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Sample records for lambsquarters chenopodium album

  1. Cactodera chenopodiae (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a new species of cyst nematode parasitizing common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album) in Liaoning, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yaxing; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Dongxue; Pereira, Tiago josÉ; Xuan, Yuanhu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Lijie; Duan, Yuxi; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2018-04-11

    A new species of cyst nematode, Cactodera chenopodiae n. sp., parasitizing common lambsquarter, Chenopodium album L., is described from native vegetation in Liaoning, China. Cactodera chenopodiae n. sp. has a circumfenestrate pattern typical of the genus and is morphologically similar to C. cacti Krall Krall, 1978. However, in the new species, females and cysts show a larger L/W ratio whereas second-stage juveniles (J2s) have a longer hyaline region. The new species is also morphologically similar to C. milleri Graney Bird, 1990, but the J2s differ by a larger b ratio and longer tail. Based on DNA sequences of the 28S and ITS rRNA, C. chenopodiae n. sp. comes close to C. estonica Krall Krall, 1978, although it is distinct from the latter with respect to the presence of a punctate eggshell and larger b ratio in the J2s. Although morphometric comparisons with additional Cactodera species show the overlapping of diagnostic morphological characters, our phylogenetic analyses based on both rRNA genes support C. chenopodiae n. sp. as a unique lineage.

  2. Chemical compounds from Chenopodium album Linn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive components from Chenopodium album Linn. were isolated and identified in this research. Light petroleum, dichloromethane and n-BuOH were firstly applied to partition the 75% EtOH extract of Chenopodium album Linn. which were then subjected to normal-phase silica, ODS silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography. By the employment of NMR method in this study, chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated. Three known compounds were isolated from Chenopodium album Linn., and identified as Isolariciresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (7’S, 8R, 8’R)-Isolariciresinol (2) and (7’S, 8R, 8’S)-Isolariciresinol (3) by comparison of their spectral data with references. This is the first time that isolation of the compounds mentioned above from Chenopodium album Linn. was achieved.

  3. Phytoremediation of stable Cs from solutions by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Moogouei, Roxana; Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Uptake rate of (133)Cs, at three different concentrations of CsCl, by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album plants grown outdoors was studied. These plants grow abundantly in semi-arid regions and their varieties exist in many parts of the world. When exposed to lowest Cs concentration 68 percent Cs was remediated by Chenopodium album.(133)Cs accumulation in shoots of Amaranthus chlorostachys reached its highest value of 2146.2 mg kg(-1) at a (133)Cs supply level of 3.95 mg l(-1) of feed solution. The highest concentration ratio value was 4.89 for Amaranthus chlorostachys, whereas for the other tests it ranged from 0.74 to 3.33. Furthermore uptake of (133)Cs by all three species increased with increasing metal concentrations. The results also indicated that hydroponically grown Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album could be used as potential candidate plants for phytoremediation of solutions contaminated with Cs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anthelmintic activity of Chenopodium album (L) and Caesalpinia crista (L) against trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Zaman, Muhammad Arfan; Iqbal, Zafar; Yaseen, Muhammad; Shamim, Asim

    2007-10-08

    The present study was carried out to determine the anthelmintic activity of Caesalpinia crista (L.) (Fabaceae) seed kernel and Chenopodium album (L.) (Chenopodiaceae) whole plant in order to justify their traditional use in veterinary medicine. In vitro anthelmintic activity of crude aqueous methanolic extract (AME) of both the plants was determined using mature Haemonchus contortus and their eggs in adult motility assay and egg hatch test, respectively. In vivo anthelmintic activity was evaluated in sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes by administering crude powder (CP) and AME in increasing doses (1.0-3.0 g/kg). Both plants exhibited dose- and time-dependent anthelmintic effects by causing mortality of worms and inhibition of egg hatching. Caesalpinia crista (LC50=0.134 mg/mL) was found to be more potent than Chenopodium album (LC50=0.449 mg/mL) in egg hatch test. In vivo, maximum reduction in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces was recorded as 93.9 and 82.2% with Caesalpinia crista and Chenopodium album AME at 3.0 g/kg on day 13 and 5 post-treatment, respectively. Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg), a standard anthelmintic agent, showed 95.1-95.6% reduction in EPG. These data show that both Caesalpinia crista and Chenopodium album possess anthelmintic activity in vitro and in vivo, thus, justifying their use in the traditional medicine system of Pakistan.

  5. Induction of betacyanin formation in Chenopodium album cell cultures by co-cultivation with the duckweed Wolffia arrhiza.

    PubMed

    Rudat, A; Ehwald, R

    1994-02-01

    Cells of Chenopodium album and whole plants of the duckweed Wolffia arrhiza were cocultivated. In the presence of Wolffia arrhiza the synthesis of a red-violet pigment (betacyanin) was induced in several cells or cell clusters of Chenopodium album in the light. The exchange of solutes through the liquid phase was necessary for the induction of pigment formation. The red-violet cells could be selected and subcultivated resulting in a red callus. A reddish cell suspension was obtained in liquid culture in the presence of the duckweeds.

  6. Atrazine Resistance in Chenopodium album

    PubMed Central

    Bettini, Priscilla; McNally, Sheila; Sevignac, Mireille; Darmency, Henri; Gasquez, Jacques; Dron, Michel

    1987-01-01

    In Chenopodium album two different levels of atrazine resistance have been found according to following criteria: lethal dose and leaf fluorescence curve. The intermediate (I) phenotype is represented by a low level of resistance and a typical I fluorescence curve. It arose at high frequency, within one generation, after self-pollination of particular plants displaying a susceptible (S) phenotype. The resistance phenotype (Ri) has a high level of resistance and presents a typical resistant fluorescence curve. It appeared after self-pollination of chemically treated I plants. The I, Ri, and also R (resistant plants found in atrazine treated fields) phenotypes contain a serine to glycine mutation at amino acid position 264 in the chloroplast psbA gene product. The steady state level of the psbA gene transcript is not modified between S, I, Ri, and R phenotypes. Images Fig. 4 PMID:16665624

  7. Involvement of NFκB in the antirheumatic potential of Chenopodium album L., aerial parts extracts.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sumit K; Itankar, Prakash R; Verma, Prashant R; Bharne, Ashish P; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-08-08

    Chenopodium album L. (C. album) is commonly known as Bathua in Hindi (Family: Chenopodiaceae). Traditionally, the plant is used as a laxative, diuretic, sedative and the infusion of the plant is used for the treatment of rheumatism. However, no scientific validation is available on the antirheumatic potential of the plant. In the present investigation, role of NF kappa B (NFκB) in the antiarthritic potential of extracts of aerial parts of Chenopodium album was explored and evaluated. The defatted aerial parts of Chenopodium album were successively extracted with ethylacetate, acetone, methanol and 50% methanol to study their antioxidant capacity followed by antiarthritic potential using Complete Freund׳s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis model in rats. The polyphenol, flavonoid and flavanone contents of different extracts were quantified and correlated with their antioxidant capacity, antiarthritic activity and NFκB inhibition potential. The experimental data indicated that the acetone extract of Chenopodium album (ACCA) has shown significant reduction in rat paw edema (80.13%) at dose level of 200 mg/kg per oral in 21 days of this study. On 22nd day, hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated and it was observed that the altered hematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR), biochemical parameters (Serum creatinine, total proteins and acute phase proteins) and loss in body weight in the arthritic rats were significantly brought back to near normal level by the ACCA extract. ACCA extract significantly decreased the NFκB expression in paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and this effect is comparable with standard indomethacine in CFA treated rats. The polyphenolic and flavonoid content of different extracts were in the range of 14.56±0.21-42.00±0.2 mg (gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and 2.20±0.003-7.33±0.5 mg (rutin equivalent/g extract) respectively. The antiarthritic activity possessed by ACCA extract can be correlated directly to its

  8. Dormancy and germination of Chenopodium album seeds from different latitudes in Europe and the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twelve seed lots of Chenopodium album agg. from Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and the USA were characterized for responses to chilling, light, potassium nitrate and temperature. The research is part of a multi-location experiment per...

  9. Fungal Phytotoxins with Potential Herbicidal Activity to Control Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    This review deals with the isolation and chemical and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by Ascochyta caulina and Phoma chenopodiicola proposed as mycoherbicides for the biological control of Chenopodium album, a worldwide spread weed which causes serious problems to some agrarian crops, including sugar beet and maize. Studies on the structure activity relationships and on the modes of actions of toxins isolated are also described, as well as the optimization of analytical methods focused on selection of the best fungal toxin producers. The attempts to scale up production of these phytotoxins aimed to obtain sufficient amounts for their application in greenhouse and field trials are also reported.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein from Chenopodium album

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsuki, Takayuki; Ohshima, Shigeru; Uchida, Akira, E-mail: auchida@biomol.sci.toho-u.ac.jp

    2007-09-01

    A water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein with photoconvertibility from C. album was extracted, purified and crystallized in a darkroom. The crystal diffracted to around 2.0 Å resolution. A water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) with photoconvertibility from Chenopodium album was extracted, purified and crystallized in a darkroom. Green crystals suitable for data collection appeared in about 10 d. A native data set was collected to 2.0 Å resolution at 100 K. The space group of the crystal was determined to be orthorhombic I222 or I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.13, b = 60.59, c = 107.21 Å. Preliminary analysis ofmore » the X-ray data indicated that there is one molecule per asymmetric unit.« less

  11. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  12. Variation of Transhexadecenoic Acid Content in Two Triazine Resistant Mutants of Chenopodium album and Their Susceptible Progenitor

    PubMed Central

    Tremolieres, A.; Darmency, H.; Gasquez, J.; Dron, M.; Connan, A.

    1988-01-01

    Two atrazine resistant nutants of Chenopodium album L. and their susceptible progenitor were analyzed for lipid composition. In the phosphatidyldiacylglycerol the Δ3-trans-hexadecenoic acid (C16:1 trans) percentage was higher in the two resistant phenotypes. However, this difference appears later in the development of the leaves and is not clearly observed in young leaves and seedlings. Thus, the increase of the C16:1 trans during the leaf development of the resistant phenotypes is probably a secondary effect of the psbA mutation that arises in compensation for some photosynthesis deficiency. The significance of the lipid differences shown between the two resistant mutants is discussed in terms of whether they are responsible of the two different levels of herbicide resistance observed in the field. PMID:16666018

  13. Allopolyploid Origin of Chenopodium album s. str. (Chenopodiaceae): A Molecular and Cytogenetic Insight

    PubMed Central

    Krak, Karol; Vít, Petr; Belyayev, Alexander; Douda, Jan; Hreusová, Lucia; Mandák, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Reticulate evolution is characterized by occasional hybridization between two species, creating a network of closely related taxa below and at the species level. In the present research, we aimed to verify the hypothesis of the allopolyploid origin of hexaploid C. album s. str., identify its putative parents and estimate the frequency of allopolyploidization events. We sampled 122 individuals of the C. album aggregate, covering most of its distribution range in Eurasia. Our samples included putative progenitors of C. album s. str. of both ploidy levels, i.e. diploids (C. ficifolium, C. suecicum) and tetraploids (C. striatiforme, C. strictum). To fulfil these objectives, we analysed sequence variation in the nrDNA ITS region and the rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer of cpDNA and performed genomic in-situ hybridization (GISH). Our study confirms the allohexaploid origin of C. album s. str. Analysis of cpDNA revealed tetraploids as the maternal species. In most accessions of hexaploid C. album s. str., ITS sequences were completely or nearly completely homogenized towards the tetraploid maternal ribotype; a tetraploid species therefore served as one genome donor. GISH revealed a strong hybridization signal on the same eighteen chromosomes of C. album s. str. with both diploid species C. ficifolium and C. suecicum. The second genome donor was therefore a diploid species. Moreover, some individuals with completely unhomogenized ITS sequences were found. Thus, hexaploid individuals of C. album s. str. with ITS sequences homogenized to different degrees may represent hybrids of different ages. This proves the existence of at least two different allopolyploid lineages, indicating a polyphyletic origin of C. album s. str. PMID:27513342

  14. Photographs of plant damage: an album submitted as part of technical report No. II. Development of standards for evaluating vegetation damage caused by air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, H.M.; Breen, W.H.

    1955-01-01

    This album of photographs shows representative types of leaf marking produced on ten different plant species by controlled fumigations with six common air pollutants. The document is intended for field use in identifying the pollutants causing air pollution damage to valuable field crops. The pollutants considered include ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen sulfide, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfur dioxide. The plant species considered include mustard, sunflower, lambsquarters, cheeseweed, annual bluegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, chickweed, dandelion, Nettle-leaf goosefoot, and pigweed.

  15. BOA detoxification of four summer weeds during germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Margot; Marocco, Adriano; Tabaglio, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    A recent greenhouse study revealed a significant reduction of germination and growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) by rye mulch, whereas velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) were not suppressed. Since BOA detoxification by metabolic alteration may influence the relation between the benzoxazinoid content of the soil mulch and weed suppression, we tested the dynamics in BOA detoxification in different plant organs of three and 10-day-old seedlings of four warm season weeds incubated with five BOA concentrations (4, 20, 40, 80, and 200 μmol g(-1) fresh weight). In addition, germination and length of 3-day-old seedlings were measured after exposure to 0, 0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μmol BOA. Finally, we tested the influence of the MDR translocator inhibitors verapamil, nifedipine, and the GST inhibitor ethycrynic acid on BOA accumulation and detoxification activity. Due to BOA-detoxification, all weeds were able to grow in environments with low BOA contents. At higher contents, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album had a better chance to survive because of highly active mechanisms that avoided the uptake of BOA (A. theophrasti) and of efficient detoxification activities in youngest seedlings (C. album). The interpretation of all of the data gave the following sequence of increasing sensitivity: A. theophrasti < C. album < P. oleracea ≤ A. retroflexus. The results were in agreement with recent findings of the suppression of these weeds by rye mulches and their benzoxazinoid contents. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that the detoxification of BOA influences the survival of certain weeds in environments enriched with this allelochemical. Therefore, detoxification processes affect the potential for weed suppression by soil allelochemicals in sustainable weed management.

  16. Ecotypic variation in chloroplast small heat-shock proteins and related thermotolerance in Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Samina; Haq, Noor Ul; Heckathorn, Scott A; Hamilton, E William; Luthe, Dawn S

    2011-08-01

    Production of chloroplast-localized small heat-shock proteins (Cp-sHSP) is correlated with increased thermotolerance in plants. Ecotypic variation in function and expression of Cp-sHSPs was analyzed in two Chenopodium album ecotypes from cool vs. warm-temperate USA habitats [New York (NY) and Mississippi (MS) respectively]. P(et) was more heat tolerant in the MS than the NY ecotype, and MS ecotype derived proportionally greater protection of P(et) by Cp-sHSP during high temperatures. Four genes encoding Cp-sHSPs were isolated and characterized: CaHSP25.99n (NY-1) and CaHSP26.23n (NY-2) from NY ecotype, and CaHSP26.04m (MS-1) and CaHSP26.26m (MS-2) from MS ecotype. The genes were nearly identical in predicted amino-acid sequence and hydrophobicity. Gene expression analysis indicated that MS-1 and MS-2 transcripts were constitutively expressed at low levels at 25 °C, while no NY-1 and NY-2 transcripts were detected at this temperature. Maximum accumulation of NY-1 and NY-2 transcripts occurred at 33 °C and 40 °C for MS-1 and MS-2. Immunoblot analysis revealed that (1) protein expression was highest at 37 °C in both ecotypes, but was greater in MS than NY ecotype at 40 °C; and (2) import of Cp-sHSP into chloroplasts was more heat-labile in NY ecotype. The higher expression of one isoform in MS ecotype may contribute to its enhanced thermotolerance. Absence of correlation between protein and transcript levels, suggests the post-transcriptional regulation is occurring. Promoter analysis of these genes revealed significant variations in heat-shock elements (HSE), core motifs required for heat-shock-factor binding. We propose a correlation between unique promoter architecture, Cp-sHSP expression and thermotolerance in both ecotypes. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Separate localization of light signal perception for sun or shade type chloroplast and palisade tissue differentiation in Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Yano, S; Terashima, I

    2001-12-01

    Physiological and ecological characteristics of sun and shade leaves have been compared in detail, but their developmental processes, in particular their light sensory mechanisms, are still unknown. This study compares the development of sun and shade leaves of Chenopodium album L., paying special attention to the light sensory site. We hypothesized that mature leaves sense the light environment, and that this information determines anatomy of new leaves. To examine this hypothesis, we shaded plants partially. In the low-light apex treatment (LA), the shoot apex with developing leaves was covered by a cap made of a shading screen and received photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD) of 60 micromol m(-2 )s(-1), while the remaining mature leaves were exposed to 360 micromol m(-2 )s(-1). In the high-light apex treatment (HA), the apex was exposed while the mature leaves were covered by a shade screen. After these treatments for 6 d, we analyzed leaf anatomy and chloroplast ultrastructure. The anatomy of LA leaves with a two-layered palisade tissue was similar to that of sun leaves, while their chloroplasts were shade-type with thick grana. The anatomy of HA leaves and shade leaves was similar and both had one-layered palisade tissue, while chloroplasts of HA leaves were sun-type having thin grana. These results clearly demonstrate that new leaves differentiate depending on the light environment of mature leaves, while chloroplasts differentiate depending on the local light environment.

  18. Are tyrosine residues involved in the photoconversion of the water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein of Chenopodium album?

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Seki, Y; Uchida, A; Nakayama, K; Satoh, H

    2015-05-01

    Non-photosynthetic and hydrophilic chlorophyll (Chl) proteins, called water-soluble Chl-binding proteins (WSCPs), are distributed in various species of Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Polygonaceae and Brassicaceae. Based on their photoconvertibility, WSCPs are categorised into two classes: Class I (photoconvertible) and Class II (non-photoconvertible). Chenopodium album WSCP (CaWSCP; Class I) is able to convert the chlorin skeleton of Chl a into a bacteriochlorin-like skeleton under light in the presence of molecular oxygen. Potassium iodide (KI) is a strong inhibitor of the photoconversion. Because KI attacks tyrosine residues in proteins, tyrosine residues in CaWSCP are considered to be important amino acid residues for the photoconversion. Recently, we identified the gene encoding CaWSCP and found that the mature region of CaWSCP contained four tyrosine residues: Tyr13, Tyr14, Tyr87 and Tyr134. To gain insight into the effect of the tyrosine residues on the photoconversion, we constructed 15 mutant proteins (Y13A, Y14A, Y87A, Y134A, Y13-14A, Y13-87A, Y13-134A, Y14-87A, Y14-134A, Y87-134A, Y13-14-87A, Y13-14-134A, Y13-87-134A, Y14-87-134A and Y13-14-87-134A) using site-directed mutagenesis. Amazingly, all the mutant proteins retained not only chlorophyll-binding activity, but also photoconvertibility. Furthermore, we found that KI strongly inhibited the photoconversion of Y13-14-87-134A. These findings indicated that the four tyrosine residues are not essential for the photoconversion. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Optical parameters of leaves of seven weed species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Menges, R. M.; Richardson, A. J.; Walter, H.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Tamez, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Absorption coefficient (k), infinite reflectance (R inf.) and scattering coefficient (s) were tabulated for five wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for seven weed species. The wavelengths were: 0.55, 0.65, 0.85, 1.65, and 2.20 microns. The R inf. of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers.), and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) leaves at the 0.85 micron wavelength were significantly (p = 0.05) higher than for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), ragweed parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus L.), or London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Annual sowthistle had the largest k value, and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) had the smallest k value at the 0.65 micron chlorophyll absorption wavelength. In general, johnsongrass, ragweed parthenium, and London rocket had the largest s values among the five wavelengths, whereas annual sowthistle and Palmer amaranth were usually lowest.

  20. Optical parameters of leaves of seven weed species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Menges, R. M.; Richardson, A. J.; Walter, H.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Tamez, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The absorption coefficient (k), infinite reflectance (R), and scattering coefficient (s) were tabulated for five wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for seven weed species. The wavelengths were: 0.55-micrometer, 0.65-micrometers, 0.85-micrometer, 1.65-micrometers, and 2.20-micrometer. The R of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.), and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) leaves at the 0.85-micrometer wavelength were significantly (p=0.05) higher than for sunflower (Heliantus annus L.), ragweed parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), or London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Annual sowthistle had the largest k value, and Plamer amaranth (Amaranthus palmer S. Wats.) had the smallest k value at the 0.65 approximately chlorophyll absorption wavelength. In general, john-songress, ragweed parthenium, or London rocket had the largest s values among the five wavelengths, wereas annual sowthistle and plamar amaranth were usually lowest.

  1. Corema album: unbiased dioecy in a competitive environment.

    PubMed

    Martins, A; Freitas, H; Costa, S

    2017-09-01

    Corema album is a dioecious coastal shrub. Dioecious plants growing in these resource-limited habitats may present spatial segregation of the sexes (SSS) or demographic biases because of the different reproductive effort between sexes. In these environments facilitation is a more common interaction between plants than competition. To assess factors determining the distribution of C. album male and female plants, we investigated the influence of habitat type (sand dunes and coastal woodlands), assessed the occurrence of SSS or demographic biases and also a possible role of these shrubs as nurse plants. We selected three C. album populations with the two habitat types. All C. album individuals were sexed, mapped and measured in three plots (20 m × 20 m) per population/habitat type. Presence and abundance of all plant species were recorded under five female and five male C. album plants as well as in equivalent open ground area in each of 15 plots. According to Ripley's K function result, C. album did not display SSS. Generalised linear mixed models (GLMM) show that differences in plant size were not related to plant sex. Plant inventory correspondence analysis showed that species composition and abundance were influenced by habitat type, population and the presence of a C. album individual, but not by its sex. GLMM indicated a detrimental effect of C. album on the co-occurring plants. Our results show that sexual dimorphism has allowed C. album to adapt to the environment avoiding SSS or significant demographic bias, suggesting a positive outlook for its conservation. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Constructing Data Albums for Significant Severe Weather Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Ethan; Zavodsky, Bradley; Ramachandran, Rahul; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Li, Xiang; Bakare, Rohan; Basyal, Sabin; Conover, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Data Albums provide a one-stop-shop combining datasets from NASA, NWS, online new sources, and social media. Data Albums will help meteorologists better understand severe weather events to improve predictive models. Developed a new ontology for severe weather based off current hurricane Data Album and selected relevant NASA datasets for inclusion.

  3. Alkyl(C16, C18, C22)trimethylammonium-Based Herbicidal Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Pernak, Juliusz; Giszter, Rafał; Biedziak, Agnieszka; Niemczak, Michał; Olszewski, Radosław; Marcinkowska, Katarzyna; Praczyk, Tadeusz

    2017-01-18

    In the framework of this study a synthesis methodology and characterization of long alkyl herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) based on four commonly used herbicides (2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP, and dicamba) are presented. New HILs were obtained with high efficiency (>95%) using an acid-base reaction between herbicidal acids and hexadecyltrimethylammonium, octadecyltrimethylammonium, and behenyltrimethylammonium hydroxides in alcoholic medium. Among all synthesized salts, only three compounds comprising the MCPP anion were liquids at room temperature. Subsequently, the influence of both the alkyl chain length and the anion structure on their physicochemical properties (thermal decomposition profiles, solubility in 10 representative solvents, surface activity, density, viscosity, and refractive index) was determined. All HILs exhibited high thermal stability as well as surface activity; however, their solubility notably depended on both the length of the carbon chain and the structure of the anion. The herbicidal efficacy of the obtained salts was tested in greenhouse and field experiments. Greenhouse testing performed on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) and flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) as test plants indicated that HILs were characterized by similar or higher efficacy compared to commercial herbicides. The results of field trials confirmed the high activity of HILs, particularly those containing phenoxyacids as anions (MCPA, 2,4-D, and MCPP).

  4. Antioxidant activity and nutritional assessment of under-utilized medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Shad, Anwar Ali; Bakht, Jehan; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Hayat, Yosuaf

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigates the nutritive and anti-nutritive composition of six species (Allium porrum, Amaranthus spinosis, Apium graveolens, Caralluma edulis, Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica). The studied species contained considerable amount of crude protein (4.53-11.41%), crude fat (1.25-3.74%), vitamin C (7.85-28.09mg 100 -1 g) and β-Carotene (18.29-169.33mg 100 -1 g). The mineral profile of Chenopodium album is considered as potential source of Zn (14.51±1.14mg 100-1g), Mn (67.71±0.85mg 100 -1 g), Se (8.45±0.49mg 100 -1 g) and Fe (182.08±1.52mg 100-1g) and Caralluma edulis as potential source of Fe (7.28± 0.03mg 100 -1 g). Ca and P content ranged 63-306mg 100 -1 g and 12-392mg 100 -1 g in all studied plants with exceptionally high level was found in Chenopodium album (1084mg 100-1g) and (3924mg 100 -1 g), respectively. Similarly, total phenol, tannin and phytic acid were found in the range of 105-354, 5-90 and 10-85mg 100 -1 g, respectively. Total oxalates and soluble oxalates contents were below 200mg 100 -1 g in five examined plants with the exception of Chenopodium album (413mg 100 -1 g). Antioxidant activity of Caralluma edulis was found maximum while the rest of the examined plants had moderate levels.

  5. Subtle Nonlinearity in Popular Album Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Maschner, Herbert D. G.

    Large-scale patterns of culture change may be explained by models of self organized criticality, or alternatively, by multiplicative processes. We speculate that popular album activity may be similar to critical models of extinction in that interconnected agents compete to survive within a limited space. Here we investigate whether popular music albums as listed on popular album charts display evidence of self-organized criticality, including a self-affine time series of activity and power-law distributions of lifetimes and exit activity in the chart. We find it difficult to distinguish between multiplicative growth and critical model hypotheses for these data. However, aspects of criticality may be masked by the selective sampling that a "Top 200" listing necessarily implies.

  6. Flavonoids from Chenopodium botrys.

    PubMed

    de Pascual-T, J; González, M S; Vicente, S; Bellido, I S

    1981-04-01

    From Chenopodium botrys, five flavonoids have been isolated: hispidulin, 1, salvigenin 2, 5-methylsalvigenin, 3, 7-methyleupatulin, 4 and sinensetin, 5. None of them have been previously reported from Ch. botrys.

  7. NOAA Photo Library - NOAA's Ark/Animals Album

    Science.gov Websites

    options banner CATALOG View ALL images contained in the collection. Click on thumbnails to view larger images. ALBUMS Images are arranged by themes. Click on thumbnails to view larger images. Note that not all images are contained in the albums - select the above option to view ALL current images. NOAA's

  8. Constructing Data Albums for Significant Severe Weather Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Ethan; Zavodsky, Bradley; Ramachandran, Rahul; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Li, Xiang; Bakare, Rohan; Basyal, Sabin; Conover, Helen

    2014-01-01

    There is need in the research community for weather-related case studies to improve prediction of and recovery after convective thunderstorms that produce damaging winds, hail, and tornadoes. One of the largest continuing challenges in any Earth Science investigation is the discovery of and access to useful science content from the increasingly large volumes of available Earth Science data. The Information Technology and Systems Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has developed a software system called Noesis 2.0 that can be used to produce Data Albums for weather events relevant to NASA Earth Science researchers. Noesis is an Internet search tool that combines relevant storm research, pictures and videos of an event or event aftermath, web pages containing news reports and official storm summaries, background information about damage, injuries, and deaths, and NASA datasets from field campaigns and satellites into a "one-stop shop" database. The Data Album concept has been previously applied to hurricane cases from 2010 to present. The objective of this paper is to extend that Hurricane Data Album concept to focus on development of an ontology for significant severe weather to aid in selecting appropriate NASA datasets for inclusion in a severe weather Data Album. Recent severe weather events in Moore and El Reno, Oklahoma will be analyzed as an example of how these events can be incorporated into a Data Album.

  9. Sandalwood Album Oil as a Botanical Therapeutic in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Corey

    2017-01-01

    Many skin conditions and diseases are characterized by inflammation, infection, and hyperplasia. Safe and effective topical treatment options that can be used long-term are needed. Traditional botanical medicines, which are often complex mixtures that exert their biological activities via multiple mechanisms of action, are being studied as potential new active ingredients in dermatology. Sandalwood album oil (SAO), also known as East Indian sandalwood oil (EISO), is an essential oil distilled from the Santalum album tree and has demonstrated biological activity as an anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-proliferative agent. Sandalwood album oil has also shown promise in clinical trials for treatment of acne, psoriasis, eczema, common warts, and molluscum contagiosum. The favorable safety profile, ease of topical use, and recent availability of pharmaceutical-grade sandalwood album oil support its broader use as the basis of novel therapies in dermatology. PMID:29344319

  10. Sandalwood Album Oil as a Botanical Therapeutic in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Moy, Ronald L; Levenson, Corey

    2017-10-01

    Many skin conditions and diseases are characterized by inflammation, infection, and hyperplasia. Safe and effective topical treatment options that can be used long-term are needed. Traditional botanical medicines, which are often complex mixtures that exert their biological activities via multiple mechanisms of action, are being studied as potential new active ingredients in dermatology. Sandalwood album oil (SAO), also known as East Indian sandalwood oil (EISO), is an essential oil distilled from the Santalum album tree and has demonstrated biological activity as an anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-proliferative agent. Sandalwood album oil has also shown promise in clinical trials for treatment of acne, psoriasis, eczema, common warts, and molluscum contagiosum. The favorable safety profile, ease of topical use, and recent availability of pharmaceutical-grade sandalwood album oil support its broader use as the basis of novel therapies in dermatology.

  11. Accidental poisoning with Veratrum album mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum).

    PubMed

    Gilotta, Irene; Brvar, Miran

    2010-11-01

    Veratrum album (white or false hellebore) is a poisonous plant containing steroidal alkaloids that cause nausea, vomiting, headache, visual disturbances, paresthesia, dizziness, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension, and syncope. It is regularly mistaken for Gentiana lutea (yellow gentian). We report accidental poisoning with V. album mistaken for Allium ursinum (wild garlic), a wild plant used in soups and salads in Central Europe. Four adults (24-45 years) accidentally ingested V. album mistaken for A. ursinum in self-prepared salads and soups. Within 15-30 min of ingestion they developed nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. At the same time dizziness, tingling, dimmed and jumping vision, transient blindness, and confusion appeared. On arrival at the ED, all patients had sinus bradycardia and hypotension. Following treatment the patients were discharged well 24-48 h after ingestion. In patients presenting with gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiovascular symptoms a history of wild plant ingestion suggests possible poisoning with V. album mistaken for wild garlic.

  12. Serial album validation for promotion of infant body weight control

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Nathalia Costa Gonzaga; Medeiros, Carla Campos Muniz; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to validate the content and appearance of a serial album for children aged from 7 to 10 years addressing the topic of prevention and control of body weight. Method: methodological study with descriptive nature. The validation process was attended by 33 specialists in educational technologies and/or in excess of infantile weight. The agreement index of 80% was the minimum considered to guarantee the validation of the material. Results: most of the specialists had a doctoral degree and a graduate degree in nursing. Regarding content, illustrations, layout and relevance, all items were validated and 69.7% of the experts considered the album as great. The overall agreement validation index for the educational technology was 0.88. Only the script-sheet 3 did not reach the cutoff point of the content validation index. Changes were made to the material, such as title change, inclusion of the school context and insertion of nutritionist and physical educator in the story narrated in the album. Conclusion: the proposed serial album was considered valid by experts regarding content and appearance, suggesting that this technology has the potential to contribute in health education by promoting healthy weight in the age group of 7 to 10 years. PMID:29791665

  13. Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-01-01

    Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

  14. Viscum Album in the Treatment of a Girl With Refractory Childhood Absence Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Madeleyn, René; Kienle, Gunver; Kiene, Helmut; Vagedes, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Viscum album (European mistletoe) extracts have known immunomodulatory effects but little data exist on anticonvulsant activity despite its usefulness having been reported for centuries. A 4½-year-old girl with childhood absence epilepsy and global developmental delay was treated with different antiepileptic drugs and ketogenic diet but failed to become seizure free over a 2-year period. She also received different herbal remedies as part of an integrative medicine approach. Initial improvement occurred on valproate-ethosuximide, a further improvement was seen after adding clobazam to valproate. Final cessation of absence activity occurred after a dose increase of V album. She was still seizure free at the 12-month follow-up. V album appears to have been a necessary adjunct treatment for this child to become seizure free. We call on physicians to report their experiences of V album in epilepsy and suggest further study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Dietary poisoning with Veratrum album--a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zagler, Bernhard; Zelger, Anton; Salvatore, Carmen; Pechlaner, Christoph; De Giorgi, Franco; Wiedermann, Christian J

    2005-02-01

    Veratrum album is a poisonous plant that can easily be mistaken for the yellow gentian, Gentiana lutea, used in beverages. Two adult men were brought to the emergency department six hours after drinking gentian spirit. Each presented with nausea and vomiting, preceded by headache, developed within one hour after ingestion, and followed by diarrhea in one of the patients. Vital signs were normal except for heart rates of 42 and 45 beats per minute in the two patients, respectively. Laboratory findings were unremarkable. Electrocardiograms revealed sinus bradycardia. Activated charcoal and antiemetics were given and the patients were admitted for observation of signs of toxicity. The further clinical course was uneventful. Heart rates returned to normal within eight hours after admission. Retrospective investigation of the gentian beverage confirmed that V. album was mistaken for G. lutea. Patients with clinical toxicity following unintentional ingestion of V. album should be kept under observation and generally recover with supportive care.

  16. Genome Sequence of the Obligate Gammaproteobacterial Methanotroph Methylomicrobium album strain BG8

    SciTech Connect

    Kits, K. Dimitri; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Klotz, Martin G

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Methylomicrobium album BG8, a methane-oxidizing gammaproteobacterium isolated from freshwater, is reported. Aside from conserved inventory for growth on single-carbon compounds, M. album BG8 encodes a range of inventory for additional carbon and nitrogen transformations, but no genes for growth on multi-carbon substrates or for N-fixation.

  17. The interactions of metal concentrations and soil properties on toxic metal accumulation of native plants in vanadium mining area.

    PubMed

    Aihemaiti, Aikelaimu; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, De'an; Liu, Nuo; Yang, Meng; Meng, Yuan; Zou, Quan

    2018-05-29

    High demand of Vanadium (V) in high-strength steel and battery manufacturing industry led to extensive V mining activity in China, and caused multi-metal pollution of soil around V mining area. To understand the phytoremediation potentials of native plants grown in V mining area, and the effect of soil properties and soil metal concentrations on toxic metal accumulations of native plants. Setaria viridis, Kochia scoparia and Chenopodium album were sampled from different sites in V mining area, soil properties, soil metal concentrations and metal accumulation amount of investigated plants were measured, bioaccumulation (BAF) and translocation (TF) efficiencies were calculated. Soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and available phosphorous (P) can significantly affect V and copper (Cu) uptake in the shoots of Setaria viridis while soil metal contents were lower than the permissible limits. Soil pH can significantly affect V accumulations in the roots and shoots of Kochia scoparia grown in slightly V polluted soils. Setaria viridis exhibited TF > 1 for moderately V and slightly chromium (Cr) polluted soils, and BAF>1 for slightly Cu contaminated soils respectively. Kochia scoparia and Chenopodium album showed TF > 1 and BAF>1 for slightly V polluted soils, respectively. Setaria viridis was practical for in situ phytoextractions of moderately V and slightly Cr polluted soils, and phytostabilization of slightly Cu contaminated soils. Kochia scoparia and Chenopodium album could be used as phytoextractor and phytostablizer in slightly V polluted soils in V mining area. Metal uptake of native plants grown in slightly multi-metal contaminated sites in V mining area can be manipulated by altering soil properties. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Identification of Viscum album L. miRNAs and prediction of their medicinal values

    PubMed Central

    Adolf, Jacob; Melzig, Matthias F.

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of approximately 22 nucleotides single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules that play crucial roles in gene expression. It has been reported that the plant miRNAs might enter mammalian bloodstream and have a functional role in human metabolism, indicating that miRNAs might be one of the hidden bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae, European mistletoe) has been widely used for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but its functional compounds have not been well characterized. We considered that miRNAs might be involved in the pharmacological activities of V. album. High-throughput Illumina sequencing was performed to identify the novel and conserved miRNAs of V. album. The putative human targets were predicted. In total, 699 conserved miRNAs and 1373 novel miRNAs have been identified from V. album. Based on the combined use of TargetScan, miRanda, PITA, and RNAhybrid methods, the intersection of 30697 potential human genes have been predicted as putative targets of 29 novel miRNAs, while 14559 putative targets were highly enriched in 33 KEGG pathways. Interestingly, these highly enriched KEGG pathways were associated with some human diseases, especially cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders, which might explain the clinical use as well as folk medicine use of mistletoe. However, further experimental validation is necessary to confirm these human targets of mistletoe miRNAs. Additionally, target genes involved in bioactive components synthesis in V. album were predicted as well. A total of 68 miRNAs were predicted to be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis, while two miRNAs including val-miR152 and miR9738 were predicted to target viscotoxins and lectins, respectively, which increased the knowledge regarding miRNA-based regulation of terpenoid biosynthesis, lectin and viscotoxin expressions in V. album. PMID:29112983

  19. 40 CFR 180.1296 - Terpene Constituents α-terpinene, d-limonene and p-cymene, of the Extract of Chenopodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-limonene and p-cymene, of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides as Synthetically..., d-limonene and p-cymene, of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides as...-terpinene, d-limonene and p-cymene, of the Extract of Chenopodiumambrosioides near ambrosioides as...

  20. The importance of nitrogen and carbohydrate storage for plant growth of the alpine herb Veratrum album.

    PubMed

    Kleijn, David; Treier, Urs A; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2005-05-01

    We examined whether nitrogen (N) and carbohydrates reserves allow Veratrum album, an alpine forb, to start spring growth earlier than the neighbouring vegetation and to survive unpredictable disturbances resulting in loss of above-ground biomass. * Seasonal dynamics of plant reserves, soil N availability and vegetation growth were monitored. Veratrum album shoots were experimentally removed when carbohydrate reserves were at a seasonal minimum and the subsequent changes in biomass and reserves were compared with those in control plants. Reserves did not give V. album a competitive advantage in spring; however, they did function as a buffer against the impact of calamities. Shoot removal resulted in significantly lower root dry weight, higher N concentration in rhizome and roots and lower starch concentrations in rhizome and roots but no plant mortality was observed. Veratrum album used stored N reserves to supplement N uptake and establish high leaf N concentrations, which facilitated a rapid refilling of depleted carbohydrate reserves. The primary function of N reserves appears to be to allow V. album to complete the growing cycle in as short a period as possible, thus minimizing exposure to above-ground risks.

  1. Automatic page layout using genetic algorithms for electronic albuming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geigel, Joe; Loui, Alexander C. P.

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a flexible system for automatic page layout that makes use of genetic algorithms for albuming applications. The system is divided into two modules, a page creator module which is responsible for distributing images amongst various album pages, and an image placement module which positions images on individual pages. Final page layouts are specified in a textual form using XML for printing or viewing over the Internet. The system makes use of genetic algorithms, a class of search and optimization algorithms that are based on the concepts of biological evolution, for generating solutions with fitness based on graphic design preferences supplied by the user. The genetic page layout algorithm has been incorporated into a web-based prototype system for interactive page layout over the Internet. The prototype system is built using client-server architecture and is implemented in java. The system described in this paper has demonstrated the feasibility of using genetic algorithms for automated page layout in albuming and web-based imaging applications. We believe that the system adequately proves the validity of the concept, providing creative layouts in a reasonable number of iterations. By optimizing the layout parameters of the fitness function, we hope to further improve the quality of the final layout in terms of user preference and computation speed.

  2. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Tedford, E. C.; Fortnum, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P < 0.05) among weed species. Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, and Vicia villosa were good hosts of M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca oleracea, and Rumex acetosella were moderate hosts. Taraxacum officinale, Ipomoea hederacea, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species. PMID:19290313

  3. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P < 0.05) among weed species. Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, and Vicia villosa were good hosts of M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca oleracea, and Rumex acetosella were moderate hosts. Taraxacum officinale, Ipomoea hederacea, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  4. 1. Photocopied January 1973 from the Keystone Bridge Company Album, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied January 1973 from the Keystone Bridge Company Album, 1874. THE KEYSTONE BRIDGE COMPANY: LUCY FURNACE. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Parkersburg Bridge, Ohio River, Parkersburg, Wood County, WV

  5. Phenolic compounds from Viscum album tinctures enhanced antitumor activity in melanoma murine cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Melo, Michelle Nonato de Oliveira; Oliveira, Adriana Passos; Wiecikowski, Adalgisa Felippe; Carvalho, Renato Sampaio; Castro, Juliana de Lima; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Pereira, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Capella, Marcia Marques Alves; Rocha, Leandro; Holandino, Carla

    2018-03-01

    Cancer is one of the biggest problems in public health worldwide. Plants have been shown important role in anticancer research. Viscum album L. (Santalaceae), commonly known as mistletoe, is a semi-parasitic plant that grows on different host trees. In complementary medicine, extracts from European mistletoe ( Viscum album L.) have been used in the treatment of cancer. The study was conducted to identify chemical composition and antitumor potential of Viscum album tinctures. Chemical analysis performed by high resolution chromatography equipped with high resolution mass spectrometer identified caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, sakuranetin, isosakuranetin, syringenin 4-O-glucoside, syringenin 4-O-apiosyl-glucoside, alangilignoside C and ligalbumoside A compounds. Some of these compounds are probably responsible for the reduction of tumoral cellular growth in a dose-dependent manner. It was observed that melanoma murine cells (B16F10) were more sensitive to V. album tinctures than human leukaemic cells (K562), besides non-tumoral cells (MA-104) had a much lower cytotoxicity to them. Apoptotic-like cells were observed under light microscopy and were confirmed by a typical DNA fragmentation pattern. Additionally, flow cytometry results using Annexin-V/FITC permitted to quantify increased expression of early and late apoptotic markers on tumoral cells, confirming augmented Sub G0 population, which was probably associated with a consistent decrease in G1, and an increase in S or G2/M populations. Results indicate the chemical composition of V. album tinctures influences the mechanisms of in vitro tumoral cell death, suggesting a potential use in cancer pharmacotherapy research.

  6. Twelve Kids' Albums You Can't Live Without

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Warren

    2007-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the once-comatose preschool children's music scene has been resuscitated. Many musicians who were rockers in a former lifetime are now parents, and they are writing some terrific tunes for children. In this article, the author presents a list of 12 albums that are terrific for preschool children.

  7. Changes in dicot-weeds species composition in spring barley in Latvia during the past 20 years.

    PubMed

    Vanaga, I

    2012-01-01

    Dicot weed populations were assessed in spring barley trials carried out in four three-years periods at 5-year intervals: 1990-1992, 1995-1997; 2001-2003 and 2006-2008. The overall aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in dicot-weed infestations in spring barley in fields of one region (Riga) of Latvia in sod-podzolic loamy sand soil. The results of the trials showed that Galeopsis spp, Stellaoria media, Viola orvensis and Chenopodium album were among the most frequent weed species in the periods of 1990-1992 and 1995-1997. The occurrence of C. album and V. arvensis increased during the periods of 2001-2003 and 2006-2008.

  8. Effect of Field Inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti L33 on the Composition of Bacterial Communities in Rhizospheres of a Target Plant (Medicago sativa) and a Non-Target Plant (Chenopodium album)—Linking of 16S rRNA Gene-Based Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism Community Profiles to the Diversity of Cultivated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schwieger, Frank; Tebbe, Christoph C.

    2000-01-01

    Fourteen weeks after field release of luciferase gene-tagged Sinorhizobium meliloti L33 in field plots seeded with Medicago sativa, we found that the inoculant also occurred in bulk soil from noninoculated control plots. In rhizospheres of M. sativa plants, S. meliloti L33 could be detected in noninoculated plots 12 weeks after inoculation, indicating that growth in the rhizosphere preceded spread into bulk soil. To determine whether inoculation affected bacterial diversity, 1,119 bacteria were isolated from the rhizospheres of M. sativa and Chenopodium album, which was the dominant weed in the field plots. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) revealed plant-specific fragment size frequencies. Dominant ARDRA groups were identified by 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequencing. Database comparisons indicated that the rhizospheres contained members of the Proteobacteria (α, β, and γ subgroups), members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group, and gram-positive bacteria with high G+C DNA contents. The levels of many groups were affected by the plant species and, in the case of M. sativa, by inoculation. The most abundant isolates were related to Variovorax sp., Arthrobacter ramosus, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. In the rhizosphere of M. sativa, inoculation reduced the numbers of cells of A. calcoaceticus and members of the genus Pseudomonas and increased the number of rhizobia. Cultivation-independent PCR–single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) profiles of a 16S rRNA gene region confirmed the existence of plant-specific rhizosphere communities and the effect of the inoculant. All dominant ARDRA groups except Variovorax species could be detected. On the other hand, the SSCP profiles revealed products which could not be assigned to the dominant cultured isolates, indicating that the bacterial diversity was greater than the diversity suggested by cultivation. PMID:10919821

  9. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of leaf and stem extract of Santalum album

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Giriram; Jeyraaj, Indira A.; Jeyaraaj, R.; Loganathan, P.

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract leaf and stem of Santalum album was performed against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas. S. album leaf extract showed inhibition to E.coli (0.8mm), Staphylococcus aureus (1.0mm) and Pseudomonas (1.4mm) were as stem extract showed inhibition on E.coli (0.6mm), Staphylococcus aureus (0.4mm) and seudomonas (1.0mm) respectively. However leaf extract showed significantly higher inhibition when compared to stem extract. This might be due to presence of higher amount of secondary metabolites in the aqueous leaf extract. PMID:22557199

  10. Phytoextract-induced developmental deformities in malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Srivastava, C N

    2006-09-01

    Larvicidal potential of petroleum ether (Pee), carbon tetrachloride (Cte) and methanol extract (Mee) of Artemisia annua, Chenopodium album and Sonchus oleraceus was observed against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston. The Pee of A. annua with LC50 16.85 ppm after 24 h and 11.45 ppm after 48 h of treatment was found most effective, followed by Cte of A. annua and Ch. album, Pee of Ch. album and Mee of A. annua. However, no significant larvicidal activity was observed in Mee of Ch. album and all the three extracts of S. oleraceous. The Pee of A. annua was further investigated for its effect on the metamorphosis and the development of the malaria vector. It influenced the early life cycle of An. stephensi by reducing the percentage of hatching, larval, pupal and adult emergence and also lengthening the larval and pupal periods. The growth index was also reduced significantly. As the extract has remarkable effect on the metamorphosis and high larvicidal potential, it could, therefore, be used as an effective biocontrol agent against the highly nuisant malaria vector.

  11. Biosynthesis of podophyllotoxin in Linum album cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Véronique; Windhövel, Jörg; Eaton, Graham; Alfermann, A Wilhelm; Arroo, Randolph R J; Medarde, Manuel; Petersen, Maike; Woolley, Jack G

    2002-10-01

    Cell cultures of Linum album Kotschy ex Boiss. (Linaceae) showing high accumulation of the lignan podophyllotoxin (PTOX) were established. Enzymological studies revealed highest activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, 4-hydroxycinnamate:CoA ligase and cinnamoyl-CoA:NADP oxidoreductase immediately prior to PTOX accumulation. To investigate PTOX biosynthesis, feeding experiments were performed with [2-(13)C]3',4'-dimethoxycinnamic acid, [2-(13)C]3',4'-methylenedioxycinnamic acid (MDCA), [2-(13)C]3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamic acid, [2-(13)C]sinapic acid, [2-(13)C]- and [2,3-(13)C(2)]ferulic acid. Analysis of the metabolites by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry revealed incorporation of label from ferulic acid into PTOX and deoxypodophyllotoxin (DOP). In addition, MDCA was also unambiguously incorporated intact into PTOX. These observations suggest that in L. album both ferulic acid and methylenedioxy-substituted cinnamic acid can be incorporated into lignans. Furthermore, it appears that, in this species, the hydroxylation of DOP is a rate-limiting point in the pathway leading to PTOX. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/wo.1007/s00425-002-0834-1.

  12. On the Origin of the Cultivated Chenopods (Chenopodium)

    PubMed Central

    Heiser, Charles B.; Nelson, David C.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of morphology Chenopodium quinoa of the Andes and C. nuttalliae of Mexico appear to be very closely related species. Artificial hybrids have been secured between the two. It is suggested that both species may have been derived from the same original wild type. A weedy quinoa, C. quinoa var. melanospermum, is known from South America, but as yet a weed race closely related to C. nutalliae has not been reported from Mexico. PMID:4442716

  13. EPR STUDIES OF THERMALLY STERILIZED VASELINUM ALBUM.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for examination of free radicals in thermally treated vaselinum album (VA). Thermal treatment in hot air as sterilization process was tested. Conditions of thermal sterilization were chosen according to the pharmaceutical norms. Vaselinum album was heated at the following conditions (T--temperature, t--time): T = 160°C and t = 120 min, T = 170°C and t = 60 min and T = 180°C and t = 30 min. The aim of this work was to determine concentration and free radical properties of thermally sterilized VA. EPR analysis for VA was done 15 min after sterilization. EPR measurements were done at room temperature. EPR spectra were recorded in the range of microwave power of 2.2-70 mW. g-Factor, amplitudes (A) and line width (ΔBpp) of the spectra were determined. The shape of the EPR spectra was analyzed. Free radical concentration (N) in the heated samples was determined. EPR spectra were not obtained for the non heated VA. EPR spectra were detected for all thermally sterilized samples. The spectra revealed complex character, their asymmetry depends on microwave power. The lowest free radicals concentration was found for the VA sterilized at 180°C during 30 min. EPR spectroscopy is proposed as the method useful for optimization of sterilization process of drugs.

  14. Shore Vegetation of Lakes Oahe and Sakakawea, Mainstream Missouri River Reservoirs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    Atriplex rosea, Polygonum ramosissimum, Thlaspi arvense and Xanthium strumarium were also important on ungrazed plots and were reduced or absent on grazed... strumarium were all important on ungrazed plots, and absent on grazed plots at Minnconjou. Melilotus spp. and Thlaspi arvense were also important on ungrazed...the increase in coverage with fertilization of Chenopodium album, from 0% to 75%, and in :125 Xanthium strumarium , from 14%to 28%, Melilotus s de

  15. Digital item for digital human memory--television commerce application: family tree albuming system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jaeil; Lee, Hyejoo; Hong, JinWoo

    2004-01-01

    Technical advance in creating, storing digital media in daily life enables computers to capture human life and remember it as people do. A critical point with digitizing human life is how to recall bits of experience that are associated by semantic information. This paper proposes a technique for structuring dynamic digital object based on MPEG-21 Digital Item (DI) in order to recall human"s memory and providing interactive TV service on family tree albuming system as one of its applications. DIs are a dynamically reconfigurable, uniquely identified, described by a descriptor language, logical unit for structuring relationship among multiple media resources. Digital Item Processing (DIP) provides the means to interact with DIs to remind context to user, with active properties where objects have executable properties. Each user can adapt DIs" active properties to tailor the behavior of DIs to match his/her own specific needs. DIs" technologies in Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) can be used for privacy protection. In the interaction between the social space and technological space, the internal dynamics of family life fits well sharing family albuming service via family television. Family albuming service can act as virtual communities builders for family members. As memory is shared between family members, multiple annotations (including active properties on contextual information) will be made with snowballing value.

  16. Low-dose exposure to Veratrum album in children causes mild effects--a case series.

    PubMed

    Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Halbsguth, Ulrike; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; König, Naoko; Mégevand, Chloé; Zihlmann, Karin; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    White or false hellebore (Veratrum album) has a toxicological relevance because of the potential for misidentification of this plant as yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea). We report a retrospective case series of 11 children (8-12 years) with accidental intake of V. album at a youth camp where they had collected herbs for preparing fresh herb tea. Two children (18%) remained asymptomatic. Nine (82%) developed mild gastrointestinal symptoms, six (55%) presented neurological symptoms, and three (27%) showed bradycardia. All children recovered completely within 10 h of ingestion. The plant was identified at the emergency department; however, detection of veratridine and cevadine by means of high-performance liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry from the blood of the child with the most severe symptoms was negative (limit 0.01 ng/mL). Veratrum species contain more than 200 different alkaloids, which are the principal toxins and are responsible for most clinical symptoms. There are likely multiple mechanisms of toxicity and some of them are only partially understood. The opening of voltage-gated sodium channels is probably one of the most relevant pathophysiological mechanisms. Veratrum album intoxication in children demonstrated the same clinical course as observed in adults. Accidental ingestion of a low dose of the plant had a favorable outcome with supportive care.

  17. Illuminating Chaucer through Poetry, Manuscript Illuminations, and a Critical Rap Album

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Tom Liam

    2007-01-01

    Drawing connections between Chaucer, Eminem, and social issues, New York City high school teacher Tom Liam Lynch helped students become familiar with "The Canterbury Tales." Students wrote poems of rhymed couplets about today's social and political issues, created illuminated manuscripts, and recorded a rap CD. A book and album were…

  18. Immunomodulatory and clinical effects of Viscum album (Iscador M and Iscador P) in children with recurrent respiratory infections as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Chernyshov, V P; Heusser, P; Omelchenko, L I; Chernyshova, L I; Vodyanik, M A; Vykhovanets, E V; Galazyuk, L V; Pochinok, T V; Gaiday, N V; Gumenyuk, M E; Zelinsky, G M; Schaefermeyer, H; Schaefermeyer, G

    2000-05-01

    Ninety-two children 5 to 14 years of age living in areas exposed to the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl with recurrent respiratory infections (RRIs) were treated after randomization with either Viscum album praeparatum mali or pini (Iscador M or P). The dosage was two subcutaneous injections a week for 5 weeks with individual doses of 0.001 mg to 1.0 mg. Both Viscum album preparations were effective in significantly reducing clinical symptoms. One year after a single treatment course, the frequency of RRI relapses decreased by 78% and 73%, respectively. Immunomodulatory effects were assessed by investigation of lymphocyte subsets, natural killer (NK) cell activity, phagocytic and oxidative activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and antiviral activity of serum before and 1 week after treatment. Viscum album therapy resulted in normalization of initial immune indices either below or above the normal ranges. High levels of antiviral activity before treatment were significantly decreased by Viscum album mali. Viscum album treatment should be studied further in children with RRI.

  19. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of Coleonema album and C. pulchellum against skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Fajinmi, Olufunke O; Grúz, Jiří; Tarkowski, Petr; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2017-12-01

    Coleonema album (Thunb) Bart. & H. L. Wendl (Rutaceae) has been used in the formulation of skincare products, and the Khoisan people rub it on their skin to add luster. Coleonema pulchellum I. Williams has received less attention in the South African traditional medicine. This study investigates the antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. album and C. pulchellum essential oil (EO) and leaf extracts; and analyzes the chemical components of their EOs. Antifungal activity of leaf extracts was determined using the microdilution method with griseofulvin and ketoconazole as controls. Antifungal capacity of EO was investigated using the 'Volatile release plate method'. Trichophyton rubrum (ATCC 28188) and T. mentagrophytes (ATCC 9533) mycelia (0.3 cm diameter) were placed on fresh yeast malt agar in Petri dishes with filter paper (impregnated with 20 μL of EO) on the lid for direct exposure to EO volatiles while plates without EO were used as controls. The incubation time was seven days. Antioxidant activities of the leaf extracts were determined. Methanol leaf extract of C. pulchellum inhibited the growth of three fungi tested with MIC values of 195, 391 and 49 μg/mL for Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. Terpenes formed the major components of the EO. The EO from both plants inhibited the growth of T. rubrum in vitro. This study revealed the therapeutic value of C. pulchellum. Coleonema album and C. pulchellum should be considered as potential plants for skin ointment from natural origin.

  20. Nonvolatile chemical cues affect host-plant ranking by gravid Polygonia c-album females.

    PubMed

    Mozūraitis, Raimondas; Murtazina, Rushana; Nylin, Sören; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2012-01-01

    In a multiple-choice test, the preference of egg-laying Polygonia c-album (comma butterfly) females was studied for oviposition on plants bearing surrogate leaves treated with crude methanol extracts obtained from leaves of seven host-plant species: Humulus lupulus, Urtica dioica, Ulmus glabra, Salix caprea, Ribes nigrum, Corylus avellana, and Betula pubescens. The ranking order of surrogate leaves treated with host-plant extracts corresponded well to that reported on natural foliage, except R. nigrum. Thus, host-plant choice in P. c-album seems to be highly dependent on chemical cues. Moreover, after two subsequent fractionations using reversed-phase chromatography the nonvolatile chemical cues residing in the most polar water-soluble fractions evidently provided sufficient information for egg-laying females to discriminate and rank between the samples of more and less preferred plants, since the ranking in these assays was similar to that for natural foliage or whole methanol extracts, while the physical traits of the surrogate leaves remained uniform.

  1. Endogenous hormone levels and anatomical characters of haustoria in Santalum album L. seedlings before and after attachment to the host.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinhua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Duan, Jun; Deng, Rufang; Xu, Xinlan; Ma, Guohua

    2012-06-15

    The physiological and anatomical attributes of haustoria tissues in hemi-parasitic Santalum album L. seedlings, growing on the potential host, Kuhnia rosmarnifolia Vent., were investigated before and after attachment to the host. Quantization of endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), GA-like substances (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) was performed by HPLC. Histological preparations were used to characterize structural differences between pre- and post-attachment haustoria. The contents of GAs and ABA were higher in attached haustoria, with 3.61 and 3.50μgg(-1) fresh weight, respectively, and three times higher than in non-attached haustoria. Cytokinins, Z, ZR and IAA levels were also high, and their contents in attached haustoria increased 2.04-, 2.17-, and 2.82-fold more, respectively, than in non-attached haustoria. A high auxin-to-cytokinin ratio contributed to haustorial development of S. album. A numerous amount of starch in parenchyma cells around the meristematic region above the haustorial gland and the endophyte tissue of the post-attachment haustoria were reported in a Santalaceae member for the first time. Many lysosomes were present and large-scale digestion of host cells occurred at the interface between the parasite and host. The haustorial penetration in S. album into the host stele was suggested to be a function of mechanical force and enzymatic activity. Analysis of the endogenous hormone levels and the structural characters in S. album haustoria indicated that the haustoria were able to synthesize phytohormones, which appeared to be necessary for cell division and differentiation during haustorial development. These results suggest that endogenous hormones are involved in the haustorial development of S. album and in water and nutrient transport in the host-parasite association. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses reveal a response mechanism to cold stress in Santalum album L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinhua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Niu, Meiyun; Li, Mingzhi; He, Chunmei; Zhao, Jinhui; Zeng, Songjun; Duan, Jun; Ma, Guohua

    2017-01-01

    Santalum album L. (Indian sandalwood) is an economically important plant species because of its ability to produce highly valued perfume oils. Little is known about the mechanisms by which S. album adapts to low temperatures. In this study, we obtained 100,445,724 raw reads by paired-end sequencing from S. album leaves. Physiological and transcriptomic changes in sandalwood seedlings exposed to 4 °C for 0–48 h were characterized. Cold stress induced the accumulation of malondialdehyde, proline and soluble carbohydrates, and increased the levels of antioxidants. A total of 4,424 differentially expressed genes were responsive to cold, including 3,075 cold-induced and 1,349 cold-repressed genes. When cold stress was prolonged, there was an increase in the expression of cold-responsive genes coding for transporters, responses to stimuli and stress, regulation of defense response, as well as genes related to signal transduction of all phytohormones. Candidate genes in the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway were identified, eight of which were significantly involved in the cold stress response. Gene expression analyses using qRT-PCR showed a peak in the accumulation of SaCBF2 to 4, 50-fold more than control leaves and roots following 12 h and 24 h of cold stress, respectively. The CBF-dependent pathway may play a crucial role in increasing cold tolerance. PMID:28169358

  3. De Novo Foliar Transcriptome of Chenopodium amaranticolor and Analysis of Its Gene Expression During Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Pei, Xinwu; Zhang, Chao; Lu, Zifeng; Wang, Zhixing; Jia, Shirong; Li, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Background The hypersensitive response (HR) system of Chenopodium spp. confers broad-spectrum virus resistance. However, little knowledge exists at the genomic level for Chenopodium, thus impeding the advanced molecular research of this attractive feature. Hence, we took advantage of RNA-seq to survey the foliar transcriptome of C. amaranticolor, a Chenopodium species widely used as laboratory indicator for pathogenic viruses, in order to facilitate the characterization of the HR-type of virus resistance. Methodology and Principal Findings Using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, we obtained 39,868,984 reads with 3,588,208,560 bp, which were assembled into 112,452 unigenes (3,847 clusters and 108,605 singletons). BlastX search against the NCBI NR database identified 61,698 sequences with a cut-off E-value above 10−5. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, GO, COG and KEGG terms, respectively. A total number of 738 resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and homology sequences of 6 key signaling proteins within the R proteins-directed signaling pathway were identified. Based on this transcriptome data, we investigated the gene expression profiles over the stage of HR induced by Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus by using digital gene expression analysis. Numerous candidate genes specifically or commonly regulated by these two distinct viruses at early and late stages of the HR were identified, and the dynamic changes of the differently expressed genes enriched in the pathway of plant-pathogen interaction were particularly emphasized. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first description of the genetic makeup of C. amaranticolor, providing deep insight into the comprehensive gene expression information at transcriptional level in this species. The 738 RGAs as well as the differentially regulated genes, particularly the common genes regulated by both TMV and CMV, are suitable candidates which merit further functional characterization

  4. Indirect genetic effects from competition in the clonal herb Sedum album (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Andersson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in indirect genetic effects, i.e. influences on the phenotype that depend on the genotype of other conspecific individuals; however, the empirical evidence for such effects is still limited, especially in wild plant species. The present study of the clonal herb Sedum album assessed direct and indirect genetic effects on performance-related traits in a 4-year experiment with clonally replicated genotypes, grown in pairs and differing in anthocyanin pigmentation to allow separation of individuals during data collection. In agreement with the existence of indirect genetic effects, the experimentally-paired plants not only expressed their own genotype but were also affected by the genotype of their pair mate. The effect of neighbour genotype explained up to one-fourth of the variation in performance and most likely resulted from competition, imposed by the close physical contact between paired individuals and the limiting conditions used in the garden environment. Indirect genetic effects from competition have the potential to enhance the efficacy of group-level selection relative to individual selection, given the nutrient-poor and spatially-confined substrate available to plants of S. album in the natural habitat.

  5. Characterization and Quantitation of Triterpenoid Saponins in Raw and Sprouted Chenopodium berlandieri spp. (Huauzontle) Grains Subjected to Germination with or without Selenium Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Mata-Ramírez, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocereal Chenopodium berlandieri spp. (huauzontle) was evaluated to determine saponin composition. Saponins were evaluated in raw and germinated grains subjected to chemical stress induced by sodium selenite. Analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with ELSD detector revealed the presence of 12 saponins, identified according to compounds previously assayed in Chenopodium quinoa. Saponins found at the highest concentrations in raw grains were derived from oleanolic and phytolaccagenic acids. Total saponin concentration significantly decreased in germinated compared to raw grains due to the significant loss of 90.1% and 95.7% of the phytolaccagenic acid without and with chemical selenium stress, respectively. The most abundant saponin in germinated sprouts decreased during normal germination. Interestingly, the concentration of this particular saponin significantly increased during the Se-induced stress germination. Chemical stress with selenium salts proved to change the saponin composition in geminated Chenopodium berlandieri spp. grains, therefore affecting their potential use as ingredient in the food industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.; Lightfoot, Damien J.; Razali, Rozaimi; Tester, Mark; Jarvis, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions. PMID:28680429

  7. Use of Semantic Technology to Create Curated Data Albums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Li, Xiang; Sainju, Roshan; Bakare, Rohan; Basyal, Sabin

    2014-01-01

    One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the discovery and access of useful science content from the increasingly large volumes of Earth science data and related information available online. Current Earth science data systems are designed with the assumption that researchers access data primarily by instrument or geophysical parameter. Those who know exactly the data sets they need can obtain the specific files using these systems. However, in cases where researchers are interested in studying an event of research interest, they must manually assemble a variety of relevant data sets by searching the different distributed data systems. Consequently, there is a need to design and build specialized search and discover tools in Earth science that can filter through large volumes of distributed online data and information and only aggregate the relevant resources needed to support climatology and case studies. This paper presents a specialized search and discovery tool that automatically creates curated Data Albums. The tool was designed to enable key elements of the search process such as dynamic interaction and sense-making. The tool supports dynamic interaction via different modes of interactivity and visual presentation of information. The compilation of information and data into a Data Album is analogous to a shoebox within the sense-making framework. This tool automates most of the tedious information/data gathering tasks for researchers. Data curation by the tool is achieved via an ontology-based, relevancy ranking algorithm that filters out nonrelevant information and data. The curation enables better search results as compared to the simple keyword searches provided by existing data systems in Earth science.

  8. Use of Semantic Technology to Create Curated Data Albums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Li, Xiang; Sainju, Roshan; Bakare, Rohan; Basyal, Sabin; Fox, Peter (Editor); Norack, Tom (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the discovery and access of useful science content from the increasingly large volumes of Earth science data and related information available online. Current Earth science data systems are designed with the assumption that researchers access data primarily by instrument or geophysical parameter. Those who know exactly the data sets they need can obtain the specific files using these systems. However, in cases where researchers are interested in studying an event of research interest, they must manually assemble a variety of relevant data sets by searching the different distributed data systems. Consequently, there is a need to design and build specialized search and discovery tools in Earth science that can filter through large volumes of distributed online data and information and only aggregate the relevant resources needed to support climatology and case studies. This paper presents a specialized search and discovery tool that automatically creates curated Data Albums. The tool was designed to enable key elements of the search process such as dynamic interaction and sense-making. The tool supports dynamic interaction via different modes of interactivity and visual presentation of information. The compilation of information and data into a Data Album is analogous to a shoebox within the sense-making framework. This tool automates most of the tedious information/data gathering tasks for researchers. Data curation by the tool is achieved via an ontology-based, relevancy ranking algorithm that filters out non-relevant information and data. The curation enables better search results as compared to the simple keyword searches provided by existing data systems in Earth science.

  9. Evaluation of Preclinical Assays to Investigate an Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Process Applied to Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Flückiger, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) developed in anthroposophic medicine are based on specific pharmaceutical procedures to enhance remedy efficacy. One such anthroposophic pharmaceutical process was evaluated regarding effects on cancer cell toxicity in vitro and on colchicine tumor formation in Lepidium sativum. Anthroposophically processed Viscum album extract (APVAE) was produced by mixing winter and summer mistletoe extracts in the edge of a high-speed rotating disk and was compared with manually mixed Viscum album extract (VAE). The antiproliferative effect of VAE/APVAE was determined in five cell lines (NCI-H460, DU-145, HCC1143, MV3, and PA-TU-8902) by WST-1 assay in vitro; no difference was found between VAE and APVAE in any cell line tested (P > 0.14). Incidence of colchicine tumor formation was assessed by measurement of the root/shoot-ratio of seedlings of Lepidium sativum treated with colchicine as well as VAE, APVAE, or water. Colchicine tumor formation decreased after application of VAE (−5.4% compared to water, P < 0.001) and was even stronger by APVAE (−8.8% compared to water, P < 0.001). The high-speed mistletoe extract mixing process investigated thus did not influence toxicity against cancer cells but seemed to sustain morphostasis and to enhance resistance against external noxious influences leading to phenomenological malformations. PMID:24876872

  10. Functional Characterization of Novel Sesquiterpene Synthases from Indian Sandalwood, Santalum album

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Daramwar, Pankaj P.; Krithika, Ramakrishnan; Pandreka, Avinash; Shankar, S. Shiva; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V.

    2015-01-01

    Indian Sandalwood, Santalum album L. is highly valued for its fragrant heartwood oil and is dominated by a blend of sesquiterpenes. Sesquiterpenes are formed through cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), catalyzed by metal dependent terpene cyclases. This report describes the cloning and functional characterization of five genes, which encode two sesquisabinene synthases (SaSQS1, SaSQS2), bisabolene synthase (SaBS), santalene synthase (SaSS) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (SaFDS) using the transcriptome sequencing of S. album. Using Illumina next generation sequencing, 33.32 million high quality raw reads were generated, which were assembled into 84,094 unigenes with an average length of 494.17 bp. Based on the transcriptome sequencing, five sesquiterpene synthases SaFDS, SaSQS1, SaSQS2, SaBS and SaSS involved in the biosynthesis of FPP, sesquisabinene, β-bisabolene and santalenes, respectively, were cloned and functionally characterized. Novel sesquiterpene synthases (SaSQS1 and SaSQS2) were characterized as isoforms of sesquisabinene synthase with varying kinetic parameters and expression levels. Furthermore, the feasibility of microbial production of sesquisabinene from both the unigenes, SaSQS1 and SaSQS2 in non-optimized bacterial cell for the preparative scale production of sesquisabinene has been demonstrated. These results may pave the way for in vivo production of sandalwood sesquiterpenes in genetically tractable heterologous systems. PMID:25976282

  11. Functional Characterization of Novel Sesquiterpene Synthases from Indian Sandalwood, Santalum album.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Daramwar, Pankaj P; Krithika, Ramakrishnan; Pandreka, Avinash; Shankar, S Shiva; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V

    2015-05-15

    Indian Sandalwood, Santalum album L. is highly valued for its fragrant heartwood oil and is dominated by a blend of sesquiterpenes. Sesquiterpenes are formed through cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), catalyzed by metal dependent terpene cyclases. This report describes the cloning and functional characterization of five genes, which encode two sesquisabinene synthases (SaSQS1, SaSQS2), bisabolene synthase (SaBS), santalene synthase (SaSS) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (SaFDS) using the transcriptome sequencing of S. album. Using Illumina next generation sequencing, 33.32 million high quality raw reads were generated, which were assembled into 84,094 unigenes with an average length of 494.17 bp. Based on the transcriptome sequencing, five sesquiterpene synthases SaFDS, SaSQS1, SaSQS2, SaBS and SaSS involved in the biosynthesis of FPP, sesquisabinene, β-bisabolene and santalenes, respectively, were cloned and functionally characterized. Novel sesquiterpene synthases (SaSQS1 and SaSQS2) were characterized as isoforms of sesquisabinene synthase with varying kinetic parameters and expression levels. Furthermore, the feasibility of microbial production of sesquisabinene from both the unigenes, SaSQS1 and SaSQS2 in non-optimized bacterial cell for the preparative scale production of sesquisabinene has been demonstrated. These results may pave the way for in vivo production of sandalwood sesquiterpenes in genetically tractable heterologous systems.

  12. Effects of homeopathic medications Eupatorium perfoliatum and Arsenicum album on parasitemia of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Lira-Salazar, G; Marines-Montiel, E; Torres-Monzón, J; Hernández-Hernández, F; Salas-Benito, J S

    2006-10-01

    Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world and a major public health problem because of emerging drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium. A number of synthetic and natural compounds are now being analysed to develop more effective antimalarial drugs. We investigated the effect of homeopathic preparations of Eupatorium perfoliatum and Arsenicum album on parasitemia using a rodent malaria model. We found significant inhibitory effect on parasite multiplication with both medications with a level of 60% for Eupatorium perfoliatum at a 30 CH potency. Arsenicum album 0/6 gave 70% inhibition but this was less stable than Eupatorium perfoliatum. The number of schizonts was higher in animals treated with homeopathic medications. Although the mechanism of action is unknown, these agents would be good candidates as alternative or complementary medications in the treatment of malaria.

  13. Tannins from Canarium album with potent antioxidant activity*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang-liang; Lin, Yi-ming

    2008-01-01

    The contents of total phenolics and extractable condensed tannins in the leaves, twigs and stem bark of Canarium album were determined. The structural heterogeneity of condensed tannins from stem bark was characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The results show the predominance of signals representative of procyanidins and prodelphinidins. In addition, epicatechin and epigallocatechin polymers with galloylated procyanidin or prodelphinidin were also observed. The tannins were screened for their potential antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) model systems. Tannins extracted from leaves, twigs and stem bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power. PMID:18500781

  14. Tannins from Canarium album with potent antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang-liang; Lin, Yi-ming

    2008-05-01

    The contents of total phenolics and extractable condensed tannins in the leaves, twigs and stem bark of Canarium album were determined. The structural heterogeneity of condensed tannins from stem bark was characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The results show the predominance of signals representative of procyanidins and prodelphinidins. In addition, epicatechin and epigallocatechin polymers with galloylated procyanidin or prodelphinidin were also observed. The tannins were screened for their potential antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) model systems. Tannins extracted from leaves, twigs and stem bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  15. RNA-Seq analysis identifies key genes associated with haustorial development in the root hemiparasite Santalum album

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinhua; Berkowitz, Oliver; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Zhang, Muhan; Ma, Guohua; Whelan, James; Duan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Santalum album (sandalwood) is one of the economically important plant species in the Santalaceae for its production of highly valued perfume oils. Sandalwood is also a hemiparasitic tree that obtains some of its water and simple nutrients by tapping into other plants through haustoria which are highly specialized organs in parasitic angiosperms. However, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in haustorium development is limited. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses were performed to identify changes in gene expression and metabolic pathways associated with the development of the S. album haustorium. A total of 56,011 non-redundant contigs with a mean contig size of 618 bp were obtained by de novo assembly of the transcriptome of haustoria and non-haustorial seedling roots. A substantial number of the identified differentially expressed genes were involved in cell wall metabolism and protein metabolism, as well as mitochondrial electron transport functions. Phytohormone-mediated regulation might play an important role during haustorial development. Especially, auxin signaling is likely to be essential for haustorial initiation, and genes related to cytokinin and gibberellin biosynthesis and metabolism are involved in haustorial development. Our results suggest that genes encoding nodulin-like proteins may be important for haustorial morphogenesis in S. album. The obtained sequence data will become a rich resource for future research in this interesting species. This information improves our understanding of haustorium development in root hemiparasitic species and will allow further exploration of the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying plant parasitism. PMID:26388878

  16. Molecular cloning and expression of Cro s 1: an occupational allergen from saffron pollen (Crocus sativus)

    PubMed Central

    Varasteh, Abdol-Reza; Sankian, Mojtaba; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Moghadam, Malihe; Shakeri, Mohamad Taghi; Brooks, Edward G.; Goldblum, Randall M.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomés, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cultivation of saffron is expanding through the southeast of Iran, and allergy to saffron pollen occurs in workers involved in processing this plant. We aimed to clone, sequence and express a major allergen involved in saffron pollen allergy, and to compare the recombinant with the natural allergen. Methods: The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Cro s 1, an allergen from saffron pollen, was determined after immunoblotting. The cDNA encoding for this allergen was cloned by PCR utilizing a primer based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Recombinant Cro s 1 (rCro s 1) was expressed as a soluble protein in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration. Inhibition of IgE binding to rCro s 1 by pollen extract was analyzed by ELISA. Section Title The allergen Cro s 1 was identified from saffron pollen extracts and cloned by PCR. Cro s 1 cDNA defined an acidic polypeptide with homology to pollen proteins from Chenopodium album and Ligastrum vulgaris. The rCro s 1 was expressed in P. pastoris at 28 mg/l. Saffron pollen extract inhibited the binding of patient serum IgE to rCro s 1. Conclusion: We identified and cloned the first Crocus sativus pollen allergen. rCro s 1 cDNA shows a very high homology with Che a 1, the major allergen of lamb's-quarter, Chenopodium album, Caryophyllales, pollen (97%). Cro s 1 is a useful tool for specific diagnosis and structural studies of occupational allergy to saffron. PMID:26989701

  17. Molecular cloning and expression of Cro s 1: an occupational allergen from saffron pollen (Crocus sativus).

    PubMed

    Varasteh, Abdol-Reza; Sankian, Mojtaba; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Moghadam, Malihe; Shakeri, Mohamad Taghi; Brooks, Edward G; Goldblum, Randall M; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2012-10-01

    The cultivation of saffron is expanding through the southeast of Iran, and allergy to saffron pollen occurs in workers involved in processing this plant. We aimed to clone, sequence and express a major allergen involved in saffron pollen allergy, and to compare the recombinant with the natural allergen. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Cro s 1, an allergen from saffron pollen, was determined after immunoblotting. The cDNA encoding for this allergen was cloned by PCR utilizing a primer based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Recombinant Cro s 1 (rCro s 1) was expressed as a soluble protein in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration. Inhibition of IgE binding to rCro s 1 by pollen extract was analyzed by ELISA. The allergen Cro s 1 was identified from saffron pollen extracts and cloned by PCR. Cro s 1 cDNA defined an acidic polypeptide with homology to pollen proteins from Chenopodium album and Ligastrum vulgaris. The rCro s 1 was expressed in P. pastoris at 28 mg/l. Saffron pollen extract inhibited the binding of patient serum IgE to rCro s 1. We identified and cloned the first Crocus sativus pollen allergen. rCro s 1 cDNA shows a very high homology with Che a 1, the major allergen of lamb's-quarter, Chenopodium album, Caryophyllales, pollen (97%). Cro s 1 is a useful tool for specific diagnosis and structural studies of occupational allergy to saffron.

  18. Molecular Structural Characteristics of Polysaccharide Fractions from Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch and Their Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hongliang; Miao, Song; Zheng, Baodong; Lin, Shan; Jian, Yeye; Chen, Shen; Zhang, Yi

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the multiple relations between the preliminary molecular structural characteristics and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch (CPS). Three polysaccharide fractions, CPS1, CPS2, and CPS3, were isolated from CPS by column chromatography. CPS1 and CPS3 were mainly composed of neutral polysaccharides linked by α- and β-glycosidic linkages while CPS2 was pectin polysaccharides mainly linked by β-glycosidic linkages. According to the SEC-MALLS-RI system, the molecular weight of CPS1 was greater compared to CPS2 and CPS3, and the molecular weight and radius of CPS did not display positive correlation. The chain conformation analysis indicated CPS1 and CPS2 were typical highly branched polysaccharides while CPS3 existed as a globular shape in aqueous. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of CPS2 was better than that of CPS3, while that of CPS1 was the weakest. The antioxidant activities of polysaccharide fractions were affected by their monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkage, molecular weight, and chain conformation. This functional property was a result of a combination of multiple molecular structural factors. CPS2 was the major antioxidant component of CPS and it could be exploited as a valued antioxidant product. The molecular structural characteristics, antioxidant activities, and structure-function relationships of polysaccharide fractions from Canarium album were first investigated in this study. The results provided background and practical knowledge for the deep-processed products of C. album with high added value. CPS2 was the major antioxidant component of CPS, which could be exploited as a valued antioxidant ingredient in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Safety assessment of sandalwood oil (Santalum album L.).

    PubMed

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

    2008-02-01

    Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is a fragrant wood from which oil is derived for use in food and cosmetics. Sandalwood oil is used in the food industry as a flavor ingredient with a daily consumption of 0.0074 mg/kg. Over 100 constituents have been identified in sandalwood oil with the major constituent being alpha-santalol. Sandalwood oil and its major constituent have low acute oral and dermal toxicity in laboratory animals. Sandalwood oil was not mutagenic in spore Rec assay and was found to have anticarcinogenic, antiviral and bactericidal activity. Occasional cases of irritation or sensitization reactions to sandalwood oil in humans are reported in the literature. Although the available information on toxicity of sandalwood oil is limited, it has a long history of oral use without any reported adverse effects and is considered safe at present use levels.

  20. Repellent activity of some essential oils against two stored product beetles Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with reference to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oil for the safety of pigeon pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, N N

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils from 35 aromatic and medicinal plant species of Gorakhpur Division (U. P., India) were evaluated for their repellent activity against pulse bruchids Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. of stored pigeon pea seeds. The oil concentration was at 0.36 μl/ml. Out of 35 essential oils, Adhatoda vasica Ness and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oils showed absolute (100 %) insect repellency. Chenopodium oil exhibited 100 % mortality for both the test insects at 10 μl concentration (LD50 = 2.8 μl for C. chinensis & 2.5 μl for C. maculatus) and more toxic than Adhatoda oil (LD50 = 6.8 μl for C. chinensis & 8.4 μl for C. maculatus). During in vivo evaluation, 0.29 and 0.58 μl/ml of Chenopodium oil significantly enhanced feeding deterrence in insects and reduced the seed damage as well as weight loss of fumigated pigeon pea seeds up to 6 months of storage as compared to control set. Thus, Chenopodium oil can be used as an effective option of commercial fumigants for the storage of pigeon pea seeds against pulse bruchids.

  1. Isolation of cDNAs and functional characterisation of two multi-product terpene synthase enzymes from sandalwood, Santalum album L.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher G; Keeling, Christopher I; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Barbour, Elizabeth L; Plummer, Julie A; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2008-09-01

    Sandalwood, Santalum album (Santalaceae) is a small hemi-parasitic tropical tree of great economic value. Sandalwood timber contains resins and essential oils, particularly the santalols, santalenes and dozens of other minor sesquiterpenoids. These sesquiterpenoids provide the unique sandalwood fragrance. The research described in this paper set out to identify genes involved in essential oil biosynthesis, particularly terpene synthases (TPS) in S. album, with the long-term aim of better understanding heartwood oil production. Degenerate TPS primers amplified two genomic TPS fragments from S. album, one of which enabled the isolation of two TPS cDNAs, SamonoTPS1 (1731bp) and SasesquiTPS1 (1680bp). Both translated protein sequences shared highest similarity with known TPS from grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli produced catalytically active proteins. SamonoTPS1 was identified as a monoterpene synthase which produced a mixture of (+)-alpha-terpineol and (-)-limonene, along with small quantities of linalool, myrcene, (-)-alpha-pinene, (+)-sabinene and geraniol when assayed with geranyl diphosphate. Sesquiterpene synthase SasesquiTPS1 produced the monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol germacrene D-4-ol and helminthogermacrene, when incubated with farnesyl diphosphate. Also present were alpha-bulnesene, gamma-muurolene, alpha- and beta-selinenes, as well as several other minor bicyclic compounds. Although these sesquiterpenes are present in only minute quantities in the distilled sandalwood oil, the genes and their encoded enzymes described here represent the first TPS isolated and characterised from a member of the Santalaceae plant family and they may enable the future discovery of additional TPS genes in sandalwood.

  2. Phytoaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Natural Vegetation at the Municipal Wastewater Site in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ruqia, Bibi; Hussain, Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in crops and soils from wastewater irrigation poses a significant threat to the human health. A study was carried out to investigate the removal potential of heavy metals (HM) by native plant species, namely Cannabis sativa L., Chenopodium album L., Datura stramonium L., Sonchus asper L., Amaranthus viridus L., Oenothera rosea (LHer), Xanthium stramonium L., Polygonum macalosa L., Nasturtium officinale L. and Conyza canadensis L. growing at the municipal wastewater site in Abbottabad city, Pakistan. The HM concentrations varied among plants depending on the species. Metal concentrations across species varied in the order iron (Fe) > zinc (Zn) > chromium (Cr) > nickel (Ni) > cadmium (Cd). Majority of the species accumulated more HM in roots than shoots. Among species, the concentrations (both in roots and shoots) were in the order C. sativa > C. album > X. stramonium > C. canadensis > A. viridus > N. officinale > P. macalosa > D. stramonium > S. asper > O. rosea. No species was identified as a hyperaccumulator. All species exhibited a translocation factor (TF) less than 1. Species like C. sativa, C. album and X. stramonium gave higher (> 1) biological concentration factor (BCF) and biological accumulation coefficient (BAC) especially for Fe, Cr and Cd than other species. Higher accumulation of heavy metals in these plant species signifies the general application of these species for phytostabilization and phytoextraction of HM from polluted soils.

  3. Multiple Active Compounds from Viscum album L. Synergistically Converge to Promote Apoptosis in Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Twardziok, Monika; Kleinsimon, Susann; Rolff, Jana; Jäger, Sebastian; Eggert, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer in children and adolescents, with poor prognosis and outcome in ~70% of initial diagnoses and 10–15% of relapses. Hydrophobic triterpene acids and hydrophilic lectins and viscotoxins from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) demonstrate anticancer properties, but have not yet been investigated for Ewing sarcoma. Commercial Viscum album L. extracts are aqueous, excluding the insoluble triterpenes. We recreated a total mistletoe effect by combining an aqueous extract (viscum) and a triterpene extract (TT) solubilized with cyclodextrins. Ewing sarcoma cells were treated with viscum, TT and viscumTT in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. In vitro and ex vivo treatment of Ewing sarcoma cells with viscum inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion, while viscumTT combination treatment generated a synergistic effect. Apoptosis occurred via intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, evidenced by activation of both CASP8 and CASP9. We show that viscumTT treatment shifts the balance of apoptotic regulatory proteins towards apoptosis, mainly via CLSPN, MCL1, BIRC5 and XIAP downregulation. ViscumTT also demonstrated strong antitumor activity in a cell line- and patient-derived mouse model, and may be considered an adjuvant therapy option for pediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma. PMID:27589063

  4. Tool for Constructing Data Albums for Significant Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Ramachandran, R.; Conover, H.; McEniry, M.; Goodman, H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Braun, S. A.; Wilson, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Case study analysis and climatology studies are common approaches used in Atmospheric Science research. Research based on case studies involves a detailed description of specific weather events using data from different sources, to characterize physical processes in play for a given event. Climatology-based research tends to focus on the representativeness of a given event, by studying the characteristics and distribution of a large number of events. To gather relevant data and information for case studies and climatology analysis is tedious and time consuming; current Earth Science data systems are not suited to assemble multi-instrument, multi mission datasets around specific events. For example, in hurricane science, finding airborne or satellite data relevant to a given storm requires searching through web pages and data archives. Background information related to damages, deaths, and injuries requires extensive online searches for news reports and official storm summaries. We will present a knowledge synthesis engine to create curated "Data Albums" to support case study analysis and climatology studies. The technological challenges in building such a reusable and scalable knowledge synthesis engine are several. First, how to encode domain knowledge in a machine usable form? This knowledge must capture what information and data resources are relevant and the semantic relationships between the various fragments of information and data. Second, how to extract semantic information from various heterogeneous sources including unstructured texts using the encoded knowledge? Finally, how to design a structured database from the encoded knowledge to store all information and to support querying? The structured database must allow both knowledge overviews of an event as well as drill down capability needed for detailed analysis. An application ontology driven framework is being used to design the knowledge synthesis engine. The knowledge synthesis engine is being

  5. The Sublime Corpse in Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's Women's Journal "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello" (1860)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's choice to include articles depicting the advanced decay of cadavers, which are simultaneously horrible and awesome, in her women's periodical "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello". Background on Avellaneda's biography, women's print culture, and theories of the sublime provide a frame for the…

  6. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Abugoch James, Lilian E

    2009-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), which is considered a pseudocereal or pseudograin, has been recognized as a complete food due to its protein quality. It has remarkable nutritional properties; not only from its protein content (15%) but also from its great amino acid balance. It is an important source of minerals and vitamins, and has also been found to contain compounds like polyphenols, phytosterols, and flavonoids with possible nutraceutical benefits. It has some functional (technological) properties like solubility, water-holding capacity (WHC), gelation, emulsifying, and foaming that allow diversified uses. Besides, it has been considered an oil crop, with an interesting proportion of omega-6 and a notable vitamin E content. Quinoa starch has physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, freeze stability) which give it functional properties with novel uses. Quinoa has a high nutritional value and has recently been used as a novel functional food because of all these properties; it is a promising alternative cultivar.

  7. Toxic effects of carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole from essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides on mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Monzote, Lianet; Stamberg, Werner; Staniek, Katrin

    2009-11-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides have been used for centuries in the Americas as a popular remedy for parasitic diseases. The essential oil of this plant possesses anthelmintic activity and is still used in some regions to treat parasitosis and leishmaniasis. However, the Chenopodium oil caused also some fatalities, leading to its commercial disuse. In this work, we studied the mechanism of toxicity of the essential oil and its major pure ingredients (carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole, which was synthesized from alpha-terpinene) with respect to mammalian cells and mitochondria. We observed that all products, but especially caryophyllene oxide, inhibited the mitochondrial electron transportmore » chain. This effect for carvacrol and caryophyllene oxide was mediated via direct complex I inhibition. Without Fe{sup 2+}, ascaridole was less toxic to mammalian mitochondria than other major ingredients. However, evidence on the formation of carbon-centered radicals in the presence of Fe{sup 2+} was obtained by ESR spin-trapping. Furthermore, it was shown that Fe{sup 2+} potentiated the toxicity of ascaridole on oxidative phosphorylation of rat liver mitochondria. The increase of the alpha-tocopherol quinone/alpha-tocopherol ratio under these conditions indicated the initiation of lipid peroxidation by Fe{sup 2+}-mediated ascaridole cleavage. Further ESR spin-trapping experiments demonstrated that in addition to Fe{sup 2+}, reduced hemin, but not mitochondrial cytochrome c can activate ascaridole, explaining why ascaridole in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice exhibited a higher toxicity than in isolated mitochondria.« less

  8. CorA Is a Copper Repressible Surface-Associated Copper(I)-Binding Protein Produced in Methylomicrobium album BG8

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth A.; Ve, Thomas; Larsen, Øivind; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Lillehaug, Johan R.; Jensen, Harald B.; Helland, Ronny; Karlsen, Odd A.

    2014-01-01

    CorA is a copper repressible protein previously identified in the methanotrophic bacterium Methylomicrobium album BG8. In this work, we demonstrate that CorA is located on the cell surface and binds one copper ion per protein molecule, which, based on X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure analysis, is in the reduced state (Cu(I)). The structure of endogenously expressed CorA was solved using X-ray crystallography. The 1.6 Å three-dimensional structure confirmed the binding of copper and revealed that the copper atom was coordinated in a mononuclear binding site defined by two histidines, one water molecule, and the tryptophan metabolite, kynurenine. This arrangement of the copper-binding site is similar to that of its homologous protein MopE* from Metylococcus capsulatus Bath, confirming the importance of kynurenine for copper binding in these proteins. Our findings show that CorA has an overall fold similar to MopE, including the unique copper(I)-binding site and most of the secondary structure elements. We suggest that CorA plays a role in the M. album BG8 copper acquisition. PMID:24498370

  9. Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals in natural plants thriving on wastewater effluent at Hattar industrial estate, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Pervez, Arshid; Inoue, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the potential of native plants for the phytoaccumulation of heavy metals (HM). Thirteen predominant plant species (including trees, bushes and grasses) namely Ricinus communis, Ipomoea carnea, Cannabis sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia modesta, Solanum nigrum, Xanthium stromarium, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, and Dactyloctenium aegyptium were collected from the wastewater originated from Hattar industrial estate of Pakistan, Plants shoots and roots were analyzed for heavy metals/metalloid: Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni, and As. Among plant species, the accumulation potential for HM varied depending on the type of element. Regardless of the plant species, HM concentrations varied in the order of Fe>Zn>Cr>Pb>Ni>Cd>As. Tree species of R. communis, A. nilotica, A. modesta, and D. sissoo exhibited an enhanced concentrations of metals. Accumulation pattern of Fe, Pb, Cd, and As in plants could be related to the HM composition of soil and wastewater. Most of the species exhibited higher HM composition in the root as compared to shoot. The species that found with greater ability to absorb HM in the root, got higher HM concentrations in its shoot. Shoot tissue concentrations of HM were attained by the species as D. sissoo>A. modesta>A. nilotica>R. communis>I. carnea>C. album>E. indica>P. hysterophorus>S. nigrum>C. sativa>D. aegyptium>X. strumarium>C. dactylon. Based on results, tree plants were noticed as higher accumulators of HM in polluted soils.

  10. Antifungal and Ichthyotoxic Sesquiterpenoids from Santalum album Heartwood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Hatano, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Yoshida, Takashi; Kanzaki, Hiroshi; Arita, Michiko; Ito, Hideyuki

    2017-07-08

    In our continuing study on a survey of biologically active natural products from heartwood of Santalum album (Southwest Indian origin), we newly found potent fish toxic activity of an n -hexane soluble extract upon primary screening using killifish (medaka) and characterized α-santalol and β-santalol as the active components. The toxicity (median tolerance limit (TLm) after 24 h at 1.9 ppm) of α-santalol was comparable with that of a positive control, inulavosin (TLm after 24 h at 1.3 ppm). These fish toxic compounds including inulavosin were also found to show a significant antifungal effect against a dermatophytic fungus, Trichophyton rubrum . Based on a similarity of the morphological change of the immobilized Trichophyton hyphae in scanning electron micrographs between treatments with α-santalol and griseofulvin (used as the positive control), inhibitory effect of α-santalol on mitosis (the antifungal mechanism proposed for griseofulvin) was assessed using sea urchin embryos. As a result, α-santalol was revealed to be a potent antimitotic agent induced by interference with microtubule assembly. These data suggested that α-santalol or sandalwood oil would be promising to further practically investigate as therapeutic agent for cancers as well as fungal skin infections.

  11. Contribution of microwave accelerated distillation in the extraction of the essential oil of Zygophyllum album L.

    PubMed

    Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra; Meklati, Brahim Youcef; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    The aerial parts of Zygophyllum album L. are used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent and as a drug active against several pathologies. In this work we present the chemical composition of Algerian essential oils obtained by microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) extraction, a solventless method assisted by microwave. Under the same analytical conditions and using GC-FID and GC-MS, the chemical composition of the essential oil of Zygophyllum album L. extracted by MAD was compared with that achieved using hydrodistillation (HD). The extracted compounds were hydrosoluble, and they were removed from the aqueous solution by a liquid extraction with an organic solvent. Employing MAD (100°C, 30  min), the essential oil contained mainly oxygenated monoterpenes with major constituents: carvone and α-terpineol. However, most of the compounds present in the hydrodistilled volatile fraction were not terpene species, with β-damascenone as a major constituent. The MAD method appears to be more efficient than HD: after 30  min extraction time, the obtained yields (i.e. 0.002%) were comparable to those provided by HD after 3  h extraction. MAD seems to be more convenient since the volatile fraction is richer in oxygenated monoterpenes, species that are recognised for their olfactory value and their contribution to the fragrance of the essential oil. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Brittany L.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E.; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical products and processes have been developed from quinoa. Furthermore, 4 clinical studies have demonstrated that quinoa supplementation exerts significant, positive effects on metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal health in humans. However, vast challenges and opportunities remain within the scientific, agricultural, and development sectors to optimize quinoa's role in the promotion of global human health and nutrition. PMID:27453695

  13. Do selenium hyperaccumulators affect selenium speciation in neighboring plants and soil? An X-Ray Microprobe Analysis.

    PubMed

    El Mehdawi, Ali F; Lindblom, Stormy D; Cappa, Jennifer J; Fakra, Sirine C; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2015-01-01

    Neighbors of Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus were found earlier to have elevated Se levels. Here we investigate whether Se hyperaccumulators affect Se localization and speciation in surrounding soil and neighboring plants. X-ray fluorescence mapping and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy were used to analyze Se localization and speciation in leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana, Symphyotrichum ericoides and Chenopodium album growing next to Se hyperaccumulators or non-accumulators at a seleniferous site. Regardless of neighbors, A. ludoviciana, S. ericoides and C. album accumulated predominantly (73-92%) reduced selenocompounds with XANES spectra similar to the C-Se-C compounds selenomethionine and methyl-selenocysteine. Preliminary data indicate that the largest Se fraction (65-75%), both in soil next to hyperaccumulator S. pinnata and next to nonaccumulator species was reduced Se with spectra similar to C-Se-C standards. These same C-Se-C forms are found in hyperaccumulators. Thus, hyperaccumulator litter may be a source of organic soil Se, but soil microorganisms may also contribute. These findings are relevant for phytoremediation and biofortification since organic Se is more readily accumulated by plants, and more effective for dietary Se supplementation.

  14. Role of larval host plants in the climate-driven range expansion of the butterfly Polygonia c-album.

    PubMed

    Braschler, Brigitte; Hill, Jane K

    2007-05-01

    1. Some species have expanded their ranges during recent climate warming and the availability of breeding habitat and species' dispersal ability are two important factors determining expansions. The exploitation of a wide range of larval host plants should increase an herbivorous insect species' ability to track climate by increasing habitat availability. Therefore we investigated whether the performance of a species on different host plants changed towards its range boundary, and under warmer temperatures. 2. We studied the polyphagous butterfly Polygonia c-album, which is currently expanding its range in Britain and apparently has altered its host plant preference from Humulus lupulus to include other hosts (particularly Ulmus glabra and Urtica dioica). We investigated insect performance (development time, larval growth rate, adult size, survival) and adult flight morphology on these host plants under four rearing temperatures (18-28.5 degrees C) in populations from core and range margin sites. 3. In general, differences between core and margin populations were small compared with effects of rearing temperature and host plant. In terms of insect performance, host plants were generally ranked U. glabra > or = U. dioica > H. lupulus at all temperatures. Adult P. c-album can either enter diapause or develop directly and higher temperatures resulted in more directly developing adults, but lower survival rates (particularly on the original host H. lupulus) and smaller adult size. 4. Adult flight morphology of wild-caught individuals from range margin populations appeared to be related to increased dispersal potential relative to core populations. However, there was no difference in laboratory reared individuals, and conflicting results were obtained for different measures of flight morphology in relation to larval host plant and temperature effects, making conclusions about dispersal potential difficult. 5. Current range expansion of P. c-album is associated with the

  15. Biosynthesis of Sandalwood Oil: Santalum album CYP76F cytochromes P450 produce santalols and bergamotol.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Chavez, Maria L; Moniodis, Jessie; Madilao, Lufiani L; Jancsik, Sharon; Keeling, Christopher I; Barbour, Elizabeth L; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Plummer, Julie A; Jones, Christopher G; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Sandalwood oil is one of the world's most highly prized essential oils, appearing in many high-end perfumes and fragrances. Extracted from the mature heartwood of several Santalum species, sandalwood oil is comprised mainly of sesquiterpene olefins and alcohols. Four sesquiterpenols, α-, β-, and epi-β-santalol and α-exo-bergamotol, make up approximately 90% of the oil of Santalum album. These compounds are the hydroxylated analogues of α-, β-, and epi-β-santalene and α-exo-bergamotene. By mining a transcriptome database of S. album for candidate cytochrome P450 genes, we cloned and characterized cDNAs encoding a small family of ten cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases annotated as SaCYP76F37v1, SaCYP76F37v2, SaCYP76F38v1, SaCYP76F38v2, SaCYP76F39v1, SaCYP76F39v2, SaCYP76F40, SaCYP76F41, SaCYP76F42, and SaCYP76F43. Nine of these genes were functionally characterized using in vitro assays and yeast in vivo assays to encode santalene/bergamotene oxidases and bergamotene oxidases. These results provide a foundation for production of sandalwood oil for the fragrance industry by means of metabolic engineering, as demonstrated with proof-of-concept formation of santalols and bergamotol in engineered yeast cells, simultaneously addressing conservation challenges by reducing pressure on supply of sandalwood from native forests.

  16. Peroxidase Release Induced by Ozone in Sedum album Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Federico J.; Penel, Claude; Greppin, Hubert

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ozone was studied on the peroxidase activity from various compartments of Sedum album leaves (epidermis, intercellular fluid, residual cell material, and total cell material). The greatest increase following a 2-hour ozone exposure (0.4 microliters O3 per liter) was observed in extracellular peroxidases. Most of the main bands of peroxidase activity separated by isoelectric focusing exhibited an increase upon exposure to ozone. Incubation experiments with isolated peeled or unpeeled leaves showed that leaves from ozone-treated plants release much more peroxidases in the medium than untreated leaves. The withdrawal of Ca2+ ions reduced the level of extracellular peroxidase activity either in whole plants or in incubation experiments. This reduction and the activation obtained after addition of Ca2+ resulted from a direct requirement of Ca2+ by the enzyme and from an effect of Ca2+ on peroxidase secretion. The ionophore A23187 promoted an increase of extracellular peroxidase activity only in untreated plants. The release of peroxidases by untreated and ozone-treated leaves is considerably lowered by metabolic inhibitors (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and sodium azide) and by puromycin. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663520

  17. Getting behind the Scenes of Fleetwood Mac's "Rumours": Using a Documentary on the Making of a Music Album to Learn about Task Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Debra R.; Holbrook, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present an efficient and easy-to-implement experiential exercise that reinforces for students key concepts about task groups (i.e., group cohesiveness, conflict within groups, group effectiveness, group norms, and group roles). The exercise, which uses a documentary about the making of Fleetwood Mac's "Rumours" album to demonstrate the…

  18. Biosynthesis of Sandalwood Oil: Santalum album CYP76F Cytochromes P450 Produce Santalols and Bergamotol

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Chavez, Maria L.; Moniodis, Jessie; Madilao, Lufiani L.; Jancsik, Sharon; Keeling, Christopher I.; Barbour, Elizabeth L.; Ghisalberti, Emilio L.; Plummer, Julie A.; Jones, Christopher G.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sandalwood oil is one of the world’s most highly prized essential oils, appearing in many high-end perfumes and fragrances. Extracted from the mature heartwood of several Santalum species, sandalwood oil is comprised mainly of sesquiterpene olefins and alcohols. Four sesquiterpenols, α-, β-, and epi-β-santalol and α-exo-bergamotol, make up approximately 90% of the oil of Santalum album. These compounds are the hydroxylated analogues of α-, β-, and epi-β-santalene and α-exo-bergamotene. By mining a transcriptome database of S. album for candidate cytochrome P450 genes, we cloned and characterized cDNAs encoding a small family of ten cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases annotated as SaCYP76F37v1, SaCYP76F37v2, SaCYP76F38v1, SaCYP76F38v2, SaCYP76F39v1, SaCYP76F39v2, SaCYP76F40, SaCYP76F41, SaCYP76F42, and SaCYP76F43. Nine of these genes were functionally characterized using in vitro assays and yeast in vivo assays to encode santalene/bergamotene oxidases and bergamotene oxidases. These results provide a foundation for production of sandalwood oil for the fragrance industry by means of metabolic engineering, as demonstrated with proof-of-concept formation of santalols and bergamotol in engineered yeast cells, simultaneously addressing conservation challenges by reducing pressure on supply of sandalwood from native forests. PMID:24324844

  19. [Postoperative adjuvante Therapie mit einem Mistelextrakt (Viscum album ssp. album) bei Hündinnen mit Mammatumoren].

    PubMed

    Biegel, Ulrike; Stratmann, Nina; Knauf, Yvonne; Ruess, Katja; Reif, Marcus; Wehrend, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: Canine Mammatumoren (CMT) sind wegen ihrer Häufigkeit und hohen Malignitätsrate eine Herausforderung für die Veterinärmedizin. Bisher ist noch keine postoperative adjuvante Therapie als wirksamer Standard etabliert und in den nächsten Jahren wohl auch nicht zu erwarten. Zusätzlich ist die Frage nach der Verträglichkeit einer adjuvanten Therapie mit Erhaltung oder Verbesserung der Lebensqualität (LQ) wichtig. Die Therapie mit Mistelextrakten (Viscum album L.; VAE) ist in der Humanonkologie nach adjuvanter Tumorbasistherapie (Chemotherapie und Bestrahlung) eine sehr häufig verwendete, zusätzliche adjuvante Behandlungsmethode. Auch bei verschiedenen Tierarten werden inzwischen Mistelpräparate in der Onkologie erfolgreich angewendet. Methoden: Überprüfung von Wirkung und Nutzen einer postoperativen, adjuvanten Misteltherapie beim CMT sowie Erfassung der LQ unter der VAE-Behandlung. Ausgewertet wurden 56 Hündinnen mit Mammaadenokarzinom, 33 ausschließlich operierte Kontrolltiere und 23 operierte Tiere, die adjuvant VAE erhielten. Ergebnisse: Die mediane Überlebenszeit (MST) aller Tiere (n = 56) betrug 32 Monate (Interquartilbereich 13-51 Monate). Im deskriptiven Vergleich der Überlebenszeiten (ST) nach Kaplan-Meier waren nach 12, 24, 36 bzw. 48 Monaten noch 24, 20, 15 bzw. 5 Hündinnen (entsprechend 72,7%, 60,6%, 45,1%, 12,4%) der Kontrollgruppe sowie 19, 14, 11 und 1 Hündin (82,6%, 60,9%, 47,8%, 4,3%) der VAE-Gruppe am Leben. Die VAE-Therapie führte zu einem geringeren Gesamtversterberisiko, das statistisch nicht signifikant war (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0,530, 95%-Konfidenzintervall (KI) 0,222-1,262; p = 0,15). Tendenziell (p = 0,07) zeigte sich eine Verringerung des tumorbedingten Sterberisikos auf 25% (HR 0,251, 95%-KI 0,056-1,122). Schlussfolgerungen: Es kann eine Tendenz zur Senkung des tumorbedingten Sterberisikos der VAE-Gruppe bei guter Verträglichkeit der Therapie angenommen werden. Die LQ der Tiere blieb über die gesamte

  20. Aggregation Tool to Create Curated Data albums to Support Disaster Recovery and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Maskey, M.; Li, X.; Flynn, S.

    2014-12-01

    Economic losses due to natural hazards are estimated to be around 6-10 billion dollars annually for the U.S. and this number keeps increasing every year. This increase has been attributed to population growth and migration to more hazard prone locations. As this trend continues, in concert with shifts in weather patterns caused by climate change, it is anticipated that losses associated with natural disasters will keep growing substantially. One of challenges disaster response and recovery analysts face is to quickly find, access and utilize a vast variety of relevant geospatial data collected by different federal agencies. More often analysts may be familiar with limited, but specific datasets and are often unaware of or unfamiliar with a large quantity of other useful resources. Finding airborne or satellite data useful to a natural disaster event often requires a time consuming search through web pages and data archives. The search process for the analyst could be made much more efficient and productive if a tool could go beyond a typical search engine and provide not just links to web sites but actual links to specific data relevant to the natural disaster, parse unstructured reports for useful information nuggets, as well as gather other related reports, summaries, news stories, and images. This presentation will describe a semantic aggregation tool developed to address similar problem for Earth Science researchers. This tool provides automated curation, and creates "Data Albums" to support case studies. The generated "Data Albums" are compiled collections of information related to a specific science topic or event, containing links to relevant data files (granules) from different instruments; tools and services for visualization and analysis; information about the event contained in news reports, and images or videos to supplement research analysis. An ontology-based relevancy-ranking algorithm drives the curation of relevant data sets for a given event. This

  1. Evaluating sampling strategy for DNA barcoding study of coastal and inland halo-tolerant Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae: A case study for increased sample size

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Peng-Cheng; Gao, Hai-Yan; Wei, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jian-Hang; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Environmental conditions in coastal salt marsh habitats have led to the development of specialist genetic adaptations. We evaluated six DNA barcode loci of the 53 species of Poaceae and 15 species of Chenopodiaceae from China's coastal salt marsh area and inland area. Our results indicate that the optimum DNA barcode was ITS for coastal salt-tolerant Poaceae and matK for the Chenopodiaceae. Sampling strategies for ten common species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were analyzed according to optimum barcode. We found that by increasing the number of samples collected from the coastal salt marsh area on the basis of inland samples, the number of haplotypes of Arundinella hirta, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, Setaria viridis, and Chenopodium glaucum increased, with a principal coordinate plot clearly showing increased distribution points. The results of a Mann-Whitney test showed that for Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, and Setaria viridis, the distribution of intraspecific genetic distances was significantly different when samples from the coastal salt marsh area were included (P < 0.01). These results suggest that increasing the sample size in specialist habitats can improve measurements of intraspecific genetic diversity, and will have a positive effect on the application of the DNA barcodes in widely distributed species. The results of random sampling showed that when sample size reached 11 for Chloris virgata, Chenopodium glaucum, and Dysphania ambrosioides, 13 for Setaria viridis, and 15 for Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica and Chenopodium album, average intraspecific distance tended to reach stability. These results indicate that the sample size for DNA barcode of globally distributed species should be increased to 11–15. PMID:28934362

  2. Evaluating sampling strategy for DNA barcoding study of coastal and inland halo-tolerant Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae: A case study for increased sample size.

    PubMed

    Yao, Peng-Cheng; Gao, Hai-Yan; Wei, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jian-Hang; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Li, Hong-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Environmental conditions in coastal salt marsh habitats have led to the development of specialist genetic adaptations. We evaluated six DNA barcode loci of the 53 species of Poaceae and 15 species of Chenopodiaceae from China's coastal salt marsh area and inland area. Our results indicate that the optimum DNA barcode was ITS for coastal salt-tolerant Poaceae and matK for the Chenopodiaceae. Sampling strategies for ten common species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were analyzed according to optimum barcode. We found that by increasing the number of samples collected from the coastal salt marsh area on the basis of inland samples, the number of haplotypes of Arundinella hirta, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, Setaria viridis, and Chenopodium glaucum increased, with a principal coordinate plot clearly showing increased distribution points. The results of a Mann-Whitney test showed that for Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, and Setaria viridis, the distribution of intraspecific genetic distances was significantly different when samples from the coastal salt marsh area were included (P < 0.01). These results suggest that increasing the sample size in specialist habitats can improve measurements of intraspecific genetic diversity, and will have a positive effect on the application of the DNA barcodes in widely distributed species. The results of random sampling showed that when sample size reached 11 for Chloris virgata, Chenopodium glaucum, and Dysphania ambrosioides, 13 for Setaria viridis, and 15 for Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica and Chenopodium album, average intraspecific distance tended to reach stability. These results indicate that the sample size for DNA barcode of globally distributed species should be increased to 11-15.

  3. Staging on the Internet: research on online photo album users in Taiwan with the spectacle/performance paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiung-wen

    2007-08-01

    This study explores motivations of online photo album users in Taiwan and the distinctive "staging" phenomenon with media gratifications and an a priori theoretical framework, the spectacle/performance paradigm (SPP). Media drenching, performance, function and reference are "new" gratifications, which no prior research was found. These gratifications are consistent with the argument of the "diffused audience" on the Internet. This study verifies that the process-content distinction may not be applicable in the Internet setting because distinctions between the real world and the mediated world are vanishing, which is also the main argument of the SPP paradigm.

  4. Aggregation Tool to Create Curated Data albums to Support Disaster Recovery and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Maskey, Manil; Bakare, Rohan; Basyal, Sabin; Li, Xiang; Flynn, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    recovery efforts. The search process for the analyst could be made much more efficient and productive if a tool could go beyond a typical search engine and provide not just links to web sites but actual links to specific data relevant to the natural disaster, parse unstructured reports for useful information nuggets, as well as gather other related reports, summaries, news stories, and images. This presentation will describe a semantic aggregation tool developed to address similar problem for Earth Science researchers. This tool provides automated curation, and creates "Data Albums" to support case studies. The generated "Data Albums" are compiled collections of information related to a specific science topic or event, containing links to relevant data files (granules) from different instruments; tools and services for visualization and analysis; information about the event contained in news reports, and images or videos to supplement research analysis. An ontology-based relevancy-ranking algorithm drives the curation of relevant data sets for a given event. This tool is now being used to generate a catalog of Hurricane Case Studies at Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC), one of NASA's Distribute Active Archive Centers. Another instance of the Data Albums tool is currently being created in collaboration with NASA/MSFC's SPoRT Center, which conducts research on unique NASA products and capabilities that can be transitioned to the operational community to solve forecast problems. This new instance focuses on severe weather to support SPoRT researchers in their model evaluation studies

  5. A potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album 200, can ameliorate genotoxicity induced by repeated injections of arsenic trioxide in mice.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, P; Biswas, S J; Belon, P; Khuda-Bukhsh, A R

    2007-09-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has become a menacing global problem. No drug is available until now to combat chronic arsenic poisoning. To examine if a potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album-200, can effectively combat chronic arsenic toxicity induced by repeated injections of Arsenic trioxide in mice, the following experimental design was adopted. Mice (Mus musculus) were injected subcutaneously with 0.016% arsenic trioxide at the rate of 1 ml/100 g body weight, at an interval of 7 days until they were killed at day 30, 60, 90 or 120 and were divided into three groups: (i) one receiving a daily dose of Arsenicum Album-200 through oral administration, (ii) one receiving the same dose of diluted succussed alcohol (Alcohol-200) and (iii) another receiving neither drug, nor succussed alcohol. The remedy or the placebo, as the case may be, was fed from the next day onwards after injection until the day before the next injection, and the cycle was repeated until the mice were killed. Two other control groups were also maintained: one receiving only normal diet, and the other receiving normal diet and succussed alcohol. Several toxicity assays, such as cytogenetical (chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index, sperm head anomaly) and biochemical (acid and alkaline phosphatases, lipid peroxidation), were periodically made. Compared with controls, the drug fed mice showed reduced toxicity at statistically significant levels in respect of all the parameters studied, thereby indicating protective potentials of the homeopathic drug against chronic arsenic poisoning.

  6. Effects of Homeopathic Arsenicum Album, Nosode, and Gibberellic Acid Preparations on the Growth Rate of Arsenic-Impaired Duckweed (Lemna gibba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Tim; Scherr, Claudia; Simon, Meinhard; Heusser, Peter; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of homeopathically potentized Arsenicum album, nosode, and gibberellic acid in a bioassay with arsenic-stressed duckweed (Lemna gibba L.). The test substances were applied in nine potency levels (17x, 18x, 21x–24x, 28x, 30x, 33x) and compared with controls (unsuccussed and succussed water) regarding their influence on the plant’s growth rate. Duckweed was stressed with arsenic(V) for 48 h. Afterwards, plants grew in either potentized substances or water controls for 6 days. Growth rates of frond (leaf) area and frond number were determined with a computerized image analysis system for different time intervals (days 0–2, 2–6, 0–6). Five independent experiments were evaluated for each test substance. Additionally, five water control experiments were analyzed to investigate the stability of the experimental setup (systematic negative control experiments). All experiments were randomized and blinded. The test system exhibited a low coefficient of variation (≈1%). Unsuccussed and succussed water did not result in any significant differences in duckweed growth rate. Data from the control and treatment groups were pooled to increase statistical power. Growth rates for days 0–2 were not influenced by any homeopathic preparation. Growth rates for days 2–6 increased after application of potentized Arsenicum album regarding both frond area (p < 0.001) and frond number (p < 0.001), and by application of potentized nosode (frond area growth rate only, p < 0.01). Potencies of gibberellic acid did not influence duckweed growth rate. The systematic negative control experiments did not yield any significant effects. Thus, false-positive results can be excluded with high certainty. To conclude, the test system with L. gibba impaired by arsenic(V) was stable and reliable. It yielded evidence for specific effects of homeopathic Arsenicum album preparations and it will provide a valuable tool for future experiments that aim at revealing

  7. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  8. Isolation of bioactive allelochemicals from sunflower (variety Suncross-42) through fractionation-guided bioassays.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Tehmina; Bajwa, Rukhsana

    2010-11-01

    Plants are rich source of biologically active allelochemicals. However, natural product discovery is not an easy task. Many problems encountered during this laborious practice can be overcome through the modification of preliminary trials. Bioassay-directed isolation of active plant compounds can increase efficiency by eliminating many of the problems encountered. This strategy avoids unnecessary compounds, concentrating on potential components and thus reducing the cost and time required. In this study, a crude aqueous extract of sunflower leaves was fractionated through high performance liquid chromatography. The isolated fractions were checked against Chenopodium album and Rumex dentatus. The fraction found active against two selected weeds was re-fractionated, and the active components were checked for their composition. Thin layer chromatography isolated a range of phenolics, whereas the presence of bioactive terpenoids was confirmed through mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  9. Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Izzet; Yanar, Yusuf; Asav, Unal

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various weeds extracts on seed germination of 11 crop species. Most of the weed extracts tested had inhibitory effects on seed germination of common bean, tomato, pepper, squash, onion, barley, wheat, and corn at different application rates as compared with the 10% acetone control. Chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L., and Matricaria chamomilla L. (10%, 20% and 22.5%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. However, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Reseda lutea L. extracts stimulated chickpea seed germination at the rates of 95%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, compared to control. It was concluded that some of the weed extracts tested in this study could be used as inhibitor while others could be used as stimulator for the crops.

  10. Phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form influence gene expression of the polyphagous comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album).

    PubMed

    Heidel-Fischer, Hanna M; Freitak, Dalial; Janz, Niklas; Söderlind, Lina; Vogel, Heiko; Nylin, Sören

    2009-10-31

    The mechanisms that shape the host plant range of herbivorous insect are to date not well understood but knowledge of these mechanisms and the selective forces that influence them can expand our understanding of the larger ecological interaction. Nevertheless, it is well established that chemical defenses of plants influence the host range of herbivorous insects. While host plant chemistry is influenced by phylogeny, also the growth forms of plants appear to influence the plant defense strategies as first postulated by Feeny (the "plant apparency" hypothesis). In the present study we aim to investigate the molecular basis of the diverse host plant range of the comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album) by testing differential gene expression in the caterpillars on three host plants that are either closely related or share the same growth form. In total 120 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in P. c-album after feeding on different host plants, 55 of them in the midgut and 65 in the restbody of the caterpillars. Expression patterns could be confirmed with an independent method for 14 of 27 tested genes. Pairwise similarities in upregulation in the midgut of the caterpillars were higher between plants that shared either growth form or were phylogenetically related. No known detoxifying enzymes were found to be differently regulated in the midgut after feeding on different host plants. Our data suggest a complex picture of gene expression in response to host plant feeding. While each plant requires a unique gene regulation in the caterpillar, both phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form appear to influence the expression profile of the polyphagous comma butterfly, in agreement with phylogenetic studies of host plant utilization in butterflies.

  11. Molecular regulation of santalol biosynthesis in Santalum album L.

    PubMed

    Rani, Arti; Ravikumar, Puja; Reddy, Manjunatha Damodara; Kush, Anil

    2013-09-25

    Santalum album L. commonly known as East-Indian sandal or chandan is a hemiparasitic tree of family santalaceae. Santalol is a bioprospecting molecule present in sandalwood and any effort towards metabolic engineering of this important moiety would require knowledge on gene regulation. Santalol is a sesquiterpene synthesized through mevalonate or non-mevalonate pathways. First step of santalol biosynthesis involves head to tail condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) with its allylic co-substrate dimethyl allyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) to produce geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP; C10 - a monoterpene). GPP upon one additional condensation with IPP produces farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP; C15 - an open chain sesquiterpene). Both the reactions are catalyzed by farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDS). Santalene synthase (SS), a terpene cyclase catalyzes cyclization of open ring FPP into a mixture of cyclic sesquiterpenes such as α-santalene, epi-β-santalene, β-santalene and exo bergamotene, the main constituents of sandal oil. The objective of the present work was to generate a comprehensive knowledge on the genes involved in santalol production and study their molecular regulation. To achieve this, sequences encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase and santalene synthase were isolated from sandalwood using suppression subtraction hybridization and 2D gel electrophoresis technology. Functional characterization of both the genes was done through enzyme assays and tissue-specific expression of both the genes was studied. To our knowledge, this is the first report on studies on molecular regulation, and tissue-specific expression of the genes involved in santalol biosynthesis. © 2013.

  12. The Synthesis of Fragrant Natural Products from Santalum album L.: (+)-(Z)-α-Santalol and (-)-(Z)-β-Santalol.

    PubMed

    Birkbeck, Anthony A

    2017-12-01

    The synthetic challenges associated with the selective synthesis of α-Santalene (1), (Z)-α-Santalol (2), β-Santalene (3), and most importantly (Z)-β-Santalol (4) have interested the world's synthetic chemists for decades. These molecules, lovely examples of nature's exquisite creations, have been isolated from East Indian Sandalwood Oil (Santalum album L.) and have stimulated chemists to develop new and efficient methodologies to synthesize them. The synthesis and evolution of various approaches to the [2.2.1]bicycloheptane ring system present in β-Santalene (3) and the even more challenging selective synthesis of the (Z)-allylic alcohol sidechain present in both (Z)-α-Santalol (2) and ((Z)-β-Santalol (4) will be covered in this review.

  13. Chemical composition of volatile oils from the pericarps of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album) by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin Hua; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Jia, Yong Xia; Zhao, Jie Tang; Ma, Guo Hua

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of volatile compounds from pericarp oils of Indian sandalwood, Santalum album L., isolated by hydrodistillation and solvent extraction, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The pericarps yielded 2.6 and 5.0% volatile oil by hydrodistillation and n-hexane extraction, and they were colorless and yellow in color, respectively. A total of 66 volatile components were detected. The most prominent compounds were palmitic and oleic acids, representing about 40-70% of the total oil. Many fragrant constituents and biologically active components, such as alpha- and beta-santalol, cedrol, esters, aldehydes, phytosterols, and squalene were present in the pericarp oils. This is the first report of the volatile composition of the pericarps of any Santalum species.

  14. [The herbals and floristic albums of Eliza Orzeszkowa].

    PubMed

    Kuźnicka, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    awoj Kucharski entitled Pasje pisarki [The writer's passions], published in 1998 in "Gazeta Farmaceutyczna" [Pharmaceutical Journal] and illustrated with pages from the herbal created by Orzeszkowa. One of the authors, Jan Majewski, has found also other herbal-albums, kept, among other places, at the Museum of the Marist Fathers near London, and in the archival collections of the Ossolineum publishing house. A major surprise was connected with the discovery of a herbal that had the features of genuine botanical documentation. The title page of the herbal, which was discovered (by Jan Majewski and Sławoj Kucharski ) at Poznań, in the collections of the Poznań Society of the Friends of Science, carries the inscription: Zielnik Elizy Orzeszkowej. Z pól, lak i lasów, nadniemeńskich miejscowości, Miniewicze, Ponizany, Hledowicze, Kowszów, Poniemuń, Horny, Kołpaki [The Herbal of Eliza Orzeszkowa. From the fields, meadows and woods of localities on the Niemen river, Miniewicze, Ponizany, Hledowicze, Kowszów, Poniemuń, Horny, Kołpaki]. The value of the herbal for the history of botany has been appreciated by Anna Maria Kielak, the author of a beautiful bibliophile publication entitled Zielnik Elizy Orzeszkowej nieznany zabytek botaniczny przechowywany w zbiorach Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk. [The herbal of Eliza Orzeszkowa. An unknown botanical aabytek kept in the collections of the Poznań Society of the Friends of Science], Poznań 2004, pp. 151. The author has presented Eliza Orzeszkowa's biography, as well as her botanical and ethnographic passions. She has also made a list of the plants mentioned in the herbal, as well as appendices containing Orzeszkowa's correspondence with botanists. The author also describes the artistic albums composed by Orzeszkowa from dried herbs.

  15. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lignan enhancement in hairy root cultures of Linum album using coniferaldehyde and methylenedioxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian Chashmi, Najmeh; Sharifi, Mohsen; Behmanesh, Mehrdad

    2016-07-03

    Feeding experiments with hairy root cultures of Linum album have established that the extracellular coniferaldehyde is a good precursor for production of two lignans: lariciresinol (LARI) and pinoresinol (PINO). The accumulation of the LARI, PINO, and podophyllotoxin (PTOX) in hairy roots were enhanced about 14.8-, 8.7-, and 1.5-fold (107.61, 8.7 and 6.42 µg g(-1) Fresh Wight), respectively, by the addition of coniferaldehyde (2 mM) to the culture media (after 24 hr). This result was correlated with an increase pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase (PLR) expression gene and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) activity in the fed hairy roots. Adding 3,4-(methylendioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA) precursor did not influence on the lignans accumulation, but the lignin content of the hairy roots was increased. Moreover, the expression genes of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), CAD, and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) were influenced after feeding hairy roots with MDCA.

  17. Neurophysiological effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) on isolated rat intestines.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, M; Ivetic, V; Popovic, M; Mimica-Dukic, N; Veljkovic, S

    2006-05-01

    Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) is well known as a medicine from ancient times and the earliest notes. Today it is used as a remedy. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of mistletoe extracts and their components on some neurophysiological parameters in rat intestines. The tonus and contractile responses of isolated intestinal segments (duodenum, ileum and distal colon) were analysed. The experiment was carried out in three groups. In the first group (control group) different concentrations of acetylcholine were added into the organ bath (10-50 nmol/L). In the second group, mistletoe extracts were added into the organ bath with increasing concentrations and in the third group, atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, was added into the organ bath (concentration 10(-7) mol/L) and after atropine plant extracts were administered. The results obtained suggest that extracts from different parts of mistletoe have neurophysiological effects and change intestinal contractions. The results also suggest that the effects of mistletoe extracts on intestinal contractility act via cholinergic pathways, activating muscarinic receptors in the intestines. However, in order to establish the subtype of receptors, further investigations are necessary where selective antagonists of muscarinic cholinergic receptors should be used. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form influence gene expression of the polyphagous comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album)

    PubMed Central

    Heidel-Fischer, Hanna M; Freitak, Dalial; Janz, Niklas; Söderlind, Lina; Vogel, Heiko; Nylin, Sören

    2009-01-01

    Background The mechanisms that shape the host plant range of herbivorous insect are to date not well understood but knowledge of these mechanisms and the selective forces that influence them can expand our understanding of the larger ecological interaction. Nevertheless, it is well established that chemical defenses of plants influence the host range of herbivorous insects. While host plant chemistry is influenced by phylogeny, also the growth forms of plants appear to influence the plant defense strategies as first postulated by Feeny (the "plant apparency" hypothesis). In the present study we aim to investigate the molecular basis of the diverse host plant range of the comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album) by testing differential gene expression in the caterpillars on three host plants that are either closely related or share the same growth form. Results In total 120 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in P. c-album after feeding on different host plants, 55 of them in the midgut and 65 in the restbody of the caterpillars. Expression patterns could be confirmed with an independent method for 14 of 27 tested genes. Pairwise similarities in upregulation in the midgut of the caterpillars were higher between plants that shared either growth form or were phylogenetically related. No known detoxifying enzymes were found to be differently regulated in the midgut after feeding on different host plants. Conclusion Our data suggest a complex picture of gene expression in response to host plant feeding. While each plant requires a unique gene regulation in the caterpillar, both phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form appear to influence the expression profile of the polyphagous comma butterfly, in agreement with phylogenetic studies of host plant utilization in butterflies. PMID:19878603

  19. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut.

    PubMed

    De Waele, D; Jordaan, E M; Basson, S

    1990-07-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut.

  20. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut

    PubMed Central

    De Waele, D.; Jordaan, Elizabeth M.; Basson, Selmaré

    1990-01-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut. PMID:19287723

  1. Choline but not its derivative betaine blocks slow vacuolar channels in the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa: implications for salinity stress responses.

    PubMed

    Pottosin, Igor; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-11-03

    Activity of tonoplast slow vacuolar (SV, or TPC1) channels has to be under a tight control, to avoid undesirable leak of cations stored in the vacuole. This is particularly important for salt-grown plants, to ensure efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration. In this study we show that choline, a cationic precursor of glycine betaine, efficiently blocks SV channels in leaf and root vacuoles of the two chenopods, Chenopodium quinoa (halophyte) and Beta vulgaris (glycophyte). At the same time, betaine and proline, two major cytosolic organic osmolytes, have no significant effect on SV channel activity. Physiological implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    PubMed

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of Conyza linifolia and Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    PubMed

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Hammoda, Hala M; El Ghazouly, Maged G; Farag, Mohamed A; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Bassam, Samar M

    2015-01-01

    Two essential oil-containing plants growing wildly in Egypt: Conyza linifolia (Willd.) Täckh. (Asteraceae) and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) were subjected to essential oil analysis and biological investigation. The essential oils from both plants were prepared by hydrodistillation, and GC/MS was employed for volatiles profiling. This study is the first to perform GC/MS analysis of C. linifolia essential oil growing in Egypt. C. linifolia essential oil contained mainly sesquiterpenes, while that of C. ambrosioides was rich in monoterpenes. Ascaridole, previously identified as the major component of the latter, was found at much lower levels. In addition, the oils were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and one fungus. The insecticidal activities of both oils, including mosquitocidal and pesticidal potentials, were also evaluated. The results of biological activities encourage further investigation of the two oils as antimicrobial and insecticidal agents of natural origin.

  4. Durable clinical remission of a skull metastasis under intralesional Viscum album extract therapy: Case report.

    PubMed

    Werthmann, Paul Georg; Huber, Roman; Kienle, Gunver Sophia

    2018-06-09

    Skull metastases are rare, they can eventually cause pain, and can invade the brain. Viscum album extracts (VAEs) are used as an adjuvant treatment in cancer. A 68-year-old patient with rectal cancer presented with lung metastases, and metastases to multiple bone sites, the chest wall, and the liver were later identified. Histological examination of one of the bone lesions revealed an additional thyroid carcinoma. An osteolytic parietal bone lesion progressed to a painful metastasis of the skull despite radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The VAEs were applied weekly into the metastasis, followed by pain relief and softening of the lesion. The lesion partially regressed (>50%) after 8 months of continued VAE treatment and remained stable for 2 years. This case shows a durable clinical remission of a skull metastasis under VAE. Further investigations of intratumoral VAE treatment seem worthwhile-especially in symptomatic skull metastases not responding to radiotherapy or systemic therapies. © 2018 The Authors Head & Neck Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Development of active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) starch containing gold nanoparticles and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Pagno, Carlos H; Costa, Tania M H; de Menezes, Eliana W; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Hertz, Plinho F; Matte, Carla R; Tosati, Juliano V; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2015-04-15

    Active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, W.) starch were prepared by incorporating gold nanoparticles stabilised by an ionic silsesquioxane that contains the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride group. The biofilms were characterised and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusaureus. The presence of gold nanoparticles produces an improvement in the mechanical, optical and morphological properties, maintaining the thermal and barrier properties unchanged when compared to the standard biofilm. The active biofilms exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens with inhibition percentages of 99% against E. coli and 98% against S. aureus. These quinoa starch biofilms containing gold nanoparticles are very promising to be used as active food packaging for the maintenance of food safety and extension of the shelf life of packaged foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Data Albums: An Event Driven Search, Aggregation and Curation Tool for Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Maskey, Manil; Bakare, Rohan; Basyal, Sabin; Li, Xiang; Flynn, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Approaches used in Earth science research such as case study analysis and climatology studies involve discovering and gathering diverse data sets and information to support the research goals. To gather relevant data and information for case studies and climatology analysis is both tedious and time consuming. Current Earth science data systems are designed with the assumption that researchers access data primarily by instrument or geophysical parameter. In cases where researchers are interested in studying a significant event, they have to manually assemble a variety of datasets relevant to it by searching the different distributed data systems. This paper presents a specialized search, aggregation and curation tool for Earth science to address these challenges. The search rool automatically creates curated 'Data Albums', aggregated collections of information related to a specific event, containing links to relevant data files [granules] from different instruments, tools and services for visualization and analysis, and information about the event contained in news reports, images or videos to supplement research analysis. Curation in the tool is driven via an ontology based relevancy ranking algorithm to filter out non relevant information and data.

  7. Quantitative co-occurrence of sesquiterpenes; a tool for elucidating their biosynthesis in Indian sandalwood, Santalum album.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher G; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Plummer, Julie A; Barbour, Elizabeth L

    2006-11-01

    A chemotaxonomic approach was used to investigate biosynthetic relationships between heartwood sesquiterpenes in Indian sandalwood, Santalum album L. Strong, linear relationships exist between four structural classes of sesquiterpenes; alpha- and beta-santalenes and bergamotene; gamma- and beta-curcumene; beta-bisabolene and alpha-bisabolol and four unidentified sesquiterpenes. All samples within the heartwood yielded the same co-occurrence patterns, however wood from young trees tended to be more variable. It is proposed that the biosynthesis of each structural class of sesquiterpene in sandalwood oil is linked through common carbocation intermediates. Lack of co-occurrence between each structural class suggests that four separate cyclase enzymes may be operative. The biosynthesis of sandalwood oil sesquiterpenes is discussed with respect to these co-occurrence patterns. Extractable oil yield was correlated to heartwood content of each wood core and the oil composition did not vary significantly throughout the tree.

  8. Heartwood-specific transcriptome and metabolite signatures of tropical sandalwood (Santalum album) reveal the final step of (Z)-santalol fragrance biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Celedon, Jose M; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire M S; Diaz-Chavez, Maria L; Madilao, Lufiani L; Finnegan, Patrick M; Barbour, Elizabeth L; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Tropical sandalwood (Santalum album) produces one of the world's most highly prized fragrances, which is extracted from mature heartwood. However, in some places such as southern India, natural populations of this slow-growing tree are threatened by over-exploitation. Sandalwood oil contains four major and fragrance-defining sesquiterpenols: (Z)-α-santalol, (Z)-β-santalol, (Z)-epi-β-santalol and (Z)-α-exo-bergamotol. The first committed step in their biosynthesis is catalyzed by a multi-product santalene/bergamotene synthase. Sandalwood cytochromes P450 of the CYP76F sub-family were recently shown to hydroxylate santalenes and bergamotene; however, these enzymes produced mostly (E)-santalols and (E)-α-exo-bergamotol. We hypothesized that different santalene/bergamotene hydroxylases evolved in S. album to stereo-selectively produce (E)- or (Z)-sesquiterpenols, and that genes encoding (Z)-specific P450s contribute to sandalwood oil formation if co-expressed in the heartwood with upstream genes of sesquiterpene biosynthesis. This hypothesis was validated by the discovery of a heartwood-specific transcriptome signature for sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, including highly expressed SaCYP736A167 transcripts. We characterized SaCYP736A167 as a multi-substrate P450, which stereo-selectively produces (Z)-α-santalol, (Z)-β-santalol, (Z)-epi-β-santalol and (Z)-α-exo-bergamotol, matching authentic sandalwood oil. This work completes the discovery of the biosynthetic enzymes of key components of sandalwood fragrance, and highlights the evolutionary diversification of stereo-selective P450s in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis. Bioengineering of microbial systems using SaCYP736A167, combined with santalene/bergamotene synthase, has potential for development of alternative industrial production systems for sandalwood oil fragrances. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of Quaternary Ammonium Salts with Fluorine Atoms on Selected Weed Species.

    PubMed

    Biczak, Robert; Pawłowska, Barbara; Płatkowski, Maciej; Stręk, Michał; Telesiński, Arkadiusz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of four structurally different quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), i.e., tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate [TBA][BF 4 ], tetrahexylammonium tetrafluoroborate [THA][BF 4 ], tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate [TBA][PF 6 ], and tetrahexylammonium hexafluorophosphate [THA][PF 6 ], on the growth and development of three weed species: gallant soldier (Galinsoga parviflora Cav.), white goosefoot (Chenopodium album L.) and common sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.). The examined compounds were applied in the form of foliar spraying and soil application. Strong herbicidal properties of the examined compounds were demonstrated in case of their soil application. Growth inhibition of plant shoots and roots was greater with soil application than with foliar treatment. The strongest herbicidal activity of compounds was demonstrated with [TBA][BF 4 ] have demonstrated [TBA][BF 4 ] and [TBA][PF 6 ] applied to the soil, while [THA][BF 4 ] demonstrated the weakest herbicidal action. The increased concentration of applied QASs caused a decrease in the assimilation pigments, change in dry weight content and inhibition of length of shoots and roots.

  10. Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human colon carcinoma cells by Corema album leaves.

    PubMed

    León-González, Antonio J; Manson, Margaret M; López-Lizaro, Miguel; Navarro, Inmaculada; Martín-Cordero, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The leaves of Corema album (Ericaceae), an endemic shrub which grows in Atlantic coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula, are rich in flavonoids and other secondary metabolites. Silica gel column chromatography of the ethyl acetate extract from dried leaves was performed and a flavonic active fraction was obtained. The cytotoxic activity of this fraction was assessed using the colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29. After 48 hours of treatment, cell viability was determined with luminescence-based ATPLite assay, showing IC50 values of 7.2 +/- 0.7 and 6.8 +/- 1.2 microg/mL, respectively. The study by flow cytometry revealed that the cytotoxicity of this fraction was mediated, at least in part, by induction of apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. The active fraction was then subjected to Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and two flavonoids were separated and identified as the flavanone pinocembrin and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone after UV, MS and NMR analysis.

  11. Proposal of Mucilaginibacter galii sp. nov. isolated from leaves of Galium album.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Ebru L; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Moser, Gerald; Müller, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2017-05-01

    A pale-pink-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, PP-F2F-G47T, was isolated from the phyllosphere of the herbaceous plant Galium album. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed highest sequence similarity to the type strains of Mucilaginibacter daejeonensis (96.2 %), Mucilaginibacter dorajii (95.7 %) and Mucilaginibacter phyllosphaerae (95.5 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other type strains were below 95.5 %. The predominant cellular fatty acids of the strain were C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH (measured as summed feature 3) and iso-C15 : 0. The major compound in the polyamine pattern was sym-homospermidine and major quinone was menaquinone MK-7. The polar lipid profile was composed of phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified aminolipipids, phospholipids, aminophospholipids and lipids without a functional group. A sphingophospholipid could not be detected but a ninhydrin-positive alkaline-stable lipid was visible. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses a novel species is proposed, Mucilaginibacter galii sp. nov., with PP-F2F-G47T (=CCM 8711T=CIP 111182T=LMG 29767T) as the type strain.

  12. Visual pigment spectra of the comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album, derived from in vivo epi-illumination microspectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Kurt J A; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2005-05-01

    The visual pigments in the compound eye of the comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album, were investigated in a specially designed epi-illumination microspectrophotometer. Absorption changes due to photochemical conversions of the visual pigments, or due to light-independent visual pigment decay and regeneration, were studied by measuring the eye shine, i.e., the light reflected from the tapetum located in each ommatidium proximal to the visual pigment-bearing rhabdom. The obtained absorbance difference spectra demonstrated the dominant presence of a green visual pigment. The rhodopsin and its metarhodopsin have absorption peak wavelengths at 532 nm and 492 nm, respectively. The metarhodopsin is removed from the rhabdom with a time constant of 15 min and the rhodopsin is regenerated with a time constant of 59 min (room temperature). A UV rhodopsin with metarhodopsin absorbing maximally at 467 nm was revealed, and evidence for a blue rhodopsin was obtained indirectly.

  13. [Acute dietary poisoning by white hellebore (Veratrum album L.). Clinical and analytical data. A propos of 5 cases].

    PubMed

    Garnier, R; Carlier, P; Hoffelt, J; Savidan, A

    1985-01-01

    Five cases of acute accidental poisoning with White Hellebore are reported. All cases occurred several minutes after the ingestion of home-made gentian wine. The clinical signs were nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hypotension and bradycardia. The initial ECG showed sinus bradycardia in 4 cases. In one patient, complete atrioventricular block with an ectopic atrial bradycardia and an intermittent idioventricular rhythm was recorded. Symptomatic treatment and/or atropine led to recovery within a few hours. These symptoms suggested poisoning with a veratrum alkaloid. The White Hellebore (Veratrum Album L.) and the Yellow Gentian (Gentiana Lutea L.) often grow side by side in the fields; it is easy to confuse the two plants before they flower if one is not a botanist. Each gentian wine was analysed by thin layer chromatography and chemical ionisation spectrometry. All the wines contained Veratrum alkaloids.

  14. The prophylactic effect of Viscum album in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Turkkan, Asuman; Savas, Hasan Basri; Yavuz, Berire; Yigit, Ayse; Uz, Efkan; Bayram, Nezire Asli; Kale, Banu

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Viscum album (VA) is a species of mistletoe in the family Santalaceae that is thought to have therapeutic properties for several diseases, including diabetes. In the present study, conventional experimental rat model was used with diabetes induced with streptozotocin (STZ) to evaluate effect of VA on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system. METHODS: Total of 32 adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 rats: Control group, STZ group, VA group, and group administered VA+STZ. VA extract was 100 mg/kg preparation delivered once a day by oral gavage for 10 days. Single dose of 55 mg/kg STZ citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.5) was administered intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood glucose level was measured and recorded. Animals were sacrificed, and catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein present in liver and kidney tissue samples were measured. Activity of CAT, an antioxidant enzyme, was studied according to the Aebi method. MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation, was analyzed using Draper and Hadley spectrophotometric procedure. Protein level was determined using supernatant and extract of tissue homogenates according to Lowry method. Data were assessed using one-way analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons between groups. Post-hoc analysis included Dunnet test, Duncan test, and least significant difference test. P<0.05 was considered significant probability value. RESULTS: Oxidative stress is associated with diabetic complications. VA administered to diabetic rats reduced oxidative stress and improved their general condition. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed to enhance understanding of potential antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of VA. PMID:28058393

  15. Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds. Methods Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and ethanol (EtOH) and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa. Results Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH) and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH) showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 < 1000 μg/mL), which might be associated with cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. C. ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL). By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50%) with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300), with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Conclusions Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine. PMID:22839690

  16. Emission of Trimethylamine from Chenopodium vulvaria - first results from quantifiying plant emissions of amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shang; Neftel, Albrecht; Jörg, Sintermann; Derstroff, Bettina; Sauvage, Carina; Bohley, Katharina; Kadereit, Gudrun; Williams, Jonathan; Pöhlker, Christopher; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Sörgel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Amines comprise a wide range of nitrogenous organic compounds such as aliphatic methylamines MA. TMA is the most common amine species emitted by various sources and the most abundant amine in the atmosphere (Ge et al., 2011a). Additionally, TMA has been found to be the dominant amine species in the gas-phase compared to MMA and DMA at agriculture sites (Schade and Crutzen, 1995). On the global scale, the knowledge about the fluxes of most amines is limited (Ge et al., 2011a). Furthermore, terrestrial vegetation is also assumed to be a potential source for amines (Schade and Crutzen, 1995). There are a few studies from the end of the 19th century until 1975, which described high amount of MA-emission from certain plant species, which was associated with their plant tissues or with blossoms during flowering (Smith, 1971). Despite the low atmospheric concentration of amines (DMA = 0.5 ppb (Okita, 1970), TMA = 0.6 -1.6 ppb (Fujii and Kitai, 1987)), previous studies have already shown that amines play an important role in the New aerosol Particle Formation (NPF) (Almeida et al., 2013, and summarized in Sintermann and Neftel, 2015). In the atmosphere, NPF occurs frequently from gas-phase precursors. High uncertainty exists in the estimation of the global secondary aerosols budget, which was cause to the uncertain contribution of the gas-phase precursors to the NPF (Spracklen et al., 2011). It becomes more clearly that instead of binary systems of sulfuric acid and water, ternary system of sulfuric acid, water and a neutralizing compound as NH3 or amines is a key system in NPF (Almeida et al., 2013, Kurten et al., 2014). Despite their low atmospheric concentrations amines may play, at least locally, a crucial role in aerosol formation. In this study, we focus on the plant species chenopodium vulvaria, which is well known as a strong TMA-emitter (Dessaignes, 1856). But TMA emission rates from that plant species was not determined systematically up to now. In this study, we

  17. Aphid specialization on different summer hosts is associated with strong genetic differentiation and unequal symbiont communities despite a common mating habitat.

    PubMed

    Vorburger, C; Herzog, J; Rouchet, R

    2017-04-01

    Specialization on different host plants can promote evolutionary diversification of herbivorous insects. Work on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) has contributed significantly to the understanding of this process, demonstrating that populations associated with different host plants exhibit performance trade-offs across hosts, show adaptive host choice and genetic differentiation and possess different communities of bacterial endosymbionts. Populations specialized on different secondary host plants during the parthenogenetic summer generations are also described for the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae complex) and are usually treated as different (morphologically cryptic) subspecies. In contrast to pea aphids, however, host choice and mate choice are decoupled in black bean aphids, because populations from different summer hosts return to the same primary host plant to mate and lay overwintering eggs. This could counteract evolutionary divergence, and it is currently unknown to what extent black bean aphids using different summer hosts are indeed differentiated. We addressed this question by microsatellite genotyping and endosymbiont screening of black bean aphids collected in summer from the goosefoot Chenopodium album (subspecies A. f. fabae) and from thistles of the genus Cirsium (subspecies A. f. cirsiiacanthoides) across numerous sites in Switzerland and France. Our results show clearly that aphids from Cirsium and Chenopodium exhibit strong and geographically consistent genetic differentiation and that they differ in their frequencies of infection with particular endosymbionts. The dependence on a joint winter host has thus not prevented the evolutionary divergence into summer host-adapted populations that appear to have evolved mechanisms of reproductive isolation within a common mating habitat. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Impact of ozone on understory plants of the aspen zone

    SciTech Connect

    Harward, M.R.; Treshow, M.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn how ozone might affect the growth and reproduction of understory species of the aspen community, and thereby influence its stability and composition. Plants of 15 representative species of the aspen community were grown in chambers and fumigated 4 hours each day, 5 days per week throughout their growing seasons. These included: Achillea millifolium, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium fremontii, Cruciferae sp., Descurainia pinnata, Descurainia sp., Geranium fremontii, Isatis tinctoria, Ligusticum porteri, Lepidium virginicum, Madia glomerata, Polygonum aviculare, Polygonum douglasii, Phacelia heterophylla, Viola italica. Plants were exposed to 30 pphm, 15 pphm, ambient air reachingmore » 5-7 pphm for 2 hours per day, and filtered air. The study was repeated for 3 seasons. Ambient air caused a significant reduction of total plant weight only of Lepidium virginicum. Six species produced fruit and seeds. At 15 pphm, seed production by Madia glomerata and Polygonum douglasii was significantly reduced. At 30 pphm, seed production was also reduced in Polygonum aviculare and Lepidium virginicum. The two most significant conclusions to emerge from the study were first that several species were more sensitive to ozone than might have been suspected. Second, this sensitivity varied sufficiently that major shifts in community composition would be probable following only a year or two of exposure. More tolerant species have no doubt already become dominant over more sensitive species in natural plant communities exposed to elevated ozone concentrations. It must be stressed that the species studied did not necessarily represent the most ozone sensitive members of the community, or the most tolerant.« less

  19. Occupational asthma induced by garlic dust.

    PubMed

    Añibarro, B; Fontela, J L; De La Hoz, F

    1997-12-01

    Garlic dust has not been a frequently encountered cause of IgE-mediated disease. We report on 12 patients (all of them garlic workers) with the clinical criteria for occupational asthma. Skin prick tests and serum-specific IgE determinations were performed with common inhalants, garlic, and other members of the Liliaceae family (onion, leek, and asparagus). Bronchial challenge test with garlic powder was performed in all patients. Garlic and onion extract proteins were separated by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoblot and IgE immunoblot inhibition analyses were performed with patients' sera on extracts of garlic, onion, and pollens of Phleum pratense and Chenopodium album. Garlic sensitization was demonstrated by bronchial challenge test in seven patients (group 1) and ruled out in the remaining five (group 2). Clinical data were similar in both groups. The patients with garlic allergy had a mean age of 27 years, and all of them had pollen allergy; sensitization to other members of the Liliaceae family was also common. Electrophoresis of garlic extract revealed two major protein bands at approximately 12 and 54 kd. During IgE immunoblotting, the pool of sera reacted with garlic proteins mainly at 54 kd. Preincubation with onion, Phleum, and Chenopodium partially abolished the IgE binding to several allergens of garlic. We report on seven patients in whom an occupational garlic allergy was demonstrated. Garlic allergy is relatively rare but seems to affect young subjects with pollen allergy, and sensitization to other members of the Liliaceae family is common. The results of this study confirm the presence of some structurally similar allergens in garlic, onion, and certain pollens.

  20. Multi-Omics Driven Assembly and Annotation of the Sandalwood (Santalum album) Genome.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Hirehally Basavarajegowda; Subba, Pratigya; Advani, Jayshree; Shirke, Meghana Deepak; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; Chandana, Shankara Lingu; Shilpa, Siddappa; Chatterjee, Oishi; Pinto, Sneha Maria; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava; Gowda, Malali

    2018-04-01

    Indian sandalwood ( Santalum album ) is an important tropical evergreen tree known for its fragrant heartwood-derived essential oil and its valuable carving wood. Here, we applied an integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approach to assemble and annotate the Indian sandalwood genome. Our genome sequencing resulted in the establishment of a draft map of the smallest genome for any woody tree species to date (221 Mb). The genome annotation predicted 38,119 protein-coding genes and 27.42% repetitive DNA elements. In-depth proteome analysis revealed the identities of 72,325 unique peptides, which confirmed 10,076 of the predicted genes. The addition of transcriptomic and proteogenomic approaches resulted in the identification of 53 novel proteins and 34 gene-correction events that were missed by genomic approaches. Proteogenomic analysis also helped in reassigning 1,348 potential noncoding RNAs as bona fide protein-coding messenger RNAs. Gene expression patterns at the RNA and protein levels indicated that peptide sequencing was useful in capturing proteins encoded by nuclear and organellar genomes alike. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic evidence provided an unbiased approach toward the identification of proteins encoded by organellar genomes. Such proteins are often missed in transcriptome data sets due to the enrichment of only messenger RNAs that contain poly(A) tails. Overall, the use of integrated omic approaches enhanced the quality of the assembly and annotation of this nonmodel plant genome. The availability of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data will enhance genomics-assisted breeding, germplasm characterization, and conservation of sandalwood trees. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Phytochrome-mediated long-term memory of seeds.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, K M; Grundy, A C; Market, R

    2005-12-01

    The question is how long phytochrome, stored within the cytoplasm of plant diaspores, may stimulate their germination. This question arose from the observation that soil cultivations in darkness for weed control gave inconsistent results. Namely, after a single nighttime or daytime cultivation during spring and summer, differences in weed emergence became hardly detectable after a period of six weeks. However, after nighttime and daytime cultivations in late autumn, emergence differences persisted for up to nine months. To examine whether this differing memory effect is phytochrome-mediated, seeds of Chenopodium album and Stellaria media were sown in pots with wet peat, either in daylight or after sunset. In the latter, seeds were irradiated with far-red light for one day prior to being covered and buried. For more than two years the far-red irradiated seeds produced significantly reduced emergence, indicating that germination and emergence of weeds in the field may be supported by maternal far-red absorbing seed phytochrome B(fr) over several months or even years. This conclusion allows refining of the strategy of lightless tillage.

  2. Viscum album neutralizes tumor-induced immunosuppression in a human in vitro cell model

    PubMed Central

    Steinborn, Carmen; Klemd, Amy Marisa; Sauer, Barbara; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Urech, Konrad; Follo, Marie; Ücker, Annekathrin; Kienle, Gunver Sophia; Huber, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Tumor cells have the capacity to secrete immunosuppressive substances in order to diminish dendritic cell (DC) activity and thereby escape from immune responses. The impact of mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts (VAE), which are frequently used as an additive anti-cancer therapy to stimulate the immune response, is still unknown. Using a human cellular system, the impact of two different VAE (VAEA + VAEI) on the maturation of human dendritic cells and on T cell function has been investigated using flow cytometry, automated fluorescence microscopy and cytokine bead array assays. Furthermore, we examined whether VAEI was able to counteract tumor-induced immunosuppression within this cellular system using a renal cancer cell model. The role of mistletoe lectin (ML) was analyzed using ML-specific antibodies and ML-depleted VAEI. VAEI and VAEA augmented the maturation of dendritic cells. VAEI abrogated tumor-induced immunosuppression of dendritic cells and both processes were partially mediated by ML since ML-depleted VAEI and ML-specific antibodies almost neutralized the rehabilitative effects of VAEI on DC maturation. Using these settings, co-culture experiments with purified CD4+ T cells had no influence on T cell proliferation and activation but did have an impact on IFN-γ secretion. The study provides a potential mode-of-action of VAE as an additive cancer therapy based on immunomodulatory effects. However, the impact on the in vivo situation has to be evaluated in further studies. PMID:28719632

  3. Proposal of Mucilaginibacter phyllosphaerae sp. nov. isolated from the phyllosphere of Galium album.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Ebru L; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Moser, Gerald; Müller, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2016-10-01

    A pink-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, PP-F2F-G21T, was isolated from the phyllosphere of Galium album. Phylogenetic analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain PP-F2F-G21T showed the closest relationship to type strains of the species Mucilaginibacter lutimaris (97.7 %), Mucilaginibacter soli (97.3 %) and Mucilaginibacter rigui (97.1 %). Sequence similarities to all other type strains were below 97 %. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain PP-F2F-G21T are C16 : 1 ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH (measured as summed feature 3 fatty acids) and iso-C15 : 0 followed by iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 1 ω5c and C16 : 0. The major compound in the polyamine pattern was sym-homospermidine and the diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The quinone system was exclusively composed of menaquinone MK-7. The polar lipid profile contained the major lipid phosphatidylethanolamine and in addition 18 unidentified lipids. Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses, we propose a novel species of the genus Mucilaginibacter named Mucilaginibacter phyllosphaeraesp. nov. The type strain is PP-F2F-G21T (=CCM 8625T=CIP 110921T=LMG 29118T).

  4. Resistance to Plum pox virus strain C in Arabidopsis thaliana and Chenopodium foetidum involves genome-linked viral protein and other viral determinants and might depend on compatibility with host translation initiation factors.

    PubMed

    Calvo, María; Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-11-01

    Research performed on model herbaceous hosts has been useful to unravel the molecular mechanisms that control viral infections. The most common Plum pox virus (PPV) strains are able to infect Nicotiana species as well as Chenopodium and Arabidopsis species. However, isolates belonging to strain C (PPV-C) that have been adapted to Nicotiana spp. are not infectious either in Chenopodium foetidum or in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to determine the mechanism underlying this interesting host-specific behavior, we have constructed chimerical clones derived from Nicotiana-adapted PPV isolates from the D and C strains, which differ in their capacity to infect A. thaliana and C. foetidum. With this approach, we have identified the nuclear inclusion a protein (VPg+Pro) as the major pathogenicity determinant that conditions resistance in the presence of additional secondary determinants, different for each host. Genome-linked viral protein (VPg) mutations similar to those involved in the breakdown of eIF4E-mediated resistance to other potyviruses allow some PPV chimeras to infect A. thaliana. These results point to defective interactions between a translation initiation factor and the viral VPg as the most probable cause of host-specific incompatibility, in which other viral factors also participate, and suggest that complex interactions between multiple viral proteins and translation initiation factors not only define resistance to potyviruses in particular varieties of susceptible hosts but also contribute to establish nonhost resistance.

  5. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Megan L.; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

  6. Viscum album (L.) in experimental animal tumors: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bonamin, Leoni Villano; de Carvalho, Aloisio Cunha; Waisse, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) has been used as complementary anticancer treatment for ~100 years. Although the clinical efficacy of mistletoe in cancer and associated survival benefits remain contested, several studies point to its effectiveness and others have reported antitumor and immunomodulatory properties. In the present review, a search was conducted for original articles reporting the outcomes of treatments for experimental animal tumors with mistletoe. The inclusion criteria were: Publication in English, from 1996 onwards and in peer-reviewed journals included in the database PubMed. The parameters analyzed were: Provenance and time of publication, rationale, methods (animal species used, mistletoe preparation, treatment protocol, tumor lineage, blinding, randomization, controls and concomitant treatments), outcomes and investigated mechanisms of action. A total of 37 studies met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was adequate in the terms of sample size and use of controls, and the only animal species employed were mice and rats. However, few studies reported having performed random allocation and none reported blinding. There was wide variation in the type and preparation of mistletoe used, route of administration, regimen, tumor type and the mechanism of action assessed. A temporal trend was identified; earlier studies sought to establish the antitumor effect of mistletoe and its possible mechanisms, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation in particular, whereas the later ones tended to focus more on biologically active principles, genomics and oxidative stress. A total of 32/37 studies reported an antitumor effect, 3 of which had mixed results. A total of 2 studies did not detect any antitumor effect and a further 2 found stimulation of tumor growth in the treated groups. One study did not assess antitumor effects, investigating immunomodulation action instead. The quality of the studies was satisfactory and the majority reported positive

  7. Piecing together the biogeographic history of Chenopodium vulvaria L. using botanical literature and collections

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the value of legacy literature and historic collections as a source of data on environmental history. Chenopodium vulvaria L. has declined in northern Europe and is of conservation concern in several countries, whereas in other countries outside Europe it has naturalised and is considered an alien weed. In its European range it is considered native in the south, but the northern boundary of its native range is unknown. It is hypothesised that much of its former distribution in northern Europe was the result of repeated introductions from southern Europe and that its decline in northern Europe is the result of habitat change and a reduction in the number of propagules imported to the north. A historical analysis of its ecology and distribution was conducted by mining legacy literature and historical botanical collections. Text analysis of habitat descriptions written on specimens and published in botanical literature covering a period of more than 200 years indicate that the habitat and introduction pathways of C. vulvaria have changed with time. Using the non-European naturalised range in a climate niche model, it is possible to project the range in Europe. By comparing this predicted model with a similar model created from all observations, it is clear that there is a large discrepancy between the realized and predicted distributions. This is discussed together with the social, technological and economic changes that have occurred in northern Europe, with respect to their influence on C. vulvaria. PMID:25653906

  8. Chenopodium ambrosioides associated with whole body vibration exercises alters the feed intake in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, André Luiz Bandeira Dionizio; Frederico, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Almeida, Lívia Pinto; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia Cunha; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Dionello, Carla de Fontoura; Morel, Danielle Soares; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liane; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-08-31

    The consequences of treatment involving the use of a natural product and whole body vibration (WBV) exercise have been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the joint treatment with an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and WBV on physiological parameters in rats. Wistar rats ( n =20) were divided equally into four groups: control group (CG), treated with C. ambrosioides (CHE) group, exposed to 50 Hz of mechanial vibration (VBR), and treated with C. ambrosioides and exposed to 50 Hz of mechanical vibration (VBR + CHE) daily for 6 weeks. The body mass of the animals was determined weekly, the feed intake and the stool consistency were measured daily. One day after the 6 weeks of treatment, samples of blood were collected and used for biochemical analysis. Along 6 weeks, there was an increase ( P <0.001) in the feed intake in VBR group and a decrease in the CHE group in comparison with other groups. The levels of the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in VBR + CHE group decreased ( P <0.05) in comparison with other groups. No differences were found in body mass and stool consistency. WBV altered the feed intake without directly affecting the body mass. Moreover, WBV in association with C. ambrosioides caused alteration in the enzymatic activity of AST. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Comparison of the intradermal irritant threshold concentrations of nine allergens from two different manufacturers in clinically nonallergic dogs in the USA.

    PubMed

    Foust-Wheatcraft, Desirae A; Dell, Darin L; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S; Griffin, Craig E

    2017-12-01

    The intradermal irritant threshold concentration for many allergens is unknown. To determine the intradermal irritant threshold concentration (ITC) of nine allergens from two different manufacturers. Twenty privately owned clinically nonallergic dogs. Alternaria, cat dander, Dermatophagoides farinae, Chenopodium album (lamb's quarter), Xanthium strumarium (cocklebur), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), Morus alba (white mulberry), Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) and Phleum pretense (Timothy grass) from two manufacturers (ALK; Round Rock, TX, USA and Greer ® Laboratories; Lenoir, NC, USA) were injected intradermally at two dilutions and at 15 and 30 min evaluated subjectively (1-4) and objectively (horizontal wheal diameter) by two blinded investigators. A subjective score of 3 or 4 by either investigator at either timed reading was considered positive. If both concentrations resulted in positive reactions, two additional dilutions were performed. The ITC was defined as the lowest tested concentration that elicited a positive reaction in ≥10% of animals. The ITCs were Alternaria >2,000 PNU/mL; cat dander 750 PNU/mL (ALK) and 2,000 PNU/mL (Greer ® ); D. farinae <1:10,000 w/v; C. album <6,000 PNU/mL; X. strumarium <6,000 PNU/mL; P. glandulosa <500 PNU/mL; M. alba <6,000 PNU/mL; C. dactylon <10,000 PNU/mL (ALK) and <6,000 PNU/mL (Greer ® ); and P. pretense <6,000 PNU/mL. There were significant differences in subjective scoring and objective measurement between manufacturers for Alternaria, cat dander and P. pretense. Results revealed significant positive correlation between subjective scoring and objective measurement for each time, investigator and manufacturer separately. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Mistletoe lectin is not the only cytotoxic component in fermented preparations of Viscum album from white fir (Abies pectinata)

    PubMed Central

    Eggenschwiler, Jenny; von Balthazar, Leopold; Stritt, Bianca; Pruntsch, Doreen; Ramos, Mac; Urech, Konrad; Rist, Lukas; Simões-Wüst, A Paula; Viviani, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background Preparations of mistletoe (Viscum album) are the form of cancer treatment that is most frequently used in the complementary medicine. Previous work has shown that these preparations are able to exert cytotoxic effects on carcinoma cells, the extent of which might be influenced by the host tree species and by the content of mistletoe lectin. Methods Using colorimetric assays, we have now compared the cytotoxic effects of Viscum album preparations (VAPs) obtained from mistletoe growing on oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea, VAP-Qu), apple tree (Malus domestica,, VAP-M), pine (Pinus sylvestris, VAP-P) or white fir (Abies pectinata, VAP-A), on the in vitro growth of breast and bladder carcinoma cell lines. While MFM-223, KPL-1, MCF-7 and HCC-1937 were the breast carcinoma cell lines chosen, the panel of tested bladder carcinoma cells comprised the T-24, TCC-SUP, UM-UC-3 and J-82 cell lines. Results Each of the VAPs inhibited cell growth, but the extent of this inhibition differed with the preparation and with the cell line. The concentrations of VAP-Qu, VAP-M and VAP-A which led to a 50 % reduction of cell growth (IC50) varied between 0.6 and 0.03 mg/ml. Higher concentrations of VAP-P were required to obtain a comparable effect. Purified mistletoe lectin I (MLI) led to an inhibition of breast carcinoma cell growth at concentrations lower than those of VAPs, but the sensitivity towards purified MLI did not parallel that towards VAPs. Bladder carcinoma cells were in most cases more sensitive to VAPs treatment than breast carcinoma cells. The total mistletoe lectin content was very high in VAP-Qu (54 ng/mg extract), intermediate in VAP-M (25 ng/mg extract), and very low in VAP-P (1.3 ng/mg extract) and in VAP-A (1 ng/mg extract). As to be expected from the low content of mistletoe lectin, VAP-P led to relatively weak cytotoxic effects. Most remarkably, however, the lectin-poor VAP-A revealed a cytotoxic effect comparable to, or even stronger than, that of the

  11. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer activities of a novel bioactive polysaccharide from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yichen; Zhang, Jinming; Zou, Liang; Fu, Chaomei; Li, Peng; Zhao, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Chenopodium quinoa, a promising nutraceutical cereal, has attracted increasing research interest, yet its polysaccharides remains to get few systematic studies. In this study, we employed orthogonal experimental design to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction process for highest yield of C. quinoa polysaccharides. A novel C. quinoa polysaccharide (CQP) fraction with high content and low molecular weight (8852Da) was subsequently purified by column chromatography, constituted by galacturonic acid and glucose monosaccharides. The purified CQP exhibited significantly antioxidant effect against DPPH + and ABTS + , with even higher efficiency than some other reported polysaccharides. Moreover, CQP could promote the RAW264.7 macrophage proliferation, while suppress the nitri oxide production on inflammatory RAW264.7 macrophage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In view of the pathological correlation of free radical, inflammation and carcinogenesis, the anticancer effect of CQP was further investigated on human liver cancer SMMC 7721 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, CQP displayed cytotoxicity against cancer cells, while none proliferation inhibition on normal cells. These results suggest that the bioactive polysaccharide from C. quinoa provided the promising potential as a natural antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer candidate for food and even drug application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antileishmanial activity of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and its main components against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Monzote, L; Pastor, J; Scull, R; Gille, L

    2014-01-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides have been used during centuries by native people to treat parasitic diseases. To compare the in vivo anti-leishmanial activity of the essential oil (EO) from C. ambrosioides and its major components (ascaridole, carvacrol and caryophyllene oxide). Anti-leishmanial effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis and treated with the EO, main compounds and artificial mix of pure components by intralesional route at 30 mg/kg every 4 days during 14 days. Diseases progression and parasite burden in infected tissues were determined. EO prevented lesion development compared (p<0.05) with untreated animals and treated with vehicle. In addition, the efficacy of EO was also statistically superior (p<0.05) compared with the glucantime-treated animals. No potential effects were observed with pure components treatment. Mix of pure compounds cause death of animals after 3 days of treatment. Our results demonstrate the superiority of EO against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. amazonensis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) extract regulates gene expression related to muscle atrophy and muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Juseong; Park, Choon-Ho; Kim, Inbo; Kim, Young-Ho; Yoon, Jae-Min; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jong-Bae

    2017-01-21

    Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) is a semi-parasitic plant that grows on various trees and has a diverse range of effects on biological functions, being implicated in having anti-tumor, immunostimulatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity properties. Recently, we also reported that Korean mistletoe extract (KME) improves endurance exercise in mice, suggesting its beneficial roles in enhancing the capacity of skeletal muscle. We examined the expression pattern of several genes concerned with muscle physiology in C2C12 myotubes cells to identify whether KME inhibits muscle atrophy or promotes muscle hypertrophy. We also investigated these effects of KME in denervated mice model. Interestingly, KME induced the mRNA expression of SREBP-1c, PGC-1α, and GLUT4, known positive regulators of muscle hypertrophy, in C2C12 cells. On the contrary, KME reduced the expression of Atrogin-1, which is directly involved in the induction of muscle atrophy. In animal models, KME mitigated the decrease of muscle weight in denervated mice. The expression of Atrogin-1 was also diminished in those mice. Moreover, KME enhanced the grip strength and muscle weight in long-term feeding mice. Our results suggest that KME has beneficial effects on muscle atrophy and muscle hypertrophy.

  14. Crystal Structure of Mistletoe Lectin I (ML-I) from Viscum album in Complex with 4-N-Furfurylcytosine at 2.85 Å Resolution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; Rasheed, Saima; Falke, Sven; Khaliq, Binish; Perbandt, Markus; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Markiewicz, Wojciech T; Barciszewski, Jan; Betzel, Christian

    2018-05-23

    Viscum album (the European mistletoe) is a semi-parasitic plant, which is of high medical interest. It is widely found in Europe, Asia and North America. It contains at least three distinct lectins (i.e. ML-I, II, and III), varying in molecular mass and specificity. Among them ML-I is in focus of medical research for various activities, including anti-cancer activities. To understand the molecular basis for such medical applications a few studies have already addressed the structural and functional analysis of ML-I in complex with ligands. In continuation of these efforts, we are reporting the crystal structure of ML from Viscum album in complex with the nucleic acid oxidation product 4-N-furfurylcytosine (FC) refined to 2.85 Å resolution. FC is known to be involved in different metabolic pathways related to oxidative stress and DNA modification. X-ray suitable hexagonal crystals of the ML-I/FC complex were grown within four days at 294 K using the hanging drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected up to a resolution of 2.85 Å. The ligand affinity was verified via in-silico docking. The high-resolution structure was refined subsequently to analyze particularly the active site conformation and binding epitope of 4-N-furfurylcytosine. A distinct 2Fo-Fc electron density at the active site was interpreted as a single FC molecule. The specific binding of FC is achieved also through hydrophobic interactions involving Tyr76A, Tyr115A, Glu165A, and Leu157A of the ML-I A-chain. The binding energy of FC to the active site of ML-I was calculated as well to be -6.03 kcal mol-1. In comparison to other reported ML-I complexes we observed distinct differences in the vicinity of the nucleic acid base binding site upon interaction with FC. Therefore, data obtained will provide new insights in understanding the specificity, inhibition and cytotoxicity of the ML-I A-chain and related RIPs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  15. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yong-Han; Huang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Yao-Cheng; Tsai, Pi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV) exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis ( Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE) on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cells with 150  μ g/mL CFE treatment had higher survival and less production of interleukin- (IL-) 6, matrix metalloprotease- (MMP-) 1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UVB-irradiated conditions. Subsequently, in animal studies, mice supplemented with CFE (100 mg/kg BW) were under UVB irradiation and had thinner epidermis and lower IL-6 levels in skin layer. These data demonstrate that bioactive compounds possessing the potency of antiphotoaging exist in CFE. Following that, we found rutin and chlorogenic acid (10-100  μ M) could significantly increase cell viability and decrease the production of IL-6 in UVB models. Additionally, djulis pigment-betanin has no effect of increasing cell viability in this study. Our findings suggest CFE can protect skin against UV-induced damage and this protection is mainly from contributions of rutin and chlorogenic acid.

  16. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Yao-Cheng; Tsai, Pi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV) exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE) on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cells with 150 μg/mL CFE treatment had higher survival and less production of interleukin- (IL-) 6, matrix metalloprotease- (MMP-) 1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UVB-irradiated conditions. Subsequently, in animal studies, mice supplemented with CFE (100 mg/kg BW) were under UVB irradiation and had thinner epidermis and lower IL-6 levels in skin layer. These data demonstrate that bioactive compounds possessing the potency of antiphotoaging exist in CFE. Following that, we found rutin and chlorogenic acid (10–100 μM) could significantly increase cell viability and decrease the production of IL-6 in UVB models. Additionally, djulis pigment-betanin has no effect of increasing cell viability in this study. Our findings suggest CFE can protect skin against UV-induced damage and this protection is mainly from contributions of rutin and chlorogenic acid. PMID:27847821

  17. Phytoecdysteroids and flavonoid glycosides among Chilean and commercial sources of Chenopodium quinoa: variation and correlation to physicochemical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Brittany; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Poulev, Alexander; Calfio, Camila; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among seventeen distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physicochemical characteristics (seed color, 100-seed weight, protein content, oil content). RESULTS PE and FG concentrations exhibited over 4-fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 μg/g to 570 ± 124 μg/g total PE content and 192 ± 24 μg/g to 804 ± 91 μg/g total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 μg/g) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 μg/g) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t-test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation). CONCLUSION FG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food. PMID:25683633

  18. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by potential native plants and their microscopic observation of root growing on stabilised distillery sludge as a prospective tool for in situ phytoremediation of industrial waste.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    The safe disposal of post-methanated distillery sludge (PMDS) in the environment is challenging due to high concentrations of heavy metals along with other complex organic pollutants. The study has revealed that PMDS contained high amounts of Fe (2403), Zn (210), Mn (126), Cu (73.62), Cr (21.825), Pb (16.33) and Ni (13.425 mg kg -1 ) along with melanoidins and other co-pollutants. The phytoextraction pattern in 15 potential native plants growing on sludge showed that the Blumea lacera, Parthenium hysterophorous, Setaria viridis, Chenopodium album, Cannabis sativa, Basella alba, Tricosanthes dioica, Amaranthus spinosus L., Achyranthes sp., Dhatura stramonium, Sacchrum munja and Croton bonplandianum were noted as root accumulator for Fe, Zn and Mn, while S. munja, P. hysterophorous, C. sativa, C. album, T. dioica, D. stramonium, B. lacera, B. alba, Kalanchoe pinnata and Achyranthes sp. were found as shoot accumulator for Fe. In addition, A. spinosus L. was found as shoot accumulator for Zn and Mn. Similarly, all plants found as leaf accumulator for Fe, Zn and Mn except A. spinosus L. and Ricinus communis. Further, the BCF of all tested plants were noted <1, while the TF showed >1. This revealed that metal bioavailability to plant is poor due to strong complexation of heavy metals with organic pollutants. This gives a strong evidence of hyperaccumulation for the tested metals from complex distillery waste. Furthermore, the TEM observations of root of P. hysterophorous, C. sativa, Solanum nigrum and R. communis showed formation of multi-nucleolus, multi-vacuoles and deposition of metal granules in cellular component of roots as a plant adaptation mechanism for phytoextraction of heavy metal-rich polluted site. Hence, these native plants may be used as a tool for in situ phytoremediation and eco-restoration of industrial waste-contaminated site.

  19. Nutrient composition of selected traditional native American plant foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ten wild plants (cattail narrow leaf shoots, chokecherries, beaked hazelnuts, lambsquarters, plains pricklypear, prairie turnips, stinging nettles, wild plums, raspberries, rose hips) from three Native American reservations in North Dakota were analyzed to expand composition information of tradition...

  20. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    PubMed

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ontogenesis of the collapsed layer during haustorium development in the root hemi-parasite Santalum album Linn.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Zhang, X; Teixeira da Silva, J A; Liang, K; Deng, R; Ma, G

    2014-01-01

    The structure and development of collapsed layers of the haustorium were studied in Santalum album Linn. Through light and transmission electron microscopy, it was shown that the collapsed layers originated from starch-containing cells when the haustorium developed an internal gland, thickened gradually and ultimately developed into the mantle, which, combined with the sucker, buckled the host root. We report on the presence of inter-collapsed layers for the first time. These layers develop after penetration into the host and are located between the intrusive tissues and the vascular meristematic region, gradually linking the collapsed layers and remains around the sucker. The proliferation of cells in the meristematic region and the 'host tropism' of cortical layers contribute to pressure within the haustorium and result in development of the collapsed layers. Besides, starch-containing cells that turn into collapsed layers are vulnerable to pressure as they lack a large vacuole, have uneven cell wall thickness and a loose cell arrangement. We proposed that the functions of collapsed layers are to efficiently assure that cell inclusion and energy concentrate at the inner meristematic region and are recycled to affect penetration, reinforce the physical connection between the sandalwood haustorium and host root, and supply space for haustorial development. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Herbicidal activity of slow-release herbicide formulations in wheat stands infested by weeds.

    PubMed

    Zhila, Natalia; Murueva, Anastasiya; Shershneva, Anna; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina; Volova, Tatiana

    2017-10-03

    The present study reports the herbicidal activity of metribuzin and tribenuron-methyl embedded in the degradable matrix of natural poly-3-hydroxybutyrate [P(3HB)/MET and P(3HB)/TBM]. The developed formulations were constructed as films and microgranules, which were tested against the weeds such as white sweet clover Melilotus albus and lamb's quarters Chenopodium album in the presence of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. Altaiskaya 70) as the subject crop for investigation. The activity was measured in laboratory scale experiments by determining the density and weight of the vegetative organs of weeds. The study was also aimed at testing the effect of the experimental formulation on the growth of wheat crop as dependent on the method of herbicide delivery. The experimental MET and TBM formulations showed pronounced herbicidal activity against the weed species used in the study. The effectiveness of the experimental formulations in inhibiting weed growth was comparable to and, sometimes, higher than that of the commercial formulations (positive control). The amount of the biomass of the wheat treated with the experimental herbicide formulations was significantly greater than that of the wheat treated with commercial formulations.

  3. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    PubMed

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  5. The phenomena of Pine's "four psychologies": their contrast and interplay as exhibited in the Beatles' "white album".

    PubMed

    Brog, M A

    1995-01-01

    Psychoanalytically informed clinicians are frequently challenged with recognizing and integrating into their work the diverse phenomena central to differing psychoanalytic theoretical frameworks. In addressing this dilemma, Pine has formulated a "multiple model" that recognizes the qualitatively different psychological phenomena and the distinct motivational forces emphasized by what he calls "the four psychologies of psychoanalysis," the psychologies of drive, ego, object relations and self. This model makes it possible to describe individual personality organizations in terms of psychological hierarchies of the phenomena of the four psychologies. Use of this model promotes a particular kind of listening stance that facilitates recognition and use of a wide variety of clinical data. The usefulness of this model is demonstrated through its application to a creative work, the Beatles' "White Album." This application shows the utility of Pine's psychological hierarchies in describing differing personality organizations, the "multiple functions" mental events can represent through serving the motives of multiple psychologies, and the frequent interactions that occur between the differing psychological phenomena. Pine's model facilitates a recognition that an important quality found in works by the Beatles is their demonstration in strikingly clear form, of the qualitatively different aspects of human experience emphasized by the four psychologies. The accessibility of Beatles music makes it a potentially valuable teaching tool for demonstrating Pine's model.

  6. Ethanol Extracts from Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Act as Natural Antioxidants and Antimicrobial Agents in Uncooked Pork Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of mistletoe (Viscum album L. var. coloratum Ohwi; VAL) extract in uncooked pork patties was evaluated. Three concentrations of VAL extract (0.1 [T1], 0.5% [T2] and 1.0% [T3]) along with 0.02% ascorbic acid as a positive control (V) were added to ground pork and pork patties were prepared. Incorporation of VAL extract decreased (p<0.05) the pH of the pork patties throughout the storage time and reduced (p<0.01) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values after day 14 of storage. Total plate counts of the VAL extract-treated samples and V-treated samples were also significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of the control (C) throughout the storage period. In addition, odor scores of the VAL extract-treated patties were lower than those of the C- or V-treated samples on 3rd day of the storage period. These results demonstrated that the VAL extract acts as a natural antioxidant in uncooked pork products. PMID:26732334

  7. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r 2 = 0.88 (p < 0.05). Results showed that none of the varieties we studied can be classified as "sweet". Nine varieties were classified as "low-sapogenin". We recommend six of the varieties be subjected to saponin removal process before consumption. A multivariate analysis was conducted to evaluate and cluster the different genotypes according their sapogenin profile as a way of predicting the possible utility of separate quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  8. The antioxidant activity and nitric oxide production of extracts obtained from the leaves of Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Lan, Xiang-Zhen; Wu, Yan-Yi; Ou, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tsung Chi; Wu, Wen-Tzu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most reports have indicated the antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds. However, the leaves of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) are usually worthless and little known about their biological activities. In this study, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of the quinoa leaf extracts were explored. Methods: The crude leaf extracts of quinoa were extracted using water, 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol as solvent, denoted WQL, 50% EQL and 95% EQL, respectively. The antioxidant activities of quinoa leaf extracts were assessed by the ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and iron chelating. The total phenolic content was determined. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells was examined to gauge the anti-inflammatory activity. Results: The 95% EQL showed a higher level of total phenolic content (569.5 mg GAE/g extract) and better DPPH scavenging activity. The WQL exhibited a better iron chelating capacity (28.9% at 10 mg/ml). The iron chelating activity of the 95% EQL increased in a concentration-dependent manner, which ranged from 10.9% up to 53.9%. The 50% EQL and 95% EQL significantly inhibited NO production in the LPSstimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: We demonstrate that the extracts of quinoa leaves possess the biological activities of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Our finding suggests that the leaf extract of quinoa has potential to be utilized for natural health products. PMID:29130449

  9. Identification and structural characterization of a new pro-apoptotic cyclic octapeptide cyclosaplin from somatic seedlings of Santalum album L.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abheepsa; Gauri, Samiran S; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav K; Chatterjee, Soumya; Das, Shibendu S; Mandal, Santi M; Dey, Satyahari

    2014-04-01

    Small cyclic peptides exhibiting potent biological activity have great potential for anticancer therapy. An antiproliferative cyclic octapeptide, cyclosaplin was purified from somatic seedlings of Santalum album L. (sandalwood) using gel filtration and RP-HPLC separation process. The molecular mass of purified peptide was found to be 858 Da and the sequence was determined by MALDI-ToF-PSD-MS as 'RLGDGCTR' (cyclic). The cytotoxic activity of the peptide was tested against human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell line in a dose and time-dependent manner. The purified peptide exhibited significant antiproliferative activity with an IC50 2.06 μg/mL. In a mechanistic approach, apoptosis was observed in differential microscopic studies for peptide treated MDA-MB-231 cells, which was further confirmed by mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA fragmentation assay, cell cycle analysis and caspase 3 activities. The modeling and docking experiments revealed strong affinity (kcal/mol) of peptide toward EGFR and procaspase 3. The co-localization studies revealed that the peptide sensitizes MDA-MB-231 cells by possibly binding to EGFR and induces apoptosis. This unique cyclic octapeptide revealed to be a favorable candidate for development of anticancer agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multivariate analyses of salt stress and metabolite sensing in auto- and heterotroph Chenopodium cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Wongchai, C; Chaidee, A; Pfeiffer, W

    2012-01-01

    Global warming increases plant salt stress via evaporation after irrigation, but how plant cells sense salt stress remains unknown. Here, we searched for correlation-based targets of salt stress sensing in Chenopodium rubrum cell suspension cultures. We proposed a linkage between the sensing of salt stress and the sensing of distinct metabolites. Consequently, we analysed various extracellular pH signals in autotroph and heterotroph cell suspensions. Our search included signals after 52 treatments: salt and osmotic stress, ion channel inhibitors (amiloride, quinidine), salt-sensing modulators (proline), amino acids, carboxylic acids and regulators (salicylic acid, 2,4-dichlorphenoxyacetic acid). Multivariate analyses revealed hirarchical clusters of signals and five principal components of extracellular proton flux. The principal component correlated with salt stress was an antagonism of γ-aminobutyric and salicylic acid, confirming involvement of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in salt stress sensing. Proline, short non-substituted mono-carboxylic acids (C2-C6), lactic acid and amiloride characterised the four uncorrelated principal components of proton flux. The proline-associated principal component included an antagonism of 2,4-dichlorphenoxyacetic acid and a set of amino acids (hydrophobic, polar, acidic, basic). The five principal components captured 100% of variance of extracellular proton flux. Thus, a bias-free, functional high-throughput screening was established to extract new clusters of response elements and potential signalling pathways, and to serve as a core for quantitative meta-analysis in plant biology. The eigenvectors reorient research, associating proline with development instead of salt stress, and the proof of existence of multiple components of proton flux can help to resolve controversy about the acid growth theory. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial and antimycobacterial activity and HPLC-DAD screening of phenolics from Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Roberta S; Piana, Mariana; Freitas, Robson B; Brum, Thiele F; Alves, Camilla F S; Belke, Bianca V; Mossmann, Natália Jank; Cruz, Ritiel C; Santos, Roberto C V; Dalmolin, Tanise V; Bianchini, Bianca V; Campos, Marli M A; Bauermann, Liliane de Freitas

    The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract and fractions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., popularly known as Santa-Maria herb, against microorganisms of clinical interest by the microdilution technique, and also to show the chromatographic profile of the phenolic compounds in the species. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiotonic, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The analysis by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of rutin in the crude extract (12.5±0.20mg/g), ethyl acetate (16.5±0.37mg/g) and n-butanol (8.85±0.11mg/g), whereas quercetin and chrysin were quantified in chloroform fraction (1.95±0.04 and 1.04±0.01mg/g), respectively. The most promising results were obtained with the ethyl acetate fraction, which inhibited a greater number of microorganisms and presented the lowest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC=0.42mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=34.37mg/mL), Paenibacillus apiarus (MIC=4.29mg/mL) and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus (MIC=4.29mg/mL). Considering mycobacterial inhibition, the best results were obtained by chloroform fraction against M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, and M. avium (MIC ranging from 156.25 to 625μg/mL). This study proves, in part, that the popular use of C. ambrosioides L. can be an effective and sustainable alternative for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by various infectious agents. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Masami; Matsuzaki, Chiaki; Ueno, Mariko; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Imamura, Tomohiro; Miyago, Manami; Tanaka, Kojiro; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi; Fujita, Yasunari

    2016-12-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we established the inbred and standard quinoa accession Kd that enables rigorous molecular analysis, and presented the draft genome sequence of Kd, using an optimized combination of high-throughput next generation sequencing on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers. The de novo genome assembly contained 25 k scaffolds consisting of 1 Gbp with N50 length of 86 kbp. Based on these data, we constructed the free-access Quinoa Genome DataBase (QGDB). Thus, these findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying agronomically important traits of quinoa and the effect of allotetraploidy on genome evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  13. Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Masami; Matsuzaki, Chiaki; Ueno, Mariko; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Imamura, Tomohiro; Miyago, Manami; Tanaka, Kojiro; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi; Fujita, Yasunari

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we established the inbred and standard quinoa accession Kd that enables rigorous molecular analysis, and presented the draft genome sequence of Kd, using an optimized combination of high-throughput next generation sequencing on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers. The de novo genome assembly contained 25 k scaffolds consisting of 1 Gbp with N50 length of 86 kbp. Based on these data, we constructed the free-access Quinoa Genome DataBase (QGDB). Thus, these findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying agronomically important traits of quinoa and the effect of allotetraploidy on genome evolution. PMID:27458999

  14. Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene.

    PubMed

    Kordali, Saban; Cakir, Ahmet; Ozer, Hakan; Cakmakci, Ramazan; Kesdek, Memis; Mete, Ebru

    2008-12-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Origanum acutidens was analyzed by GC-MS. Carvacrol (87.0%), p-cymene (2.0%), linalool acetate (1.7%), borneol (1.6%) and beta-caryophyllene (1.3%) were found to be as main constituents. Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal activities of the oil and its aromatic monoterpene constituents, carvacrol, p-cymene and thymol were also determined. The antifungal assays showed that O. acutidens oil, carvacrol and thymol completely inhibited mycelial growth of 17 phytopathogenic fungi and their antifungal effects were higher than commercial fungicide, benomyl. However, p-cymene possessed lower antifungal activity. The oil, carvacrol and thymol completely inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album and Rumex crispus and also showed a potent phytotoxic effect against these plants. However, p-cymene did not show any phytotoxic effect. Furthermore, O. acutidens oil showed 68.3% and 36.7% mortality against Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adults, respectively. The findings of the present study suggest that antifungal and herbicidal properties of the oil can be attributed to its major component, carvacrol, and these agents have a potential to be used as fungicide, herbicide as well as insecticide.

  15. Allelopathy relationship between plants and their use in organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, M.; Voşgan, Z.; Mare Roşca, O.; Mihalescu, L.

    2017-05-01

    Allelopathy is a process still little studied in the plant world, if we refer to the diversity of biochemical compounds, through which plants can interact with each other, with fungi or bacteria. Biochemical "dialogue" between organisms may have stimulatory or inhibitory effects, contributing to numerical setting of the populations, the assertion of some species over others, the establishment and strengthen of plant communities. Practically, the allelopathy can be exploited in organic farming in understanding and identifying compatibility between species, to finding natural substances with herbicide potential. In experiments conducted, diluted extracts of Taraxacum officinale and Cirsium vulgare strongly inhibited the germination and growth of corn and beans, while Hedera helix produced the same effect, but at higher concentrations of the extract. Humulus lupulus extract has a stimulating effect on the two species and it is possible to use as natural fertilizer. Extracts of Chenopodium album works as stimulator for Beta vulgaris, and potent inhibitor for Triticum aestivum. Agropyron repens is an aggressive competitor for Lycopersicon esculentum and Capsicum annuum, producing a strong inhibition. Juglans regia extracts and especially those of Satureja hortensis, can be used as natural herbicides for up delay germination and growth suppression for the species: Echinochloa crus-galli and Setaria glauca.

  16. Data Albums: An Event Driven Search, Aggregation and Curation Tool for Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Maskey, Manil; Bakare, Rohan; Basyal, Sabin; Li, Xiang; Flynn, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    challenges. The search tool automatically creates curated "Data Albums", aggregated collections of information related to a specific science topic or event, containing links to relevant data files (granules) from different instruments; tools and services for visualization and analysis; and information about the event contained in news reports, images or videos to supplement research analysis. Curation in the tool is driven via an ontology based relevancy ranking algorithm to filter out non-relevant information and data.

  17. Interaction of ascaridole, carvacrol, and caryophyllene oxide from essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. with mitochondria in Leishmania and other eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Monzote, Lianet; Geroldinger, Gerald; Tonner, Matthias; Scull, Ramón; De Sarkar, Sritama; Bergmann, Sophie; Bacher, Markus; Staniek, Katrin; Chatterjee, Mitali; Rosenau, Thomas; Gille, Lars

    2018-04-19

    The antileishmanial activity of the essential oil (EO) from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models, attributed to the major components of the EO. This study focused on the effects of the three major EO compounds carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide (Caryo), and the antileishmanial endoperoxide ascaridole (Asc) on mitochondrial functions in Leishmania tarentolae promastigotes (LtP). EO and Caryo were able to partially inhibit the leishmanial electron transport chain, whereas other components failed to demonstrate a direct immediate effect. Caryo demonstrated inhibition of complex III activity in LtP and in isolated complex III from other species. The formation of superoxide radicals was studied in Leishmania by electron spin resonance spectroscopy in the presence of iron chelators wherein selected compounds failed to trigger a significant immediate additional superoxide production in LtP. However, upon prolonged incubation of Leishmania with Asc and especially in the absence of iron chelators (allowing the activation of Asc), an increased superoxide radical production and significant impairment of mitochondrial coupling in Leishmania was observed. Prolonged incubation with all EO components resulted in thiol depletion. Taken together, the major components of EO mediate their leishmanicidal activity via different mitochondrial targets and time profiles. Further studies are required to elucidate possible synergistic effects of carvacrol and Asc and the influence of minor compounds. © 2018 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Use and safety of intratumoral application of European mistletoe (Viscum album L) preparations in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2015-03-01

    Intratumoral (IT) injection of European mistletoe (Viscum album L) preparations might induce local tumor response through combined cytotoxic and immunomodulatory actions of the preparations. Although promising in vitro and in vivo data, along with clinical case studies suggest the need for validation of this hypothesis in prospective trials, the safety of IT mistletoe injections has yet to be thoroughly assessed. The present study summarizes the practice and safety of off-label IT mistletoe therapy within the Network Oncology, a conjoint clinical registry of German hospitals and outpatients specialized in anthroposophic and integrative medicine. Demographic, diagnosis and treatment data of cancer patients who received IT mistletoe applications between 2007 and 2013 were assessed. Suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were analyzed in terms of type, frequency, severity, seriousness and potential risk factors. A total of 123 cancer patients received 862 IT mistletoe injections (preparations from Abnoba, Helixor and Iscucin). The most commonly applied preparations were Abnoba viscum Fraxini (71 patients) and Helixor Mali (54 patients). Of the total patients, 26 patients (21.1%) experienced 74 ADRs. All ADRs were in response to either Abnoba viscum Fraxini (25.4% of exposed patients) or Helixor Mali (18.5% of exposed patients). ADRs were mostly body temperature or immune related and of mild (83.8%) or moderate (14.9%) intensity. Only one possible ADR was described as severe (hypertension) and no serious ADRs occurred. The frequency of ADRs to IT mistletoe injections was 3 times and 5 times higher than has previously been found for subcutaneous and intravenous applications of mistletoe, respectively. IT injection of mistletoe preparations resulted in a relatively high frequency of ADRs. Nearly all ADRs were mild to moderate however, and no serious ADRs occurred. Furthermore, it is possible that immune-related ADRs such as pyrexia and local inflammatory reactions might

  19. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to increasing concentrations of trivalent chromium in the Andean crop species Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Valeria; Bucchini, Anahi E; Iacobucci, Marta; Ruiz, Karina B; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), an ancient Andean seed crop, exhibits exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to abiotic stress. The species' tolerance to heavy metals has, however, not yet been investigated nor its ability to take up and translocate chromium (Cr). This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments occurring upon exposure of quinoa to several concentrations (0.01-5mM) of CrCl3. Young hydroponically grown plants were used to evaluate Cr uptake, growth, oxidative stress, and other biochemical parameters three and/or seven days after treatment. Leaves accumulated the lowest amounts of Cr, while roots and stems accumulated the most at low and at high metal concentrations, respectively. Fresh weight and photosynthetic pigments were reduced only by the higher Cr(III) doses. Substantially increased lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and proline levels were observed only with 5mM Cr(III). Except for a significant decrease at day 7 with 5mM Cr(III), total polyphenols and flavonoids maintained control levels in Cr(III)-treated plants, whereas antioxidant activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum polyamine accumulation was observed in 1mM CrCl3-treated plants. Even though α- and γ-tocopherols also showed enhanced levels only with the 1mM concentration, tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, EC 2.6.1.5) activity increased under Cr(III) treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, results suggest that polyamines, tocopherols, and TAT activity could contribute to tolerance to 1mM Cr(III), but not to the highest concentration that, instead, generated oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Chenopodium murale L. transgenic hairy root in vitro culture system as a new tool for allelopathic assays.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Nevena; Dmitrović, Slavica; Djordjević, Mirka; Zdravković-Korać, Snežana; Nikolić, Radomirka; Raspor, Martin; Djordjević, Tatjana; Maksimović, Vuk; Zivković, Suzana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Stanišić, Mariana; Ninković, Slavica

    2012-08-15

    We investigated Chenopodium murale transgenic hairy root in vitro culture system as a new tool for allelopathic assays. Transgenic hairy roots were induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4M70GUS from roots, cotyledons, leaves, and internodes of C. murale seedlings. Roots were found to be the best target explants, providing transformation efficiency of up to 11.1%. Established hairy root clones differed in their morphology and growth potential. Molecular characterization of these clones was carried out by PCR, RT-PCR and histochemical GUS analyses. No differences in rol gene expression were observed. Liquid culture system of characterized hairy root clones was maintained for over 2 years. Six hairy root clones were selected for assaying the allelopathic effect of their growth medium against germination and seedling elongation of wheat and lettuce test plants. The inhibitory potential varied depending on the hairy root clone. Some transgenic clones showed significantly higher inhibition compared to wild-type roots. These results revealed that hairy roots as an independent system synthesize some bioactive substances with allelopathic activity and exude them into the growth medium. Concentrations of caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids (0.07-2.85 μmol/L) identified by HPLC analysis in the growth media were at least 1000 times lower than the inhibitory active concentration (5 mmol/L) of pure grade phenolic acids, suggesting that they have a limited role in the allelopathic phenomena of C. murale. The presented hairy root system appears to be a suitable tool for further investigation of the potential and nature of root-mediated allelopathic interference of C. murale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. (djulis) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hsu, B Y; Lin, S W; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

    2017-01-05

    A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.), a traditional Chinese herb reported to possess vital biological activities. A high yield of phenolic acids and flavonoids was attained by employing 50% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent and shaking in a 60°C water bath for 3h. A total of 8 phenolic acids and 14 flavonoids were separated and identified within 55min by using a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column with detection at 280nm, flow rate at 0.8mL/min, column temperature at 35°C, and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Two internal standards caffeic acid and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were used for quantitation of phenolic acids and flavonoids in djulis respectively. The amounts of phenolic acids ranged from 11.5±0.8μg/g (caffeoyl-putrescine-derivative (2)) to 1855.3±16.9μg/g (hydroxylphenylacetic acid pentoside), while the flavonoids ranged from 19.93±2.29μg/g (quercetin-3-O-(coumaryl)-rutinoside-pentoside (1)) to 257.3±2.05μg/g (rutin-O-pentoside (2)). A high recovery (89.68-97.20%) and high reproducibility was obtained for both phenolic acids and flavonoids with the relative standard deviation (RSD) for the latter ranging from 0.09-8.22% (intra-day variability) and 0.80-8.48% (inter-day variability). This method may be applied to determination of both phenolic acids and flavonoids in food products and Chinese herbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A New Method for in Situ Measurement of Bt-Maize Pollen Deposition on Host-Plant Leaves.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Frieder; Otto, Mathias; Kuhn, Ulrike; Ober, Steffi; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Vögel, Rudolph

    2011-02-21

    Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO). NTO like lepidopteran larvae may be affected by the uptake of Bt-pollen deposited on their host plants. Although some information is available to estimate pollen deposition on host plants, recorded data are based on indirect measurements such as shaking or washing off pollen, or removing pollen with adhesive tapes. These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves. Here, we present a new method for recording in situ the amount and the distribution of Bt-maize pollen deposited on host plant leaves. The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software), which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field. The method was evaluated during experiments in 2008 to 2010. Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica) growing adjacent to maize fields.

  3. A New Method for in Situ Measurement of Bt-Maize Pollen Deposition on Host-Plant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Frieder; Otto, Mathias; Kuhn, Ulrike; Ober, Steffi; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Vögel, Rudolph

    2011-01-01

    Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO). NTO like lepidopteran larvae may be affected by the uptake of Bt-pollen deposited on their host plants. Although some information is available to estimate pollen deposition on host plants, recorded data are based on indirect measurements such as shaking or washing off pollen, or removing pollen with adhesive tapes. These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves. Here, we present a new method for recording in situ the amount and the distribution of Bt-maize pollen deposited on host plant leaves. The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software), which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field. The method was evaluated during experiments in 2008 to 2010. Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica) growing adjacent to maize fields. PMID:26467496

  4. Rubemamine and Rubescenamine, Two Naturally Occurring N-Cinnamoyl Phenethylamines with Umami-Taste-Modulating Properties.

    PubMed

    Backes, Michael; Obst, Katja; Bojahr, Juliane; Thorhauer, Anika; Roudnitzky, Natacha; Paetz, Susanne; Reichelt, Katharina V; Krammer, Gerhard E; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ley, Jakob P

    2015-10-07

    Sensory screening of a series of naturally occurring N-cinnamoyl derivatives of substituted phenethylamines revealed that rubemamine (9, from Chenopodium album) and rubescenamine (10, from Zanthoxylum rubsecens) elicit strong intrinsic umami taste in water at 50 and 10 ppm, respectively. Sensory tests in glutamate- and nucleotide-containing bases showed that the compounds influence the whole flavor profile of savory formulations. Both rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) at 10-100 ppm dose-dependently positively modulated the umami taste of MSG (0.17-0.22%) up to threefold. Among the investigated amides, only rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) are able to directly activate the TAS1R1-TAS1R3 umami taste receptor. Moreover, both compounds also synergistically modulated the activation of TAS1R1-TAS1R3 by MSG. Most remarkably, rubemamine (9) was able to further positively modulate the IMP-enhanced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 response to MSG ∼ 1.8-fold. Finally, armatamide (11), zanthosinamide (13), and dioxamine (14), which lack intrinsic umami taste in vivo and direct receptor response in vitro, also positively modulated receptor activation by MSG about twofold and the IMP-enhanced MSG-induced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 responses approximately by 50%. In sensory experiments, dioxamine (14) at 25 ppm in combination with 0.17% MSG exhibited a sensory equivalent to 0.37% MSG.

  5. Feasibility of Using Phytoextraction to Remediate a Compost-Based Soil Contaminated with Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Parisien, Michele A; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse and in-situ field experiments were used to determine the potential for phytoextraction to remediate soil contaminated with Cd from municipal solid waste (MSW) and sewage sludge (SS) compost application at a Peterborough (Canada) site. For the greenhouse experiment, one native (Chenopodium album) and three naturalized (Poa compressa, Brassica juncea, Helianthus annuus) plant species were planted in soil containing no detectable Cd (<1.0 μg·g(-1)), and soil from the site containing low (5.0 ± 0.3 μg·g(-1) Cd), and high (16.5 ± 1.2 μg⋅g(-1) Cd) Cd concentrations. Plant uptake was low (root BAFs ≤0.5) for all species except P. compressa in the low Cd treatment (BAF 1.0). Only B. juncea accumulated Cd in its shoots, though uptake was low (BAF ≤0.3). For the field experiment, B. juncea was planted in-situ in areas of low and high Cd concentrations. Brassica juncea Cd uptake was low (root and shoot BAFs <0.2) in both treatments. Sequential extraction analysis indicated that Cd is retained primarily by low bioavailability soil fractions, and phytoextraction is therefore not feasible at this site. Though low Cd bioavailability has negative implications for Cd phytoextraction from MSW/SS compost-based soils, it may limit receptor exposure to Cd sufficiently to eliminate the potential for risk at this site.

  6. Toxic metal tolerance in native plant species grown in a vanadium mining area.

    PubMed

    Aihemaiti, Aikelaimu; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, De'an; Li, Tianran; Zhang, Wenjie; Ding, Xutong

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium (V) has been extensively mined in China and caused soil pollution in mining area. It has toxic effects on plants, animals and humans, posing potential health risks to communities that farm and graze cattle adjacent to the mining area. To evaluate in situ phytoremediation potentials of native plants, V, chromium, copper and zinc concentrations in roots and shoots were measured and the bioaccumulation (BAF) and translocation (TF) efficiencies were calculated. The results showed that Setaria viridis accumulated greater than 1000 mg kg -1 V in its shoots and exhibited TF > 1 for V, Cr, Zn and BAF > 1 for Cu. The V accumulation amount in the roots of Kochia scoparia also surpassed 1000 mg kg -1 and showed TF > 1 for Zn. Chenopodium album had BAF > 1 for V and Zn and Daucus carota showed TF > 1 for Cu. Eleusine indica presented strong tolerance and high metal accumulations. S. viridis is practical for in situ phytoextractions of V, Cr and Zn and phytostabilisation of Cu in V mining area. Other species had low potential use as phytoremediation plant at multi-metal polluted sites, but showed relatively strong resistance to V, Cr, Cu and Zn toxicity, can be used to vegetate the contaminated soils and stabilise toxic metals in V mining area.

  7. Antifungal and Herbicidal Effects of Fruit Essential Oils of Four Myrtus communis Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kordali, Saban; Usanmaz, Ayse; Cakir, Ahmet; Komaki, Amanmohammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Estimation of Anticipated Performance Index and Air Pollution Tolerance Index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of Potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response.

    PubMed

    Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Sultana, Shazia; Fatima, Sonia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Maliha; Balkhyour, Masour A; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-06-01

    Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area.

  9. Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross

    PubMed Central

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J.; Jacobsen, Sven E.; Jellen, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho-phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean-based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high-yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to

  10. Temporal association of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase with oil bodies during seed development in Santalum album L.: its biochemical characterization and significance.

    PubMed

    Anil, Veena S; Harmon, Alice C; Rao, K Sankara

    2003-04-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) is expressed in sandalwood (Santalum album L.) seeds under developmental regulation, and it is localized with spherical storage organelles in the endosperm [Anil et al. (2000) Plant Physiol. 122: 1035]. This study identifies these storage organelles as oil bodies. A 55 kDa protein associated with isolated oil bodies, showed Ca(2+)-dependent autophosphorylation and also cross-reacted with anti-soybean CDPK. The CDPK activity detected in the oil body-protein fraction was calmodulin-independent and sensitive to W7 (N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide) inhibition. Differences in Michaelis Menton kinetics, rate of histone phosphorylation and sensitivity to W7 inhibition between a soluble CDPK from embryos and the oil body-associated CDPK of endosperm suggest that these are tissue-specific isozymes. The association of CDPK with oil bodies of endosperm was found to show a temporal pattern during seed development. CDPK protein and activity, and the in vivo phosphorylation of Ser and Thr residues were detected strongly in the oil bodies of endosperm from maturing seed. Since oil body formation occurs during seed maturation, the observations indicate that CDPK and Ca(2+) may have a regulatory role during oil accumulation/oil body biogenesis. The detection of CDPK-protein and activity in oil bodies of groundnut, sesame, cotton, sunflower, soybean and safflower suggests the ubiquity of the association of CDPKs with oil bodies.

  11. Phytotoxic properties of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a lignan fromLarrea tridentata (Creosote bush).

    PubMed

    Elakovich, S D; Stevens, K L

    1985-01-01

    The phytotoxic properties of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) isolated from creosote bush,Larrea tridentata (Zygophyllaceae), were examined. NDGA dramatically reduces the seedling root growth of barnyard grass, green foxtail, perennial ryegrass, annual ryegrass, red millet, lambsquarter, lettuce, and alfalfa, and reduces the hypocotyl growth of lettuce and green foxtail. It has no effect on the germination of lettuce seeds. NDGA almost certainly contributes to the observed allelopathic nature of creosote bush.

  12. Safety evaluation of some wild plants in the New Nordic Diet.

    PubMed

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2012-12-01

    One of the dietary components in the New Nordic Diet, is plants from the wild countryside. However, these may have a high content of bioactive components, some of which could be toxic in larger quantities. The objective of this paper is to outline a strategy for safety evaluation of wild plants not covered in current food compositional databases and to apply the method for selected plants used in the New Nordic Diet recipes. Four examples of typical wild edible plants were evaluated (stinging nettle, sorrel, chickweed and common lambsquarters), and based on substantial equivalence with known food plants the majority of the bioactive components reported were within the range experienced when eating or drinking typical food stuffs. For most compounds the hazards could be evaluated as minor. The only precaution found was for common lambsquarters because of its presumed high level of oxalic acid. It is concluded that a substance-by-substance evaluation of intake by equivalence to common foods is a useful and efficient strategy to evaluate the safety of newly introduced wild edible plants. Further evaluation and better compositional analyses are warranted before a daily consumption of significant amounts of wild edible plants can be generally regarded as safe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mistletoe (Viscum album) infestation in the Scots pine stimulates drought-dependent oxidative damage in summer.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Salih; Ilhan, Veli; Turkoglu, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to contribute to the understanding of the detrimental effect of the mistletoe (Viscum albumL.), a hemiparasitic plant, on the mortality of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.). Fieldwork was conducted in the town of Kelkit (Gumushane province, Turkey) from April to October in 2013. Pine needles of similar ages were removed from the branches of mistletoe-infested and noninfested Scots pine plants, then transported to the laboratory and used as research materials. The effects of the mistletoe on the Scots pine during infestation were evaluated by determining the levels of water, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA, being a product of lipid peroxidation) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2 (-•)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH). In addition, the activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) were measured in the same samples. The highest level of drought stress was found in summer (especially in August) as a result of the lowest water content in the soil and the highest average temperature occurring in these months. The drought stress induced by mistletoe infestation caused a regular decrease in water content, while it increased the levels of EL, MDA and ROS (H2O2, O2 (-•)and(•)OH). The infestation also stimulated the activities of CAT and POX, with the exception of SOD. On the other hand, in August, when the drought conditions were the harshest, the levels of EL and MDA, which are two of the most important indicator parameters for oxidative stress, as well as the levels of H2O2and(•)OH, which are two of the ROS leading to oxidative stress, reached the highest values in both infested and noninfested needles, whereas the O2 (-•)level decreased. For the same period and needles, CAT activity increased, while SOD activity decreased. Peroxidase activity, however, did not exhibit a significant change. Our findings indicate

  14. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility. PMID:26467627

  15. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Joseph R

    2011-05-26

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.

  16. Retention of nutrients in green leafy vegetables on dehydration.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sheetal; Gowri, B S; Lakshmi, A Jyothi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of dehydration on nutrient composition of Amaranthus gangeticus, Chenopodium album, Centella asiatica, Amaranthus tricolor and Trigonella foenum graecum. The green leafy vegetables (GLV) were steam blanched for 5 min after pretreatment and dried in an oven at 60 °C for 10-12 h. The fresh and dehydrated samples were analyzed for selected proximate constituents, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients and dialyzable minerals. Dehydration seems to have little effect on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient content of the GLV. Among the vitamins, retention of ascorbic acid was 1-14%, thiamine 22-71%, total carotene 49-73% and β-carotene 20-69% respectively, of their initial content. Dialyzable iron and calcium in the fresh vegetables ranged between 0.21-3.5 mg and 15.36-81.33 mg/100 g respectively, which reduced to 0.05-0.53 mg and 6.94-58.15 mg/100 g on dehydration. Dehydration seems to be the simplest convenient technology for preserving these sources of micronutrients, especially when they are abundantly available. Irrespective of the losses of vitamins that take place during dehydration, dehydrated GLV are a concentrated natural source of micronutrients and they can be used in product formulations. Value addition of traditional products with dehydrated GLV can be advocated as a feasible food-based approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition.

  17. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    PubMed

    Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  18. In vitro nematicidal effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Castela tortuosa n-hexane extracts against Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda) and their anthelmintic effect in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Zamilpa, A; García-Alanís, C; López-Arellano, M E; Hernández-Velázquez, V M; Valladares-Cisneros, M G; Salinas-Sánchez, D O; Mendoza-de Gives, P

    2018-05-06

    The in vitro nematicidal effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Castela tortuosa n-hexane extracts (E-Cham and E-Cato, respectively) on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) and the anthelmintic effect of these extracts against the pre-adult stage of the parasite in gerbils were evaluated using both individual and combined extracts. The in vitro confrontation between larvae and extracts was performed in 24-well micro-titration plates. The results were considered 24 and 72 h post confrontation. The in vivo nematicidal effect was examined using gerbils as a study model. The extracts from the two assessed plants were obtained through maceration using n-hexane as an organic agent. Gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus L3 were treated intraperitoneally with the corresponding extract either individually or in combination. The results showed that the highest individual lethal in vitro effect (96.3%) was obtained with the E-Cham extract at 72 h post confrontation at 40 mg/ml, followed by E-Cato (78.9%) at 20 mg/ml after 72 h. The highest combined effect (98.7%) was obtained after 72 h at 40 mg/ml. The in vivo assay showed that the individual administration of the E-Cato and E-Cham extracts reduced the parasitic burden in gerbils by 27.1% and 45.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the anthelmintic efficacy increased to 57.3% when both extracts were administered in combination. The results of the present study show an important combined nematicidal effect of the two plant extracts assessed against L3 in gerbils.

  19. The Evolution of the FT/TFL1 Genes in Amaranthaceae and Their Expression Patterns in the Course of Vegetative Growth and Flowering in Chenopodium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Drabešová, Jana; Černá, Lucie; Mašterová, Helena; Koloušková, Pavla; Potocký, Martin; Štorchová, Helena

    2016-10-13

    The FT/TFL1 gene family controls important aspects of plant development: MFT-like genes affect germination, TFL1-like genes act as floral inhibitors, and FT-like genes are floral activators. Gene duplications produced paralogs with modified functions required by the specific lifestyles of various angiosperm species. We constructed the transcriptome of the weedy annual plant Chenopodium rubrum and used it for the comprehensive search for the FT/TFL1 genes. We analyzed their phylogenetic relationships across Amaranthaceae and all angiosperms. We discovered a very ancient phylogenetic clade of FT genes represented by the CrFTL3 gene of C. rubrum Another paralog CrFTL2 showed an unusual structural rearrangement which might have contributed to the functional shift. We examined the transcription patterns of the FT/TFL1 genes during the vegetative growth and floral transition in C. rubrum to get clues about their possible functions. All the genes except for the constitutively expressed CrFTL2 gene, and the CrFTL3 gene, which was transcribed only in seeds, exhibited organ-specific expression influenced by the specific light regime. The CrFTL1 gene was confirmed as a single floral activator from the FT/TFL1 family in C. rubrum Its floral promoting activity may be counteracted by CrTFL1 C. rubrum emerges as an easily manipulated model for the study of floral induction in weedy fast-cycling plants lacking a juvenile phase. Copyright © 2016 Drabesova et al.

  20. Do invasive alien plants really threaten river bank vegetation? A case study based on plant communities typical for Chenopodium ficifolium-An indicator of large river valleys.

    PubMed

    Nobis, Agnieszka; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Rola, Kaja

    2018-01-01

    Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed. Differences in the richness and abundance of species diagnostic for riverside habitats, as well as the contribution of resident and invasive alien species in vegetation plots along three rivers differing in terms of size and anthropogenic impact were also examined. Finally, the effect of invaders on the phytocoenoses typical for C. ficifolium was assessed. The frequency of C. ficifolium clearly decreased with an increasing distance from the river. Among natural habitats, the species mostly preferred the banks of large rivers. The vegetation plots developing on the banks of the three studied rivers differed in total species richness, the number and cover of resident, diagnostic and invasive alien species, as well as in species composition. Our research indicates that abiotic and anthropogenic factors are the most significant drivers of species richness and plant cover of riverbank vegetation, and invasive alien plants affect this type of vegetation to a small extent.

  1. Do invasive alien plants really threaten river bank vegetation? A case study based on plant communities typical for Chenopodium ficifolium—An indicator of large river valleys

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Arkadiusz; Rola, Kaja

    2018-01-01

    Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed. Differences in the richness and abundance of species diagnostic for riverside habitats, as well as the contribution of resident and invasive alien species in vegetation plots along three rivers differing in terms of size and anthropogenic impact were also examined. Finally, the effect of invaders on the phytocoenoses typical for C. ficifolium was assessed. The frequency of C. ficifolium clearly decreased with an increasing distance from the river. Among natural habitats, the species mostly preferred the banks of large rivers. The vegetation plots developing on the banks of the three studied rivers differed in total species richness, the number and cover of resident, diagnostic and invasive alien species, as well as in species composition. Our research indicates that abiotic and anthropogenic factors are the most significant drivers of species richness and plant cover of riverbank vegetation, and invasive alien plants affect this type of vegetation to a small extent. PMID:29543919

  2. Induction of maturation and activation of human dendritic cells: a mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of Viscum album as complimentary therapy in cancer.

    PubMed

    Elluru, Sri Ramulu; Duong van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Delignat, Sandrine; Kazatchkine, Michel D; Friboulet, Alain; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2008-06-04

    Viscum album (VA) preparations have been used as a complimentary therapy in cancer. In addition to their cytotoxic properties, they have also been shown to have immunostimulatory properties. In the present study, we examine the hypothesis that the VA preparations induce activation of human DC that facilitates effective tumor regression. Four day old monocyte-derived immature DCs were treated with VA Qu Spez at 5, 10 and 15 microg/ml for 48 hrs. The expression of surface molecules was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ability of Qu Spez-educated DC to stimulate T cells was analyzed by allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction and activation of Melan-A/MART-1-specific M77-80 CD8+T cells. Cytokines in cell free culture supernatant was analyzed by cytokine bead array assay. VA Qu Spez stimulated DCs presented with increased expression of antigen presenting molecule HLA-DR and of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86. The VA Qu Spez also induced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. Further, Qu Spez-educated DC stimulated CD4+T cells in a allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction and activated melanoma antigen Melan-A/MART-1-specific M77-80 CD8+T cells as evidenced by increased secretion of TNF-alpha and IFNgamma. The VA preparations stimulate the maturation and activation of human DCs, which may facilitate anti-tumoral immune responses. These results should assist in understanding the immunostimulatory properties of VA preparations and improving the therapeutic strategies.

  3. Induction of maturation and activation of human dendritic cells: A mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of Viscum album as complimentary therapy in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Elluru, Sri Ramulu; van Huyen, Jean-Paul Duong; Delignat, Sandrine; Kazatchkine, Michel D; Friboulet, Alain; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2008-01-01

    Background Viscum album (VA) preparations have been used as a complimentary therapy in cancer. In addition to their cytotoxic properties, they have also been shown to have immunostimulatory properties. In the present study, we examine the hypothesis that the VA preparations induce activation of human DC that facilitates effective tumor regression. Methods Four day old monocyte-derived immature DCs were treated with VA Qu Spez at 5, 10 and 15 μg/ml for 48 hrs. The expression of surface molecules was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ability of Qu Spez-educated DC to stimulate T cells was analyzed by allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction and activation of Melan-A/MART-1-specific M77-80 CD8+T cells. Cytokines in cell free culture supernatant was analyzed by cytokine bead array assay. Results VA Qu Spez stimulated DCs presented with increased expression of antigen presenting molecule HLA-DR and of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86. The VA Qu Spez also induced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. Further, Qu Spez-educated DC stimulated CD4+T cells in a allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction and activated melanoma antigen Melan-A/MART-1-specific M77-80 CD8+T cells as evidenced by increased secretion of TNF-α and IFNγ. Conclusion The VA preparations stimulate the maturation and activation of human DCs, which may facilitate anti-tumoral immune responses. These results should assist in understanding the immunostimulatory properties of VA preparations and improving the therapeutic strategies. PMID:18533025

  4. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  5. Preliminary Studies of the Performance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes under Irrigated and Rainfed Conditions of Central Malawi.

    PubMed

    Maliro, Moses F A; Guwela, Veronica F; Nyaika, Jacinta; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of sustainable intensification of agriculture in Malawi has led to the evaluation of innovative, regionally novel or under-utilized crop species. Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has the potential to provide a drought tolerant, nutritious alternative to maize. We evaluated 11 diverse varieties of quinoa for their yield and agronomic performance at two locations, Bunda and Bembeke, in Malawi. The varieties originated from Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia in South America; the United States and Canada in North America; and, Denmark in Europe, and were chosen based on their variation in morphological and agronomic traits, and their potential for adaptation to the climate of Malawi. Plant height, panicle length, days to maturity, harvest index, and seed yield were recorded for each variety under irrigation at Bunda and Bembeke, and under rainfed conditions at Bunda. Plant height was significantly influenced by both genotype and environment. There were also significant differences between the two locations for panicle length whereas genotype and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction were not significantly different. Differences were found for genotype and G × E interaction for harvest index. Notably, differences for genotype, environment and G × E were found for grain yield. Seed yield was higher at Bunda (237-3019 kg/ha) than Bembeke (62-692 kg/ha) under irrigated conditions. The highest yielding genotype at Bunda was Titicaca (3019 kg/ha) whereas Multi-Hued was the highest (692 kg/ha) at Bembeke. Strong positive correlations between seed yield and (1) plant height ( r = 0.74), (2) days to maturity ( r = 0.76), and (3) biomass ( r = 0.87) were found under irrigated conditions. The rainfed evaluations at Bunda revealed significant differences in seed yield, plant biomass, and seed size among the genotypes. The highest yielding genotype was Black Seeded (2050 kg/ha) followed by Multi-Hued (1603 kg/ha) and Bio-Bio (1446 kg/ha). Ecuadorian (257 kg/ha) was

  6. Preliminary Studies of the Performance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes under Irrigated and Rainfed Conditions of Central Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Maliro, Moses F. A.; Guwela, Veronica F.; Nyaika, Jacinta; Murphy, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of sustainable intensification of agriculture in Malawi has led to the evaluation of innovative, regionally novel or under-utilized crop species. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has the potential to provide a drought tolerant, nutritious alternative to maize. We evaluated 11 diverse varieties of quinoa for their yield and agronomic performance at two locations, Bunda and Bembeke, in Malawi. The varieties originated from Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia in South America; the United States and Canada in North America; and, Denmark in Europe, and were chosen based on their variation in morphological and agronomic traits, and their potential for adaptation to the climate of Malawi. Plant height, panicle length, days to maturity, harvest index, and seed yield were recorded for each variety under irrigation at Bunda and Bembeke, and under rainfed conditions at Bunda. Plant height was significantly influenced by both genotype and environment. There were also significant differences between the two locations for panicle length whereas genotype and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction were not significantly different. Differences were found for genotype and G × E interaction for harvest index. Notably, differences for genotype, environment and G × E were found for grain yield. Seed yield was higher at Bunda (237–3019 kg/ha) than Bembeke (62–692 kg/ha) under irrigated conditions. The highest yielding genotype at Bunda was Titicaca (3019 kg/ha) whereas Multi-Hued was the highest (692 kg/ha) at Bembeke. Strong positive correlations between seed yield and (1) plant height (r = 0.74), (2) days to maturity (r = 0.76), and (3) biomass (r = 0.87) were found under irrigated conditions. The rainfed evaluations at Bunda revealed significant differences in seed yield, plant biomass, and seed size among the genotypes. The highest yielding genotype was Black Seeded (2050 kg/ha) followed by Multi-Hued (1603 kg/ha) and Bio-Bio (1446 kg/ha). Ecuadorian (257 kg/ha) was

  7. Syntheses and herbicidal activity of new triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonamides as acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Nan; Chen, Qiong; Liu, Yu-Chao; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Niu, Cong-Wei; Xi, Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2010-07-15

    The triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide, discovered from preparing bioisosteres of the sulfonylurea herbicides, is an important class of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18) inhibitors. At least over ten triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilides have been commercialized as herbicides for the control of broadleaf weeds and grass with cereal crop selectivity. Herein, a series of triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilides were designed and synthesized with the aim of discovery of new herbicides with higher activity. The assay results of the inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds against Arabidopsis thatiana AHAS indicated that some compounds showed a little higher activity against flumetsulam (FS), the first commercial triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide-type herbicide. The ki values of two promising compounds 3d and 8h are respectively, 1.61 and 1.29 microM, while that of FS is 1.85 microM. Computational simulation results indicated the ester group of compound 3d formed hydrogen bonds with the surrounding residues Arg'198 and Ser653, which accounts for its 11.5-folds higher AHAS inhibition activity than Y6610. Further green house assay showed that compound 3d has comparable herbicidal activity as FS. Even at the concentration of 37.5g.ai/ha, 3d showed excellent herbicidal activity against Galium aparine, Cerastium arvense, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Rmumex acetasa, moderate herbicidal activity against Polygonum humifusum, Cyperus iria, and Eclipta prostrate. The combination of in vitro and in vivo assay indicated that 3d could be regarded as a new potential acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicide candidate for further study. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. "Living turned inside out": the musical expression of psychotic and schizoid experience in talking heads' Remain in light.

    PubMed

    Brog, Michael A

    2002-06-01

    The rock album form, advantageously suited for the artistic expression of intrapsychic experience, has been virtually ignored by analytic writers. Remain in Light by Talking Heads is presented as an example of an album that effectively utilizes the potentialities of this form to give powerful and disconcerning musical expression to a variety of psychotic and schizoid experiences, bringing to life the formulations for these phenomena of Bion, Winnicott, Guntrip, Ogden, Grotstein and others. The album suggests a variety of mechanisms by which sound and music may serve both defensive and compensatory functions in relation to these phenomena.

  9. Evaluation of the quality of sandalwood essential oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Simmonds, Monique S J; Kite, Geoffrey C

    2004-03-05

    Trade and historic oils from 'sandalwoods', labelled as Amyris balsamifera, Eremophila mitchelli, Fusanus acuminatus (= Santalum acuminatum), Santalum album, S. austrocaledonicum, S. latifolium, S. spicatum and S. yasi, were assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Using GC-MS, none of the oils assessed complied with the internationally recognised standard of a 90% santalol content, and only about half of the trade sandalwood oils met with recent International Organisation for Standardisation standards. The majority of trade oils, reportedly from S. album, contained approximately 50-70% santalols (Z-alpha and Z-beta). Thus, the internationally recognised specification (90% santalols) for S. album requires re-evaluation by more efficient analysis methods. In view of the issues associated with the quality of sandalwood oils being traded, specifications of > or = 43% Z-alpha-santalol and > or = 18% Z-beta-santalol for S. album oil estimated by GC-MS are suggested. GC-MS are recommended as it assists with authentication and quality control issues associated with sandalwood oils.

  10. Status of management and silviculture research on sandalwood in Western Australia and Indonesia

    Treesearch

    F. H. McKinnell

    1990-01-01

    The current status of the conservation and management of Santalum spicatum in Western Australia and S. album in East Indonesia is outlined. Natural and artificial regeneration techniques for both species in selected areas are discussed. The present Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research program on S. album in...

  11. Induction of Secondary Dormancy in Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Seeds by Osmotic and High Temperature Treatments and Its Prevention by Light and Growth Regulators 1

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Anwar A.; Karssen, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    Factors controlling the establishment and removal of secondary dormancy in Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. seeds were investigated. Unchilled seeds required light for germination. A moist-chilling treatment at 4 C for 28 to 30 days removed this primary dormancy. Chilled seeds now germinated in the dark. When chilled seeds were held in the dark in −8.6 bars polyethylene glycol 6000 solution at 15 C or in water at 29 C a secondary dormancy was induced which increased progressively with time as determined by subsequent germination. These seeds now failed to germinate under the condition (darkness) which previously allowed their germination. Continuous light or daily brief red light irradiations during prolonged imbibition in polyethylene glycol solution at 15 C or in water at 29 C prevented the establishment of the secondary dormancy and caused an advancement of subsequent germination. Far red irradiations immediately following red irradiation reestablished the secondary dormancy indicating phytochrome participation in “pregerminative” processes. The growth regulator combination, kinetin + ethephon + gibberellin A4+A7 (GA4+7), and to a relatively lesser extent GA4+7, was effective in preventing the establishment of the secondary dormancy and in advancing the germination or emergence time. Following the establishment of the secondary dormancy by osmotic or high temperature treatments the regulator combination was relatively more active than light or GA4+7 in removing the dormancy. Prolonged dark treatment at 29 C seemed to induce changes that were partially independent of light or GA4+7 control. The data presented here indicate that changes during germination preventing dark treatment determine whether the seed will germinate, show an advancement effect, or will become secondarily dormant. These changes appear to be modulated by light and hormones. PMID:16661382

  12. A Phonograph Album

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The phonograph and related recording devices have proved to be effective educational tools for all areas of music education--theory, history, performance--as well as for history, drama, literature, language, and all other subject fields. This article celebrates the one hundredth anniversary of the invention of the phonograph with a photo essay.…

  13. Platanus pollen allergen, Pla a 1: quantification in the atmosphere and influence on a sensitizing population.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, D; González-Parrado, Z; Vega-Maray, A M; Valencia-Barrera, R M; Camazón-Izquierdo, B; De Nuntiis, P; Mandrioli, P

    2010-11-01

    The allergic response in susceptible patients does not always coincide with the presence and magnitude of airborne pollen counts. The prevalence of allergy to Platanus is currently moderate, although the percentage of monosensitized patients is low. This hinders accurate interpretation of the relationship between the amount of pollen inhaled and the patient's symptoms. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the atmospheric concentration pattern of Pla a 1 aeroallergen and the Platanus pollen. The pollen sampling was carried out using a Hirst-type volumetric trap (Burkard(©) ) for pollen grains and a Burkard Cyclone sampler (Burkard(©) ) for Pla a 1 allergen. Serum-specific IgE levels to Acer sp., Artemisia vulgaris, Betula alba, Chenopodium album, Cupressus arizonica, Cynodon dactylon, Fraxinus excelsior, Lolium perenne, Pinus sp., Plantago lanceolata, Platanus acerifolia, Populus sp., Quercus ilex and Taraxacum officinale allergens were determined using the EAST System (Hytec specific IgE EIA kit; Hycor Biomedical, Kassel, Germany). The aerobiological dynamics of Platanus pollen grains and Pla a 1 differed considerably, particularly during the Platanus pollination period. Of the 118 subjects tested, sera from 34 contained specific IgE to Platanus pollen and all of them had specific IgE to other pollen types. The presence of the aeroallergen Pla a 1 in the atmosphere appears to be independent of Platanus pollen counts over the same period, which may be contributing to allergic symptoms and sensitization. The number of polysensitized patients displaying allergy to Platanus suggested that allergic symptoms were caused by co-sensitization or cross-reactivity involving a number of allergenic particles. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Salt tolerance of Glycine max.L induced by endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus CSH1, via regulating its endogenous hormones and antioxidative system.

    PubMed

    Lubna; Asaf, Sajjad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Jan, Rahmatullah; Lee, In-Jung; Hussain, Anwar

    2018-07-01

    Abiotic stress resistance strategies are powerful approaches to sustainable agriculture because they reduce chemical input and enhance plant productivity. In current study, an endophytic fungus, Aspergillus flavus CHS1 was isolated from Chenopodium album Roots. CHS1 was initially screened for growth promoting activities like siderphore, phosphate solubilization, and the production of indole acetic acid and gibberellins and were further assayed for its ability to promote the growth of mutant Waito-C rice. The results revealed that different plant growth characteristic such as chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production were significantly promoted during CHS1 treatment. This growth promotion action was due to the presence of various types of GAs and IAA in the endophyte culture filtrate. Significant up regulation with respect to levels in the control was observed in all endogenous plant GAs, after treatment with CHS1. Furthermore, to evaluate the potential of CHS1 against NaCl stress up to 400 mM, it was tested for its ability to improve soybean plant growth under NaCl stress. In endophyte-soybean interaction, CHS1 association significantly increased plant growth and attenuated the NaCl stress by down regulating ABA and JA synthesis. Similarly, it significantly elevated antioxidant activities of enzymes catalase, polyphenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase as compared to non-inoculated salt stress plants. Thus, CHS1 ameliorated the adverse effect of high NaCl stress and rescued soybean plant growth by regulating the endogenous plant hormones and antioxidative system. We conclude that CHS1 isolate could be exploited to increase salt resistant and yield in crop plants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of santalbic acid and a study of triacylglycerol species in Santalum album (Linn.) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lie Ken Jie, M S; Pasha, M K; Ahmad, F

    1996-10-01

    Methyl ricinoleate (1) was treated with bromine and the dibromo derivative (2) was reacted with ethanolic KOH under ultrasonic irradiation to give 12-hydroxy-octadec-9-ynoic acid upon acidification with dil. HCI. The latter compound was methylated with BF3/methanol to give methyl 12-hydroxy-octadec-9-ynoate (3). Compound 3 was treated with methanesulfonyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in CH2Cl2 to give methyl 12-mesyloxy-octadec-9-ynoate (4). Reaction of methyl 12-mesyloxy-octadec-9-ynoate with aqueous KOH under ultrasonic irradiation (20 kHz) gave (11E)-octadecen-9-ynoic acid (5, santalbic acid, 40%) and (11Z)-octadecen-9-ynoic acid (6, 60%) on acidification with dil. HCI. These isomers were separated by urea fractionation. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic properties of the methyl ester and the triacylglycerol (TAG) esters of these enynoic fatty acid isomers were studied. The carbon shifts of the unsaturated carbon nuclei of the methyl ester of the E-isomer were unambiguously assigned as 88.547 (C-9), 79.287 (C-10), 109.760 (C-11), and 143.450 (C-12) ppm, while the unsaturated carbon shifts of the (Z)-enynoate isomer appeared at 94.277 (C-9), 77.561 (C-10), 109.297 (C-11), and 142.668 (C-12) ppm. In the 13C NMR spectral analysis of the TAG molecules of type AAA containing either the (Z)- or (E)-enyne fatty acid, the C-1 to C-6 carbon atoms on the alpha- and beta-acyl positions were differentiated. The unsaturated carbon atoms in the alpha- and beta-acyl chains were also resolved into two signals except that of the C-11 olefinic carbon. Sandal (Santalum album) wood seed oil (a source of santalbic acid) was separated by silica chromatography into three fractions. The least polar fraction (7.2 wt%) contained TAG which had a random distribution of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, of which oleic acid (69%) was the predominant component. The second fraction (3.8 wt%) contained santalbic acid (58%) and oleic acid (28%) together

  16. Long-Term Warming Shifts the Composition of Bacterial Communities in the Phyllosphere of Galium album in a Permanent Grassland Field-Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Aydogan, Ebru L.; Moser, Gerald; Müller, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P.

    2018-01-01

    Global warming is currently a much discussed topic with as yet largely unexplored consequences for agro-ecosystems. Little is known about the warming effect on the bacterial microbiota inhabiting the plant surface (phyllosphere), which can have a strong impact on plant growth and health, as well as on plant diseases and colonization by human pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate surface warming on the diversity and composition of the bacterial leaf microbiota of the herbaceous plant Galium album. Leaves were collected from four control and four surface warmed (+2°C) plots located at the field site of the Environmental Monitoring and Climate Impact Research Station Linden in Germany over a 6-year period. Warming had no effect on the concentration of total number of cells attached to the leaf surface as counted by Sybr Green I staining after detachment, but changes in the diversity and phylogenetic composition of the bacterial leaf microbiota analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene Illumina amplicon sequencing were observed. The bacterial phyllosphere microbiota were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. Warming caused a significant higher relative abundance of members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, and a lower relative abundance of members of the Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Plant beneficial bacteria like Sphingomonas spp. and Rhizobium spp. occurred in significantly lower relative abundance in leaf samples of warmed plots. In contrast, several members of the Enterobacteriaceae, especially Enterobacter and Erwinia, and other potential plant or human pathogenic genera such as Acinetobacter and insect-associated Buchnera and Wolbachia spp. occurred in higher relative abundances in the phyllosphere samples from warmed plots. This study showed for the first time the long-term impact of moderate (+2°C) surface warming on the phyllosphere microbiota on plants. A reduction

  17. Long-Term Warming Shifts the Composition of Bacterial Communities in the Phyllosphere of Galium album in a Permanent Grassland Field-Experiment.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Ebru L; Moser, Gerald; Müller, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2018-01-01

    Global warming is currently a much discussed topic with as yet largely unexplored consequences for agro-ecosystems. Little is known about the warming effect on the bacterial microbiota inhabiting the plant surface (phyllosphere), which can have a strong impact on plant growth and health, as well as on plant diseases and colonization by human pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate surface warming on the diversity and composition of the bacterial leaf microbiota of the herbaceous plant Galium album . Leaves were collected from four control and four surface warmed (+2°C) plots located at the field site of the Environmental Monitoring and Climate Impact Research Station Linden in Germany over a 6-year period. Warming had no effect on the concentration of total number of cells attached to the leaf surface as counted by Sybr Green I staining after detachment, but changes in the diversity and phylogenetic composition of the bacterial leaf microbiota analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene Illumina amplicon sequencing were observed. The bacterial phyllosphere microbiota were dominated by Proteobacteria , Bacteroidetes , and Actinobacteria . Warming caused a significant higher relative abundance of members of the Gammaproteobacteria , Actinobacteria , and Firmicutes , and a lower relative abundance of members of the Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes . Plant beneficial bacteria like Sphingomonas spp. and Rhizobium spp. occurred in significantly lower relative abundance in leaf samples of warmed plots. In contrast, several members of the Enterobacteriaceae , especially Enterobacter and Erwinia , and other potential plant or human pathogenic genera such as Acinetobacter and insect-associated Buchnera and Wolbachia spp. occurred in higher relative abundances in the phyllosphere samples from warmed plots. This study showed for the first time the long-term impact of moderate (+2°C) surface warming on the phyllosphere microbiota on plants. A

  18. Anti-diarrhoeal activity of methanol extract of Santalum album L. in mice and gastrointestinal effect on the contraction of isolated jejunum in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huimin; Zhang, Jingze; Gao, Wenyuan; Qu, Zhuo; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-07-03

    Santalum album L., namely Sandalwood, honored as "Green Gold", is a traditional Chinese herb which has the effects of anti-diarrhoeal and antibacterial activity. But there is limit scientific study on its activity and mechanism in gastrointestinal disorders. in vivo, after intragastric administration, the methanol extract of Sandalwood (SE) (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) were studied in castor oil-induced diarrhoea mice. By the test of small intestinal hyperfunction induced by neostigmine, SE was studied on gastrointestinal transit including gastric emptying and small intestinal motility. Meanwhile, in vitro, the effects of SE (0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mg/mL) on the isolated tissue preparations of rat jejunum were also investigated. The rat jejunum strips were pre-contracted with acetylcholine (Ach; 10(-6)M), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 200 μM) or potassium chloride (KCl; 60 mM) and tested in the presence of SE. In addition, the possible myogenic effect was analyzed in the pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with SE or verapamil in Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) (60 mM) solution containing EDTA. At doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, SE showed significant anti-diarrhoeal activity against castor oil-induced diarrhoea as compared with the control. At the same doses, it also inhibited the gastric emptying and small intestinal motility in the mice of which small intestinal hyperfunction induced by neostigmine. It caused inhibitory effects on the spontaneous contraction of rat-isolated jejunum in dose-dependent manner ranging from 0.02 to 0.4 mg/mL, and it also relaxed the Ach-induced, 5-HT-induced and K(+)-induced contractions. SE shifted the Ca(2+) concentration-response curves to right, similar to that caused by verapamil (0.025 mM). These findings indicated that SE played a spasmolytic role in gastrointestinal motility which was probably mediated through inhibition of muscarinic receptors, 5-HT receptors and calcium influx. All these results provide pharmacological basis

  19. Curcumin and Viscum album Extract Decrease Proliferation and Cell Viability of Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Cells: An In Vitro Analysis of Eight Cell Lines Using Real-Time Monitoring and Colorimetric Assays.

    PubMed

    Harati, K; Behr, B; Daigeler, A; Hirsch, T; Jacobsen, F; Renner, M; Harati, A; Wallner, C; Lehnhardt, M; Becerikli, M

    2017-01-01

    The cytostatic effects of the polyphenol curcumin and Viscum album extract (VAE) were assessed in soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) cells. Eight human STS cell lines were used: fibrosarcoma (HT1080), liposarcoma (SW872, T778, MLS-402), synovial sarcoma (SW982, SYO1, 1273), and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (U2197). Primary human fibroblasts served as control cells. Cell proliferation, viability, and cell index (CI) were analyzed by BrdU assay, MTT assay, and real-time cell analysis (RTCA). As indicated by BrdU and MTT, curcumin significantly decreased the cell proliferation of five cell lines (HT1080, SW872, SYO1, 1273, and U2197) and the viability of two cell lines (SW872 and SW982). VAE led to significant decreases of proliferation in eight cell lines (HT1080, SW872, T778, MLS-402, SW982, SYO1, 1293, and U2197) and reduced viability in seven STS lines (HT1080, SW872, T778, MLS-402, SW982, SYO1, and 1273). As indicated by RTCA for 160 h, curcumin decreased the CI of all synovial sarcoma cell lines as well as T778 and HT1080. VAE diminished the CI in most of the synovial sarcoma (SW982, SYO1) and liposarcoma (SW872, T778) cell lines as well as HT1080. Primary fibroblasts were not affected adversely by the two compounds in RTCA. Curcumin and VAE can inhibit the proliferation and viability of STS cells.

  20. Social Aspects of Photobooks: Improving Photobook Authoring from Large-Scale Multimedia Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhaus, Philipp; Boll, Susanne

    With photo albums we aim to capture personal events such as weddings, vacations, and parties of family and friends. By arranging photo prints, captions and paper souvenirs such as tickets over the pages of a photobook we tell a story to capture and share our memories. The photo memories captured in such a photobook tell us much about the content and the relevance of the photos for the user. The way in which we select photos and arrange them in the photo album reveal a lot about the events, persons and places on the photos: captions describe content, closeness and arrangement of photos express relations between photos and their content and especially about the social relations of the author and the persons present in the album. Nowadays the process of photo album authoring has become digital, photos and texts can be arranged and laid out with the help of authoring tools in a digital photo album which can be printed as a physical photobook. In this chapter we present results of the analysis of a large repository of digitally mastered photobooks to learn about their social aspects. We explore to which degree a social aspect can be identified and how expressive and vivid different classes of photobooks are. The photobooks are anonymized, real world photobooks from customers of our industry partner CeWe Color. The knowledge gained from this social photobook analysis is meant both to better understand how people author their photobooks and to improve the automatic selection of and layout of photobooks.

  1. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The activity of H+-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na+ exclusion via Na+/H+ exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H+-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. Methods The kinetics of salt-induced net H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Key Results Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (−144 ± 3·3, −138 ± 5·4 and −128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux, Na+ efflux and K+ retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H+ efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H+-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Conclusions Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant’s ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H+-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative

  2. In Vitro Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Used in Traditional Medicine in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Hernández, Gustavo J.; Cano, M. Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio

    2018-01-01

    Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375 μg/ml), Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094 μg/ml), and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137 μg/ml). The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC50 = 45 μg/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (CC50 = 126 μg/ml); interestingly, leaves of C. ambrosioides (CC50 = 563 μg/ml) and bark of P. dulce (CC50 = 347 μg/ml) extracts were much less cytotoxic. We describe for the first time the cytotoxic effect from extracts of the aerial parts and the flowers of Cirsium mexicanum (CC50 = 323 μg/ml and CC50 = 250 μg/ml, resp.). Phytochemical analysis demonstrated for both extracts high tannin and saponin and low flavonoid content, while terpenoids were found in the flowers. For the first time we report a cytotoxicological study on an extract of Eryngium carlinae (CC50 = 356 μg/ml) and likewise the bark extract from Amphipterygium adstringens (CC50 = 342 μg/ml). In conclusion the fruit extract of C. ambrosioides is a potential candidate for further biological studies. PMID:29681972

  3. In Vitro Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Used in Traditional Medicine in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Knauth, Peter; Acevedo-Hernández, Gustavo J; Cano, M Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; López, Zaira

    2018-01-01

    Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375  μ g/ml), Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094  μ g/ml), and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137  μ g/ml). The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC 50 = 45  μ g/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (CC 50 = 126  μ g/ml); interestingly, leaves of C. ambrosioides (CC 50 = 563  μ g/ml) and bark of P. dulce (CC 50 = 347  μ g/ml) extracts were much less cytotoxic. We describe for the first time the cytotoxic effect from extracts of the aerial parts and the flowers of Cirsium mexicanum (CC 50 = 323  μ g/ml and CC 50 = 250  μ g/ml, resp.). Phytochemical analysis demonstrated for both extracts high tannin and saponin and low flavonoid content, while terpenoids were found in the flowers. For the first time we report a cytotoxicological study on an extract of Eryngium carlinae (CC 50 = 356  μ g/ml) and likewise the bark extract from Amphipterygium adstringens (CC 50 = 342  μ g/ml). In conclusion the fruit extract of C. ambrosioides is a potential candidate for further biological studies.

  4. Defense Travel System (DTS) Airline Ticket Price Analysis: Do DTS Ticket Prices Differ From Other Online Tickets Available for Naval Postgraduate School Travelers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    price dispersion at least as large as dispersion for traditional retailers for books, music CDs, and software offered through 52 Internet and...dispersion differences. For instance, for 22 old-hit albums , average price percentage differences are 31% on-line, compared to 11% off-line. But for 21...current-hit albums , differences are smaller at 18% on-line and 19% off-line. This suggests price dispersion levels are related to product

  5. Are Weeds Hitchhiking a Ride on Your Car? A Systematic Review of Seed Dispersal on Cars

    PubMed Central

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars. PMID:24265803

  6. Correlation of pollen counts and number of hospital visits of asthmatic and allergic rhinitis patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Udaiveer; Singh, Dimple; Daya, Mangal; Singh, Virendra

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollens are known to cause exacerbation of symptoms of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. During pollen months, number of patients visiting hospital has been shown to increase in some studies. However, in India, such studies are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to study pollen counts and to find its correlation with number of new patients attending Asthma Bhawan for 2 years. Aerobiological sampling was done using Burkard 24 h spore trap system. The site selected for the entrapment of the air spore was the building of Asthma Bhawan situated at Vidhyadhar Nagar, Jaipur. New patients coming with problems of respiratory allergy such as AR or asthma were recruited in the study. Skin prick tests (SPTs) were carried out after obtaining consent in these patients. Monthly pollen counts of trees, weeds and grasses were correlated with the number of new patients. Pollen calendar was prepared for 2 years. Average annual pollen count during 2011 and 2012 were 14,460.5. In the analysis, 37 types of species or families were identified. Pollen count showed two seasonal peaks during March-April and from August to October. January and June showed the lowest pollen counts in 2 years. Average monthly count of grass pollens showed significant correlation with number of new patients ( r = 0.59). However, monthly pollen count of trees and weeds did not correlate. The correlation of the pollen count of individual pollen with the SPT positivity to that pollen showed significant correlation with Chenopodium album only. It can be concluded that there were two peaks of pollen count in a year during March-April and August-October. Average monthly pollen counts of grass were significantly correlated with the number of hospital visits of new patients.

  7. Further Studies on Oxalic Acid Biosynthesis in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Richard F.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1978-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid functions as a precursor of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulating plants. The present study extends this observation to include Rumex crispus L. (curly dock), Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red root pigweed), Chenopodium album L. (lamb's-quarters), Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet), Halogeton glomeratus M. Bieb. (halogeton), and Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb). Several species with low oxalate content are also examined. When l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is supplied to young seedlings of R. crispus or H. glomeratus, a major portion of the 14C is released over a 24-hour period as 14CO2 and only a small portion is recovered as [14C]oxalate, unlike cuttings from 2- or 4-month-old plants which retain a large part of the 14C as [14C]oxalic acid and release very little 14CO2. Support for an intermediate role of oxalate in the release of 14CO2 from l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is seen in the rapid release of 14CO2 by R. crispus and H. glomeratus seedlings labeled with [14C]oxalic acid. The common origin of oxalic acid carbon in the C1 and C2 fragment from l-ascorbic acid is demonstrated by comparison of 14C content of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulators after cuttings or seedlings are supplied equal amounts of l-[1-14C]- or l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid. Theoretically, l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid will produce labeled oxalic acid containing three times as much 14C as l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid when equal amounts of label are provided. Experimentally, a ratio of 2.7 ± 0.5 is obtained in duplicate experiments with six different species. PMID:16660342

  8. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  9. Significance and popularity in music production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. `Significant' or `influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  10. Significance and popularity in music production.

    PubMed

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  11. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Usman Ali; Niaz, Zeeshan; Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Jafar; Tayyaba; Rehman, Bushra

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of human infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate Bergenia ciliata, Jasminum officinale, and Santalum album for their potential activity against human bacterial pathogens. B. ciliata, J. officinale, and S. album extracts were prepared in cold and hot water. The activity of plant extracts and selected antibiotics was evaluated against five bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli using agar well diffusion method. Among the three medicinal plants, B. ciliata extracts displayed potential activity against bacterial pathogens. Cold water extract of Bergenia ciliate showed the highest activity against B. subtilis, which is comparable with a zone of inhibition exhibited by ceftriaxone and erythromycin. J. officinale and S. album extracts demonstrated variable antibacterial activity. Further studies are needed to explore the novel antibacterial bioactive molecules. PMID:24294497

  12. [A case of Veratrum poisoning].

    PubMed

    Festa, M; Andreetto, B; Ballaris, M A; Panio, A; Piervittori, R

    1996-05-01

    A poisoning from a Veratrum album infusion mistaken for Gentiana lutea is described. Confusion between these two plants can easily occur because they are very similar, although flowers and disposition of leaves allow their botanic determinat: V. album leaves are alternate and flowers are white, while G. lutea leaves are opposite and flowers yellow. The poisoning involves gastrointestinal (pyrosis, vomiting) and cardiocirculatory systems (bradyarrhy-thmias, A-V dissociation, vasodilatation) Atropine is the drug of choice.

  13. Finding Related Entities by Retrieving Relations: UIUC at TREC 2009 Entity Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    classes, depending on the categories they belong to. A music album could have any generic name, whereas a laptop model has a more generalizable name. A...names of music albums are simply plain text often capitalized, and so on. Thus, we feel that a better ap- proach would be to first identify the...origin domain of the text to be tagged (e.g., pharmaceutical, music , journal, etc.), and then apply tagging rules that are specific to that domain

  14. 9. Photocopy of photograph showing myrtlecovered spring. The original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph showing myrtle-covered spring. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8096. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. Phylogeography of a tough rock survivor in European dry grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Poschlod, Peter; Reisch, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Phylogeographic analyses of plants in Europe have revealed common glacial refugia and migration routes for several trees and herbs with arctic-alpine distributions. The postglacial histories of dry grassland species in central Europe have rarely been analyzed, even though the extremely species-rich habitat is threatened. Sedum album (Crassulaceae) is a common inhabitant of rocky sites in central European dry grasslands. We inferred the phylogeographic history of S. album over its distribution range in Europe. Genetic diversity within and differentiation between 34 S. album populations was examined using AFLP markers. Population isolation was indicated based on the rarity of the fragments and by isolation-by-distance effects. We sequenced the trnL-trnF region in 32 populations and used chloroplast microsatellites to analyze chloroplast haplotype distributions. Two distinct S. album lineages were detected. One lineage was comprised of populations from eastern and central parts of central Europe, and the Apennine Peninsula. A second lineage was comprised of populations from the Iberian Peninsula and western and northern parts of central Europe. Glacial refugia were identified based on the accumulation of ancient chloroplast haplotypes, high diversity of AFLP fragments within populations, and high levels of rare fragments in Liguria, Serbia, the Apennine and Iberian peninsulas. Cryptic refugia were detected in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Isolation by distance was present all over the distribution range, and it was separately detected in southwestern and central Europe. In western Europe, where a contact zone between the two lineages can be expected, no isolation by distance was detected. Our results suggest migration routes of S. album northeastward from glacial refugia in southern Iberia, northward from the Apennine Peninsula, and northward and westward from the southeastern parts of central Europe. Therefore, central European grasslands were recently colonized

  16. Significance and popularity in music production

    PubMed Central

    Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. ‘Significant’ or ‘influential’ works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play. PMID:28791169

  17. An evidence-based approach to the evaluation of ethnoveterinary medicines against strongyle nematodes of equids.

    PubMed

    Peachey, L E; Pinchbeck, G L; Matthews, J B; Burden, F A; Mulugeta, G; Scantlebury, C E; Hodgkinson, J E

    2015-05-30

    Cyathostomins are the most important gastrointestinal nematode infecting equids. Their effective control is currently under threat due to widespread resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics licenced for use in equids. In response to similar resistance issues in other helminths, there has been increasing interest in alternative control strategies, such as bioactive plant compounds derived from traditional ethnoveterinary treatments. This study used an evidence-based approach to evaluate the potential use of plant extracts from the UK and Ethiopia to treat cyathostomins. Plants were shortlisted based on findings from a literature review and additionally, in Ethiopia, the results of a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) in the Oromia region of the country. Systematic selection criteria were applied to both groups to identify five Ethiopian and four UK plants for in vitro screening. These included Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Cucumis prophetarum L., Rumex abyssinicus Jacq., Vernonia amygdalina Delile. and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal from Ethiopia and Allium sativum L. (garlic), Artemisia absinthium L., Chenopodium album L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (ginger) from the UK. Plant material was collected, dried and milled prior to hydro-alcoholic extraction. Crude extracts were dissolved in distilled water (dH2O) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), serially diluted and screened for anthelmintic activity in the larval migration inhibition test (LMIT) and the egg hatch test (EHT). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to identify extracts that had a significant effect on larval migration and/or egg hatch, compared to non-treated controls. The median effective concentration (EC-50) for each extract was calculated using PROBIT analysis. Of the Ethiopian extracts A. nilotica, R. abyssinicus and C. prophetarum showed significant anthelmintic activity. Their lowest EC-50 values were 0.18 (confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.3), 1.1 (CI 0.2-2.2) and 1.1 (CI 0.9-1.4)mg

  18. Ignavibacterium album gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic anaerobic bacterium isolated from microbial mats at a terrestrial hot spring and proposal of Ignavibacteria classis nov., for a novel lineage at the periphery of green sulfur bacteria.

    PubMed

    Iino, Takao; Mori, Koji; Uchino, Yoshihito; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Harayama, Shigeaki; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    A moderately thermophilic chemoheterotrophic bacterium, strain Mat9-16(T), was isolated from microbial mats developed in hot spring water streams from Yumata, Nagano, Japan. Cells of strain Mat9-16(T) were strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-sporulating, non-motile and short to long rods (2.0-15.5 mum in length). Strain Mat9-16(T) grew fermentatively with optimum growth at 45 degrees C, pH 7.0-7.5 and 1 % NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain Mat9-16(T) was affiliated with an uncultivated lineage, and the nearest cultivated neighbours were green sulfur bacteria belonging to the class Chlorobea with 77-83 % sequence similarity. However, strain Mat9-16(T) could not grow phototrophically and did not possess light-harvesting structures, morphologically and genetically, such as the chlorosomes of green sulfur bacteria. On the basis of phenotypic features and phylogenetic position, a novel genus and species are proposed for strain Mat9-16(T), to be named Ignavibacterium album gen. nov., sp. nov. (=NBRC 101810(T) =DSM 19864(T)). We also propose to place the cultivated bacterial lineage accommodating the sole representative Mat9-16(T) in a novel class, Ignavibacteria classis nov. In addition, we present a formal description of the phylum-level taxon 'Chlorobi' as Chlorobi phyl. nov.

  19. Homeopathic pathogenetic trials produce specific symptoms different from placebo.

    PubMed

    Möllinger, Heribert; Schneider, Rainer; Walach, Harald

    2009-04-01

    Homeopathy uses information gathered from healthy volunteers taking homeopathic substances (pathogenetic trials) for clinical treatment. It is controversial whether such studies produce symptoms different from those produced by placebo. To test whether homeopathic preparations produce different symptoms than placebo in healthy volunteers. Three armed, double-blind, placebo controlled randomised experimental pathogenetic study in 25 healthy volunteers who took either one of two homeopathic remedies, Natrum muriaticum and Arsenicum album in 30CH or identical placebo. Main outcome parameter was the number of remedy-specific symptoms per group. On average, 6 symptoms typical for Arsenicum album were experienced by participants taking arsenicum album, 5 symptoms typical for Natrum muriaticum by those taking natrum muriaticum, and 11 non-specific symptoms by those in the placebo group. Differences were significant overall (Kruskall Wallis test, p = 0.0002,) and significantly different from placebo (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.001). Homeopathic remedies produce different symptoms than placebo. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A Review of Team Collaboration Tools Used in the Military and Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    quarter") Entertainment. The troops, who are part of the U.S. Army’s First Cavalry Division, recorded an entire album called Live From Iraq during their...Page 37 of 42 pages For example, Army soldiers in Iraq created a music CD called “Live From Iraq.” Much of the content of this CD is a...Saunders, “who constructed his own studio and produced a brutally honest hip hop album while stationed in Sadr City, Baghdad.”88 • CollabWorx

  1. Using the Sentence Verification Technique to Assess Storage and Retrieval Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    to the house, Pete peered through the window of the side door which led to the two-car garage . The garage was empty except for three 10-speed bikes...tour stopped for about 20 minutes as they listened to the new Twisted Sister album on the large, shiny stereo in the living room. The dining room, with...stopped for about 20 minutes as they listened to the new Twisted Sister album on the large, shiny stereo in the living room. 68 MEANING CHANGE 14. The two

  2. Pollen record from Ka'au Crater, Oahu, Hawaii: Evidence for a dry glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, S.C.; Juvik, J.O.

    Fossil pollen from a 3.5 m-long core from Ka'au Crater, Hawaii (elev. 460 m), yields a ca. 23,000-year record of regional vegetation history. Results indicate a full-glacial period drier and possibly cooler than present, a warmer and wetter early Holocene, and a somewhat drier late Holocene; this sequence agrees with earlier work by Selling (1948) on other islands. The oldest zone is donated by pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, Acacia koa, and Dodonaea viscosa; post-glacial pollen assemblages feature high percentages of Myrsine and Coprosma, followed by increases in Lycopodium cernuum Ilex anomala. Freycinetia arborea and Pritchardia. After about 8000 years ago,more » Chenopodium, Acacia, and Dodonaea increase, suggesting a return to drier conditions. Abundant pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, a plant of dry regions, during the last glacial maximum implies that neither the trade winds nor cyclonic storms were delivering as much moisture to the regional vegetation as they presently do. This suggests that the ocean surface temperature during the last glacial maximum may have been cooler than present, a finding contradictory to the reconstructions of the CLIMAP (1981) group, which show temperatures near Hawaii equal to or even warmer than present.« less

  3. Type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins depurinate plant 25S rRNA without species specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Prestle, J; Schönfelder, M; Adam, G; Mundry, K W

    1992-01-01

    Four different type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) with RNA N-glycosidase activity were tested for their ability to attack the large rRNA of plant ribosomes derived from tobacco plants, as well as from the plant species from which the particular RIP had been isolated. Incubation of tobacco ribosomes with RIPs isolated from either Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed), Dianthus barbatus L. (carnation), Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach) or Chenopodium amaranthicolor Coste and Reyn. (chenopodium) rendered the 25S rRNA sensitive to aniline-catalyzed hydrolysis, generating a single rRNA-fragment of about 350 nucleotides. The same fragment was generated when rRNAs from pokeweed, carnation, spinach or chenopodium ribosomes were aniline-treated without any deliberate treatment of the ribosomes with the respective RIP. This indicated that ribosomes from all RIP-producing plants were already inactivated by their own RIPs during preparation. These results demonstrate that plant ribosomes are generally susceptible to RIP attack, including modification by their own RIPs. Direct sequencing of the newly generated fragments revealed that a single N-glycosidic bond at an adenosine residue within the highly conserved sequence 5'-AGUACGAGAGGA-3' was cleaved by all of the RIPs investigated, a situation also found in animal, yeast and Escherichia coli ribosomes. Images PMID:1620614

  4. Book Review: Space Research at the Technical University of Moldova.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    Recently the historian of the Technical University of Moldova Aurel Marinchuk (Marinciuc) in a collaboration with the editorial team from the same University has published a Jubiliary Album "50 Years of the Technical University of Moldova". The Album is published at the Technical University in Chisinau (The Republic of Moldova). Two chapters of this album present major interest: 1) Space research at the Technical University of Moldova 2) The Foucault Pendulum manufactured at the same University under the supervision of the Rector of University, Dr. Hab. of Technical Sciences and Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Moldova Ion Bostan. The parameters of the Pendulums are: m=102 kg L=17,24 m T=8.35 sec. >From the first chapter We learn that 3 astronauts: Frank Lee Culbertson, Vladimir Dezhurov and Dumitru Dorin Prunariu are Doctors Honoris Causa of this University. As well we can found in the album informations about the Microsatellit "Republic of Moldova" built also by a team from the same University. It is ready to fly, but many depends on the funds for launch the Satellite. The Foucault Pendulum presents also interest in view of its possible applications to detect the influence of the relative position of the Sun and the Moon on Earthquakes. As is well known the tidal gravitational Force varies, depending on the relative position of the Sun and the Moon.

  5. A Simple Probabilistic Approach to Classification and Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    music passage has many music related words such as ’studio’, ’ album ’, ’disc’, and ’record’, and the sports passage has many sports...about music , even though the word ’ music ’ is not in the passage. Similarly, most people can tell that the second passage is from a sports article, even...though the word ’sport’ is never mentioned. "Before the release of his last studio album , 1993’s ’Ten Summoner’s Tales’, Sting commented that

  6. GETTING TO KNOW YOU. ERIC PASLAY.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl A

    2017-03-01

    If you're a country music fan, you've probably heard of Eric Paslay; 33, a Nashville-based platinum-selling singer/songwriter. After starting to play guitar at age 15, Paslay knew by 18 that music was his path. In 2011, he signed with EMI Records Nashville, and since then he has had five number one hits, including four recorded by other artists such as Rascal Flatts as well as "Friday Night," the lead single from his self-titled debut album. His latest album, "Dressed in Black," includes the single "Angels in This Town."

  7. 10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning cotton. Misses Hettie, Martha and Louisa are from left to right. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is III-A-HSE-9642. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. [Kombinierte Anwendung von Strahlentherapie und adjuvanter Therapie mit einem Mistelextrakt (Viscum album L.) zur Behandlung des oralen malignen Melanoms beim Hund: Eine retrospektive Studie].

    PubMed

    von Bodungen, Uta; Ruess, Katja; Reif, Marcus; Biegel, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: Orale maligne Melanome (OMM) des Hundes zeichnen sich durch schnelles Wachstum, lokale Invasion und hohe Metastasierungsraten aus. Extrakte auf Basis von Viscum album L. (VAE) werden zunehmend in der Krebstherapie sowohl in der Human- als auch in der Veterinärmedizin eingesetzt. Ziel unserer Studie war es zu untersuchen, inwieweit die adjuvante Therapie mit VAE eine therapeutische Option zur Behandlung von OMM ist. Besonderes Augenmerk galt dabei der Überlebenszeit und möglichen Nebenwirkungen. Tiere und Methoden: 26 Hunde mit OMM, die in einem der größten veterinäronkologischen Zentren der Schweiz allesamt eine Strahlentherapie erhielten (teilweise nach operativer Tumorresektion) wurden in die retrospektive Studie eingeschlossen: 18 Hunde wurden mit VAE behandelt (1 ml VAE (Iscador®) in ansteigenden Konzentrationen von 0,1 bis 20 mg/ml subkutan 3-mal pro Woche (VAE-Gruppe), 8 erhielten keine adjuvante Behandlung (Vergleichsgruppe). Wir verglichen die Größenentwicklung der OMM sowie die Überlebenszeit. Ergebnisse: Patienten mit Bestrahlung und adjuvanter VAE-Therapie zeigten mit 236 Tagen eine signifikant längere mediane Überlebenszeit im Vergleich zu Patienten mit Bestrahlung, aber ohne adjuvante VAE-Therapie (49 Tage; Log-Rank-Test: p = 0,0047). Die VAE-Therapie verlängerte die Überlebenszeit um mehr als zwei Drittel (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0,30, 95%-Konfidenzintervall (KI) 0,11-0,86; p = 0,024), während ein höheres Tumorstadium gemäß UICC (Union internationale contre le cancer) einen statistischen Trend zur Verdopplung des Sterberisikos zeigte (UICC-Stadium III/IV vs. I/II: HR = 2,12, 95%-KI 0,88-5,12; p = 0,095). Zwei Patienten zeigten milde Nebenwirkungen während der VAE-Behandlung. Einer der beiden zeigte 1 Tag lang ein selbstlimitiertes Fieber, bei dem anderen Patienten reduzierten wir die Dosis von einem konzentrierteren zu einem weniger konzentrierten VAE (Serie 0) aufgrund von Müdigkeit, die daraufhin verschwand

  9. Accidental intoxication with Veratrum album.

    PubMed

    Grobosch, T; Binscheck, T; Martens, F; Lampe, D

    2008-01-01

    A 49-year-old man consumed two glasses (approximately 2 x 20 mL) of a beverage containing yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea). Shortly after ingestion, he developed nausea, vomiting, and oral paraesthesia. On admission to the hospital he suffered from severe bradycardia (35 beats/min) and hypotension (50/30 mm Hg), and he was treated with activated charcoal, antiemetics (metoclopramide, ondansetron), atropine, and intravenous electrolytic solution. The initial suspicion of Veratrum poisoning could be confirmed by identifying protoveratrines A (ProA) and protoveratrine B (ProB) in a sample from the beverage as well as in the patients serum by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). The yellow-colored beverage contained 25% ethanol (by headspace gas chromatography), 20.4 mg/L ProA, and 13.7 mg/L ProB. The serum concentration of ProA was 1162 ng/L and ProB was 402 ng/L. Veratridine, cevadine, and jervine were not detected, neither in the beverage nor in the serum sample. The lower limits of quantitation for all compounds is 10 microg/L (S/N > 10, beverage) and 100 ng/L (S/N > 10, serum). After treatment, the patient completely recovered from the symptoms within 24 h and was discharged from the hospital. The analytical method described was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of five Veratrum alkaloids. The method is based on a liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-MS-MS analysis. The time needed for analysis was 6 min.

  10. Olivia Records: The Production of a Movement.

    PubMed

    Morris, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the early years of Olivia Records, setting the context for the historic release of the album Where Would I Be Without You. From its origins as a Washington, D.C.-based activist collective in 1973, Olivia became a hugely successful recording company, marketing radical lesbian recordings and performances that soon defined the "women's music" movement. Both artistically and politically, Olivia's woman-identified albums became the soundtrack for a generation awakening to lesbian activism. Pat Parker and Judy Grahn's 1976 spoken-word recording is a unique demonstration of Olivia's radical production values and expanding catalog.

  11. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi in two valleys of the Qinling Mountains (Shaanxi, central China).

    PubMed

    Kang, Yongxiang; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Kang, Jin; Zhang, Shijiao

    2013-04-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants in two mountain valleys separated by Mount Taibai--the highest peak of northern China and one of its biodiversity hotspots, each adjacent to species-rich temperate forest vegetation. Seventy two free lists were collected among the inhabitants of two mountain valleys (36 in each). All the studied households are within walking distance of primary forest vegetation, however the valleys differed in access to urban centers: Houzhenzi is very isolated, and the Dali valley has easier access to the cities of central Shaanxi. Altogether, 185 wild food plant species and 17 fungi folk taxa were mentioned. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high in Houzhenzi (mean 25) and slightly lower in Dali (mean 18). An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables, a few wild fruits and very few fungi. Age and male gender had a positive but very low effect on the number of taxa listed.Twelve taxa of wild vegetables (Allium spp., Amaranthus spp., Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Matteucia struthiopteris, Pteridium aquilinum, Toona sinensis, Cardamine macrophylla, Celastrus orbiculatus, Chenopodium album, Pimpinella sp., Staphylea bumalda &S. holocarpa), two species of edible fruits (Akebia trifoliata, Schisandra sphenanthera) and none of the mushrooms were freelisted by at least half of the respondents in one or two of the valleys. The high number of wild vegetables listed is due to the high cultural position of this type of food in China compared to other parts of the world, as well as the high biodiversity of the village surroundings. A very high proportion of woodland species (42%, double the number of the ruderal species used) among the listed taxa is contrary to the general stereotype that wild vegetables in Asia are mainly ruderal species. The very low interest in wild mushroom collecting is noteworthy and is difficult to explain. It may arise from the easy access to

  12. Plants in a crowded stand regulate their height growth so as to maintain similar heights to neighbours even when they have potential advantages in height growth.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hisae; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2011-07-01

    Although being tall is advantageous in light competition, plant height growth is often similar among dominant plants in crowded stands (height convergence). Previous theoretical studies have suggested that plants should not overtop neighbours because greater allocation to supporting tissues is necessary in taller plants, which in turn lowers leaf mass fraction and thus carbon gain. However, this model assumes that a competitor has the same potential of height growth as their neighbours, which does not necessarily account for the fact that height convergence occurs even among individuals with various biomass. Stands of individually potted plants of Chenopodium album were established, where target plants were lifted to overtop neighbours or lowered to be overtopped. Lifted plants were expected to keep overtopping because they intercept more light without increased allocation to stems, or to regulate their height to similar levels of neighbours, saving biomass allocation to the supporting organ. Lowered plants were expected to be suppressed due to the low light availability or to increase height growth so as to have similar height to the neighbours. Lifted plants reduced height growth in spite of the fact that they received higher irradiance than others. Lowered plants, on the other hand, increased the rate of stem elongation despite the reduced irradiance. Consequently, lifted and lowered plants converged to the same height. In contrast to the expectation, lifted plants did not increase allocation to leaf mass despite the decreased stem length. Rather, they allocated more biomass to roots, which might contribute to improvement of mechanical stability or water status. It is suggested that decreased leaf mass fraction is not the sole cost of overtopping neighbours. Wind blowing, which may enhance transpiration and drag force, might constrain growth of overtopping plants. The results show that plants in crowded stands regulate their height growth to maintain similar

  13. Ethnobotanical appraisal and cultural values of medicinally important wild edible vegetables of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, Mir Ajab; Shah, Munir H; Shah, Mohammad Maroof; Pervez, Arshad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2013-09-14

    The association among food and health is momentous as consumers now demand healthy, tasty and natural functional foods. Knowledge of such food is mainly transmitted through the contribution of individuals of households. Throughout the world the traditions of using wild edible plants as food and medicine are at risk of disappearing, hence present appraisal was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal and cultural importance of wild edible vegetables used by the populace of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Data was collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey and focus group conversation with key respondents of the study sites including 45 female, 30 children and 25 males. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report. A total of 45 wild edible vegetables belonging to 38 genera and 24 families were used for the treatment of various diseases and consumed. Asteraceae and Papilionoideae were found dominating families with (6 spp. each), followed by Amaranthaceae and Polygonaceae. Vegetables were cooked in water (51%) followed by diluted milk (42%) and both in water and diluted milk (7%). Leaves were among highly utilized plant parts (70%) in medicines followed by seeds (10%), roots (6%), latex (4%), bark, bulb, flowers, tubers and rhizomes (2% each). Modes of preparation fall into seven categories like paste (29%), decoction (24%), powder (14%), eaten fresh (12%), extract (10%), cooked vegetable (8%) and juice (4%). Ficus carica was found most cited species with in top ten vegetables followed by Ficus palmata, Bauhinia variegata, Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus viridis, Medicago polymorpha, Chenopodium album, Cichorium intybus, Amaranthus hybridus and Vicia faba. Patterns of wild edible plant usage depend mainly on socio-economic factors compare to climatic conditions or wealth of flora but during past few decades have harshly eroded due to change in the life style of the inhabitants. Use reports verified common

  14. Summer weeds as hosts for Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and as reservoirs for tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Noah D; Walgenbach, J F; Kennedy, G G

    2005-12-01

    spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall: I. purpurea, I. hederacea, M. verticillata, A. palmeri, C. obtusifolia, R. scabra, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Polygonum pensylvanicum L., and Chenopodium album L.

  15. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review.

    PubMed

    Łuczaj, Łukasz; Szymański, Wojciech M

    2007-04-15

    This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora) has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack), 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea) and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves). The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary use of wild plants became impoverished very early, compared to

  16. Application of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation for insight into DOM fractions from native halophyte soils in a larger estuarine delta.

    PubMed

    Wei, Huaibin; Yu, Huibin; Pan, Hongwei; Gao, Hongjie

    2018-05-01

    UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and two-dimensional correlation (2D correlation) is used to trace components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from soils in a larger estuarine delta and to investigate spatial variations of DOM fractions. Soil samples of different depths were collected from native halophyte soils along a saline gradient, i.e., Suaeda salsa Comm. (SSC), Chenopodium album Comm. (CAC), Phragmites australis Comm. (PAC), and Artemisia selengensis Comm. (ASC). Molecular weights of DOM within the SSC soil profile were the lowest, followed by the CAC, PAC, and ASC soil profiles. Humification degree of DOM within the ASC soil profile was the highest, followed by the PAC, SSC, and CAC soil profiles. DOM within the soil profiles mainly contained phenolic, carboxylic, microbial products, and aromatic and alkyl groups through the PCA, which presented the significant differentiation among the four native halophyte soil profiles. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the SSC soil profile indicated that the variations of the phenolic groups were the largest, followed by the carboxylic groups, microbial products, and humified organic materials according to the band changing order of 285 → 365 → 425 → 520 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the CAC soil profiles determined that the decreasing order of the variations was phenolic groups > carboxylic groups > microbial products according the band changing order of 285 → 365 → 425 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the PAC soil profile proved that the variations of the phenolic groups were larger than those of the carboxylic groups according to the band changing order of 285 → 365 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the ASC soil profile demonstrated that the variations of the phenolic groups were larger than those of the other DOM fractions according to the broad cross-peak at

  17. Adaptive changes in photosynthetic performance and secondary metabolites during white dead nettle micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Kapchina-Toteva, V; Dimitrova, M A; Stefanova, M; Koleva, D; Kostov, K; Yordanova, Zh P; Stefanov, D; Zhiponova, M K

    2014-09-15

    The white dead nettle, Lamium album L., is an herb that has been successfully cultivated under in vitro conditions. The L. album micropropagation system offers a combination of factors (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2) level, humidity) that are limiting for plant growth and bioactive capacity. To get a better understanding of the mechanism of plant acclimation towards environmental changes, we performed a comparative investigation on primary and secondary metabolism in fully expanded L. album leaves during the consecutive growth in in situ, in vitro, and ex vitro conditions. Although the genetic identity was not affected, structural and physiological deviations were observed, and the level of bioactive compounds was modified. During in vitro cultivation, the L. album leaves became thinner with unaffected overall leaf organization, but with a reduced number of palisade mesophyll layers. Structural deviation of the thylakoid membrane system was detected. In addition, the photosystem 2 (PS2) electron transport was retarded, and the plants were more vulnerable to light damage as indicated by the decreased photoprotection ability estimated by fluorescence parameters. The related CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates were subsequently reduced, as were the content of essential oils and phenolics. Transfer of the plants ex vitro did not increase the number of palisade numbers, but the chloroplast structure and PS2 functionality were recovered. Strikingly, the rates of CO2 assimilation and transpiration were increased compared to in situ control plants. While the phenolics content reached normal levels during ex vitro growth, the essential oils remained low. Overall, our study broadens the understanding about the nature of plant responses towards environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. “An Adamless Eden” in Ingonish: what Cape Breton's archives reveal.

    PubMed

    Revie, Linda L

    2010-01-01

    This essay reads the archived life of a Sydney-based woman - Ella Liscombe (1902–69) - as it was recorded in her diaries, notebooks, and especially her photograph album of a 1927 camping excursion to Ingonish, Cape Breton Island. This album features pictures of women in "cross-dress," and the writings that gloss these camping records express Ella Liscombe’s erotic same-sex feelings about her female companions. As this essay explores Liscombe’s sartorial and emotional aesthetics, it also makes distinctions between "mannish" behaviour and "boyish" performance/costume, ultimately suggesting that Ella and her friends indulged in "twilight moments" to escape the strictures of domestic femininity.

  19. [Regulation of cellular-mediated immunity by Chenopodi boni henrici herba polysaccharides in hens].

    PubMed

    Hanganu, Daniela; Dorhoi, Anca; Pintea, Adela; Olah, Neli; Sevastre, B

    2010-01-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharides from Chenopodium bonus-henricus herba was tested on adult hens. Blood samples were harvested aseptically by punction of brachial vein; ability of circulating phagocytes was assessed by the carbon particles phagocytosis test in vitro; while reactivity of peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated by lymphocytes transformation assay in vitro. Polysaharides were dissolved in saline solution and filtered throughout Millipore. Phagocytic indexes (at 15 and 39 minutes) are variable according to polysaharides concentration; phagocytosis increased at 15 minutes for 40 microg/mL and 60 microg/mL, while for 30 minutes the phagocytic index decreased. In lymphocytes transformation assay, Chenopodium bonus-henricus polysaharides, alone, shown no stimulatory effect, and together to the classic mitogen, their influence was variable, but not statistical significant results were seen. Polysaccharides have inconstant effect on phagocytosis, and mainly inhibitory role on lymphocytes proliferation.

  20. Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Study, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

  1. Characterization of Melioribacter roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel facultatively anaerobic thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium from the class Ignavibacteria, and a proposal of a novel bacterial phylum Ignavibacteriae.

    PubMed

    Podosokorskaya, Olga A; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Gavrilov, Sergey N; Mardanov, Andrey V; Merkel, Alexander Y; Karnachuk, Olga V; Ravin, Nikolay V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Kublanov, Ilya V

    2013-06-01

    A novel moderately thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic chemoorganotrophic bacterium strain P3M-2(T) was isolated from a microbial mat developing on the wooden surface of a chute under the flow of hot water (46°C) coming out of a 2775-m-deep oil exploration well (Tomsk region, Russia). Strain P3M-2(T) is a moderate thermophile and facultative anaerobe growing on mono-, di- or polysaccharides by aerobic respiration, fermentation or by reducing diverse electron acceptors [nitrite, Fe(III), As(V)]. Its closest cultivated relative (90.8% rRNA gene sequence identity) is Ignavibacterium album, the only chemoorganotrophic member of the phylum Chlorobi. New genus and species Melioribacter roseus are proposed for isolate P3M-2(T) . Together with I. album, the new organism represents the class Ignavibacteria assigned to the phylum Chlorobi. The revealed group includes a variety of uncultured environmental clones, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of some of which have been previously attributed to the candidate division ZB1. Phylogenetic analysis of M. roseus and I. album based on their 23S rRNA and RecA sequences confirmed that these two organisms could represent an even deeper, phylum-level lineage. Hence, we propose a new phylum Ignavibacteriae within the Bacteroidetes-Chlorobi group with a sole class Ignavibacteria, two families Ignavibacteriaceae and Melioribacteraceae and two species I. album and M. roseus. This proposal correlates with chemotaxonomic data and phenotypic differences of both organisms from other cultured representatives of Chlorobi. The most essential differences, supported by the analyses of complete genomes of both organisms, are motility, facultatively anaerobic and obligately organotrophic mode of life, the absence of chlorosomes and the apparent inability to grow phototrophically. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. An analysis of packaging formats for complex digtal objects: review of principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, Jeroen L.; Hochstenbach, Patrick; De Kooning, Emiel; Van de Walle, Rik

    2003-11-01

    During recent years, the number of organizations making digital information available has massively increased. This evolution encouraged the development of standards for packaging and encoding digital representations of complex objects (such as a digital music albums or digitized books and photograph albums). The primary goal of this article is to offer a method to compare these packaging standards and best practices tailored to the needs of the digital library community and the rising digital preservation programs. The contribution of this paper is the definition of an integrated reference model, based on both the OAIS framework and some additional significant properties that affect the quality, usability, encoding and behavior of the digital objects.

  3. Pasting and rheological properties of quinoa-oat composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quinoa (Chenopodium, quinoa) flour, known for its essential amino acids, was composited with oat products containing ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. Quinoa-oat composites were developed and evaluated for their pasting and rheological properties by a Rapid ...

  4. Blueberry latent spherical virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Blueray’ tissue was mechanically inoculated onto Chenopodium quinoa indicator plants as part of a study to determine virus presence in blueberries at Iwate University, Japan. Plants developed chlorosis indicative of virus presence and after virus purification and genome characterization it was dete...

  5. An investigation to enhance understanding of the stimulation of weed seedling emergence by soil disturbance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enhanced understanding of soil disturbance effects on weed seedling recruitment will guide improved management approaches. Field experiments were conducted at 16 site-years at 10 research farms across Europe and North America to 1) quantify superficial soil disturbance (SSD) effects on Chenopodium ...

  6. Development, characterization, and cross-amplification of 16 microsatellite primers for Atriplex tatarica (Amaranthaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Kondrysová, Eva; Krak, Karol; Mandák, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed to characterize the genetic diversity and structure of the annual herb Atriplex tatarica (Amaranthaceae) and to facilitate ecological and evolutionary studies of A. tatarica and its relatives. Methods and Results: Sixteen novel microsatellite primers were developed for A. tatarica based on high-throughput sequencing of enriched libraries. All markers were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 25 and observed and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.08 to 0.74 and 0.10 to 0.87, respectively. In addition, some of these loci were successfully amplified and showed polymorphisms in four Atriplex and seven Chenopodium species. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers published here will be useful in assessing genetic diversity, structure, and gene flow within and across populations of A. tatarica, as well as in other species of Atriplex and the related genus Chenopodium. PMID:29188148

  7. Anticancer Effects of Sandalwood (Santalum album).

    PubMed

    Santha, Sreevidya; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2015-06-01

    Effective management of tumorigenesis requires development of better anticancer agents with greater efficacy and fewer side-effects. Natural products are important sources for the development of chemotherapeutic agents and almost 60% of anticancer drugs are of natural origin. α-Santlol, a sesquiterpene isolated from Sandalwood, is known for a variety of therapeutic properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-viral and anti-bacterial activities. Cell line and animal studies reported chemopreventive effects of sandalwood oil and α-santalol without causing toxic side-effects. Our laboratory identified its anticancer effects in chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis in CD-1 and SENCAR mice, ultraviolet-B-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice and in vitro models of melanoma, non-melanoma, breast and prostate cancer. Its ability to induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells is its most reported anticancer mechanism of action. The present review discusses studies that support the anticancer effect and the mode of action of sandalwood oil and α-santalol in carcinogenesis. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Quinoa seed quality response to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate salinity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal which has high protein content, but also provides high quality protein. The essential amino acids are balanced; protein efficiency ratio and true protein digestibility are comparable to those of casein, which considered as a good protein resource....

  9. Quinoa cultivation in western North America: lessons learned and the path forward

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a relatively new crop to farmers in North America; however recent interest in domestic cultivation of quinoa has skyrocketed due to a rapid, worldwide increase in demand for this nutritious and delicious Andean crop. Researchers at five western U.S. universities ...

  10. Larval description of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The last-instar larva of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) is described for the first time. Specimens in this study were reared from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Chenopodiaceae), Bolivia, La Paz, 4 km S Viacha, Quipaquipani, 3880 m. The larva of Copitarsia incommoda is compared with larvae of Copi...

  11. The Effects of Parental Advisory Labels on Adolescent Music Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the effect of parental advisory labels (on album covers) on the music taste and preference of adolescent students 12 to 15 years old. Finds that labeled music was liked less than unlabeled music. (SR)

  12. [Sensitization to Castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern Extremadura (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Cosmes Martín, P M; Moreno Ancillo, A; Domínguez Noche, C; Gutiérrez Vivas, A; Belmonte Soler, J; Roure Nolla, J M

    2005-01-01

    Castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. In our geographical area (Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain) Castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen. To determine the atmospheric fluctuations and prevalence of patients sensitized to Castanea pollen in our region and to compare this sensitization with sensitizations to other pollens. Patients with respiratory symptoms attending our outpatient clinic for the first time in 2003 were studied. The patients underwent skin prick tests with commercial extracts of a battery of inhalants including Castanea sativa pollen. Serologic specific IgE to Castanea sativa pollen was determined using the CAP system (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Uppsala, Sweden). Airborne pollen counts in our city were obtained using Cour collection apparatus over a 4-year period (2000 to 2003). The most predominant pollens detected were (mean of the maximal weekly concentrations over 4 years in pollen grains/m3): Quercus 968, Poacea 660, Olea 325, Platanus 229, Pinus 126, Cupresaceae 117, Plantago 109, Alnus 41, Populus 40, Castanea 32. We studied 346 patients (mean age: 24.1 years). In 210 patients with a diagnosis of pollinosis, the percentages of sensitization were: Dactylis glomerata 80.4%, Olea europea 71.9%, Fraxinus excelsior 68%, Plantago lanceolata 62.8%, Chenopodium album 60.9%, Robinia pseudoacacia 49%, Artemisia vulgaris 43.8%, Platanus acerifolia 36.6%, Parietaria judaica 36.1%, Populus nigra 32.3%, Betula alba 27.6%, Quercus ilex 21.4%, Alnus glutinosa 20.9%, Cupressus arizonica 7.6% and Castanea sativa 7.1%. Fifteen patients were sensitized to Castanea sativa and 14 had seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Ten patients had serum specific IgE to Castanea pollen (maximum value: 17.4 Ku/l). Castanea pollen is present in our area in large amounts from the 23rd to the 28th weeks of the year, with a peak pollen count in the 25th week. The most important allergenic pollens in northern Extremadura

  13. Wild food plants used by the Tibetans of Gongba Valley (Zhouqu county, Gansu, China)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethnobotany of Tibetans is a seriously under-studied topic. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants in a valley inhabited by Tibetans in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Region. Methods The field research was carried out in a wooded mountain valley in 9 neighbouring villages the Zhouqu (Brugchu) county, and comprised 17 interviews with single informants and 14 group interviews, involving 122 people altogether. Results We recorded the use of 81 species of vascular plants from 41 families. Fruits formed the largest category, with 42 species, larger than the wild greens category, with 36 species. We also recorded the culinary use of 5 species of edible flowers, 7 species with underground edible organs and 5 taxa of fungi. On average, 16.2 edible taxa were listed per interview (median – 16). Green vegetables formed the largest category of wild foods (mean – 8.7 species, median – 9 species), but fruits were listed nearly as frequently (mean – 6.9, median – 6). Other categories were rarely mentioned: flowers (mean – 0.2, median – 0), underground edible parts (mean – 0.3, median – 0) and mushrooms (mean – 1.5, – median 1). Wild vegetables are usually boiled and/or fried and served as side-dishes (cai). They are often lacto-fermented. Wild fruits are mainly collected by children and eaten raw, they are not stored for further use. The most widely used wild vegetables are: Eleuterococcus spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Helwingia japonica, Aralia chinensis, Allium victorialis, Pteridium aquilinum, Ixeris chinensis, Thlaspi arvense and Chenopodium album. The culinary use of Caltha palustris as a green vegetable is very interesting. In its raw state, marsh marigold is a toxic plant, due to the presence of protoanemonin. In this area it is dried or lactofermented before use. The most commonly eaten fruits are: Pyrus xerophila, Prunus salicina, Berchemia sinica, Rubus spp. and Eleagnus umbellata. Conclusions The

  14. Effect of pre-planting irrigation, maize planting pattern and nitrogen on weed seed bank population.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, E; Vazan, S; Oveisi, M

    2011-01-01

    Pre-planting irrigation and planting patterns are important factors in weed management that effect on seed bank. Additionally, the nitrogen is the most important factor in plant growth that affects weed-crop competition and ultimately, seed rain into the soil. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen application rates, pre-planting irrigation and maize planting patterns on weed seed bank population. Experimental factors were nitrogen rates at 4 levels (200, 300, 400 and 500 kg per hectare) as main plot; and pre-planting irrigation at 2 levels (irrigation before planting plus weeding emerged seedlings and, irrigation after sowing), and maize planting patterns (one-row and two-row planting of maize with same density per square of row length) that were assigned in a factorial arrangement to the sub plots. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the season (before planting of maize) and at the end of the season (after harvest) at depth of 0-5 cm in the fixed quadrates (60 cm x 60 cm). The weed seeds were extracted from the soil samples and were identified using standard methods. The majority of weed seed bank populations included 6 weed species: Portulaca oleracea, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Sorghum halepense, Daturea stramonium, Xanthium strumarium. Results showed that population of weed seed bank increased significantly with increasing nitrogen rate. The increasing rate was different between one-row and two-row planting patterns. The parameters indicated that seed bank population was much higher in a one row planting pattern of maize. With two-row planting, seed bank was decreased by 34, 26, 20 and 5% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha, respectively. Pre-planting irrigation was also found an effective implement to reduce the weed seed bank. When pre-planting irrigation was applied, seed bank was decreased by 57, 43, 34 and 9% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha. Increasing nitrogen because of weed's better growth and higher seed

  15. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi in two valleys of the Qinling Mountains (Shaanxi, central China)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants in two mountain valleys separated by Mount Taibai – the highest peak of northern China and one of its biodiversity hotspots, each adjacent to species-rich temperate forest vegetation. Methods Seventy two free lists were collected among the inhabitants of two mountain valleys (36 in each). All the studied households are within walking distance of primary forest vegetation, however the valleys differed in access to urban centers: Houzhenzi is very isolated, and the Dali valley has easier access to the cities of central Shaanxi. Results Altogether, 185 wild food plant species and 17 fungi folk taxa were mentioned. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high in Houzhenzi (mean 25) and slightly lower in Dali (mean 18). An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables, a few wild fruits and very few fungi. Age and male gender had a positive but very low effect on the number of taxa listed. Twelve taxa of wild vegetables (Allium spp., Amaranthus spp., Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Matteucia struthiopteris, Pteridium aquilinum, Toona sinensis, Cardamine macrophylla, Celastrus orbiculatus, Chenopodium album, Pimpinella sp., Staphylea bumalda &S. holocarpa), two species of edible fruits (Akebia trifoliata, Schisandra sphenanthera) and none of the mushrooms were freelisted by at least half of the respondents in one or two of the valleys. Conclusion The high number of wild vegetables listed is due to the high cultural position of this type of food in China compared to other parts of the world, as well as the high biodiversity of the village surroundings. A very high proportion of woodland species (42%, double the number of the ruderal species used) among the listed taxa is contrary to the general stereotype that wild vegetables in Asia are mainly ruderal species. The very low interest in wild mushroom collecting is noteworthy and is difficult to

  16. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review

    PubMed Central

    Łuczaj, Łukasz; Szymański, Wojciech M

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. Methods 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. Results The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora) has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack), 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea) and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves). The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. Conclusion Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary use of wild plants became

  17. Mercedes Sosa: "Duerme, negrito"--Versuch einer Liedinterpretation im Spanischunterricht (Mercedes Sosa: "Duerme, negrito"--A Trial Interpretation of a Song in Spanish Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Karl-Heinz

    1973-01-01

    Appended is text of the song Duerme, negrito'' (Sleep, Little Black Boy) by Atahualpa Yupanqui, as recorded by Mercedes Sosa on the album El grito de la tierra'' (The Cry of the Land), Philips 6347005. (RS)

  18. Controlling Asthma New Guidelines. New Medications. New Action Plans.

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. New Guidelines. New Medications. New Action Plans. People everywhere and in every age ... I am putting the finishing touches on my new studio album that we hope to have out ...

  19. Play-a-Long, Sing-a-Long with the Hi Hopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Doris E.

    1975-01-01

    Described are the beginnings and current activities of the Hi Hopes, a music group of seven trainable mentally retarded adults who have recorded three albums, appeared on television specials and played before more than 250,000 people. (CL)

  20. [The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].

    PubMed

    Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading.

  1. Conservation of Library Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Libraries, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Twelve articles cover books as artifacts; workstations for conservation of library materials; care of scrapbooks, albums, and photographs; map preservation; library environment; flood recovery; disaster prevention and preparedness; incorporating preservation into library organization; and bibliography of Chester Public Library (Illinois) First…

  2. 19 CFR 12.48 - Importation prohibited; exceptions to prohibition of importation; procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... numismatic articles, books, journals, newspapers, or albums) of black and white illustrations of canceled and... securities of any foreign government, bank, or corporation shall be permitted. (d) Printed matter of the... of canceled foreign postage stamps may be admitted to entry. Printed matter containing illustrations...

  3. 19 CFR 12.48 - Importation prohibited; exceptions to prohibition of importation; procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... numismatic articles, books, journals, newspapers, or albums) of black and white illustrations of canceled and... securities of any foreign government, bank, or corporation shall be permitted. (d) Printed matter of the... of canceled foreign postage stamps may be admitted to entry. Printed matter containing illustrations...

  4. 19 CFR 12.48 - Importation prohibited; exceptions to prohibition of importation; procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... numismatic articles, books, journals, newspapers, or albums) of black and white illustrations of canceled and... securities of any foreign government, bank, or corporation shall be permitted. (d) Printed matter of the... of canceled foreign postage stamps may be admitted to entry. Printed matter containing illustrations...

  5. 19 CFR 12.48 - Importation prohibited; exceptions to prohibition of importation; procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... numismatic articles, books, journals, newspapers, or albums) of black and white illustrations of canceled and... securities of any foreign government, bank, or corporation shall be permitted. (d) Printed matter of the... of canceled foreign postage stamps may be admitted to entry. Printed matter containing illustrations...

  6. NOAA Photo Library - Other NOAA Photo Sites

    Science.gov Websites

    National Marine Mammal Laboratory Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering Fish Photos by Family Florida - Melbourne: Post Storm Damage Surveys and Summaries Florida - Tallahassee: Virtual Office Tour Kentucky - Jackson: Virtual Tour Kentucky - Louisville: Photo Album Kentucky - Paducah: Photo Gallery

  7. Popular Music: An Untapped Resource for Teaching Contemporary Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee

    1979-01-01

    This essay suggests two innovative instructional approaches for using popular Black music as a model for historical study in the classroom: (1) biographies of popular music artists; and (2) lyrical demonstration of social themes. A list of lyric and album resources is provided. (Author/EB)

  8. Adolescent Culture and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Neil

    1996-01-01

    Discusses adolescent anxieties, rebelliousness, and media preferences in the 1990s, especially Hip Hop, and relates today's trends to past trends, from Sinatra to Break Dancing. Suggests classroom activities using music and music videos: analyzing fans; providing biographies, discographies, lyrics; writing reviews of albums and videos; studying…

  9. Information Technology & Multimedia in English Language Teaching. Selected Papers from the ITMELT '99 Conference (Hong Kong, November 6-7, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Bruce, Ed.; Cruikshank, Don, Ed.; Gardner, David, Ed.; James, Jeff, Ed.; Keobke, Ken, Ed.

    This edited volume of conference papers includes the following: "The Mystery Photo Album: Defining a CALL Paradigm" (Ken Keobke); "Lexicon-Driven Learning on the Internet: A Design Strategy for a World Wide Web 'Virtual Language Learning Classroom'" (Chris Greaves); "Giving Students Something To Do with Concordance…

  10. Enzyme polymorphisms in Canarium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifty-two accessions of Canarium involving seven species, C. ovatum, C. album, C. megalanthum, C. harveyi, C. indicum, C. mehenbethene, and C. odontophyllum were studied for isozyme polymorphisms. Starch gel electrophoresis with a histidine-citrate buffer system (pH 6.5) was employed to assay six en...

  11. Toddler Reading Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... stuffed bears, find books about these things of interest. Kids this age also like books about children, families, and animals. Toddlers love to look at homemade books, scrapbooks, or photo albums full of people they know (try adding simple captions). Poetry and songbooks are good choices for ...

  12. Event recognition in personal photo collections via multiple instance learning-based classification of multiple images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola; Boato, Giulia; De Natale, Francesco G. B.

    2017-11-01

    Over the last few years, a rapid growth has been witnessed in the number of digital photos produced per year. This rapid process poses challenges in the organization and management of multimedia collections, and one viable solution consists of arranging the media on the basis of the underlying events. However, album-level annotation and the presence of irrelevant pictures in photo collections make event-based organization of personal photo albums a more challenging task. To tackle these challenges, in contrast to conventional approaches relying on supervised learning, we propose a pipeline for event recognition in personal photo collections relying on a multiple instance-learning (MIL) strategy. MIL is a modified form of supervised learning and fits well for such applications with weakly labeled data. The experimental evaluation of the proposed approach is carried out on two large-scale datasets including a self-collected and a benchmark dataset. On both, our approach significantly outperforms the existing state-of-the-art.

  13. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  14. [Evaluation of efficiency of traps baited with frequency trembler grid lamps and trap plants for control Heortia vitessoides infectwed in Aquilaria sinensis].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hai-Li; Xu, Chang-Qing; Xu, Rong; Guo, Kun; Wei, Jian-He; Li, Xiang-Ming; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Heortia vitessoides has been a serious defoliating pest of Aquilaria sinensis forests in recent years.The adults displayed strong tropism to the frequency trembler grid lamps and the nectar source plants.The favorite nectar source plants of H.vitessoides adults as the trap plants and the frequency trembler grid lamps in the integrated management of H.vitessoides were studied in the adult eclosion period through both the laboratory and field.The results showed that Kuhnia rosmarnifolia and Santalum album plants showed strong attraction to the H.vitessoides adults, with significant differences among the different nectar source plants.K.rosmarnifolia and S.album as trap plants with board type of planting area to total planting area of 5%-10%, and the frequency trembler grid lamps trapped significantly more adults of H.vitessoides. These results suggested that the frequency trembler grid lamps and trap plants could play an important role in the integrated management of the pest H.vitessoides of A.sinensis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Embodied simulation as part of affective evaluation processes: task dependence of valence concordant EMG activity.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, André; Funcke, Jakob Maria

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent findings, this study examines whether valence concordant electromyography (EMG) responses can be explained as an unconditional effect of mere stimulus processing or as somatosensory simulation driven by task-dependent processing strategies. While facial EMG over the Corrugator supercilii and the Zygomaticus major was measured, each participant performed two tasks with pictures of album covers. One task was an affective evaluation task and the other was to attribute the album covers to one of five decades. The Embodied Emotion Account predicts that valence concordant EMG is more likely to occur if the task necessitates a somatosensory simulation of the evaluative meaning of stimuli. Results support this prediction with regard to Corrugator supercilii in that valence concordant EMG activity was only present in the affective evaluation task but not in the non-evaluative task. Results for the Zygomaticus major were ambiguous. Our findings are in line with the view that EMG activity is an embodied part of the evaluation process and not a mere physical outcome.

  16. A Cultural Resource Inventory of the Left Bank of Lake Oahe: Burleigh and Emmons Counties, North Dakota. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    evident only early in the growing season, such as blscuitroot (Lomatium Orientale) and Plains wild onion (Al 11 urn textile), while others such as...goosefoot (Chenopodium spp.). poverty weed (Monolepis nuttalliana), seablite (Suaeda depressa) and wild buckwheat (Eriogonum pauciflorum), and the...slopes, big bluestem (A. gerardi) may reach heights in excess of 1.5 meters. Such forbs as stiff sunflower (Helianthus rigida), wild lettuce (Lactuca

  17. 37 CFR 370.3 - Reports of use of sound recordings under statutory license for preexisting subscription services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... “Intended Playlists” for each channel and each day of the reported month. The “Intended Playlists” shall...; (2) The channel; (3) The sound recording title; (4) The featured recording artist, group, or... sound recording); (6) The marketing label of the commercially available album or other product on which...

  18. 37 CFR 270.2 - Reports of use of sound recordings under statutory license for preexisting subscription services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... “Intended Playlists” for each channel and each day of the reported month. The “Intended Playlists” shall...; (2) The channel; (3) The sound recording title; (4) The featured recording artist, group, or... sound recording); (6) The marketing label of the commercially available album or other product on which...

  19. 37 CFR 270.2 - Reports of use of sound recordings under statutory license for preexisting subscription services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... license shall post and make available online its Reports of Use. Preexisting subscription services shall post their Reports of Use online on or before the forty-fifth day after the close of each month, and... sound recording); (6) The marketing label of the commercially available album or other product on which...

  20. The Use of Photography in Family Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entin, Alan D.

    Photographs and family albums are helpful in marriage and family psychotherapy to aid in the understanding of family processes, relationship patterns, goals, expectations, values, traditions, and ideals. Based on the assumption that a photograph is a form of communication, photography can be used to: (1) examine typical family picture-taking…

  1. Does Scale Really Matter? Ultra-Large-Scale Systems Seven Years after the Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-24

    Beyonce Knowles releases second consecutive No.1 album and fourth No.1 single in the US BlackBerry users numbered 4,900,000 in March, 2006...And yet…there is a fast growing gap between our research and reality. 75 Does Scale Really Matter?: ULS Systems Seven Years Later Linda Northrop

  2. El Teatro Campesino: From the Picket Lines to the Recording Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Pilar

    1977-01-01

    Out of the need to raise the farmworkers' consciousness and to encourage them to unite, El Teatro Campesino was created to entertain and uplift the morale by the struggling strikers. Today, the group has also published books, poems, posters, and other printed matter; produced films and tapes; and recorded albums. (NQ)

  3. Library Resources in Special Areas of Music: Film Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, H. Stephen

    Intended as an orientation for music librarians unfamiliar with the film music field, this presentation addresses the most common film music questions received from library patrons, including queries about composers, soundtrack albums, the subject of the music, and scores, and describes the basic film music reference sources to consult for…

  4. 37 CFR 270.3 - Reports of use of sound recordings under statutory license for nonsubscription transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... States over the relevant channels or stations, and from any archived programs, that provide audio... particular channel or program only once during the two-week reporting period, then the play frequency is one... the ISRC, the (A) Album title; and (B) Marketing label; (vi) The actual total performances of the...

  5. Carter G. Woodson Book Awards, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the 1997 recipients of the award that honors books dealing with subjects related to ethnic minorities and race relations in a manner suitable for young readers. The books include the story of the Harlem Renaissance; works on the religious holidays, Ramadan and Hanukkah; and a Japanese-American family album. (MJP)

  6. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  7. 37 CFR 370.3 - Reports of use of sound recordings under statutory license for preexisting subscription services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... post and make available online its Reports of Use. Preexisting subscription services shall post their Reports of Use online on or before the forty-fifth day after the close of each month, and continue to make... sound recording); (6) The marketing label of the commercially available album or other product on which...

  8. The Effect of Maternal Teaching Talk on Children's Emergent Literacy as a Function of Type of Activity and Maternal Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal education affects mothers' teaching talk level as a function of activity (book reading vs. looking at a family photo album), and the contribution of maternal teaching talk level during these activities to 88 five- to six-year old children's emergent literacy. Videotaped mother-child interactions…

  9. The Primary Theme Club. Home & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This cross-curricular primary unit helps teachers and students get to know one another. Students collect information about their families, then create bulletin boards, class albums, graphs, and art projects. One activity is for students to invite their families into the classroom to share their projects and feast on traditional family foods. (SM)

  10. Rock Music Gets a Label.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutietta, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A group called Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) has captured the media spotlight with a proposal to have warning labels placed on music albums containing sexually explicit or violent lyrics. Major record companies have agreed to a version of the PMRC's demands for a one-year trial period, beginning in 1986. (RM)

  11. [Rural Education Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Betty Atwell

    The Rural Education Studies albums (oversized photographs printed on heavy coated cardboard) are published in a set of 8, each of which has a separate teacher's guide to complement the contents. A comprehensive teacher's guide provides background studies for effective use of the series, as well as providing specific information and key-concepts…

  12. Growing up as a Young Artist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    "Growing Up as a Young Artist" is an illustrated book assignment that involves researching family scrapbooks, photo albums and films, and inquiring about family anecdotes for clues to one's artistic roots. Students creatively reflect on their early memories of imaginative events, as each page is filled with memories of creative activities they…

  13. Brome mosaic virus, good for an RNA virologist's basic needs.

    PubMed

    Kao, C C; Sivakumaran, K

    2000-03-01

    Abstract Taxonomic relationship: Type member of the Bromovirus genus, family Bromoviridae. A member of the alphavirus-like supergroup of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Physical properties: Virions are nonenveloped icosahedrals made up of 180 coat protein subunits (Fig. 1). The particles are 26 nm in diameter and contain 22% nucleic acid and 78% protein. The BMV genome is composed of three positive-sense, capped RNAs: RNA1 (3.2 kb), RNA2 (2.9 kb), RNA3 (2.1 kb) (Fig. 2). Viral proteins: RNA1 encodes protein 1a, containing capping and putative RNA helicase activities. RNA2 encodes protein 2a, a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. RNA3 codes for two proteins: 3a, which is required for cell-to-cell movement, and the capsid protein. The capsid is translated from a subgenomic RNA, RNA4 (1.2 kb). Hosts: Monocots in the Poacea family, including Bromus inermis, Zea mays and Hordeum vulgare, in which BMV causes brown streaks. BMV can also infect the dicots Nicotiana benthamiana and several Chenopodium species. In N. benthamiana, the infection is asymptomatic while infection of Chenopodium can cause either necrotic or chlorotic lesions. Useful website:http://www4.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTVdB/10030001.htm.

  14. Characterization of a naturally occurring recombinant isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus.

    PubMed

    Vigne, E; Demangeat, G; Komar, V; Fuchs, M

    2005-11-01

    The naturally occurring Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) recombinant isolate A17b was recovered from its grapevine host by sap inoculation and serial passages onto Gomphrena globosa, a pseudo local lesion herbaceous host, and Chenopodium quinoa, a systemic herbaceous host, to characterize some of its biological properties. Sequence analysis of the CP gene, in which a recombinational event was previously detected, demonstrated the genetic stability of recombinant isolate A17b over a 5-year period in its natural host as well as in C. quinoa. Also, recombinant isolate A17b was graft transmissible, as shown by an in vitro heterologous approach, and transmitted by the nematode Xiphinema index as readily as nonrecombinant GFLV isolates. Furthermore, despite a lower pathogenicity on Chenopodium amaranticolor, recombinant isolate A17b had a similar host range and induced similar symptoms in type and severity to nonrecombinant GFLV isolates. Interestingly, the use of infectious chimeric RNA2 transcripts in combination to RNA1 transcripts of GFLV strain F13 suggested no implication of the recombination event in the CP gene of isolate A17b in the reduced pathogenicity on C. amaranticolor. Altogether, recombinant isolate A17b had similar biological properties to GFLV nonrecombinant isolates.

  15. Scrapbook This

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacchetti, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Scrapbooking is one of the fastest-growing crafts in the world. Unlike sports or other recreational activities, scrapbooking has no rules; it is a form of creative expression that allows a person to share and preserve his or her experiences and memories in albums that usually consist of photographs, newspaper clippings, and other mementos, in…

  16. Status and cultivation of Sandalwood in India

    Treesearch

    Shobha N. Rai

    1990-01-01

    Sandalwood (Santalum album) has been part of Indian culture and heritage for thousands of years, and was one of the first items traded with other countries. The heartwood yields fragrant oil, which is used mainly in the perfume industry but also has medicinal properties. The wood is used for carving and manufacturing incense. Generally S....

  17. Holiday plants with toxic misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Evens, Zabrina N; Stellpflug, Samuel J

    2012-12-01

    Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), English holly (Ilex aquifolium), American holly (Ilex opaca), bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum), American mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum), and European mistletoe (Viscum album).

  18. Mating system and the evolution of sex-specific mortality rates in two nymphalid butterflies.

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund, Christer; Gotthard, Karl; Nylin, Sören

    2003-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms should invest resources into intrinsic components of lifespan only to the degree that it pays off in terms of reproductive success. The benefit of a long life may differ between the sexes and different mating systems may therefore select for different sex-specific mortality rates. In insects with polyandrous mating systems, females mate throughout their lives and male reproductive success is likely to increase monotonously with lifespan. In monandrous systems, where the mating season is less protracted because receptive females are available only at the beginning of the flight season, male mating success should be less dependent on a long lifespan. Here, we show, in a laboratory experiment without predation, that the duration of the mating season is longer in the polyandrous comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album, than in the monandrous peacock butterfly, Inachis io, and that, in line with predictions, male lifespan is shorter than female lifespan in I. io, whereas male and female lifespans are similar in P. c-album. PMID:12964985

  19. Mating system and the evolution of sex-specific mortality rates in two nymphalid butterflies.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Christer; Gotthard, Karl; Nylin, Sören

    2003-09-07

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms should invest resources into intrinsic components of lifespan only to the degree that it pays off in terms of reproductive success. The benefit of a long life may differ between the sexes and different mating systems may therefore select for different sex-specific mortality rates. In insects with polyandrous mating systems, females mate throughout their lives and male reproductive success is likely to increase monotonously with lifespan. In monandrous systems, where the mating season is less protracted because receptive females are available only at the beginning of the flight season, male mating success should be less dependent on a long lifespan. Here, we show, in a laboratory experiment without predation, that the duration of the mating season is longer in the polyandrous comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album, than in the monandrous peacock butterfly, Inachis io, and that, in line with predictions, male lifespan is shorter than female lifespan in I. io, whereas male and female lifespans are similar in P. c-album.

  20. The History of Redwood Records: Cultural and Economic Perspectives on a Feminist Subculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lont, Cynthia M.

    Using interviews and subcultural artifacts, such as inner sleeves of albums, this paper reports on the career of Holly Near and the history of Redwood Records, a label providing music to the lesbian-feminist subculture. First, the paper discusses the political and artistic avenues that were available to Near, the reasons she chose political music,…

  1. Schools of the Past: A Treasury of Photographs. Fastback 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, O. L., Jr.

    The experience of schooling in America is recalled through a memory-sharing essay and an album of photographs. The intent of the article is to prompt readers to remember their personal schooling experiences and relate them to the larger framework of national memories. The essay, focusing on schools at the turn of the 20th century, discusses…

  2. The Classroom as Big Sur: Notes on the Liaison Between Evaluation and Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneeden, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Bill Frisell's new album ("Big Sur") was heralded with a short documentary about its impulse and inception: Frisell's retreat to an isolated coastal ranch in Central California. In the video, he describes the influence of the place, the dramatic and evocative landscape, and how it ultimately became the subject and theme for the…

  3. NOAA Photo Library - NOAA People - Portraits in Time Collection

    Science.gov Websites

    Collections page. Takes you to the search page. Takes you to the Links page. NOAA People - Portraits in Time Collage of NOAA People Organizations are built by individuals. An organization is the sum total of the view ALL current images. NOAA People Portraits in Time ~ Albums Coast surveyors in tent Coast &

  4. The Education and Lifestyle of the Chinese Literati. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    This teaching package describes the education and lifestyle of the Chinese literati, popular from the Ming to the Qing dynasties (1368-1911). It consists of four lesson plans and a teacher's guide to a slide set. The latter illustrates painting formats popular during the late Ming period (1573-1644), hanging scrolls, handscrolls, the album leaf,…

  5. Visions of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    As the author was discussing the future of CD design with her high-school students concerning its possibility of becoming obsolete as the ability to purchase music via the Internet becomes more mainstream, she was reminded of the things that she loves about an album by looking at the pictures, reading the lyrics, touching it and holding it. The…

  6. Diurnal Patterns of Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and PRI to Evaluate Water Stress in the Invasive Species, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    produced reactive molecules and the water–water cycle (Demmig- Adams and Adams 1992; Flexas and Medrano 2002; Apel and Hirt 2004). Despite the many pathways...509–521 Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399 Baruch Z...with ontogenic changes in water limited Chenopodium quinoa leaves. Photosynthetica 40:227–232 Yates ED, Levia DP Jr, Williams CL (2004) Recruitment of

  7. STS-84 and Mir 23 crewmembers exchange gifts during welcome ceremony after docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-05-17

    STS084-376-005 (15-24 May 1997) --- Onboard the Core Module of Russia's Mir Space Station, the American Space Shuttle commander exchanges gifts with the Mir-23 crew. Astronaut Charles J. Precourt has just handed two picture albums, documenting several months of interface between the Americans and Russians, to cosmonauts Aleksandr I. Lazutkin (left), flight engineer; and Vasili Tsibliyev, commander.

  8. NOAA Photo Library - Treasures of the Library

    Science.gov Websites

    NOAA Photo Library Banner Takes you to the Top Page Takes you to the About this Site page. Takes Collections page. Takes you to the search page. Takes you to the Links page. treasures of the noaa library The "Treasures of the Library" album and collection has been developed to share images from rare

  9. Meteor Beliefs Project: ``Year of Meteors''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, Alastair; Drobnock, George J.; Gheorghe, Andrei Dorian

    2011-10-01

    We present a discussion linking ideas from a modern music album by Laura Veirs back to a turbulent time in American history 150 years ago, which inspired poet Walt Whitman to compose his poem "Year of Meteors", and the meteor beliefs of the period around 1859-1860, when collection of facts was giving way to analyses and theoretical explanations in meteor science.

  10. Hip-Hop, Digital Media, and the Changing Face of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a true story about Dwayne Carter Jr., a rapper most music educators probably don't know but one who is beloved throughout the world as "Lil Wayne." Critics overwhelmingly proclaimed Lil Wayne the top rapper in the hip-hop game, and the album and his work leading up to it were universally regarded as some of…

  11. 31. Photographic copy of historic views of lecture room, first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photographic copy of historic views of lecture room, first floor, Bowditch Hall, c. 1955, taken from album in building photo files in Caretaker Site Office, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  12. The role of female search behaviour in determining host plant range in plant feeding insects: a test of the information processing hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Janz, N.; Nylin, S.

    1997-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have suggested that host range in herbivorous insects may be more restricted by constraints on information processing on the ovipositing females than by trade-offs in larval feeding efficiency. We have investigated if females from polyphagous species have to pay for their ability to localize and evaluate plants from different species with a lower ability to discriminate between conspecific host plants with differences in quality. Females of the monophagous butterflies Polygonia satyrus, Vanessa indica and Inachis io and the polyphagous P. c-album and Cynthia cardui (all in Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) were given a simultaneous choice of stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) of different quality. In addition, the same choice trial was given to females from two populations of P. c-album with different degrees of specificity. As predicted from the information processing hypothesis, all specialists discriminated significantly against the bad quality nettle, whereas the generalists laid an equal amount of eggs on both types of nettle. There were no corresponding differences between specialist and generalist larvae in their ability to utilize poor quality leaves. Our study therefore suggests that female host-searching behaviour plays an important role in determining host plant range.

  13. The Role of Female Search Behaviour in Determining Host Plant Range in Plant Feeding Insects: A Test of the Information Processing Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Soren

    1997-05-01

    Recent theoretical studies have suggested that host range in herbivorous insects may be more restricted by constraints on information processing on the ovipositing females than by trade-offs in larval feeding efficiency. We have investigated if females from polyphagous species have to pay for their ability to localize and evaluate plants from different species with a lower ability to discriminate between conspecific host plants with differences in quality. Females of the monophagous butterflies Polygonia satyrus, Vanessa indica and Inachis io and the polyphagous P. c-album and Cynthia cardui (all in Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) were given a simultaneous choice of stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) of different quality. In addition, the same choice trial was given to females from two populations of P. c-album with different degrees of specificity. As predicted from the information processing hypothesis, all specialists discriminated significantly against the bad quality nettle, whereas the generalists laid an equal amount of eggs on both types of nettle. There were no corresponding differences between specialist and generalist larvae in their ability to utilize poor quality leaves. Our study therefore suggests that female host-searching behaviour plays an important role in determining host plant range.

  14. POI Summarization by Aesthetics Evaluation From Crowd Source Social Media.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xueming; Li, Cheng; Lan, Ke; Hou, Xingsong; Li, Zhetao; Han, Junwei

    2018-03-01

    Place-of-Interest (POI) summarization by aesthetics evaluation can recommend a set of POI images to the user and it is significant in image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a system that summarizes a collection of POI images regarding both aesthetics and diversity of the distribution of cameras. First, we generate visual albums by a coarse-to-fine POI clustering approach and then generate 3D models for each album by the collected images from social media. Second, based on the 3D to 2D projection relationship, we select candidate photos in terms of the proposed crowd source saliency model. Third, in order to improve the performance of aesthetic measurement model, we propose a crowd-sourced saliency detection approach by exploring the distribution of salient regions in the 3D model. Then, we measure the composition aesthetics of each image and we explore crowd source salient feature to yield saliency map, based on which, we propose an adaptive image adoption approach. Finally, we combine the diversity and the aesthetics to recommend aesthetic pictures. Experimental results show that the proposed POI summarization approach can return images with diverse camera distributions and aesthetics.

  15. Mistletoe Berry Outline Mapping with a Path Curve Function and Recording the Circadian Rhythm of Their Phenotypic Shape Change

    PubMed Central

    Derbidge, Renatus; Baumgartner, Stephan; Heusser, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a discovery: the change of the outline shape of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. album) berries in vivo and in situ during ripening. It was found that a plant organ that is usually considered to merely increase in size actually changes shape in a specific rhythmic fashion. We introduce a new approach to chronobiological research on a macro-phenotypic scale to trace changes over long periods of time (with a resolution from hours to months) by using a dynamic form-determining parameter called Lambda (λ). λ is known in projective geometry as a measure for pertinent features of the outline shapes of egg-like forms, so called path curves. Ascertained circadian changes of form were analyzed for their correlation with environmental factors such as light, temperature, and other weather influences. Certain weather conditions such as sky cover, i.e., sunshine minutes per hour, have an impact on the amplitude of the daily change in form. The present paper suggests a possible supplement to established methods in chronobiology, as in this case the dynamic of form-change becomes a measurable feature, displaying a convincing accordance between mathematical rule and plant shape. PMID:27933073

  16. Context and Domain Knowledge Enhanced Entity Spotting in Informal Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhl, Daniel; Nagarajan, Meena; Pieper, Jan; Robson, Christine; Sheth, Amit

    This paper explores the application of restricted relationship graphs (RDF) and statistical NLP techniques to improve named entity annotation in challenging Informal English domains. We validate our approach using on-line forums discussing popular music. Named entity annotation is particularly difficult in this domain because it is characterized by a large number of ambiguous entities, such as the Madonna album "Music" or Lilly Allen's pop hit "Smile".

  17. NOAA Photo Library - NOAA In Space Collection/Space Vehicles

    Science.gov Websites

    Collections page. Takes you to the search page. Takes you to the Links page. NOAA In Space space vehicles banner How do you get cameras, infra-red sensors, microwave sensors into space so they can observe the the above option to view ALL current images. NOAA In Space ~ Space Vehicles Album drawing of TIROS

  18. ARC-1968-A-41727-6-4

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-10-24

    Management process invaded Ames as the Center shifted from NACA to NASA oversight. Ames constructed a review room in its headquarters building where, in the graphical style that prevailed in the 1960's, Ames leadership could review progress against schedule, budget and performance measures. Shown, in October 1965 is Merrill Mead chief of Ames' program and resources office. (for H Julian Allen Retirement album)

  19. Management process invaded Ames as the Center shifted from NACA to NASA oversight. Ames constructed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Management process invaded Ames as the Center shifted from NACA to NASA oversight. Ames constructed a review room in its headquarters building where, in the graphical style that prevailed in the 1960's, Ames leadership could review progress against schedule, budget and performance measures. Shown, in October 1965 is Merrill Mead chief of Ames' program and resources office. (for H Julian Allen Retirement album)

  20. NOAA Photo Library - Navigating the Collection

    Science.gov Websites

    will have to change the setting to 800x600 to view the full image without having to scroll from left to view or download the highest resolution image available, click on the message "High Resolution viewing individual images associated with albums. If wishing to view the image ID number of a thumbnail

  1. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  2. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  3. Breaking Through (SLS Gets Fired Up With Rock Legends STYX's "Gone Gone Gone")

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-19

    Inspired by the music of STYX, NASA's Space Launch System is fired up and getting ready for the deep-space rocket's first flight. "Gone Gone Gone" is the debut single from STYX's Mars-inspired album, "The Mission." SLS, the world’s most powerful rocket, will send NASA’s Orion crew vehicle on bold missions beyond Earth’s orbit farther than humans have ever ventured before.

  4. NOAA Photo Library - Sanctuaries

    Science.gov Websites

    whale tail The word sanctuary evokes images of a sacred place, a refuge from the dangers of the world images contained in the collection. Click on thumbnails to view larger images. ALBUMS Images are arranged by themes. Click on thumbnails to view larger images. Note that not all images are contained in the

  5. Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. - A source of hepatoprotective flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Kokanova-Nedialkova, Zlatina; Nedialkov, Paraskev; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Simeonova, Rumyana; Tzankova, Virginia; Aluani, Denitsa

    2017-04-01

    Three new flavonoid glycosides (7-9) named patuletin-3-O-(5″'-О-Е-feruloyl)-β-d-apiofuranosyl(1→2)[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→6)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (7), spinacetin-3-O-(5″'-О-Е-feruloyl)-β-d-apiofuranosyl (1→2)[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (8) and 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-(5″'-О-Е-feruloyl)-β-d-apiofuranosyl(1→2)[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→6)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (9) together with six known flavonoid glycosides of patuletin, spinacetin and 6-methoxykaempferol (1-6) were isolated from the aerial parts of C. bonus-henricus and identified with spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, HRESIMS). The MeOH extract exerts hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities comparable to those of flavonoid complex silymarin in in vitro (60μg/mL) and in vivo (100mg/kg/daily for 7days) models of hepatotoxicity, induced by CCl 4 . Flavonoids (1-9) (100μM), compared to silybin, significantly reduced the cellular damage caused by CCl 4 in rat hepatocytes, preserved cell viability and GSH level, decreased LDH leakage and reduced lipid damage. High concentrations of compounds (1-9) showed marginal or no cytotoxicity on HepG2 cell line. The experiment data suggest that the glycosides of 6-methoxykaempferol, spinacetin and patuletin are a promising and safe class of hepatoprotective agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Two Effects of Electrical Fields on Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, William A.; Azzi, Jim R.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical field across a suspension of Chenopodium chloroplasts stimulates the emission of delayed light during the time the field is on. This stimulation can be used to calculate the distance over which the electron moves in the untrapping process that gives the delayed light. An electrical field applied at the time of illumination gives a polarization to the suspension of chloroplasts that lasts for some seconds. This polarization is a new way to study delayed light and fluorescence from chloroplasts. Images PMID:16660112

  7. Business Plan for the JABEZ Records

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Even though iTunes and Napster must pay royalties for the music, record companies could gain more profit from Internet sales if they owned the...services such as Apple’s iTunes , and increasing sales retail stores. C. Gospel Trends Gospel music has evolved from a church-basement business to...5. Total Christian/Gospel albums sales (CD & cassette) 1996-2001...................41 Figure 6. Consumer demographics for Christian music buyers

  8. Departure Roger Anthoine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-05-18

    Thanks and speech by D.G. H. Schopper for the departure of Roger Anthoine (attaché for the press), who worked in communications and leaves CERN after 27 years of service. He kept relations with the international media and the local press; gifts are given: photo album with images of Geneva and an aviation radio; R.A. gives a summary of his activities and memories and thanks his coworkers.

  9. Odour maps in the brain of butterflies with divergent host-plant preferences.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Schäpers, Alexander; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Hansson, Bill S; Janz, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, with extreme specialists and wide generalists found even among closely related species. Here we measured odour evoked Ca(2+) activity in the antennal lobes of two nymphalid species with diverging host plant preferences, the specialist Aglais urticae and the generalist Polygonia c-album. The butterflies responded with stimulus-specific combinations of activated glomeruli to single plant-related compounds and to extracts of host and non-host plants. In general, responses were similar between the species. However, the specialist A. urticae responded more specifically to its preferred host plant, stinging nettle, than P. c-album. In addition, we found a species-specific difference both in correlation between responses to two common green leaf volatiles and the sensitivity to these compounds. Our results indicate that these butterflies have the ability to detect and to discriminate between different plant-related odorants.

  10. Odour Maps in the Brain of Butterflies with Divergent Host-Plant Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Schäpers, Alexander; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Hansson, Bill S.; Janz, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, with extreme specialists and wide generalists found even among closely related species. Here we measured odour evoked Ca2+ activity in the antennal lobes of two nymphalid species with diverging host plant preferences, the specialist Aglais urticae and the generalist Polygonia c-album. The butterflies responded with stimulus-specific combinations of activated glomeruli to single plant-related compounds and to extracts of host and non-host plants. In general, responses were similar between the species. However, the specialist A. urticae responded more specifically to its preferred host plant, stinging nettle, than P. c-album. In addition, we found a species-specific difference both in correlation between responses to two common green leaf volatiles and the sensitivity to these compounds. Our results indicate that these butterflies have the ability to detect and to discriminate between different plant-related odorants. PMID:21901154

  11. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Hoçbaç, Sanem; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Asian, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum), are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2) on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml). Conclusion: Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes. PMID:25140204

  12. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Hoçbaç, Sanem; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Asian, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2014-06-01

    Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum), are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2) on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml). Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  13. Massive gene loss in mistletoe (Viscum, Viscaceae) mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, G.; Cuenca, A.; Møller, I. M.; Seberg, O.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitism is a successful survival strategy across all kingdoms and has evolved repeatedly in angiosperms. Parasitic plants obtain nutrients from other plants and some are agricultural pests. Obligate parasites, which cannot complete their lifecycle without a host, may lack functional photosystems (holoparasites), or have retained photosynthesis (hemiparasites). Plastid genomes are often reduced in parasites, but complete mitochondrial genomes have not been sequenced and their mitochondrial respiratory capacities are largely unknown. The hemiparasitic European mistletoe (Viscum album), known from folklore and postulated therapeutic properties, is a pest in plantations and forestry. We compare the mitochondrial genomes of three Viscum species based on the complete mitochondrial genome of V. album, the first from a parasitic plant. We show that mitochondrial genes encoding proteins of all respiratory complexes are lacking or pseudogenized raising several questions relevant to all parasitic plants: Are any mitochondrial gene functions essential? Do any genes need to be located in the mitochondrial genome or can they all be transferred to the nucleus? Can parasitic plants survive without oxidative phosphorylation by using alternative respiratory pathways? More generally, our study is a step towards understanding how host- and self-perception, host integration and nucleic acid transfer has modified ancestral mitochondrial genomes. PMID:26625950

  14. Interactive searching of facial image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Shepherd, John W.; Shepherd, Jean

    1995-09-01

    A set of psychological facial descriptors has been devised to enable computerized searching of criminal photograph albums. The descriptors have been used to encode image databased of up to twelve thousand images. Using a system called FACES, the databases are searched by translating a witness' verbal description into corresponding facial descriptors. Trials of FACES have shown that this coding scheme is more productive and efficient than searching traditional photograph albums. An alternative method of searching the encoded database using a genetic algorithm is currenly being tested. The genetic search method does not require the witness to verbalize a description of the target but merely to indicate a degree of similarity between the target and a limited selection of images from the database. The major drawback of FACES is that is requires a manual encoding of images. Research is being undertaken to automate the process, however, it will require an algorithm which can predict human descriptive values. Alternatives to human derived coding schemes exist using statistical classifications of images. Since databases encoded using statistical classifiers do not have an obvious direct mapping to human derived descriptors, a search method which does not require the entry of human descriptors is required. A genetic search algorithm is being tested for such a purpose.

  15. Adaptive Greedy Dictionary Selection for Web Media Summarization.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yang; Liu, Ji; Sun, Gan; You, Quanzeng; Li, Yuncheng; Luo, Jiebo

    2017-01-01

    Initializing an effective dictionary is an indispensable step for sparse representation. In this paper, we focus on the dictionary selection problem with the objective to select a compact subset of basis from original training data instead of learning a new dictionary matrix as dictionary learning models do. We first design a new dictionary selection model via l 2,0 norm. For model optimization, we propose two methods: one is the standard forward-backward greedy algorithm, which is not suitable for large-scale problems; the other is based on the gradient cues at each forward iteration and speeds up the process dramatically. In comparison with the state-of-the-art dictionary selection models, our model is not only more effective and efficient, but also can control the sparsity. To evaluate the performance of our new model, we select two practical web media summarization problems: 1) we build a new data set consisting of around 500 users, 3000 albums, and 1 million images, and achieve effective assisted albuming based on our model and 2) by formulating the video summarization problem as a dictionary selection issue, we employ our model to extract keyframes from a video sequence in a more flexible way. Generally, our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in both these two tasks.

  16. Linking Leadership and Technical Execution in Unprecedented Systems of Systems Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    one of the major music companies even if the consumer really only was interested in one music track on such an album . While this innovative approach...early 1990’s. In bringing the technology to market on the internet, Robertson tapped into a desired direct connection between the music consumer...and the music artists who agreed to use this site as the distribution network for their copyrighted works. The immediate success of

  17. Making Information Visible, Accessible, and Understandable: Meta-Data and Registries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    the data created, the length of play time, album name, and the genre. Without resource metadata, portable digital music players would not be so...notion of a catalog card in a library. An example of metadata is the description of a music file specifying the creator, the artist that performed the song...describe struc- ture and formatting which are critical to interoperability and the management of databases. Going back to the portable music player example

  18. Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-29

    Crime and the Internet, December 2006, [http://www.sigma.com.pl/pliki/ albums /userpics/10007/Virtual_Criminology_Report_ 2006.pdf]. 22 Gnutella emerged...as the first fully decentralized peer-to-peer protocol in 2000, and was used on the Internet to share and swap music files in MP3 compression format...The music industry was often frustrated in their efforts to counter this peer-to-peer technology because it could not identify a main controlling

  19. The Use of Metadata Visualisation Assist Information Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    album title, the track length and the genre of music . Again, any of these pieces of information can be used to quickly search and locate specific...that person. Music files also have metadata tags, in a format called ID3. This usually contains information such as the artist, the song title, the...tracks, to provide more information about the entire music collection, or to find similar or diverse tracks within the collection. Metadata is

  20. Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-15

    Organized Crime and the Internet, December 2006, [http://www.sigma.com.pl/pliki/ albums /userpics/10007/Virtual_Criminology_Report_ 2006.pdf]. 22 Gnutella...emerged as the first fully decentralized peer-to-peer protocol in 2000, and was used on the Internet to share and swap music files in MP3 compression...format. The music industry was often frustrated in their efforts to counter this peer-to-peer technology because it could not identify a main

  1. Automated Metadata Extraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    provides a means for file owners to add metadata which can then be used by iTunes for cataloging and searching [4]. Metadata can be stored in different...based and contain AAC data formats [3]. Specifically, Apple uses Protected AAC to encode copy-protected music titles purchased from the iTunes Music...Store [4]. The files purchased from the iTunes Music Store include the following metadata. • Name • Email address of purchaser • Year • Album

  2. Antiviral activity of sandalwood oil against herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2.

    PubMed

    Benencia, F; Courrèges, M C

    1999-05-01

    Sandalwood oil, the essential oil of Santalum album L., was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2. It was found that the replication of these viruses was inhibited in the presence of the oil. This effect was dose-dependent and more pronounced against HSV-1. A slight diminution of the effect was observed at higher multiplicity of infections. The oil was not virucidal and showed no cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested.

  3. Computer applications in diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Horii, S C

    1991-03-01

    This article has introduced the nature, generation, use, and future of digital imaging. As digital technology has transformed other aspects of our lives--has the reader tried to buy a conventional record album recently? almost all music store stock is now compact disks--it is sure to continue to transform medicine as well. Whether that transformation will be to our liking as physicians or a source of frustration and disappointment is dependent on understanding the issues involved.

  4. Reading: Interactions with Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-23

    and perhaps for some readers of this report), the pronoun their refers successfully to the Beatles . The pronoun-as-cuc framework can account for this...example by assuming that the album title brings the concept of he Beatles into the comprehender’s discourse model, making it sufficiently accessible...STAUtMKNT MLJ I 0jISioucoo= ppc- for pnibllc release: .*.- I I ABSTRACT (Muxmuun 200 wwW In our research, we have proposed that the representation of

  5. Mechanisms of macroevolution: polyphagous plasticity in butterfly larvae revealed by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    de la Paz Celorio-Mancera, Maria; Wheat, Christopher W; Vogel, Heiko; Söderlind, Lina; Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Sören

    2013-10-01

    Transcriptome studies of insect herbivory are still rare, yet studies in model systems have uncovered patterns of transcript regulation that appear to provide insights into how insect herbivores attain polyphagy, such as a general increase in expression breadth and regulation of ribosomal, digestion- and detoxification-related genes. We investigated the potential generality of these emerging patterns, in the Swedish comma, Polygonia c-album, which is a polyphagous, widely-distributed butterfly. Urtica dioica and Ribes uva-crispa are hosts of P. c-album, but Ribes represents a recent evolutionary shift onto a very divergent host. Utilizing the assembled transcriptome for read mapping, we assessed gene expression finding that caterpillar life-history (i.e. 2nd vs. 4th-instar regulation) had a limited influence on gene expression plasticity. In contrast, differential expression in response to host-plant identified genes encoding serine-type endopeptidases, membrane-associated proteins and transporters. Differential regulation of genes involved in nucleic acid binding was also observed suggesting that polyphagy involves large scale transcriptional changes. Additionally, transcripts coding for structural constituents of the cuticle were differentially expressed in caterpillars in response to their diet indicating that the insect cuticle may be a target for plant defence. Our results state that emerging patterns of transcript regulation from model species appear relevant in species when placed in an evolutionary context. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Population structure in relation to host-plant ecology and Wolbachia infestation in the comma butterfly.

    PubMed

    Kodandaramaiah, U; Weingartner, E; Janz, N; Dalén, L; Nylin, S

    2011-10-01

    Experimental work on Polygonia c-album, a temperate polyphagous butterfly species, has shown that Swedish, Belgian, Norwegian and Estonian females are generalists with respect to host-plant preference, whereas females from UK and Spain are specialized on Urticaceae. Female preference is known to have a strong genetic component. We test whether the specialist and generalist populations form respective genetic clusters using data from mitochondrial sequences and 10 microsatellite loci. Results do not support this hypothesis, suggesting that the specialist and generalist traits have evolved more than once independently. Mitochondrial DNA variation suggests a rapid expansion scenario, with a single widespread haplotype occurring in high frequency, whereas microsatellite data indicate strong differentiation of the Moroccan population. Based on a comparison of polymorphism in the mitochondrial data and sequences from a nuclear gene, we show that the diversity in the former is significantly less than that expected under neutral evolution. Furthermore, we found that almost all butterfly samples were infected with a single strain of Wolbachia, a maternally inherited bacterium. We reason that indirect selection on the mitochondrial genome mediated by a recent sweep of Wolbachia infection has depleted variability in the mitochondrial sequences. We also surmise that P. c-album could have expanded out of a single glacial refugium and colonized Morocco recently. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Research for Future Training Modeling and Simulation Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    it developed an “ecosystem” for the content industry—first for iTunes and now in the iPad for publishers and gamers. The iTunes Store that Apple...launched in 2003 provides an excellent analogy to training users. Initially, users could purchase 200,000 iTunes items. Today, the store has over...its iPod and iTune Store has fundamentally changed the music industry and the way the end users expect to buy things. iPod owners used to buy albums

  8. Photographic copy of October 4, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of October 4, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune newspaper article. Located in a photo album at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Center, Work and Industry Division, Washington, D.C. OCTOBER 4, 1931 NEW ORLEANS MORNING TRIBUNE NEWSPAPER ARTICLE ANNOUNCING THAT THE WORK ON THE NEW BRIDGE IS EXPECTED TO START IN 90 DAYS. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  9. A Photo Album of Earth Scheduling Landsat 7 Mission Daily Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, William; Gasch, John; Bauer, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Landsat7 is a member of a new generation of Earth observation satellites. Landsat7 will carry on the mission of the aging Landsat 5 spacecraft by acquiring high resolution, multi-spectral images of the Earth surface for strategic, environmental, commercial, agricultural and civil analysis and research. One of the primary mission goals of Landsat7 is to accumulate and seasonally refresh an archive of global images with full coverage of Earth's landmass, less the central portion of Antarctica. This archive will enable further research into seasonal, annual and long-range trending analysis in such diverse research areas as crop yields, deforestation, population growth, and pollution control, to name just a few. A secondary goal of Landsat7 is to fulfill imaging requests from our international partners in the mission. Landsat7 will transmit raw image data from the spacecraft to 25 ground stations in 20 subscribing countries. Whereas earlier Landsat missions were scheduled manually (as are the majority of current low-orbit satellite missions), the task of manually planning and scheduling Landsat7 mission activities would be overwhelmingly complex when considering the large volume of image requests, the limited resources available, spacecraft instrument limitations, and the limited ground image processing capacity, not to mention avoidance of foul weather systems. The Landsat7 Mission Operation Center (MOC) includes an image scheduler subsystem that is designed to automate the majority of mission planning and scheduling, including selection of the images to be acquired, managing the recording and playback of the images by the spacecraft, scheduling ground station contacts for downlink of images, and generating the spacecraft commands for controlling the imager, recorder, transmitters and antennas. The image scheduler subsystem autonomously generates 90% of the spacecraft commanding with minimal manual intervention. The image scheduler produces a conflict-free schedule for acquiring images of the "best" 250 scenes daily for refreshing the global archive. It then equitably distributes the remaining resources for acquiring up to 430 scenes to satisfy requests by international subscribers. The image scheduler selects candidate scenes based on priority and age of the requests, and predicted cloud cover and sun angle at each scene. It also selects these scenes to avoid instrument constraint violations and maximizes efficiency of resource usage by encouraging acquisition of scenes in clusters. Of particular interest to the mission planners, it produces the resulting schedule in a reasonable time, typically within 15 minutes.

  10. Exploring Elephant Seals in New Jersey: Preschoolers Use Collaborative Multimedia Albums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantozzi, Victoria B.

    2012-01-01

    VoiceThread is a website that allows users to create multimedia slideshows, or "threads," and then open these threads to other users for commentary or collaboration. This article shares the experiences of one multiage (3- to 5-year-olds) preschool classroom's use of VoiceThread. The purpose of the article is to introduce early childhood educators…

  11. Washington View: Not a Snapshot of Public Opinion but an Album

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The columnist weighs in on the most recent PDK/Gallup poll. The real value of the poll, the author says, comes from looking at each response and then thinking about the connective tissue between and among them. The poll's 47-year history adds yet another layer of rich context. Uniquely, the poll provides not a snapshot of public opinion, rather an…

  12. NOAA Photo Library - NOAA In Space Collection/Space Vehicles Album/Tiros

    Science.gov Websites

    NOAA Photo Library Banner Takes you to the Top Page Takes you to the About this Site page. Takes you to the Contacts page. Takes you to the HELP page. Takes you to the Credits page. Takes you to the Collections page. Takes you to the search page. Takes you to the Links page. Tiros Banner NOAA In Space

  13. A Hidden Treasure: The Borneo Mistletoes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ya Chee; Rajabalaya, Rajan; David, Sheba Rani

    2017-01-01

    The European mistletoe, Viscum album, is the most common consumed adjuvant among cancer patients in Europe. Its success warrants a report on three most apparent mistletoes found in Borneo Island, namely Scurrula ferruginea, Macrosolen cochinchinensis, and Dendrophthoe curvata. The traditional and pharmacological uses of these mistletoes include antibacterial, anticancer, antiviral, antihypertensive, antioxidative, and cytotoxic effects. Phytochemicals such as flavonols, alkaloids, tannins, and gallic acid have been reported in one of these mistletoes. This review discusses the potential of these mistletoes as therapeutic agents. PMID:28989251

  14. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  15. Evaluation of indigenous grains from the Peruvian Andean region for antidiabetes and antihypertension potential using in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Genovese, Maria Ines; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-08-01

    The health-relevant functionality of 10 thermally processed Peruvian Andean grains (five cereals, three pseudocereals, and two legumes) was evaluated for potential type 2 diabetes-relevant antihyperglycemia and antihypertension activity using in vitro enzyme assays. Inhibition of enzymes relevant for managing early stages of type 2 diabetes such as hyperglycemia-relevant alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase and hypertension-relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) were assayed along with the total phenolic content, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activity based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) (cereal) exhibited high free radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activity (77%) and had the highest total phenolic content (8 +/- 1 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample weight) and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (51% at 5 mg of sample weight). The major phenolic compound in this cereal was protocatechuic acid (287 +/- 15 microg/g of sample weight). Pseudocereals such as Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and Kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) were rich in quercetin derivatives (1,131 +/- 56 and 943 +/- 35 microg [expressed as quercetin aglycone]/g of sample weight, respectively) and had the highest antioxidant activity (86% and 75%, respectively). Andean legumes (Lupinus mutabilis cultivars SLP-1 and H-6) inhibited significantly the hypertension-relevant ACE (52% at 5 mg of sample weight). No alpha-amylase inhibitory activity was found in any of the evaluated Andean grains. This in vitro study indicates the potential of combination of Andean whole grain cereals, pseudocereals, and legumes to develop effective dietary strategies for managing type 2 diabetes and associated hypertension and provides the rationale for animal and clinical studies.

  16. Cytokines profile and its correlation with endothelial damage and oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Pestana, Rodrigo M C; Domingueti, Caroline P; Duarte, Rita C F; Fóscolo, Rodrigo B; Reis, Janice S; Rodrigues, Ana Maria S; Martins, Laís B; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Lage, Daniela P; Ferreira, Cláudia N; Ferreira, Adaliene V M; Fernandes, Ana P; Gomes, Karina B

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the presence of albuminuria and cytokines profile with biomarkers of endothelial damage and oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). The sample was composed by 35 healthy individuals, 63 DM1 patients with normoalbuminuria (<30 mg of albumin/g of creatinine) and 62 DM1 patients with micro- and macroalbuminuria (≥30 mg of albumin/g of creatinine). Plasma and urinary cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) and thrombomodulin levels were determined by ELISA. Oxidative status was evaluated using the TBARS and MTT assays. Diabetic patients were characterized by elevated levels of urinary cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10. Those with macroalbuminuria presented significantly higher TNF-α and IL-10 urinary levels when compared to other groups. Urinary and plasmatic levels of TNF-α were positively correlated with plasma levels of cystatin C, creatinine, urea and albuminuria, while they were negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Urinary IL-10 levels proved positive correlation with fasting glucose, HbA1c, thrombomodulin and TBARS, while IL-6 plasma levels were positively correlated with HbA1c and albuminuria. Only urinary TNF-α levels were associated with the presence and severity of macroalbuminuria, after logistic regression analysis. This finding suggests that measurement of urinary TNF-α level may be helpful to evaluate progression to nephropathy in DM1 patients.

  17. [Construction and expression of recombinant human serum albumin-EPO fusion protein].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Chun; Gou, Xing-Hua; Han, Lei; Li, De-Hua; Zhao, Lan-Ying; Wu, Qia-Qing

    2011-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To construct the recombinant plasmid pCI-HLE encoding human serum album-EPO (HSA-EPO) fusion protein and to express it in CHO cell. The cDNA encoding human serum album and EPO were amplified by PCR, and then spliced with the synsitic DNA fragment encoding GS (GGGGS), by overlap PCR extension to form LEPO. After BamH I digestion, the HSA and LEPO was ligated to generate the fusion HSA-EPO gene and was then cloned into the expression vector pCI-neo to generate the recombinant plasmid pCI-HLE. The plasmid pCI-HLE was transfected into CHO cell by liposome protocol. Then, the recombinant cells were screened by G418 and identified by PCR and Western blot. Expression of fusion protein was evaluated by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Restrictive enzymes digestion and DNA sequencing revealed that HSA-EPO fusion gene was cloned into expression vector pCI-neo successfully. PCR and Western blot analysis confirmed that the fusion gene was integrated in the genome of CHO cells and expressed successfully. The HSA-EPO production varied from 86 Iu/(mL x 10(6) x 72 h) to 637 IU/(mLx 10(6) x 72 h). The results confirmed that HSA-EPO fusion gene can be expressed in the CHO cells, with EPO immunogenicity, which could serve as foundation for the development of long-lasting recombinant HSA-EPO protein.

  18. 75 FR 39450 - Terpene Constituents of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... exposures resulting from exposure to residues from this pesticidal extract. C. Biochemical Pesticide Human... that this active ingredient poses no significant human health risk with regard to food use. a. The...) factors in calculating a dose level that poses no appreciable risk. Health risks to humans, including...

  19. Elvis to Eminem: quantifying the price of fame through early mortality of European and North American rock and pop stars.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Mark A; Hennell, Tom; Lushey, Clare; Hughes, Karen; Tocque, Karen; Ashton, John R

    2007-10-01

    Rock and pop stars are frequently characterised as indulging in high-risk behaviours, with high-profile deaths amongst such musicians creating an impression of premature mortality. However, studies to date have not quantified differences between mortality experienced by such stars and general populations. This study measures survival rates of famous musicians (n = 1064) from their point of fame and compares them to matched general populations in North America and Europe. We describe and utilise a novel actuarial survival methodology which allows quantification of excess post-fame mortality in pop stars. Individuals from North America and Europe performing on any album in the All-Time Top 1000 albums from the music genres rock, punk, rap, R&B, electronica and new age. From 3 to 25 years post fame, both North American and European pop stars experience significantly higher mortality (more than 1.7 times) than demographically matched populations in the USA and UK, respectively. After 25 years of fame, relative mortality in European (but not North American) pop stars begins to return to population levels. Five-year post-fame survival rates suggest differential mortality between stars and general populations was greater in those reaching fame before 1980. Pop stars can suffer high levels of stress in environments where alcohol and drugs are widely available, leading to health-damaging risk behaviour. However, their behaviour can also influence would-be stars and devoted fans. Collaborations between health and music industries should focus on improving both pop star health and their image as role models to wider populations.

  20. Urban particulate pollution reduction by four species of green roof vegetation in a UK city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speak, A. F.; Rothwell, J. J.; Lindley, S. J.; Smith, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    Urban particulate pollution in the UK remains at levels which have the potential to cause negative impacts on human health. There is a need, therefore, for mitigation strategies within cities, especially with regards to vehicular sources. The use of vegetation as a passive filter of urban air has been previously investigated, however green roof vegetation has not been specifically considered. The present study aims to quantify the effectiveness of four green roof species - creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), red fescue (Festuca rubra), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and sedum (Sedum album) - at capturing particulate matter smaller than 10 μm (PM10). Plants were grown in a location away from major road sources of PM10 and transplanted onto two roofs in Manchester city centre. One roof is adjacent to a major traffic source and one roof is characterised more by urban background inputs. Significant differences in metal containing PM10 capture were found between sites and between species. Site differences were explained by proximity to major sources. Species differences arise from differences in macro and micro morphology of the above surface biomass. The study finds that the grasses, A. stolonifera and F. rubra, are more effective than P. lanceolata and S. album at PM10 capture. Quantification of the annual PM10 removal potential was calculated under a maximum sedum green roof installation scenario for an area of the city centre, which totals 325 ha. Remediation of 2.3% (±0.1%) of 9.18 tonnes PM10 inputs for this area could be achieved under this scenario.

  1. Urban particulate pollution reduction by four species of green roof vegetation in a UK city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speak, A.; Rothwell, J.; Lindley, S.; Smith, C.

    2012-12-01

    Urban particulate pollution in the UK remains at levels which have the potential to cause negative impacts on human health. There is a need, therefore, for mitigation strategies within cities, especially with regards to vehicular sources. The use of vegetation as a passive filter of urban air has been previously investigated, however green roof vegetation has not been specifically considered. The present study aims to quantify the effectiveness of four green roof species - creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), red fescue (Festuca rubra), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and sedum (Sedum album) - at capturing particulate matter smaller than 10μm (PM10). Plants were grown in a location away from major road sources of PM10 and transplanted onto two roofs in Manchester city centre. One roof is adjacent to a major traffic source and one roof is characterised more by urban background inputs. Significant differences in metal containing PM10 capture were found between sites and between species. Site differences were explained by proximity to major sources. Species differences arise from differences in macro and micro morphology of the above surface biomass. The study finds that the grasses, A. stolonifera and F. rubra, are more effective than P. lanceolata and S. album at PM10 capture. Quantification of the annual PM10 removal potential was calculated under a maximum sedum green roof installation scenario for an area of the city centre, which totals 325 ha. Remediation of 2.3% (±0.1%) of 9.18 tonnes PM10 inputs for this area could be achieved under this scenario.

  2. Styx tours Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-27

    Keith Parrish, left, of the Space Systems Department at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, discusses the process of the Environmental Control and Life Support System with Marshall Center Director Todd May, second from left, and members of the legendary rock band Styx during a tour of Marshall April 27. Inspired by NASA’s goal of sending humans to Mars in the 2030s, the band’s upcoming album, "The Mission," musically chronicles a futuristic, crewed mission to Mars. While Styx’s mission may be only realized through their iconic sound, NASA’s mission is well underway with the new Space Launch System

  3. Photographic copy of September 16, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of September 16, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune newspaper article. Located in a photo album at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Center, Work and Industry Division, Washington, D.C. SEPTEMBER 16, 1931 NEW ORLEANS MORNING TRIBUNE NEWSPAPER ARTICLE AND PICTURE OF BRIDGE BID OPENING FEATURING LOUISIANA GOVERNOR HUEY LONG, NEW ORLEANS MAYOR WALMSLEY, STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION CHAIRMAN O.K. ALLEN AND PUBLIC BELT RAILROAD CHIEF ENGINEER ROBERT BARCLAY. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  4. Sex-linked inheritance of host-plant specialization in a polyphagous butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Janz, N.

    1998-01-01

    I investigated the genetic background of intraspecific variation in oviposition specificity in the generalist butterfly Polygonia c-album. Using reciprocal crosses between two populations that differ in their degree of specialization, I show that specificity is strongly sex-linked. This indicates that genes determining this difference are located primarily on the paternally inherited X-chromosome. The results suggest that intraspecific differences in specificity are caused by the same genetic mechanisms that have been shown to determine interspecific differences in host-plant ranking in other butterflies. Accordingly, the common assumption that specialization and ranking are determined by fundamentally different mechanisms was not supported.

  5. Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 μg g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 μg g and died at 200 μg Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 μg g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Betalains in Some Species of the Amaranthaceae Family: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Natural pigments are largely distributed in the plant kingdom. They belong to diverse groups, with distinct biochemical pathways. Betalains with colours that range from yellow to red-violet can de divided into two main subgroups: betaxanthins and betacyanins. These types of pigments are confined into 13 families of the order Caryophyllales and in some genera of higher fungi (Amanita muscaria, Hygrocybe and Hygrophorus). The Amaranthaceae family includes diverse genera in which betalains are present: Alternanthera, Amaranthus, Beta, Chenopodium, Celosia and Gomphrena. The biosynthesis of betalains and their general biological properties were reviwed in the present work. In addition, the types of betalains present in some species of the aforementioned genera, their stability and production, as well as biological attributes, were reviewed. PMID:29617324

  7. Detection of Minerals in Green Leafy Vegetables Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P.; Kumar, R.; Raib, A. Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The distribution of minerals in different green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, chenopodium, chickpea, mustard, and fenugreek, was calculated using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS can provide an easy, reliable, efficient, low-cost, and in situ chemical analysis with a reasonable precision. In situ LIBS spectra in the range 200-500 nm were carried out using fresh leaves and leaves in the pellet form. As the spectra suggest, magnesium and calcium are present in each vegetable; however, the amount of them varies. It is observed that the amount of iron is maximal in spinach. The nutrition value of the plants was analyzed, and it was revealed that they are low in calories and fat and high in protein, fiber, iron, calcium, and phytochemicals.

  8. Thermal ecology of gregarious and solitary nettle-feeding nymphalid butterfly larvae.

    PubMed

    Bryant, S R; Thomas, C D; Bale, J S

    2000-01-01

    Group-living in animal populations has many possible ecological and evolutionary explanations, including predator evasion and feeding facilitation. In insects, the thermal balance of solitary and gregarious larvae is likely to differ and may thus have important ecological consequences. The abilities of the larvae of four species of nettle-feeding nymphalid butterflies to thermoregulate were quantified in the field. Larval surface body temperatures of the gregarious Aglais urticae (small tortoiseshell) and Inachis io (peacock) and the solitary Polygonia c-album (comma) and Vanessa atalanta (red admiral) were measured for each instar, in both sunny and overcast conditions, over a seasonal range of temperatures. The results suggested two distinct larval thermal strategies. In the presence of direct sunlight, the exposed gregarious larvae of A. urticae and I. io regulated body temperatures at 32.5 and 31.5°C, respectively, while the temperatures of concealed larvae of P. c-album and V. atalanta were largely dependent on ambient temperatures. In the sun, the range of body temperatures recorded for A. urticae and I. io larvae was fairly narrow relative to ambient temperatures. This suggests a high degree of thermal control in these species. Modal body temperatures coincided with the temperature at which development rate is maximal. Regardless of whether changes in thermoregulation are a cause or consequence of the evolution of gregariousness, the combination of behavioural thermoregulation and gregariousness in larval insects has important implications for voltinism patterns and range extension (via increased development rates). Distributional responses of gregarious and solitary larvae to climatic warming may differ as a result of changes in cloud cover as well as changes in temperature.

  9. Floral nectar production and nectary structure of a bee-pollinated shrub from Neotropical savanna.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, E; Nogueira, A; Machado, S R

    2016-01-01

    Biotic pollination is critical for tropical ecosystem functioning, and nectar plays an essential role as it represents the main trophic resource for pollinators. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie its production, which is essential for understanding the basis of nectar-mediated interactions in ecological and evolutionary approaches. Therefore, this study explores the relationship between the nectar secretion pattern and nectary functional changes in Anemopaegma album, a bee-pollinated species. We analysed the pattern of nectar production under field conditions and investigated floral nectary structural changes in two different developmental stages using light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. We measured 30.95 ± 23.02 μl (mean ± SD, n = 30) of nectar accumulated inside the nectar chamber (29.26 ± 3.48% sucrose equivalents) at the moment of flower opening. Nectar removal did not influence the pattern of floral nectar production in terms of volume or total sugar but reduced the concentration of the nectar produced during the first 24 h of anthesis. The nectary consisted of an epidermis, a nectary parenchyma and a subnectary parenchyma supplied only by phloem. Starch grains decreased in size and abundance from the subnectary parenchyma toward the epidermis. We observed the degradation of starch grains and incorporation of amyloplasts into vacuoles at the pre-anthesis stage as well as the transformation of amyloplasts into elaioplasts during anthesis. Nectar secretion was continuous during the A. album flower life span, which was related to the functional features of its floral nectary, especially the presence of starch stored in the parenchyma. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Absence of Complex I Implicates Rearrangement of the Respiratory Chain in European Mistletoe.

    PubMed

    Senkler, Jennifer; Rugen, Nils; Eubel, Holger; Hegermann, Jan; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2018-05-21

    The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, which is based on the presence of five protein complexes, is in the very center of cellular ATP production. Complexes I to IV are components of the respiratory electron transport chain that drives proton translocation across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting proton gradient is used by complex V (the ATP synthase complex) for the phosphorylation of ADP. Occurrence of complexes I to V is highly conserved in eukaryotes, with exceptions being restricted to unicellular parasites that take up energy-rich compounds from their hosts. Here we present biochemical evidence that the European mistletoe (Viscum album), an obligate semi-parasite living on branches of trees, has a highly unusual OXPHOS system. V. album mitochondria completely lack complex I and have greatly reduced amounts of complexes II and V. At the same time, the complexes III and IV form remarkably stable respiratory supercomplexes. Furthermore, complexome profiling revealed the presence of 150 kDa complexes that include type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and an alternative oxidase. Although the absence of complex I genes in mitochondrial genomes of mistletoe species has recently been reported, this is the first biochemical proof that these genes have not been transferred to the nuclear genome and that this respiratory complex indeed is not assembled. As a consequence, the whole respiratory chain is remodeled. Our results demonstrate that, in the context of parasitism, multicellular life can cope with lack of one of the OXPHOS complexes and give new insights into the life strategy of mistletoe species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elvis to Eminem: quantifying the price of fame through early mortality of European and North American rock and pop stars

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hennell, Tom; Lushey, Clare; Hughes, Karen; Tocque, Karen; Ashton, John R

    2007-01-01

    Background Rock and pop stars are frequently characterised as indulging in high‐risk behaviours, with high‐profile deaths amongst such musicians creating an impression of premature mortality. However, studies to date have not quantified differences between mortality experienced by such stars and general populations. Objective This study measures survival rates of famous musicians (n = 1064) from their point of fame and compares them to matched general populations in North America and Europe. Design We describe and utilise a novel actuarial survival methodology which allows quantification of excess post‐fame mortality in pop stars. Participants Individuals from North America and Europe performing on any album in the All‐Time Top 1000 albums from the music genres rock, punk, rap, R&B, electronica and new age. Results From 3 to 25 years post fame, both North American and European pop stars experience significantly higher mortality (more than 1.7 times) than demographically matched populations in the USA and UK, respectively. After 25 years of fame, relative mortality in European (but not North American) pop stars begins to return to population levels. Five‐year post‐fame survival rates suggest differential mortality between stars and general populations was greater in those reaching fame before 1980. Conclusion Pop stars can suffer high levels of stress in environments where alcohol and drugs are widely available, leading to health‐damaging risk behaviour. However, their behaviour can also influence would‐be stars and devoted fans. Collaborations between health and music industries should focus on improving both pop star health and their image as role models to wider populations. PMID:17873227

  12. Chemopreventive effects of sandalwood oil on skin papillomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, C; Abu-Ghazaleh, A

    1997-08-01

    The essential oil, emulsion or paste of sandalwood (Santalum album L) has been used in India as an ayurvedic medicinal agent for the treatment of inflammatory and eruptive skin diseases. In this investigation, the chemopreventive effects of sandalwood oil (5% in acetone, w/v) on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-(DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-promoted skin papillomas, and TPA-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in CD1 mice were studied. Sandalwood oil treatment significantly decreased papilloma incidence by 67%, multiplicity by 96%, and TPA-induced ODC activity by 70%. This oil could be an effective chemopreventive agent against skin cancer.

  13. Pop-rock music as precipitating cause in youth suicide.

    PubMed

    Litman, R E; Farberow, N L

    1994-03-01

    The plaintiffs in a law suit alleged that the heavy metal rock band Judas Priest, and its publisher CBS, were liable for damages to two youths who shot themselves after listening to the band's album. Crucial issues included "proximate cause" and "precipitating cause" in suicide, and the alleged role of subliminal messages. The judge ruled that although the "heavy metal" music might have had a toxic influence, the sounds and words are protected by the free speech first amendment. The influence of subliminal messages on behavior is unproven. There were many other elements in the personalities and situations of the victims to account for their self-destructive behavior.

  14. Top 16 Earth Images of 2016

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-12

    Astronauts on the International Space Station take pictures of Earth out their windows nearly every day; over a year that adds up to thousands of photos. The people at the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston pored through this year’s crop to pick their top 16 photos of Earth for 2016—enjoy! Download the images: https://www.flickr.com/photos/nasa2explore/albums/72157674260752223 HD download link: https://archive.org/details/TheSpaceProgram _______________________________________ FOLLOW THE SPACE STATION! Twitter: https://twitter.com/Space_Station Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ISS Instagram: https://instagram.com/iss/

  15. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of PDC genes from Hylocereus undatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunli; Luo, Xian; Lu, Han; Shen, Yu; Yuan, Lei; Luo, Lan

    2018-04-01

    The cDNA of PDC1 and PDC2 were amplified from the seedling of Hylocereus undatus `Guangming 2' by the technique of RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The PDC1 and PDC2 had a length of 1191bp and 2046 bp, and an open reading frame that encoded a protein of 351 and 604 amino acids, respectively. PDC1 was similar to PDC2 in motif and domain, which indicated that the two protein was relatively conserved to some extent. The 3D structure prediction showed that both of the two proteins of PDC1 and PDC2 were homotetramers. Amino acid sequence comparisons suggested that PDC1 had high identity with Chenopodium quinoa PDC1 (88% identity), PDC2 had high identity with Beta vulgaris PDC2 (84% identity).

  16. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

    2006-01-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC 50 of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC 50 values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus. PMID:17111463

  17. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).

    PubMed

    Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

    2006-12-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC(50) of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC(50) values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus.

  18. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds Cultivated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Hwa; Lee, Yun Jin; Kim, Yeon Ho; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of quinoa cultivated in Korea and to compare it with imported quinoa from the USA and Peru. The highest amount of total flavonoid contents (TFC) with 20.91 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g was measured in quinoa seed extract cultivated in Korea, while the total phenolic contents (TPC) were significantly higher in quinoa from the USA (16.28 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g). In addition, quinoa extracts cultivated in Korea displayed a superior antioxidant ability in both, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values. There was a high correlation between TFC and antioxidant activity and a low correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of the quinoa extracts was determined using a disc diffusion assay and optical density method. In both assays, the quinoa seed extracts did not have strong antimicrobial activity against foodborne bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:29043217

  19. Impact of Mistletoe Triterpene Acids on the Uptake of Mistletoe Lectin by Cultured Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mulsow, Katharina; Enzlein, Thomas; Delebinski, Catharina; Jaeger, Sebastian; Seifert, Georg; Melzig, Matthias F.

    2016-01-01

    Complementary treatment possibilities for the therapy of cancer are increasing in demand due to the severe side effects of the standard cytostatics used in the first-line therapy. A common approach as a complementary treatment is the use of aqueous extracts of Viscum album L. (Santalaceace). The therapeutic activity of these extracts is attributed to Mistletoe lectins which are Ribosome-inactivating proteins type II. Besides these main constituents the extract of Viscum album L. comprises also a mixture of lipophilic ingredients like triterpene acids of the oleanane, lupane and ursane type. However, these constituents are not contained in commercially available aqueous extracts due to their high lipophilicity and insolubility in aqueous extraction media. To understand the impact of the extract ingredients in cancer therapy, the intracellular uptake of the mistletoe lectin I (ML) by cultured tumor cells was investigated in relation to the mistletoe triterpene acids, mainly oleanolic acid. Firstly, these hydrophobic triterpene acids were solubilized using cyclodextrins (“TT” extract). Afterwards, the uptake of either single compounds (isolated ML and the aqueous “viscum” extract) or in combination with the TT extract (ML+TT, viscumTT), was analyzed. The uptake of ML was studied inTHP-1-, HL-60-, 143B- and Ewing TC-71-cells and determined after 30, 60 and 120 minutes by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay which quantifies the A-chain of the hololectin. It could be shown that the intracellular uptake after 120 minutes amounted to 20% in all cell lines after incubation with viscumTT. The studies further revealed that the uptake in THP-1-, HL-60- and Ewing TC-71-cells was independent of the addition of TT extract. Interestingly, the uptake of ML by 143B-cells could only be measured after addition of triterpenes pointing to resistance to mistletoe lectin. PMID:27088729

  20. Genomic analyses of bacterial porin-cytochrome gene clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complex is responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. The identified and characterized Pcc complex of G. sulfurreducens PCA consists of a porin-like outer-membrane protein, a periplasmic 8-heme c type cytochrome (c-Cyt) and an outer-membrane 12-heme c-Cyt, and the genes encoding the Pcc proteins are clustered in the same regions of genome (i.e., the pcc gene clusters) of G. sulfurreducens PCA. A survey of additionally microbial genomes has identified the pcc gene clusters in all sequenced Geobacter spp. and other bacteriamore » from six different phyla, including Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-1, A. dehalogenans 2CP-C, Anaeromyxobacter sp. K, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809, Desulfurispirillum indicum S5, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus AHT2, Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum DSM 11699, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans DSM 684, Ignavibacterium album JCM 16511, and Thermovibrio ammonificans HB-1. The numbers of genes in the pcc gene clusters vary, ranging from two to nine. Similar to the metal-reducing (Mtr) gene clusters of other Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella spp., additional genes that encode putative c-Cyts with predicted cellular localizations at the cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm and outer membrane often associate with the pcc gene clusters. This suggests that the Pcc-associated c-Cyts may be part of the pathways for extracellular electron transfer reactions. The presence of pcc gene clusters in the microorganisms that do not reduce solid-phase Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, such as D. alkaliphilus AHT2 and I. album JCM 16511, also suggests that some of the pcc gene clusters may be involved in extracellular electron transfer reactions with the substrates other than Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides.« less

  1. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, A.; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  2. Teaching children with autism to use photographic activity schedules: maintenance and generalization of complex response chains.

    PubMed Central

    MacDuff, G S; Krantz, P J; McClannahan, L E

    1993-01-01

    We used a graduated guidance procedure to teach 4 boys with autism to follow photographic activity schedules to increase on-task and on-schedule behavior. The multiple baseline across participants design included baseline, teaching, maintenance, resequencing of photographs, and generalization to novel photographs phases. The results indicated that photographic activity schedules (albums depicting after-school activities) produced sustained engagement, and skills generalized to a new sequence of photographs and to new photographs. The acquisition of schedule-following skills enabled these children with severe developmental disabilities to display lengthy response chains, independently change activities, and change activities in different group home settings in the absence of immediate supervision and prompts from others. PMID:8473261

  3. Older adults and the arts: the importance of aesthetic forms of expression in later life.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Britt-Maj

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of aesthetic forms of expression in a randomly selected Swedish population age 65 to 89. Data were based on semi-structured interviews with 166 participants. Results revealed dance, music, literature, and pictures were important for this group of elderly individuals in promoting successful aging, and the connection to their everyday life was apparent. Participants considered viewing natural scenes and looking in a photo album as important aesthetic activities. The aesthetic forms of expression contributed to physical and intellectual activities, as well as to interaction with other individuals. Aesthetic experiences were related to feelings of timelessness and spacelessness, and served as sources of gratification.

  4. Make me wanna holler: Meshell Ndegeocello, Black queer aesthetics, and feminist critiques.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the music and performance of Meshell Ndegeocello, arguing that they are part of a cross-Atlantic conversation that pushes the boundaries of Black feminist thought on masculinity and desire. From the time of her debut album in 1993, Ndegeocello has resisted categorization both in her public personae and in her music. Ndegeocello's refusal to be restricted in her stage performance and in her musical expression has created a rich text through which to read Black female masculinity. Her work has been particularly productive in rethinking (Black) feminist couplings of patriarchy with male anatomy. Ndegeocello's music challenges any one representation of female masculinity, mixing critiques of masculine privilege and violence with celebrations of pleasure and pansexual desire.

  5. Constructing a Home on the Range: Homemaking in Early-Twentieth-Century Plains Photograph Albums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Christina E.

    2008-01-01

    For people living near the coasts or mountains of America, it must be hard to imagine longing for a "home on the plains"--but many Americans have had, and still have, a home on the Plains. The stereotypical American image of the Plains is flatness, austerity, emptiness. Not all would consider this an ideal landscape for home. So how did…

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on mistletoe (Viscum album) lectin-mediated toxicity and immunomodulatory activity☆

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Du-Sup; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Jung, Pil-Mun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on the reduction of the toxicity of mistletoe lectin using both in vitro and in vivo models. To extract the lectin from mistletoe, an (NH4)2SO4 precipitation method was employed and the precipitant purified using a Sepharose 4B column to obtain the pure lectin fraction. Purified lectin was then gamma-irradiated at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 kGy, or heated at 100 °C for 30 min. Toxic effects of non-irradiated, irradiated, and heat-treated lectins were tested using hemagglutination assays, cytotoxicity assays, hepatotoxicity, and a mouse survival test and immunological response was tested using cytokine production activity. Hemagglutination of lectin was remarkably decreased (P < 0.05) by irradiation at doses exceeding 10 kGy and with heat treatment. However, lectin irradiated with 5 kGy maintained its hemagglutination activity. The cytotoxicity of lectin was decreased by irradiation at doses over 5 kGy and with heat treatment. In experiments using mouse model, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels were decreased in the group treated with the 5 kGy irradiated and heat-treated lectins as compared to the intact lectin, and it was also shown that 5 kGy irradiated and heat-treated lectins did not cause damage in liver tissue or mortality. In the result of immunological response, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-6) levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the 5 kGy gamma-irradiated lectin treated group. These results indicate that 5 kGy irradiated lectin still maintained the immunological response with reduction of toxicity. Therefore, gamma-irradiation may be an effective method for reducing the toxicity of lectin maintaining the immune response. PMID:23847758

  7. Manipulation of the Family Photo Album: Esther Parada's Transplant--A Tale of Three Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggemeyer, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on Esther Parada's non-traditional use of the Web to communicate her art, and offers a critique of Parada's work, "Transplant: A Tale of Three Continents," and suggestions for critiquing Web art in the school classroom. Parada creates an intersection between this new medium and the more traditional medium of…

  8. Positive Patch-Test Reactions to Essential Oils in Consecutive Patients From North America and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Zug, Kathryn A; Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; DeKoven, Joel G; Sasseville, Denis; Maibach, Howard I; Mathias, C G Toby; DeLeo, Vincent A; Taylor, James S; Fransway, Anthony F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Zirwas, Matthew J; Geier, Johannes; Uter, Wolfgang

    Synthetic fragrances and natural essential oils (EOs) are used in perfumery and found in various cosmetics. Essential oils are also increasingly used to promote wellness. In previous studies, the sensitization potential of some EOs has been identified; however, the current prevalence of sensitivity is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of positive patch-test reactions to EOs tested in the baseline series, along with 3 fragrance markers (FMs) (fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, and Myroxylon pereirae), in consecutive patients in the US/Canadian North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) (2009-2014) and the central European, trinational Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) (2010-2014). This study used a retrospective analysis of patch-test results and relevant demographic/clinical data collected electronically by the networks, obtained with Santalum album 10% petrolatum (pet) (IVDK only); Cananga odorata 2% (NACDG) and 10% (IVDK) pet; Jasminum species 2% (NACDG) and 5% (IVDK) pet; Mentha piperita 2% pet; Melaleuca alternifolia, oxidized (tea tree oil), 5% pet; and Lavandula angustifolia 2% pet (latter 3 NACDG only). Overall, 62,354 patients were tested to 3 FMs and EOs (NACDG, 13,398; IVDK, 48,956); 11,568 (18.6%) reacted to at least 1 FM or EO, whereas 857 (1.4%) reacted to 1 or more EOs but none of the 3 FMs. For both the NACDG and IVDK populations, individuals who were positive to 1 or more of the 9 study allergens were significantly less likely to be male, have occupational skin disease, or have hand involvement and significantly more likely to have leg dermatitis and be 40 years and older (P's ≤ 0.005). Prevalence rates for EOs were as follows: S. album, 1.4% IVDK; C. odorata, 1.1% NACDG and 2.4% IVDK; Jasminum species, 0.7% NACDG and 1.4% IVDK; M. piperita, 0.9% NACDG; L. angustifolia, 0.3% NACDG; and M. alternifolia, 0.3% NACDG. Of the 140 NACDG patients who reacted to 1 or more of the 5 NACDG EOs but

  9. Fermentative production of ethanol from carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Köpke, Michael; Mihalcea, Christophe; Bromley, Jason C; Simpson, Séan D

    2011-06-01

    'Too much Carbon Monoxide for me to bear…' are the opening lyrics of the CAKE song Carbon Monoxide (from their 2004 album Pressure Chief), and while this may be the case for most living organisms, several species of bacteria both thrive on this otherwise toxic gas, and metabolize it for the production of fuels and chemicals. Indeed CO fermentation offers the opportunity to sustainably produce fuels and chemicals without impacting the availability of food resources or even farm land. Mounting commercial interest in the potential of this process has in turn triggered greater scrutiny of the molecular and genetic basis for CO metabolism, as well as the challenges associated with the implementation and operation of gas fermentation at scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An e-health system for the elderly (Butler Project): a pilot study on acceptance and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Botella, Cristina; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Castilla, Diana; Baños, Rosa María; García-Palacios, Azucena; Quero, Soledad; Alcañiz, Mariano; Lozano, José Antonio

    2009-06-01

    The Butler Project is a technological e-health platform that uses the Internet to connect various users; it was designed to deliver health care to the elderly. The Butler platform has three levels of implementation: diagnosis (mood monitoring, alert system, management reports), therapy (training in inducing positive moods, memory work), and entertainment (e-mail, chat, video, photo albums, music, friend forums, accessibility to the Internet). The objective of this work is to describe the psychological aspects of the platform and to present data obtained from four users. Results show that after using the system, the participants increased their positive emotions and decreased their negative ones; in addition, they obtained high levels of satisfaction and experienced little difficulty in using the system.

  11. Fungitoxicity of some higher plants and synergistic activity of their essential oils against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc. causing foot-rot disease of barley.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K

    Twenty five plant species were screened for their volatile components against hyphal growth and sclerotia formation of Sclerotium rolfsii causing foot rot disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides (CA), Lippia alba (LA), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) were found to be strongly toxic. Their volatile active factors were isolated in the form of essential oils which were tested for toxicity individually and in six combinations (1:1 v/v) viz. CA-LA, LA-AI, CA-AI, CA-EG, and EG-AI. The oil combinations were found to be more fungitoxic than the individual oils. The CA-LA, LA-AI, EG-AI, and CA-EG combinations exhibited a broad fnngitoxic spectrum while CA-AI, LA-EG combinations possessed a narrow range of toxicity. None of the six oil combinations showed phytotoxic behaviour on seed germination, seedling growth and general morphology of Hordeum vulgare.

  12. Quinoa: Nutritional, functional, and antinutritional aspects.

    PubMed

    Filho, Antonio Manoel Maradini; Pirozi, Mônica Ribeiro; Borges, João Tomaz Da Silva; Pinheiro Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Coimbra, Jane Sélia Dos Reis

    2017-05-24

    We have prepared a review of the physical-chemical composition and the functional and anti-nutritional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). It is a plant of the Chenopodiaceae family, originally from the Andean regions, adaptable to different types of soils and climatic conditions. Its composition has attracted the attention of scientific community for its high nutritional value, being rich in proteins, lipids, fibers, vitamins, and minerals, with an extraordinary balance of essential amino acids. It is also gluten-free, a characteristic that enables its use by celiac patients. In spite of all these attributes, quinoa is not widely used by consumers due to the high cost of imported grain and little knowledge of its benefits. More studies are required to increase knowledge about this "pseudo-cereal" to demonstrate its functional and nutritional benefits and to study its anti-nutritional effects, since it presents high commercial value and excellent nutritional quality.

  13. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and potential health beneficial effects: a review.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Tsao, Rong

    2017-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that nonessential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also have potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e.g. phenolics, betacyanins) and lipophilic (e.g. fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids) nutrients, and how these contribute to the potential health benefits, especially in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. The gap between current knowledge and future research needs have also been identified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Improving Face Verification in Photo Albums by Combining Facial Recognition and Metadata With Cross-Matching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    satisfactory performance. We do not use statistical models, and we do not create patterns that require supervised learning. Our methodology is intended...statistical models, and we do not create patterns that require supervised learning. Our methodology is intended for use in personal digital image...THESIS MOTIVATION .........................................................................19 III. METHODOLOGY

  15. Geographic Mosaic of Plant Evolution: Extrafloral Nectary Variation Mediated by Ant and Herbivore Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Anselmo; Rey, Pedro J.; Alcántara, Julio M.; Feitosa, Rodrigo M.; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory is an ecological process that is known to generate different patterns of selection on defensive plant traits across populations. Studies on this topic could greatly benefit from the general framework of the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution (GMT). Here, we hypothesize that herbivory represents a strong pressure for extrafloral nectary (EFN) bearing plants, with differences in herbivore and ant visitor assemblages leading to different evolutionary pressures among localities and ultimately to differences in EFN abundance and function. In this study, we investigate this hypothesis by analyzing 10 populations of Anemopaegma album (30 individuals per population) distributed through ca. 600 km of Neotropical savanna and covering most of the geographic range of this plant species. A common garden experiment revealed a phenotypic differentiation in EFN abundance, in which field and experimental plants showed a similar pattern of EFN variation among populations. We also did not find significant correlations between EFN traits and ant abundance, herbivory and plant performance across localities. Instead, a more complex pattern of ant–EFN variation, a geographic mosaic, emerged throughout the geographical range of A. album. We modeled the functional relationship between EFNs and ant traits across ant species and extended this phenotypic interface to characterize local situations of phenotypic matching and mismatching at the population level. Two distinct types of phenotypic matching emerged throughout populations: (1) a population with smaller ants (Crematogaster crinosa) matched with low abundance of EFNs; and (2) seven populations with bigger ants (Camponotus species) matched with higher EFN abundances. Three matched populations showed the highest plant performance and narrower variance of EFN abundance, representing potential plant evolutionary hotspots. Cases of mismatched and matched populations with the lowest performance were associated with abundant

  16. Alloactinosynnema iranicum sp. nov., a rare actinomycete isolated from a hypersaline wetland, and emended description of the genus Alloactinosynnema.

    PubMed

    Nikou, Mahdi Moshtaghi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-staining-positive actinobacterial strain, Chem10(T), was isolated from soil around Inche-Broun hypersaline wetland in the north of Iran. Strain Chem10(T) was strictly aerobic, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The isolate grew with 0-3 % NaCl, at 20-40 °C and at pH 6.0-8.0. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 30 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. The cell wall of strain Chem10(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diamino acid and galactose, ribose and arabinose as whole-cell sugars. The polar lipid pattern contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Strain Chem10(T) synthesized cellular fatty acids of the straight-chain saturated and mono-unsaturated, and iso- and anteiso-branched types C14 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 1, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-9(H4). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Chem10(T) belonged to the family Pseudonocardiaceae and showed the closest phylogenetic similarity to Alloactinosynnema album KCTC 19294(T) (98.3 %) and Actinokineospora cibodasensis DSM 45658(T) (97.9 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values between the novel strain and strains Alloactinosynnema album KCTC 19294(T) and Actinokineospora cibodasensis DSM 45658(T) were only 52 % and 23 %, respectively. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization data, a novel species of the genus Alloactinosynnema is proposed, Alloactinosynnema iranicum sp. nov. The type strain is Chem10(T) ( = IBRC-M 10403(T) = CECT 8209(T)). In addition, an emended description of the genus Alloactinosynnema is proposed.

  17. Fumigant and contact toxicity of 22 wooden essential oils and their major components against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Junheon; Jang, Miyeon; Shin, Eunsik; Kim, Jeongmin; Lee, Si Hyeock; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2016-10-01

    Fumigant and contact toxicities of 22 plant essential oils (EOs) from 14 families and their constituents against the adult spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii were examined. Analyses by GC, GC-MS, and NMR led to the identification of 2, 16, 13, 4, 6, 9, and 10 compounds from Gaultheria fragrantissima, Croton anistatum, Illicium verum, Liquidamabar orientalis, Cinnamomum cassia, Rosa damasena, and Santalum album, respectively. In fumigant toxicity test, G. fragrantissima, C. anistatum, and I. verum exhibited 100, 93.8, and 95.8, and 100, 70.0, and 80.0% mortalities against the adult male and female SWD at 4.41mg/L air, respectively. LC 50 values (mg/L air) of G. fragrantissima, C. anistatum, and I. verum were 3.46, 3.67, and 3.16 against male, and 3.48, 4.31, and 4.01 against female SWD. LC 50 values (mg/L air) of methyl salicylate and trans-anethole were 2.17 and 1.75 against male and 2.65 and 3.00 against female SWD, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, L. orientalis, C. cassia, R. damasena, and S. album showed insecticidal activity with LD 50 values (μg/fly) of 2.64, 1.84, 3.40 and 2.18 against male SWD and of 3.74, 2.24, 8.91 and 5.61 against female SWD, respectively. 2-Phehy-1-ethanol, 3-phenyl-1-propanol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, and α-santalol also exhibited insecticidal activity with LD 50 values of 9.79, 5.52, 2.39, 3.02 and 2.37 against male SWD and of 11.77, 7.04, 2.94, 3.32, and 3.99 against female SWD, respectively. trans-Cinnamaldehyde exhibited the highest AChE inhibition but its inhibition is likely due to a non-specific chemical inhibition. Our results indicate that wooden EOs and their components can be used as fumigants or spray-type control agents against SWD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  19. True photographs and false memories.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D Stephen; Hagen, Lisa; Read, J Don; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne

    2004-03-01

    Some trauma-memory-oriented psychotherapists advise clients to review old family photo albums to cue suspected "repressed" memories of childhood sexual abuse. Old photos might cue long-forgotten memories, but when combined with other suggestive influences they might also contribute to false memories. We asked 45 undergraduates to work at remembering three school-related childhood events (two true events provided by parents and one pseudoevent). By random assignment, 23 subjects were also given their school classes' group photos from the years of the to-be-recalled events as memory cues. As predicted, the rate of false-memory reports was dramatically higher in the photo condition than in the no-photo condition. Indeed, the rate of false-memory reports in the photo condition was substantially higher than the rate in any previously published study.

  20. Randomized controlled trial of nettle sting for treatment of base-of-thumb pain.

    PubMed Central

    Randall, C; Randall, H; Dobbs, F; Hutton, C; Sanders, H

    2000-01-01

    There are numerous published references to use of nettle sting for arthritis pain but no randomized controlled trials have been reported. We conducted a randomized controlled double-blind crossover study in 27 patients with osteoarthritic pain at the base of the thumb or index finger. Patients applied stinging nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) daily for one week to the painful area. The effect of this treatment was compared with that of placebo, white deadnettle leaf (Lamium album), for one week after a five-week washout period. Observations of pain and disability were recorded for the twelve weeks of the study. After one week's treatment with nettle sting, score reductions on both visual analogue scale (pain) and health assessment questionnaire (disability) were significantly greater than with placebo (P = 0.026 and P = 0.0027). PMID:10911825

  1. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Assessing the sensitivity of images in research collections: A new approach at the Wellcome Library.

    PubMed

    Wakely, Helen; Dakin, Carly

    2015-06-01

    In 2014 The Wellcome Library, part of the Wellcome Trust, introduced a new policy in order to address research access to personal data within its collections. The policy has now been used by library staff for almost a year. The policy was devised using a multi-stage approach which consisted of internal surveys and 1:1 interviews. Library staff can use the policy to guide decisions based on what level of access to award material donated or contributed to the Wellcome collections. The policy has been applied to 1 - a series of victorian medical photographs supplied by University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, and 2 - an album of family photographs from the collection of the psychiatrist Dr Ann Dally. Following almost a year in circulation the advantages and disadvantages can now be summarised.

  3. Multimedia content management in MPEG-21 framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John R.

    2002-07-01

    MPEG-21 is an emerging standard from MPEG that specifies a framework for transactions of multimedia content. MPEG-21 defines the fundamental concept known as a digital item, which is the unit of transaction in the multimedia framework. A digital item can be used to package content for such as a digital photograph, a video clip or movie, a musical recording with graphics and liner notes, a photo album, and so on. The packaging of the media resources, corresponding identifiers, and associated metadata is provided in the declaration of the digital item. The digital item declaration allows for more effective transaction, distribution, and management of multimedia content and corresponding metadata, rights expressions, variations of media resources. In this paper, we describe various challenges for multimedia content management in the MPEG-21 framework.

  4. Can Homeopathic Arsenic Remedy Combat Arsenic Poisoning in Humans Exposed to Groundwater Arsenic Contamination?: A Preliminary Report on First Human Trial

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) has affected millions of people globally distributed over 20 countries. In parts of West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh alone, over 100 million people are at risk, but supply of As-free water is grossly inadequate. Attempts to remove As by using orthodox medicines have mostly been unsuccessful. A potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album-30, was administered to a group of As affected people and thereafter the As contents in their urine and blood were periodically determined. The activities of various toxicity marker enzymes and compounds in the blood, namely aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione, were also periodically monitored up to 3 months. The results are highly encouraging and suggest that the drug can alleviate As poisoning in humans. PMID:16322812

  5. Impact of use of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil and quinoa crop in South of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Youssfi, Lahcen; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Zaafrani, Mina; Hirich, Aziz; Fahmi, Hasna; Abdelatif, Rami; Laajaj, Khadija; El Omari, Halima

    2015-04-01

    This work was conducted at the experimental station of the IAV Hassan II-CHA-Agadir in southwest Morocco between 2010 and 2012. It aimed the assessment of the effects of use of treated wastewater on soil properties and agronomic parameters by adopting crop rotation introducing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a new crop under semi-arid climate. Biomass production, yield, nutrient accumulation in leaves and the level of electrical conductivity and soil nitrate are the evaluated parameters during three growing seasons. Results show that quinoa has a performing behavior when it is preceded by fabae bean in term of water use efficiency; in addition, the recorded level of salt accumulation in the soil was the lowest in comparison with that of the combinations bean>quinoa and fallow>quinoa. Concerning growth and yield, it was found that growing quinoa after chickpea was more beneficial in terms of biomass productivity and yield. Keywords: Quinoa, soil, treated wastewater semi-arid

  6. Effects of diesel and kerosene on germination and growth of coastal wetland plant species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to investigate effects of diesel and kerosene on seed germination and seedling growth among coastal wetland plants to select species that can be used for the restoration and revegetation of oil-polluted habitats. Tests on 51 species were performed in Petri dishes containing 0 %, 6 %, 12 %, and 18 % diesel, 20 %, 40 %, and 60 % kerosene; each treatment combination was replicated five times with 20 seeds in each Petri dish. All dishes were held in a growth chamber with 20°C day of 12 h/15°C night of 12 h in 80 % humidity for 20 days for calculating the germination percentage, seedling weight, and seedling vitality. The germination percentage of Rumex stenophyllus decreased significantly in diesel and kerosene treatments. The weights of seedlings treated with diesel and kerosene either increased or decreased in comparison with controls depending on the species. Vitality percentage values were high for seedlings of Chenopodium ficifolium. Thus, herbaceous plant responses to oil treatments are species-specific.

  7. Quinoa starch: Structure, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has gained popularity worldwide largely due to the attractive nutritional profile. It also has much potential for food security due to the great genetic diversity. Starch is the main component of quinoa grain and makes up to 70% of the dry matter. The starch plays a crucial role in functional properties of quinoa and related food products. The starch granules are rather small (∼1-3μm) with relatively low amylose contents as compared with most of the other starches. Quinoa amylopectin has significant amounts of short chains and super-long chains. These unique features have generated research interest in using the starch for food and other applications such as creating Pickering emulsions. This review summarizes the present knowledge of the isolation, composition, granular and molecular structures, physicochemical properties, modifications, and applications of quinoa starch. It becomes obvious that this starch has great potential for food and nonfood applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  9. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal {beta}-hexamer structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wispelaere, Melissanne de; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Wilkens, Stephan

    2011-10-10

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids {sup 28}QPVIV{sup 32}, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a {beta}-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the {beta}-hexamer structure by mutating {sup 28}QPVIV{sup 32} to {sup 28}AAAAA{sup 32} had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNasemore » and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having {beta}-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.« less

  10. Disruption of a stem-loop structure located upstream of pseudoknot domain in Tobacco mosaic virus enhanced its infectivity and viral RNA accumulation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Wong, Sek-Man

    2018-06-01

    A predicted stem-loop structure of 25 nucleotides, located in the coat protein (CP) gene and 3'-UTR sequences of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), was validated previously (Guo et al., 2015). In this study, both disrupted stem-loop and nucleotide deletion mutants of TMV replicated more rapidly in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts. The TMV mutant with a complete mirrored stem-loop structure showed similar level of viral RNA accumulation as TMV. Recovering the stem-loop structure also resulted in a similar replication level as TMV. All these mutants induced necrosis in N. benthamiana and assembled into typical rigid rod-shaped virions. TMV mutant without the stem-loop structure induced more local lesions in Chenopodium quinoa. When the putative stem-loop structure in Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was disrupted, the mutant also showed an enhanced virus replication. This suggests that the stem-loop structure of TMV is a new cis-acting element with a role in virus replication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of East Indian sandalwood oil and alpha-santalol on humans after transdermal absorption.

    PubMed

    Hongratanaworakit, T; Heuberger, E; Buchbauer, G

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of East Indian sandalwood oil ( Santalum album, Santalaceae) and alpha-santalol on physiological parameters as well as on mental and emotional conditions in healthy human subjects after transdermal absorption. In order to exclude any olfactory stimulation, the inhalation of the fragrances was prevented by breathing masks. Eight physiological parameters, i. e., blood oxygen saturation, blood pressure, breathing rate, eye-blink rate, pulse rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, and surface electromyogram were recorded. Subjective mental and emotional condition was assessed by means of rating scales. While alpha-santalol caused significant physiological changes which are interpreted in terms of a relaxing/sedative effect, sandalwood oil provoked physiological deactivation but behavioral activation. These findings are likely to represent an uncoupling of physiological and behavioral arousal processes by sandalwood oil.

  12. Black Edens, country Eves: Listening, performance, and black queer longing in country music.

    PubMed

    Royster, Francesca T

    2017-07-03

    This article explores Black queer country music listening, performance, and fandom as a source of pleasure, nostalgia, and longing for Black listeners. Country music can be a space for alliance and community, as well as a way of accessing sometimes repressed cultural and personal histories of violence: lynching and other forms of racial terror, gender surveillance and disciplining, and continued racial and economic segregation. For many Black country music listeners and performers, the experience of being a closeted fan also fosters an experience of ideological hailing, as well as queer world-making. Royster suggests that through Black queer country music fandom and performance, fans construct risky and soulful identities. The article uses Tina Turner's solo album, Tina Turns the Country On! (1974) as an example of country music's power as a tool for resistance to racial, sexual, and class disciplining.

  13. Structural and functional characteristics of commissural neurons in the superior colliculus of the hamster.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, R W; Mooney, R D; Szczepanik, A M; Klein, B G

    1986-11-08

    Intracellular recording and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injection techniques were employed to delineate the structural and functional properties of superior collicular (SC) neurons in the hamster that were antidromically activated by electrical stimulation of the contralateral tectum. A total of 39 such cells were completely characterized, injected, and recovered. In ten of these, the axonal filling allowed us to reconstruct at least a portion of the terminal arborization in the SC contralateral to the labelled cell. Two of the recovered neurons were located in the stratum griseum superficiale (SGS), three were in the stratum opticum (SO), ten were in the stratum griseum intermediale (SGI), 11 were in the stratum album intermedium (SAI), 11 were in the stratum griseum profundum (SGP) and two were located in the stratum album profundum (SAP). The recovered cells were highly varied in both their morphological and their physiological characteristics. Somal areas ranged between 74 microns2 and 364 microns2, and the sample of recovered neurons included horizontal cells, narrow field vertical cells, and a variety of other multipolar neurons. Over one-third (38.5%) of the recovered cells were unresponsive, 2.6% were exclusively visual, 33.3% responded only to innocuous cutaneous stimuli, 10.2% were bimodal, 7.7% were specifically nociceptive, and 7.7% had complex (Rhoades, Mooney, and Jacquin: J. Neurosci. 3:1342-1354, '83) somatosensory receptive fields. We observed no clear-cut correlations between the structural and functional characteristics of these neurons. The conduction latencies of the commissural SC neurons ranged between 0.8 and 14.0 ms. The most rapidly conducting cells were located in the SGP and SAP. Conduction latency had a significant negative correlation with soma area. Labelled axons, in many cases, had at least one terminal arbor in a portion of the SC that was mirror symmetric with the location of the cell from which it originated. In several cases

  14. Probing Conformational Change of Bovine Serum Albumin–Dextran Conjugates under Controlled Dry Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Shuqin; Li, Yunqi; Zhao, Qin

    2015-04-29

    The time-dependent conformational change of bovine serum album (BSA) during Maillard reaction with dextran under controlled dry heating has been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and circular dichroism analysis. Through the research on the radii of gyration (R g), intrinsic fluorescence, and secondary structure, conjugates with dextran coating were found to inhibit BSA aggregation and preserve the secondary structure of native BSA against long-time heat treatment during Maillard reaction. The results suggested that the hydrophilic dextran was conjugated to the compact protein surface and enclosed it and more dextran chains were attached to BSA withmore » the increase of the heating time. The study presented here will be beneficial to the understanding of the conformational evolution of BSA molecules during the dry-heating Maillard reaction and to the control of the protein–polysaccharide conjugate structure.« less

  15. Segmenting human from photo images based on a coarse-to-fine scheme.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huchuan; Fang, Guoliang; Shao, Xinqing; Li, Xuelong

    2012-06-01

    Human segmentation in photo images is a challenging and important problem that finds numerous applications ranging from album making and photo classification to image retrieval. Previous works on human segmentation usually demand a time-consuming training phase for complex shape-matching processes. In this paper, we propose a straightforward framework to automatically recover human bodies from color photos. Employing a coarse-to-fine strategy, we first detect a coarse torso (CT) using the multicue CT detection algorithm and then extract the accurate region of the upper body. Then, an iterative multiple oblique histogram algorithm is presented to accurately recover the lower body based on human kinematics. The performance of our algorithm is evaluated on our own data set (contains 197 images with human body region ground truth data), VOC 2006, and the 2010 data set. Experimental results demonstrate the merits of the proposed method in segmenting a person with various poses.

  16. Tangled up in grief: Bob Dylan's songs of separation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Keverne

    This article argues that much can be learned about the ways in which individuals grieve through a careful analysis of the presentation of loss in creative fiction, especially in terms of unconscious and uncensored responses presented indirectly through figurative language and structural patterns. It takes Bob Dylan's collection of songs about the anguish caused by lost love, Blood on the Tracks, as an example. An examination of the songs included in, and some rejected for, the album reveals developing responses to grief resulting from relationship breakdown, including the search for the absent one and for reconciliation; the intrusion of deep pain into everyday situations; the problem of infidelity and guilt; the attempt to reach a more detached perspective; the consequences of the pain becoming unbearable; and the attempt at a kind of closure. Taken together, the songs reveal how complex and contradictory responses to the agony of loss can be.

  17. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426 mg/L and LC(50) 138.896 mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94 mg/L, LC(50) 13.51 mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22 mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds.

  18. Nutritional Value of Commercial Protein-Rich Plant Products.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Pirjo; Mäkinen, Sari; Eurola, Merja; Jalava, Taina; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Hellström, Jarkko; Pihlanto, Anne

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze nutritional value of various minimally processed commercial products of plant protein sources such as faba bean (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), rapeseed press cake (Brassica rapa/napus subsp. Oleifera), flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum), oil hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Basic composition and various nutritional components like amino acids, sugars, minerals, and dietary fiber were determined. Nearly all the samples studied could be considered as good sources of essential amino acids, minerals and dietary fiber. The highest content of crude protein (over 30 g/100 g DW) was found in faba bean, blue lupin and rapeseed press cake. The total amount of essential amino acids (EAA) ranged from 25.8 g/16 g N in oil hemp hulls to 41.5 g/16 g N in pearled quinoa. All the samples studied have a nutritionally favorable composition with significant health benefit potential. Processing (dehulling or pearling) affected greatly to the contents of analyzed nutrients.

  19. Effect of Germination and Fermentation Process on the Antioxidant Compounds of Quinoa Seeds.

    PubMed

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Galván-D'Alessandro, Leandro; Vandendriessche, Pierre; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed has gained a great interest in the last years, mainly due to its nutritional properties and its content of antioxidant substances with health-promoting properties in humans. In this work, the effect of germination time and fermentation on the levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol isomers and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out naturally by the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (used for baking and brewing). Ascorbic acid and total tocopherols were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after 72 h of germination process in comparison with raw quinoa seeds, whilst fermentation caused a decrease in both types of compounds. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were improved using both bioprocesses, being this effect more noticeable for germination process (101 % of increase after three days of germination). Germination and fermentation proved to be desirable procedures for producing enriched ingredients with health-promoting antioxidant compounds in a natural way.

  20. Quinoa seeds leach phytoecdysteroids and other compounds with anti-diabetic properties

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Brittany L.; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) contains high levels of biologically active phytoecdysteroids, which have been implicated in plant defense from insects, and have shown a range of beneficial pharmacological effects in mammals. We demonstrated that the most prevalent phytoecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), was secreted (leached) from intact quinoa seeds into water during the initial stages of seed germination. Leaching efficiency was optimized by ethanol concentration (70% ethanol), temperature (80°C), time (4 h), and solvent ratio (5 ml/g seed). When compared to extraction of macerated seeds, the leaching procedure released essentially all the 20HE available in the seeds (491 μg/g seed). The optimized quinoa leachate (QL), containing 0.86% 20HE, 1.00% total phytoecdysteroids, 2.59% flavonoid glycosides, 11.9% oil, and 20.4% protein, significantly lowered fasting blood glucose in obese, hyperglycemic mice. Leaching effectively releases and concentrates bioactive phytochemicals from quinoa seeds, providing an efficient means to produce a food-grade mixture that may be useful for anti-diabetic applications. PMID:24912714

  1. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceição, Adilva S.; Moura, Flávia de B. Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426 mg/L and LC50 138.896 mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94 mg/L, LC50 13.51 mg/L, and LC50 20.22 mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  2. Inclusion of Whole Flour from Latin-American Crops into Bread Formulations as Substitute of Wheat Delays Glucose Release and Uptake.

    PubMed

    Laparra, José Moisés; Haros, Monika

    2018-03-01

    Bakery formulations limiting glucose availability for uptake without compromising product quality are required. Herein, bread formulations containing whole flour from Amaranthus hypochondriacus (AB), Chenopodium quinoa (QB), Salvia hispanica L (ChB) or wheat (WWB) were compared to white bread (WB) for glycaemic index (GI) in fasted animals. The hepatic expression (mRNA) of PPAR-γ receptor as key regulator in substrate fractionation towards energy expenditure was monitored. GIs were associated to fluxes of glucose release (F Gluc ) and metabolic response (MTT assay) of HepG2 cells. ChB (19.7%) and AB (13.5%) decreased GI to a higher extent than QB (2.7%), but all increased expression of PPARγ in relation to WB. F Gluc (AB> > ChB, WWB, WB > QB) showed a reciprocal relationship with the area under curve (AUC) in vivo, and decreased MTT conversion values (WB > WWB, ChB, AB, QB) by HepG2 cells. Thus, inclusion of latin-american crops (LAcs) reducing GI, without compromising bread quality, could help preventing metabolic diseases.

  3. An integrated WebGIS framework for volunteered geographic information and social media in soil and water conservation.

    PubMed

    Werts, Joshua D; Mikhailova, Elena A; Post, Christopher J; Sharp, Julia L

    2012-04-01

    Volunteered geographic information and social networking in a WebGIS has the potential to increase public participation in soil and water conservation, promote environmental awareness and change, and provide timely data that may be otherwise unavailable to policymakers in soil and water conservation management. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a framework for combining current technologies, computing advances, data sources, and social media; and (2) develop and test an online web mapping interface. The mapping interface integrates Microsoft Silverlight, Bing Maps, ArcGIS Server, Google Picasa Web Albums Data API, RSS, Google Analytics, and Facebook to create a rich user experience. The website allows the public to upload photos and attributes of their own subdivisions or sites they have identified and explore other submissions. The website was made available to the public in early February 2011 at http://www.AbandonedDevelopments.com and evaluated for its potential long-term success in a pilot study.

  4. Development of microsatellite markers for Viscum coloratum (Santalaceae) and their application to wild populations1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Yun; Park, Han-Sol; Kim, Soonok; Kim, Young-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Viscum coloratum (Santalaceae), a semiparasitic medicinal plant that is known for its anticancer properties. Due to excessive human harvesting and loss of suitable habitat of its populations, it has become a potentially threatened species requiring immediate conservation efforts. Methods and Results: Based on transcriptome data for V. coloratum, 124 primer pairs were randomly selected for initial validation, of which 19 yielded polymorphic microsatellite loci, with two to six alleles per locus. The usefulness of these markers was assessed for 60 individuals representing three populations of V. coloratum. Observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.033 to 0.833 and 0.032 to 0.672, respectively. Cross-species amplification for 19 loci in the related species V. album was conducted. Conclusions: The 19 newly developed loci are expected to be useful for studying the population genetics and ecological conservation of V. coloratum. PMID:28090408

  5. [The influence of external stimulation on content and quality of volatile oil in Lignun Santali albi].

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Wei, M; Xiao, S; Xu, X; Hu, Z; Qiu, J; Cai, Y; Lu, A; Yuan, L

    2000-03-01

    The authors analyzed the quality of Ligmum Santali Albi formed by the external stimulation of hormone and windburn by GC-MS-DS. The results showed that the content of volatile oil is 2.34% in the heart wood formed in 10 years tree age of Santalum album (SA) after 2 years stimulation continuously with a definite concentration of hormone, which is near to the 25 years tree age of SA in the same place. The GC-MS analysis showed that the content of santalol and other chemical components in volatile oil are similar to the 25 years tree age of SA. It is indicated that a definite concentration of hormone stimulated the SA may shorten the formation of the heart wood. The heart wood can be also formed by the broken branches after 2 years windburn, but its content of volatile oil is only 1/2 of the heart wood formed by hormone stimulation.

  6. An Integrated WebGIS Framework for Volunteered Geographic Information and Social Media in Soil and Water Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werts, Joshua D.; Mikhailova, Elena A.; Post, Christopher J.; Sharp, Julia L.

    2012-04-01

    Volunteered geographic information and social networking in a WebGIS has the potential to increase public participation in soil and water conservation, promote environmental awareness and change, and provide timely data that may be otherwise unavailable to policymakers in soil and water conservation management. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a framework for combining current technologies, computing advances, data sources, and social media; and (2) develop and test an online web mapping interface. The mapping interface integrates Microsoft Silverlight, Bing Maps, ArcGIS Server, Google Picasa Web Albums Data API, RSS, Google Analytics, and Facebook to create a rich user experience. The website allows the public to upload photos and attributes of their own subdivisions or sites they have identified and explore other submissions. The website was made available to the public in early February 2011 at http://www.AbandonedDevelopments.com and evaluated for its potential long-term success in a pilot study.

  7. Dying Star Shrouded by a Blanket of Hailstones Forms the Bug Nebula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Release Date: May 3, 2004 A Dying Star Shrouded by a Blanket of Hailstones Forms the Bug Nebula (NGC 6302) The Bug Nebula, NGC 6302, is one of the brightest and most extreme planetary nebulae known. The fiery, dying star at its center is shrouded by a blanket of icy hailstones. This NASA Hubble Wide Field Plantery Camera 2 image shows impressive walls of compressed gas, laced with trailing strands and bubbling outflows. Object Names: NGC 6302, Bug Nebula Image Type: Astronomical Credit: NASA, ESA and A.Zijlstra (UMIST, Manchester, UK) To learn more about this image go to: hubblesite.org/gallery/album/nebula/pr2004046a/ NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. Behavior guidance techniques in Pediatric Dentistry: attitudes of parents of children with disabilities and without disabilities.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alessandra Maia; de Oliveira, Fabiana Sodré; de Paiva Novaes, Myrian Stella; Araújo Ferreira, Danielly Cunha

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the parental acceptance of pediatric behavior guidance techniques (BGT). Forty parents of children without disabilities (Group A) and another 40 parents of children with disabilities (Group B) were selected. Each BGT was explained by a single examiner and it was presented together with a photograph album. After that parents evaluated the acceptance in: totally unacceptable, somewhat acceptable, acceptable, and totally acceptable. Results indicated that in Group A, the BGT based on communicative guidance was accepted by most participants. In Group B, just one mother considered totally unacceptable the voice control method and other two, tell-show-do. For both groups, the general anesthesia was the less accepted BGT. There was statistically significant difference in acceptance for protective stabilization with a restrictive device in Group B. Children's parents with and without disabilities accepted behavioral guidance techniques, but basic techniques showed higher rates of acceptance than advanced techniques. ©2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [High-dose magnesium sulfate in the treatment of aconite poisoning].

    PubMed

    Clara, A; Rauch, S; Überbacher, C A; Felgenhauer, N; Drüge, G

    2015-05-01

    This article reports the case of a 62-year-old male patient who ingested the roots of Monkshood (Aconitum napellus) and white hellebore (Veratrum album) dissolved in alcohol with a suicidal intention and suffered cardiotoxic and neurotoxic symptoms. After contacting the Poison Information Centre ventricular arrhythmia was treated with high-dose magnesium sulphate as the only antiarrhythmic agent and subsequently a stable sinus rhythm could be established after approximately 3 h. Aconitum napellus is considered the most poisonous plant in Europe and it is found in gardens, the Alps and the Highlands. Poisoning is mainly caused by the alkaloid aconite that leads to persistent opening and activation of voltage-dependent sodium channels resulting in severe cardiac and neurological toxicity. As no specific antidote is known so far, poisoning is associated with a high mortality. The therapy with high-dose magnesium sulphate is based on in vitro and animal experiments as well as limited clinical case reports.

  10. Proteinase K-catalyzed synthesis of linear and star oligo(L-phenylalanine) conjugates.

    PubMed

    Ageitos, Jose M; Baker, Peter J; Sugahara, Michihiro; Numata, Keiji

    2013-10-14

    Chemoenzymatic synthesis of peptides is a green and clean chemical reaction that offers high yields without using organic synthesis and serves as an alternative to traditional peptide synthesis methods. This report describes the chemoenzymatic synthesis of oligo(L-phenylalanine) mediated by proteinase K from Tritirachium album, which is one of the most widely used proteases in molecular biological studies. The synthesized linear oligo-phenylalanine showed a unique self-assembly in aqueous solutions. To further functionalize linear oligo(L-phenylalanine) as a low-molecular-weight gelator, it was cosynthesized with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine to obtain star-oligo(L-phenylalanine), which was bioconjugated to demonstrate its self-assembly into fluorescent fibers. The self-assembled fibers of star-oligo(L-phenylalanine) formed fibrous networks with various branching ratios, which depended on the molecular weights and molecular aspect ratios of star-oligo(L-phenylalanine). This is the first study to demonstrate that proteinase K is a suitable enzyme for chemoenzymatic cosynthesis of oligopeptides and star-shaped heteropeptides.

  11. Respiratory disease of workers harvesting grain.

    PubMed Central

    Darke, C S; Knowelden, J; Lacey, J; Milford Ward, A

    1976-01-01

    The incidence of respiratory symptoms caused by grain dust during harvesting was surveyed in a group of Lincolnshire farmers. A quarter complained of respiratory distress after working on combine harvesters or near grain driers and elevators, with cough, wheezing, and breathlessness, sometimes so severe as to prevent work. The airborne dust around combine harvesters contained up to 200 million fungus spores/m3 air with Cladosporium predominant while drivers were exposed to up to 20 million spores/m3 air. Verticillium/Paecilomyces type spores, mostly from Verticillium lecanii, Aphanocladium album, and Paecilomyces bacillosporus, were abundant in the dust. Extracts of these species produced immediate weal reactions in skin tests, precipitin reactions with sera, and rapid decreases in FEV1 when inhaled by affected workers. There was no delayed reactions. Results suggest type I immediate hypersensitivity to the spores although the physical effect of a heavy dust deposit could be important. Drivers could be protected by cabs ventilated with filtered air. PMID:941115

  12. Fragrance contact dermatitis in Korea: a joint study.

    PubMed

    An, Susun; Lee, Ai-Young; Lee, Cheol Heon; Kim, Do-Won; Hahm, Jeong Hee; Kim, Kea-Jeung; Moon, Kee-Chan; Won, Young Ho; Ro, Young-Suck; Eun, Hee Chul

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrances in patients with suspected fragrance allergy and to evaluate the risk factors. 9 dermatology departments of university hospitals have participated in this study for the past 1 year. To determine allergic response to fragrances, 18 additional fragrances in addition to the Korean standard and a commercial fragrance series were patch-tested in patients with suspecting cosmetic contact dermatitis. Over 80% of the patients were women, and the most common site was the face. Cinnamic alcohol and sandalwood oil (Santalum album L.) showed high frequencies of positive responses. Of the specific fragrances, ebanol, alpha-isomethyl-ionone (methyl ionone-gamma) and Lyral (hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexane carboxdaldehyde) showed high positive responses. We compared the results obtained during this study with those of other studies and concluded that including additional fragrance allergens may be useful for the detection of fragrance allergy.

  13. In vitro chemopreventive properties of peptides released from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) protein under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Vilcacundo, Rubén; Miralles, Beatriz; Carrillo, Wilman; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2018-03-01

    Because of the continuous and direct interaction between the digestive tract and foods, dietary compounds represent an interesting source of chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal health. In this study, the influence of a standardized static in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model on the release of peptides with chemopreventive potential from quinoa protein was investigated. Gastroduodenal digests and fractions collected by ultrafiltration were evaluated for their in plate oxygen radical absorbance capacity and in vitro colon cancer cell viability inhibitory activity. Highest effects were observed in the digests obtained during the intestinal phase, with fraction containing peptides <5kDa as the main responsible for the antioxidant activity and peptides >5kDa showing the greatest anti-cancer effects. Seventeen potential bioactive peptides derived from quinoa proteins have been identified. These proteins might be utilized as new ingredients in the development of functional foods or nutraceuticals with the aim of reducing oxidative stress-associated diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adverse Drug Reactions and Expected Effects to Therapy with Subcutaneous Mistletoe Extracts (Viscum album L.) in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Megan L.; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. In Europe, mistletoe extracts are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. We assessed the safety of subcutaneous mistletoe as a conjunctive therapy in cancer patients within an anthroposophic medicine setting in Germany. Methods. A multicentre, observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Suspected mistletoe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were described by frequency, causality, severity, and seriousness. Potential risk factors, dose relationships and drug-drug interactions were investigated. Results. Of 1923 cancer patients treated with subcutaneous mistletoe extracts, 283 patients (14.7%) reported 427 expected effects (local reactions <5 cm and increased body temperature <38°C). ADRs were documented in 162 (8.4%) patients who reported a total of 264 events. ADRs were mild (50.8%), moderate (45.1%), or severe (4.2%). All were nonserious. Logistic regression analysis revealed that expected effects were more common in females, while immunoreactivity decreased with increasing age and tumour stage. No risk factors were identified for ADRs. ADR frequency increased as mistletoe dose increased, while fewer ADRs occurred during mistletoe therapy received concurrent with conventional therapies. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that mistletoe therapy is safe. ADRs were mostly mild to moderate in intensity and appear to be dose-related and explained by the immune-stimulating, pharmacological activity of mistletoe. PMID:24672577

  15. The structural and functional characteristics of tectospinal neurons in the golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, R W; Mooney, R D; Klein, B G; Jacquin, M F; Szczepanik, A M; Chiaia, N L

    1987-01-15

    Intracellular recording and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injection techniques were used to delineate the structural and functional characteristics of the superior collicular cells in the hamster, which could be antidromically activated from the first cervical segment of the spinal cord. Thirty-one such neurons were characterized, filled with HRP, and recovered. Complete physiological data were obtained from another 21 tectospinal cells for which anatomical data were sufficient only to define the laminar location of the cell body from which recordings were made. Of the total sample of 52 cells, 7.7% had their somata in the stratum griseum intermediale (SGI), 50% were in the stratum album intermedium (SAI), 36.5% were in the stratum griseum profundum (SGP), and 5.8% were in the stratum album profundum (SAP). The tectospinal cells were fairly uniform morphologically. They had large (27.7 +/- 5.5 microns diameter) cell bodies, which gave rise to an average of 6.7 +/- 1.2 primary dendrites. These were generally smooth and extended up to 500 microns away from the cell body. In many cases, they ascended out of the deep laminae into the stratum opticum (SO) and/or stratum griseum superficiale (SGS). The axons of TS cells averaged 3.4 +/- 0.8 microns in diameter, and they generally coursed radially to the SAP where they curved around the periaqueductal gray and entered the predorsal bundle. These axons often gave rise to collaterals that arborized in the deep laminae of the ipsilateral superior colliculus and subjacent reticular formation. The tectospinal cells were also fairly uniform physiologically. Their average conduction latency was 2.0 +/- 2.3 ms, and this variable had a strong negative correlation (-.81) with axon diameter for the recovered cells. Most (63.5%) of the TS cells were exclusively somatosensory and gave rapidly adapting responses to deflection of vibrissae and/or guard hairs; 7.7% were bimodal (visual-somatosensory); 11.5% had complex (Rhoades et al

  16. Quinoa: An emerging new crop with potential for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlick, Greg; Bubenheim, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is being considered as a new crop for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) because of its high protein values (12 - 18%) and unique amino acid composition. Lysine, and essential amino acid that is deficient in many grain crops, is found in quinoa approaching Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) standards set for humans. This 'new' crop, rich in protein and with desirable proportions of important amino acids, may provide greater versatility in meeting the needs of humans on long-term space missions. Initially, the cultivars CO407 x ISLUGA, CO407 Heat Tolerant Population 1, and Real' (a Bolivian variety) were examined. The first cultivar showed the most promise in greenhouse studies. When grown hydroponically in the greenhouse, with no attempt to maximize productivity, this cultivar produced 202 g m(exp -2) with a harvest index of 37%. None of the cultivars were greater than 70 cm in height. Initial results indicate that quinoa could be an excellent crop for CELSS because of the high concentration of protein, ease of use, versatility in preparation, and potential for greatly increased yields in controlled environments.

  17. Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan Jose

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicinal plants empirically considered to be toxic. A total of 216 medicinal plants belonging to 77 families have been reported as toxic. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects. The toxicity of 16 plants species has been reported in clinical cases, particularly in children. From these plants, deaths have been reported with the consumption of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Argemone mexicana, and Thevetia peruviana. In most of the cases, the principle of the plant responsible for the toxicity is unknown. There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. More toxicological studies are necessary to contribute information about the safe use of the medicinal plants cited in this review. PMID:29234446

  18. Quinoa starch granules as stabilizing particles for production of Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Marilyn; Sjöö, Malin; Timgren, Anna; Dejmek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Intact starch granules isolated from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were used to stabilize emulsion drops in so-called Pickering emulsions. Miglyol 812 was used as dispersed phase and a phosphate buffer (pH7) with different salt (NaCl) concentrations was used as the continuous phase. The starch granules were hydrophobically modified to different degrees by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) or by dry heat treatment at 120 degrees C in order to study the effect on the resulting emulsion drop size. The degree of OSA-modification had a low to moderate impact on drop size. The highest level of modification (4.66%) showed the largest mean drop size, and lowest amount of free starch, which could be an effect of a higher degree of aggregation of the starch granules and, thereby, also the emulsion drops stabilized by them. The heat treated starch granules had a poor stabilizing ability and only the starch heated for the longest time (150 min at 120 degrees C) had a better emulsifying capacity than the un-modified native starch granules. The effect of salt concentration was rather limited. However, an increased concentration of salt slightly increased the mean drop size and the elastic modulus.

  19. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M; Abdalla, Omer A; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1-97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8-97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum , Nicotiana occidentalis , Chenopodium glaucum , and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  20. Tests for Transmission of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot and Two Nepoviruses by Criconemella xenoplax

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, W-Q.; Barnett, O. W.; Westcott, S. W.; Scott, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    In two of three trials, detectable color reactions in ELISA for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were observed for Criconemella xenoplax handpicked from the root zone of infected peach trees. Criconemella xenoplax (500/pot) handpicked from root zones of peach trees infected with PNRSV failed to transmit the virus to cucumber or peach seedlings. The nematode also failed to transmit tomato ringspot (TomRSV) or tobacco ringspot viruses between cucumbers, although Xiphinema americanum transmitted TomRSV under the same conditions. Plants of peach, cucumber, Chenopodium quinoa, and Catharanthus roseus were not infected by PNRSV when grown in soil containing C. xenoplax collected from root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Shirofugen cherry scions budded on Mazzard cherry seedling rootstocks remained symptomless when transplanted into root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Virus transmission was not detected by ELISA when C. xenoplax individuals were observed to feed on cucumber root explants that were infected with PNRSV and subsequently fed on roots of Prunus besseyi in agar cultures. Even if virus transmission by C. xenoplax occurs via contamination rather than by a specific mechanism, it must be rare. PMID:19287748

  1. Tests for Transmission of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot and Two Nepoviruses by Criconemella xenoplax.

    PubMed

    Yuan, W Q; Barnett, O W; Westcott, S W; Scott, S W

    1990-10-01

    In two of three trials, detectable color reactions in ELISA for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were observed for Criconemella xenoplax handpicked from the root zone of infected peach trees. Criconemella xenoplax (500/pot) handpicked from root zones of peach trees infected with PNRSV failed to transmit the virus to cucumber or peach seedlings. The nematode also failed to transmit tomato ringspot (TomRSV) or tobacco ringspot viruses between cucumbers, although Xiphinema americanum transmitted TomRSV under the same conditions. Plants of peach, cucumber, Chenopodium quinoa, and Catharanthus roseus were not infected by PNRSV when grown in soil containing C. xenoplax collected from root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Shirofugen cherry scions budded on Mazzard cherry seedling rootstocks remained symptomless when transplanted into root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Virus transmission was not detected by ELISA when C. xenoplax individuals were observed to feed on cucumber root explants that were infected with PNRSV and subsequently fed on roots of Prunus besseyi in agar cultures. Even if virus transmission by C. xenoplax occurs via contamination rather than by a specific mechanism, it must be rare.

  2. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    PubMed

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Organic quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa L.) production in Peru: Environmental hotspots and food security considerations using Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Cancino-Espinoza, Eduardo; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Quispe, Isabel

    2018-05-08

    Quinoa is a plant that is cultivated in the Andean highlands across Peru and Bolivia. It is increasingly popular due to its high nutritive value and protein content. In particular, the cultivation of organic quinoa has grown substantially in recent years since it is the most demanded type of quinoa in the foreign market. Nevertheless, despite the interest that quinoa has generated in terms of its nutritional properties, little is known regarding the environmental profile of its production and processing. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze the environmental impacts that are linked to the production and distribution of organic quinoa to the main export destinations through the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. An attributional LCA perspective was conducted including data from approximately 55 ha of land used for quinoa production in the regions of Huancavelica and Ayacucho, in southern-central Peru. IPCC, 2013 and ReCiPe 2008 were the two assessment methods selected to estimate the environmental impact results using the SimaPro 8.3 software. Results, which were calculated for one 500 g package of organic quinoa, showed that GHG emissions are in the upper range of other organic agricultural products. However, when compared to other high protein content food products, especially those from animal origin, considerably low environmental impacts are obtained. For instance, if 20% of the average annual beef consumption in Peru is substituted by organic quinoa, each Peruvian would mitigate 31 kg CO 2 eq/year in their diet. Moreover, when the edible protein energy return on investment (i.e., ep-EROI) is computed, a ratio of 0.38 is obtained, in the higher range of protein rich food products. However, future research should delve into the environmental and food policy implications of agricultural land expansion to produce an increasing amount of quinoa for a growing global demand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory Activities of Zygophyllum album: A Natural Weight-Lowering Plant on Key Enzymes in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mnafgui, Kais; Hamden, Khaled; Ben Salah, Hichem; Kchaou, Mouna; Nasri, Mbarek; Slama, Sadok; Derbali, Fatma; Allouche, Noureddine; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem that increased risk for many complications, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The results showed EZA, which found rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibited an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase in vitro with IC50 of 91.07 μg/mL. In vivo administration of this extract to HFD-rats lowered body weight and serum leptin level; and inhibited lipase activity of obese rats by 37% leading to notable decrease of T-Ch, TGs and LDL-c levels accompanied with an increase in HDL-c concentration in serum and liver of EZA treated HFD-rats. Moreover, the findings revealed that EZA helped to protect liver tissue from the appearance of fatty cysts. Interestingly, supplementation of EZA modulated key enzyme related to hypertension such as ACE by 36% in serum of HFD animals and improve some of serum electrolytes such as Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, EZA significantly protected the liver-kidney function by reverted back near to normal the values of the liver-kidney dysfunction indices AST&ALT, ALP, CPK and GGT activities, decreased T-Bili, creat, urea and uric acid rates. In conclusion, these results showed a strong antihypelipidemic effect of EZA which can delay the occurrence of dislipidemia and hypertension. PMID:23258993

  5. American Album: 200 Years of Constitutional Democracy. Law in U.S. History. Law in Social Studies Series. Instructor's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Coral; Croddy, Marshall

    Arranged chronologically from the Constitution's initial implementation in the late 18th century to the civil rights movement of the 1950 and 60s, this volume contains eight study units. The units address various roles in the U.S. legal system and corresponding legal processes, while raising the following constitutional issues: (1) the role and…

  6. PhysicsCentral's future in Snapchat, and new social media strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, James

    In 2017, social media is no longer just an amplifier for marketing strategy, but for many large organizations is firmly at the core of it. Facebook is the reigning social media king, boasting 1.2 billion daily active users around the world. Snapchat, one of the latest platforms to be declared the future of social media, hits 150 million daily active users globally. The platforms differ by nature, with Snapchat valuing ephemerality over Facebook's stalk-able photo albums. However, the average age of a Facebook user is 40, while the average age range of Snapchat users is between 12-25, and on any given day, Snapchat reaches 41% of all 18-34 year olds in the United States. Students under 25 now turn nearly equally to TV and social media as their primary source of news content. The opportunity for physics outreach in an important young demographic is clear. American Physical Societys outreach website, physicscentral.com has found success on multiple online and social media platforms, and now thanks to the SPS summer intern program, has entered the Snapchat world.

  7. Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Sassi, A Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, F; Bourgougnon, N; Aouni, M

    2008-01-10

    Fifteen species of Tunisian traditional medicinal plants, belonging to 10 families, were selected for this study. They were Inula viscosa (L.) Ait and Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth ssp. discolor (Pom.) Batt. (Asteraceae), Mesembryanthemum cristallinum L. and M. nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae), Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq., Atriplex inflata Muell., A. parvifolia Lowe var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire, and Salicornia fruticosa L. (Chenopodiaceae), Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae), Frankenia pulverulenta L. (Frankeniaceae), Hypericum crispum L. (Hypericaceae), Plantago coronopus L. ssp. eu-coronopus Pilger var. vulgaris G.G. (Plantaginaceae) and Zygophyllum album L. (Zygophyllaceae). Fifty extracts prepared from those plants were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), using neutral red incorporation. Extracts from eight plants among these 15 showed some degree of antiviral activity, while the methanolic extract of E. multiflora was highly active with EC(50) of 132.6 microg mL(-1). These results corroborate that medicinal plants from Tunisia can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds.

  8. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Scartezzini, P; Speroni, E

    2000-07-01

    A lot of medicinal plants, traditionally used for thousands of years, are present in a group of herbal preparations of the Indian traditional health care system (Ayurveda) named Rasayana proposed for their interesting antioxidant activities. Among the medicinal plants used in ayurvedic Rasayana for their therapeutic action, some of these have been throughly investigated. In the present paper seven plants (Emblica officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Mangifera indica L., Momordica charantia L., Santalum album L., Swertia chirata Buch-Ham, Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) are viewed for their historical, etymological, morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. The plants described contain antioxidant principles, that can explain and justify their use in traditional medicine in the past as well as the present. In order to identify the plants with antioxidant activity in Ayurveda, a formulation of some rasayanas with well defined antioxidant properties has been examinated. For this purpose, we have considered Sharma's work on the preparation MAK4, MAK5, MA631, MA 471, MA Raja's Cup, MA Student Rasayana, MA Ladies Rasayana.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Accumulation and Activity of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases during Embryogenesis, Seed Development, and Germination in Sandalwood1

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Veena S.; Harmon, Alice C.; Rao, K. Sankara

    2000-01-01

    Western-blot analysis and protein kinase assays identified two Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) of 55 to 60 kD in soluble protein extracts of embryogenic cultures of sandalwood (Santalum album L.). However, these sandalwood CDPKs (swCDPKs) were absent in plantlets regenerated from somatic embryos. swCDPKs exhibited differential expression (monitored at the level of the protein) and activity in different developmental stages. Zygotic embryos, seedlings, and endosperm showed high accumulation of swCDPK, but the enzyme was not detected in the soluble proteins of shoots and flowers. swCDPK exhibited a temporal pattern of expression in endosperm, showing high accumulation and activity in mature fruit and germinating stages; the enzyme was localized strongly in the storage bodies of the endosperm cells. The study also reports for the first time to our knowledge a post-translational inhibition/inactivation of swCDPK in zygotic embryos during seed dormancy and early stages of germination. The temporal expression of swCDPK during somatic/zygotic embryogenesis, seed maturation, and germination suggests involvement of the enzyme in these developmental processes. PMID:10759499

  10. Spatio-temporal accumulation and activity of calcium-dependent protein kinases during embryogenesis, seed development, and germination in sandalwood.

    PubMed

    Anil, V S; Harmon, A C; Rao, K S

    2000-04-01

    Western-blot analysis and protein kinase assays identified two Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) of 55 to 60 kD in soluble protein extracts of embryogenic cultures of sandalwood (Santalum album L.). However, these sandalwood CDPKs (swCDPKs) were absent in plantlets regenerated from somatic embryos. swCDPKs exhibited differential expression (monitored at the level of the protein) and activity in different developmental stages. Zygotic embryos, seedlings, and endosperm showed high accumulation of swCDPK, but the enzyme was not detected in the soluble proteins of shoots and flowers. swCDPK exhibited a temporal pattern of expression in endosperm, showing high accumulation and activity in mature fruit and germinating stages; the enzyme was localized strongly in the storage bodies of the endosperm cells. The study also reports for the first time to our knowledge a post-translational inhibition/inactivation of swCDPK in zygotic embryos during seed dormancy and early stages of germination. The temporal expression of swCDPK during somatic/zygotic embryogenesis, seed maturation, and germination suggests involvement of the enzyme in these developmental processes.

  11. [Food consumption of children and adolescents living in an area of invasion in Maceio, Alagoas, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra; Timóteo, Anny Karinny Calheiros Dutra; dos Santos, Célia Dias; Fontes, Gilberto; da Rocha, Eliana Maria Maurício

    2010-03-01

    To assess the food intake of energy, macronutrients and micronutrients related to growth and development in individuals under 16 years of age living in a consolidated invasion settlement in Maceió, Alagoas. The assessment of food intake was carried out by the 24-hour recall method, using a food picture album. Nutritional composition of diets was analysed using the Virtual Nutri-1.0 software. The estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was based on the Dietary Reference (DRIs), adjusted to account for intra-individual variability. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5 was used for data analysis. 5.6% of the subjects studied presented excessive energy intake and for 3.7% it was inadequate. The frequency of excessive energy intake was higher in the 1 to 3 year-old age group (p <0.05), which also showed higher rates of inadequate intake of vitamin A, vitamin E and zinc, and it was the only group in which average consumption of calcium was higher than the adequate intake. Data show that dietary patterns of the individuals studied need adjustments.

  12. Multimedia Thermofluid Dynamics, an Undergraduate Education Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, G. S.; Dreibelbis, L. J.; Miller, J. D.; Smith, B. P.

    2002-11-01

    New multimedia materials are being developed for undergraduate instruction in thermofluid dynamics (e.g. convective heat transfer, thermodynamics, and gas dynamics), with strong emphasis on experimental and optical flow visualization. Since textbooks often show only simple line diagrams, our emphasis is on real flow images as in Van Dyke's classic "Album of Fluid Motion." Here, however, digital video clips illustrate the pertinent phenomena in motion, with voice-over explanations and occasional musical accompaniment. Beyond that, no attempt is made to duplicate traditional textbook material, but rather to provide a visual "window" into the laboratory experience. The results will be produced and distributed in DVD form for instructors and students as a visual supplement to the standard textbooks on these topics. The suitability of such materials for national dissemination has already been demonstrated. This approach is believed to be especially important for small and minority universities that sometimes lack laboratory facilities. Several examples will be shown, including transitional flow, hydraulic jumps, nucleate boiling, convective heat transfer, and supersonic flow. (Supported by NSF DUE Grant.)

  13. Growth of desferrioxamine-deficient Streptomyces mutants through xenosiderophore piracy of airborne fungal contaminations.

    PubMed

    Arias, Anthony Argüelles; Lambert, Stéphany; Martinet, Loïc; Adam, Delphine; Tenconi, Elodie; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Ongena, Marc; Rigali, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    Due to the necessity of iron for housekeeping functions, nutrition, morphogenesis and secondary metabolite production, siderophore piracy could be a key strategy in soil and substrate colonization by microorganisms. Here we report that mutants of bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor unable to produce desferrioxamine siderophores could recover growth when the plates were contaminated by indoor air spores of a Penicillium species and Engyodontium album. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the HPLC fractions with the extracellular 'resuscitation' factors of the Penicillium isolate were only those that contained siderophores, i.e. Fe-dimerum acid, ferrichrome, fusarinine C and coprogen. The restored growth of the Streptomyces mutants devoid of desferrioxamine is most likely mediated through xenosiderophore uptake as the cultivability depends on the gene encoding the ABC-transporter-associated DesE siderophore-binding protein. That a filamentous fungus allows the growth of desferrioxamine non-producing Streptomyces in cocultures confirms that xenosiderophore piracy plays a vital role in nutritional interactions between these taxonomically unrelated filamentous microorganisms. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Intra-oral digital photography with the non professional camera--simplicity and effectiveness at a low price].

    PubMed

    Sackstein, M

    2006-10-01

    Over the last five years digital photography has become ubiquitous. For the family photo album, a 4 or 5 megapixel camera costing about 2000 NIS will produce satisfactory results for most people. However, for intra-oral photography the common wisdom holds that only professional photographic equipment is up to the task. Such equipment typically costs around 12,000 NIS and includes the camera body, an attachable macro lens and a ringflash. The following article challenges this conception. Although professional equipment does produce the most exemplary results, a highly effective database of clinical pictures can be compiled even with a "non-professional" digital camera. Since the year 2002, my clinical work has been routinely documented with digital cameras of the Nikon CoolPix series. The advantages are that these digicams are economical both in price and in size and allow easy transport and operation when compared to their expensive and bulky professional counterparts. The details of how to use a non-professional digicam to produce and maintain an effective clinical picture database, for documentation, monitoring, demonstration and professional fulfillment, are described below.

  15. Proteomic Methods of Detection and Quantification of Protein Toxins.

    PubMed

    Duracova, Miloslava; Klimentova, Jana; Fucikova, Alena; Dresler, Jiri

    2018-02-28

    Biological toxins are a heterogeneous group of compounds that share commonalities with biological and chemical agents. Among them, protein toxins represent a considerable, diverse set. They cover a broad range of molecular weights from less than 1000 Da to more than 150 kDa. This review aims to compare conventional detection methods of protein toxins such as in vitro bioassays with proteomic methods, including immunoassays and mass spectrometry-based techniques and their combination. Special emphasis is given to toxins falling into a group of selected agents, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, such as Staphylococcal enterotoxins , Bacillus anthracis toxins, Clostridium botulinum toxins, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, ricin from Ricinus communis , Abrin from Abrus precatorius or control of trade in dual-use items in the European Union, including lesser known protein toxins such as Viscumin from Viscum album . The analysis of protein toxins and monitoring for biological threats, i.e., the deliberate spread of infectious microorganisms or toxins through water, food, or the air, requires rapid and reliable methods for the early identification of these agents.

  16. Species of Root-knot Nematodes and Fungal Egg Parasites Recovered from Vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Ornat, C.; Sorribas, F. J.; Stchiegel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería—M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode numbers than cucurbit crops in Almería but not in Barcelona. Fungal parasites were found in 37% and 45% of the sites in Almería and Barcelona, respectively, but percent parasitism was never greater than 5%. Nine fungal species were isolated from single eggs of the nematode. The fungi included Verticillium chlamydosporium, V. catenulatum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Fusarium spp., Acremonium strictum, Gliocladium roseum, Cylindrocarpon spp., Engiodontium album, and Dactylella oviparasitica. Two sterile fungi and five unidentified fungi also were isolated from Meloidogyne spp. eggs. PMID:19265964

  17. Herb–drug interactions: an overview of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this overview of systematic reviews (SRs) is to evaluate critically the evidence regarding interactions between herbal medicinal products (HMPs) and synthetic drugs. METHODS Four electronic databases were searched to identify relevant SRs. RESULTS Forty‐six SRs of 46 different HMPs met our inclusion criteria. The vast majority of SRs were of poor methodological quality. The majority of these HMPs were not associated with severe herb–drug interactions. Serious herb–drug interactions were noted for Hypericum perforatum and Viscum album. The most severe interactions resulted in transplant rejection, delayed emergence from anaesthesia, cardiovascular collapse, renal and liver toxicity, cardiotoxicity, bradycardia, hypovolaemic shock, inflammatory reactions with organ fibrosis and death. Moderately severe interactions were noted for Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, Piper methysticum, Serenoa repens and Camellia sinensis. The most commonly interacting drugs were antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. CONCLUSION The majority of the HMPs evaluated in SRs were not associated with drug interactions with serious consequences. However, the poor quality and the scarcity of the primary data prevent firm conclusions. PMID:22670731

  18. Proteomic Methods of Detection and Quantification of Protein Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Klimentova, Jana; Fucikova, Alena

    2018-01-01

    Biological toxins are a heterogeneous group of compounds that share commonalities with biological and chemical agents. Among them, protein toxins represent a considerable, diverse set. They cover a broad range of molecular weights from less than 1000 Da to more than 150 kDa. This review aims to compare conventional detection methods of protein toxins such as in vitro bioassays with proteomic methods, including immunoassays and mass spectrometry-based techniques and their combination. Special emphasis is given to toxins falling into a group of selected agents, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, such as Staphylococcal enterotoxins, Bacillus anthracis toxins, Clostridium botulinum toxins, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, ricin from Ricinus communis, Abrin from Abrus precatorius or control of trade in dual-use items in the European Union, including lesser known protein toxins such as Viscumin from Viscum album. The analysis of protein toxins and monitoring for biological threats, i.e., the deliberate spread of infectious microorganisms or toxins through water, food, or the air, requires rapid and reliable methods for the early identification of these agents. PMID:29495560

  19. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p < 0.05). The oil yield was 6.58-7.17% which contained predominantly unsaturated fatty acids (89.42%). The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid was ca. 6/1. The total tocopherol content ranged from 37.49 to 59.82 μg/g and mainly consisted of γ-tocopherol. Trace amount of α- and β-tocotrienols was also found. Black quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively.

  1. Distribution of Amblydromalus limonicus in northeastern Spain and diversity of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in tomato and other vegetable crops after its introduction.

    PubMed

    Chorąży, Alicja; Kropczyńska-Linkiewicz, Danuta; Sas, Daniel; Escudero-Colomar, Lucia-Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Amblydromalus limonicus (Garman and McGregor) was detected for the first time in 2011 on tomatoes of several locations of the northeastern Spain. During 2012 and 2013 samplings on tomato crop cultivars in the two provinces of Catalonia where the species was found were carried out. The goals of the study were to know the range of spread of the species in these two provinces, its abundance in tomato cultivars, non-crop vegetation among them, in the different parts of the tomato plant and in some other vegetable crops. Results showed that A. limonicus was present at both regions sampled, although there were significant differences in the abundance of the species between sampling points. It is the second in abundance in tomato and the cultivars that most frequently host A. limonicus were Anaidis, Hybrid and Marmande. No significant differences were found in the abundance of A. limonicus among tomato plant canopy strata. On average, it accounted for 31.6 % of all sampled phytoseiids. It was present in four crops (tomato, bean, cucumber and strawberry) and in Amaranthus cruentus, Chenopodium polyspermum, Cynodon dactylon, Mentha sp., Parietaria officinalis and Phleum pratense. Amblydromalus limonicus is well established in the extreme northeast of Spain all year round in crops and non-crops.

  2. [Distribution pattern of riparian invasive plants in Luanhe Basin, North China and its relationship with environment].

    PubMed

    Ren, Ying; He, Ping; Xu, Jie; Jia, Jiao

    2017-06-18

    In this study, the invasive plant species from the riparian vegetation in 56 sampling sites of Luanhe Basin were identified, and the correlations between their composition, spatial distribution and environmental factors were explored. In the basin, a total of 26 invasive species were registered, which belonged to 19 genera and 12 families, and 73.1% of them were annual plants. Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae were the two dominant families with the most invasive species, attributing to 50% of the total invasive species. Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens frondosa and Chenopodium serotinum appeared with the highest frequencies. The number of invasive species and the invasive intensity at each site were significantly negatively correlated with the altitude. The distribution of invasive plants was significantly influenced by the intensity of human activities. The invasive plants were mainly distributed in the plain area, shallow mountainous area with many reservoirs, and the mountainous area with developed tourism around Chengde City, meanwhile, only few species with broad ecological amplitude existed in the plateau area. In general, species with higher invasive grades were mainly distributed in low and medium altitude areas below 400 m. Except for A. retroflexus, no high-grade invasive plants were discovered in high altitude area so far.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Northwestern Mexican plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity.

  4. Suitability of unmalted quinoa for beer production.

    PubMed

    Kordialik-Bogacka, Edyta; Bogdan, Paulina; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Michałowska, Dorota

    2018-03-30

    This study provides the first detailed investigation into the effect of partially substituting barley malt with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) on the characteristics of wort and beer. Quinoa seeds and flakes were compared in terms of their suitability for brewing. The benefits of applying a commercial enzyme mixture during beer production with quinoa were also investigated. These findings show that quinoa is a good starchy raw material for brewing. Even without exogenous enzymes, it is possible to substitute barley malt with up to 30% quinoa. The form in which quinoa is used has a negligible influence on the quality of the wort and beer. The foam stability of beer made with quinoa was better than that of all-malt beer, despite there being a lower level of soluble nitrogen in quinoa beer in comparison with all-malt beer and more than twice the amount of fat in quinoa in comparison to barley malt. The addition of unmalted quinoa does not give unpleasant characteristics to the beer and was even found to have a positive effect on its overall sensory quality. This offers brewers an opportunity to develop good beers with new sensory characteristics. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The Global Expansion of Quinoa: Trends and Limits

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Didier; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Verniau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as “Indian food.” After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010, and to 75 in 2014. A further 20 countries have sown quinoa for the first time in 2015. In this paper, we analyze this trend and discuss the limits of quinoa’s expansion. As commercial production of quinoa is expected to develop, changes in international regulatory frameworks on genetic resources are needed in order to facilitate plant breeding for the most adaptive varieties for each region. PMID:27242826

  6. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M.; Abdalla, Omer A.; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A.; Amer, Mahmoud A.

    2017-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it. PMID:28167887

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of aquatic flora and quinoa with manures from Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, René; Lidén, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 degrees C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m(-3) d(-1). Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process.

  8. Preparative separation of α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols using silver nitrate-impregnated silica gel medium pressure liquid chromatography and analysis of sandalwood oil.

    PubMed

    Daramwar, Pankaj P; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Priyadarshini, Balaraman; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V

    2012-10-07

    The major sesquiterpene constituents of East-Indian sandalwood oil (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols have shown to be responsible for most of the biological activities and organoleptic properties of sandalwood oil. The work reported here describes the strategic use of medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) for the separation of both α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols. Silver nitrate impregnated silica gel was used as the stationary phase in MPLC for quantitative separation of α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols with mobile phases hexane and dichloromethane, respectively. The purities of α-santalene and (Z)-α-santalol obtained were >96%; however, β-santalene and (Z)-β-santalol were obtained with their respective inseparable epi-isomers. Limits of quantification (LoQ) relative to the FID detector were measured for important sesquiterpene alcohols of heartwood oil of S. album using serial dilutions of the standard stock solutions and demonstrated that the quality of the commercial sandalwood oil can be assessed for the content of individual sesquiterpene alcohols regulated by Australian Standard (AS2112-2003), International Organization for Standardization ISO 3518:2002 (E) and European Union (E. U.).

  9. In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pistelli, Luisa; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The in vitro activity of twenty chemically defined essential oils (EOs) obtained from Boswellia sacra, Citrus bergamia, C. limon, C. medica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare, Helichrysum italicum, Illicium verum, Litsea cubeba, Mentha spicata, Myrtus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Santalum album, Satureja montana, and Thymus serpyllum was assayed against clinical animal isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. erinacei, T. terrestre and Microsporum gypseum, main causative agents of zoonotic and/or environmental dermatophytoses in humans. Single main components present in high amounts in such EOs were also tested. Different dermatophyte species showed remarkable differences in sensitivity. In general, more effective EOs were T. serpyllum (MIC range 0.025%-0.25%), O. vulgare (MIC range 0.025%-0.5%) and L. cubeba (MIC range 0.025%-1.5%). F. vulgare showed a moderate efficacy against geophilic species such as M gypseum and T terrestre. Among single main components tested, neral was the most active (MIC and MFC values 5 0.25%). The results of the present study seem to be promising for an in vivo use of some assayed EOs.

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of aromatherapy in reducing levels of anxiety in palliative care patients: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Gaye

    2006-05-01

    Results of the pilot study of the four counties randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage with 1% Santalum album (Sandalwood) (group A) when compared with massage with Sweet Almond Carrier oil, (group B) or Sandalwood oil via an aromastone (group C), in reducing levels of anxiety in palliative care. The aims of the pilot study were to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy in reducing anxiety in patients receiving palliative care in four counties. The primary end points of the research were to report a statistically significant difference in anxiety scores between experimental group (B) and comparison groups (A and C) and to influence the integration of aromatherapy into all aspects of palliative care. The limited data of the pilot study (N=34) tested the logistics of the research, particularly the 25% attrition rate and the robustness of the data collection tools. The results were not substantial enough to generate coherent statistics. Therefore no assumptions could be drawn from these results due to the inconsistencies that were bound to occur in such a small sample. However, the results do seem to support the notion that Sandalwood oil is effective in reducing anxiety.

  11. Synergistic effect of fragrant herbs in Japanese scent sachets.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yumi; Ito, Michiho

    2015-02-01

    The sedative activity of eight aromatic natural medicines that are traditionally used in Japanese scent sachets was examined using an open field test with mice. Galangal (Kaempferia galanga), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), sandalwood (Santalum album), spikenard (Nardostachys chinensis), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), star anise (Illicium verum), and borneol (Dryobalanops aromatica) distilled oils were used. These natural medicines have various pharmacological effects. For example, galangal has insecticidal activity and clove extracts possess strong total antioxidant activity. Aromatherapy, a well-known complementary medicine system that uses inhalation, has recently attracted much attention. The sedative activity of inhaled aromatic compounds or essential oils has been examined by measuring the spontaneous motor activity of mice in an open field test. The galangal, patchouli, sandalwood, spikenard, and borneol oils showed significant sedative effects. The effect was stronger for a mixture of the five oils than for any of the single oils. This suggests that the oil mixture may have synergistic activity. Sedative activity was not observed when inactive oils (cinnamon, clove, and star anise) were added to the mixture of the five active oils. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Expression and purification of antimicrobial peptide adenoregulin with C-amidated terminus in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Zhou, Yuxun; Ma, Yushu; Luo, Qingping; Wei, Dongzhi

    2005-04-01

    Adenoregulin is a 33 amino acid antimicrobial peptide isolated from the skin of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. Natural adenoregulin is synthesized with an amidated valine residue at C-terminus and shows lethal effects against filamentous fungi, as well as a broad spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms. A synthetic gene for adenoregulin (ADR) with an additional amino acid glutamine at C-terminus was cloned into pET32a vector to allow expression of ADR as a Trx fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The resulting expression level of the fusion protein could reach up to 20% of the total cell proteins. The fusion protein could be purified effectively by Ni2+-chelating chromatography. Released from the fusion protein by enterokinase cleavage and purified to homogeneity, the recombinant ADR displayed antimicrobial activity similar to that of the synthetic ADR reported earlier. Comparing the antimicrobial activities of the recombinant adenoregulin with C-amidated terminus to that without an amidated C-terminus, we found that the amide of glutamine at C-terminus of ADR improved its potency on certain microorganisms such as Tritirachium album and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  13. Localization of male-specifically expressed MROS genes of Silene latifolia by PCR on flow-sorted sex chromosomes and autosomes.

    PubMed

    Kejnovský, E; Vrána, J; Matsunaga, S; Soucek, P; Siroký, J; Dolezel, J; Vyskot, B

    2001-07-01

    The dioecious white campion Silene latifolia (syn. Melandrium album) has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males, that are larger than the autosomes and enable their separation by flow sorting. The group of MROS genes, the first male-specifically expressed genes in dioecious plants, was recently identified in S. latifolia. To localize the MROS genes, we used the flow-sorted X chromosomes and autosomes as a template for PCR with internal primers. Our results indicate that the MROS3 gene is located in at least two copies tandemly arranged on the X chromosome with additional copy(ies) on the autosome(s), while MROS1, MROS2, and MROS4 are exclusively autosomal. The specificity of PCR products was checked by digestion with a restriction enzyme or reamplification using nested primers. Homology search of databases has shown the presence of five MROS3 homologues in A. thaliana, four of them arranged in two tandems, each consisting of two copies. We conclude that MROS3 is a low-copy gene family, connected with the proper pollen development, which is present not only in dioecious but also in other dicot plant species.

  14. Demystifying the Expert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Anca; Feitosa, Klebert

    We present here a program that aims at significantly diminishing the increasingly pervasive fear of approaching scientific concepts, particularly for people without math related backgrounds or interests. We built a series of grassroots yet unique science shows delivered in an up-beat, visually, and socially appealing environment, that bring forward the crucially needed bridge between the realm of scientific research and that of ordinary people through... comedy. While staged by two physics professors as hosts, the hilarious interactions between a science expert and a student-led improvisational comedy troupe constitute the main tool to unlock, decipher, and enjoy the mystery of the scientific research. Our program gets everyone in with lots of laughs, at no expense to academic quality, community involvement, diversity, excellence, integrity, and student focus. Our independent dedicated website for this project (sites.jmu.edu/demystifying), archives the podcasts (soundcloud.com/demystifying), short segment videos, blog posts, experts' bios, photo albums, testimonials, press releases, along with quantitative results of our assessment efforts. The overarching goal of this program is to pioneer a low cost yet efficient method of science education that can be replicated world wide.

  15. "Wait a while, my love" -- an Indonesian popular song with a family planning message.

    PubMed

    Pekerti, R; Musa, R

    1989-10-01

    "Wait a While, My Love," recorded by pop singer Irianti Emingpraja, was the first Indonesian rock sock to contain a family planning message. The album including the song has sold over 100,000 copies. The song has also been packaged as a 60-second video that can be used as an opening theme for radio and television programs. The song, aimed at encouraging Indonesian youth to postpone marriage, has the following lyrics: "Flying free like a seagull/I'll cover many places 'round the world/Give me time for study and reflection, to grow as a mature wise woman/Oh, wait a while, my love/Don't buy me a ring, reflection of your inner love/I'll climb my way up to the top of the world/And reaching our rainbow of hope." The song was produced with support from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board. Key factors to be examined in producing a popular song with a family planning message include the specific message desired, the target audience, type of music, the singer, the producer, marketing, a multimedia campaign strategy, and distribution outlets.

  16. Brain activation during anticipation of sound sequences.

    PubMed

    Leaver, Amber M; Van Lare, Jennifer; Zielinski, Brandon; Halpern, Andrea R; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2009-02-25

    Music consists of sound sequences that require integration over time. As we become familiar with music, associations between notes, melodies, and entire symphonic movements become stronger and more complex. These associations can become so tight that, for example, hearing the end of one album track can elicit a robust image of the upcoming track while anticipating it in total silence. Here, we study this predictive "anticipatory imagery" at various stages throughout learning and investigate activity changes in corresponding neural structures using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Anticipatory imagery (in silence) for highly familiar naturalistic music was accompanied by pronounced activity in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and premotor areas. Examining changes in the neural bases of anticipatory imagery during two stages of learning conditional associations between simple melodies, however, demonstrates the importance of fronto-striatal connections, consistent with a role of the basal ganglia in "training" frontal cortex (Pasupathy and Miller, 2005). Another striking change in neural resources during learning was a shift between caudal PFC earlier to rostral PFC later in learning. Our findings regarding musical anticipation and sound sequence learning are highly compatible with studies of motor sequence learning, suggesting common predictive mechanisms in both domains.

  17. The anticancer homeopathic composite "Canova Method" is not genotoxic for human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Igor C; Lima, Patrícia D L; Cardoso, Plínio C S; Khayat, André S; Bahia, Marcelo O; Buchi, Dorli de Freitas; Cabral, Isabel R; Burbano, Rommel R

    2003-06-30

    The Canova Method (CM) is a homeopathic medicine indicated for the treatment of patients with cancer and for pathologies that involve a depressed immune system, such as AIDS. This product is composed of homeopathic dilutions of Aconitum napellus, Arsenicum album (arsenic trioxide), Bryonia alba, Lachesis muta venom and Thuya occidentalis. It stimulates the immune system by activating macrophages. Activated macrophages stimulate the lymphocytes so that they increase their cytotoxic action in response to tumoral growth or infection. Given that the CM stimulates and accelerates the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes, we evaluated genotoxic effects induced in human lymphocytes treated with this homeopathic medication in vitro. Structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations were scored for the assessment of induced genotoxic effects, while the variation in mitotic index was considered as a monitor for induced cellular toxicity. The lymphocytes were cultivated for 24, 48 or 72 h in the following final concentrations of the medicinal composite CM: 4, 8 and 12%. Treatments with the CM did not affect mitotic indexes, nor did they provoke chromosomal aberrations, when compared with untreated controls. There was no cytotoxicity or genotoxicity at the chromosomal level.

  18. Hypothalamic Projections to the Optic Tectum in Larval Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Heap, Lucy A; Vanwalleghem, Gilles C; Thompson, Andrew W; Favre-Bulle, Itia; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Scott, Ethan K

    2017-01-01

    The optic tectum of larval zebrafish is an important model for understanding visual processing in vertebrates. The tectum has been traditionally viewed as dominantly visual, with a majority of studies focusing on the processes by which tectal circuits receive and process retinally-derived visual information. Recently, a handful of studies have shown a much more complex role for the optic tectum in larval zebrafish, and anatomical and functional data from these studies suggest that this role extends beyond the visual system, and beyond the processing of exclusively retinal inputs. Consistent with this evolving view of the tectum, we have used a Gal4 enhancer trap line to identify direct projections from rostral hypothalamus (RH) to the tectal neuropil of larval zebrafish. These projections ramify within the deepest laminae of the tectal neuropil, the stratum album centrale (SAC)/stratum griseum periventriculare (SPV), and also innervate strata distinct from those innervated by retinal projections. Using optogenetic stimulation of the hypothalamic projection neurons paired with calcium imaging in the tectum, we find rebound firing in tectal neurons consistent with hypothalamic inhibitory input. Our results suggest that tectal processing in larval zebrafish is modulated by hypothalamic inhibitory inputs to the deep tectal neuropil.

  19. Mt. Wilson in 1910: The Year of The Great Solar Convention.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welther, B. L.

    2004-12-01

    In 1910 the meetings of the Astronomical and Astrophysical Society of America (= AAS) and of the International Union for the Co-ordination of Solar Research (= ISU) were arranged so that astronomers from many countries first met in Cambridge, MA for the AAS from August 17-19, then spent eleven days sight-seeing as they traveled from the East Coast to the West Coast, and finally met again in Pasadena, CA for the ISU from August 31-September 6. Formal notes for these meetings were published widely in such journals as Nature, The Observatory, Popular Astronomy, Science, and The Transactions of the ISU. In addition to those records for the three-week span, newspaper reporters published numerous articles, astronomers kept personal diaries, and amateur photographers took many candid photographs of their peers enjoying informal moments. Fortunately, some of the newspaper clippings, notebooks and picture albums ended up in observatory archives. This paper will present some of the highlights of the meetings and travels as recorded both formally and informally by H. D. Babcock, J. S. Plaskett, E. C. Pickering, F. Schlesinger, H. H. Turner and others.

  20. Assessment of Shape Changes of Mistletoe Berries: A New Software Approach to Automatize the Parameterization of Path Curve Shaped Contours

    PubMed Central

    Derbidge, Renatus; Feiten, Linus; Conradt, Oliver; Heusser, Peter; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Photographs of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) berries taken by a permanently fixed camera during their development in autumn were subjected to an outline shape analysis by fitting path curves using a mathematical algorithm from projective geometry. During growth and maturation processes the shape of mistletoe berries can be described by a set of such path curves, making it possible to extract changes of shape using one parameter called Lambda. Lambda describes the outline shape of a path curve. Here we present methods and software to capture and measure these changes of form over time. The present paper describes the software used to automatize a number of tasks including contour recognition, optimization of fitting the contour via hill-climbing, derivation of the path curves, computation of Lambda and blinding the pictures for the operator. The validity of the program is demonstrated by results from three independent measurements showing circadian rhythm in mistletoe berries. The program is available as open source and will be applied in a project to analyze the chronobiology of shape in mistletoe berries and the buds of their host trees. PMID:23565255