or does not radiate. Here, we examined morphological variation in body shape for replicate flocks of Nicaraguan Midas cichlid fishes and tested its association with biological and physical characteristics of their crater lakes. We found that variability of body elongation, an adaptive trait in freshwater fishes, is mainly predicted by average lake depth (N = 6, P < 0.001, R(2) = 0.96). Other factors considered, including lake age, surface area, littoral zone area, number of co-occurring fish species, and genetic diversity of the Midas flock, did not significantly predict morphological variability. We also showed that lakes with a larger littoral zone have on average higher bodied Midas cichlids, indicating that Midas cichlid flocks are locally adapted to their crater lake habitats. In conclusion, we found that a lake's habitat predicts the magnitude and the diversity of body elongation in repeated cichlid adaptive radiations.

  5. NASA Images Show Decreased Clarity in Lake Tahoe's Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer aboard NASA's Terra satellite, launched in 1999, illustrate the state of gradually decreasing water clarity at Lake Tahoe, one of the clearest lakes in the world. The images are available at: http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/default.htm.

    In the image on the left, acquired in November 2000, vegetation can be seen in red. The image on the right, acquired at the same time by a different spectral band of the instrument, is color-coded to show the bottom of the lake around the shoreline. Where the data are black, the bottom cannot be seen.

    Scientists monitoring the lake's water clarity from boat measurements obtained since 1965 have discovered that the lake along the California-Nevada border has lost more than one foot of visibility each year, according to the Lake Tahoe Watershed Assessment, a review of scientific information about the lake undertaken at the request of President Clinton and published in February 2000. The most likely causes are increases in algal growth, sediment washed in from surrounding areas and urban growth and development.

    By combining historical and current ground-based measurements with space measurements from new instruments like the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, scientists are now continuously monitoring and better understanding the circulation and changes in Lake Tahoe's water clarity. Images like these from satellites, which are able to capture entire views of the lake and its 63 contributing streams, can be used to determine and monitor spatial variations in the lake's clarity over time. These images complement 'point' measurements, made by boats from one spot in the lake. Rafts and buoys verify the satellite images, and help scientists develop and test circulation models.

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer is one of five Earth-observing instruments on Terra, launched in 1999, and is its

  6. 75 FR 4173 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to protect aquatic life in lakes and flowing waters, including canals, within the State of Florida and proposing regulations to establish a framework for Florida to develop ``restoration standards'' for impaired waters. On January 14, 2009, EPA made a determination under section 303(c)(4)(B) of the......

  7. Conquest of the deep, old and cold: an exceptional limpet radiation in Lake Baikal

    PubMed Central

    Stelbrink, Björn; Shirokaya, Alena A.; Clewing, Catharina; Sitnikova, Tatiana Y.; Prozorova, Larisa A.; Albrecht, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Lake Baikal is the deepest, oldest and most speciose ancient lake in the world. The lake is characterized by high levels of molluscan species richness and endemicity, including the limpet family Acroloxidae with 25 endemic species. Members of this group generally inhabit the littoral zone, but have been recently found in the abyssal zone at hydrothermal vents and oil-seeps. Here, we use mitochondrial and nuclear data to provide a first molecular phylogeny of the Lake Baikal limpet radiation, and to date the beginning of intra-lacustrine diversification. Divergence time estimates suggest a considerably younger age for the species flock compared with lake age estimates, and the beginning of extensive diversification is possibly related to rapid deepening and cooling during rifting. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence time estimates do not clearly indicate when exactly the abyssal was colonized but suggest a timeframe coincident with the formation of the abyssal in the northern basin (Middle to Late Pleistocene). PMID:26202427

  8. Great Lakes Climate and Water Movement. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes climate and water movement. Students learn about land-sea…

  9. Effects of residential development on the water quality of Higgins Lake, Michigan 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minnerick, Russel J.

    2001-01-01

    Higgins Lake, a popular recreation area in the north-central Lower Peninsula of Michigan, drains an area of 58 square miles and is composed of two deep basins separated by a narrow channel between Flag Point and Point Detroit.The North and South Basins have a maximum depth of about 141 and 100 feet respectively. Ground-water inflow is the major source of the lake?s water supply, with precipitation and inflow from two small tributaries providing the remaining water. The quality of the lake water near shore has been affected by residential development. The concentration of chloride and turbidity in the lake water near the shore increases with increases in building and road density. Nitrogen concentration in lake water near shore also has increased the most in areas where buildings exceed a density of 0.50 building per acre. Ground water beneath the lake showed higher concentrations of phosphorus, nitrogen, chloride, and boron than the lake-water samples. Escherichia Coliform (E. coli) bacteria was found in ground water at sites where building density exceeded 0.40 building per acre, indicating that water from septic systems, is leaching to the ground water that flows to the lake. Phosphorus concentration in lake and ground water appears to be more affected by site-specific conditions, such as soil type and distance of sampling sites from individual septic systems, than by building density alone.

  10. Environmental assessment of drainage water impacts on water quality and eutrophication level of Lake Idku, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ali, Elham M; Khairy, Hanan M

    2016-09-01

    Lake Idku, northern Egypt, receives large quantities of drainage water from four main discharging drains. Ecological and biological status of Lake Idku has been monitored during (autumn 2012 to summer 2013) to examine the lake water quality and eutrophication level in response to the quality as well as the source of the discharging water. Discrete water samples were collected from the lake body and the drains. Chemical analyses revealed an excessive nutrient load goes into the lake. A range of 1.4-10.6 mg nitrites/L was determined for drain waters, however a sudden increase was observed in lake and drain water samples of up to 84 and 74.5 mg/L, respectively. Reactive silicate ranged between 2.9 and 4.8 mg/L; while inorganic phosphate fluctuated between 0.2 and 0.43 mg/L. Transparency varied from 45 cm to 134 cm with better light conditions at drain sites. Biological results indicated a hyper-eutrophic status for the lake with a range of chlorophyll-a varied from a minimum of 39.9 μg/L (at Idku Drains) and a maximum of 104.2 μg/L (at El-Khairy drain). Phytoplankton community structure revealed higher abundance at lake sites compared with the drains. Maximum phytoplankton density was detected during summer with the dominance of Bacilariophyceae (e.g. Cyclotella meneghiniana, Cyclotella comate, Melosira varians) followed by Chlorophycean taxon (e.g. Scenedesmus dimorphus, S. bijuga and Crucigenia tetrapedia). Five indices were applied to evaluate the water quality of the lake. Diversity Index (DI) indicated slight to light pollution along all sites; while Sapropic Index (SI) indicated slight pollution with acceptable oxygen conditions and an availability of sensitive species. Palmer Index (PI) gave a strong evidence of high organic pollution at some sites in the lake, while Generic Diatom Index (GDI) revealed that levels of pollution varied from average to strong. Trophic Index (TI), suggest that there are an obvious signs of eutrophication in the lake. PMID

  11. [Water quality comparison between Lake Taihu and contribute river during high water-level period].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Xi; Cai, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Lin-Lin; Zhu, Guang-Wei

    2011-10-01

    Thirty-two main rivers around Lake Taihu were sampled during high water period in 2008 to investigate river's vital impact on Lake water quality. Different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus were analyzed for the 32 river water samples according to nutrients function to algae. The aim of this study is to provide the basic information for river rehabilitation. Based on the results, the nutrients and suspended substance (SS) concentrations of Wangyu River were the highest, its water quality was below the V grade (Chinese water quality criterion). Water quality of northern rivers was also below the V grade, organic matter and enzymatically hydrolysable phosphate (EHP) concentration were the highest. The EHP concentration was 0.240 mg/L, and accounted for 62.4% of total phosphorus (TP). Nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-) -N) concentration was exceptionally high in western rivers and the average concentration was 0.270 mg/L, it was 2-3 times higher than that of other rivers. The northern rivers' nitrogen, phosphorus and organic concentration were markedly higher than those in the north Lake region, while the western rivers' nitrogen was markedly higher than that in the west Lake region. It can also be concluded that algae and suspended sediment were able to bring more phosphorus to water by comparing the ratio of total nitrogen(TN) and TP in these rivers and Lake Taihu.

  12. Monitoring the water balance of Lake Victoria, East Africa, from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Sean; Wahr, John

    2009-05-01

    SummaryUsing satellite gravimetric and altimetric data, we examine trends in water storage and lake levels of multiple lakes in the Great Rift Valley region of East Africa for the years 2003-2008. GRACE total water storage estimates reveal that water storage declined in much of East Africa, by as much as 60 {mm}/{year}, while altimetric data show that lake levels in some large lakes dropped by as much as 1-2 m. The largest declines occurred in Lake Victoria, the Earth's second largest freshwater body. Because the discharge from the outlet of Lake Victoria is used to generate hydroelectric power, the role of human management in the lake's decline has been questioned. By comparing catchment water storage trends to lake level trends, we confirm that climatic forcing explains only about 50decline. This analysis provides an independent means of assessing the relative impacts of climate and human management on the water balance of Lake Victoria that does not depend on observations of dam discharge, which may not be publically available. In the second part of the study, the individual components of the lake water balance are estimated. Satellite estimates of changes in lake level, precipitation, and evaporation are used with observed lake discharge to develop a parameterization for estimating subsurface inflows due to changes in groundwater storage estimated from satellite gravimetry. At seasonal timescales, this approach provides closure to Lake Victoria's water balance to within 17 {mm}/{month}. The third part of this study uses the water balance of a downstream water body, Lake Kyoga, to estimate the outflow from Lake Victoria remotely. Because Lake Kyoga is roughly 20 times smaller in area than Lake Victoria, its water balance is strongly influenced by inflow from Lake Victoria. Lake Kyoga has been shown to act as a linear reservoir, where its outflow is proportional to the height of the lake. This model can be used with satellite altimetric lake levels to estimate a

  13. Bacterial biota of Nigeen Lake waters (Kashmir Valley).

    PubMed

    Zaffar, Riasa M; Ganai, Bashir A

    2016-08-01

    One of the greatest apprehensions of water consumers all over the world with respect to the quality of drinking water is its contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. This research work determined the potential bacterial contaminants of the waters of Nigeen Lake, a subsidiary of Dal Lake and is regarded as a separate lake in Kashmir. The study was carried out from May 2014 to November 2014 excluding August and September at four different sites. During the study the bacterial flora showed variation in relation to the conditions prevailing at different sites. The highest viable count of bacteria was observed at Site:2 (surrounded by residential hamlets) followed by Site:1 (inlet) and Site:4 (centre) followed by Site:3 (outlet). Based on the examination of morphological features of bacterial colonies on nutrient agar plates after 48 h of incubation period, 40 different strains were isolated. The isolates were identified with the help of Gram's staining and DNA sequencing, 55% of the strains were Gram negative and 45% of the strains were Gram positive. With the help of 16S rRNA sequencing, out of the 40 isolates of bacteria, 7 strains were different at the genetic level. The bacteria which were identified with the help of DNA sequencing are Pseudomonas synxantha, Delftia acidovorans, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophiria. PMID:27165539

  14. Bacterial biota of Nigeen Lake waters (Kashmir Valley).

    PubMed

    Zaffar, Riasa M; Ganai, Bashir A

    2016-08-01

    One of the greatest apprehensions of water consumers all over the world with respect to the quality of drinking water is its contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. This research work determined the potential bacterial contaminants of the waters of Nigeen Lake, a subsidiary of Dal Lake and is regarded as a separate lake in Kashmir. The study was carried out from May 2014 to November 2014 excluding August and September at four different sites. During the study the bacterial flora showed variation in relation to the conditions prevailing at different sites. The highest viable count of bacteria was observed at Site:2 (surrounded by residential hamlets) followed by Site:1 (inlet) and Site:4 (centre) followed by Site:3 (outlet). Based on the examination of morphological features of bacterial colonies on nutrient agar plates after 48 h of incubation period, 40 different strains were isolated. The isolates were identified with the help of Gram's staining and DNA sequencing, 55% of the strains were Gram negative and 45% of the strains were Gram positive. With the help of 16S rRNA sequencing, out of the 40 isolates of bacteria, 7 strains were different at the genetic level. The bacteria which were identified with the help of DNA sequencing are Pseudomonas synxantha, Delftia acidovorans, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophiria.

  15. Extremely acid Permian lakes and ground waters in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benison, K.C.; Goldstein, R.H.; Wopenka, B.; Burruss, R.C.; Pasteris, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporites hosted by red beds (red shales and sandstones), some 275-265 million years old, extend over a large area of the North American mid- continent. They were deposited in non-marine saline lakes, pans and mud- flats, settings that are typically assumed to have been alkaline. Here we use laser Raman microprobe analyses of fluid inclusions trapped in halites from these Permian deposits to argue for the existence of highly acidic (pH < 1) lakes and ground waters. These extremely acidic systems may have extended over an area of 200,000 km2. Modern analogues of such systems may be natural acid lake and groundwater systems (pH ~2-4) in southern Australia. Both the ancient and modern acid systems are characterized by closed drainage, arid climate, low acid-neutralizing capacity, and the oxidation of minerals such as pyrite to generate acidity. The discovery of widespread ancient acid lake and groundwater systems demands a re-evaluation of reconstructions of surface conditions of the past, and further investigations of the geochemistry and ecology of acid systems in general.

  16. Water Optical Properties and Water Color Remote Sensing in Optically Deep and Shallow Waters of Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Hongyan

    In this study, Lake Taihu in Jiangsu Province of China, a typical large freshwater lake, is selected as the study area. Based on the field spectral measurements and laboratory analyses performed in October 2008, water optical properties and water color/quality remote sensing retrieval models in Lake Taihu were investigated. It was recognized that water quality varied a lot in different areas. Waters in Lake Taihu were classified as optically deep waters (ODWs) and optically shallow waters (OSWs). ODWs are the waters where the water depth is more than three times the measured Secchi Disk Depth (SDD), otherwise they are OSWs. Cyanobacteria blooms happen frequently in ODWs and the water is eutrophicated heavily. Whereas water is very clear with rare cyanobacteria blooms but many aquatic plants in OSWs. Focused on the two types of water areas respectively, the inherent optical properties (lOPs), apparent optical properties (lOPs) and reflectance spectra were analyzed, as well as their relationships to water quality parameters. Local optical parameters f and Q, which play significant roles in water quality parameters retrieval models, were also determined. Measured remote sensing reflectance data were used to establish two-band and three-band models for chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration estimation, results showed both models were suitable in ODWs. However, aquatic plants in OSWs had great influence on spectra, resulting in the inapplicability of the established models at these sites. Absorption and backscattering coefficients were used to remove those influences and simulate new set of remote sensing reflectance based on radiative transfer theory, which were proved reliable to establish Chl-a retrieval algorithms. Three-band model established by simulated spectra showed more satisfactory performance in whole ODWs, and performance of two-band model in OSWs was also enhanced much. Several models were established to estimate total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations

  17. Sediment deposition and selected water-quality characteristics in Cedar Lake and Lake Olathe, Northeast Kansas, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mau, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Lake Olathe watershed, located in northeast Kansas, was investigated using bathymetric survey data and reservoir bottom-sediment cores to determine sediment deposition, water-quality trends, and transport of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen species), selected trace elements, selected pesticides, and diatoms as indicators of eutrophic (organic-enriched and depleted oxygen supply) conditions. To determine sediment deposition and loads, bathymetric data from Cedar Lake and Lake Olathe, both located in the Lake Olathe watershed, were collected in 2000 and compared to historical topographic data collected when the lakes were built. Approximately 338 acre-feet of sediment deposition has occurred in Cedar Lake since dam closure in 1938, and 317 acre-feet has occurred at Lake Olathe since 1956. Mean annual sediment deposition was 5.45 acre-feet per year (0.89 acre-feet per year per square mile) for Cedar Lake and 7.0 acre-feet per year (0.42 acre-feet per year per square mile) for Lake Olathe. Mean annual sediment loads for the two reservoirs were 9.6 million pounds per year for Cedar Lake and 12.6 million pounds per year for Lake Olathe. Mean concentrations of total phosphorus in bottom-sediment samples from Cedar Lake ranged from 1,370 to 1,810 milligrams per kilogram, and concentrations in bottom-sediment samples from Lake Olathe ranged from 588 to 1,030 milligrams per kilogram. The implication of large total phosphorus concentrations in the bottom sediment of Cedar Lake is that inflow into Cedar Lake is rich in phosphorus and that adverse water-quality conditions could affect water quality in downstream Lake Olathe through discharge of water from Cedar Lake to Lake Olathe via Cedar Creek. Mean annual phosphorus loads transported from the Lake Olathe watershed were estimated to be 14,700 pounds per year for Cedar Lake and 9,720 pounds per year for Lake Olathe. The mean annual phosphorus yields were estimated to be 3.74 pounds per acre per year for Cedar Lake and 0

  18. Groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake, Minnesota, through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Bode, Jenifer A.; O'Grady, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the White Bear Lake Conservation District, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and other State, county, municipal, and regional planning agencies, watershed organizations, and private organizations, conducted a study to characterize groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake through 2011. During 2010 and 2011, White Bear Lake and other lakes in the northeastern part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area were at historically low levels. Previous periods of lower water levels in White Bear Lake correlate with periods of lower precipitation; however, recent urban expansion and increased pumping from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer have raised the question of whether a decline in precipitation is the primary cause for the recent water-level decline in White Bear Lake. Understanding and quantifying the amount of groundwater inflow to a lake and water discharge from a lake to aquifers is commonly difficult but is important in the management of lake levels. Three methods were used in the study to assess groundwater and surface-water interactions on White Bear Lake: (1) a historical assessment (1978-2011) of levels in White Bear Lake, local groundwater levels, and their relation to historical precipitation and groundwater withdrawals in the White Bear Lake area; (2) recent (2010-11) hydrologic and water-quality data collected from White Bear Lake, other lakes, and wells; and (3) water-balance assessments for White Bear Lake in March and August 2011. An analysis of covariance between average annual lake-level change and annual precipitation indicated the relation between the two variables was significantly different from 2003 through 2011 compared with 1978 through 2002, requiring an average of 4 more inches of precipitation per year to maintain the lake level. This shift in the linear relation between annual lake-level change and annual precipitation

  19. Multi-temporal water extent analysis of a hypersaline playa lake using Landsat Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Ecenur; Kamil Yilmaz, Koray; Lutfi Suzen, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Distinguishing inland water bodies from satellite imagery has always been one of the main practices of remote sensing. In some cases this differentiation can directly be obtained by visual interpretation. However, in case of hyper-saline playa lakes, presence of high albedo salt crust in the lake bed hampers visual interpretation and requires further attention. Lake Tuz is a hypersaline playa lake which is ranked as the second largest lake in Turkey. Spatio-temporal changes in lake water extent are important both economically and hydrologically including salt production, lake water balance, drought and over-exploitation issues. This study investigates the spatiotemporal changes in Lake Tuz water extent during the last decade using single-band thresholding and multi-band indices extracted from the multi-temporal Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ images. The applicability of different satellite-derived indices including Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified NDWI (MNDWI), Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI) and Tasseled Cap Wetness (TCw) were investigated for the extraction of lake water extent from Landsat imagery. Our analysis indicated that, overall, NDWI is superior to other tested indices in separating wet/dry pixels over the lake bottom covered with salt crust. Using a NDWI thresholding procedure, the annual and seasonal variation in the Lake Tuz water extent were determined and further linked to hydro-meteorological variables such as precipitation.

  20. Water quality of least-impaired lakes in eastern and southern Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Justus, Billy

    2010-09-01

    A three-phased study identified one least-impaired (reference) lake for each of four Arkansas lake classifications: three classifications in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (MAP) ecoregion and a fourth classification in the South Central Plains (SCP) ecoregion. Water quality at three of the least-impaired lakes generally was comparable and also was comparable to water quality from Kansas and Missouri reference lakes and Texas least-impaired lakes. Water quality of one least-impaired lake in the MAP ecoregion was not as good as water quality in other least-impaired lakes in Arkansas or in the three other states: a probable consequence of all lakes in that classification having a designated use as a source of irrigation water. Chemical and physical conditions for all four lake classifications were at times naturally harsh as limnological characteristics changed temporally. As a consequence of allochthonous organic material, oxbow lakes isolated within watersheds comprised of swamps were susceptible to low dissolved oxygen concentrations to the extent that conditions would be limiting to some aquatic biota. Also, pH in lakes in the SCP ecoregion was <6.0, a level exceeding current Arkansas water-quality standards but typical of black water systems. Water quality of the deepest lakes exceeded that of shallow lakes. N/P ratios and trophic state indices may be less effective for assessing water quality for shallow lakes (<2 m) than for deep lakes because there is an increased exposure of sediment (and associated phosphorus) to disturbance and light in the former. PMID:19705289

  1. Water quality of least-impaired lakes in eastern and southern Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Justus, Billy

    2010-09-01

    A three-phased study identified one least-impaired (reference) lake for each of four Arkansas lake classifications: three classifications in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (MAP) ecoregion and a fourth classification in the South Central Plains (SCP) ecoregion. Water quality at three of the least-impaired lakes generally was comparable and also was comparable to water quality from Kansas and Missouri reference lakes and Texas least-impaired lakes. Water quality of one least-impaired lake in the MAP ecoregion was not as good as water quality in other least-impaired lakes in Arkansas or in the three other states: a probable consequence of all lakes in that classification having a designated use as a source of irrigation water. Chemical and physical conditions for all four lake classifications were at times naturally harsh as limnological characteristics changed temporally. As a consequence of allochthonous organic material, oxbow lakes isolated within watersheds comprised of swamps were susceptible to low dissolved oxygen concentrations to the extent that conditions would be limiting to some aquatic biota. Also, pH in lakes in the SCP ecoregion was <6.0, a level exceeding current Arkansas water-quality standards but typical of black water systems. Water quality of the deepest lakes exceeded that of shallow lakes. N/P ratios and trophic state indices may be less effective for assessing water quality for shallow lakes (<2 m) than for deep lakes because there is an increased exposure of sediment (and associated phosphorus) to disturbance and light in the former.

  2. Water quality of least-impaired lakes in eastern and southern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.

    2010-01-01

    A three-phased study identified one least-impaired (reference) lake for each of four Arkansas lake classifications: three classifications in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (MAP) ecoregion and a fourth classification in the South Central Plains (SCP) ecoregion. Water quality at three of the least-impaired lakes generally was comparable and also was comparable to water quality from Kansas and Missouri reference lakes and Texas least-impaired lakes. Water quality of one least-impaired lake in the MAP ecoregion was not as good as water quality in other least-impaired lakes in Arkansas or in the three other states: a probable consequence of all lakes in that classification having a designated use as a source of irrigation water. Chemical and physical conditions for all four lake classifications were at times naturally harsh as limnological characteristics changed temporally. As a consequence of allochthonous organic material, oxbow lakes isolated within watersheds comprised of swamps were susceptible to low dissolved oxygen concentrations to the extent that conditions would be limiting to some aquatic biota. Also, pH in lakes in the SCP ecoregion was <6.0, a level exceeding current Arkansas water-quality standards but typical of black water systems. Water quality of the deepest lakes exceeded that of shallow lakes. N/P ratios and trophic state indices may be less effective for assessing water quality for shallow lakes (<2 m) than for deep lakes because there is an increased exposure of sediment (and associated phosphorus) to disturbance and light in the former. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Radium-226 in water, sediments, and fish from lakes near the city of Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Clulow, F V; Davé, N K; Lim, T P; Avadhanula, R

    1998-01-01

    Ra-226 was measured by alpha-emission spectroscopy in water, sediments, and fish (tissues and gut contents), from five lakes in a watershed containing U mining and milling operations at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from control lakes in an adjacent non-industrialized watershed. Ra-226 transfer parameters from lake water and sediments to fish tissues, and annual intakes by humans consuming fish, were estimated. Mean dissolved 226Ra levels ranged from approximately 76 mBq litre(-1) in water of the most affected lake, to < 10 mBq litre(-1) in control lakes. Levels in summer were consistently higher than in fall or winter; no consistent variation with depth was noted. Sediment levels ranged from approximately 3000 mBq g(-1) dry wt in one study lake to < 100 mBq g(-1) dry wt of sediment in control lakes. Bone 226Ra concentrations were higher than in muscle. The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), a predatory secondary consumer, had bone 226Ra levels (< 20 mBq g(-1) dry wt) that did not show significant site variation. In contrast, bottom feeding whitefish had significantly more 226Ra in bone tissue (to 38 mBq g(-1) dry wt in the lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, and 76 mBq g(-1) in round whitefish, Prosopium cylindraceum) in study lakes than in controls (< 20 mBq g(-1) dry wt). Ra-226 levels in lake trout muscle were low and showed erratic variation among lakes whereas levels in whitefish muscle did not vary significantly among study and control sites. Lake herring (= cisco, Coregonus artedii), a planktivorous fish taken only from Quirke Lake, had mean 226Ra levels of 18 and 1.4 mBq g(-1) dry wt in bone and muscle, respectively. Gut 226Ra levels, highest in lake trout from McCabe and Quirke Lakes (126 +/- 53, 64 +/- 44 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), and just detectable in McCabe and Elliot Lake whitefish (24 +/- 2, 36 +/- 14 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), were below detection in lake trout and whitefish from other lakes. Concentration ratios (CRs) of 226Ra from

  4. Multi-Elements in Waters and Sediments of Shallow Lakes: Relationships with Water, Sediment, and Watershed Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Donna L.; Hanson, Mark A.; Herwig, Brian R.; Bowe, Shane E.; Otte, Marinus L.

    2015-01-01

    We measured concentrations of multiple elements, including rare earth elements, in waters and sediments of 38 shallow lakes of varying turbidity and macrophyte cover in the Prairie Parkland (PP) and Laurentian Mixed Forest (LMF) provinces of Minnesota. PP shallow lakes had higher element concentrations in waters and sediments compared to LMF sites. Redundancy analysis indicated that a combination of site- and watershed-scale features explained a large proportion of among-lake variability in element concentrations in lake water and sediments. Percent woodland cover in watersheds, turbidity, open water area, and macrophyte cover collectively explained 65.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake waters. Sediment fraction smaller than 63 µm, percent woodland in watersheds, open water area, and sediment organic matter collectively explained 64.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake sediments. In contrast to earlier work on shallow lakes, our results showed the extent to which multiple elements in shallow lake waters and sediments were influenced by a combination of variables including sediment characteristics, lake morphology, and percent land cover in watersheds. These results are informative because they help illustrate the extent of functional connectivity between shallow lakes and adjacent lands within these lake watersheds. PMID:26074657

  5. Pesticides and their breakdown products in Lake Waxahachie, Texas, and in finished drinking water from the lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ging, Patricia B.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has collected pesticide data from streams and aquifers throughout the Nation (Gilliom and others, 1995). However, little published information on pesticides in public drinking water is available. The NAWQA Program usually collects data on the sources of drinking water but not on the finished drinking water. Therefore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in conjunction with the NAWQA Program, has initiated a nationwide pilot project to collect information on concentrations of pesticides and their breakdown products in finished drinking water, in source waters such as reservoirs, and in the basins that contribute water to the reservoirs. The pilot project was designed to collect water samples from finished drinking-water supplies and the associated source water from selected reservoirs that receive runoff from a variety of land uses. Lake Waxahachie, in Ellis County in north-central Texas, was chosen to represent a reservoir receiving water that includes runoff from cotton cropland. This fact sheet presents the results of pesticide sampling of source water from Lake Waxahachie and in finished drinking water from the lake. Analyses are compared to indicate differences in pesticide detections and concentrations between lake water and finished drinking water.

  6. Water balance of selected floodplain lake basins in the Middle Bug River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

    2013-08-01

    This study is the first attempt in the literature on the subject of comparing water balance equations for floodplain lake basins depending on the type of connection the lake has to its parent river. Where confluent lakes (upstream connections) were concerned, it was only possible to apply a classic water balance equation. When dealing with contrafluent lakes (downstream connections) as well as lakes with a complex recharge type (contrafluent-confluent) modified equations were created. The hydrological type of a lake is decided by high water flow conditions and, consequently, the duration of potamophase (connection with a river) and limnophase (the isolation of the lake), which determine the values of particular components and the proportion of the vertical to horizontal water exchange rate. Confluent lakes are characterised by the highest proportion of horizontal components (the inflow and runoff of river water) to the vertical ones (precipitation and evaporation). The smallest differences occur with respect to a contrafluent lake. In the case of confluent lakes, the relationship between water balance components resulted from the consequent water flow through the basin, consistent with the slope of the river channel and valley. The supplying channels of contrafluent lakes had an obsequent character, which is why the flow rate was lower. Lakes with a complex, contrafluent-confluent recharge type showed intermediate features. After a period of slow contrafluent recharge, the inflow of water through a downstream crevasse from the area of the headwater of the river was activated; this caused a radical change of flow conditions into confluent ones. The conditions of water retention in lake basins were also varied. Apart from hydrological recharge, also the orographic features of the catchment areas of the lakes played an important role here, for example, the distance from the river channel, the altitude at which a given catchment was located within the floodplain and

  7. Water quality of potential reference lakes in the Arkansas Valley and Ouachita Mountain ecoregions, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.; Meredith, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a study to identify reference lakes in two lake classifications common to parts of two level III ecoregions in western Arkansas—the Arkansas Valley and Ouachita Mountains. Fifty-two lakes were considered. A screening process that relied on land-use data was followed by reconnaissance water-quality sampling, and two lakes from each ecoregion were selected for intensive water-quality sampling. Our data suggest that Spring Lake is a suitable reference lake for the Arkansas Valley and that Hot Springs Lake is a suitable reference lake for the Ouachita Mountains. Concentrations for five nutrient constituents—orthophosphorus, total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total organic carbon—were lower at Spring Lake on all nine sampling occasions and transparency measurements at Spring Lake were significantly deeper than measurements at Cove Lake. For the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion, water quality at Hot Springs Lake slightly exceeded that of Lake Winona. The most apparent water-quality differences for the two lakes were related to transparency and total organic carbon concentrations, which were deeper and lower at Hot Springs Lake, respectively. Our results indicate that when nutrient concentrations are low, transparency may be more valuable for differentiating between lake water quality than chemical constituents that have been useful for distinguishing between water-quality conditions in mesotrophic and eutrophic settings. For example, in this oligotrophic setting, concentrations for chlorophyll a can be less than 5 μg/L and diurnal variability that is typically associated with dissolved oxygen in more productive settings was not evident.

  8. Water quality of potential reference lakes in the Arkansas Valley and Ouachita Mountain ecoregions, Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Justus, Billy; Meredith, Bradley

    2014-06-01

    This report describes a study to identify reference lakes in two lake classifications common to parts of two level III ecoregions in western Arkansas-the Arkansas Valley and Ouachita Mountains. Fifty-two lakes were considered. A screening process that relied on land-use data was followed by reconnaissance water-quality sampling, and two lakes from each ecoregion were selected for intensive water-quality sampling. Our data suggest that Spring Lake is a suitable reference lake for the Arkansas Valley and that Hot Springs Lake is a suitable reference lake for the Ouachita Mountains. Concentrations for five nutrient constituents--orthophosphorus, total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total organic carbon--were lower at Spring Lake on all nine sampling occasions and transparency measurements at Spring Lake were significantly deeper than measurements at Cove Lake. For the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion, water quality at Hot Springs Lake slightly exceeded that of Lake Winona. The most apparent water-quality differences for the two lakes were related to transparency and total organic carbon concentrations, which were deeper and lower at Hot Springs Lake, respectively. Our results indicate that when nutrient concentrations are low, transparency may be more valuable for differentiating between lake water quality than chemical constituents that have been useful for distinguishing between water-quality conditions in mesotrophic and eutrophic settings. For example, in this oligotrophic setting, concentrations for chlorophyll a can be less than 5 μg/L and diurnal variability that is typically associated with dissolved oxygen in more productive settings was not evident.

  9. Progress report: chemical character of surface waters in the Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, Herbert A.

    1950-01-01

    Devils Lake in northeastern North Dakota was at one time the most popular summer resort in the state. With decline in lake level the lake has become a shallow body pf vary saline water, which scenic value and recreational appeal completely destroyed. Under the Missouri River development program, it is proposed to restore the lake level to an altitude of 1,425 feet by diversion of Missouri River water. The chemical character of the water in Devils Lake and in other surface bodies in Devils Lake Basin is determined from the analyses of 95 samples. The physical and chemical properties of lake bed deposits are also shown. Lake water in the basin vary considerable in both concentration and composition, ranging from fresh bicarbonate waters of 300 parts per million dissolved solids to sulfate waters of over 100,000 parts per million of soluble salts. Twenty-four samples indicates the chemical character of water in the Red River of the North and its tributaries. The probable concentration of dissolved solids in water of Devils Lake at altitude 1,425 feet has been estimated as ranging from 3,000 to 7,600 parts per million. Final concentration will largely depend upon the percentage of deposited salts reentering solution and the quality of the inflow water. The possible effects of lake effluents on downstream developments, with particular reference to sanitation and pollution problems, are also discussed in this report.

  10. Paleoecology of a Northern Michigan Lake and the relationship among climate, vegetation, and Great Lakes water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, R.K.; Jackson, S.T.; Thompson, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    We reconstructed Holocene water-level and vegetation dynamics based on pollen and plant macrofossils from a coastal lake in Upper Michigan. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that major fluctuations in Great Lakes water levels resulted in part from climatic changes. We also used our data to provide temporal constraints to the mid-Holocene dry period in Upper Michigan. From 9600 to 8600 cal yr B.P. a shallow, lacustrine environment characterized the Mud Lake basin. A Sphagnum-dominated wetland occupied the basin during the mid-Holocene dry period (???8600 to 6600 cal yr B.P.). The basin flooded at 6600 cal yr B.P. as a result of rising water levels associated with the onset of the Nipissing I phase of ancestral Lake Superior. This flooding event occured contemporaneously with a well-documented regional expansion of Tsuga. Betula pollen increased during the Nipissing II phase (4500 cal yr B.P.). Macrofossil evidence from Mud Lake suggests that Betula alleghaniensis expansion was primarily responsible for the rising Betula pollen percentages. Major regional and local vegetational changes were associated with all the major Holocene highstands of the western Great Lakes (Nipissing I, Nipissing II, and Algoma). Traditional interpretations of Great Lakes water-level history should be revised to include a major role of climate. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  11. OBIA based hierarchical image classification for industrial lake water.

    PubMed

    Uca Avci, Z D; Karaman, M; Ozelkan, E; Kumral, M; Budakoglu, M

    2014-07-15

    Water management is very important in water mining regions for the sustainability of the natural environment and for industrial activities. This study focused on Acigol Lake, which is an important wetland for sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) production, a significant natural protection area and habitat for local bird species and endemic species of this saline environment, and a stopover for migrating flamingos. By a hierarchical classification method, ponds representing the industrial part were classified according to in-situ measured Baumé values, and lake water representing the natural part was classified according to in-situ measurements of water depth. The latter is directly related to the water level, which should not exceed a critical level determined by the regulatory authorities. The resulting data, produced at an accuracy of around 80%, illustrates the status in two main regions for a single date. The output of the analysis may be meaningful for firms and environmental researchers, and authorizations can provide a good perspective for decision making for sustainable resource management in the region which has uncommon and specific ecological characteristics.

  12. Hydrogeologic setting, water budget, and preliminary analysis of ground-water exchange at Lake Starr, a seepage lake in Polk County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, T.M.; O'Hare, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    Lake Starr, a 134-acre seepage lake of multiple-sinkhole origin on the Lake Wales Ridge of central Florida, was the subject of a detailed water-budget study from August 1996 through July 1998. The study monitored the effects of hydrogeologic setting, climate, and ground-water pumping on the water budget and lake stage. The hydrogeologic setting of the Lake Starr basin differs markedly on the two sides of the lake. Ground water from the surficial aquifer system flows into the lake from the northwest side of the basin, and lake water leaks out to the surficial aquifer system on the southeast side of the basin. Lake Starr and the surrounding surficial aquifer system recharge the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The rate of recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer is determined by the integrity of the intermediate confining unit and by the downward head gradient between the two aquifers. On the inflow side of the lake, the intermediate confining unit is more continuous, allowing ground water from the surficial aquifer system to flow laterally into the lake. Beneath the lake and on the southeast side of the basin, breaches in the intermediate confining unit enhance downward flow to the Upper Floridan aquifer, so that water flows both downward and laterally away from the lake through the ground-water flow system in these areas. An accurate water budget, including evaporation measured by the energy-budget method, was used to calculate net ground-water flow to the lake, and to do a preliminary analysis of the relation of net ground-water fluxes to other variables. Water budgets constructed over different timeframes provided insight on processes that affect ground-water interactions with Lake Starr. Weekly estimates of net ground-water flow provided evidence for the occurrence of transient inflows from the nearshore basin, as well as the short-term effects of head in the Upper Floridan aquifer on ground-water exchange with the lake. Monthly water budgets showed the effects

  13. Modeling Hydrodynamics and Heat Transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Implications for Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Cheng, Ralph T.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Hoilman, Gene R.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wellman, Roy E.

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional numerical model UnTRIM was used to model hydrodynamics and heat transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, between mid-June and mid-September in 2005 and between mid-May and mid-October in 2006. Data from as many as six meteorological stations were used to generate a spatially interpolated wind field to use as a forcing function. Solar radiation, air temperature, and relative humidity data all were available at one or more sites. In general, because the available data for all inflows and outflows did not adequately close the water budget as calculated from lake elevation and stage-capacity information, a residual inflow or outflow was used to assure closure of the water budget. Data used for calibration in 2005 included lake elevation at 3 water-level gages around the lake, water currents at 5 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) sites, and temperature at 16 water-quality monitoring locations. The calibrated model accurately simulated the fluctuations of the surface of the lake caused by daily wind patterns. The use of a spatially variable surface wind interpolated from two sites on the lake and four sites on the shoreline generally resulted in more accurate simulation of the currents than the use of a spatially invariant surface wind as observed at only one site on the lake. The simulation of currents was most accurate at the deepest site (ADCP1, where the velocities were highest) using a spatially variable surface wind; the mean error (ME) and root mean square error (RMSE) for the depth-averaged speed over a 37-day simulation from July 26 to August 31, 2005, were 0.50 centimeter per second (cm/s) and 3.08 cm/s, respectively. Simulated currents at the remaining sites were less accurate and, in general, underestimated the measured currents. The maximum errors in simulated currents were at a site near the southern end of the trench at the mouth of Howard Bay (ADCP7), where the ME and RMSE in the depth-averaged speed were 3.02 and 4.38 cm

  14. Historic and modern abundance of wild lean lake trout in Michigan waters of Lake Superior: Implications for restoration goals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilberg, Michael J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior collapsed in the late 1950s due to overfishing and predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. A binational effort to restore the lean morphotype of lake trout began with the stocking of hatchery-reared fish followed by the chemical control of sea lampreys and closure of the commercial fishery. Previous comparisons of the contemporary abundance of wild lean lake trout with that from historic commercial fishery statistics indicate that abundance was higher historically. However, this conclusion may be biased because several factors—the inclusion of siscowet (the “fat” morphotype of lake trout) in the catch statistics, the soak time of nets, seasonal effects on catch per effort, and the confounding effects of effort targeted at lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis—were not accounted for. We developed new indices of historic lean lake trout abundance that correct for these biases and compared them with the assessment data from 1984 to 1998 in Michigan waters of Lake Superior. The modern (1984–1998) abundance of wild lean lake trout is at least as high as that during 1929–1943 in six of eight management areas but lower in one area. Measures to promote and protect naturally reproducing populations have been more successful than previously realized.

  15. Water budget determination for Northern groundwater dependent lakes using stable isotopes of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isokangas, Elina; Rossi, Pekka; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-04-01

    Understanding groundwater - surface water interaction is crucial in numerous water resources management problems. Stable isotopes of water can bring understanding of this interaction especially in catchment scale questions. In this study stable isotopes were used in a Finnish esker aquifer (Lat 64.58° , Lon 26.50° ) where groundwater dependent lakes have suffered from seasonal water level declines. Esker aquifers are the main groundwater reserves in Finland used in water abstraction. In order to determine how hydrology of the lakes is dependent on groundwater, the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen was studied from 36 sampling points during years 2010 to 2012. Samples were taken from 13 groundwater pipes, 11 lakes and 11 streams during winter, spring, summer and autumn. Additionally local precipitation was sampled. The CRDS-method (Picarro L2120-i analyzer) was used to analyze δ18O- and δ2H-values. The data from the study was used to define the Local Meteoric Water Line of the site (δ2H = 7.60 δ18O + 6.70) and the groundwater line of the esker aquifer (δ2H = 7.59 δ18O + 4.79). The groundwater line of the esker aquifer differs from the groundwater line of Finnish groundwaters (δ2H = 8.51 δ18O + 16.65) based on previous studies. This emphasizes the importance of using local isotopic values when stable isotopes of water are used in hydrological studies. Furthermore, the isotopic compositions of the examined lakes differed enough from the isotopic composition of the local groundwater to separate groundwater component in the lake hydrology. The results also verified that evaporation from lakes in Northern Finland can be high enough to utilize isotopic method for determination of groundwater and surface water interactions.

  16. Hydrology and water quality of East Lake Tohopekaliga, Osceola County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, Donna M.

    1987-01-01

    East Lake Tohopekaliga, one of the major lakes in central Florida, is located in the upper Kissimmee River basin in north-east Osceola County. It is one of numerous lakes in the upper basin used for flood control, in addition to recreation and some irrigation of surrounding pasture. This report is the fourth in a series of lake reconnaissance studies in the Kissimmee River basin prepared in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide government agencies and the public with a brief summary of the lake 's hydrology and water quality. Site information is given and includes map number, site name, location, and type of data available (specific conductivity, pH, alkalinity, turbidity, color, dissolved oxygen, hardness, dissolved chlorides, dissolved sodium, dissolved calcium, dissolved magnesium, dissolved potassium, nitrogen, ammonia, nitrates, carbon and phosphorus). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintained a lake stage gaging station on East Lake Tohopekaliga from 1942 to 1968. The South Florida Water Management District has recorded lake stage since 1963. Periodic water quality samples have been collected from the lake by the South Florida Water Management District and USGS. Water quality and discharge data have been collected for one major tributary to the lake, Boggy Creek. Although few groundwater data are available for the study area, results of previous studies of the groundwater resources of Osceola County are included in this report. To supplement the water quality data for East Lake Tohopekaliga, water samples were collected at selected sites in November 1982 (dry season) and in August 1983 (rainy season). Samples were taken at inflow points, and in the lake, and vertical profiles of dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured in the lake. A water budget from an EPA report on the lake is also included. (Lantz-PTT)

  17. Estimation of total cloud cover from solar radiation observations at Lake Rotorua, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Liancong; Hamilton, David; Han, Boping

    2010-03-15

    The DYRESM-CAEDYM model is a valuable tool for simulating water temperature for biochemical studies in aquatic ecosystem. The model requires inputs of surface short-wave radiation and long-wave radiation or total cloud cover fraction (TC). Long-wave radiation is often not measured directly so a method to determine TC from commonly measured short-wave solar irradiance (E{sub 0}) and theoretical short-wave solar irradiance under a clear sky (E{sub c}) has broad application. A more than 17-year (15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009) hourly solar irradiance data set was used to estimate the peak solar irradiance for each ordinal date over one year, which was assumed to be representative of solar irradiance in the absence of cloud. Comparison between these daily observed values and the modelled clear-sky solar radiation over one year was in close agreement (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.995 and root mean squared error, RMSE = 12.54 W m{sup -2}). The downloaded hourly cloudiness measurements from 15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009 was used to calculate the daily values for this period and then the calculated daily values over the 17 years were used to calculate the average values for each ordinal date over one year. A regression equation between (1 - E{sub 0}/E{sub c}) and TC produced a correlation coefficient value of 0.99 (p > 0.01, n = 71). The validation of this cloud cover estimation model was conducted with observed short-wave solar radiation and TC at two sites. Values of TC derived from the model at the Lake Rotorua site gave a reasonable prediction of the observed values (RMSE = 0.10, r = 0.86, p > 0.01, n = 61). The model was also tested at Queenstown (South Island of New Zealand) and it provided satisfactory results compared to the measurements (RMSE = 0.16, r = 0.67, p > 0.01, n = 61). Therefore the model's good performance and broad applicability will contribute to the DYRESM-CAEDYM accuracy of water temperature simulation when long-wave radiation

  18. District wide water resources investigation and management using LANDSAT data. Phase 1: Lake volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, S. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A technique for estimating available water storage volume using LANDSAT data was developed and applied to Lake Washington and Lake Harris in central Florida. The technique can be applied two ways. First, where the historical stage records are available, the historical LANDSAT data can be used to establish the relationship between lake volume and lake stage. In the second case, where the historical stage records are not available, the historical LANDSAT data can be used to estimate the historical lake stage after the lake volume and stage information become available in the future.

  19. Hydrology, water quality, trophic status, and aquatic plants of Fowler Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The low annual phosphorus input (28 pounds per square mile) to the lake from the Oconomowoc River shows the benefit of upstream lakes on the Oconomowoc River. Fourteen percent of the phosphorus input load to Fowler Lake is deposited in the lake sediments and the rest is transported through the lake by surface-water flow to downstream Lac La Belle. Dense growths of macrophytes in the lake change in composition seasonally; chara sp. (muskgrass) and Myriophyllum sp. (milfoil) are abundant in June and Najas marina and Vallesneria Americana (wild celery) are abundant in August.

  20. Ground-water and surface-water flow and estimated water budget for Lake Seminole, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Seminole is a 37,600-acre impoundment formed at the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers along the Georgia?Florida State line. Outflow from Lake Seminole through Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam provides headwater to the Apalachicola River, which is a major supply of freshwater, nutrients, and detritus to ecosystems downstream. These rivers,together with their tributaries, are hydraulically connected to karst limestone units that constitute most of the Upper Floridan aquifer and to a chemically weathered residuum of undifferentiated overburden. The ground-water flow system near Lake Seminole consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer and undifferentiated overburden. The aquifer is confined below by low-permeability sediments of the Lisbon Formation and, generally, is semiconfined above by undifferentiated overburden. Ground-water flow within the Upper Floridan aquifer is unconfined or semiconfined and discharges at discrete points by springflow or diffuse leakage into streams and other surface-water bodies. The high degree of connectivity between the Upper Floridan aquifer and surface-water bodies is limited to the upper Eocene Ocala Limestone and younger units that are in contact with streams in the Lake Seminole area. The impoundment of Lake Seminole inundated natural stream channels and other low-lying areas near streams and raised the water-level altitude of the Upper Floridan aquifer near the lake to nearly that of the lake, about 77 feet. Surface-water inflow from the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers and Spring Creek and outflow to the Apalachicola River through Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam dominate the water budget for Lake Seminole. About 81 percent of the total water-budget inflow consists of surface water; about 18 percent is ground water, and the remaining 1 percent is lake precipitation. Similarly, lake outflow consists of about 89 percent surface water, as flow to the Apalachicola River through Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, about 4 percent ground water

  1. Estimation of water storage change of Lake Nasser using GRACE gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahran, Khaled

    2010-05-01

    Lake Nasser, which impounds by the High Dam, is the main water reservoir for the whole Egyptian territory. Water storage at the lake plays an essential role in water demands and affects almost the whole country. Thus, observation based information about water income, the spatial distribution and temporal variation of water storage is of great importance. We used data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to determine the spatiotemporal variation of water stored on the Lake or beneath the crust surrounding it. Integrated gravity signals from Grace have been separated into its individual components related to mass redistribution in and around the Lake. Temporal gravity variation from GRACE correlated quiet well with the hydrological cycle of the Lake. Spectral analysis has been used to differentiate between water storage in the Lake and the spatial distribution of underground water variation. On the other hand, GRACE data enable the complete scope of the whole Nile basin and its relation to the water storage of the Lake. In this manner, filtering of the spherical harmonics from GRACE plays an important role and has been tested in the current research. Finally, global data from GRACE to the whole Nile basin together with global hydrological models give important information of the seasonal water income to the Lake and puts an important step toward for the construction of a hydrological model to predict water income to the Lake.

  2. Spatial and seasonal variations in attenuation of solar ultraviolet radiation in Lake Biwa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Sugiyama, Yuko

    2008-02-27

    Seasonal changes in diffuse ultraviolet (UV) and visible light attenuations and inherent optical properties in the lake water were monitored at the pelagic and littoral shallow zones of Lake Biwa which features a broad range of optical conditions within a single large water body. We considered the absorption factors that affect UV attenuation, and clarified the contribution of the absorption of suspended particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) by multiple regression analyses of the monitoring data. The variability of UV attenuations in the lake demonstrated a strong contrast between the pelagic and the shallow zones. The latter were characterized by turbid systems supplying suspended matter as well as CDOM, whereas the former was far from the turbid systems in the littoral zone or the lake bottom. In this lake, the regulation of UV and light attenuations is rendered competitive by the absorption of suspended particles and CDOM in the lake water, hence, the UV penetration has both spatial and temporal variability based on changes in the physical and biological condition of the lake. PMID:18207416

  3. ASSESSING WATER QUALITY CHANGES IN THE LAKES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES USING SEDIMENT DIATOMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diatom assemblages were selected as indicators of lake condition and to assess historical lake water quality changes in 257 lakes in the northeastern United States. The "top" (surface sediments, present-day) and "bottom" (generally from >30 cm deep, representing historical condit...

  4. Evaluation of a cooling-lake fishery. Volume 1. Introduction, water quality, and summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larimore, R.W.; McNurney, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    Volume 1 consists of (1) a statement of project objectives and a detailed description of the study areas, (2) a comparison of water quality in Lake Sangchris, a cooling lake, and Lake Shelbyville, a nearby flood control reservoir, and (3) a summary of the other three volumes.

  5. Effects of climate change on deep-water oxygen and winter mixing in a deep lake (Lake Geneva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwefel, Robert; Alfred, Wüest; Damien, Bouffard

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen is the most important dissolved gas for lake ecosystems. Because low oxygen concentrations are an ongoing problem in many parts of the oceans and numerous lakes, oxygen depletion processes have been intensively studied over the last decades and were mainly attributed to high nutrient loads. Recently, climate-induced changes in stratification and mixing behavior were recognized as additional thread to hypolimnetic oxygen budgets in lakes and reservoirs [Matzinger et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2015]. Observational data of Lake Geneva, a deep perialpine lake situated between France and Switzerland showed no decreasing trend in hypoxia over the last 43 years, despite an impressive reduction in nutrient input during this period. Instead, hypoxic conditions were predominantly controlled by deep mixing end of winter and in turn by winter temperatures. To test the sensitivity of Lake Geneva on future climate change and changes in water transparency, we simulated the hydrodynamics and temperature of Lake Geneva under varying conditions for atmospheric temperature and water clarity performed with the one-dimensional model SIMSTRAT [Goudsmit, 2002]. The results show, that the stratification in lakes is only weakly affected by changes in light absorption due to varying water quality. For conditions expected for the end of the century, a decrease in the annual mean deep convective mixing of up to 45 m is predicted. Also complete mixing events over the whole lake are less likely to occur. A change in the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration of up to 20% can thus be expected in the future. These results show, that changes in deep mixing have an equally strong impact as eutrophication on the deep-water oxygen development of oligomictic lakes and have to be considered in the prediction of the future development of lakes. References: Goudsmit, G. H., H. Burchard, F. Peeters, and A. Wüest (2002), Application of k-ɛ turbulence models to enclosed basins: The role of internal

  6. Comparison of selected cultural, physical, and water-quality characteristics of lakes in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Dion, N.P.

    1979-01-01

    The report presents comparisons and a graphical overview of the relative magnitude and regional and statewide distribution of 19 selected cultural, physical, and water-quality characteristics measured in a reconnaissance study of several hundred lakes in Washington. Statewide, mean depth of almost one-fourth of the lakes is shallow (2.0 meters or less), and only 7 percent of the lakes have mean depths greater than 20 meters. About one-third of the lakes had Secchi-disc readings of 2.0 meters or less, a value often considered characteristic of eutrophic lakes. The poorest water clarity was observed in the Columbia Plateau, where 68 percent of the lakes had Secchi-disc readings of less than 2.0 meters. More than one-third of the lakes in the State had total phosphorus concentrations that exceeded 30 micrograms per liter, a concentration that is often considered characteristic of eutrophic lakes. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Hydrological drivers of record-setting water level rise on Earth's largest lake system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Bruxer, J.; Durnford, D.; Smith, J. P.; Clites, A. H.; Seglenieks, F.; Qian, S. S.; Hunter, T. S.; Fortin, V.

    2016-05-01

    Between January 2013 and December 2014, water levels on Lake Superior and Lake Michigan-Huron, the two largest lakes on Earth by surface area, rose at the highest rate ever recorded for a 2 year period beginning in January and ending in December of the following year. This historic event coincided with below-average air temperatures and extensive winter ice cover across the Great Lakes. It also brought an end to a 15 year period of persistently below-average water levels on Lakes Superior and Michigan-Huron that included several months of record-low water levels. To differentiate hydrological drivers behind the recent water level rise, we developed a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) routine for inferring historical estimates of the major components of each lake's water budget. Our results indicate that, in 2013, the water level rise on Lake Superior was driven by increased spring runoff and over-lake precipitation. In 2014, reduced over-lake evaporation played a more significant role in Lake Superior's water level rise. The water level rise on Lake Michigan-Huron in 2013 was also due to above-average spring runoff and persistent over-lake precipitation, while in 2014, it was due to a rare combination of below-average evaporation, above-average runoff and precipitation, and very high inflow rates from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River. We expect, in future research, to apply our new framework across the other Laurentian Great Lakes, and to Earth's other large freshwater basins as well.

  8. The influence of irrigation water on the hydrology and lake water budgets of two small arid-climate lakes in Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.; Rosen, Michael R.; Saito, L.; Decker, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known regarding the origins and hydrology of hundreds of small lakes located in the western Uzbekistan province of Khorezm, Central Asia. Situated in the Aral Sea Basin, Khorezm is a productive agricultural region, growing mainly cotton, wheat, and rice. Irrigation is provided by an extensive canal network that conveys water from the Amu Darya River (AD) throughout the province. The region receives on average 10 cm/year of precipitation, yet potential evapotranspiration exceeds this amount by about 15 times. It was hypothesized that the perennial existence of the lakes of interest depends on periodic input of excess irrigation water. This hypothesis was investigated by studying two small lakes in the region, Tuyrek and Khodjababa. In June and July 2008, surface water and shallow groundwater samples were collected at these lake systems and surrounding communities and analyzed for δ2H, δ18O, and major ion hydrochemistry to determine water sources. Water table and lake surface elevations were monitored, and the local aquifer characteristics were determined through aquifer tests. These data and climate data from a Class A evaporation pan and meteorological stations were used to estimate water budgets for both lakes. Lake evaporation was found to be about 0.7 cm/day during the study period. Results confirm that the waters sampled at both lake systems and throughout central Khorezm were evaporated from AD water to varying degrees. Together, the water budgets and stable isotope and major ion hydrochemistry data suggest that without surface water input from some source (i.e. excess irrigation water), these and other Khorezm lakes with similar hydrology may decrease in volume dramatically, potentially to the point of complete desiccation.

  9. State of the Middle Great Lakes: results of the 1983 water quality survey of Lakes Erie, Huron, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Lesht, B.M.; Rockwell, D.C.

    1985-08-01

    Results and program objewaatertives are discussed in the context of past and proposed lake surveillance activities. Surveillance methods are briefly explained. Data are evaluated and compared relative to spatial, temporal and seasonal variability within and between the three lakes sampled and in relation to water-quality assessment issues. Survey results and historical data on water-quality parameters are compared with the results of numerical simulations using two different types of model - nutrient-based eutrophication models and multisegment, mass-balance models. The authors conclude, on the basis of the 1983 surveillance program results, that water-quality conditions of the three lakes have, in general, improved since the last intensive survey in the 1970s. Recommendations are made that open-lake water-quality surveillance be conducted on an annual basis; that estimates of nutrient loading to the lakes be refined; that the role of the benthic nepheloid layer and of particle removal in general on the cycling of nutrients in the Great Lakes be studied; that refinement of water-quality modeling efforts be continued; and that research activities and methodology be incorporated into the surveillance program. Finally, raw data collected during the 1983 program are presented in tabular form and on microfiche in appendices at the end of the report. Cruise data are included on microfiche. 53 refs., 54 figs., 43 tabs.

  10. Inflow, outflow, and water levels in Lake Michigan during the last part of the Wisconsin glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, L.; Attig, J.W. ); Mickelson, D.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    Between about 14,000 and 10,000 B.P., water flowed to and from Lake Michigan through several channels connected with adjacent glacial lakes and the Mississippi basin. Inflow and outflow depend on lake-level fluctuations, but no known lake-level chronology for the Lake Michigan basin explains all the supposed facts. Several kinds of information can be use to construct such a chronology: elevations of beaches, elevations and locations of outlets, ice-margin positions, till stratigraphy, and glacial history relative to outlets and lake-sediment distribution. If the crustal rebound predicted by J.A. Clark (bracketed by glacial Lake Wisconsin and Door Peninsula water planes) is used as the basis for a lake-level chronology, lake elevations would have been much higher than previously recognized, beaches previously thought to be late glacial must be middle Holocene, and the predicted sequence of spillways from glacial Lake Oshkosh, in the Green Bay basin, to Lake Michigan seems incompatible with the till stratigraphy of the region. On the other hand, a hinge line model such as proposed by J.W. Goldthwait allows far less rebound than is required by their knowledge of present-day rebound and by the rebound interpreted from shore features of glacial Lake Wisconsin. Therefore major flaws exist in their understanding of the glacial chronology and stratigraphy, of the glacial lake deposits, or of the crustal rebound; the reconstructed of inflow and outflow will remain uncertain until these conflicts are resolved.

  11. Role of exchange flow in salt water balance of Urmia Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Aliasghar; Jamali, Mirmosadegh

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we examine how exchange flow in Urmia Lake plays a crucial role in dynamics of the lake. Urmia Lake, a very large hyper-saline lake of high ecological significance, is located in northwest of Iran with a 15-km causeway dividing it into north and south lakes. A 1250-m opening in the causeway near the east coast links the two lakes. The differences in mean water levels and densities of the two lakes increase in spring due to large freshwater inflows into the south lake. High evaporation dominates the lake in summer. By incorporating the results of a two-layer hydraulics theory into a mixing model of the lake, we show that the exchange flow through the opening diminishes the water level and salinity differences of the two lakes and hence helps restoration of the pre-construction state of the lake by the end of fall. The model results are confirmed by the field data. The north-south and south-north flows through the opening are equal in most of the year, except in spring when the south-north flow is greater due to the head difference of the two lakes.

  12. Hydrogeology, hydrologic budget, and water chemistry of the Medina Lake area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Grimm, Kenneth C.; Lee, Roger W.

    2000-01-01

    A three-phase study of the Medina Lake area in Texas was done to assess the hydrogeology and hydrology of Medina and Diversion Lakes combined (the lake system) and to determine what fraction of seepage losses from the lake system might enter the regional ground-water-flow system of the Edwards and (or) Trinity aquifers. Phase 1 consisted of revising the geologic framework for the Medina Lake area. Results of field mapping show that the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone underlies Medina Lake and the intervening stream channel from the outflow of Medina Lake to the midpoint of Diversion Lake, where the Diversion Lake fault intersects Diversion Lake. A thin sequence of strata consisting primarily of the basal nodular and dolomitic members of the Kainer Formation of the Edwards Group, is present in the southern part of the study area. On the southern side of Medina Lake, the contact between the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone and the basal nodular member is approximately 1,000 feet above mean sea level, and the contact between the basal nodular member and the dolomitic member is approximately 1,050 feet above mean sea level. The most porous and permeable part of the basal nodular member is about 1,045 feet above mean sea level. At these altitudes, Medina Lake is in hydrologic connection with rocks in the Edwards aquifer recharge zone, and Medina Lake appears to lose more water to the ground-water system along this bedding plane contact. Hydrologic budgets calculated during phase 2 for Medina Lake, Diversion Lake, and Medina/Diversion Lakes combined indicate that: (1) losses from Medina and Diversion Lakes can be quantified; (2) a portion of those losses are entering the Edwards aquifer; and (3) losses to the Trinity aquifer in the Medina Lake area are minimal and within the error of the hydrologic budgets. Hydrologic budgets based on streamflow, precipitation, evaporation, and change in lake storage were used to quantify losses (recharge) to the ground-water

  13. Monitoring Changes in Water Resources Systems Using High Resolution Satellite Observations: Application to Lake Urmia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi, H.; AghaKouchak, A.; Madani, K.; Mirchi, A.; Farahmand, A.; Conway, C.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Urmia with its unique ecosystem in northwestern Iran is the second largest saltwater lake in the world. It is home of more than 300 species of birds, reptiles, and mammals with high salinity level of more than 300 g/l. In recent years, a significant water retreat has occurred in this lake. In this study, we tried to monitor the desiccation of the lake over more than four decades using remote sensing observations. Multi-spectral high-resolution LandSat images of the Lake Urmia region from 1972 to 2012 were acquired to derive the lake area. The composite maps of the lake were created, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood classification technique was used to classify land and water in the composite maps. The time series of the lake area reveals that it has shrunk by more than 40% in the past ten years. Moreover, water budget related components such as precipitation, soil moisture, and drought indices from remote sensing of the lake basin were utilized to investigate if droughts or climate change are the primary driving forces behind this phenomenon. These analyses show that the retreat of the lake is not related to droughts or global climate change as it has survived several drought events before year 2000. Similar analyses conducted on Lake Van located about 400 km west of Lake Urmia with very similar climate pattern revealed no significant areal change despite the lake's exposure to similar drought events. These results raise serious concern about the destructive role of unbridled development coupled with supply-oriented water management scheme driven by a classic upstream-downstream competition for water in the Lake Urmia region. There is an urgent need to investigate sustainable restoration initiatives for Lake Urmia in order to prevent an environmental disaster comparable to catastrophic death of Aral Sea.

  14. Coastal groundwater/surface-water interactions: a Great Lakes case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, Brian P.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    Key similarities exist between marine and Great Lakes coastal environments. Water and nutrient fluxes across lakebeds in the Great Lakes are influenced by seiche and wind set-up and set-down, analogous to tidal influence in marine settings. Groundwater/surface-water interactions also commonly involve a saline-fresh water interface, although in the Great-Lakes cases, it is groundwater that is commonly saline and surface water that is fresh. Evapotranspiration also affects nearshore hydrology in both settings. Interactions between groundwater and surface water have recently been identified as an important component of ecological processes in the Great Lakes. Water withdrawals and the reversal of the groundwater/surface water seepage gradient are also common to many coastal areas around the Great Lakes. As compared to surface water, regional groundwater that discharges to western Lake Erie from Michigan is highly mineralized. Studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at Erie State Game Area in southeastern Michigan, describe groundwater flow dynamics and chemistry, shallow lake-water chemistry, and fish and invertebrate communities. Results presented here provide an overview of recent progress of ongoing interdisciplinary studies of Great Lakes nearshore systems and describe a conceptual model that identifies relations among geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in the coastal habitats of Lake Erie. This conceptual model is based on analysis of hydraulic head in piezometers at the study site and chemical analysis of deep and shallow coastal groundwater.

  15. A multiscale investigation of ground water flow at Clear Lake, Iowa.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, William W

    2006-01-01

    Ground water flow was investigated at Clear Lake, a 1468-ha glacial lake in north-central Iowa, as part of a comprehensive water quality study. A multiscale approach, consisting of seepage meters (and a potentiomanometer), Darcy's law, and an analytic element (AE) model, was used to estimate ground water inflow to and outflow from the lake. Estimates from the three methods disagreed. Seepage meters recorded a median-specific discharge of 0.25 mum/s, which produced a lake inflow rate between 90,750 and 138,200 m3/d, but no detectable outflow. A wave-induced Bernoulli effect probably compromised both inflow and outflow measurements. Darcy's law was applied to 11 zones around the lake, producing inflow and outflow values of 10,500 and 5000 m3/d, respectively. The AE model, GFLOW, coupled with the parameter estimation model, UCODE, simulated ground water flow in a 700-km2 region using 31 hydraulic head and base flow measurements as calibration targets. The model produced ground water inflow and outflow rates of 14,300 and 9200 m3/d, respectively. Although not a substitute for field data, the model's ability to simulate ground water flow to the lake and the region, estimate uncertainty for model parameters, and calculate a lake stage and associated lake water balance makes it a powerful tool for water quality management and an attractive alternative to the traditional methods of ground water/lake investigation. PMID:16405464

  16. Estimated water and nutrient inflows and outflows, Lake Cochituate, eastern Massachusetts, 1977-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, F.B.

    1984-01-01

    Streamflow was the major source of water and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) to Lake Cochituate, followed by ground water, and then precipitation during April 1978 through March 1979. Compared to all sources during that period, streams contributed 7,217 million gallons (a little over 82 percent) of water, 63 ,000 pounds (between 50 and 60 percent) of nitrogen, and 3,000 pounds (94 percent) of phosphorus. A little over 60 percent of all the water that entered Lake Cochituate flowed from Fisk Pond. This single source transported about 38,000 pounds of nitrogen and 2,000 pounds of phosphorus. Ground-water inflow to Lake Cochituate occurs along its shoreline except at the north end of Lake Cochituate 's North Pond where natural seepage from the lake is occurring and at locations on the lake 's Middle and South Ponds where municipal wells induce infiltration of lake water amounting to 1,228 million gallons for that period. Discharge of ground water to the lake was estimated to range from 462 to 816 million gallons and transported from 31,000 to 55,000 pounds of nitrogen and from 46 to 82 pounds of phosphorus. Bulk precipitation was estimated to contribute about the same volume of water to the lake as ground water but double its phosphorus load. However, the load of nitrogen, 8000 pounds, from bulk precipitation was the smallest of any source. (USGS)

  17. Yangtze River Water Diversion into Lake Taihu for Algal Bloom Control: Is it Helping or Hurting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, K.; Li, Y.; Tang, C.; Qiu, L.; Yu, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Harmful algae blooms in Lake Taihu are getting worse every year due to excess nutrients flowing into the water, especially from the northern watershed areas. Impact of blooms on lake's ecosystem, fisheries and drinking water supply to local towns has been severe. Many efforts have been undertaken by both government entities and researchers since 1990 for restoring the lake such as dredging, wetland construction, control of watershed runoff but none has garnered more attention than the water-diversion project. In the water-diversion project, freshwater from the Yangtze River is transferred into the lake via the Wangyuhe River (in the north) and is eventually discharged from the lake via the Taipuhe River (in the south) in an attempt to dilute the polluted water and flush pollutants out of the lake. The effects of water transfer on lake water quality and ecology have drawn great attention because the effectiveness of this project is conflicting. Recent studies suggest that water transfer could only decrease the concentration of phytoplankton but may actually increase concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in some areas of the lake where nutrient concentrations are lower than the influent water. In this study, a three dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model was used to investigate mass balance and spatial distribution of nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) in Lake Taihu before and after transfer.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. E Appendix E to... shall adopt an antidegradation standard applicable to all waters of the Great Lakes System and identify the methods for implementing such a standard. Consistent with 40 CFR 131.12, an...

  19. What happens to near-shore habitat when lake and reservoir water levels decline?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water management and drought can lead to increased fluctuation and declines in lake and reservoir water levels. These changes can affect near-shore physical habitat and the biotic assemblages that depend upon it. Structural complexity at the land-water interface of lakes promote...

  20. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in... waters of the United States, excluding the Great Lakes. Licenses and MMC endorsements with either a Great... line as defined in 33 CFR part 80, the applicant must complete an examination on the COLREGS or...

  1. The effects of season and sand mining activities on thermal regime and water quality in a large shallow tropical lake.

    PubMed

    Sharip, Zati; Zaki, Ahmad Taqiyuddin Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Thermal structure and water quality in a large and shallow lake in Malaysia were studied between January 2012 and June 2013 in order to understand variations in relation to water level fluctuations and in-stream mining activities. Environmental variables, namely temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, chlorophyll-A and transparency, were measured using a multi-parameter probe and a Secchi disk. Measurements of environmental variables were performed at 0.1 m intervals from the surface to the bottom of the lake during the dry and wet seasons. High water level and strong solar radiation increased temperature stratification. River discharges during the wet season, and unsustainable sand mining activities led to an increased turbidity exceeding 100 NTU, and reduced transparency, which changed the temperature variation and subsequently altered the water quality pattern.

  2. Calcium carbonate nucleation in an alkaline lake surface water, Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Hoch, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Calcium concentration and calcite supersaturation (Ω) needed for calcium carbonate nucleation and crystal growth in Pyramid Lake (PL) surface water were determined during August of 1997, 2000, and 2001. PL surface water has Ω values of 10-16. Notwithstanding high Ω, calcium carbonate growth did not occur on aragonite single crystals suspended PL surface water for several months. However, calcium solution addition to PL surface-water samples caused reproducible calcium carbonate mineral nucleation and crystal growth. Mean PL surface-water calcium concentration at nucleation was 2.33 mM (n = 10), a value about nine times higher than the ambient PL surface-water calcium concentration (0.26 mM); mean Ω at nucleation (109 with a standard deviation of 8) is about eight times the PL surface-water Ω. Calcium concentration and Ω regulated the calcium carbonate formation in PL nucleation experiments and surface water. Unfiltered samples nucleated at lower Ω than filtered samples. Calcium concentration and Ω at nucleation for experiments in the presence of added particles were within one standard deviation of the mean for all samples. Calcium carbonate formation rates followed a simple rate expression of the form, rate (mM/min) = A (Ω) + B. The best fit rate equation "Rate (Δ mM/Δ min) = -0.0026 Ω + 0.0175 (r = 0.904, n = 10)" was statistically significant at greater than the 0.01 confidence level and gives, after rearrangement, Ω at zero rate of 6.7. Nucleation in PL surface water and morphology of calcium carbonate particles formed in PL nucleation experiments and in PL surface-water samples suggest crystal growth inhibition by multiple substances present in PL surface water mediates PL calcium carbonate formation, but there is insufficient information to determine the chemical nature of all inhibitors.

  3. Calcium Carbonate Nucleation in an Alkaline Lake Surface Water, Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Hoch, A.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium concentration and calcite supersaturation (??) needed for calcium carbonate nucleation and crystal growth in Pyramid Lake (PL) surface water were determined during August of 1997, 2000, and 2001. PL surface water has ?? values of 10-16. Notwithstanding high ??, calcium carbonate growth did not occur on aragonite single crystals suspended PL surface water for several months. However, calcium solution addition to PL surface-water samples caused reproducible calcium carbonate mineral nucleation and crystal growth. Mean PL surface-water calcium concentration at nucleation was 2.33 mM (n = 10), a value about nine times higher than the ambient PL surface-water calcium concentration (0.26 mM); mean ?? at nucleation (109 with a standard deviation of 8) is about eight times the PL surface-water ??. Calcium concentration and ?? regulated the calcium carbonate formation in PL nucleation experiments and surface water. Unfiltered samples nucleated at lower ?? than filtered samples. Calcium concentration and ?? at nucleation for experiments in the presence of added particles were within one standard deviation of the mean for all samples. Calcium carbonate formation rates followed a simple rate expression of the form, rate (mM/min) = A (??) + B. The best fit rate equation "Rate (?? mM/?? min) = -0.0026 ?? + 0.0175 (r = 0.904, n = 10)" was statistically significant at greater than the 0.01 confidence level and gives, after rearrangement, ?? at zero rate of 6.7. Nucleation in PL surface water and morphology of calcium carbonate particles formed in PL nucleation experiments and in PL surface-water samples suggest crystal growth inhibition by multiple substances present in PL surface water mediates PL calcium carbonate formation, but there is insufficient information to determine the chemical nature of all inhibitors. ?? 2011 U.S. Government.

  4. Climate change projections for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) recruitment in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Beard, T. Douglas; Lofgren, Brent M.

    2015-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is an ecologically, culturally, and economically important species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lake whitefish have been a staple food source for thousands of years and, since 1980, have supported the most economically valuable (annual catch value ≈ US$16.6 million) and productive (annual harvest ≈ 7 million kg) commercial fishery in the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior). Climate changes, specifically changes in temperature, wind, and ice cover, are expected to impact the ecology, production dynamics, and value of this fishery, because the success of recruitment to the fishery has been linked with these climatic factors. We used linear regression to determine the relationship between fall and spring air temperature indices, fall wind speed, winter ice cover, and lake whitefish recruitment in 13 management units located in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes ceded by the Ottawa and Chippewa nations, a culturally and commercially important region for the lake whitefish fishery. In eight of 13 management units evaluated, models with climate variables explained significantly more variation in recruitment than models with only the stock-recruitment relationship, using corrected Akaike’s Information Criterion comparisons (ΔAICc > 3). Isolating the climate-recruitment relationship and projecting recruitment with the Coupled Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Model (CHARM) indicated the potential for increased lake whitefish recruitment in the majority of the 1836 Treaty Waters management units, given projected changes in climate. These results can inform adaptive management strategies by providing anticipated implications of climate on lake whitefish recruitment.

  5. The role of depth in regulating water quality and fish assemblages in oxbow lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, Daniel B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Kroger, Robert; Andrews, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated water quality and fish assemblages in deep (> 3.0 m; N = 7) and shallow (< 1.5 m; N = 6) floodplain lakes in the intensively cultivated Yazoo River Basin (Mississippi, USA) using indirect gradient multivariate procedures. Shallow lakes displayed wide diel oxygen fluctuations, some reaching hypoxic/anoxic conditions for extended periods of time, high suspended solids, and extreme water temperatures. Conversely, deeper lakes were represented by higher visibility, stable oxygen levels, and cooler water temperatures. Fish assemblages in shallow lakes were dominated by tolerant, small-bodied fishes and those able to breathe atmospheric oxygen. Deeper lakes had a greater representation of predators and other large-bodied fishes. Our evaluation suggests fish assemblages are reflective of oxbow lakes water quality, which is shaped by depth. Understanding the interactions between depth, water quality, and fish assemblages may facilitate development of effective management plans for improving conditions necessary to sustain diverse fish assemblages in agriculturally dominated basins.

  6. Water quality indicators obtainable from aircraft and Landsat images and their use in classifying lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.; Van Domelen, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the interaction of sunlight and skylight with the surface of a lake, particles in the water to the depth where light is extinguished, and lake bottom are presented, and the use of aircraft and Landsat images to derive water quality indicators on the basis of these interactions is discussed. A very clear, deep lake with a backscatter signal similar to that of distilled water is used as a reference standard. The degree of turbidity of other target lakes is determined by comparing their residual radiance with the clear lake standard and with the residual radiance of a lake whose turbidity has been determined from water samples. The relative and absolute strengths of residual radiance are used to determine the type and concentration of suspended material, respectively. Oil slicks are characterized by an increased specular reflectance component, decreased signal from the underlying water, and added backscatter signal from the oil volume.

  7. Hydrodynamics and Water Quality: Modeling Rivers, Lakes, and Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opdyke, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    The modeling of lakes, rivers, and estuaries is a fascinating subject that combines interesting facets of mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, and biology. Because of the complexity of natural systems, such modeling is always an approximation of the real world-and sometimes not a very good one. It is for this reason that modeling is not just science but also art. It is also for this reason that there are few good texts offering practical advice on modeling. Hydrodynamics and Water Quality makes a valiant attempt but is only partially successful because of the book's narrow focus on one family of models and an inconsistent presentation.

  8. Effects of acidic lake water on the eye.

    PubMed

    Basu, P K; Avaria, M; Hasany, S M

    1982-04-01

    The normal eyes of 6 men and 21 rabbits were exposed to samples of lake water, one eye to a sample of pH 4.6 and the other to a sample of pH 6.3. The men's eyes were exposed for 5 minutes on four occasions a week apart, whereas the rabbits' eyes were exposed for 15 minutes either on one occasion or once a day for 7 days. In the humans neither sample of water produced symptoms or signs of an adverse effect on the external eye tissues, apart from brief conjunctival congestion after every exposure. In the rabbits the two samples did not appear, in general, to have different effects on the ocular tissues, as judged from the osmolarity and cell count of the tears, conjunctival congestion, corneal staining with fluorescein, corneal permeability and histologic features of the cornea. In a few instances differences were observed, but their pathological significance was not apparent. These data suggest that lake water of a pH as low as 4.6 may not harm healthy eyes, however, larger and broader studies are essential.

  9. Application of tidal energy for purification in fresh water lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Rho-Taek; Isshiki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    In order to preserve the quality of fresh water in the artificial lake after the reclamation of an intertidal flat at the mouth of a river, we suggest two novel methods of water purification by using tidal potential energy and an enclosed permeable embankment called an utsuro (Akai et al., 1990) in the reclaimed region. One method uses an inflatable bag on the seabed within an utsuro, while the other uses a moored floating barge out of a dyke. Each case employs a subsea pipe to allow flow between the inside and outside of the utsuro. The change in water level in the utsuro, which is pushed through the pipe by the potential energy outside, caused circulation in the artificial lake. In this paper, we analyzed the inflatable bag and floating barge motion as well as the pipe flow characteristics and drafts as given by a harmonic sea level, and compared the theoretical value with an experimental value with a simple small model basin. The numerical calculation based on theory showed good agreement with experimental values.

  10. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Passell, Howard David; Peplinski, William J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  11. A Landsat study of water quality in Lake Okeechobee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Marshall, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper uses multiple regression techniques to investigate the relationship between Landsat radiance values and water quality measurements. For a period of over one year, the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District sampled the water of Lake Okeechobee for chlorophyll, carotenoids, turbidity, and various nutrients at the time of Landsat overpasses. Using an overlay map of the sampling stations, Landsat radiance values were measured from computer compatible tapes using a GE image 100 and averaging over a 22-acre area at each station. These radiance values in four bands were used to form a number of functions (powers, logarithms, exponentials, and ratios), which were then compared with the ground measurements using multiple linear regression techniques. Several dates were used to provide generality and to study possible seasonal variations. Individual correlations were presented for the various water quality parameters and best fit equations were examined for chlorophyll and turbidity. The results and their relationship to past hydrological research were discussed.

  12. Nonparametric Stochastic Hydroclimate Simulation for Water Temperature Modeling in Lake Shasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, B.; Sapin, J. R.; Saito, L.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoir managers on the Sacramento River are required by law to provide artificial cold water habitat downstream for endangered winter-run Chinook salmon. This is enabled at Shasta Lake via a temperature control device installed on Shasta Dam that allows selective withdrawal of reservoir water from different elevations and temperatures. Risk based decision making and planning requires ability to generate ensemble of water temperatures released from the lake - especially when the planning needs to be made under future climate conditions. To this end, we developed a stochastic hydroclimate simulation method that generates ensembles of influent lake streamflow, influent stream temperatures and air temperature over the lake. These, combined with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, CE-QUAL-W2 provides ensembles of water temperatures released from the various levels of the lake. A nonparametric K-nearest neighbor based disaggregation method is used to generate streamflow ensembles at five streams entering the lake. Then, conditionally the temperatures of water entering the lake and the air temperature over the lake are also simulated. The W2 model generates lake temperatures. The disaggregation method is also modified to generate streamflows consistent with wet and dry conditions and consequently, the lake temperature scenarios, enabling the water managers to assess various decision options.

  13. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    PubMed

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates.

  14. Chemical data for bottom sediment, lake water, bottom-sediment pore water, and fish in Mountain Creek Lake, Dallas, Texas, 1994-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, S.A.; Van Metre, P.C.; Moring, J.B.; Braun, C.L.; Wilson, J.T.; Mahler, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Mountain Creek Lake is a reservoir adjacent to two U.S. Department of the Navy facilities, the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant and the Naval Air Station in Dallas, Texas. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation found ground-water plumes containing chlorinated solvents on both facilities. These findings led to a U.S. Geological Survey study of Mountain Creek Lake adjacent to both facilities between June 1994 and August 1996. Bottom sediments, lake water, bottom-sediment pore water, and fish were collected for chemical analysis.

  15. Chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in plasma of the Lake Erie water snake (Nerodia sipedon insularum) and northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon sipedon) from the Great Lakes basin in 1998.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Rouse, J D

    2000-11-01

    From the Great Lakes basin, concentrations of 59 congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 14 organochlorine pesticides were measured in blood plasma of northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon sipedon) and Lake Erie water snake (Nerodia sipedon insularum), which is endangered in Canada. In 1998, four male adult Lake Erie water snakes were sampled from Pelee Island, western Lake Erie; four male northern water snakes were sampled at Little Lake, about 20 km north of Parry Sound in central Ontario; and four adult gravid female northern water snakes were sampled from Garden Island, eastern Lake Ontario. The blood plasma was pooled by site for a total of three samples analyzed. The Pelee Island sample from male Lake Erie water snakes contained less than half the lipid concentration (0.349%) than samples from the other sites, but it was the most contaminated with PCBs, even on a wet weight basis. Summed concentration of individual PCBs in the Pelee Island sample was 167 ng/g (wet weight), which was 14-fold higher than the next most contaminated sample, which was from Little Lake. The plasma sample from Little Lake contained 12 ng/g (WW) and was four times more contaminated with PCBs than the sample from female snakes from Garden Island, Lake Ontario. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in plasma were relatively similar among sites. None of the pesticides was found above trace concentrations (0.1-0.9 ng/g) except pp'-DDE, which occurred at 2-5 ng/g among sites. PCB congener patterns in the Lake Erie water snakes were compared to PCB patterns in plasma of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from Lake Ontario, herring gull eggs (Larus argentatus) from western Lake Erie, and mudpuppy eggs (Necturus maculosus) from the Detroit River. The PCB patterns in water snake and herring gull sample were most similar, followed by the pattern in snapping turtle plasma. The presence of more lower-chlorinated chlorobiphenyls in the mudpuppy eggs relative

  16. Water and nutrient budgets for Vancouver Lake, Vancouver, Washington, October 2010-October 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Foreman, James R.; Marshall, Cameron A.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    Vancouver Lake, a large shallow lake in Clark County, near Vancouver, Washington, has been undergoing water-quality problems for decades. Recently, the biggest concern for the lake are the almost annual harmful cyanobacteria blooms that cause the lake to close for recreation for several weeks each summer. Despite decades of interest in improving the water quality of the lake, fundamental information on the timing and amount of water and nutrients entering and exiting the lake is lacking. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year field study to quantify water flows and nutrient loads in order to develop water and nutrient budgets for the lake. This report presents monthly and annual water and nutrient budgets from October 2010–October 2012 to identify major sources and sinks of nutrients. Lake River, a tidally influenced tributary to the lake, flows into and out of the lake almost daily and composed the greatest proportion of both the water and nutrient budgets for the lake, often at orders of magnitude greater than any other source. From the water budget, we identified precipitation, evaporation and groundwater inflow as minor components of the lake hydrologic cycle, each contributing 1 percent or less to the total water budget. Nutrient budgets were compiled monthly and annually for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate; and, nitrogen loads were generally an order of magnitude greater than phosphorus loads across all sources. For total nitrogen, flow from Lake River at Felida, Washington, made up 88 percent of all inputs into the lake. For total phosphorus and orthophosphate, Lake River at Felida flowing into the lake was 91 and 76 percent of total inputs, respectively. Nutrient loads from precipitation and groundwater inflow were 1 percent or less of the total budgets. Nutrient inputs from Burnt Bridge Creek and Flushing Channel composed 12 percent of the total nitrogen budget, 8 percent of the total phosphorus budget, and 21 percent

  17. Methanotrophy within the water column of a large meromictic tropical lake (Lake Kivu, East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morana, C.; Borges, A. V.; Roland, F. A. E.; Darchambeau, F.; Descy, J.-P.; Bouillon, S.

    2015-04-01

    The permanently stratified Lake Kivu is one of the largest freshwater reservoirs of dissolved methane (CH4) on Earth. Yet CH4 emissions from its surface to the atmosphere have been estimated to be 2 orders of magnitude lower than the CH4 upward flux to the mixed layer, suggesting that microbial CH4 oxidation is an important process within the water column. A combination of natural abundance stable carbon isotope analysis (δ13C) of several carbon pools and 13CH4-labelling experiments was carried out during the rainy and dry season to quantify (i) the contribution of CH4-derived carbon to the biomass, (ii) methanotrophic bacterial production (MBP), and (iii) methanotrophic bacterial growth efficiency (MBGE), defined as the ratio between MBP and gross CH4 oxidation. We also investigated the distribution and the δ13C of specific phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), used as biomarkers for aerobic methanotrophs. Maximal MBP rates were measured in the oxycline, suggesting that CH4 oxidation was mainly driven by oxic processes. Moreover, our data revealed that methanotrophic organisms in the water column oxidized most of the upward flux of CH4, and that a significant amount of CH4-derived carbon was incorporated into the microbial biomass in the oxycline. The MBGE was variable (2-50%) and negatively related to CH4 : O2 molar ratios. Thus, a comparatively smaller fraction of CH4-derived carbon was incorporated into the cellular biomass in deeper waters, at the bottom of the oxycline where oxygen was scarce. The aerobic methanotrophic community was clearly dominated by type I methanotrophs and no evidence was found for an active involvement of type II methanotrophs in CH4 oxidation in Lake Kivu, based on fatty acids analyses. Vertically integrated over the water column, the MBP was equivalent to 16-60% of the average phytoplankton particulate primary production. This relatively high magnitude of MBP, and the substantial contribution of CH4-derived carbon to the overall

  18. Methanotrophy within the water column of a large meromictic tropical lake (Lake Kivu, East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morana, C.; Borges, A. V.; Roland, F. A. E.; Darchambeau, F.; Descy, J.-P.; Bouillon, S.

    2014-11-01

    The permanently stratified Lake Kivu is one of the largest freshwater reservoirs of dissolved methane (CH4) on Earth. Yet CH4 emissions from its surface to the atmosphere has been estimated to be 2 orders of magnitude lower than the CH4 upward flux to the mixed layer, showing that microbial CH4 oxidation is an important process within the water column. A combination of natural abundance carbon stable isotope analysis (δ13C) of several inorganic and organic carbon pools and 13CH4-labelling experiments was carried out during rainy and dry season to quantify (i) the contribution of CH4-derived carbon to the biomass, (ii) methanotrophic bacterial production (MBP), and (iii) methanotrophic bacterial growth efficiency (MBGE), defined as the ratio between MBP and gross CH4 oxidation. We also investigated the distribution and the δ13C of specific phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), used as biomarkers for aerobic methanotrophs. Data revealed that methanotrophic organisms oxidized within the water column most of the upward flux of CH4 to the mixed layer and a significant amount of CH4-derived carbon was incorporated into the microbial biomass in the oxycline. Maximal MBP rates were measured in the oxycline, suggesting that CH4 oxidation was mainly driven by oxic processes. The MBGE was variable (2-50%) and negatively related to CH4 : O2 molar ratios. Thus, a comparatively smaller fraction of CH4-derived carbon was incorporated into the cellular biomass in deeper waters, at the bottom of the oxycline where oxygen was scarce. The aerobic methanotrophic community was clearly dominated by type I methanotrophs and no evidence was found for an active involvement of type II methanotrophs in CH4 oxidation in Lake Kivu. Vertically integrated over the water column, the MBP was equivalent to 16-58% of the average phytoplankton primary production. This relatively high magnitude of MBP, and the substantial contribution of CH4-derived carbon to the overall biomass in the oxycline, suggest

  19. Temporal coherence in water temperature and chemistry under the ice of boreal lakes (Finland).

    PubMed

    Järvinen, M; Rask, M; Ruuhijärvi, J; Arvola, L

    2002-09-01

    Temporal coherence was assessed for 11 limnological variables--water temperature, oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, pH, colour, calcium (Ca), iron, aluminium, total phosphorus and total nitrogen--between 28 boreal lakes in southern Finland for the winter ice-covered period. The lakes were mainly small (<0.2 km2) and brown-coloured, and located within a circle of 10-km radius. A mean Pearson correlation coefficient for all lake pairs and variables averaged 0.37. Temporal coherence of variables across lake pairs was highest for conductivity, Ca, water temperature and alkalinity. The lake pairs with a direct surface water channel connection had a higher coherence than the lake pairs not connected by a stream. The size of the lake or catchment area had little effect on the coherence between the lakes. Temporal coherence was not strongly related to the difference in water colour (dystrophy) between the lakes. However, between polyhumic lakes (colour > 100 g Pt m(-3)) the coherence was generally higher than between less coloured lakes. Year-to-year variation in limnological characteristics could be partly explained by the variation in local weather. In March, water temperature and chemistry were infrequently related to winter weather, rather they correlated with the weather conditions of the previous autumn, while the ambient late winter weather seemed to have a stronger influence on lake conditions in April. Temporal variation in some variables was related to the atmospheric pressure changes over the North Atlantic (the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Our results suggest that the potential effects of climatic change on lakes can be generalised regionally for brown-coloured dystrophic lakes. PMID:12405403

  20. Arsenic cycling within the water column of a small lake receiving contaminated ground-water discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Robert G.; Wilkin, Richard T.; Hernandez, Gina

    2008-09-18

    The fate of arsenic discharged from contaminated ground water to a small, shallow lake at a hazardous waste site was examined to understand the role of iron (hydr)oxide precipitation-dissolution processes within the water column. Field and laboratory observations indicate that arsenic solubility was controlled, in part, by the extent of ferrous iron oxidation-precipitation and arsenic sorption occurring near the lake chemocline. Laboratory experiments were conducted using site-derived water to assess the impact of these coupled processes on the removal of dissolved arsenic from the water column. The measured concentration of organic carbon from epilimnetic and hypolimnetic water sampled from the lake was approximately 1.3 mM and 17.0 mM, respectively. Experiments conducted with these samples along with synthetic controls containing no organic carbon demonstrated that observed rates of formation and crystallinity of the precipitated iron (hydr)oxide were dependent on the concentration of organic carbon in the lake water. Increasing dissolved organic matter concentration did not significantly interfere with ferrous iron oxidation, but inhibited iron (hydr)oxide precipitation and subsequent sorption of arsenic. For experiments using water sampled from the lake hypolimnion there was a strong relationship between the fraction of precipitated iron and the fraction of sorbed arsenic. Laboratory- and field-derived iron (hydr)oxide precipitates were characterized to evaluate mineralogy and arsenic distribution. In-situ suspended solids and precipitates formed in laboratory experiments using hypolimnetic water were identified as poorly crystalline 2-line ferrihydrite. These solids were readily dissolved in the presence of dithionite indicating that elevated dissolved iron and arsenic observed in the hypolimnion resulted, in part, from in-situ reductive dissolution of settling 2-line ferrihydrite near the sediment-water interface. These observations support the contention

  1. Characterization of bottom-sediment, water, and elutriate chemistry at selected stations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    To better-understand and predict the potential effect of dredging on water quality at Reelfoot Lake, chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water. Chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water collected at five stations in the lake during November 1988. Lake water was of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with an average dissolved-solids concentration of 120 milligrams per liter. Trace constituents were present in bottom sediments at concentrations representative of their average relative abundance in the earth?s crust. Elutriate waters prepared by mixing bottom sediment and lake water had suspended-solids concentrations as high as 2,000 milligrams per liter which exerted significant oxygen demand Trace constituents in the unfiltered elutriate waters were elevated with respect to lake water; elevated concentrations were attributable to the increased suspended-solids concentrations. Concentrations of total-recoverable copper, lead., and zinc in many elutriate waters exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s water-quality criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. The toxicity of elutriate waters, as measured by a 48-hour bioassay with Ceriodaphnia dubia, was low.

  2. Water balance of selected floodplain lake basins in the Middle Bug River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

    2014-04-01

    This study is the first attempt in the literature on the subject of comparing water balance components for floodplain lake basins, depending on the type of a lake connection to the parent river. Research was carried out in the Bug River valley in 2007-2011 water years. Four types of connections were distinguished in the area under study. Simple water balance equation could only be used with regard to the lakes connected to the main river via the upstream crevasses. Detailed and individual water balance equations were developed with reference to the other types of lakes. Water gains and losses varied significantly in the lakes under study. Values of horizontal water balance components (inflow and outflow) of the floodplain lake in Wola Uhruska considerably prevailed over the vertical ones (precipitation and evaporation). Inflow of the Bug River waters was diverse during the time period under study and amounted from 600 000 to 2 200 000 m3 yr-1. Volumes of precipitation and evaporation were rather stable and amounted to approx. 30 000 m3 yr-1. The lowest disparity between horizontal and vertical water balance components was observed in the inter-levee lake. Both upstream inflow of rivers water and outflow from the lake (ranged from 0 in 2008 to 35 000 m3 yr-1 in 2009) were usually an order of magnitude higher than precipitation and evaporation from the lake surface (700-800 m3 yr-1). Study showed that the values and the proportion between aforementioned vertical and horizontal water balance elements were determined by the type of a lake connection to the Bug River. Storage volume showed no relationship to the type of connection, but resulted from individual features of the lakes (location within the valley, precipitation and evaporation volume, difference between water inflow and outflow).

  3. Water quality of the Malheur Lake system and Malheur River, and simulated water-quality effects of routing Malheur Lake water into Malheur River, Oregon, 1984-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuste, L.A.; McKenzie, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Above average precipitation and runoff between 1980 and 1985 have raised the water-surface elevation of Harney, Mud, and Malheur Lakes in eastern Oregon to the highest levels recorded and have caused mixing and interflow of water among the three lakes. A 50% increase in specific conductance throughout Malheur Lake from 1984 to 1985 resulted from an increase in sodium and chloride concentrations, probably caused by the flow of saline water from Harvey Lake and dissolution of evaporites in flooded areas around it. Arsenic and boron concentrations increased during the two years. Algal productivity was highest towards the center of Malheur Lake. Concentrations of major ions in the Malheur River during the 1985 irrigation season were dilute in upstream reaches because of flow releases from reservoirs; increasing in a downstream direction because of irrigation-return flow. Concentrations also increased with time during irrigation season, with the highest concentrations occurring in October after most diversions for irrigation were discontinued. Mass-balance equations were used to simulate mixing of Malheur Lake with Malheur River water to estimate the water quality that would occur at different points along Malheur River. Simulations of sodium and chloride concentrations and specific conductance values based on August river-flows during irrigation season, show a gradual increase from the headwaters downstream to Hope and greater increases downstream of Hope. After irrigation ceases, the simulated water quality becomes uniform throughout the river, because proposed lake flows are then the principal source of Malheur River flows. Arsenic and boron concentrations increase much more than expected between Namorf and Little Valley; thermal springs could be the source of arsenic and boron in this reach. Groundwater coming in contact with arsenic rich soils may also contribute to the elevated arsenic levels found in the river. At the end of the irrigation season, arsenic

  4. Assessment of microcystins in lake water and fish (Mugilidae, Liza sp.) in the largest Spanish coastal lake.

    PubMed

    Romo, Susana; Fernández, Francisca; Ouahid, Youness; Barón-Sola, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria dominance and cyanotoxin production can become major threats to humans and aquatic life, especially in warm shallow lakes, which are often dominated by cyanobacteria. This study investigates the occurrence and distribution of microcystins (MCYST) in water, cell-bound and in the tissues of the commercial mugilid Liza sp. in the largest, coastal, Spanish Mediterranean lake (Albufera of Valencia). This is the first report concerning microcystin accumulation in tissues of mugilid fish species. Considerable amounts of microcystins were found in the water and seston, which correlated with development of Microcystis aeruginosa populations in the lake. The MCYST concentrations found in Lake Albufera (mean 1.7 and 17 μg/L and maximum 16 and 120 μg/L in water and seston, respectively) exceeded by one to two orders of magnitude the guideline levels proposed by the World Health Organization and were higher than that reported in other lakes of the Mediterranean zone. The presence of MCYST was found in all the fishes studied and accumulated differently among tissues of the commercial species Liza sp. Toxin accumulation in fish tissues showed that although the target organ for MCYST was the liver, high concentrations of microcystins were also found in other analysed tissues (liver>intestine>gills>muscle). Human tolerable daily intake for microcystins is assessed relative to the WHO guidelines, and potential toxicological risks for humans, wildlife and related ecosystems of the lake are discussed.

  5. [Purification of lake water using a combined ozonization, filtration and chlorine dioxide treatments. Experience with the water of Garda lake].

    PubMed

    Zanetti, F; Leoni, E; Muccioli, S; Ambrogiani, E; Sacchetti, R

    2005-01-01

    The hygienic characteristics of the freshwater from Garda Lake used for the water supply of Sirmione were evaluated before and during the various phases of treatment. The samples were taken at the moment of entry, after ozonization, after filtration and after the addition of chlorine dioxide. The coliforms and Escherichia coli, occasionally detected in the incoming water, were reduced by ozone and eliminated by filtration. Enterococci were always absent. The overall reduction in the total bacteria count was satifactory, considering the low initial levels (96.0% and 83.0% respectively for the Heterotrophic plate count at 22 degrees and the Heterotrophic plate count at 36 degrees). The chemical and physical indicators that underwent the greatest reductions were the sulphates, iron, manganese, ammonia and the turbidity. Several species of unicellular algae belonging to Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta were identified in the water at entry and after ozonization, but were completely eliminated during the subsequent phase of filtration. deliver of high quality services.

  6. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  7. Michigan basin regional ground water flow discharge to three Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoaglund, J. R.; Huffman, G.C.; Grannemann, N.G.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water discharge to the Great Lakes around the Lower Peninsula of Michigan is primarily from recharge in riparian basins and proximal upland areas that are especially important to the northern half of the Lake Michigan shoreline. A steady-state finite-difference model was developed to simulate ground water flow in four regional aquifers in Michigan's Lower Peninsula: the Glaciofluvial, Saginaw, Parma-Bayport, and Marshall aquifers interlayered with the Till/"red beds," Saginaw, and Michigan confining units, respectively. The model domain was laterally bound by a continuous specified-head boundary, formed from lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, and Erie, with the St. Clair and Detroit River connecting channels. The model was developed to quantify regional ground water flow in the aquifer systems using independently determined recharge estimates. According to the flow model, local stream stages and discharges account for 95% of the overall model water budget; only 5% enters the lakes directly from the ground water system. Direct ground water discharge to the Great Lakes' shorelines was calculated at 36 m3/sec, accounting for 5% of the overall model water budget. Lowland areas contribute far less ground water discharge to the Great Lakes than upland areas. The model indicates that Saginaw Bay receives only ???1.13 m3/sec ground water; the southern half of the Lake Michigan shoreline receives only ???2.83 m3/sec. In contrast, the northern half of the Lake Michigan shoreline receives more than 17 m3/sec from upland areas.

  8. Michigan basin regional ground water flow discharge to three Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hoaglund, John Robert; Huffman, Gary Cecil; Grannemann, Norman Guy

    2002-01-01

    Ground water discharge to the Great Lakes around the Lower Peninsula of Michigan is primarily from recharge in riparian basins and proximal upland areas that are especially important to the northern half of the Lake Michigan shoreline. A steady-state finite-difference model was developed to simulate ground water flow in four regional aquifers in Michigan's Lower Peninsula: the Glaciofluvial, Saginaw, Parma-Bayport, and Marshall aquifers interlayered with the Till/"red beds," Saginaw, and Michigan confining units, respectively. The model domain was laterally bound by a continuous specified-head boundary, formed from lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, and Erie, with the St. Clair and Detroit River connecting channels. The model was developed to quantify regional ground water flow in the aquifer systems using independently determined recharge estimates. According to the flow model, local stream stages and discharges account for 95% of the overall model water budget; only 50% enters the lakes directly from the ground water system. Direct ground water discharge to the Great Lakes' shorelines was calculated at 36 m3/sec, accounting for 5% of the overall model water budget. Lowland areas contribute far less ground water discharge to the Great Lakes than upland areas. The model indicates that Saginaw Bay receives only approximately 1.13 m3/sec ground water; the southern half of the Lake Michigan shoreline receives only approximately 2.83 m3/sec. In contrast, the northern half of the Lake Michigan shoreline receives more than 17 m3/sec from upland areas.

  9. Simulation of climate-change effects on streamflow, lake water budgets, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP, Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Walker, John F.; Selbig, William R.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Regan, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Although groundwater and surface water are considered a single resource, historically hydrologic simulations have not accounted for feedback loops between the groundwater system and other hydrologic processes. These feedbacks include timing and rates of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, soil-zone flow, and interactions with the groundwater system. Simulations that iteratively couple the surface-water and groundwater systems, however, are characterized by long run times and calibration challenges. In this study, calibrated, uncoupled transient surface-water and steady-state groundwater models were used to construct one coupled transient groundwater/surface-water model for the Trout Lake Watershed in north-central Wisconsin, USA. The computer code GSFLOW (Ground-water/Surface-water FLOW) was used to simulate the coupled hydrologic system; a surface-water model represented hydrologic processes in the atmosphere, at land surface, and within the soil-zone, and a groundwater-flow model represented the unsaturated zone, saturated zone, stream, and lake budgets. The coupled GSFLOW model was calibrated by using heads, streamflows, lake levels, actual evapotranspiration rates, solar radiation, and snowpack measurements collected during water years 1998–2007; calibration was performed by using advanced features present in the PEST parameter estimation software suite. Simulated streamflows from the calibrated GSFLOW model and other basin characteristics were used as input to the one-dimensional SNTEMP (Stream-Network TEMPerature) model to simulate daily stream temperature in selected tributaries in the watershed. The temperature model was calibrated to high-resolution stream temperature time-series data measured in 2002. The calibrated GSFLOW and SNTEMP models were then used to simulate effects of potential climate change for the period extending to the year 2100. An ensemble of climate models and emission scenarios was evaluated. Downscaled climate drivers for the period

  10. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes in Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

    2013-02-01

    Global change, together with human activities, has resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) that water bodies receive. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation, leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, for which the effects have, in general, been neglected. Furthermore, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrient inputs are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out complex in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in the National Park Picos de Europa, Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in the National Park Sierra Nevada, Granada), used as model ecosystems to evaluate the joint impact of these climate change variables. The main goal of this study was to address the question of how short-term pulses of nutrient inputs, together with vertical mixing and increased UVR fluxes modify the photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 μg P L-1, and N to reach N:P molar ratio of 31); and (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m 4 min-1, total of 10 cycles)) versus static. Our findings suggest that under ambient nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and excretion of organic carbon (EOC) from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where

  11. A WHOLE-LAKE WATER QUALITY SURVEY OF LAKE OAHE BASED ON A SPATIALLY-BALANCED PROBABILISTIC DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing conditions on large bodies of water presets multiple statistical and logistical challenges. As part of the Upper Missouri River Program of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Project (EMAP) we surveyed water quality of Lake Oahe in July-August, 2002 using a spat...

  12. Hydrology, water quality, and phosphorus loading of Little St Germain Lake, Vilas County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The lake was monitored in detail again during 1991-94 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of a cooperative study with the Lake District. This study demonstrated water-quality variation among the basins of Little St. Germain Lake and extensive areas of winter anoxia (absence of oxygen). Further in-depth studies were then conducted during 1994-2000 to define the extent of winter anoxia, refine the hydrologic and phosphorus budgets of the lake, quantify the effects of annual drawdowns, and provide information needed to develop a comprehensive lake-management plan. This report presents the results of the studies since 1991.

  13. Investigating groundwater-lake interactions by hydraulic heads and a water balance.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Sebastian; Lewandowski, Jörg; Nützmann, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Discharge of groundwater into lakes (lacustrine groundwater discharge, LGD) can play a major role in water balances of lakes. Unfortunately, studies often neglect this input path because of methodological difficulties in its determination. Direct measurements of LGD are labor-consuming and prone to error. The present study uses both spatially variable hydraulic-head data and meteorological data to estimate groundwater input by LGD and lake water output through infiltration. The study sites are two shallow, groundwater-fed lakes without any surface inflows or outflows. Horizontally interpolated groundwater heads were combined with lake water levels to obtain vertical hydraulic gradients between the aquifer and the lake, which are separated by a thick layer of lake bed sediment which has a much lower hydraulic conductivity than the underlying aquifer. By fitting the hydraulic gradient to the results of a simple mass balance and considering the process of clogging, we were able to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the lake bed sediments. We calculated groundwater inputs by LGD and lake water outputs by infiltration on an annual basis. Although our method requires several assumptions, the results are reasonable and provide useful information about the exchange between the aquifer and the lake, which can, for example, be used for the calculation of nutrient mass balances.

  14. 75 FR 26098 - Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Havasu in the Copper Canyon in support of the underwater cleanup of Copper Canyon. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for...

  15. Estimating the Depth and Shape of Lake Vostok's Water Cavity from Aerogravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studinger, M.; Bell, R. E.; Tikku, A. A.

    2003-12-01

    The water circulation within Lake Vostok provides a viable mechanism for transporting mass and energy through the lake, enhancing the potential for the support of biota. The circulation pattern depends primarily on the geometry of the lake bathymetry. Water in shallow regions will warm more from the geothermal heat flux than in deeper parts, resulting in subtle lateral changes of water density. This temperature-induced change in water density is the primary driving force for the horizontal circulation within the lake. To date, only a few seismic soundings have provided estimates of the water depth of Lake Vostok. To determine the depth and shape of the water cavity over the entire lake we use gravity data acquired along a grid of flight lines traversing the region. The free-air gravity anomaly field reflects density variations related to both major geological and topographic structures and changes in the water depth of the lake. The gravity contribution from the deeper geological structures can be removed from the free-air anomaly by low-pass filtering of the data. The subglacial topography outside the lake and the geometry of the overlying ice sheet are well constrained from ice-penetrating radar measurements. The unknown parameter that dominates the filtered gravity anomaly is the relief of the bedrock-water interface. Assuming a constant density contrast across this boundary, the gravity data can be inverted for the bathymetry of the lake. The results show that Lake Vostok consists of two sub-basins, a northern and southern. The southern sub-basin is much deeper and approximately double the spatial area of the smaller northern sub-basin. The two sub-basins are separated by a saddle with very shallow water depths. The separation of Lake Vostok in two distinct sub-basins has important ramifications for the water circulation within the lake. The lake volume estimated from the inversion of gravity data is 5200 cubic km, three times bigger than previously thought

  16. Water quality and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading to Muskellunge Lake, Vilas County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Saad, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Muskellunge Lake is a productive, eutrophic lake because of high nutrient loading. Historical data indicate that water quality has only slightly degraded since the early 1970s, possibly because of phosphorus input from effluent from septic systems. A detailed phosphorus budget for the lake indicated that most of the phosphorus comes from natural sources?ground water and surface water flowing through relatively undeveloped areas surrounding the lake. Modeling results indicated that the natural input of phosphorus was sufficient to maintain the lake's eutrophic condition. Analysis of sediment cores confirmed that only small changes in nutrient and algal concentrations have occurred over the past 100 years; however, the analysis indicated that the macrophyte community has increased over this time period. The aeration system, installed to alleviate winter anoxia, maintains aerobic conditions throughout the main bays of the lake.

  17. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  18. Links between type E botulism outbreaks, lake levels, and surface water temperatures in Lake Michigan, 1963-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafrancois, Brenda Moraska; Riley, Stephen C.; Blehert, David S.; Ballmann, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between large-scale environmental factors and the incidence of type E avian botulism outbreaks in Lake Michigan were examined from 1963 to 2008. Avian botulism outbreaks most frequently occurred in years with low mean annual water levels, and lake levels were significantly lower in outbreak years than in non-outbreak years. Mean surface water temperatures in northern Lake Michigan during the period when type E outbreaks tend to occur (July through September) were significantly higher in outbreak years than in non-outbreak years. Trends in fish populations did not strongly correlate with botulism outbreaks, although botulism outbreaks in the 1960s coincided with high alewife abundance, and recent botulism outbreaks coincided with rapidly increasing round goby abundance. Botulism outbreaks occurred cyclically, and the frequency of outbreaks did not increase over the period of record. Climate change scenarios for the Great Lakes predict lower water levels and warmer water temperatures. As a consequence, the frequency and magnitude of type E botulism outbreaks in the Great Lakes may increase.

  19. Surficial substrates and bathymetry of five historical lake trout spawning reefs in near-shore waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Brown, Charles L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; French, John R. P.

    1992-01-01

    The reestablishment of self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the lower four Great Lakes has been substantially impeded because planted fish do not produce enough progeny that survive and reproduce. The causes for this failure are unknown, but many historical spawning sites of lake trout have been degraded by human activities and can no longer produce viable swim-up fry. In this study, we used side-scan sonar and an underwater video camera to survey, map, and evaluate the sustainability of one reef in each of the five Great Lakes for lake trout spawning and fry production. At four of the reef sites, we found good-to-excellent substrate for spawning and fry production by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are now being planted. These substrates were in water 6-22 m deep and were composed largely of rounded or angular rubble and cobble. Interstitial spaces in these substrates were 20 cm or deeper and would protect naturally spawned eggs and fry from predators, ice scour, and buffeting by waves and currents. Subsequent studies of egg survival by other researchers confirmed our evaluation that the best substrates at two of these sites still have the potential to produce viable swim-up fry.

  20. Lake size and water-column stability affect the importance of methane for pelagic food webs of boreal lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaala, Paula; Lopez-Bellido, Jessica; Ojala, Anne; Tulonen, Tiina; Jones, Roger I.

    2013-04-01

    Physical forcing, related to lake size and morphometry, plays an important role in the landscape-scale biogeochemical processing and fluxes of terrestrial carbon in lakes. Boreal lakes are typically dimictic, with mixing of the water column in spring and autumn, but in small, sheltered, humic, forest lakes the spring mixing is often incomplete. This leads to a steep summer stratification and oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion of the lakes. As a result of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, high concentrations of CH4are typical in these lakes. At the oxic-anoxic interface zone methanotrophic microbes oxidize CH4 to CO2 and partly incorporate CH4-C into microbial biomass, and thus potentially provide a diet source for pelagic consumers. We studied production at the base of the pelagic food web by methane oxidising bacteria (MOB), heterotrophic bacteria (HB) and phytoplankton (PP) in five boreal lakes with a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration varying between 7 and 25 mg C L-1 and an area ranging from 0.004 to 13.4 km2. High MOB activity was detected in the water columns of the three smallest lakes having anoxia in the hypolimnion during summer. The highest MOB activities (ca. 2-12 μmol L-1 d-1) were observed when the CH4:O2 ratio varied between ca. 0.5-12. Seasonally, the highest MOB activities were measured during late-summer mixed layer deepening and autumnal mixing of the whole water column. The proportion of MOB in the total basal production was highest in the two smallest lakes (24-56 and 13-36%), having the steepest summertime stratification. The proportion MOB in the basal production decreased with lake size being 70% of basal production was by PP. In all studied lakes HB contributed only 10-23% of the total basal production, suggesting that a transfer of allochthonous DOC via HB plays only a modest role for the nutrition of the higher trophic levels.

  1. The importance of lake-specific characteristics for water quality across the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Read, Emily K; Patil, Vijay P; Oliver, Samantha K; Hetherington, Amy L; Brentrup, Jennifer A; Zwart, Jacob A; Winters, Kirsten M; Corman, Jessica R; Nodine, Emily R; Woolway, R Iestyn; Dugan, Hilary A; Jaimes, Aline; Santoso, Arianto B; Hong, Grace S; Winslow, Luke A; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2015-06-01

    Lake water quality is affected by local and regional drivers, including lake physical characteristics, hydrology, landscape position, land cover, land use, geology, and climate. Here, we demonstrate the utility of hypothesis testing within the landscape limnology framework using a random forest algorithm on a national-scale, spatially explicit data set, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's 2007 National Lakes Assessment. For 1026 lakes, we tested the relative importance of water quality drivers across spatial scales, the importance of hydrologic connectivity in mediating water quality drivers, and how the importance of both spatial scale and connectivity differ across response variables for five important in-lake water quality metrics (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity, and conductivity). By modeling the effect of water quality predictors at different spatial scales, we found that lake-specific characteristics (e.g., depth, sediment area-to-volume ratio) were important for explaining water quality (54-60% variance explained), and that regionalization schemes were much less effective than lake specific metrics (28-39% variance explained). Basin-scale land use and land cover explained between 45-62% of variance, and forest cover and agricultural land uses were among the most important basin-scale predictors. Water quality drivers did not operate independently; in some cases, hydrologic connectivity (the presence of upstream surface water features) mediated the effect of regional-scale drivers. For example, for water quality in lakes with upstream lakes, regional classification schemes were much less effective predictors than lake-specific variables, in contrast to lakes with no upstream lakes or with no surface inflows. At the scale of the continental United States, conductivity was explained by drivers operating at larger spatial scales than for other water quality responses. The current regulatory practice of using

  2. Relation between selected water-quality variables and lake level in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the analysis of data that they have been collecting for several years, the Klamath Tribes recently recommended that the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) modify the operating plan for the dam to make the minimum lake levels for the June-August period more closely resemble pre-dam conditions (Jacob Kann, written commun., 1995). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to analyze the available data for the lake and to assess whether the evidence exists to conclude that year-to-year differences in certain lake water-quality variables are related to year-to-year differences in lake level. The results of the analysis will be used as scientific input in the process of developing an operating plan for the Link River Dam.

  3. Effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and time scale on simulated ground-water exchange with Lake Starr, a seepage lake in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2003-01-01

    Lake Starr and other lakes in the mantled karst terrain of Florida's Central Lake District are surrounded by a conductive surficial aquifer system that receives highly variable recharge from rainfall. In addition, downward leakage from these lakes varies as heads in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer change seasonally and with pumpage. A saturated three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and model time scale on ground-water exchange with Lake Starr. The lake was simulated as an active part of the model using high hydraulic conductivity cells. Simulated ground-water flow was compared to net ground-water flow estimated from a rigorously derived water budget for the 2-year period August 1996-July 1998. Calibrating saturated ground-water flow models with monthly stress periods to a monthly lake water budget will result in underpredicting gross inflow to, and leakage from, ridge lakes in Florida. Underprediction of ground-water inflow occurs because recharge stresses and ground-water flow responses during rainy periods are averaged over too long a time period using monthly stress periods. When inflow is underestimated during calibration, leakage also is underestimated because inflow and leakage are correlated if lake stage is maintained over the long term. Underpredicted leakage reduces the implied effect of ground-water withdrawals from the Upper Floridan aquifer on the lake. Calibrating the weekly simulation required accounting for transient responses in the water table near the lake that generated the greater range of net ground-water flow values seen in the weekly water budget. Calibrating to the weekly lake water budget also required increasing the value of annual recharge in the nearshore region well above the initial estimate of 35 percent of the rainfall, and increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the deposits around and beneath the lake. To simulate the total

  4. Ground-water, large-lake interactions in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron: A geochemical and isotopic approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, J.J.; Long, D.T.; Matty, J.M.; Larson, G.J.; Sibley, D.F.; Councell, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    Delineating the nature and extent of ground-water inputs is necessary to understand the hydrochemistry of large lakes. Characterizing the interaction between ground water and large lakes (e.g., the Great Lakes) is facilitated by the use of geochemical and isotopic data. In this study, pore waters were extracted from sediment cores collected from Saginaw Bay and the surrounding Saginaw lowland area; the geochemistry and stable isotope signature of these pore waters were used to identify sources for the water and solutes. Cores from Saginaw Bay and the Saginaw lowland area yielded strong vertical gradients in chloride concentrations, suggesting that a high-chloride source is present at depth. The spatial distribution of cores with elevated chloride concentrations corresponds to the regional distribution of chloride in ground water. Most of the Saginaw lowland area cores contain water with significantly lower ??18O values than modern meteoric water, suggesting that the water had been recharged during a much cooler climate. The ??18O values measured in pore waters (from Saginaw Bay cores) containing high chloride concentrations are similar to modern meteoric water; however, values lighter than modern meteoric water are encountered at depth. Chloride:bromide ratios, used to distinguish between different chloride sources, identify formation brine as the likely source for chloride. Transport models indicate that a combination of advection and diffusion is responsible for the observed Saginaw lowland area pore-water profiles. Pore-water profiles in Saginaw Bay sediments are produced primarily by diffusion and require significantly less time to evolve. An upward flux of solutes derived from formation brine could occur elsewhere within the Great Lakes region and significantly affect the geochemical cycling of chloride and other contaminants (e.g., trace metals).

  5. Potential impacts of water diversion on fishery resources in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.

    1984-01-01

    Uses of Great Lakes water within the Great Lakes basin are steadily increasing, and critical water shortages elsewhere may add to the demands for diversions of water out of the basin in the near future. The impacts of such diversions on fish in the Great Lakes must be considered in the context of in-basin uses of the water, because in-basin uses already adversely affect the fishery resources. Temporary in-basin water withdrawals from Lake Michigan by industry in 1980 equaled 260% of the total volume of water between the shoreline and the 10-meter depth - the littoral waters most heavily used by fish as spawning and nursery grounds. Nearly 100% of the fish removed by these water withdrawals were killed. Enough young alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in Lake Michigan and young yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in western Lake Erie have been removed at water intakes in recent years to reduce the productivity and biomass of adult fish stocks. Out-of-basin diversions of water at Chicago and at the Welland Canal, channel modifications in the St. Clair River, and in-basin consumptive water withdrawals have lowered the annual mean water level of Lakes Michigan and Huron by about 27 cm and that of Lake Erie by about 10 cm, dewatering wetlands that historically served as spawning and nursery habitat for many valuable fish species. The dollar value of fish lost to water diversions and withdrawals has not yet been estimated, but water withdrawals alone have already reduced the annual economic impact of the Great Lakes fisheries, which has been estimated to be 1.16 billion dollars.

  6. Fluctuation of the Water Environmental Carrying Capacity in a Huge River-Connected Lake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Zhou, Yiyi; Tang, Yang; Wu, Mengan; Deng, Yanqing

    2015-01-01

    A new method, with the non-fully mixed coefficient (NFMC) considered, was put forward to calculate the water environmental carrying capacity (WECC) for huge river-connected lakes, of which the hydrological conditions always vary widely during a year. Poyang Lake, the most typical river-connected lake and the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the research area. Based on field investigations and numerical simulation, the monthly pollutant degradation coefficients and non-fully mixed coefficients of different lake regions were determined to explore the WECCs of COD, TN and TP of Poyang Lake in a common water year. It was found that under the hydrological conditions of a common water year the total WECCs of COD, TN and TP in the lake were respectively 181.9 × 104 t, 33.3 × 104 t and 1.86 × 104 t. Due to the varied lake water volume and self-purification ability, an evident temporal fluctuation of WECCs in Poyang Lake was observed. The dry seasons were characterized by a higher NFMCs but lower WECCs owing to the lower water level and degradation ability. Variation coefficients of COD and TN WECC were close to each other, of which the average level was about 58.5%, a little higher than that of TP. PMID:25830284

  7. Assessing trends in fishery resources and lake-water aluminum from paleolimnological analyses of siliceous algae

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J.C.; Birks, H.J.B.; Uutala, A.J.; Cummings, B.F.; Smol, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Lake water aluminum concentrations have a significant influence on the composition of microfossil assemblages of diatoms and chrysophytes deposited in lake sediments. With the paleolimnological approach of multilake datasets in the Adirondack region of New York, USA, the authors use canonical correspondence analysis to describe past trends in lake water Al. Four lakes, previously investigated regarding acidification and fishery trends, are used to demonstrate that paleolimnological assessment can also provide direction, timing, and magnitude of trends for both toxic metals and fish resources. Additionally, the authors use weighted average regression and calibration to obtain quantitative reconstructions of past lake water Al concentrations. Such reconstructions provide further insight into fishery resource damage and can be compared with modelling results. According to paleolimnological reconstructions, some of the naturally most acidic lakes in the Adirondack region had preindustrial lake water concentrations of inorganic monomeric Al near 4/micromol times L. Although these high concentrations are surprising from a geochemical point of view, they may partially explain the preindustrial absence of fish, as has been independently determined by paleolimnological analysis of phantom midges (Chaoborus). Fishery resource deterioration in acidified Adirondack lakes was coincident with major increases in lake water Al concentrations.

  8. Developing the greatest Blue Economy: Water productivity, fresh water depletion, and virtual water trade in the Great Lakes basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Alex; Mubako, Stanley; Ruddell, Benjamin L.

    2016-06-01

    The Great Lakes basin hosts the world's most abundant surface fresh water reserve. Historically an industrial and natural resource powerhouse, the region has suffered economic stagnation in recent decades. Meanwhile, growing water resource scarcity around the world is creating pressure on water-intensive human activities. This situation creates the potential for the Great Lakes region to sustainably utilize its relative water wealth for economic benefit. We combine economic production and trade datasets with water consumption data and models of surface water depletion in the region. We find that, on average, the current economy does not create significant impacts on surface waters, but there is some risk that unregulated large water uses can create environmental flow impacts if they are developed in the wrong locations. Water uses drawing on deep groundwater or the Great Lakes themselves are unlikely to create a significant depletion, and discharge of groundwater withdrawals to surface waters offsets most surface water depletion. This relative abundance of surface water means that science-based management of large water uses to avoid accidentally creating "hotspots" is likely to be successful in avoiding future impacts, even if water use is significantly increased. Commercial water uses are the most productive, with thermoelectric, mining, and agricultural water uses in the lowest tier of water productivity. Surprisingly for such a water-abundant economy, the region is a net importer of water-derived goods and services. This, combined with the abundance of surface water, suggests that the region's water-based economy has room to grow in the 21st century.

  9. Lake Enriquillo Water Level History and Implications for future flooding in the Southwestern Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, V. D.; Hornbach, M. J.; McHugh, C. M.; Asilis, Y.; Montes, M.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Enriquillo is currently located -41m below sea-level, and is the largest lake (~350 km2) in the Caribbean. Lake levels during the past eight years have risen to anomalous highs (from -51m BSL to -41m BSL), flooding villages and displacing their inhabitants. Both the cause of lake level rise and the anticipated future change in lake level remain unclear. Seismic images revealing erosional and depositional sedimentary boundaries in the lake, however, provide insight into historic lake level trends. Here, we integrate seismic images with sediment core samples, and historical photographs to constrain lake level history with time. We used ASTER global digital elevation models combined with single beam data to determine the lake's bathymetry, drainage and surrounding geomorphology. Additionally, we used NOAA and local weather station data to assess the potential role that weather and climate patterns play in lake levels. Although yearly weather conditions play a major role in lake levels, analysis of regional seismic data indicates that tectonics may also play an important role in longer term (century-scale) lake levels. The lake's areal extent and lake level elevation depend not only on the water supply, but also the lake's bathymetry and regional topography that is defined by the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault--a strike-slip fault system that extends throughout the lake. The shallow bathymetry of much of the lake (~ 20%) implies that relatively small changes in the rain pattern cause significant (10 m) changes to lake depth. Over the past thirty years, variations in the lake's areal extent (between 160 km2 to 350km2) and elevation (between -52m BSL to -41m BSL) can be attributed to changes in weather patterns. Preliminary analysis of both core and seismic data confirm that the lake water levels generally mimic wet and dry periods in the region, consistent with recent observations, however, the longer term maximum and minimum extent of Lake Enriquillo water

  10. Hydrology and water quality of Shell Lake, Washburn County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of diversion and changes in water level on the water quality of a shallow terminal lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2013-01-01

    Shell Lake is a relatively shallow terminal lake (tributaries but no outlets) in northwestern Wisconsin that has experienced approximately 10 feet (ft) of water-level fluctuation over more than 70 years of record and extensive flooding of nearshore areas starting in the early 2000s. The City of Shell Lake (City) received a permit from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in 2002 to divert water from the lake to a nearby river in order to lower water levels and reduce flooding. Previous studies suggested that water-level fluctuations were driven by long-term cycles in precipitation, evaporation, and runoff, although questions about the lake’s connection with the groundwater system remained. The permit required that the City evaluate assumptions about lake/groundwater interactions made in previous studies and evaluate the effects of the water diversion on water levels in Shell Lake and other nearby lakes. Therefore, a cooperative study between the City and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was initiated to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the area and evaluate potential effects of the diversion on water levels in Shell Lake, the surrounding groundwater system, and nearby lakes. Concerns over deteriorating water quality in the lake, possibly associated with changes in water level, prompted an additional cooperative project between the City and the USGS to evaluate efeffects of changes in nutrient loading associated with changes in water levels on the water quality of Shell Lake. Numerical models were used to evaluate how the hydrology and water quality responded to diversion of water from the lake and historical changes in the watershed. The groundwater-flow model MODFLOW was used to simulate groundwater movement in the area around Shell Lake, including groundwater/surface-water interactions. Simulated results from the MODFLOW model indicate that groundwater flows generally northward in the area around Shell Lake, with flow locally converging

  11. Impact of harmful algal blooms on several Lake Erie drinking water treatment facilities; methodology considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The propagation of cyanbacterial cells and their toxins were investigated at seven drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) on Lake Erie were investigated with regards to harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxin concentrations, water quality variations in treatment plant influents, and pr...

  12. The Great Lakes Water Balance: Data availability and annotated bibliography of selected references

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, Brian P.; Killian, Jason R.

    2003-01-01

    Water balance calculations for the Great Lakes have been made for several decades and are a key component of Great Lakes water management. Despite the importance of the water balance, little has been done to inventory and describe the data available for use in water balance calculations. This report provides a catalog and brief description of major datasets that are used to calculate the Great Lakes water balance. Several additional datasets are identified that could be used to calculate parts of the water balance but currently are not being used. Individual offices and web pages that are useful for attaining these datasets are included. Four specific data gaps are also identified. An annotated bibliography of important publications dealing with the Great Lakes water balance is included. The findings of this investigation permit resource managers and scientists to access data more easily, assess shortcomings of current datasets, and identify which data are not currently being utilized in water balance calculations.

  13. Spatiotemporal Water body Change Detection Using Multi-temporal Landsat Imagery: Case Studies of Lake Enriquillo and Lake Azuei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moknatian, M.; Piasecki, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most valuable sources of data is Landsat imagery when in-situ data is absent. The Landsat satellite observations are also among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water resources. The purpose of this study is to investigate the water body changes of the two biggest lakes of Hispaniola Island for the past 30 years, using remote sensing techniques when there are no in-situ measurements available. Lake Azuei in Haiti and Lake Enriquillo in the Dominican Republic both have been changing constantly in their quality and quantity. Unexpected growth of the two lakes has been observed since 2003, leaving the area with many ecological and socio-economic complications affecting thousands of local peoples' lives during the past 12 years. Such phenomena are expected to be due to the influence of climate change on the lakes. One of the main key components to investigate this hypothesis is first to detect and map the patterns of changes of the lakes over time. 100 Landsat 4-5 TM and 192 Landsat 7-ETM+ scenes acquired from 1984 to 2014 were analyzed to investigate the surface area changes for each lake. Almost 60% of the images are fully or partially cloudy which makes it difficult to picture the full extent of the lakes and consequently calculate their surface area. Moreover, 65% of images have gaps due to the failure of the ETM+ scan line corrector (SLC) since 2003 which adds to the problem. To solve this problem, we developed an algorithm to identify and classify clouds and cloud shadows using blue and Thermal bands; remove them from the scene and then detect water body using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) using Green and NIR bands. The next step was to fill the gaps which were created after removing clouds and stripes from the scenes. Toward this end, we decided to complete each image using the previous or next available image. 95% of the images have been processed and surface area has been calculated for both lakes. Using the

  14. Chemical quality of surface waters in Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, Herbert; Colby, Bruce R.

    1955-01-01

    Devils Lake basin, a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota, covers about 3,900 square miles of land, the topography of which is morainal and of glacial origin. In this basin lies a chain of waterways, which begins with the Sweetwater group and extends successively through Mauvais Coulee, Devils Lake, East Bay Devils Lake, and East Devils Lake, to Stump Lake. In former years when lake levels were high, Mauvais Coulee drained the Sweetwater group and discharged considerable water into Devils Lake. Converging coulees also transported excess water to Stump Lake. For at least 70 years prior to 1941, Mauvais Coulee flowed only intermittently, and the levels of major lakes in this region gradually declined. Devils Lake, for example, covered an area of about 90,000 acres in 1867 but had shrunk to approximately 6,500 acres by 1941. Plans to restore the recreational appeal of Devils Lake propose the dilution and eventual displacement of the brackish lake water by fresh water that would be diverted from the Missouri River. Freshening of the lake water would permit restocking Devils Lake with fish. Devils and Stump Lake have irregular outlines and numerous windings and have been described as lying in the valley of a preglacial river, the main stem and tributaries of which are partly filled with drift. Prominent morainal hills along the south shore of Devils Lake contrast sharply with level farmland to the north. The mean annual temperature of Devils Lake basin ranges between 36 ? and 42 ? F. Summer temperatures above 100 ? F and winter temperatures below -30 ? Fare not uncommon. The annual precipitation for 77 years at the city of Devils Lake averaged 17.5 inches. Usually, from 75 to 80 percent of the precipitation in the basin falls during the growing season, April to September. From 1867 to 1941 the net fall of the water surface of Devils Lake was about 38 feet. By 1951 the surface had risen fully 14 feet from its lowest altitude, 1,400.9 feet. Since 1951, the level has

  15. Interaction of a fresh water lake and a karstic spring via a syncline fold.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolfazl; Zare, Mohammad; Raeisi, Ezzatollah; Ghanbari, Reza Namdar

    2013-03-01

    Kaftar Lake is a high-altitude fresh water lake located in High Zagros, south of Iran. Despite the high annual evaporation to precipitation ratio in the area, lake water electrical conductivity is usually lower than 1000 µS/cm, this may be due to high seepage from the floor of the lake. Therefore, the hypothesis of possible underground connections between Namdan Basin, where the lake is located, and the surrounding basins with lower elevation (Aspas and Dehbid Basins) was investigated. Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry, and stable isotopes data of the lake and surrounding basins along with the lake water balance study were applied to test the hypothesis. Results indicate that Kaftar Lake has no connection with Aspas Basin in south, but it is hydraulically connected to Dehbid Basin. In Dehbid Basin, "Ghasr_e_Yaghoob spring" (average discharge ≅1200 L/s) emerges from a small outcrop (about 0.8 km(2) ) of Daryan limestone Formation, where this outcrop is much smaller than the required recharge area for such average discharge rate. The study shows that this spring is recharged by Kaftar Lake and Namdan Basin aquifer, through Daryan Formation of Gandboee Syncline located to the northern part of the lake.

  16. Balancing Public Trust Resources of Mono Lake and Los Angeles' Water Right: An Economic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John B.

    1987-08-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is used to quantify the Public Trust values of Mono Lake at alternative lake levels. The dichotomous choice approach to contingent valuation is employed using a logit model. The economic benefit to California residents of preserving Mono Lake is estimated to be 1.5 billion. Purchase of replacement water and power would cost 26.2 million annually. On efficiency grounds, reallocation of water for maintenance of Public Trust values at Mono Lake is warranted. The CVM appears to be a useful methodology to evaluate the balancing and feasibility tests of the expanded Public Trust doctrine suggested by the California Supreme Court.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of lake eutrophication responses under alternative water diversion scenarios: a water quality modeling based statistical analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Yilin; Sheng, Hu; Dong, Feifei; Zou, Rui; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Huaicheng; Zhu, Xiang; He, Bin

    2014-01-15

    China is confronting the challenge of accelerated lake eutrophication, where Lake Dianchi is considered as the most serious one. Eutrophication control for Lake Dianchi began in the mid-1980s. However, decision makers have been puzzled by the lack of visible water quality response to past efforts given the tremendous investment. Therefore, decision makers desperately need a scientifically sound way to quantitatively evaluate the response of lake water quality to proposed management measures and engineering works. We used a water quality modeling based scenario analysis approach to quantitatively evaluate the eutrophication responses of Lake Dianchi to an under-construction water diversion project. The primary analytic framework was built on a three-dimensional hydrodynamic, nutrient fate and transport, as well as algae dynamics model, which has previously been calibrated and validated using historical data. We designed 16 scenarios to analyze the water quality effects of three driving forces, including watershed nutrient loading, variations in diverted inflow water, and lake water level. A two-step statistical analysis consisting of an orthogonal test analysis and linear regression was then conducted to distinguish the contributions of various driving forces to lake water quality. The analysis results show that (a) the different ways of managing the diversion projects would result in different water quality response in Lake Dianchi, though the differences do not appear to be significant; (b) the maximum reduction in annual average and peak Chl-a concentration from the various ways of diversion project operation are respectively 11% and 5%; (c) a combined 66% watershed load reduction and water diversion can eliminate the lake hypoxia volume percentage from the existing 6.82% to 3.00%; and (d) the water diversion will decrease the occurrence of algal blooms, and the effect of algae reduction can be enhanced if diverted water are seasonally allocated such that wet

  18. Quantitative evaluation of lake eutrophication responses under alternative water diversion scenarios: a water quality modeling based statistical analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Yilin; Sheng, Hu; Dong, Feifei; Zou, Rui; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Huaicheng; Zhu, Xiang; He, Bin

    2014-01-15

    China is confronting the challenge of accelerated lake eutrophication, where Lake Dianchi is considered as the most serious one. Eutrophication control for Lake Dianchi began in the mid-1980s. However, decision makers have been puzzled by the lack of visible water quality response to past efforts given the tremendous investment. Therefore, decision makers desperately need a scientifically sound way to quantitatively evaluate the response of lake water quality to proposed management measures and engineering works. We used a water quality modeling based scenario analysis approach to quantitatively evaluate the eutrophication responses of Lake Dianchi to an under-construction water diversion project. The primary analytic framework was built on a three-dimensional hydrodynamic, nutrient fate and transport, as well as algae dynamics model, which has previously been calibrated and validated using historical data. We designed 16 scenarios to analyze the water quality effects of three driving forces, including watershed nutrient loading, variations in diverted inflow water, and lake water level. A two-step statistical analysis consisting of an orthogonal test analysis and linear regression was then conducted to distinguish the contributions of various driving forces to lake water quality. The analysis results show that (a) the different ways of managing the diversion projects would result in different water quality response in Lake Dianchi, though the differences do not appear to be significant; (b) the maximum reduction in annual average and peak Chl-a concentration from the various ways of diversion project operation are respectively 11% and 5%; (c) a combined 66% watershed load reduction and water diversion can eliminate the lake hypoxia volume percentage from the existing 6.82% to 3.00%; and (d) the water diversion will decrease the occurrence of algal blooms, and the effect of algae reduction can be enhanced if diverted water are seasonally allocated such that wet

  19. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes of Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sanchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

    2012-07-01

    Global change, together with human activities had resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) received by water bodies. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, which effects have in general been neglected. Even more, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrients input are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in Granada) to determine the combined effects of these three variables associated to global change on photosynthetic responses of natural phytoplankton communities. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 μg P l-1, and N to reach a N : P molar ratio of 31) and, (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m every 4 min, total of 10 cycles) versus static. Our findings suggest that under in situ nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and EOC from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where antagonistic effects were determined, with mixing partially counteracting the negative effects of UVR. Nutrients input mimicking atmospheric pulses from Saharan dust, reversed this effect and clear lakes became more inhibited during mixing, while opaque lakes benefited from the fluctuating irradiance

  20. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  1. [Spatial Variability Characteristics of Water Quality and Its Driving Forces in Honghu Lake During High Water-level Period].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Wang, Ling; Li, Zhao-hua; Wang, Xiang-rong; Chen, Hong-bing; Wu, Zhong; Zhu, Peng

    2015-04-01

    Based on the high-density analysis of 139 monitoring points and samples in water of honghu lake with different degrees of eutrophication during the high water-level period, we could get the figures of spatial variability characteristics of pollution factors, the biomass of aquatic plants and water quality in Honghu Lake using the GIS interpolation methods. The result showed that the concentrations of TN, TP, NH4(+) -N, permanganate index gradually increased from south to north during this period, the trend of water pollution degree in Honghu Lake was the region of inflowing rivers > enclosure culture area > open water area > the lake protection area > region of the Yangtze river into the lake; and the contribution rate of water quality parameters was in the order of TN > TP > permanganate index > NH4(+), -N > DO; under the influence of industrial sewage, agricultural sewage, domestic sewage, bait, aquatic plants and water exchange, 59% of TN, 35.2% of TP, 13.7% of permanganate index, 4.3% of NH4(+)-N exceeded the water quality targets, respectively, accordingly, 66.2% of the water quality also exceeded the water quality target. Nonetheless, DO reached the water quality target due to the influences of monsoon climate and other environment factors. The spatial variation analysis could directly reflect the mutual interaction among human activity, land-use types and environment factors which had an enormous impact on Honghu Lake water environment. In order to ensure that the lake water environment is beneficial for human productions and livings, it is necessary for us to control the discharge of industrial sewage, agricultural sewage and domestic sewage, as well as the expanding area of aquaculture, all the above measures would be significant for gradually resuming the self-purification capacity of water body and finally achieving the ecological sustainable development of Honghu Lake water environment.

  2. [Spatial Variability Characteristics of Water Quality and Its Driving Forces in Honghu Lake During High Water-level Period].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Wang, Ling; Li, Zhao-hua; Wang, Xiang-rong; Chen, Hong-bing; Wu, Zhong; Zhu, Peng

    2015-04-01

    Based on the high-density analysis of 139 monitoring points and samples in water of honghu lake with different degrees of eutrophication during the high water-level period, we could get the figures of spatial variability characteristics of pollution factors, the biomass of aquatic plants and water quality in Honghu Lake using the GIS interpolation methods. The result showed that the concentrations of TN, TP, NH4(+) -N, permanganate index gradually increased from south to north during this period, the trend of water pollution degree in Honghu Lake was the region of inflowing rivers > enclosure culture area > open water area > the lake protection area > region of the Yangtze river into the lake; and the contribution rate of water quality parameters was in the order of TN > TP > permanganate index > NH4(+), -N > DO; under the influence of industrial sewage, agricultural sewage, domestic sewage, bait, aquatic plants and water exchange, 59% of TN, 35.2% of TP, 13.7% of permanganate index, 4.3% of NH4(+)-N exceeded the water quality targets, respectively, accordingly, 66.2% of the water quality also exceeded the water quality target. Nonetheless, DO reached the water quality target due to the influences of monsoon climate and other environment factors. The spatial variation analysis could directly reflect the mutual interaction among human activity, land-use types and environment factors which had an enormous impact on Honghu Lake water environment. In order to ensure that the lake water environment is beneficial for human productions and livings, it is necessary for us to control the discharge of industrial sewage, agricultural sewage and domestic sewage, as well as the expanding area of aquaculture, all the above measures would be significant for gradually resuming the self-purification capacity of water body and finally achieving the ecological sustainable development of Honghu Lake water environment. PMID:26164902

  3. Hydrology and water quality of Lauderdale Lakes, Walworth County, Wisconsin, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, H.S.; Seidel, T.L.; Rose, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ground water and precipitation are the primary water-budget inflow components, and during the study period represented 72 and 24 percent of the total annual inflow, respectively. Surface-water inflow from the small nearshore contributing drainage area accounted for only 4 percent of the inflow budget. Total annual phosphorus input to the lakes was 846 pounds. Although surface water accounted for only 4 percent of the water budget, it represented 51 percent of the total annual phosphorus input. Phosphorus input from septic systems was the second largest source, with a probable annual input of 210 pounds, accounting for 25 percent of the total. Positive ground-water gradients to the lake and phosphorus concentrations in ground water were verified by data from nearshore observation wells. Phosphorus concentrations in ground water exceeded background concentrations of 0.008 milligrams per liter in three out of six observation wells in the inflow area of the lakes. Overall, the phosphorus loading to the lakes is small and lake-water quality is good. The trophic state indices calculated for the lakes ranged from oligotrophic to mesotrophic but were in the mesotrophic class for most of the year. An equation to predict phosphorus concentration at spring turnover from loading estimates was fairly accurate in predicting the measured phosphorus concentration for Lauderdale Lakes.

  4. Source of radium in a well-water-augmented Florida lake.

    PubMed

    Smoak, Joseph M; Krest, James M

    2006-01-01

    A study of the lake waters of Saddleback Lake, Florida was undertaken with the goal of determining the source of elevated radium activities in the lake. Four radium isotopes, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (223)Ra and (224)Ra, were measured and activities of all the four radium isotopes were substantially greater in the well water used to augment the lake as compared to the lake waters. In the surface water, radium activities were highest close to the well used for augmentation in the initial sampling. Activities initially decreased with time after augmentation from the well ceased. The (223)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio decreased during the first month of sampling and closely followed an exponential decay curve based on the (223)Ra decay constant. Trends in the activities and the (223)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios support the conclusion that the well used to augment the lake was the dominant source of (223)Ra and (226)Ra to Saddleback Lake during this study. The (224)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio did not follow the expected trend of exponential decay based on the (224)Ra decay constant. While the augmentation well supplied some (224)Ra, these results suggest that there must be an additional source of (224)Ra to the lake. The most likely additional source of (224)Ra appears to be the ingrowth of (224)Ra on the sediment within the lake from (228)Ra (via (228)Th).

  5. Modeling hydrodynamics, temperature and water quality in Henry Hagg Lake, Oregon, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annette B.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional model CE-QUAL-W2 was used to simulate hydrodynamics, temperature, and water quality in Henry Hagg Lake, Oregon, for the years 2000 through 2003. Input data included lake bathymetry, meteorologic conditions, tributary inflows, tributary temperature and water quality, and lake outflows. Calibrated constituents included lake hydrodynamics, water temperature, orthophosphate, total phosphorus, ammonia, algae, chlorophyll a, zooplankton, and dissolved oxygen. Other simulated constituents included nitrate, dissolved and particulate organic matter, dissolved solids, and suspended sediment. Two algal groups (blue-green algae, and all other algae) were included in the model to simulate the lakes algal communities. Measured lake stage data were used to calibrate the lakes water balance; calibration of water temperature and water quality relied upon vertical profile data taken in the deepest part of the lake near the dam. The model initially was calibrated with data from 200001 and tested with data from 200203. Sensitivity tests were performed to examine the response of the model to specific parameters and coefficients, including the light-extinction coefficient, wind speed, tributary inflows of phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter, sediment oxygen demand, algal growth rates, and zooplankton feeding preference factors.

  6. Effects of land management practices on water quality in Mississippi Delta Oxbow Lakes: biochemical and microbiological aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project assessed the effects of land management practices on water quality in three small oxbow lake watersheds; Thighman (1497 ha, 9 ha lake); Beasley (850 ha, 25 ha lake); and Deep Hollow (202 ha, 8 ha lake). During 2000-2003 monthly...

  7. Effects of Land Management Practices on Water Quality in Mississippi Delta Oxbow Lakes: Biochemical and Microbiological Aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project was designed to assess the effects of land management practices on water quality in three small oxbow lake watersheds; Thighman (1497 ha, 9 ha lake); Beasley (850 ha, 25 ha lake); and Deep Hollow (202 ha, 8 ha lake). Results fr...

  8. Table Rock Lake Water-Clarity Assessment Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Satellite Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krizanich, Gary; Finn, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality of Table Rock Lake in southwestern Missouri is assessed using Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data. A pilot study uses multidate satellite image scenes in conjunction with physical measurements of secchi disk transparency collected by the Lakes of Missouri Volunteer Program to construct a regression model used to estimate water clarity. The natural log of secchi disk transparency is the dependent variable in the regression and the independent variables are Thematic Mapper band 1 (blue) reflectance and a ratio of the band 1 and band 3 (red) reflectance. The regression model can be used to reliably predict water clarity anywhere within the lake. A pixel-level lake map of predicted water clarity or computed trophic state can be produced from the model output. Information derived from this model can be used by water-resource managers to assess water quality and evaluate effects of changes in the watershed on water quality.

  9. Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., isolated from Lonar Lake, a meteorite salt water lake in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Trupti K; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Shinde, Vidhya K; Zhan, Jing; Li, Wen-Jun; Rele, Meenakshi V; Dastager, Syed G; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2016-02-01

    A novel alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain NCL716(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the vicinity of Lonar Lake, an alkaline salt water meteorite lake in Buldhana district of Maharashtra State in India. The strain was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth was observed over a pH range of 7-11 at 28 °C. The cell wall was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid and traces of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acid components were identified as iso-C16:0 (46.8 %), C17:1 (12.4 %), anteiso-C15:0 (5.1 %) and anteiso-C17:1 (4.8 %). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinones were determined to be MK-9 (H6) (70.3 %), MK-9 (H4) (15.5 %) and MK-9 (H8) (7.2 %). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was determined to be 71.4 mol %. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has been deposited in GenBank with accession number FJ919811. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NCL716(T) shares >99 % similarity with that of Streptomyces bohaiensis strain 11A07(T), DNA-DNA hybridization revealed only 33.2 ± 3.0 % relatedness between them. Moreover, these two strains can be readily distinguished by some distinct phenotypic characteristics. Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NCL716(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NCL 716(T) (=DSM 42084(T) = MTCC 11708(T) = KCTC 39684(T)). PMID:26597560

  10. Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., isolated from Lonar Lake, a meteorite salt water lake in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Trupti K; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Shinde, Vidhya K; Zhan, Jing; Li, Wen-Jun; Rele, Meenakshi V; Dastager, Syed G; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2016-02-01

    A novel alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain NCL716(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the vicinity of Lonar Lake, an alkaline salt water meteorite lake in Buldhana district of Maharashtra State in India. The strain was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth was observed over a pH range of 7-11 at 28 °C. The cell wall was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid and traces of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acid components were identified as iso-C16:0 (46.8 %), C17:1 (12.4 %), anteiso-C15:0 (5.1 %) and anteiso-C17:1 (4.8 %). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinones were determined to be MK-9 (H6) (70.3 %), MK-9 (H4) (15.5 %) and MK-9 (H8) (7.2 %). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was determined to be 71.4 mol %. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has been deposited in GenBank with accession number FJ919811. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NCL716(T) shares >99 % similarity with that of Streptomyces bohaiensis strain 11A07(T), DNA-DNA hybridization revealed only 33.2 ± 3.0 % relatedness between them. Moreover, these two strains can be readily distinguished by some distinct phenotypic characteristics. Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NCL716(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NCL 716(T) (=DSM 42084(T) = MTCC 11708(T) = KCTC 39684(T)).

  11. Effect of humic substance photodegradation on bacterial growth and respiration in lake water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anesio, A.M.; Graneli, W.; Aiken, G.R.; Kieber, D.J.; Mopper, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses how humic substance (HS) chemical composition and photoreactivity affect bacterial growth, respiration, and growth efficiency (BGE) in lake water. Aqueous solutions of HSs from diverse aquatic environments representing different dissolved organic matter sources (autochthonous and allochthonous) were exposed to artificial solar UV radiation. These solutions were added to lake water passed through a 0.7-??m-pore-size filter (containing grazer-free lake bacteria) followed by dark incubation for 5, 43, and 65 h. For the 5-h incubation, several irradiated HSs inhibited bacterial carbon production (BCP) and this inhibition was highly correlated with H 2O2 photoproduction. The H2O2 decayed in the dark, and after 43 h, nearly all irradiated HSs enhanced BCP (average 39% increase relative to nonirradiated controls, standard error = 7.5%, n = 16). UV exposure of HSs also increased bacterial respiration (by ???18%, standard error = 5%, n = 4), but less than BCP, resulting in an average increase in BGE of 32% (standard error = 10%, n = 4). Photoenhancement of BCP did not correlate to HS bulk properties (i.e., elemental and chemical composition). However, when the photoenhancement of BCP was normalized to absorbance, several trends with HS origin and extraction method emerged. Absorbance-normalized hydrophilic acid and humic acid samples showed greater enhancement of BCP than hydrophobic acid and fulvic acid samples. Furthermore, absorbance-normalized autochthonous samples showed ???10-fold greater enhancement of BCP than allochthonous-dominated samples, indicating that the former are more efficient photoproducers of biological substrates. Copyright ?? 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. In-lake measures for phosphorus control: The most feasible and cost-effective solution for long-term management of water quality in urban lakes.

    PubMed

    Huser, Brian J; Futter, Martyn; Lee, Jeff T; Perniel, Mike

    2016-06-15

    Both in-lake and catchment measures designed to reduce phosphorus (P) loading were implemented as part of a 12.3 million USD restoration project for the Minneapolis Chain of lakes in Minnesota (USA). Treatment wetlands, 'in-pipe' measures, and in-lake aluminum sulfate (alum) treatment were applied to restore water quality in the four urban lakes. Different alum dosing methods led to between 4 and 20+ (modeled) years of water quality improvements in these lakes after treatment and only one of the four lakes continues to meet water quality goals approximately 25 years after the project started. Due to limited space and poor performance, reduction of total external loads was low (1-13%) for three lakes. Changes to internal P sediment release rates after application of alum correlated well with epilimnetic total P (TP) concentrations in these lakes, indicating that improvements in water quality were mainly driven by reduced internal loading via in-lake measures. Substantial reductions to external P loading were only achieved at Cedar Lake (49%) via conversion of an existing natural area to a treatment wetland, but even Cedar Lake is no longer meeting management goals. When expressed in terms of dollars spent per unit P removed, in lake alum treatment was on average 50 times more effective than in-catchment measures. The results of this study indicate that substantial external nutrient reductions may not be adequate to sustainably maintain water quality in urban lakes and that continued in-lake management of P accumulated in lake sediment will not only be necessary, but will also be more cost efficient relative to in-catchment measures. PMID:26298078

  13. The protection and development of historic Lougang water resource features along Lake Tai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, J.; Tan, X. M.; Li, Y. P.; Wan, J. H.; Liu, J. G.; Zhou, B.

    2016-08-01

    Overcoming the conflicts between protecting water resource heritage features and the sustainable development of modern society is a major undertaking. Lougangs (rivulets) and polders are Lake-Tai-Basin-specific water resource engineering projects that hold a significant historic position. This paper presents background on water resource heritage features, based on the origins and evolution of Lougangs along Lake Tai. Through analysis of their value and current standing, we propose countermeasures for protection and development of the Lougang water resource heritage features along Lake Tai.

  14. Changes in lakes water volume and runoff over ungauged Sahelian watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, L.; Grippa, M.; Hiernaux, P.; Peugeot, C.; Mougin, E.; Kergoat, L.

    2016-09-01

    A large part of the Sahel consists of endorheic hydrological systems, where reservoirs and lakes capture surface runoff during the rainy season, making water available during the dry season. Monitoring and understanding the dynamics of these lakes and their relationships to the ecohydrological evolution of the region is important to assess past, present and future changes of water resources in the Sahel. Yet, most of Sahelian watersheds are still ungauged or poorly gauged, which hinders the assessment of the water flows feeding the lakes and the overall runoff over their watershed. In this paper, a methodology is developed to estimate water inflow to lakes for ungauged watersheds. It is tested for the Agoufou lake in the Gourma region in Mali, for which in situ water height measurements and surface areas estimations by remote sensing are simultaneously available. A Height-Volume-Area (HVA) model is developed to relate water volume to water height and lake surface area. This model is combined to daily evaporation and precipitation to estimate water inflow to the lake, which approximates runoff over the whole watershed. The ratio between annual water inflow and precipitation increases over the last sixty years as a result of a significant increase in runoff coefficient over the Agoufou watershed. The method is then extended to derive water inflow to three other Sahelian lakes in Mauritania and Niger. No in situ measurements are available and lake surface areas estimation by remote sensing is the only source of information. Dry season surface area changes and estimated evaporation are used to select a suited VA relationship for each case. It is found that the ratio between annual water inflow and precipitation has also increased in the last 60 years over these watersheds, although trends at the Mauritanian site are not statistically significant. The remote sensing approach developed in this study can be easily applied to recent sensors such as Sentinel-2 or Landsat-8

  15. Declining survival of lake trout stocked during 1963-1986 in U.S. waters of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Schram, Stephen T.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Selgeby, James H.

    1994-01-01

    The average catch per effort (CPE) values for the 1963–1982 year-classes of stocked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush caught at age 7 in gill nets and for the 1976–1986 year-classes caught at ages 2–4 in trawls declined significantly in U.S. waters of Lake Superior. The declines in CPE were not explained by reduced stocking, but rather by significant declines in survival indices of the year-classes of stocked lake trout. Increases in mortality occurred in year-classes before the fish reached ages 2–4, before they were recruited into the sport and commercial fisheries, and before they reached sizes vulnerable to sea lamprey predation. We conclude that declining abundance of stocked lake trout resulted from increased mortality, which may have been caused by competition, predation, or by a combination of these and other factors. Restoration of lake trout in Lake Superior may now depend on prudent management of naturally reproducing stocks rather than on stocking of hatchery-reared fish.

  16. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  17. Nutrient additions by waterfowl to lakes and reservoirs: predicting their effects on productivity and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Johnson, W.C.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs provide water for human needs and habitat for aquatic birds. Managers of such waters may ask whether nutrients added by waterfowl degrade water quality. For lakes and reservoirs where primary productivity is limited by phosphorus (P), we developed a procedure that integrates annual P loads from waterfowl and other external sources, applies a nutrient load-response model, and determines whether waterfowl that used the lake or reservoir degraded water quality. Annual P loading by waterfowl can be derived from a figure in this report, using the days per year that each kind spent on any lake or reservoir. In our example, over 6500 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and 4200 ducks (mostly mallards, Anas platyrhynchos) added 4462 kg of carbon (C), 280 kg of nitrogen (N), and 88 kg of P y-1 to Wintergreen Lake in southwestern Michigan, mostly during their migration. These amounts were 69% of all C, 27% of all N, and 70% of all P that entered the lake from external sources. Loads from all external sources totaled 840 mg P m-2 y-1. Application of a nutrient load-response model to this concentration, the hydraulic load (0.25 m y-1), and the water residence time (9.7 y) of Wintergreen Lake yielded an average annual concentration of total P in the lake of 818 mg m-3 that classified the lake as hypertrophic. This trophic classification agreed with independent measures of primary productivity, chlorophyll-a, total P, total N, and Secchi disk transparency made in Wintergreen Lake. Our procedure showed that waterfowl caused low water quality in Wintergreen Lake.

  18. Groundwater and surface water interaction in flow-through gravel pit lakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nella Mollema, Pauline; Antonellini, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Gravel pits are excavated in aquifers to fulfill the need for construction materials. Flow-through lakes form when the gravel pits are below the water table and fill with groundwater. In certain areas there are more than 60 of these lakes close together and their presence changes the drainage patterns and water- and hydrochemical budgets of a watershed. In flow-through gravel pit lakes, groundwater mixes with surface water and interacts with the atmosphere; outflow occurs only via groundwater. The lifespan of gravel pit lakes may be up to thousands of years as their depth to surface ratio is typically large and sedimentation rates are low. We have studied two gravel pit lake systems, a fluvial freshwater system in the Netherlands and a coastal brackish lake system in Italy. One Dutch gravel pit lake studied in detail is in part artificially replenished with Meuse River water for drinking water production that occurs downstream of the lake by water pumps. The Italian gravel pit lakes are fed by brackish groundwater that is a mix of freshwater from precipitation, Apennine Rivers and brackish (Holocene) Adriatic Sea water. Here, the drainage system of the low lying land enhances groundwater flow into the lake. Surface water evaporation is larger in temperate and Mediterranean climates than the actual evapotranspiration of pre-existing grassland and forests. The lakes, therefore, cause a loss of freshwater. The creation of water surfaces allows algae and other flora and fauna to develop. In general, water becomes gradually enriched in certain chemical constituents on its way through the hydrological cycle, especially as groundwater due to water-rock interactions. When groundwater ex-filtrates into gravel pit lakes, the natural flow of solutes towards the sea is interrupted. Hydrochemical analysis of ground- and surface waters, as well as chemical analysis of lake bottom sediments and stable H and O isotope data, show that gravel pit lake water is characterized (among

  19. Spatial Variation in Nutrient and Water Color Effects on Lake Chlorophyll at Macroscales

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Andrew O.; Soranno, Patricia A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient-water color paradigm is a framework to characterize lake trophic status by relating lake primary productivity to both nutrients and water color, the colored component of dissolved organic carbon. Total phosphorus (TP), a limiting nutrient, and water color, a strong light attenuator, influence lake chlorophyll a concentrations (CHL). But, these relationships have been shown in previous studies to be highly variable, which may be related to differences in lake and catchment geomorphology, the forms of nutrients and carbon entering the system, and lake community composition. Because many of these factors vary across space it is likely that lake nutrient and water color relationships with CHL exhibit spatial autocorrelation, such that lakes near one another have similar relationships compared to lakes further away. Including this spatial dependency in models may improve CHL predictions and clarify how well the nutrient-water color paradigm applies to lakes distributed across diverse landscape settings. However, few studies have explicitly examined spatial heterogeneity in the effects of TP and water color together on lake CHL. In this study, we examined spatial variation in TP and water color relationships with CHL in over 800 north temperate lakes using spatially-varying coefficient models (SVC), a robust statistical method that applies a Bayesian framework to explore space-varying and scale-dependent relationships. We found that TP and water color relationships were spatially autocorrelated and that allowing for these relationships to vary by individual lakes over space improved the model fit and predictive performance as compared to models that did not vary over space. The magnitudes of TP effects on CHL differed across lakes such that a 1 μg/L increase in TP resulted in increased CHL ranging from 2–24 μg/L across lake locations. Water color was not related to CHL for the majority of lakes, but there were some locations where water color had a

  20. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuebbles, D. J.; Hayhoe, K.; Cherkauer, K.

    2008-12-01

    Climate-driven changes in temperature and precipitation are projected to affect many aspects of water resources. Here, we provide examples of several case studies demonstrating the potential effects of climate change on soil moisture, river and stream flow, and lake levels in the Great Lakes and the Midwest. Using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) large-scale hydrology model and the NOAA/GLERL Great Lakes basin model driven by gridded historical meteorology and statistically downscaled future global climate model projections, simulations of future changes under IPCC emissions scenarios were conducted. Runoff and baseflow are routed to produce streamflow and inputs to the Great Lakes, which are analyzed to identify potential future trends in streamflow characteristics and lake inputs. Additionally, the VIC model with lake and wetland algorithm was also run to study trends in lake ice phenology for Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. In general, we find that warming has been reducing the duration of ice cover on regional lakes in the last 50 years, and based on the future projections many lakes, especially in the southern parts of these states will be essentially ice-free by the end of the century. Under lower emissions over most of this century, competing effects suggest no net changes in Great Lake levels. Under higher emissions, however, the effects of greater temperature increases are projected to begin to dominate over the longer term, leading to lake level decreases of one to three feet before the end of the century.

  1. Water level variation of Inland lakes on the southeasten of Tibetan Plateau in 1972-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Lei, L.

    2014-12-01

    Lake water level variation directly records the process of water storage balance in the basin, which is a quite sensitive response to the climate change. We obtained the long-time lake area and level series of the five typical lakes from 1972 to 2012 in the Tibetan Plateau, and analyzed the variation of lake levels in recent 40 years, using the multi-source remote sensing data. The results show that the lake level of three inland lakes ( Pumo Yumco , Taro Co, Zhari Namco)have rose 0.89m, 0.70m,0.40m respectively ,while the two lakes (Peiku Co, Mapang Yumco) showed decreasing tendency, the changes is -1.696m,-0,153m. On the whole, the five lakes have experienced more remarkable changes in 2000-2012 than 1976-1999. In terms of spatial variations, the three lakes which located in south Tibetan Plateau, Peiku Co and Mapang Yumco, have show the consistent variation trend, as well as the other two lakes, Taro Co and Zhari Namco.

  2. Algal Populations and Water Quality in Florida Lakes: Sedimentary Evidence of Anthropogenic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, M. R.; Whitmore, T. J.; Brenner, M.; Smoak, J.; Curtis, J.

    2004-05-01

    Cyanobacteria and other algae dominate many highly productive Florida (U.S.A.) lakes. Algal proliferation is often attributed to eutrophication during the last century, but it is poorly documented because Florida's water-quality monitoring programs became common only after 1980. We examined sediment cores from 14 hypereutrophic Florida lakes. Study lakes have been subjected to urbanization, agriculture, and to inputs of municipal sewage effluent and food-processing wastes. Major algal-pigment groups were analyzed in sediments using pigment-extraction and spectrophotometric techniques. We compared myxoxanthophyll, oscillaxanthin, total carotenoid, and total chlorophyll pigment profiles with WACALIB-derived limnetic total-P and chlorophyll a inferences based on fossil diatoms, sediment chemistry, and stable isotope (δ 13C & δ 15N) signatures of organic matter. Sedimentary evidence showed that cyanobacterial and algal proliferation appeared during recent decades in 10 study lakes in response to eutrophication. Cyanobacterial increase was very recent and abrupt in 7 lakes. Six lakes showed recovery following nutrient-mitigation programs that reduced sewage and other point-source effluent inputs. Four lakes showed long-term presence of cyanobacterial populations because edaphic nutrient supply causes these lakes to be naturally productive. Three of these naturally eutrophic lakes remained unchanged, but one demonstrated eutrophication followed by subsequent recovery. Correlations were particularly strong among sedimented pigment profiles and diatom-inferred limnetic water-quality profiles. Paleolimnological methods provide informative assessment of anthropogenic influence on lakes when long-term water-quality data are lacking. Historic studies also are useful for evaluating the feasibility of improving water quality through lake-management programs, and for defining appropriate lake restoration goals.

  3. Groundwater-surface water interactions: the behavior of a small lake connected to groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoux, Marie; Barbecot, Florent; Gibert-Brunet, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between lakes and groundwater have been under concern in recent years and are still not well understood. Exchange rates are both spatially and temporally highly variable and are generally underestimated. However these interactions are of utmost importance for water resource management and need to be better understood since (i) the hydrogeological and geochemical equilibria within the lake drive the evolution of lakes' ecology and quality, and (ii) groundwater inflow, even in low rate, can be a key element in both the lake nutrient balance (and therefore in lake's eutrophication) and vulnerability to pollution. In many studies two main geochemical tracers, i.e. water stable isotopes and radon-222, are used to determine these interactions. However there are still many uncertainties on their time and space variations and their reliability to determine the lake budget. Therefore, a lake connected to groundwater on a small catchment was chosen to quantify groundwater fluxes change over time and the related influences on the lake's water geochemistry. Through analyse in time and space of both tracers and a precise instrumentation of the lake, their variations linked to groundwater inflows are determined. The results show that each tracer provides additional information for the lake budget with the interest to well determine the information given by each measurement: the radon-222 gives information on the groundwater inflows at a point in space and time while water stable isotopes highlight the dominant parameters of the yearly lake budget. The variation in groundwater inflows allow us to discuss lake's evolution regarding climate and environmental changes.

  4. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change. PMID:25204304

  5. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  6. Recreational demand for clean water: Evidence from geotagged photographs by visitors to lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, B.; Wood, S.; Polasky, S.; Kling, C.; Filstrup, C.; Downing, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    More than 41,000 waters are listed as impaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Water Act. Regulations designed to address these impairments can be costly, raising questions about the value of the public benefits that would result from additional investments in improving surface water quality. Benefit studies often rely on costly surveys or other detailed data collection, limiting the ability to apply nonmarket valuation methods to address policy needs. We assessed the recreational value of changes in water quality using freely-available geotagged photographs as a proxy for recreational visits to lakes. We find that improved water clarity is associated with greater lake photo-visitation and that lake users are willing to travel further to visit clearer lakes. We estimate a one-meter increase in lake clarity in Minnesota and Iowa lakes is associated with $22 in increased willingness-to-pay per trip and generates 1,400 additional annual visits per lake, holding all other lake attributes constant. Our approach demonstrates the potential of data from social media to inform human responses to environmental change.

  7. Distribution and enrichment of mercury in Tibetan lake waters and their relations with the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengding; Zhang, Qianggong; Kang, Shichang; Liu, Yongqin; Huang, Jie; Liu, Xiaobo; Guo, Junming; Wang, Kang; Cong, Zhiyuan

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) in aquatic ecosystems is of great concern due to its toxicity, bioaccumulation, and magnification in the food web. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is endowed with the highest and largest lakes on earth, whereas Hg distribution and behavior in lake waters are least known. In this study, surface water samples from 38 lakes over the TP were collected and determined for the total Hg (THg) concentrations. Results revealed a wide range of THg concentrations from <1 ng to 40.3 ng L(-1). THg in lake waters exhibited an increasing trend along the southeast to northwest transect over the TP. Strong positive correlations were observed between THg concentrations and salinity and salinity-related environmental variables, especially for total dissolved solids (TDS) and some of the major ions such as Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-), suggesting the enrichment of Hg in saline lakes. The large-scale geographical pattern of climatic and environmental factors shows a decreasing precipitation and an increasing evaporation northwards and westwards and thereby induces gradient-enhanced enrichment of soluble substances in lake waters, which are likely to complex more Hg in northwestern TP. Our study provides the first comprehensive baseline data set of Hg in Tibetan lake waters and highlights the concurrent high Hg and salinity, representing valuable references and fundamental rules in further understanding the behavior and fate of Hg in lakes over the TP and perhaps high-altitude regions beyond.

  8. Temporal and spatial changes of water quality and management strategies of Dianchi Lake in southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Zeng, W. H.; Wang, S. R.; Ni, Z. K.

    2014-04-01

    Temporal and spatial changes to the water quality of Dianchi Lake in southwest China were investigated using monthly monitoring data from 2005 to 2012. Dianchi Lake is divided into two parts, Caohai Lake and Waihai Lake, by a man-made dike. Caohai Lake lies at the north of Dianchi Lake, while Waihai Lake is the main water body of Dianchi Lake and accounts for 96.7% of the whole area of the lake. Based on the analysis of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, it was determined that, in Caohai Lake, the annual concentrations of these variables ranged from 0.19-1.46 mg L-1, 6.11-16.79 mg L-1, 0.06-0.14 mg L-1, respectively. In addition, the annual concentrations of TP, TN and Chl a in Waihai Lake ranged between 0.13 and 0.20 mg L-1, 1.82 and 3.01 mg L-1, and 0.04 and 0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Cluster analysis (CA) classified the 10 monitoring sites into two clusters (cluster A and cluster B) based on similarities of water quality characteristics. Our data revealed that the current status of water quality within Caohai Lake was much worse than that of Waihai Lake. Water quality was seriously degraded during the economic boom near the period of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" (2005-2010), and gradually improved from 2010 to 2012 because of the "standard emission directive to industry". The main factors that influenced the spatial and temporal changes to water quality were natural factors including lake evolution and regional characteristic as well as human factors such as pollution load into the lake and management strategies that were already adopted. Some activities and regulations were implemented to enhance the lake environment by controlling wastewater emissions and establishing regulations to protect the lakes in the Yunnan Province. However, problems with institutional fragmentation (horizontal and vertical), simple treatment methods, low-intensity investment in pollution control, and lack of meaningful endogenous

  9. [Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of lake water and geothermal spring water in arid area of south Tibet].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Shen, Li-Cheng; Wang, Peng

    2014-08-01

    The condition of water cycles in Tibet Plateau is a complex process, and the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes contain important information of this process. Based on the analysis of isotopic composition of freshwater lake, saltwater lake and geothermal water in the southern Tibetan Plateau, this study investigated water cycling, composition and variation of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and the influencing factors in the study area. The study found that the mean values of delta18O and deltaD in Daggyaima lake water (-17.0 per thousand for delta18O and -138. 6 per thousand for deltaD), Langcuo lake water (-6.4 per thousand for delta18O and -87.4 per thousand for deltaD) and Dagejia geothermal water (-19.2 per thousand for delta18 and -158.2 per thousand for deltaD) all showed negative delta18O and deltaD values in Tibetan Plateau by the influence of altitude effects. Lake water and geothermal water were influenced by evaporation effects in inland arid area, and the slope of evaporation line was less than 8. Deuterium excess parameters of lake water and geothermal water were all negative. The temperature of geothermal reservoirs in Dagejia geothermal field was high,and oxygen shift existed in the relationship of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes.

  10. Arctic Lake Water Temperature Patterns as Impacted by Climatic and Geomorphic Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Sheng, Y.; Lenters, J. D.; Lyons, E. A.; Beck, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Water temperature profile measurements were collected from 12 arctic lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska in summer 2010 as part of a network of lakes being studied. The lakes (> 1 km2) are underlain by permafrost and extend inland across some 150 km - from the Arctic coast near Barrow southward to the foothills of the Brooks Range. Regionally, lake water temperature patterns over the area are concordant and demonstrate rapid warming in late June and mid-August, with significant cooling in the second week of August. Locally, ice meltout occurs about 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the coast due to cooler temperatures and cloudy conditions associated with maritime conditions. Developed in flat marine silts, the coastal lake basins tend to be shallow (2-3 m) and of uniform depth; strong and persistent winds limit thermal stratification, and mid-summer (1 July - 15 Aug) near-surface water temperature averages 6.8°C. About 100 km further inland, in the sandy rolling topography near Atqasuk, lakes are characterized by broad shelves and deeper (2-4 m) central pools. Temperature stratification is minor (<0.5°C) and occurs only on calm, sunny days; mid-summer surface temperatures (11.6°C) are considerably warmer than lakes near the coast. Lakes here and farther south exhibit both diurnal and synoptic-scale variations in temperature. The southernmost lakes are warmest, averaging 13.0°C during the mid-summer period. Very shallow lakes (< 1 m) tend to become ice-free earlier and respond faster to air temperature forcing. Lakes in the south are developed in sand dunes and are generally 2-3 m deep. However, where the expanding lake encroaches on a dune flank at an actively eroding bluff, nearshore pools develop that can be 4-7 m deep. During calm and sunny periods lasting 7-10 days, thermal stratification occurs and the water temperature near the lake bed remains 4-7°C cooler than the surface. At one exposure, lacustrine silts were found beneath the aeolian

  11. Virtual water flows and Water Balance Impacts of the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.; Mubako, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impacts of human water use and trade on water balances, we estimate virtual water flows for counties in the U.S. portion of the Great Lakes basin. This is a water-rich region, but one where ecohydrological 'hotspots' are created by water scarcity in certain locations (Mubako et al., 2012). Trade shifts water uses from one location to another, causing water scarcity in some locations but mitigating water scarcity in other locations. A database of water withdrawals was assembled to give point-wise withdrawals by location, source, and use category (commercial, thermoelectric power, industrial, agricultural, mining). Point-wise consumptive use is aggregated to the county level, giving direct, virtual water exports by county. A county-level trade database provides import and export data for the various use categories. We link the annual virtual water exported from a county for a given use category to corresponding annual trade exports. Virtual water balances for each county by use category are calculated, and then compared with the renewable annual freshwater supply. Preliminary findings are that overall virtual water balances (imports - exports) are positive for almost all counties, because urban areas import goods and services that are more water intensive than the exported goods and services. However, for some agriculturally-intensive counties, the overall impact of virtual water trade on the water balance is close to zero, and the balance for agricultural sector virtual water trade is negative, reflecting a net impact of economic trade on the water balance in these locations. We also compare the virtual water balance to available water resources, using annual precipitation less evapotranspiration as a crude estimate of net renewable water availability. In some counties virtual water exports approach 30% of the available water resources, indicating the potential for water scarcity, especially from an aquatic ecosystem standpoint.

  12. Lake-Atmosphere Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Relation to Atmospheric Forcing and Water Clarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiskanen, J. J.; Ojala, A.; Mammarella, I.; Vesala, T.

    2015-12-01

    Even though lakes cover only 2 % of the world's land surface, it has been estimated that lakes release about 10 % of the carbon fixed annually by the terrestrial ecosystems back to the atmosphere. A critical parameter in the gas exchange estimates is the gas transfer velocity (k), which is governed by turbulence. The aim of our study was to assess the current global CO2 evasion estimates from lakes to the atmosphere by comparing parameterizations for kand the significance of wind and heat flux to the gas transfer in small lakes. To improve future predictions of gas evasion from lakes, we focused on the changes in water clarity and how they affect water column physics and processes in the air-water interface. We studied a small boreal lake and used the eddy covariance (EC) method for the high precision data needed, and therefore also aimed to improve the EC methodology on lakes. The air-water gas transfer was related to both wind and heat loss during times of seasonal stratification, but only to wind during autumn overturn. When wind-induced thermocline tilting and resulting spatial variability in surface water CO2 concentrations was accounted for, average k derived from the measurements dropped from 6.0 cm h-1 to 5.2 cm h-1. This was still over twice the estimate (2.2 cm h-1) calculated with a widely used model for kin lakes suggesting that the global estimates of gas evasion from lakes might be underestimations. Water clarity was a significant parameter defining the thermal stratification of the lake: a change from clear to dark water would lead to shorter stratification period and lower water column temperatures in small lakes and therefore have significant impact on the lake-atmosphere exchange processes. Figure 1. The isotherms of Lake Kuivajärvi throughout the open-water period 2013. The top left are the measured temperatures and the others are modeled with LAKE model using fixed light extinction coefficient, Kd. The horizontal dashed black line represents

  13. Groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake, Minnesota, through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Bode, Jenifer A.; O'Grady, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the White Bear Lake Conservation District, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and other State, county, municipal, and regional planning agencies, watershed organizations, and private organizations, conducted a study to characterize groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake through 2011. During 2010 and 2011, White Bear Lake and other lakes in the northeastern part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area were at historically low levels. Previous periods of lower water levels in White Bear Lake correlate with periods of lower precipitation; however, recent urban expansion and increased pumping from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer have raised the question of whether a decline in precipitation is the primary cause for the recent water-level decline in White Bear Lake. Understanding and quantifying the amount of groundwater inflow to a lake and water discharge from a lake to aquifers is commonly difficult but is important in the management of lake levels. Three methods were used in the study to assess groundwater and surface-water interactions on White Bear Lake: (1) a historical assessment (1978-2011) of levels in White Bear Lake, local groundwater levels, and their relation to historical precipitation and groundwater withdrawals in the White Bear Lake area; (2) recent (2010-11) hydrologic and water-quality data collected from White Bear Lake, other lakes, and wells; and (3) water-balance assessments for White Bear Lake in March and August 2011. An analysis of covariance between average annual lake-level change and annual precipitation indicated the relation between the two variables was significantly different from 2003 through 2011 compared with 1978 through 2002, requiring an average of 4 more inches of precipitation per year to maintain the lake level. This shift in the linear relation between annual lake-level change and annual precipitation

  14. Use of water clarity to monitor the effects of climate change and other stressors on oligotrophic lakes.

    PubMed

    Gunn, J M; Snucins, E; Yan, N D; Arts, M T

    2001-01-01

    We present evidence from studies of lakes in Killarney Park, Ontario, Canada that water clarity is a key variable for monitoring the effects of climate change, high UV exposure and acidification. In small oligotrophic lakes, these stressors affect water clarity primarily by altering the concentration of DOC in lake water. Clear lakes (<2 mg L(-1) DOC) proved to be highly sensitive indicators of stressors, exhibiting large thermal and optical responses to small changes in DOC. Extremely clear (<0.5 mg L(-1) DOC) acidic lakes showed the effects of climate change and solar bleaching in recent decades. These lakes became much clearer even though they were slowly recovering from acidification.

  15. A screening assessment of external radiation levels on the shore of Lake Issyk-Kyol in the Kyrghyz Republic.

    PubMed

    Hamby, D M; Tynybekov, A K

    1999-10-01

    The Kyrghyz Republic, located in the southeastern region of the former Soviet Union, holds a long history of atomic weapons development activities. Historical surveys, conducted primarily for geological exploration, have indicated that areas of shoreline on Lake Issyk-Kyol in the Kyrghyz Republic have relative radiation levels in excess of background by as much as a factor of ten. Nuclear testing in China and uranium mining operations in the mountains surrounding the lake may have resulted in the contamination of a number of areas on the lake's southern shore. The valley region maintains a population of more than one-half-million persons and is heavily dependent on the lake to draw tourists to the area and its utilization by some as a food and recreation source. In this note, we show the results of a screening assessment of relative radiation levels along the shoreline of Lake Issyk-Kyol to pin-point areas of relatively high exposure rates.

  16. A screening assessment of external radiation levels on the shore of Lake Issyk-Kyol in the Kyrghyz Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.; Tynybekov, A.K.

    1999-10-01

    The Kyrghyz Republic, located in the southeastern region of the former Soviet Union, holds a long history of atomic weapons development activities. Historical surveys, conducted primarily for geological exploration, have indicated that areas of shoreline on Lake Issyk-Kyol in the Kyrghyz Republic have relative radiation levels in excess of background by as much as a factor of ten. Nuclear testing in China and uranium mining operations in the mountains surrounding the lake may have resulted in the contamination of a number of areas on the lake's southern shore. The valley region maintains a population of more than one-half-million persons and is heavily dependent on the lake to draw tourists to the area and its utilization by some as a food and recreation source. In this paper, the authors show the results of a screening assessment of relative radiation levels along the shoreline of Lake Issyk-Kyol to pin-point areas of relatively high exposure rates.

  17. Storage Capacity and Water Quality of Lake Ngardok, Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeung, Chiu Wang; Wong, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A bathymetric survey conducted during March and April, 1996, determined the total storage capacity Lake Ngardok to be between 90 and 168 acre-feet. Elevation-surface area and elevation-capacity curves summarizing the current relations among elevation, surface area, and storage capacity were created from the bathymetric map. Rainfall and lake-elevation data collected from April 1996 to March 1998 indicated that lake levels correlated to rainfall values with lake elevation rising rapidly in response to heavy rainfall and then returning to normal levels within a few days. Mean lake elevation for the 22 month period of data was 59.5 feet which gives a mean storage capacity of 107 acre-feet and a mean surface area of 24.1 acre. A floating mat of reeds, which covered 58 percent of the lake surface area at the time of the bathymetric survey, makes true storage capacity difficult to estimate. Water-quality sampling during April 1996 and November 1997 indicated that no U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standards were violated for analyzed organic and inorganic compounds and radionuclides. With suitable biological treatment, the lake water could be used for drinking-water purposes. Temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements indicated that Lake Ngardok is stratified. Given that air temperature on Palau exhibits little seasonal variation, it is likely that this pattern of stratification is persistent. As a result, complete mixing of the lake is probably rare. Near anaerobic conditions exist at the lake bottom. Low dissolved oxygen (3.2 milligrams per liter) measured at the outflow indicated that water flowing past the outflow was from the deep oxygen-depleted depths of the lake.

  18. Hydrological and chemical estimates of the water balance of a closed-basin lake in north central Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaugh, James W.; Winter, Thomas C.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Aiken, George R.

    1997-12-01

    Chemical mass balances for sodium, magnesium, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, and oxygen 18 were used to estimate groundwater seepage to and from Williams Lake, Minnesota, over a 15-month period, from April 1991 through June 1992. Groundwater seepage to the lake and seepage from the lake to groundwater were determined independently using a flow net approach using data from water table wells installed as part of the study. Hydrogeological analysis indicated groundwater seepage to the lake accounted for 74% of annual water input to the lake; the remainder came from atmospheric precipitation, as determined from a gage in the watershed and from nearby National Weather Service gages. Seepage from the lake accounted for 69% of annual water losses from the lake; the remainder was removed by evaporation, as determined by the energy budget method. Calculated annual water loss exceeded calculated annual water gain, and this imbalance was double the value of the independently measured decrease in lake volume. Seepage to the lake determined from oxygen 18 was larger (79% of annual water input) than that determined from the flow net approach and made the difference between calculated annual water gain and loss consistent with the independently measured decrease in lake volume. Although the net difference between volume of seepage to the lake and volume of seepage from the lake was 1% of average lake volume, movement of water into and out of the lake by seepage represented an annual exchange of groundwater with the lake equal to 26-27% of lake volume. Estimates of seepage to the lake from sodium, magnesium, chloride, and dissolved organic carbon did not agree with the values determined from flow net approach or oxygen 18. These results indicated the importance of using a combination of hydrogeological and chemical approaches to define volume of seepage to and from Williams Lake and identify uncertainties in chemical fluxes.

  19. Hydrological and chemical estimates of the water balance of a closed-basin lake in north central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBaugh, J.W.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M.; Aiken, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical mass balances for sodium, magnesium, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, and oxygen 18 were used to estimate groundwater seepage to and from Williams Lake, Minnesota, over a 15-month period, from April 1991 through June 1992. Groundwater seepage to the lake and seepage from the lake to groundwater were determined independently using a flow net approach using data from water table wells installed as part of the study. Hydrogeological analysis indicated groundwater seepage to the lake accounted for 74% of annual water input to the lake; the remainder came from atmospheric precipitation, as determined from a gage in the watershed and from nearby National Weather Service gages. Seepage from the lake accounted for 69% of annual water losses from the lake; the remainder was removed by evaporation, as determined by the energy budget method. Calculated annual water loss exceeded calculated annual water gain, and this imbalance was double the value of the independently measured decrease in lake volume. Seepage to the lake determined from oxygen 18 was larger (79% of annual water input) than that determined from the flow net approach and made the difference between calculated annual water gain and loss consistent with the independently measured decrease in lake volume. Although the net difference between volume of seepage to the lake and volume of seepage from the lake was 1% of average lake volume, movement of water into and out of the lake by seepage represented an annual exchange of groundwater with the lake equal to 26-27% of lake volume. Estimates of seepage to the lake from sodium, magnesium, chloride, and dissolved organic carbon did not agree with the values determined from flow net approach or oxygen 18. These results indicated the importance of using a combination of hydrogeological and chemical approaches to define volume of seepage to and from Williams Lake and identify uncertainties in chemical fluxes.

  20. Wind-driven Water Bodies : a new paradigm for lake geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutz, A.; Schuster, M.; Ghienne, J. F.; Roquin, C.; Bouchette, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution we emphasize the importance in some lakes of wind-related hydrodynamic processes (fair weather waves, storm waves, and longshore, cross-shore and bottom currents) as a first order forcing for clastics remobilization and basin infill. This alternative view contrasts with more classical depositional models for lakes where fluvial-driven sedimentation and settling dominates. Here we consider three large lakes/paleo-lakes that are located in different climatic and geodynamic settings: Megalake Chad (north-central Africa), Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada), and Lake Turkana (Kenya, East African Rift System). All of these three lake systems exhibit well developed modern and ancient high-energy littoral morphosedimentary structures which directly derive from wind-related hydrodynamics. The extensive paleo-shorelines of Megalake Chad are composed of beach-foredune ridges, spits, wave-dominated deltas, barriers, and wave-ravinment surface. For Lake Saint-Jean the influence of wind is also identified below the wave-base at lake bottom from erosional surfaces, and sediment drifts. In the Lake Turkana Basin, littoral landforms and deposits are identified for three different time intervals (today, Holocene, Plio-Pleistocene) evidencing that wind-driven hydrodynamics can be preserved in the geological record. Moreover, a preliminary global survey suggests that numerous modern lakes (remote sensing) and paleo-lakes (bibliographic review) behave as such. We thus coin the term "Wind-driven Water Bodies" (WWB) to refer to those lake systems where sedimentation (erosion, transport, deposition) is dominated by wind-induced hydrodynamics at any depth, as it is the case in the marine realm for shallow seas. Integrating wind forcing in lake models has strong implications for basin analysis (paleoenvironments and paleoclimates restitutions, resources exploration), but also for coastal engineering, wildlife and reservoirs management, or leisure activities.

  1. 75 FR 45579 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Supplemental Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters'' (75 FR 4173). EPA conducted 13 public hearing... stream regions (75 FR 4195-96). EPA received public comments and information that suggested refining the... maintenance of the lake numeric nutrient criteria also included in the proposal (75 FR 4198). \\2\\...

  2. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wold, Steven R.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Waddell, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of a causeway constructed during 1957-59 that divides the lake into the south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway originally included two culverts, each 15 feet wide, and the permeable rock-fill material.

  3. Cadmium and lead levels in fish (Tilapia nilotica) tissues as biological indicator for lake water pollution.

    PubMed

    Rashed, M N

    2001-04-01

    Cadmium and lead were determined in different tissues (muscle, gill, stomach, intestine. liver, vertebral column and scales) of Tilapia nilotica from the High Dam Lake, Aswan (Egypt) to assess the lake water pollution with those toxic metals. Fish samples were chosen from different ages and weights to be analyzed along with samples of the aquatic plant (Najas armeta), sediment and lake water. The results showed that cadmium and lead concentrations were higher in fish scales and vertebral column than in the other parts of the fish. Cadmium and lead levels in High Dam lake water and fish (Tilapia nilotica) were a result of the pollution which uptakes from aquatic plants, sediments and gasoline containing lead that leaks from fishery boats. Tilapia nilotica fish was used as a good bio-assay indicator for the lake pollution with cadmium and lead. The fish muscles in this study were in the safety baseline levels for man consumption.

  4. Simulation of climate-change effects on streamflow, lake water budgets, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP, Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Walker, John F.; Selbig, William R.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Regan, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Although groundwater and surface water are considered a single resource, historically hydrologic simulations have not accounted for feedback loops between the groundwater system and other hydrologic processes. These feedbacks include timing and rates of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, soil-zone flow, and interactions with the groundwater system. Simulations that iteratively couple the surface-water and groundwater systems, however, are characterized by long run times and calibration challenges. In this study, calibrated, uncoupled transient surface-water and steady-state groundwater models were used to construct one coupled transient groundwater/surface-water model for the Trout Lake Watershed in north-central Wisconsin, USA. The computer code GSFLOW (Ground-water/Surface-water FLOW) was used to simulate the coupled hydrologic system; a surface-water model represented hydrologic processes in the atmosphere, at land surface, and within the soil-zone, and a groundwater-flow model represented the unsaturated zone, saturated zone, stream, and lake budgets. The coupled GSFLOW model was calibrated by using heads, streamflows, lake levels, actual evapotranspiration rates, solar radiation, and snowpack measurements collected during water years 1998–2007; calibration was performed by using advanced features present in the PEST parameter estimation software suite. Simulated streamflows from the calibrated GSFLOW model and other basin characteristics were used as input to the one-dimensional SNTEMP (Stream-Network TEMPerature) model to simulate daily stream temperature in selected tributaries in the watershed. The temperature model was calibrated to high-resolution stream temperature time-series data measured in 2002. The calibrated GSFLOW and SNTEMP models were then used to simulate effects of potential climate change for the period extending to the year 2100. An ensemble of climate models and emission scenarios was evaluated. Downscaled climate drivers for the period

  5. A Multiscale Surface Water Temperature Data Acquisition Platform: Tests on Lake Geneva, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of surface transport processes is necessary to predict sediment, pollutant and phytoplankton patterns in large lakes. Lake surface water temperature (LSWT), which varies in space and time, reflects meteorological and climatological forcing more than any other physical lake parameter. There are different data sources for LSWT mapping, including remote sensing and in situ measurements. Satellite data can be suitable for detecting large-scale thermal patterns, but not meso- or small scale processes. Lake surface thermography, investigated in this study, has finer resolution compared to satellite images. Thermography at the meso-scale provides the ability to ground-truth satellite imagery over scales of one to several satellite image pixels. On the other hand, thermography data can be used as a control in schemes to upscale local measurements that account for surface energy fluxes and the vertical energy budget. Independently, since such data can be collected at high frequency, they can be also useful in capturing changes in the surface signatures of meso-scale eddies and thus to quantify mixing processes. In the present study, we report results from a Balloon Launched Imaging and Monitoring Platform (BLIMP), which was developed in order to measure the LSWT at meso-scale. The BLIMP consists of a small balloon that is tethered to a boat and equipped with thermal and RGB cameras, as well as other instrumentation for location and communication. Several deployments were carried out on Lake Geneva. In a typical deployment, the BLIMP is towed by a boat, and collects high frequency data from different heights (i.e., spatial resolutions) and locations. Simultaneous ground-truthing of the BLIMP data is achieved using an autonomous craft that collects a variety of data, including in situ surface/near surface temperatures, radiation and meteorological data in the area covered by the BLIMP images. With suitable scaling, our results show good consistency

  6. Anencephalus, drinking water, geomagnetism and cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Archer, V E

    1979-01-01

    The mortality rates from anencephalus from 1950-1969 in Canadian cities are shown to be strongly correlated with city growth rate and with horizontal geomagnetic flux, which is directly related to the intensity of cosmic radiation. They are also shown to have some association with the magnesium content of drinking water. Prior work with these data which showed associations with magnesium in drinking water, mean income, latitude and longitude was found to be inadequate because it dismissed the observed geographic associations as having little biological meaning, and because the important variables of geomagnetism and city growth rate were overlooked. PMID:433919

  7. Disappearing Twelvemile Lake in Alaska's Discontinuous Permafrost: Scoping Analysis of Water Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, S. M.; Voss, C. I.; Walvoord, M. A.; Minsley, B. J.; Rose, J.; Smith, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    The number and size of lakes in northern high-latitude regions have undergone significant changes over the last 3 decades or longer, possibly in association with climate warming. In the Yukon Flats Basin (YFB) of interior Alaska, a region underlain by discontinuous permafrost, these changes have not been uniform among lake drainage basins, suggesting the importance of local processes that are not well understood. As an example in the YFB, Twelvemile Lake has decreased in area by 60% since 1984, while neighboring Buddy Lake, 2 km to the southeast, has shown no significant change (see Figure). The objective of this study is to evaluate physical mechanisms that could account for the lowering of Twelvemile Lake, using a combination of water flux approximations, historical climate data and the permafrost distribution as interpreted from airborne electromagnetics (AEM). All possible in- and out-flux pathways to the lake are considered and compared with the observed rate of change in the lake's volume, to rank the importance of each pathway as a contributor to the change in lake level. Results from the AEM survey suggest the presence of a ~200 m diameter open-talik beneath the lake, and subsurface, channel-shaped depressions in the permafrost table ("channels") that may direct shallow groundwater (GW) flow into or out of the lake basin. An increase in potential evapotranspiration of only ~2 cm yr-1 from the period of 1950-1980 to 1981-2010 is found to be insignificant relative to the observed 13 cm yr-1 rate of lake level lowering since the early 1980's. Thus, alternative water pathways are needed to explain the lake level change. The following four processes are shown to potentially have a significant contribution to the observed rate of lake level change: (i) Reduced water inputs from decreased snowpacks; (ii) Increased infiltration of snowmelt due to changes in wintertime ice content of subnivean soil; (iii) Changes in GW flow through inlet and outlet channels to the

  8. Great Lakes water quality scenario models: Operational feasibility -Lake Michigan Mass Balance models

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance models were provided (eutrophication/nutrients, atrazine, mercury, and PCBs) with emphasis on the PCB model post-audit and forecast for Lake Trout. Provided were modeling construct, model description, and primary results. An assessm...

  9. CONNECTING WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS TO NUTRIENT REGIME FROM HEADWATERS TO RECEIVING WATERS IN THE LAURENTIAL GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are evaluating the influence of position along the tributary-coastal wetland-lake continuum on the expression of watershed characteristics in the water quality of Great Lakes (GL) coastal ecosystems as part of an EPA study focused on determining stressor-response relationships...

  10. GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF WATER-ROCK INTERACTIONS AT THE SULPHUR BANK MERCURY MINE, LAKE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine on the eastern shore of Clear Lake is the source of poor quality acid mine drainage seeping into Clear Lake. Lateral and vertical geochemical trends in ground water composition point to a number of redox reactions taking place as a function of subsu...

  11. Immature insects (Plecoptera, Trichoptera, and Ephemeroptera) collected from deep water in western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1974-01-01

    Five species of aquatic insects - two plecopterans, two trichopterans, and one ephemeropteran - usually found in streams or ponds were collected in water 32-100 m deep in western Lake Superior. All appear to be new records for the lake and all were collected from far greater depths than previously recorded for these forms.

  12. Summer water clarity responses to phosphorus, Daphnia grazing, and internal mixing in Lake Mendota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lathrop, R.C.; Carpenter, S.R.; Robertson, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Linear models were developed for predicting mean Secchi disk depth readings as a measure of water clarity for the summer months in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. The 20-yr (1976-1995) data set also included external phosphorus (P) loadings and in-lake April P concentrations as indices of lake nutrient status, and monthly (28 d) water column stabilities and Daphnia biomasses as indices of lake mixing and algal grazing potentials, respectively. June Secchi depths were mostly controlled by food web dynamics, which dictated whether the larger-bodied Daphnia pulicaria or the smaller-bodied D. galeata mendotae dominated during the spring clear-water phase. May Daphnia biomasses were significantly greater in D. pulicaria-dominated years than in D. galeata-dominated years; D. pulicaria-year biomasses were also greater during the summer months. The model for the midsummer (July-August) months indicated that Secchi depths were inversely related to April P concentrations and positively related to midsummer Daphnia biomasses and lake stabilities. Scenarios for midsummer Secchi depths were tested using the observed minimum and maximum values for each predictor variate. While holding two variates constant, April P, Daphnia biomass, and lake stability each resulted in relatively similar Secchi ranges (0.81, 0.81, and 1.17 m, respectively). Our results suggest that summer water clarity in eutrophic Lake Mendota is controlled by interacting ecosystem processes linked to land use activities, lake food web dynamics, and climate.

  13. Status of the amphipod Diporeia ssp. in coastal waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diporeia has historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrate in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and its abundance has been proposed as an indicator of ecological condition. In 2010, the USEPA incorporated the Great Lakes into the National Coastal Condition A...

  14. The residues, distribution, and partition of organochlorine pesticides in the water, suspended solids, and sediments from a large Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu) during the high water level period.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Qi-Shuang; Ouyang, Hui-Ling; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2013-04-01

    The levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water, suspended solids, and sediments from Lake Chaohu during the high water level period were measured by a solid-phase extraction gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. The spatial distributions of the three phases and the water/suspended solids and sediment/water partition coefficients were analyzed. The results showed the following: (1) The mean contents of OCPs in the water, suspended solids, and sediments were 132.4 ± 432.1 ng/L, 188.1 ± 286.7 ng/g dry weight (dw), and 13.7 ± 9.8 ng/g dw, respectively. The dominant OCP components were isodrin (85.1%) for the water, DDTs (64.4%) for the suspended solids, and both isodrin (48.5%) and DDTs (31.8%) for the sediments. (2) β-HCH was the primary isomer of HCHs in the water and sediments, and the proportions were 61.7 and 41.3%; γ-HCH was the primary isomer in the suspended solids, accounting for 49.3%; p,p'-DDT was the dominant content of DDTs in the water and suspended solids, whereas p,p'-DDD was the main metabolite of DDTs in the sediments. (3) The concentrations of contaminants in the water from the western lake were greater than those from the eastern lake, but the concentrations in the suspended solids from the western lake were less than those from the eastern lake. (4) There was no significant correlation between the water-suspended solids partition coefficient Kd and the n-octanol-water partition coefficient Kow, and between the sediment-water organic-C weighted sorption coefficients Koc and Kow.

  15. Ground-water/surface-water interaction in nearshore areas of Three Lakes on the Grand Portage Reservation, northeastern Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of general water-flow directions in lake watersheds and how they may change seasonally can help water-quality specialists and lake managers address a variety of water-quality and aquatic habitat protection issues for lakes. Results from this study indicate that ground-water and surface-water interactions at the study lakes are complex, and the ability of the applied techniques to identify ground-water inflow and surface-water outseepage locations varied among the lakes. Measurement of lake-sediment temperatures proved to be a reliable and relatively inexpensive reconnaissance technique that lake managers may apply in complex settings to identify general areas of ground-water inflow and surface-water outseepage.

  16. The effects of water-level fluctuations on vegetation in a Lake Huron wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, D.A.; Nichols, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The diversity and resultant habitat value of wetland plant communities in the Laurentian Great Lake's are dependent on water-level fluctuations of varying frequency and amplitude. Conceptual models have described the response of vegetation to alternating high and low lake levels, but few quantitative studies have documented the changes that occur. In response to recent concerns over shoreline management activities during an ongoing period of low lake levels in lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron that began in 1999, we analyzed a quantitative data set from Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron collected from 1988 to 1993 during a previous lake-level decline to provide the needed information on vegetation responses. Transects were established that followed topographic contours with water-level histories that differed across a six-year period, ranging from barely flooded to dewatered for varying numbers of years to never dewatered. Percent cover data from randomly placed quadrats along those transects were analyzed to assess floristic changes over time, document development of distinct plant assemblages, and relate the results to lake-level changes. Ordinations showed that plant assemblages sorted out by transects that reflect differing water-level histories. Distinction of assemblages was maintained for at least three years, although the composition and positioning of those assemblages changed as lake levels changed. We present a model that uses orthogonal axes to plot transects by years out of water against distance above water and sorted those transects in a manner that matched ordination results. The model suggests that vegetation response following dewatering is dependent on both position along the water level/soil moisture gradient and length of time since dewatering. This study provided quantitative evidence that lake-level fluctuations drive vegetative change in Great Lakes wetlands, and it may assist in making decisions regarding shoreline management in areas that

  17. Influence of glacial meltwater on water balance processes of two Tibetan lakes indicated by δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Itpcas

    2011-12-01

    δ18O measurements based on systematic sampling and isotopic modeling have been adopted to study the affects of glacial meltwater in two lake basins (Lakes Yamdrok-tso and Puma Yum-tso) at two different elevations on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Temporally, δ18O values in precipitation and lake water display a seasonal fluctuation in both lakes. Spatially, δ18O values in the two lake basins increase by 10% from the termini of glaciers to the lake shores, by about 1% from the lakeshores to the lake center, by 0.4% from the water surface to depth in these lakes. The obvious annual δ18O variations indicate that lake water mixes sufficiently in a short time. Model results show that glacial meltwater is an important factor on lake water balance process. Equilibrium δ18O values decrease 0.8% for Yamdrok-tso Lake and 0.6% for Puma Yum-tso Lake when contributions of glacial meltwater to these lakes shrink by 60%. δ18O ratios increase rapidly during the initial stages and take a relatively longer time to approach the equilibrium value. The modeled results also show that the surface lake water temperature has a minimal impact on this process.
    Dr. Jing Gao

  18. Ecological monitoring for assessing the state of the nearshore and open waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neilson, Melanie A.; Painter, D. Scott; Warren, Glenn; Hites, Ronald A.; Basu, Ilora; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Whittle, D. Michael; Christie, Gavin; Barbiero, Richard; Tuchman, Marc; Johannsson, Ora E.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Fleischer, Guy; Bronte, Charles; Smith, Stephen B.; Baumann, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement stipulates that the Governments of Canada and the United States are responsible for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. Due to varying mandates and areas of expertise, monitoring to assess progress towards this objective is conducted by a multitude of Canadian and U.S. federal and provincial/state agencies, in cooperation with academia and regional authorities. This paper highlights selected long-term monitoring programs and discusses a number of documented ecological changes that indicate the present state of the open and nearshore waters of the Great Lakes.

  19. Evaluation of ERTS data for certain oceanographic uses. [upwelling, water circulation, and pollution in Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Upwelling along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan was occurring during the 3 and 21 August 1973 visits by ERTS-1. The NOAA-2 VHRR thermal-IR data are being digitized for comparison. Early indications are that these upwellings induced a calcium carbonate precipitate to form in the surface waters. It is most pronounced in the MSS-4 channel. On the lake bottom this jell-like sediment is known as marl and adds to the eutrophication of the lake. This phenomenon may help to explain the varve-like nature of bottom cores that have been observed in the Great Lakes.

  20. Postimpoundment survey of water-quality characteristics of Raystown Lake, Huntingdon and Bedford Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Donald R.

    1978-01-01

    Water-quality data, collected from May 1974 to September 1976 at thirteen sites within Raystown Lake and in the inflow and outflow channels, define the water-quality characteristics of the lake water and the effects of impoundment on the quality of the lake outflow. Depth-profile measurements show Raystown Lake to be dimictic. Thermal stratification is well developed during the summer. Generally high concentrations of dissolved oxygen throughout the hypolimnion during thermal stratification, low phytoplankton concentrations, and small diel fluctuations of dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance indicate that the lake is low in nutrients, or oligotrophic. Algal assays of surface samples indicate that orthophosphate was a growth-limiting nutrient. The diatoms (Chrysophyta) were the dominant phytoplankton group found through-out the study period. The lake waters contained very low populations of zooplankton. Fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus densities measured throughout the lake indicated no potentially dangerous areas of water-contact recreation. The most apparent effect that the impoundment had on water quality was the removal of nutrients, particularly orthophosphate, through phytoplankton uptake and sediment deposition.

  1. Estimating ground-water inflow to lakes in central Florida using the isotope mass-balance approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The isotope mass-balance approach was used to estimate ground-water inflow to 81 lakes in the central highlands and coastal lowlands of central Florida. The study area is characterized by a subtropical climate and numerous lakes in a mantled karst terrain. Ground-water inflow was computed using both steady-state and transient formulations of the isotope mass-balance equation. More detailed data were collected from two study lakes, including climatic, hydrologic, and isotopic (hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratio) data. For one of these lakes (Lake Starr), ground-water inflow was independently computed from a water-budget study. Climatic and isotopic data collected from the two lakes were similar even though they were in different physiographic settings about 60 miles apart. Isotopic data from all of the study lakes plotted on an evaporation trend line, which had a very similar slope to the theoretical slope computed for Lake Starr. These similarities suggest that data collected from the detailed study lakes can be extrapolated to the rest of the study area. Ground-water inflow computed using the isotope mass-balance approach ranged from 0 to more than 260 inches per year (or 0 to more than 80 percent of total inflows). Steady-state and transient estimates of ground-water inflow were very similar. Computed ground-water inflow was most sensitive to uncertainty in variables used to calculate the isotopic composition of lake evaporate (isotopic compositions of lake water and atmospheric moisture and climatic variables). Transient results were particularly sensitive to changes in the isotopic composition of lake water. Uncertainty in ground-water inflow results is considerably less for lakes with higher ground-water inflow than for lakes with lower ground-water inflow. Because of these uncertainties, the isotope mass-balance approach is better used to distinguish whether ground-water inflow quantities fall within certain ranges of values, rather than for precise

  2. Water-quality characteristics of Michigan's inland lakes, 2001-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Taricska, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) jointly monitored for selected water-quality constituents and properties of inland lakes during 2001–10 as part of Michigan's Lake Water-Quality Assessment program. During 2001–10, 866 lake basins from 729 inland lakes greater than 25 acres were monitored for baseline water-quality conditions and trophic status. This report summarizes the water-quality characteristics and trophic conditions of the monitored lakes throughout the State; the data include vertical-profile measurements, nutrient measurements at three discrete depths, Secchi-disk transparency (SDT) measurements, and chlorophyll a measurements for the spring and summer, with major ions and other chemical indicators measured during the spring at mid-depth and color during the summer from near-surface samples. In about 75 percent of inland lake deep basins (index stations), trophic characteristics were associated with oligotrophic or mesotrophic conditions; 5 percent or less were categorized as hypereutrophic, and 80 percent of hypereutrophic lakes had a maximum depth of 30 feet or less. Comparison of spring and summer measurements shows that water clarity based on SDT measurements were clearer in the spring than in the summer for 63 percent of lakes. For near-surface measurements made in spring, 97 percent of lakes can be considered phosphorus limited and less than half a percent nitrogen limited; for summer measurements, 96 percent of lakes can be considered phosphorus limited and less than half a percent nitrogen limited. Spatial patterns of major ions, alkalinity, and hardness measured in the spring at mid-depth all showed lower values in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and a southward increase toward the southern areas of the Lower Peninsula, though the location of increase varied by constituent. A spatial analysis of the data based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Level III Ecoregions separated potassium

  3. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  4. Water chemistry of Lake Quilotoa (Ecuador) and assessment of natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, E.; Chiodini, G.; Cioni, R.; Guidi, M.; Marini, L.; Raco, B.

    2000-04-01

    A geochemical survey carried out in November 1993 revealed that Lake Quilotoa was composed by a thin (˜14 m) oxic epilimnion overlying a ˜200 m-thick anoxic hypolimnion. Dissolved CO 2 concentrations reached 1000 mg/kg in the lower stratum. Loss of CO 2 from epilimnetic waters, followed by calcite precipitation and a consequent lowering in density, was the apparent cause of the stratification. The Cl, SO 4 and HCO 3 contents of Lake Quilotoa are intermediate between those of acid-SO 4-Cl Crater lakes and those of neutral-HCO 3 Crater lakes, indicating that Lake Quilotoa has a 'memory' of the inflow and absorption of HC1- and S-bearing volcanic (magmatic) gases. The Mg/Ca ratios of the lake waters are governed by dissolution of local volcanic rocks or magmas, but K/Na ratios were likely modified by precipitation of alunite, a typical mineral in acid-SO 4-Cl Crater lakes. The constant concentrations of several conservative chemical species from lake surface to lake bottom suggest that physical, chemical and biological processes did not have enough time, after the last overturn, to cause significant changes in the contents of these chemical species. This lapse of time might be relatively large, but it cannot be established on the basis of available data. Besides, the lake may not be close to steady state. Mixing of Lake Quilotoa waters could presently be triggered by either cooling epilimnetic waters by ˜4°C or providing heat to hypolimnetic waters or by seismic activity. Although Quilotoa lake contains a huge amount of dissolved CO 2(˜3×10 11 g), at present the risk of a dangerous limnic eruption seems to be nil even though some gas exsolution might occur if deep lake waters were brought to the surface. Carbon dioxide could build up to higher levels in deep waters than at present without any volcanic re-awakening, due to either a large inflow of relatively cool CO 2-rich gases, or possibly a long interval between overturns. Periodical geochemical surveys of

  5. Water quality characteristics of six small lakes in Missouri: Mo. Dept. of Natural Resources.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barks, James H.

    1976-01-01

    A study of six small lakes, representative of those in the major physiographic regions of Missouri, shows variation in physical. chemical, and biological characteristics related to their location in the Slate. For example, because of climatic differences, ice cover and winter stratification are more prevalent in northern Missouri. Summer stratification lasts about one month longer in the southern than in the northern part of the State. Because of the difference in geology. lake water in the Plains area is more mineralized than in the Ozarks. Different geology and land use generally account for more sedimentation of Plains Jakes. Lakes in the Plains area usually receive enough nutrients to be classified as mesouophic or eutrophic while those in the Ozarks receive less nutrients from natural sources and are often oligotrophic or mesotrophic. However, as seen from one of the study lakes, an oligotrophic lake can be made quite productive through the application of commercial fertilizers within the lake.

  6. Petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons in water from Lake Manzala and associated canals

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Wahaab, R.A.; Abou Waly, H.F.

    1995-08-01

    Lake Manzala is located at the north eastern edge of Nile Delta in Egypt. It is separated from the Mediterranean sea by a sandy beach ridge. However, the lake is in connection with the sea through three opening nearby Port Said. The area of the lake is about 769 Km{sup 2} and relatively shallow with an average depth of 1.3 m. The lake is of high economic value as a natural resource, for fishery, reacreation and for migratory birds. The lake is highly polluted as it receives wastewaters discharged by several canal. The present investigation aimed to assess the residue levels of petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the lake water as well as in Hadous canal, Fariskur canal and Bahr-El-Baqar canal. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Application of digital image processing techniques and information systems to water quality monitoring of Lake Tahoe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. Y.; Blackwell, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Tahoe basin occupies over 500 square miles of territory located in a graben straddling the boundary between California and Nevada. Lake Tahoe contains 126 million acre-feet of water. Since the 1950's the basin has experienced an ever increasing demand for land development at the expense of the natural watershed. Discharge of sediment to the lake has greatly increased owing to accelerated human interference, and alterations to the natural drainage patterns are evident in some areas. In connection with an investigation of the utility of a comprehensive system that takes into account the causes as well as the effects of lake eutrophication, it has been attempted to construct an integrated and workable data base, comprised of currently available data sources for the Lake Tahoe region. Attention is given to the image based information system (IBIS), the construction of the Lake Tahoe basin data base, and the application of the IBIS concept to the Lake Tahoe basin.

  8. Dynamic monitoring of Poyang Lake water body area using MODIS images between 2000 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yayong; Huang, Shifeng; Li, Jiren; Li, Xiaotao; Ma, Jianwei; Li, Shanyang; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake of China, is well known for its ecological and economic importance as a dynamic wetland system. But, influenced by the climate change and human activity, Poyang Lake wetland has changed a lot. The long time series of Terra/MODIS data between 2000 and 2014 were utilized to investigate the variation of Poyang Lake and to analyze Poyang lake response to variation of local precipitation with the meteorological data. The results showed: (1) Poyang Lake water body area showed a significant seasonal variation, minimum value was about 690 km2 and maximum value reached 3500 km2, and inter-annual fluctuation; (2)For the past 15 year , local precipitation directly affected the inundation changes. In particular, the impact of rainfall during the first half of the year is more significant (the relation coefficient with R2 of 0.61); (3) Taking into account humid activities, the impoundment of the Three Gorges dam (TGD) had a certain impact on Poyang Lake water body area, especially the persistent reduction of Poyang lake surface area in November was deteriorated by the impounding of TGD in October after 2006. Finally, the study provides a theoretical basis and data for changes in Poyang Lake wetland research and protection.

  9. Spatial Heterogeneity of Ice Cover Sediment and Thickness and Its Effects on Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Chlorophyll-a Distribution: Lake Bonney, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obryk, M.; Doran, P. T.; Priscu, J. C.; Morgan-Kiss, R. M.; Siebenaler, A. G.

    2012-12-01

    The perennially ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica have been extensively studied under the Long Term Ecological Research project. But sampling has been spatially restricted due to the logistical difficulty of penetrating the 3-6 m of ice cover. The ice covers restrict wind-driven turbulence and its associated mixing of water, resulting in a unique thermal stratification and a strong vertical gradient of salinity. The permanent ice covers also shade the underlying water column, which, in turn, controls photosynthesis. Here, we present results of a three-dimensional record of lake processes obtained with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The AUV was deployed at West Lake Bonney, located in Taylor Valley, Dry Valleys, to further understand biogeochemical and physical properties of the Dry Valley lakes. The AUV was equipped with depth, conductivity, temperature, under water photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), turbidity, chlorophyll-and-DOM fluorescence, pH, and REDOX sensors. Measurements were taken over the course of two years in a 100 x 100 meter spaced horizontal sampling grid (and 0.2 m vertical resolution). In addition, the AUV measured ice thickness and collected 200 images looking up through the ice, which were used to quantify sediment distribution. Comparison with high-resolution satellite QuickBird imagery demonstrates a strong correlation between aerial sediment distribution and ice cover thickness. Our results are the first to show the spatial heterogeneity of lacustrine ecosystems in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, significantly improving our understanding of lake processes. Surface sediment is responsible for localized thinning of ice cover due to absorption of solar radiation, which in turn increases total available PAR in the water column. Higher PAR values are negatively correlated with chlorophyll-a, presenting a paradox; historically, long-term studies of PAR and chlorophyll-a have shown positive trends. We hypothesized

  10. Halogens in the Dry Valleys Lakes, Antarctica: dynamic cycling between water, sediment, and cryogenic evaporites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. T.; Dowling, C. B.; Harbert, A.; Lu, H.; Lyons, W. B.; Welch, K. A.

    2006-12-01

    Many of the McMurdo Dry Valleys lakes of Antarctica exhibit saline to hypersaline bottom waters whose chemistry is distinct from that of sea water. The source and relative abundance of dissolved Cl, Br, and I in these unusual waters has been modified by several potential processes including: seawater incursions, water- rock interactions, microbial scavenging, glacial melting and precipitation, and atmospheric deposition. Since all of these processes are affected by both long-term and short-term climate change, lake waters and the salts that are deposited around them provide sensitive indicators of lake dessication and refilling in the past. We present elemental analyses, not only of the lake water, but also of bottom sediments and cryogenic evaporites recovered from the Dry Valleys. XRD analyses indicate that gypsum and antarcticite are precipitated around saline lakes presently situated more than 40 km from the ocean (Vanda, Don Juan, Joyce), while mirabilite is found near small pools in the Garwood Valley, only a few km from the ocean. Lake water enrichments in Ca and Cl, relative to Na suggest that either dissolution of gypsum and antarcticite has occurred in Don Juan Pond and Lake Vanda, or that these two small bodies of water previously lost sodium to mirabilite formation. Lakes Fryxell and Joyce, as well as waters in Garwood Valley show near-sea water ratios. Dissolved iodine, and to a lesser extent bromine, are commonly associated with diagenesis of marine organic matter in regions of high productivity, so it is surprising that the Dry Valleys lake waters are enriched in these two elements. These enrichments are also apparent in pore fluids of shallow sediments on the lake bottoms. In addition, the sediments themselves are highly enriched in iodine in the upper 5 cm (up to 77 ppm). This is likely due to remobilization of dissolved iodide, which is mobile in reduced form, but becomes fixed as adsorbed or organic iodine upon diffusing into shallow oxic

  11. Temporal and spatial changes of water quality and management strategies of Dianchi Lake in southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Zeng, W. H.; Wang, S. R.; Ni, Z. K.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal and spatial changes to the water quality of Dianchi Lake in Southwest China were investigated using monthly monitoring data from 2005 to 2012. Based on the analysis of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, it was determined that, in Caohai Lake, the annual concentrations of these variables ranged from 0.19-1.46, 6.11-16.79, 0.06-0.14 mg L-1, respectively. In addition, the annual concentrations of TP, TN and Chl a in Waihai Lake ranged between 0.13-0.20, 1.82-3.01, 0.04-0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Cluster Analysis (CA) classified the 10 monitoring sites into two groups (group A and group B) based on similarities of water quality characteristics. Our data revealed that the current status of water quality within Caohai Lake was much worse than that of Waihai Lake. Water quality was seriously degraded during the economic boom near the period of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" (2005-2010), and gradually improved from 2010 to 2012 because of the "standard emission directive to industry". The main factors that influenced the spatial and temporal changes to water quality were natural factors including lake evolution and regional characteristic as well as human factors such as pollution load into the lake and management strategies that were already adopted. Some activities and regulations were implemented to enhance the lake environment by controlling wastewater emissions and establishing regulations to protect the lakes in the Yunnan Province. However, problems with institutional fragmentation (horizontal and vertical), simple treatment methods, low-intensity investment in pollution control, and lack of meaningful endogenous pollution control strategies were still present in the lake management strategy. To solve these problems, suitable control measures are needed, especially considering the current old-age status of Dianchi Lake. The fundamental improvement of the water quality within Caohai Lake was dependent on the

  12. Escalation and trophic specialization drive adaptive radiation of freshwater gastropods in ancient lakes on Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    von Rintelen, Thomas; Wilson, Anthony B.; Meyer, Axel; Glaubrecht, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Species flocks in ancient lakes have long been appreciated as ideal model systems for the study of speciation and adaptive processes. We here present data from a new invertebrate model system with intrinsic parameters distinct from those of other documented radiations. The ancient lakes on Sulawesi harbour an endemic species flock of at least 33 species of viviparous snails. Molecular data reveal multiple independent colonizations of the lakes by riverine ancestors. In each colonizing clade, parallel evolution of conspicuous shell morphologies, followed by a differentiation of trophic morphology and the development of habitat specificity can be observed. Extensive shell crushing experiments and strong dentition of the chelae observed in some lacustrine crab species suggest that coevolution with crabs, i.e. escalation, is the most likely cause of initial shell divergence. By contrast, repeated parallel evolution in radula morphology indicates that speciation within lineages is driven by divergent adaptation to different resources among sympatric taxa. The inclusion of coevolutionary processes is unique in this system compared with diversification models developed for vertebrate radiations. PMID:15615679

  13. Seasonal food of juvenile lake trout in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.

    1983-01-01

    Stomach contents of 3,554 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), 100 to 449 mm in total length, captured with bottom trawls during April through October 1978–81 along the south shore of Lake Ontario were examined. Invertebrates appeared to be an important food of lake trout less than 200 mm long but were only occasionally eaten by larger fish. For all seasons and size groups of juvenile lake trout combined, the slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) was the principal forage fish, making up 42% (by weight) of identifiable fish remains. Young-of-the-year slimy sculpins were a major food of recently stocked yearling lake trout during July through October. Alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) were the principal forage during April and May, and made up 28% (by weight) of the identifiable fish remains. They were rarely eaten during July and August, however, when lake trout remained in the hypolimnion and alewives were above it. Over 99% of the alewives eaten from April through August were yearlings and over 99% eaten during October were young-of-the-year. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) were the primary forage during July and August, but contributed only a small part of the diet during other seasons; overall, they made up 25% of identifiable fish remains. Johnny darters (Etheostoma nigrum) made up 4% of identifiable fish remains and were most common in stomachs of small lake trout during October.

  14. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

  15. Lake Urmia (Iran): can future socio-ecologically motivated river basin management restore lake water levels in an arid region with extensive agricultural development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazel, Nasim; Berndtsson, Ronny; Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Klove, Bjorn; Madani, Kaveh

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest hyper saline lakes located in northwest of Iran, is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and Ramsar site, protected as a national park and, supports invaluable and unique biodiversity and related ecosystem services for the region's 6.5 million inhabitants. Due to increased development of the region's water resources for agriculture and industry and to a certain extent climate change, the lake has started to shrink dramatically since 1995 and now is holding less than 30 percent of its volume. Rapid development in agricultural sector and land-use changes has resulted in immense construction of dams and water diversions in almost all lake feeding rivers, intensifying lake shrinking, increasing salinity and degrading its ecosystem. Recently, lake's cultural and environmental importance and social pressure has raised concerns and brought government attention to the lake restoration plans. Along with poor management, low yield agriculture as the most water consuming activity in the region with, rapid, insufficient development is one of the most influential drivers in the lake desiccation. Part of the lake restoration plans in agricultural sector is to restrict the agricultural areas in the main feeding river basins flowing mostly in the southern part of the lake and decreasing the agricultural water use in this area. This study assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed plans and its influence on the lake level rise and its impacts on economy in the region using a system dynamics model developed for the Lake consist of hydrological and agro-economical sub-systems. The effect of decrease in agricultural area in the region on GDP and region economy was evaluated and compared with released water contribution in lake level rise for a five year simulation period.

  16. Water Quality and Evaluation of Pesticides in Lakes in the Ridge Citrus Region of Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choquette, Anne F.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2009-01-01

    Water chemistry, including major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and pesticide compounds, was compared between seven lakes surrounded by citrus agriculture and an undeveloped lake on the Lake Wales Ridge (herein referred to as the Ridge) in central Florida. The region has been recognized for its vulnerability to the leaching of agricultural chemicals into the subsurface due to factors including soils, climate, and land use. About 40 percent of Florida's citrus cultivation occurs in 'ridge citrus' areas characterized by sandy well drained soils, with the remainder in 'flatwoods citrus' characterized by high water tables and poorly drained soils. The lakes on the Ridge are typically flow-through lakes that exchange water with adjacent and underlying aquifer systems. This study is the first to evaluate the occurrence of pesticides in lakes on the Ridge, and also represents one of the first monitoring efforts nationally to focus on regional-scale assessment of current-use pesticides in small- to moderate-sized lakes (5 to 393 acres). The samples were collected between December 2003 and September 2005. The lakes in citrus areas contained elevated concentrations of major inorganic constituents (including alkalinity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate), total nitrogen, pH, and pesticides compared to the undeveloped lake. Nitrate (as N) and total nitrogen concentrations were typically elevated in the citrus lakes, with maximum values of 4.70 and 5.19 mg/L (milligrams per liter), respectively. Elevated concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and other inorganic constituents in the citrus lakes likely reflect inputs from the surficial ground-water system that originated predominantly from agricultural fertilizers, soil amendments, and inorganic pesticides. A total of 20 pesticide compounds were detected in the lakes, of which 12 compounds exceeded the standardized reporting level of 0.06 ug/L (microgram per liter). Those

  17. The effect of lake water quality and wind turbines on Rhode Island property sales price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, Susan Shim

    This dissertation uses the hedonic pricing model to study the impact of lake water quality and wind turbines on Rhode Island house sales prices. The first two manuscripts are on lake water quality and use RI house sales transactions from 1988--2012. The third studies wind turbines using RI house sales transactions from 2000--2013. The first study shows that good lake water quality increases lakefront property price premium. It also shows that environmental amenities, such as forests, substitute for lake amenity as the property's distance from the lake increases. The second lake water quality study incorporates time variables to examine how environmental amenity values change over time. The results show that property price premium associated with good lake water quality does not change as it is constant in proportion to housing prices with short term economic fluctuations. The third study shows that wind turbines have a negative and significant impact on housing prices. However, this is highly location specific and varies with neighborhood demographics. All three studies have policy implications which are discussed in detail in the manuscripts below.

  18. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Vander Schaaf, Nicole A; Cunningham, Anna M G; Cluff, Brandon P; Kraemer, CodyJo K; Reeves, Chelsea L; Riester, Carli J; Slater, Lauren K; Madigan, Michael T; Sattley, W Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m) are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes. PMID:27682095

  19. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Vander Schaaf, Nicole A.; Cunningham, Anna M. G.; Cluff, Brandon P.; Kraemer, CodyJo K.; Reeves, Chelsea L.; Riester, Carli J.; Slater, Lauren K.; Madigan, Michael T.; Sattley, W. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m) are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes. PMID:27682095

  20. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Vander Schaaf, Nicole A.; Cunningham, Anna M. G.; Cluff, Brandon P.; Kraemer, CodyJo K.; Reeves, Chelsea L.; Riester, Carli J.; Slater, Lauren K.; Madigan, Michael T.; Sattley, W. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m) are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes.

  1. Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

  2. Shifting ice regimes of Arctic thermokarst lakes and implications for permafrost and surface-water dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, C. D.; Jones, B.; Urban, F. E.; Grosse, G.; Whitman, M.

    2011-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes cover >20% of the landscape throughout much of the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska with shallow lakes freezing solid (grounded ice) and deeper lakes maintaining perennial liquid water (floating ice). Thus, lake depth relative to maximum ice thickness represents an important threshold that impacts permafrost, aquatic habitat, and potentially geomorphic and hydrologic behavior. We studied coupled hydrogeomorphic processes of 13 lakes in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA) representing a depth gradient across this threshold of maximum ice thickness by analyzing remotely sensed imagery, water quality surveys, and climatic data over a 35-year period. Shoreline erosion rates due to permafrost degradation ranged from <0.2 m/yr in very shallow lakes (0.4 m) up to 1.8 m/yr in the deepest lakes (2.6 m) and appear to be partly linked to variation in mean annual lake temperature (MALT). This pattern of thermokarst expansion masked detection of lake hydrologic change using remotely sensed imagery except for the shallowest lakes with stable shorelines. Changes in the surface area of these shallow lakes tracked interannual variation in precipitation minus evaporation (P-E) with periods of full and nearly dry basins. Our analysis suggests that grounded-ice lakes are ice-free on average 37 days longer than floating-ice lakes resulting in a longer period of evaporative loss and more frequent negative P-E. These results suggest divergent hydrogeomorphic responses to a changing Arctic climate depending on the threshold created by water depth relative to maximum ice thickness in ACP lakes. With respect to these findings there is particular interest in ACP lakes of depths encompassing the range of interannual variation in maximum ice thickness because these lakes will most readily show a shift of ice regimes with either a change in water balance or ice growth. For instance, a positive summer P-E and slow winter ice growth can result in a higher

  3. Hydrology and Simulation of Ground-Water Flow, Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Lynette E.

    2006-01-01

    Water for new residential development in Lake Point, Utah may be supplied by public-supply wells completed in consolidated rock on the east side of Lake Point. Ground-water flow models were developed to help understand the effect the proposed withdrawal will have on water levels, flowing-well discharge, spring discharge, and ground-water quality in the study area. This report documents the conceptual and numerical ground-water flow models for the Lake Point area. The ground-water system in the Lake Point area receives recharge from local precipitation and irrigation, and from ground-water inflow from southwest of the area. Ground water discharges mostly to springs. Discharge also occurs to evapotranspiration, wells, and Great Salt Lake. Even though ground water discharges to Great Salt Lake, dense salt water from the lake intrudes under the less-dense ground water and forms a salt-water wedge under the valley. This salt water is responsible for some of the high dissolved-solids concentrations measured in ground water in Lake Point. A steady-state MODFLOW-2000 ground-water model of Tooele Valley adequately simulates water levels, ground-water discharge, and ground-water flow direction observed in Lake Point in 1969 and 2002. Simulating an additional 1,650 acre-feet per year withdrawal from wells causes a maximum projected drawdown of about 550 feet in consolidated rock near the simulated wells and drawdown exceeding 80 feet in an area encompassing most of the Oquirrh Mountains east of Lake Point. Drawdown in most of Lake Point ranges from 2 to 10 ft, but increases to more than 40 feet in the areas proposed for residential development. Discharge to Factory Springs, flowing wells, evapotranspiration, and Great Salt Lake is decreased by about 1,100 acre-feet per year (23 percent). The U.S. Geological Survey SUTRA variable-density ground-water-flow model generates a reasonable approximation of 2002 dissolved-solids concentration when simulating 2002 withdrawals. At most

  4. Water Quality and optical properties of Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Hoffman, Robert L.; McIntire, C.D.; Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, Scott

    2007-01-01

    We examine observations of key limnological properties (primarily temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen), measured over a 14-year period in Crater Lake, Oregon, and discuss variability in the hypolimnion on time scales of days to a decade. During some years (e.g., 1994a??1995), higher-than-average wintertime deep convection and ventilation led to the removal of significant amounts of heat and salt from the hypolimnion, while dissolved oxygen concentrations increase. In other years, such as the winter of 1996a??1997, heat and salt concentrations increase throughout the year and dissolved oxygen levels drop, indicating conditions were dominated by the background geothermal inputs and dissolved oxygen consumption by bacteria (i.e., minimal deep convection). Over the entire 14 year period, no statistically significant trend was observed in the annual hypolimnetic heat and salt content. Measurements from several thermistors moored in the hypolimnion provide new insight into the time and space scales of the deep convection events. For some events, cool water intrusions are observed sequentially, from shallower depths to deeper depths, suggesting vertical mixing or advection from above. For other events, the cooling is observed first at the deepest sensors, suggesting a thin, cold water pulse that flows along the bottom and mixes more slowly upwards into the basin. In both cases, the source waters must originate from the epilimnion. Conditions during a strong ventilation year (1994a??1995) and a weak ventilation year (1996a??1997) were compared. The results suggest the major difference between these 2 years was the evolution of the stratification in the epilimnion during the first few weeks of reverse stratification such that thermobaric instabilities were easier to form during 1995 thana?#1997. Thus, the details of surface cooling and wind-driven mixing during the early stages ofa?#reverse stratification may determine the neta?#amount of ventilation possible during

  5. Chemical quality of surface waters in Devils Lake basin North Dakota, 1952-60

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitten, Hugh T.; Rosene, Philip G. Scott; Chester, H.

    1968-01-01

    Above-normal precipitation in 1954, 1956, and 1957 caused the water surface of Devils Lake to rise to an altitude of 1,419.3 feet, its highest in 40 years. Nearly all the water entering the lake flowed through Big Coulee, and about three-fourths of that inflow was at rates greater than 100 cubic feet per second. At these rates, the inflow contained less than 600 ppm (parts per million) dissolved solids and was of the calcium bicarbonate type. Because the inflow was more dilute than the lake water, the dissolved solids in the lake decreased from 8,680 ppm in 1952 to about 6,000 ppm in 19,56 and 1957. Subsequently, however, they increased to slightly more than 8,000 ppm and averaged 6,800 ppm for the 1954-60 period. Sodium and sulfate were the principal dissolved constituents in the lake water. Although the concentration of dissolved solids varied significantly from time to time, the relative proportions of the chief constituents remained nearly the same. Water flowed from Devils Lake to Mission Bay in 1956, 1957, and 1958, and some flowed from Mission Bay into East Bay. However, no water moved between East Devils Lake, western Stump Lake, and eastern Stump Lake during 1952-60 ; these lakes received only local runoff, and the variations in their water volume caused only minor variations in dissolved solids. For the periods sampled, concentrations averaged 60,700 ppm for East Devils Lake, 23,100 ppm for western Stump Lake, and 127,000 ppm for eastern Stump Lake. Sodium and sulfate were the chief dissolved constituents in all the lakes of the Devils Lake chain. Water in eastern Stump Lake was saturated with sodium sulfate and precipitated large quantities of granular, hydrated sodium sulfate crystals on the lakebed and shore in fall and winter. A discontinuous layer of consolidated sodium sulfate crystals formed a significant part of the bed throughout the year. Measured concentrations of zinc, iron, manganese, fluoride, arsenic, boron, copper, and lead were not high

  6. Lake Erie water level study. Appendix G. Recreational beaches and boating. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Recreational Beaches and Boating Appendix describes the effects of limited regulation of Lake Erie on recreational beaches and boating in the lower Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River system. This evaluation was limited to Lakes Erie and Ontario and part of the St. Lawrence River where the impact was expected to be greatest and due to time and funding constraints. Also, due to these constraints, the study of the effects on recreational boating was confined only to United States waters. Limited regulation of Lake Erie would have the effect of lowering the water level of that lake and those upstream. As a result, there would be losses to recreational boating, with the losses dependent upon the amount of lowering. At the same time, recreational beaches would benefit due to increases in beach area.

  7. Hydrology and water quality of Powers Lake, southeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The health of the lake was evaluated using Carlson's Trophic State Index and Vollenweider's model. Carlson's Trophic State Index showed that Powers Lake was moderately enriched and in the mesotrophic range. Comparison of guidelines from Vollenweider's model showed that the total phosphorus input for the study period and for an estimated average year would not cause eutrophic conditions.

  8. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Conditions and Variability in Water Quality Parameters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in recent years has increased regarding conditions in the nearshore of the Great Lakes. We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Ontario nearshore along the 20 m contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 720 km survey was conducted September 6-10, 20...

  9. Cyanobacterial Cells and Toxins:Evaluating Source Water Trends and Propagation through Lake Erie Treatment Facilities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), and their associated toxins, in fresh water lakes and reservoirs are drawing the attention of utilities and state regulators nation-wide. Recognizing the potential health and economic consequences, the US Environmental Protection Agency, in partnersh...

  10. Water Velocity and Suspended Solids Measurements by In-situ Instruments in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Wellman, Roy E.; Wood, Tamara M.; Cheng, Ralph T.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey conducted hydrodynamic measurements in Upper Klamath Lake during four summer seasons (approximately mid-June to mid-September) during 2003 to 2006. Measurements included water current profiles made by acoustic Doppler current profilers at a number of fixed locations in the lake during all four years as well as from a moving boat during 2005 and 2006. Measurements of size distribution of suspended material were made at four locations in the lake during 2004-2006. Raw (unfiltered) data are presented as time series of measurements. In addition, water-velocity data have been filtered to remove wind-induced variations with periods less than thirty hours from the measurements. Bar graphs of horizontal and vertical water speed and acoustic backscatter have been generated to discern diurnal variations, especially as they relate to wind patterns over the lake. Mean speeds of the horizontal currents in the lake range between about 3.5 to 15 cm/s with the higher speeds at the deep locations in the trench on the west side of the lake. Current directions generally conform to the lake's bathymetry contours and the water circulation pattern is usually in a clockwise direction around the lake as established by the prevailing north to northwesterly surface winds in the region. Diurnal patterns in horizontal currents probably relate to diurnal wind patterns with minimum wind speeds near noon and maximum wind speeds near 2100. Diurnal variations in vertical velocities do not appear to be related to wind patterns; they do appear to be related to expected patterns of vertical migration of Aphanizomenon flos aquae, (AFA) the predominant species of blue-green algae in the lake. Similarly, diurnal variations in acoustic backscatter, especially near the lake's surface, are probably related to the vertical migration of AFA.

  11. 33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) English language. Reports required by this section shall be made in the English language. (d) Traffic... Cut Light “7” Lake Huron Cut Lighted Buoy “1” Report. Report St. Clair/Black River Junction...

  12. 33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) English language. Reports required by this section shall be made in the English language. (d) Traffic... Cut Light “7” Lake Huron Cut Lighted Buoy “1” Report. Report St. Clair/Black River Junction...

  13. 33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) English language. Reports required by this section shall be made in the English language. (d) Traffic... Cut Light “7” Lake Huron Cut Lighted Buoy “1” Report. Report St. Clair/Black River Junction...

  14. 33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) English language. Reports required by this section shall be made in the English language. (d) Traffic... Cut Light “7” Lake Huron Cut Lighted Buoy “1” Report. Report St. Clair/Black River Junction...

  15. 33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) English language. Reports required by this section shall be made in the English language. (d) Traffic... Cut Light “7” Lake Huron Cut Lighted Buoy “1” Report. Report St. Clair/Black River Junction...

  16. Water-quality data for Smith and Bybee Lakes, Portland, Oregon, June to November, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, Daphne G.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality monitoring at Smith and Bybee Lakes included measurement of water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and percent saturation, pH, specific conductance, lake depth, alkalinity, dissolved carbon, total dissolved solids, secchi disk light transparency, nutrients, and chlorophyll a and b. In addition, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic invertebrate populations were identified and enumerated. Lakebed sediment was analyzed for particle size, volatile solids, immediate oxygen demand, trace metals, total organic carbon, nutrients, and organic constituents. (USGS)

  17. Documentation of a data base on lake and reservoir water quality in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rast, Walter R.

    1991-01-01

    The report describes the procedures used to select, retrieve, compile, and screen a lake and reservoir data base from the STORET (STOrage and RETrieval) system of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Procedures used to select, compile, and screen the size of the data base also are discussed. The retrieved data comprise 116 water-quality and biological constituents and physical and morphometric factors commonly used to assess the limnology and water quality of lakes and reservoirs.

  18. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  19. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sheridan K; Fogarty, Lisa R; Stelzer, Erin A; Fuller, Lori M; Brennan, Angela K; Isaacs, Natasha M; Johnson, Heather E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp. , Salmonella spp , Campylobacter jejuni/coli , and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , and 108-145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  20. Belliella buryatensis sp. nov., isolated from alkaline lake water.

    PubMed

    Kozyreva, Lyudmila; Egorova, Darya; Anan'ina, Lyudmila; Plotnikova, Elena; Ariskina, Elena; Prisyazhnaya, Natalya; Radnaeva, Larisa; Namsaraev, Bair

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial isolates from water of the alkaline brackish Lake Solenoe (Buryatia, Russia), 2C and 5CT, were characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strains were small, non-motile, Gram-stain-negative rods that formed small orange-red colonies on the surface of marine agar. Studies based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains were related closely to Belliella pelovolcani CC-SAL-25T (98.7 % sequence similarity). The G+C content of the DNA was 38-40 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strains 2C and 5CT and B. pelovolcani CC-SAL-25T were 56-58 mol%. A menaquinone with seven isoprene units (MK-7) was the major respiratory quinone. The fatty acid profiles were slightly different from that of B. pelovolcani CC-SAL-25T. The novel strains could be distinguished from the phylogenetically closest species B. pelovolcani CC-SAL-25T based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of whole cells and a range of physiological and biochemical characteristics. The data obtained suggest that strains 2C and 5CT represent a novel species of the genus Belliella, for which the name Belliella buryatensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 5CT ( = VKM B-2724T = KCTC 32194T). PMID:26474559

  1. Bottom sediments and pore waters near a hydrothermal vent in Lake Baikal (Frolikha Bay)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granina, L.Z.; Klerkx, J.; Callender, E.; Leermakers, M.; Golobokova, L.P.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the redox environments and the compositions of bottom sediments and sedimentary pore waters in the region of a hydrothermal vent in Frolikha Bay, Lake Baikal. According to our results, the submarine vent and its companion nearby spring on land originate from a common source. The most convincing evidence for their relation comes from the proximity of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in pore waters and in the spring water. The isotope composition indicates a meteoric origin of pore waters, but their major- and minor-element chemistry bears imprint of deep water which may seep through permeable faulted crust. Although pore waters near the submarine vent have a specific enrichment in major and minor constituents, hydrothermal discharge at the Baikal bottom causes a minor impact on the lake water chemistry, unlike the case of freshwater geothermal lakes in the East-African Rift and North America. ?? 2007.

  2. The distribution of basal water between Antarctic subglacial lakes from radar sounding.

    PubMed

    Young, D A; Schroeder, D M; Blankenship, D D; Kempf, Scott D; Quartini, E

    2016-01-28

    Antarctica's subglacial lakes have two end member geophysical expressions: as hydraulically flat, radar reflective regions highlighted in ice surface topography and radar sounding profiles ('definite lakes'), and as localized sites of elevation change identified from repeat elevation observations ('active lakes') that are often found in fast flowing ice streams or enhanced ice flow tributaries. While 'definite lakes' can be identified readily by high bed reflectivity in radar sounding, the identification and characterization of less distinct subglacial lakes and water systems with radar sounding are complicated by variable radio-wave attenuation in the overlying ice. When relying on repeat elevation observations, the relatively short times series and biased distribution of elevation observations, along with the episodic nature of 'active lake' outflow and replenishment, limit our understanding of how water flows under the ice sheet. Using recently developed methods for quantifying the radar scattering behaviour of the basal interface of the ice, we can avoid the problem of attenuation, and observe the plumbing of the subglacial landscape. In West Antarctica's Ross Sea Embayment, we confirm that extensive distributed water systems underlie these ice streams. Distributed water sheets are upstream in the onset regions of fast flow, while canal systems underly downstream regions of fast flow. In East Antarctica, we use specularity analysis to recover substantial hydraulic connectivity extending beyond previous knowledge, connecting the lakes already delineated by traditional radar sounding or surface elevation transients.

  3. Spatial Distribution and Air-Water Exchange of Organic Flame Retardants in the Lower Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Carrie A; Puggioni, Gavino; Helm, Paul A; Muir, Derek; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Organic flame retardants (OFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel halogenated flame retardants (NHFRs) are ubiquitous, persistent, and bioaccumulative contaminants that have been used in consumer goods to slow combustion. In this study, polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were deployed throughout the lower Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario) to measure OFRs in air and water, calculate air-water exchange fluxes, and investigate spatial trends. Dissolved Σ12BDE was greatest in Lake Ontario near Toronto (18 pg/L), whereas gaseous Σ12BDE was greatest on the southern shoreline of Lake Erie (11 pg/m(3)). NHFRs were generally below detection limits. Air-water exchange was dominated by absorption of BDEs 47 and 99, ranging from -964 pg/m(2)/day to -30 pg/m(2)/day. Σ12BDE in air and water was significantly correlated with surrounding population density, suggesting that phased-out PBDEs continued to be emitted from population centers along the Great Lakes shoreline in 2012. Correlation with dissolved Σ12BDE was strongest when considering population within 25 km while correlation with gaseous Σ12BDE was strongest when using population within 3 km to the south of each site. Bayesian kriging was used to predict dissolved Σ12BDE over the lakes, illustrating the utility of relatively highly spatially resolved measurements in identifying potential hot spots for future study.

  4. Spatial Distribution and Air-Water Exchange of Organic Flame Retardants in the Lower Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Carrie A; Puggioni, Gavino; Helm, Paul A; Muir, Derek; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Organic flame retardants (OFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel halogenated flame retardants (NHFRs) are ubiquitous, persistent, and bioaccumulative contaminants that have been used in consumer goods to slow combustion. In this study, polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were deployed throughout the lower Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario) to measure OFRs in air and water, calculate air-water exchange fluxes, and investigate spatial trends. Dissolved Σ12BDE was greatest in Lake Ontario near Toronto (18 pg/L), whereas gaseous Σ12BDE was greatest on the southern shoreline of Lake Erie (11 pg/m(3)). NHFRs were generally below detection limits. Air-water exchange was dominated by absorption of BDEs 47 and 99, ranging from -964 pg/m(2)/day to -30 pg/m(2)/day. Σ12BDE in air and water was significantly correlated with surrounding population density, suggesting that phased-out PBDEs continued to be emitted from population centers along the Great Lakes shoreline in 2012. Correlation with dissolved Σ12BDE was strongest when considering population within 25 km while correlation with gaseous Σ12BDE was strongest when using population within 3 km to the south of each site. Bayesian kriging was used to predict dissolved Σ12BDE over the lakes, illustrating the utility of relatively highly spatially resolved measurements in identifying potential hot spots for future study. PMID:27458653

  5. Is China's fifth-largest inland lake to dry-up? Incorporated hydrological and satellite-based methods for forecasting Hulun lake water levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jin, Taoyong; Li, Changyou; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Zhang, Sheng; Ding, Aizhong; Li, Jiancheng

    2016-08-01

    Hulun Lake, China's fifth-largest inland lake, experienced severe declines in water level in the period of 2000-2010. This has prompted concerns whether the lake is drying up gradually. A multi-million US dollar engineering project to construct a water channel to transfer part of the river flow from a nearby river to maintain the water level was completed in August 2010. This study aimed to advance the understanding of the key processes controlling the lake water level variation over the last five decades, as well as investigate the impact of the river transfer engineering project on the water level. A water balance model was developed to investigate the lake water level variations over the last five decades, using hydrological and climatic data as well as satellite-based measurements and results from land surface modelling. The investigation reveals that the severe reduction of river discharge (-364 ± 64 mm/yr, ∼70% of the five-decade average) into the lake was the key factor behind the decline of the lake water level between 2000 and 2010. The decline of river discharge was due to the reduction of total runoff from the lake watershed. This was a result of the reduction of soil moisture due to the decrease of precipitation (-49 ± 45 mm/yr) over this period. The water budget calculation suggests that the groundwater component from the surrounding lake area as well as surface run off from the un-gauged area surrounding the lake contributed ∼ net 210 Mm3/yr (equivalent to ∼ 100 mm/yr) water inflows into the lake. The results also show that the water diversion project did prevent a further water level decline of over 0.5 m by the end of 2012. Overall, the monthly water balance model gave an excellent prediction of the lake water level fluctuation over the last five decades and can be a useful tool to manage lake water resources in the future.

  6. Sources of mercury in sediments, water, and fish of the lakes of Whatcom County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about mercury (Hg) contamination in Lake Whatcom, Washington, were raised in the late 1990s after a watershed protection survey reported elevated concentrations of Hg in smallmouth bass. The U.S. Geological Survey, the Whatcom County Health Department, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) cooperated to develop a study to review existing data and collect new data that would lead to a better understanding of Hg deposition to Lake Whatcom and other lakes in Whatcom County, Washington. A simple atmospheric deposition model was developed that allowed comparisons of the deposition of Hg to the surfaces of each lake. Estimates of Hg deposition derived from the model indicated that the most significant deposition of Hg would have occurred to the lakes north of the City of Bellingham. These lakes were in the primary wind pattern of two municipal waste incinerators. Of all the lakes examined, basin 1 of Lake Whatcom would have been most affected by the Hg emissions from the chlor-alkali plant and the municipal sewage-sludge incinerator in the City of Bellingham. The length-adjusted concentrations of Hg in largemouth and smallmouth bass were not related to estimated deposition rates of Hg to the lakes from local atmospheric sources. Total Hg concentrations in the surface sediments of Lake Whatcom are affected by the sedimentation of fine-grained particles, whereas organic carbon regulates the concentration of methyl-Hg in the surface sediments of the lake. Hg concentrations in dated sediment core samples indicate that increases in Hg sedimentation were largest during the first half of the 20th century. Increases in Hg sedimentation were smaller after the chlor-alkali plant and the incinerators began operating between 1964 and 1984. Analysis of sediments recently deposited in basin 1 of Lake Whatcom, Lake Terrell, and Lake Samish indicates a decrease in Hg sedimentation. Concentrations of Hg in Seattle precipitation and in tributary waters were

  7. Water age prediction and its potential impacts on water quality using a hydrodynamic model for Poyang Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hengda; Lu, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiaoling; Sauvage, Sabine; Sanchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The water quality in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has deteriorated steadily in recent years and local governments have made efforts to manage the potential eutrophication. In order to investigate the transport and retention processes of dissolved substances, the hydrodynamic model, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was applied by using the concept of water age. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured water level, discharge, and inundation area. The water age in Poyang Lake was significantly influenced by the variations of hydrological conditions. The annual analysis revealed that the largest averaged water age was observed during the wet year (2010) with 28.4 days at Hukou, the junction of the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake. In the normal season (April), the youngest age with 9.1 days was found. The spatial distribution of water quality derived from the remote sensing images suggested that a higher chlorophyll-a concentration, lower turbidity, and smaller water age in the eastern area of Poyang Lake might threaten the regional aquatic health. The particle tracking simulation reproduced the trajectories of the dissolved substances, indicating that the water mass with greater nutrient loading would further lead to potential environmental problems in the east lake. Moreover, the water transfer ability would be weakened due to dam (Poyang Project) construction resulting in the rising water levels in periods of regulation. Generally, this study quantified an indicative transport timescale, which could help to better understand the complex hydrodynamic processes and manage wetland ecosystems similar to Poyang Lake. PMID:27023820

  8. Hydrology and water quality of Shell Lake, Washburn County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of diversion and changes in water level on the water quality of a shallow terminal lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2013-01-01

    Shell Lake is a relatively shallow terminal lake (tributaries but no outlets) in northwestern Wisconsin that has experienced approximately 10 feet (ft) of water-level fluctuation over more than 70 years of record and extensive flooding of nearshore areas starting in the early 2000s. The City of Shell Lake (City) received a permit from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in 2002 to divert water from the lake to a nearby river in order to lower water levels and reduce flooding. Previous studies suggested that water-level fluctuations were driven by long-term cycles in precipitation, evaporation, and runoff, although questions about the lake’s connection with the groundwater system remained. The permit required that the City evaluate assumptions about lake/groundwater interactions made in previous studies and evaluate the effects of the water diversion on water levels in Shell Lake and other nearby lakes. Therefore, a cooperative study between the City and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was initiated to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the area and evaluate potential effects of the diversion on water levels in Shell Lake, the surrounding groundwater system, and nearby lakes. Concerns over deteriorating water quality in the lake, possibly associated with changes in water level, prompted an additional cooperative project between the City and the USGS to evaluate efeffects of changes in nutrient loading associated with changes in water levels on the water quality of Shell Lake. Numerical models were used to evaluate how the hydrology and water quality responded to diversion of water from the lake and historical changes in the watershed. The groundwater-flow model MODFLOW was used to simulate groundwater movement in the area around Shell Lake, including groundwater/surface-water interactions. Simulated results from the MODFLOW model indicate that groundwater flows generally northward in the area around Shell Lake, with flow locally converging

  9. Triple Isotope Water Measurements of Lake Untersee Ice using Off-Axis ICOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, E. S.; Huang, Y. W.; Andersen, D. T.; Gupta, M.; McKay, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Untersee (71.348°S, 13.458°E) is the largest surface freshwater lake in the interior of the Gruber Mountains of central Queen Maud Land in East Antarctica. The lake is permanently covered with ice, is partly bounded by glacier ice and has a mean annual air temperature of -10°C. In contrast to other Antarctic lakes the dominating physical process controlling ice-cover dynamics is low summer temperatures and high wind speeds resulting in sublimation rather than melting as the main mass-loss process. The ice-cover of the lake is composed of lake-water ice formed during freeze-up and rafted glacial ice derived from the Anuchin Glacier. The mix of these two fractions impacts the energy balance of the lake, which directly affects ice-cover thickness. Ice-cover is important if one is to understand the physical, chemical, and biological linkages within these unique, physically driven ecosystems. We have analyzed δ2H, δ18O, and δ17O from samples of lake and glacier ice collected at Lake Untersee in Dec 2014. Using these data we seek to answer two specific questions: Are we able to determine the origin and history of the lake ice, discriminating between rafted glacial ice and lake water? Can isotopic gradients in the surface ice indicate the ablation (sublimation) rate of the surface ice? The triple isotope water analyzer developed by Los Gatos Research (LGR 912-0032) uses LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) technology and incorporates proprietary internal thermal control for high sensitivity and optimal instrument stability. This analyzer measures δ2H, δ18O, and δ17O from water, as well as the calculated d-excess and 17O-excess. The laboratory precision in high performance mode for both δ17O and δ18O is 0.03 ‰, and for δ2H is 0.2 ‰. Methodology and isotope data from Lake Untersee samples are presented. Figure: Ice samples were collected across Lake Untersee from both glacial and lake ice regions for this study.

  10. A hydrodynamics-based approach to evaluating the risk of waterborne pathogens entering drinking water intakes in a large, stratified lake.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Andrea B; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Rueda, Francisco J

    2015-10-15

    Pathogen contamination of drinking water lakes and reservoirs is a severe threat to human health worldwide. A major source of pathogens in surface sources of drinking waters is from body-contact recreation in the water body. However, dispersion pathways of human waterborne pathogens from recreational beaches, where body-contact recreation is known to occur to drinking water intakes, and the associated risk of pathogens entering the drinking water supply remain largely undocumented. A high spatial resolution, three-dimensional hydrodynamic and particle tracking modeling approach has been developed to analyze the risk and mechanisms presented by pathogen dispersion. The pathogen model represents the processes of particle release, transport and survival. Here survival is a function of both water temperature and cumulative exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Pathogen transport is simulated using a novel and computationally efficient technique of tracking particle trajectories backwards, from a drinking water intake toward their source areas. The model has been applied to a large, alpine lake - Lake Tahoe, CA-NV (USA). The dispersion model results reveal that for this particular lake (1) the risk of human waterborne pathogens to enter drinking water intakes is low, but significant; (2) this risk is strongly related to the depth of the thermocline in relation to the depth of the intake; (3) the risk increases with the seasonal deepening of the surface mixed layer; and (4) the risk increases at night when the surface mixed layer deepens through convective mixing and inactivation by UV radiation is eliminated. While these risk factors will quantitatively vary in different lakes, these same mechanisms will govern the process of transport of pathogens.

  11. Chemical Evolution of Groundwater Near a Sinkhole Lake, Northern Florida: 1. Flow Patterns, Age of Groundwater, and Influence of Lake Water Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Lee, Terrie M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    1995-06-01

    Leakage from sinkhole lakes significantly influences recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer in poorly confined sediments in northern Florida. Environmental isotopes (oxygen 18, deuterium, and tritium), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CCl3F; CFC-12, CCl2F2; and CFC-113, C2Cl3F3), and solute tracers were used to investigate groundwater flow patterns near Lake Barco, a seepage lake in a mantled karst setting in northern Florida. Stable isotope data indicated that the groundwater downgradient from the lake contained 11-67% lake water leakage, with a limit of detection of lake water in groundwater of 4.3%. The mixing fractions of lake water leakage, which passed through organic-rich sediments in the lake bottom, were directly proportional to the observed methane concentrations and increased with depth in the groundwater flow system. In aerobic groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco, CFC-modeled recharge dates ranged from 1987 near the water table to the mid 1970s for water collected at a depth of 30 m below the water table. CFC-modeled recharge dates (based on CFC-12) for anaerobic groundwater downgradient from the lake ranged from the late 1950s to the mid 1970s and were consistent with tritium data. CFC-modeled recharge dates based on CFC-11 indicated preferential microbial degradation in anoxic waters. Vertical hydraulic conductivities, calculated using CFC-12 modeled recharge dates and Darcy's law, were 0.17, 0.033, and 0.019 m/d for the surficial aquifer, intermediate confining unit, and lake sediments, respectively. These conductivities agreed closely with those used in the calibration of a three-dimensional groundwater flow model for transient and steady state flow conditions.

  12. Water quality monitoring and assessment of an urban Mediterranean lake facilitated by remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Markogianni, V; Dimitriou, E; Karaouzas, I

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of water quality is a major problem worldwide and often leads to serious environmental impacts and concerns about public health. In this study, the water quality monitoring and assessment of the Koumoundourou Lake, a brackish urban shallow lake located in the northeastern part of Elefsis Bay (Greece), were evaluated. A number of water quality parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a concentration) were analyzed in water samples collected bimonthly over a 1-year period from five stations throughout the lake. Moreover, biological quality elements were analysed seasonally over the 1-year period (benthic fauna). Statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the water quality of the lake and distinguish sources of variation measured in the samples. Furthermore, the chemical and trophic status of the lake was evaluated according to the most widely applicable classification schemes. Satellite images of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper were used in order for algorithms to be developed and calculate the concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The trophic status of the lake was characterized as oligotrophic based on phosphorus and as mesotrophic-eutrophic based on Chl-a concentrations. The results of the remote sensing application indicated a relatively high coefficient of determination (R (2)) among point sampling results and the remotely sensed data, which implies that the selected algorithm is reliable and could be used for the monitoring of Chl-a concentration in the particular water body when no field data are available.

  13. Assessment of water quality of Rawal Lake by long-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ghumman, Abdul Razzaq

    2011-09-01

    Water quality of rivers, natural lakes, and reservoirs in developing countries is being degraded because of the contaminated inflows. There is a serious need for appropriate water quality monitoring for future planning and management of clean water resources. Quality of water in Rawal Lake Pakistan has been investigated in this paper. Flows from the upstream of Rawal Lake and its surrounding villages are highly polluted. Lake water quality parameters like pH, turbidity, alkalinity, calcium, nitrite, sulfate, biological oxygen dissolved, dissolved oxygen, chloride, total dissolved solids (TDS), and coliforms were investigated. Samples of water from different locations of Korang River were collected and tested. Most of the data was collected by field sampling and field visits. However, long-term information was taken from different departments. Statistical parameters (standard deviation, maximum, minimum, mean, mode, kurtosis, skew, and Euclidean distance) of variables were determined. A distinct parameter based on the difference of the maximum value the variable and maximum allowable value of that variable defined by World Health Organization was used for analysis. Grouping and clustering of elements was made on the basis of this parameter. Trend of increasing or decreasing of values of variables over a long time was also taken into account for grouping the variables. It was concluded that the concentration of seven contaminants was higher as compared to the permissible limits under environmental standards. These variables need immediate attention. The environmentally bad conditions of Rawal Lake can only be rectified by appropriate lake environmental supervision, watershed management, and implementation of environmental legislation.

  14. Water quality monitoring and assessment of an urban Mediterranean lake facilitated by remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Markogianni, V; Dimitriou, E; Karaouzas, I

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of water quality is a major problem worldwide and often leads to serious environmental impacts and concerns about public health. In this study, the water quality monitoring and assessment of the Koumoundourou Lake, a brackish urban shallow lake located in the northeastern part of Elefsis Bay (Greece), were evaluated. A number of water quality parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a concentration) were analyzed in water samples collected bimonthly over a 1-year period from five stations throughout the lake. Moreover, biological quality elements were analysed seasonally over the 1-year period (benthic fauna). Statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the water quality of the lake and distinguish sources of variation measured in the samples. Furthermore, the chemical and trophic status of the lake was evaluated according to the most widely applicable classification schemes. Satellite images of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper were used in order for algorithms to be developed and calculate the concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The trophic status of the lake was characterized as oligotrophic based on phosphorus and as mesotrophic-eutrophic based on Chl-a concentrations. The results of the remote sensing application indicated a relatively high coefficient of determination (R (2)) among point sampling results and the remotely sensed data, which implies that the selected algorithm is reliable and could be used for the monitoring of Chl-a concentration in the particular water body when no field data are available. PMID:24705815

  15. Changes in water quality and trophic status associated with cage aquaculture in Lake Maninjau, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henny, C.; Nomosatryo, S.

    2016-01-01

    The cage aquaculture unquestionably has been degrading lake water quality by increasing nutrients and organic carbon in lake water and sediments. The question is to what extend this condition affects other key indictors such as the temporal changes in trophic status and the thickness of anoxic hypolimnion layer where the anoxic water column is moving upward pushing up the oxic epilimnion layer. The condition in Lake Maninjau could be worse since the lake is steadily producing sulfide which can cause not only oxygen depletion in the water column but also the phosphate release from the sediments. The study is based on the long term monitoring data from on going research for about 8 years observation. The results indeed show the anoxic water column is moving upward increasing the thickness of anoxic hypolimnion layer and decreasing epilimnion layer from 30 m to 10 m depth. The trophic status of the lake also has changed from mesotrophic to eutrophic decreasing the water transparency to even a critical level < 1m. The months of July to September with prolonged hot season could be the critical time for trophic condition for the lake. The results suggest that determination of these conditions further could help identify and predict the critical time for possibility of fish kill.

  16. Bathymetric mapping, sediment quality, and water quality of Lake Delhi, Iowa, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; McVay, Jason C.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality sampling results indicate areas affected by elevated nutrient and bacteria concentrations in the lake and tributary streams. The tributary streams had the highest median nitrate concentrations (12.1 milligrams per liter) when compared to median nitrate concentrations in the lake (8.7 milligrams per liter) or the Maquoketa River (10.5 milligrams per liter). The maximum nitrate concentrations detected for Maquoketa River, lake, and tributary sites were 13.5, 13.5, and 18.6 milligrams per liter, respectively. Nitrate concentrations in the late summer decreased from 2 Bathymetric Mapping, Sediment Quality, and Water Quality of Lake Delhi, Iowa, 2001–02 the upstream (7.8 milligrams per liter) to the downstream (5.0 milligrams per liter) one-third of Lake Delhi and most likely were the result of uptake of nitrate by algae and aquatic biota in the lake. Median concentrations of total coliform and E. coli bacteria for the lake sites were 450 and 17 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample, respectively. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criteria for full body contact (swimming or bathing) are 200 colonies per 100 milliliters for fecal bacteria and 126 colonies per 100 milliliters for E. coli bacteria. The highest bacteria concentrations in the lake occurred after a rain and were 25,000 colonies per 100 milliliters total coliform and 1,900 colonies per 100 milliliters E. coli.

  17. Composition of pore water in lake sediments, research site "B", Osage County, Oklahoma: Implications for lake water quality and benthic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Otton, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Shallow ground water at US Geological Survey research site B in northeastern Oklahoma is contaminated with NaCl-rich brine from past and present oil production operations. Contaminated ground water provides a potential source of salts, metals, and hydrocarbons to sediment and water of adjacent Skiatook Lake. A former brine storage pit 10 m in diameter that is now submerged just offshore from site B provides an additional source of contamination. Cores of the upper 16-40 cm of lake sediment were taken at the submerged brine pit, near an offshore saline seep, and at a location containing relatively uncontaminated lake sediment. Pore waters from each 2-cm interval were separated by centrifugation and analyzed for dissolved anions, cations, and trace elements. High concentrations of dissolved Cl- in pore waters (200-5000 mg/L) provide the most direct evidence of contamination, and contrast sharply with an average value of only about 37 mg/L in Skiatook Lake. Chloride/Br- mass ratios of 220-240 in contaminated pore waters are comparable to values in contaminated well waters collected onshore. Dissolved concentrations of Se, Pb, Cu and Ni in Cl--rich pore waters exceed current US Environmental Protection Agency criteria for probable toxicity to aquatic life. At the submerged brine storage pit, the increase of Cl- concentration with depth is consistent with diffusion-dominant transport from deeper contaminated sediments. Near the offshore saline seep, pore water Cl- concentrations are consistently high and vary irregularly with depth, indicating probable Cl- transport by layer-directed advective flow. Estimated annual contributions of Cl- to the lake from the brine storage pit (???20 kg) and the offshore seep (???9 kg) can be applied to any number of similar sources. Generous estimates of the number of such sources at site B indicate minimal impact on water quality in the local inlet of Skiatook Lake. Similar methodologies can be applied at other sites of Na

  18. The evolution of hydrological and water quality conditions on Techirghiol Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Carmen; Buta, Constantin; Tofan, Lucica

    2015-04-01

    Changes in climate and environment conditions alter the hydraulic and chemical properties of lakes. With a surface from 1300ha, the Techirghiol Lake, situated on the littoral of the Black Sea at 15km from Constanta town, is considered the greatest hypersaline lake of Romania very well known (from 1891) especially for the curative qualities of its water and mud. Physical and geographical conditions associated with an arid climate regime - where the annual precipitation is less than 400mm and the average temperatures exceed (lead evaporative potential to 700-1000mm), cause a strong concentration of mineral salts that give the lake an excessive salinity. In conditions of excessive salinity forms a therapeutic mud as a result of bacterial decomposition of aquatic organisms that have done there, especially crustaceans Arthemia and algae that live in water. This mud, highly hydrated, rich in minerals, has therapeutic properties, for this reason in Techirghiol has developed a strong health resort. Fresh water is a threat to the therapeutic lake properties. In hydrological year 1961-1962, the overland flow value to the lake was approximately 0.4 million m3, and from 1972-1973 the value reached 6 million cubic meters per year a great contribution was from the irrigation water. One of the consequences is the increasing of the lake level and the second is the decreasing of salinity. For this reason a hydraulic work system has been built to separate the saline water of the lake and the freshwater. The aim of this paper is to investigate the hydrologic and chemical responses of the Techirghiol Lake to the changes in climate and environment conditions.

  19. Food web efficiency differs between humic and clear water lake communities in response to nutrients and light.

    PubMed

    Faithfull, C L; Mathisen, P; Wenzel, A; Bergström, A K; Vrede, T

    2015-03-01

    This study demonstrates that clear and humic freshwater pelagic communities respond differently to the same environmental stressors, i.e. nutrient and light availability. Thus, effects on humic communities cannot be generalized from existing knowledge about these environmental stressors on clear water communities. Small humic lakes are the most numerous type of lake in the boreal zone, but little is known about how these lakes will respond to increased inflows of nutrients and terrestrial dissolved organic C (t-DOC) due to climate change and increased human impacts. Therefore, we compared the effects of nutrient addition and light availability on pelagic humic and clear water lake communities in a mesocosm experiment. When nutrients were added, phytoplankton production (PPr) increased in both communities, but pelagic energy mobilization (PEM) and bacterial production (BP) only increased in the humic community. At low light conditions, the addition of nutrients led to increased PPr only in the humic community, suggesting that, in contrast to the clear water community, humic phytoplankton were already adapted to lower ambient light levels. Low light significantly reduced PPr and PEM in the clear water community, but without reducing total zooplankton production, which resulted in a doubling of food web efficiency (FWE = total zooplankton production/PEM). However, total zooplankton production was not correlated with PEM, PPr, BP, PPr:BP or C:nutrient stoichiometry for either community type. Therefore, other factors such as food chain length, food quality, ultra-violet radiation or duration of the experiment, must have determined total zooplankton production and ultimately FWE.

  20. Food web efficiency differs between humic and clear water lake communities in response to nutrients and light.

    PubMed

    Faithfull, C L; Mathisen, P; Wenzel, A; Bergström, A K; Vrede, T

    2015-03-01

    This study demonstrates that clear and humic freshwater pelagic communities respond differently to the same environmental stressors, i.e. nutrient and light availability. Thus, effects on humic communities cannot be generalized from existing knowledge about these environmental stressors on clear water communities. Small humic lakes are the most numerous type of lake in the boreal zone, but little is known about how these lakes will respond to increased inflows of nutrients and terrestrial dissolved organic C (t-DOC) due to climate change and increased human impacts. Therefore, we compared the effects of nutrient addition and light availability on pelagic humic and clear water lake communities in a mesocosm experiment. When nutrients were added, phytoplankton production (PPr) increased in both communities, but pelagic energy mobilization (PEM) and bacterial production (BP) only increased in the humic community. At low light conditions, the addition of nutrients led to increased PPr only in the humic community, suggesting that, in contrast to the clear water community, humic phytoplankton were already adapted to lower ambient light levels. Low light significantly reduced PPr and PEM in the clear water community, but without reducing total zooplankton production, which resulted in a doubling of food web efficiency (FWE = total zooplankton production/PEM). However, total zooplankton production was not correlated with PEM, PPr, BP, PPr:BP or C:nutrient stoichiometry for either community type. Therefore, other factors such as food chain length, food quality, ultra-violet radiation or duration of the experiment, must have determined total zooplankton production and ultimately FWE. PMID:25373827

  1. Using a coupled groundwater/surface-water model to predict climate-change impacts to lakes in the Trout Lake Watershed, northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall; Walker, John F.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Doherty, John; Webb, Richard M.T.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2009-01-01

    The Trout Lake watershed in northern Wisconsin is underlain by a highly conductive outwash sand aquifer. In this area, streamflow is dominated by groudwater contributions, however, surface runoff occurs during intense rainfall periods and spring snowmelt. Surface runoff also occurs locally near stream/lake areas where the unsaturated zone is thin. A diverse data set, collected from 1992 to 2007 for the Trout Lake WEBB project and the co-located and NSF-funded North Temperate Lake LTER project, includes snowpack, solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, lake levels, groundwater levels, and streamflow. The time-series processing software TSPROC (Doherty 2001)was used to distill the large time series data set to a smaller set of observations and summary statistics that captured the salient hydrologic information. The time-series processing reduced hundreds of thousands of observations to less than 5,000. Model calibration included specific predictions for several lakes in the study area using the PEST parameter estimation suit of software (Doherty 2007). The calibrated model was used to simulate the hydrologic response in the study lakes to a variety of climate change scenarios culled from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (Solomon et al. 2007). Results from the simulations indicate climate change could result in substantial changes to the lake levels and components of the hydrologic budget of a seepage lake in the flow system. For a drainage lake lower in the flow system, the impacts of climate change are diminished.

  2. Simulation of Deep Water Renewal in Crater Lake, Oregon, USA under Current and Future Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Wood, T. M.; Wherry, S.; Girdner, S.

    2015-12-01

    We applied a 1-dimensional lake model developed to simulate deep mixing related to thermobaric instabilities in temperate lakes to Crater Lake, a 590-m deep caldera lake in Oregon's Cascade Range known for its stunning deep blue color and extremely clear water, in order to determine the frequency of deep water renewal in future climate conditions. The lake model was calibrated with 6 years of water temperature profiles, and then simulated 10 years of validation data with an RMSE ranging from 0.81°C at 50 m depth to 0.04°C at 350-460 m depth. The simulated time series of heat content in the deep lake accurately captured extreme years characterized by weak and strong deep water renewal. The lake model uses wind speed and lake surface temperature (LST) as boundary conditions. LST projections under six climate scenarios from the CMIP5 intermodel comparison project (2 representative concentration pathways X 3 general circulation models) were evaluated with air2water, a simple lumped model that only requires daily values of downscaled air temperature. air2water was calibrated with data from 1993-2011, resulting in a RMSE between simulated and observed daily LST values of 0.68°C. All future climate scenarios project increased water temperature throughout the water column and a substantive reduction in the frequency of deepwater renewal events. The least extreme scenario (CNRM-CM5, RCP4.5) projects the frequency of deepwater renewal events to decrease from about 1 in 2 years in the present to about 1 in 3 years by 2100. The most extreme scenario (HadGEM2-ES, RCP8.5) projects the frequency of deepwater renewal events to be less than 1 in 7 years by 2100 and lake surface temperatures never cooling to less than 4°C after 2050. In all RCP4.5 simulations the temperature of the entire water column is greater than 4°C for increasing periods of time. In the RCP8.5 simulations, the temperature of the entire water column is greater than 4°C year round by the year 2060 (HadGEM2

  3. Should a water colour parameter be included in lake total phosphorus prediction models used for the Water Framework Directive?

    PubMed

    Vinogradoff, Susan I; Oliver, Ian W

    2015-01-01

    Under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) lakes are classified according to a variety of criteria. This classification facilitates state of the environment assessments and helps identify work needed to achieve the objectives of the WFD, which are broadly to maintain and/or restore water quality and ecological status at a level recognised as good or high. To achieve high or good status, lakes must meet a criterion for total phosphorus (TP) that is linked to a predicted reference condition value that is derived by various models. Lakes which fail to meet good status may require expensive remedial actions to be undertaken, thus accurate identification of the reference condition TP concentration is vital for effective environmental management. However, the models currently employed could be improved for some regions, particularly those with carbon rich soils. By examining 19 reference condition lakes (i.e. lakes essentially non-impacted by humans) in peaty areas of Scotland, we found that a simple parameter linked to water colour and humic substances was a better predictor of TP than the currently employed models (R(2) 0.585 vs R(2) < 0.01). Therefore, for Scotland and elsewhere, in regions with carbon rich soils and lakes with humic waters the TP predictive models could be improved by development and incorporation of a parameter related to water colour and humic components.

  4. An x-ray fluorescence study of lake sediments from ancient Turkey using synchrotron radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Alatas, A.; Alp, E. E.; Friedman, E. S.; Jennings, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Lai, B.; Mini, S. M.; Sato, Y.; Wilkinson, T. J.; Yener, K. A.

    1999-03-10

    Sediments from relic Lake Golbasi were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence with synchrotrons radiation to determine changes in element concentrations over time with selected elements serving as proxies for environmental change. Increases in Ca and Sr suggest soil formation during a dry period, from ca. 4500 BC to ca. 200 AD at which point K, Rb, Zr, Ti, and Y increase, indicating the return of a wet environment. Soil erosion, represented by Cr and Ni, increases ca. 7000 BC, probably as a consequence of environmental change, prior to suggested exploitation of natural resources by the newly urbanized society of the third millennium BC.

  5. [Pollution Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of PAHs in Water and Fishes from Daqing Lakes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-di; Zang, Shu-ying; Zhang, Yu-hong; Wang, Fan; Yang, Xing; Zuo, Yi-long

    2015-11-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 30 water samples and 5 tissues (gill, liver, brain, kidney and muscle) of 36 fishes which were collected from 18 typical lakes of the Daqing lakes group, China were measured between February and April 2012. The results of PAHs concentrations in the water showed that the range of total concentrations was 0.2-1.21 μg x L(-1) and the highest concentration was found in the Yueliangpao Lake. Clustering analysis of statistical method was used to classify the concentrations of PAHs in the water of 18 lakes, and PAHs source and evaluation of ecological risk in different lake groups were obtained respectively based on the analysis of PAHs ratio and the species sensitivity distributions method. The results of cluster analysis about PAHs concentrations in the water of 18 lakes showed that all the lakes were divided into 4 lake groups. Yueliangpao (YLP) and dongdahai (DDH) lakes were respectively divided into a separate group and the other 14 lakes were divided into two groups named XHH group and DQSK group. PAHs in the water of lakes were mainly from wood and coal burning except that the PAHs of the water in YLP group was caused by oil contamination. According to the surface water quality standard of the world and China, the concentrations of PAHs in the water of 4 lake groups all exceeded the standard variously. The PAHs concentrations of most water samples in YLP group and XHH group exceeded the 16 PAHs limit value of Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) standard, especially, the concentration of Benz[a] pyrene with the strongest carcinogenicity of YLP group exceeded Chinese surface water quality standard. While in the DQSK lake group and the DDH lake group, several PAHs contaminations of water samples exceeded the standard. The tested and statistical results of 16 PAHs concentrations in 5 tissues of Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix fish species in Daqing lakes showed the concentrations

  6. Estimating ground-water exchange with lakes using water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches for ten lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, L.A.; Swancar, Amy; Lee, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Water budget and chemical mass-balance approaches were used to estimate ground-water exchange with 10 lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands Counties, Florida. At each lake, heads were monitored in the surficial aquifer system and deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, lake stage and rainfall were measured continuously, and lakes and wells were sampled three times between October 1995 and December 1996. The water-budget approach computes net ground-water flow (ground-water inflow minus outflow) as the residual of the monthly waterbudget equation. Net ground-water flow varied seasonally at each of the 10 lakes, and was notably different between lakes, illustrating short-term differences in ground-water fluxes. Monthly patterns in net ground-water flow were related to monthly patterns of other hydrologic variables such as rainfall, ground-water flow patterns, and head differences between the lake and the Upper Floridan aquifer. The chemical mass-balance approach combines the water budget and solute or isotope mass-balance equations, and assumes steady-state conditions. Naturally occurring tracers that were analyzed for include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and bromide, the isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18. Chloride and sodium were the most successful solute tracers; however, their concentrations in ground water typically varied spatially, and in places were similar to that in lake water, limiting their sensitivity as tracers. In contrast, the isotopes were more robust tracers because the isotopic composition of ground water was relatively uniform and was distinctly different from the lake water. Groundwater inflow computed using the chemical massbalance method varied significantly between lakes, and ranged from less than 10 to more than 150 inches per year. Both water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches had limitations, but the multiple lines of evidence gained using both approaches improved the understanding of the role of ground water in the

  7. Comparison of MTI Water Temperatures with Ground Truth Measurements at Crater Lake, OR

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-12-09

    Water surface temperatures calculated with the Los Alamos National Laboratory Robust algorithm were compared with ground truth water temperature measurements near the Oregon State University buoy in Crater Lake, OR. Bulk water measurements at the OSU buoy were corrected for the skin temperature depression and temperature gradient in the top 10 cm of the water to find the water surface temperature for 18 MTI images for June 2000 to Feb 2002. The MTI robust temperatures were found to be biased by 0.1C, with an RMS error of 1.9C compared with the ground truth water surface temperatures. When corrected for the errors in the buoy temperatures the RMS was reduced to 1.3C. This RMS difference is greater than the 1C found at the Pacific Island of Nauru because of the greater variability in the lake temperature and the atmosphere at Crater Lake and the much smaller target area used in the comparison.

  8. Cooperative Water-Resources Monitoring in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, Stephen J.; Neff, Brian P.; Blumer, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project, this report describes numerous cooperative water-resources monitoring efforts conducted in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin over the last 100 years. Cooperative monitoring is a tool used to observe and record changes in water quantity and quality over time. This report describes cooperative efforts for monitoring streamflows and flood magnitudes, past and present water-quality conditions, significant human-health threats, and flow-regime changes that are the result of changing land use. Water-resources monitoring is a long-term effort that can be made cost-effective by leveraging funds, sharing data, and avoiding duplication of effort. Without long-term cooperative monitoring, future water-resources managers and planners may find it difficult to establish and maintain public supply, recreational, ecological, and esthetic water-quality goals for the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin.

  9. Flood frequency matters: Why climate change degrades deep-water quality of peri-alpine lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Gabriel; Wessels, Martin; Wüest, Alfred

    2016-09-01

    Sediment-laden riverine floods transport large quantities of dissolved oxygen into the receiving deep layers of lakes. Hence, the water quality of deep lakes is strongly influenced by the frequency of riverine floods. Although flood frequency reflects climate conditions, the effects of climate variability on the water quality of deep lakes is largely unknown. We quantified the effects of climate variability on the potential shifts in the flood regime of the Alpine Rhine, the main catchment of Lake Constance, and determined the intrusion depths of riverine density-driven underflows and the subsequent effects on water exchange rates in the lake. A simplified hydrodynamic underflow model was developed and validated with observed river inflow and underflow events. The model was implemented to estimate underflow statistics for different river inflow scenarios. Using this approach, we integrated present and possible future flood frequencies to underflow occurrences and intrusion depths in Lake Constance. The results indicate that more floods will increase the number of underflows and the intensity of deep-water renewal - and consequently will cause higher deep-water dissolved oxygen concentrations. Vice versa, fewer floods weaken deep-water renewal and lead to lower deep-water dissolved oxygen concentrations. Meanwhile, a change from glacial nival regime (present) to a nival pluvial regime (future) is expected to decrease deep-water renewal. While flood frequencies are not expected to change noticeably for the next decades, it is most likely that increased winter discharge and decreased summer discharge will reduce the number of deep density-driven underflows by 10% and favour shallower riverine interflows in the upper hypolimnion. The renewal in the deepest layers is expected to be reduced by nearly 27%. This study underlines potential consequences of climate change on the occurrence of deep river underflows and water residence times in deep lakes.

  10. Relations between large scale oscillation patterns and rising water temperatures at Lake Neusiedl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Anna-Maria; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Lake Neusiedl (Neusiedler See, Fertitó) is a very shallow steppe lake (area 320 km2, mean depth 1.2 m) at the border of Austria/Hungary. The low ratio of water depth to water volume accounts for dynamic, air temperature-dependent developments of water temperature with the potential of unusually warm waters that are a pillar of the touristic attractiveness of the lake. Likewise these conditions are a risk factor for water quality deterioration. In the frame of the EULAKES-project (European Lakes under Environmental Stressors, www.eulakes.eu), financed by the Central Europe Programme of the EU, data records of water temperature at 5 monitoring stations of Lake Neusiedl (eHYD) and the nearby air temperature monitoring station Eisenstadt - Sopron (HISTALP database and ZAMG) were used to investigate the period 1976-2009. Additionally the influences of 7 teleconnection patterns, i.e. the East Atlantic pattern (EAP), the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern (EA/WR), the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern (EMP), the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) for Algiers and Cairo, and for Israel and Gibraltar, resp., the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Scandinavia pattern (SCA) were assessed. The increase of temperature during the observation period was more pronounced for water than for air. Water temperatures increased significantly (p

  11. An Analysis of Total Phosphorus Dispersion in Lake Used As a Municipal Water Supply.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rômulo C; Mesquita, André L A; Blanco, Claudio J C; Santos, Maria de Lourdes S; Secretan, Yves

    2015-09-01

    In Belém city is located the potable water supply system of its metropolitan area, which includes, in addition to this city, four more municipalities. In this water supply complex is the Água Preta lake, which serves as a reservoir for the water pumped from the Guamá river. Due to the great importance of this lake for this system, several works have been devoted to its study, from the monitoring of the quality of its waters to its hydrodynamic modeling. This paper presents the results obtained by computer simulation of the phosphorus dispersion within this reservoir by the numerical solution of two-dimensional equation of advection-diffusion-reaction by the method θ/SUPG. Comparing these results with data concentration of total phosphorus collected from November 2008 to October 2009 and from satellite photos show that the biggest polluters of the water of this lake are the domestic sewage dumps from the population living in its vicinity. The results obtained indicate the need for more information for more precise quantitative analysis. However, they show that the phosphorus brought by the Guamá river water is consumed in an area adjacent to the canal that carries this water into the lake. Phosphorus deposits in the lake bottom should be monitored to verify their behavior, thus preventing the quality of water maintained therein. PMID:26421456

  12. An Analysis of Total Phosphorus Dispersion in Lake Used As a Municipal Water Supply.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rômulo C; Mesquita, André L A; Blanco, Claudio J C; Santos, Maria de Lourdes S; Secretan, Yves

    2015-09-01

    In Belém city is located the potable water supply system of its metropolitan area, which includes, in addition to this city, four more municipalities. In this water supply complex is the Água Preta lake, which serves as a reservoir for the water pumped from the Guamá river. Due to the great importance of this lake for this system, several works have been devoted to its study, from the monitoring of the quality of its waters to its hydrodynamic modeling. This paper presents the results obtained by computer simulation of the phosphorus dispersion within this reservoir by the numerical solution of two-dimensional equation of advection-diffusion-reaction by the method θ/SUPG. Comparing these results with data concentration of total phosphorus collected from November 2008 to October 2009 and from satellite photos show that the biggest polluters of the water of this lake are the domestic sewage dumps from the population living in its vicinity. The results obtained indicate the need for more information for more precise quantitative analysis. However, they show that the phosphorus brought by the Guamá river water is consumed in an area adjacent to the canal that carries this water into the lake. Phosphorus deposits in the lake bottom should be monitored to verify their behavior, thus preventing the quality of water maintained therein.

  13. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Water Filtration Plant, then due west to the shore. Entry into, transiting, or anchoring within the... corner of the Jardine Water Filtration Plant, then due west to the shore. (b) Enforcement period. This... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL...

  14. A water resource assessment of the playa lakes of the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) staff are studying the water-resource potential of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains in partnership with the U. S. Department of Agriculture— Agricultural Research Service and Texas Tech University. Phase 1 of the research seeks to measure the volume of water ...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards program. Consistent with 40 CFR 131.6, a complete water quality standards submission needs to... order to achieve this requirement, and consistent with 40 CFR 131.10, water quality standards use... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards program. Consistent with 40 CFR 131.6, a complete water quality standards submission needs to... order to achieve this requirement, and consistent with 40 CFR 131.10, water quality standards use... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards program. Consistent with 40 CFR 131.6, a complete water quality standards submission needs to... order to achieve this requirement, and consistent with 40 CFR 131.10, water quality standards use... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Great Lakes Water Quality...

  18. Tectonic, climatic and hydrothermal control on sedimentation and water chemistry of northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa), Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchu, Philippe; Bergonzini, Laurent; Delvaux, Damien; De Batist, Marc; Golubev, Vladimir; Benedetti, Marc; Klerkx, Jean

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a multi-disciplinary characterisation of processes that influence sedimentation and lake water chemistry in the northern part of the Lake Malawi (or Lake Nyasa), East Africa. This characterisation is based on geophysical (heat-flow), tectonic, hydrological, hydrochemical (major elements, stable isotopes) and sedimentological (seismic profiles, core mineralogy) studies of data acquired from 1990 to 1994 during the CASIMIR project (Comparative Analysis of Sedimentary Infill Mechanisms in Rifts). Sub-surface activity is expressed through seismic and volcanic activity, as well as elevated heat-flow values, both beneath the lake and the surrounding area; hydrothermal activity is observed in the watershed however it was not clearly identified in the sub-lacustrine environment. Relatively high heat-flow values (80-90 mW/m 2) and the chemical co