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Sample records for lamina propria invasion

  1. Proteolytic degradation of intestinal mucosal extracellular matrix after lamina propria T cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Pender, S L; Lionetti, P; Murch, S H; Wathan, N; MacDonald, T T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proteoglycans, consisting of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains covalently linked to a protein core, are a major component of the extracellular matrix of the intestinal lamina propria. AIMS: This study investigated the effects of lamina propria T cell activation on the proteoglycan component of the matrix. METHODS: The high degree of sulphation of GAGs means that they are polyanionic and thus can be visualised in tissue sections by means of colloidal-gold labelled cationic probes. RESULTS: In human fetal small intestine there is a dense meshwork of anionic residues in the lamina propria and basement membrane. When explants of human fetal small intestine are cultured ex vivo, and resident lamina propria T cells are activated with pokeweed mitogen, mucosal destruction occurs within three days. This is associated with the rapid loss of anionic sites from the lamina propria. Dermatan sulphate proteoglycan is lost from the tissue and is present at increased concentrations in the organ culture supernatants, indicating that T cell activation has led to solubilisation of lamina propria proteoglycans. Tissue destruction and loss of anionic residues are inhibited in a dose dependent fashion by dexamethasone, and by the protease inhibitor, alpha 2 macroglobulin. CONCLUSIONS: Proteolytic degradation of the lamina propria may therefore be a mechanism by which T cell hypersensitivity injures the intestinal mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8977345

  2. The lamina propria of vertebrate seminiferous tubules: a comparative light and electron microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Christl, H W

    1990-01-01

    The lamina propria of the seminiferous tubules was compared by means of light and electron microscopy in specimens obtained from the following vertebrates: Mute swan, northern mallard, blackbird, grey short-tailed opossum, north american opossum, european rabbit, mouse, rat, golden hamster, mini pig, bull, llama, roebuck, horse, coati, cat, dog, java monkey, orang utan. The lamina propria consists of basal lamina, ground substance, collagen fibers, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts are characterized by myofilaments, dense patches and a basal lamina covering their plasmalemma. The layers of myofibroblasts always lie adjacent to the germinal epithelium, while the surrounding fibroblast layers are located peripherally.

  3. Dinitrochlorobenzene-induced colitis in the guinea-pig: studies of colonic lamina propria lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Glick, M E; Falchuk, Z M

    1981-01-01

    Dinitrochlorobenzene-induced colitis in guinea-pigs may be immunologically mediated: animals must be presensitised to dinitrochlorobenzene to develop colitis, sensitivity can be passively transferred by lymphocytes and the injury can be mitigated by immunosuppression. In this study, we examined lamina propria lymphocytes isolated from colons of animals with dinitrochlorobenzene-induced colitis, and appropriate controls. Lamina propria lymphocytes from colitis animals have a greater percentage of rabbit erythrocyte-rosetting cells (T cells) (20.1 +/- 3.0 vs 2.3 +/- 0.8, p less than .01) and a greater capacity to mediate mitogen-induced cellular cytotoxicity with phytohaemagglutinin than lamina propria lymphocytes from normal colon (% specific cytoxicity = 29.4 +/- 8.7 vs 5.0 +/- 4.5, P less than .005). There was no difference in the percentage of rosetting cells or cytotoxicity index of spleen or mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes between the colitis animals and controls. These data suggest that there are changes in the distribution and functional characteristics of lamina propria lymphocytes which correlate with mucosal cell injury in the dinitrochlorobenzene-colitis model. Images Figure PMID:6971239

  4. The interface between epithelium and lamina propria in the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Inoué, T; Gabella, G

    1992-01-01

    We investigated by transmission and scanning election microscopy the interface between the epithelium and lamina propria in the rat urinary bladder. A digestion technique that dissolves the basal laminae and collagen fibrils was effective in cleaving the mucosa at this level; the specimens were then prepared for scanning electron microscopy, thus visualizing the basal epithelial surface and the uppermost surface of the lamina propria. The underside of the epithelium is scored by very numerous grooves which in the intact organ are occupied by a dense network of blood capillaries. These vascular grooves allow a large number of capillaries (epithelial capillaries) to run at a distance of a few tenths of a micron from the epithelium. On the side of the lamina propria, after collagen and other extracellular materials had been removed, the capillary network itself is visible in the uppermost region. The network is complementary to that of vascular grooves. Other smaller grooves on the basal surface of the epithelium correspond to nerve fibres which run within a few tenths of a micron from the epithelium.

  5. The inspiratory maneuver: a simple method to assess the superficial lamina propria during endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sulica, Lucian; Behrman, Alison; Roark, Rick

    2005-09-01

    We describe a simple means of assessing the condition of the superficial lamina propria during endoscopy, which we use in our practice as an adjunct to careful stroboscopic examination. An intake of breath against partially adducted vocal folds serves to draw the mucosa inferomedially into the glottis, which reveals areas of diminished mobility, the relationship of mucosal lesions to deeper tissues of the vocal folds, and subtle submucosal lesions. This is possible because of the unique geometry of the glottis that renders the vector forces of airflow different at inspiration and expiration. Because the integrity of the superficial lamina propria is essential to healthy phonation, we have found the inspiratory maneuver useful across a wide variety of mucosal pathologic conditions.

  6. Apoptosis and reduced microvascular density of the lamina propria during tooth eruption in rats.

    PubMed

    de Pizzol Júnior, José Paulo; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2015-10-01

    During tooth eruption, structural and functional changes must occur in the lamina propria to establish the eruptive pathway. In this study, we evaluate the structural changes that occur during lamina propria degradation and focus these efforts on apoptosis and microvascular density. Fragments of maxilla containing the first molars from 9-, 11-, 13- and 16-day-old rats were fixed, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. The immunohistochemical detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), caspase-3 and MAC387 (macrophage marker), and the TUNEL method were applied to the histological molar sections. The numerical density of TUNEL-positive cells and VEGF-positive blood vessel profiles were also obtained. Data were statistically evaluated using a one-way anova with the post-hoc Kruskal-Wallis or Tukey test and a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Fragments of maxilla were embedded in Araldite for analysis under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TUNEL-positive structures, fibroblasts with strongly basophilic nuclei and macrophages were observed in the lamina propria at all ages. Using TEM, we identified processes of fibroblasts or macrophages surrounding partially apoptotic cells. We found a high number of apoptotic cells in 11-, 13- and 16-day-old rats. We observed VEGF-positive blood vessel profiles at all ages, but a significant decrease in the numerical density was found in 13- and 16-day-old rats compared with 9-day-old rats. Therefore, the establishment of the eruptive pathway during the mucosal penetration stage depends on cell death by apoptosis, the phagocytic activity of fibroblasts and macrophages, and a decrease in the microvasculature due to vascular cell death. These data point to the importance of vascular rearrangement and vascular neoformation during tooth eruption and the development of oral mucosa.

  7. Telocytes in gastric lamina propria of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Shengwei; Yu, Pengcheng; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Zuohong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to identify gastric telocytes (TCs) of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Toluidine blue staining showed TCs with one to two very thin and long telopodes (Tps) that were located in gastric lamina propria. Tps had characteristic structures, including podoms, podomers and dichotomous branching. Immunohistochemistry showed the existence of CD34+/PDGFRα+ TCs with moniliform Tps in stroma and were close to gastric glands and blood vessels. TEM micrographs also demonstrated the presence of TCs in interstitium between gastric glands. TCs/Tps were located in close proximity to gastric glands, blood vessels, endocrine cells and stem cells. In particular, Tps frequently surrounded stem cells. TCs and Tps, Tps and stem cells established close contacts. Moreover, the exosomes were also found near TCs/Tps. Our data confirmed the presence of TCs in gastric lamina propria of the amphibian, and suggested that TCs cooperate with resident stem cells to regulate endocrine cells and gastric glands regeneration and homeostasis. PMID:27629815

  8. TLR5 mediates CD172α(+) intestinal lamina propria dendritic cell induction of Th17 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Chen, Feidi; Wu, Wei; Cao, Anthony T; Xue, Xiaochang; Yao, Suxia; Evans-Marin, Heather L; Li, Yan-Qing; Cong, Yingzi

    2016-02-24

    Multiple mechanisms exist in regulation of host responses to massive challenges from microbiota to maintain immune homeostasis in the intestines. Among these is the enriched Th17 cells in the intestines, which regulates intestinal homeostasis through induction of antimicrobial peptides and secretory IgA among others. However, the means by which Th17 cells develop in response to microbiota is still not completely understood. Although both TLR5 and CD172α(+) lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDC) have been shown to promote Th17 cell development, it is still unclear whether TLR5 mediates the CD172α(+)LPDC induction of Th17 cells. By using a microbiota antigen-specific T cell reporter mouse system, we demonstrated that microbiota antigen-specific T cells developed into Th17 cells in the intestinal LP, but not in the spleen when transferred into TCRβxδ(-/-) mice. LPDCs expressed high levels of TLR5, and most CD172α(+)LPDCs also co-expressed TLR5. LPDCs produced high levels of IL-23, IL-6 and TGFβ when stimulated with commensal flagellin and promoted Th17 cell development when cultured with full-length CBir1 flagellin but not CBir1 peptide. Wild-type CD172α(+), but not CD172α(-), LPDCs induced Th17 cells, whereas TLR5-deficient LPDC did not induce Th17 cells. Our data thereby demonstrated that TLR5 mediates CD172α(+)LPDC induction of Th17 cells in the intestines.

  9. Intestinal lamina propria dendritic cells maintain T cell homeostasis but do not affect commensalism.

    PubMed

    Welty, Nathan E; Staley, Christopher; Ghilardi, Nico; Sadowsky, Michael J; Igyártó, Botond Z; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2013-09-23

    Dendritic cells (DCs) in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) are composed of two CD103(+) subsets that differ in CD11b expression. We report here that Langerin is expressed by human LP DCs and that transgenic human langerin drives expression in CD103(+)CD11b(+) LP DCs in mice. This subset was ablated in huLangerin-DTA mice, resulting in reduced LP Th17 cells without affecting Th1 or T reg cells. Notably, cognate DC-T cell interactions were not required for Th17 development, as this response was intact in huLangerin-Cre I-Aβ(fl/fl) mice. In contrast, responses to intestinal infection or flagellin administration were unaffected by the absence of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs. huLangerin-DTA x BatF3(-/-) mice lacked both CD103(+) LP DC subsets, resulting in defective gut homing and fewer LP T reg cells. Despite these defects in LP DCs and resident T cells, we did not observe alterations of intestinal microbial communities. Thus, CD103(+) LP DC subsets control T cell homeostasis through both nonredundant and overlapping mechanisms.

  10. Dendritic cell subsets in the intestinal lamina propria: ontogeny and function.

    PubMed

    Persson, Emma K; Scott, Charlotte L; Mowat, Allan McI; Agace, William W

    2013-12-01

    The intestinal mucosa is exposed to large amounts of foreign antigen (Ag) derived from commensal bacteria, dietary Ags, and intestinal pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to be involved in the induction of tolerance to harmless Ags and in mounting protective immune responses to pathogens and, as such, to play key roles in regulating intestinal immune homeostasis. The characterization of classical DCs (cDCs) in the intestinal lamina propria has been under intense investigation in recent years but the use of markers (including CD11c, CD11b, MHC class II), which are also expressed by intestinal MΦs, has led to some controversy regarding their definition. Here we review recent studies that help to distinguish cDCs subsets from monocyte-derived cells in the intestinal mucosa. We address the phenotype and ontogeny of these cDC subsets and highlight recent findings indicating that these subsets play distinct roles in the regulation of mucosal immune responses in vivo.

  11. Mast cells and MMP-9 in the lamina propria during eruption of rat molars: quantitative and immunohistochemical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Paulo Sérgio; Pereira-Júnior, Jorge Alonso; Biselli, Natalia Barrionuevo; Sasso-Cerri, Estela

    2010-08-01

    During the active tooth eruption process, structural changes in the lamina propria are necessary to provide extracellular matrix remodelling and for the establishment of the eruptive pathway. A large number of resident cells, recruited cells and proteases have been demonstrated in the eruptive process, but the participation of MMP-9 and mast cells has not yet been demonstrated. In this study, we set out to evaluate the intensity of MMP-9 immunoexpression, the frequency of mast cells and the correlation between the incidence of mast cells and bone resorption in different phases of tooth eruption. Fragments of maxilla containing first molars, obtained from 9-, 11-, 13- and 16-day-old rats, were fixed in 4% formaldehyde, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Sagittal sections were stained with Masson's trichrome or submitted to the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase method for quantification of osteoclasts. Sections stained by 1% toluidine blue were used for quantification of metachromatic mast cells mm(-2) of lamina propria. The expression of MMP-9 in the lamina propria was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In the 9-day-old rats, the lamina propria contained few mast cells and occasional osteoclasts were found in the bone surface overlying the occlusal portion of the tooth germs. Otherwise, a significant increase in the number of mast cells was observed in the intra-osseous phase of tooth eruption (11-day-old rats), period in which numerous TRAP-positive osteoclasts were found in the bone surface. MMP-9 immunolabelling was detected in fibroblasts, mast cells and macrophage-like cells of the lamina propria in all ages studied. However, an enhanced immunolabelling was evident in the advanced phase of tooth eruption (16-day-old rats). During the intra-osseous phase, the parallel between the high frequency of both mast cells and osteoclasts suggests that mast cells could exert a paracrine function on the osteoclasts and then stimulate bone resorption. The

  12. Initiation of an inflammatory response in resident intestinal lamina propria cells -use of a human organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta; Gras, Judith; Brors, Benedikt; Schwarz, Sonja; Szikszai, Timea; Lasitschka, Felix; Wabnitz, Guido; Heidtmann, Antje; Lee, Young-Seon; Schiessling, Serin; Leowardi, Christine; Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Ulrich, Alexis; Engelke, Antonia; Winter, Johannes; Samstag, Yvonne; Giese, Thomas; Meuer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis) revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. P-glycoprotein expression in lamina propria lymphocytes of duodenal biopsy samples in dogs with chronic idiopathic enteropathies.

    PubMed

    Allenspach, K; Bergman, P J; Sauter, S; Gröne, A; Doherr, M G; Gaschen, F

    2006-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (p-gp) is a transmembrane protein functioning as a drug-efflux pump in the intestinal epithelium. Human patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who fail to respond to treatment with steroids express high levels of p-gp in lamina propria lymphocytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate p-gp expression in duodenal biopsy samples of dogs with chronic enteropathies and to evaluate the expression of p-gp after treatment with a known inducer of p-gp (prednisolone). Duodenal biopsy samples from 48 dogs were evaluated immunohistochemically with the mouse monoclonal antibody C219 for expression of p-gp in lamina propria lymphocytes. Biopsy samples were available from 15 dogs after treatment with prednisolone and 16 dogs after dietary therapy alone ("elimination diet"). Treatment with prednisolone resulted in an increase in p-gp expression (P=0.005). In contrast, dietary treatment alone produced no significant change in p-gp expression (P=0.59). A low p-gp score before initiation of steroid treatment was significantly associated with a positive response to treatment (P=0.01). These results indicate that lamina propria lymphocyte expression of p-gp is upregulated after prednisolone treatment in dogs with IBD, and that mucosal expression of p-gp may be of value in predicting the response to therapy.

  14. Implications of olfactory lamina propria transplantation on hyperreflexia and myelinated fiber regeneration in rats with complete spinal cord transection.

    PubMed

    Centenaro, Lígia Aline; da Cunha Jaeger, Mariane; Ilha, Jocemar; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Balbinot, Luciane Fachin; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Marcuzzo, Simone; Achaval, Matilde

    2013-02-01

    Transplantation with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) has been adopted after several models of spinal cord injury (SCI) with the purpose of creating a favorable environment for the re-growth of injured axons. However, a consensus on the efficacy of this cellular transplantation has yet to be reached. In order to explore alternative parameters that could demonstrate the possible restorative properties of such grafts, the present study investigated the effects of olfactory lamina propria (OLP) transplantation on hyperreflexia and myelinated fiber regeneration in adult rats with complete spinal cord transection. The efficacy of OLP (graft containing OECs) and respiratory lamina propria (RLP, graft without OECs) was tested at different post-injury times (acutely, 2- and 4-week delayed), to establish the optimum period for transplantation. In the therapeutic windows used, OLP and RLP grafts produced no considerable improvements in withdrawal reflex responses or on the low-frequency dependent depression of H-reflex. Both lamina propria grafts produced comparable results for the myelinated fiber density and for the estimated total number of myelinated fibers at the lesion site, indicating that the delayed transplantation approach does not seem to limit the regenerative effects. However, animals transplanted with OLP 2 or 4 weeks after injury exhibit smaller myelin sheath thickness and myelinated fiber area and diameter at the lesion site compared to their respective RLP groups. Despite the ongoing clinical use of OECs, it is important to emphasize the need for more experimental studies to clarify the exact nature of the repair capacity of these grafts in the treatment of SCI.

  15. Morphological and histochemical characteristics of the lamina propria in scrotal and abdominal testes from postpubertal boars: correlation with the appearance of the seminiferous epithelium

    PubMed Central

    PINART, E.; BONET, S.; BRIZ, M.; PASTOR, L. M.; SANCHO, S.; GARCÍA, N.; BADIA, E.; BASSOLS, J.

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the morphological characteristics and lectin affinity of the testicular lamina propria in healthy boars and in unilateral and bilateral abdominal cryptorchid boars. The lamina propria of scrotal testes from healthy boars and unilateral cryptorchid boars was constituted by an innermost noncellular layer, the basal lamina, and by 2 layers of peritubular cells, each separated by a fibrous layer. The noncellular layers contained collagen fibres and glycoconjugates with abundant N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid residues. The inner peritubular cell layer was composed of myoid cells, the outer layer of fibroblasts. In the abdominal testes of unilateral and bilateral cryptorchid boars, the lamina propria of nondegenerating and degenerating seminiferous tubules appeared thickened due to an increased content of collagen fibres and glycoconjugates. Glycoconjugates showed decreased amounts of fucose, neuraminic acid and galactose, and increased amounts of N-acetylglucosamine residues. The basal lamina formed infoldings toward the seminiferous epithelium and contained small cells. Both inner and outer peritubular cells were fibroblasts of immature appearance. In degenerated seminiferous tubules of bilateral cryptorchid boars, the lamina propria was composed of a thickened and collagenised basal lamina, without peritubular cells and with a low content of glycoconjugates. In scrotal testes, therefore, the lamina propria was implicated in tubular contractility and in mediating the communication and the substrate diffusion between seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue. Cryptorchidism induced morphological and histochemical alterations in the lamina propria of abdominal testes, which may be linked to evidence from other studies of lack of tubular contractility and defective cell–cell communication and substrate diffusion. The severity of these anomalies correlated with the severity of

  16. [CELLULAR COMPOSITION OF THE LAMINA PROPRIA OF JEJUNAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE IN C57BL/6 MICE DURING THE RECOVERY PERIOD AFTER PROLONGED SPACE FLIGHT].

    PubMed

    Aminova, G G

    2015-01-01

    The jejunum of C57 BL/6 mice (n = 5) was examined 7 days after a 30-day-long space flight and in vivarium control animals (n = 6). The cellular composition of the lamina propria of the mucous membranes of the villi and crypt region was studied using histological and morphometric methods. It was found that on Day 7 the recovery of normal cellular composition of the lamina propria was incomplete. In the villi, the number of medium and small lymphocytes, as well as of the plasma cells was reduced. In the crypt region, the changes were less pronounced. In the lamina propria in experimental animals the number of large lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, disintegrating cells and stromal cells was increased. The number of eosinophils was reduced.

  17. Microbiota of the Small Intestine Is Selectively Engulfed by Phagocytes of the Lamina Propria and Peyer’s Patches

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Masatoshi; Tsujibe, Satoshi; Kiyoshima-Shibata, Junko; Watanabe, Yohei; Kato-Nagaoka, Noriko; Shida, Kan; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytes such as dendritic cells and macrophages, which are distributed in the small intestinal mucosa, play a crucial role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis by sampling the luminal gut microbiota. However, there is limited information regarding microbial uptake in a steady state. We investigated the composition of murine gut microbiota that is engulfed by phagocytes of specific subsets in the small intestinal lamina propria (SILP) and Peyer’s patches (PP). Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences revealed that: 1) all the phagocyte subsets in the SILP primarily engulfed Lactobacillus (the most abundant microbe in the small intestine), whereas CD11bhi and CD11bhiCD11chi cell subsets in PP mostly engulfed segmented filamentous bacteria (indigenous bacteria in rodents that are reported to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells); and 2) among the Lactobacillus species engulfed by the SILP cell subsets, L. murinus was engulfed more frequently than L. taiwanensis, although both these Lactobacillus species were abundant in the small intestine under physiological conditions. These results suggest that small intestinal microbiota is selectively engulfed by phagocytes that localize in the adjacent intestinal mucosa in a steady state. These observations may provide insight into the crucial role of phagocytes in immune surveillance of the small intestinal mucosa. PMID:27701454

  18. Oral administration of lipopolysaccharides activates B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity and lamina propria of the gut and induces autoimmune symptoms in an autoantibody transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    About a half of the antierythrocyte autoantibody transgenic (autoAb Tg) mice, in which almost all B cells are detected in the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches, but not in the peritoneal cavity, suffer from autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The occurrence of this disease is strongly linked to production of autoAb by activated peritoneal B-1 cells in the Tg mice. In this study, we have shown that oral administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activated B-1 cells in the lamina propria of the gut as well as the peritoneal cavity in the healthy Tg mice and induced the autoimmune symptoms in all the Tg mice. The activation of peritoneal and lamina propria B-1 cells by enteric LPS is found not only in the anti-RBC autoAb Tg mice and normal mice but also in the aly mice which congenitally lack lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. These results suggest that B-1 cells in the two locations may form a common pool independent of Peyer's patches and lymph nodes, and can be activated by enteric thymus-independent antigens or polyclonal activators such as LPS. The induction of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in the Tg mice by enteric LPS through the activation of B-1 cells in the lamina propria of gut and in the peritoneal cavity suggests that B-1 cells and bacterial infection may play a pathogenic role in the onset of autoimmune diseases. PMID:8006578

  19. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naïve T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Hu; Sun, Ai-Hua; Ojcius, David M; Hu, Wei-Lin; Ge, Yu-Mei; Lin, Xu'ai; Li, Lan-Juan; Pan, Jian-Ping; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP) that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB) eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  20. Rapid lamina propria retraction and zipper-like constriction of the epithelium preserves the epithelial lining in human small intestine exposed to ischaemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Grootjans, Joep; Thuijls, Geertje; Derikx, Joep P M; van Dam, Ronald M; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Buurman, Wim A

    2011-07-01

    To ensure a sufficient barrier between a host and noxious luminal content, the intestinal epithelium must be equipped with efficient mechanisms to limit damage to the epithelial lining. Using a human model, we were able to investigate these mechanisms in the human gut exposed to ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) over the time course of 150 min. In 10 patients a part of jejunum, to be removed for surgical reasons, was selectively exposed to IR. Control tissue was collected, as well as tissue exposed to 30 min of ischaemia with 0, 30 or 120 min of reperfusion. Haematoxylin/eosin staining demonstrated the appearance of subepithelial spaces following 30 min of ischaemia, while the epithelial lining remained intact at this stage. Western blot for myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) revealed a significant increase in protein levels after ischaemia (p < 0.01), and selective staining of MLCK and phosphorylated MLC (pMLC) in lamina propria muscle fibres indicated that appearance of subepithelial spaces was a consequence of active villus contraction. Early during reperfusion, accumulation of pMLC was observed exclusively at the basal side of enterocytes that had lost contact with the collagen-IV-positive basement membrane. These epithelial sheets were pulled together like a zipper, even before these cells were shed. This constriction, verified by increased F-actin and pMLC double staining, accounted for a 45% reduction in virtual wound surface (p < 0.001) at 30 min of reperfusion. In addition, these mechanisms were involved in resealing remaining small epithelial defects, resulting in a fully restored epithelial lining within 120 min of reperfusion. In conclusion, we show in a human in vivo model that the human jejunum has the ability to preserve the epithelial lining during intestinal IR by rapid lamina propria contraction and zipper-like constriction of epithelial cells that are to be shed into the lumen. These newly described phenomena limit exposure to noxious luminal content.

  1. Quantitative immunohistochemical assessment of IgA, IgM, IgG and antigen-specific immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells in pig small intestinal lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Bianco, C; Felice, V; Panarese, S; Marrocco, R; Ostanello, F; Brunetti, B; Muscatello, L V; Leotti, G; Vila, T; Joisel, F; Sarli, G

    2014-08-15

    Intestinal immune response plays an important defensive role for pathogens, particularly for those transmitted by the oro-faecal route or for foecal shedding modulation. This work examined three parts of intestine from twelve gilts experimentally infected with PCV2-spiked semen, six vaccinated (V group) and six unvaccinated (NV group) against PCV2, 29 and 53 days post infection (DPI). An immunohistochemical investigation for IgA-, IgG- and IgM-antibody bearing plasma cells (PCs) was run on intestinal samples coupled with a sandwich immunohistochemical method to reveal anti-PCV2 antibody-secreting PCs. Plasma cell density was compared in the two groups of animals at 29 and 53 DPI. The IgA, IgG and IgM PC density did not differ between groups but displayed an increase from the upper (villus) to the lower part of the crypts while a decreasing trend in PC density was identified from duodenum to ileum. In the NV group, no increase in anti-PCV2 PC density was demonstrable in the two sampling moment: the amounts of lamina propria PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs remained constant, 10.55 ± 4.24 and 10.06 ± 5.01 at 29 DPI and 53 DPI, respectively. In the V group a significant increase in PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs was observed over time. The amounts of PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs increased from 9.37 ± 13.36 at 29 DPI to 18.76 ± 15.83 at 53 DPI. The data on IgA, IgM and IgG PC counts can be considered reference values in a population of adult pigs. The sandwich method can be proposed as a technique able to identify specific antibody-secreting PCs in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. A practical application of the sandwich method is the demonstration of a "booster-like" response of the lamina propria in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated animals. After virus challenge, vaccination induced an increase in the number of PCs containing specific anti-PCV2 antibodies at the level of intestinal mucosa.

  2. MD-1 deficiency attenuates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis through modulating the function of colonic lamina propria dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huaqin; Zhang, Guqin; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Shang, Jian; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhao, Qiu; Li, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Available evidence suggests that both dysregulated innate and adaptive immune pathways contribute to the aberrant intestinal inflammatory response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Myeloid Differentiation 1 (MD-1), also known as Lymphocyte Antigen 86 (Ly86), a secreted protein interacting with radioprotective 105 (RP105), plays an important role in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Previous studies showed that MD-1 may be involved in the (patho) physiological regulation of the innate immune system and inflammation. In this study, we reported for the first time that MD-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in both human IBD patients and DSS-treated WT mice. We showed that MD-1(-/-) mice were less susceptible to the development of colitis than WT controls as demonstrated by significantly reduced weight loss, disease activity index, colon histological scores, cellular infiltration and expression of inflammatory mediators. In addition, mucosal barrier function seemed to be intact in response to the loss of MD-1. Finally, lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) from the colon of MD-1(-/-) mice after DSS exposure not only decreased in number but also significantly down-regulated the expression of surface maturation co-stimulatory molecules MHC-II, CD40 and CD86 compared with those from WT mice. Taken together, our results reveal that MD-1 deficiency is of critical importance in down-regulating induction and progression of DSS colitis, thereby suggesting that MD-1 might be a target for future interventional therapies of IBD.

  3. [CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CELLULAR COMPOSITION OF THE MUCOSAL LAMINA PROPRIA OF THE JEJUNUM IN MICE SUBJECTED TO THE CONDITIONS SIMULATING LONG-DURATION SPACEFLIGHT].

    PubMed

    Aminova, G G; Sapinj, M R; Yerofeyeva, L M

    2015-01-01

    The cellular composition of the lamina propria of the mucous membrane of the jejunum was examined in the villi (LPV) and between the crypts (LPC). Two groups of male C57/BL6 mice aged 4-5 months were studied. Experimental group of animals (n=8) for 30 days was living under the terrestrial conditions in "BIOS-SLA" blocks and received a paste-like food made with standard feed containing water and casein. The control group of animals (n=6) were kept in standard vivarium conditions and received standard dry pellets. Studies have shown no significant changes in the content of lymphocytes in LPV and LPC in a terrestrial experiment. LPV was characterized by a sharp reduction in the number of plasma cells. In both LPV and LPC the number of eosinophils was increased, while the content of low differentiated forms of cells (blasts and large lymphocytes) was decreased. It is suggested that the changes in the contents of different cell types in ground-based experiment were due not only to the limited mobility of the animals but also to different composition of the feed.

  4. Impaired B cell responses to orally administered antigens in lamina propria but not Peyer's patches of Gαi2-deficient mice prior to colitis

    PubMed Central

    Öhman, Lena; Åström, Rolf-Göran; Hörnquist, Elisabeth Hultgren

    2005-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on the intestinal immune system in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and animal models of IBD, very little is known about the immune reactivity of mucosal lymphocytes following oral immunizations under these circumstances. The reactivity of Peyer's patch (PP) and lamina propria (LP) T and B lymphocytes in inhibitory G-protein α2 subunit-deficient (Gαi2–/–) mice developing an IBD resembling ulcerative colitis was investigated following repeated oral immunizations with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), together with the adjuvant cholera toxin, prior to colitis. The antigen-specific B-cell response in the LP of both the small and the large intestines was significantly reduced in Gαi2–/– as compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, the frequency of KLH-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)-producing cells in the PP did not differ between Gαi2–/– and wild-type mice, whereas the total frequency of Ig-producing cells as well as the frequency of enteric flora-specific Ig-producing cells in the PP was significantly increased in Gαi2–/– as compared to wild-type mice. Analysis of T cell responses following restimulation ex vivo with KLH revealed a dramatic increase in the production of interferon-γ in mesenteric lymph node, PP and LP lymphocytes from Gαi2-deficient as compared to wild-type mice, together with decreased production of interleukin-10 in all locations except the PP. PMID:15885134

  5. Longitudinal Examination of the Intestinal Lamina Propria Cellular Compartment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques Provides Broader and Deeper Insights into the Link between Aberrant MicroRNA Expression and Persistent Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Kenway, Carys S.; Schiro, Faith R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic immune activation/inflammation driven by factors like microbial translocation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) disease progression. Although extensive research on inflammation has focused on studying protein regulators, increasing evidence suggests a critical role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating several aspects of the immune/inflammatory response and immune cell proliferation, differentiation, and activation. To understand their immunoregulatory role, we profiled miRNA expression sequentially in intestinal lamina propria leukocytes (LPLs) of eight macaques before and at 21, 90, and 180 days postinfection (dpi). At 21 dpi, ∼20 and 9 miRNAs were up- and downregulated, respectively. However, at 90 dpi (n = 60) and 180 dpi (n = 44), ≥75% of miRNAs showed decreased expression. Notably, the T-cell activation-associated miR-15b, miR-142-3p, miR-142-5p, and miR-150 expression was significantly downregulated at 90 and 180 dpi. Out of ∼10 downregulated miRNAs predicted to regulate CD69, we confirmed miR-92a to directly target CD69. Interestingly, the SIV-induced miR-190b expression was elevated at all time points. Additionally, elevated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive miR-146b-5p expression at 180 dpi was confirmed in primary intestinal macrophages following LPS treatment in vitro. Further, reporter and overexpression assays validated IRAK1 (interleukin-1 receptor 1 kinase) as a direct miR-150 target. Furthermore, IRAK1 protein levels were markedly elevated in intestinal LPLs and epithelium. Finally, blockade of CD8+ T-cell activation/proliferation with delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) significantly prevented miR-150 downregulation and IRAK1 upregulation. Our findings suggest that miR-150 downregulation during T-cell activation disrupts the translational control of IRAK1, facilitating persistent gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. Finally, the ability of Δ9-THC to block the mi

  6. The metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 (transin) mediates PC12 cell growth cone invasiveness through basal laminae.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, L A; Lochner, J; Yeung, W; Ciment, G

    1995-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases have been implicated in various extracellular matrix remodeling events that occur during normal development and in a number of pathologies. In previous work with PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells, we found that the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 (ST1) was highly induced by nerve growth factor (NGF), but not by epidermal growth factor (EGF). Here, we show that ST1 immunoreactivity is present in growth cones of NGF-treated PC12 cells, but not EGF-treated or untreated cells. To determine whether ST1 expression confers neurite invasiveness, three lines of PC12 cells were produced that constitutively express ST1 antisense mRNA. These lines expressed and secreted significantly reduced levels of ST1 protein, as determined by immunoblot and immunocytochemical methods, but otherwise responded normally to NGF-treatment by elaborating neurites. We found, however, that the neurites of these ST1 antisense cells showed a significantly reduced ability to penetrate a Matrigel reconstituted basal lamina, as compared to the parental cells, suggesting that ST1 confers neurite invasiveness. Finally, we show that ST1 is also expressed in vivo in sections through Embryonic Day 15 rat embryos, including neurons of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. These data indicate that ST1 may play a role in axonal growth in vivo, including a role in growth cone invasiveness.

  7. Energy-restricted diets result in higher numbers of CD4+, CD8+, immunoglobulins (A, M, and G), and CD45RA cells in spleen and CD4+, immunoglobulin A, and CD45RA cells in colonic lamina propria of rats.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bob N; Friel, James K; Rempel, Curtis B; Jones, Peter J H

    2009-07-01

    Dietary energy restriction (ER) offers certain health benefits, particularly when ER is controlled through manipulation of dietary fats. Our hypothesis is that cellular immunity is modulated by dietary ER. Furthermore, we believe that the immune response may differ between spleen and colon because their lymphatic and vascular organization is different. The objective of the study was to test this hypothesis by determining the effects of dietary ER through manipulation of energy intake from high-fat (HF) diets on the expression and frequency of the CD4(+) (T-helper/T-inducer) and CD8(+) (T-cytotoxic/T-suppressor) cells, CD45RA (B-cell-specific marker), and immunoglobulins (Ig) A-, G-, and M-bearing cells in spleen and colon in rats by immunohistochemical method. Rats fed the HF diet had a significantly (P < .05) reduced number of immune cells as compared with those fed ER diets. Energy-restricted diet-fed rats showed higher (P < .05) numbers of CD4(+), CD8(+), IgA, IgM, IgG, and CD45RA cells in spleen and CD4(+), IgA, and CD45RA cells in colonic lamina propria. The IgA-containing cells were markedly higher in the colon compared with the spleen. No change occurred in the number of IgM- and IgG-containing cells in colonic tissues between groups, except for the 20% ER group where IgM-labeled cells were higher (P < .05) compared with HF and 40% ER groups. These findings suggest that ER may modulate adaptive immune function and that CD4(+) and IgA cells may serve as biological indicators for dietary energy-modulated immunoresponse in spleen and colon, respectively.

  8. Restructuring the Vocal Fold Lamina Propria with Endoscopic Microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Hoffman, Henry T.; Dailey, Seth H.; Bock, Jonathan M.; Klemuk, Sarah A.; Askeland, Ryan W.; Ahlrichs-Hanson, Jan S.; Heaford, Andrew C.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purposes of this preclinical study were to investigate histologic and rheologic outcomes of Microendoscopy of Reinke’s space (MERS)-guided minithyrotomy and to assess its instrumentation. Study Design Human cadaveric and in vivo animal study. Methods Three human cadaveric larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of Radiesse VoiceGel and immediately evaluated histologically for biomaterial location. In the second part of this investigation, two scarred porcine larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of HyStem-VF and rheologically evaluated 6 weeks later. Student t tests determined differences in viscoelastic properties of treated/untreated vocal folds. Sialendoscopes and microendoscopes were subjectively compared for their visualization capacity. Results MERS imaged the subepithelial area and vocal ligament, guiding both tissue dissection and biomaterial positioning. Sialendoscopes provided adequate visualization and feature incorporated working channels. Enhanced image clarity was created in a gas-filled rather than saline-filled environment, per rater judgment. Histological analysis revealed desirable biomaterial positioning with MERS. Per rheological analysis, viscoelastic properties of the MERS-treated porcine vocal folds compared to uninjured vocal folds 6 weeks following treatment did not statistically differ. Conclusions MERS-guided laryngoplasty using sialendoscopes yielded satisfactory biomaterial positioning in the short-term and normalized rheologic tissue properties in the long-term, contributing to proof of concept for MERS in the treatment of scarring. Strengths of MERS include direct, real-time visualization of Reinke’s space and an ability to manipulate surgical instruments parallel to the vocal fold edge while maintaining an intact epithelium. Future work will explore the clinical utility of MERS for addressing scarring, sulcus vocalis, and other intracordal processes. PMID:23959803

  9. Comparative analysis of basal lamina type IV collagen α chains, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 expressions in oral dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tamamura, Ryo; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Siar, Chong Huat; Katase, Naoki; Naito, Ichiro; Sado, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Noriyuki

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expressions of basal lamina (BL) collagen IV α chains and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in oral dysplasia (OED) and invasive carcinoma. Ten cases each of OEDs, carcinomas-in situ and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Another 5 cases, each of normal and hyperplastic oral mucosa, served as controls. Results showed that α1(IV)/α2(IV) and α5(IV)/α6(IV) chains were intact in BLs of control and OEDs. In BLs of carcinoma-in situ, α1(IV)/α2(IV) chains preceded α5(IV)/α6(IV) chains in showing incipient signs of disruption. OSCCs exhibited varying degrees of collagen α(IV) chain degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were absent in controls and OED, but weakly detectable in carcinoma-in situ. In OSCC, these proteolytic enzymes were expressed in areas corresponding to collagen α(IV) chain loss. Enzymatic activity was enhanced in higher grade OSCC, and along the tumor advancing front. Overall the present findings suggest that loss of BL collagen α(IV) chains coincided with gain of expression for MMP-2 and MMP-9, and that these protein alterations are crucial events during progression from OED to OSCC.

  10. Linearized texture of three-dimensional extracellular matrix is mandatory for bladder cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Massimo; Nebuloni, Manuela; Allevi, Raffaele; Zerbi, Pietro; Longhi, Erika; Lucianò, Roberta; Locatelli, Irene; Pecoraro, Angela; Indrieri, Marco; Speziali, Chantal; Doglioni, Claudio; Milani, Paolo; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering simulating the native microenvironment is of utmost importance. As a major component of the microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to tissue homeostasis, whereas modifications of native features are associated with pathological conditions. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) geometry is an important feature of synthetic scaffolds favoring cell stemness, maintenance and differentiation. We analyzed the 3D structure, geometrical measurements and anisotropy of the ECM isolated from (i) human bladder mucosa (basal lamina and lamina propria) and muscularis propria; and, (ii) bladder carcinoma (BC). Next, binding and invasion of bladder metastatic cell line was observed on synthetic scaffold recapitulating anisotropy of tumoral ECM, but not on scaffold with disorganized texture typical of non-neoplastic lamina propria. This study provided information regarding the ultrastructure and geometry of healthy human bladder and BC ECMs. Likewise, using synthetic scaffolds we identified linearization of the texture as a mandatory feature for BC cell invasion. Integrating microstructure and geometry with biochemical and mechanical factors could support the development of an innovative synthetic bladder substitute or a tumoral scaffold predictive of chemotherapy outcomes. PMID:27779205

  11. Linearized texture of three-dimensional extracellular matrix is mandatory for bladder cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Massimo; Nebuloni, Manuela; Allevi, Raffaele; Zerbi, Pietro; Longhi, Erika; Lucianò, Roberta; Locatelli, Irene; Pecoraro, Angela; Indrieri, Marco; Speziali, Chantal; Doglioni, Claudio; Milani, Paolo; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-10-25

    In the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering simulating the native microenvironment is of utmost importance. As a major component of the microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to tissue homeostasis, whereas modifications of native features are associated with pathological conditions. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) geometry is an important feature of synthetic scaffolds favoring cell stemness, maintenance and differentiation. We analyzed the 3D structure, geometrical measurements and anisotropy of the ECM isolated from (i) human bladder mucosa (basal lamina and lamina propria) and muscularis propria; and, (ii) bladder carcinoma (BC). Next, binding and invasion of bladder metastatic cell line was observed on synthetic scaffold recapitulating anisotropy of tumoral ECM, but not on scaffold with disorganized texture typical of non-neoplastic lamina propria. This study provided information regarding the ultrastructure and geometry of healthy human bladder and BC ECMs. Likewise, using synthetic scaffolds we identified linearization of the texture as a mandatory feature for BC cell invasion. Integrating microstructure and geometry with biochemical and mechanical factors could support the development of an innovative synthetic bladder substitute or a tumoral scaffold predictive of chemotherapy outcomes.

  12. Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastric submucosal tumors arising from the muscularis propria layer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liu-Ye; Cui, Jun; Lin, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Cheng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) arising from the muscularis propria. METHODS: A total of 35 gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer were resected by EFR between January 2010 and September 2013. EFR consists of five major steps: injecting normal saline into the submucosa; pre-cutting the mucosal and submucosal layers around the lesion; making a circumferential incision as deep as the muscularis propria around the lesion using endoscopic submucosal dissection and an incision into the serosal layer around the lesion with a Hook knife; a full-thickness resection of the tumor, including the serosal layer with a Hook or IT knife; and closing the gastric wall with metallic clips. RESULTS: Of the 35 gastric SMTs, 14 were located at the fundus, and 21 at the corpus. EFR removed all of the SMTs successfully, and the complete resection rate was 100%. The mean operation time was 90 min (60-155 min), the mean hospitalization time was 6.0 d (4-10 d), and the mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (2.0-4.5 cm). Pathological examination confirmed the presence of gastric stromal tumors in 25 patients, leiomyomas in 7 and gastric autonomous nerve tumors in 2. No gastric bleeding, peritonitis or abdominal abscess occurred after EFR. Postoperative contrast roentgenography on the third day detected no contrast extravasation into the abdominal cavity. The mean follow-up period was 6 mo, with no lesion residue or recurrence noted. CONCLUSION: EFR is efficacious, safe and minimally invasive for patients with gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer. This technique is able to resect deep gastric lesions while providing precise pathological information about the lesion. With the development of EFR, the indications of endoscopic resection might be extended. PMID:25320536

  13. Characterization of an amorphous deposit in the lamina propria in oral snuff users in the Sudan as collagen.

    PubMed

    Idris, A M; Warnakulasuriya, K A; Ibrahim, Y E; Hartley, R; Paterson, K; Patel, B; Nilsen, R; Johnson, N W

    1998-04-01

    Histological and ultrastructural features of 25 oral snuff dipper's lesions with distinctive subepithelial hyaline deposits were investigated. Periodic acid-Schiff reaction with and without diastase digestion demonstrated the presence of glycogen and other carbohydrates, but histochemical stains for normal collagen, elastin and fibrin showed a weak variable reactivity of the deposit. Although in 7/25 cases the deposit was in close proximity to labial salivary glands and on occasions ducts were found within the deposit, the presence of mucin was not a consistent feature. Congo red staining and immunohistochemical investigation with an anti-amyloid antibody did not support the previous contention that such deposits were amyloid in nature. Immunohistochemically, collagen antibodies also provided negative results, but ultrastructural features of three biopsies studied suggest that the bulk of this deposit is made up of collagen, as typical cross-striated fibrils were found. The pathogenesis of this deposit could therefore be interpreted as over-production and/or reduced turnover of collagen by resident fibroblasts, which is further altered by the ingredients of toombak. The deposit does not appear to be a secretory product.

  14. Diet-dependent, microbiota-independent regulation of IL-10-producing lamina propria macrophages in the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Takanori; Feng, Yongjia; Kitamoto, Sho; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Kuffa, Peter; Atarashi, Koji; Honda, Kenya; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Kamada, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal resident macrophages (Mϕs) regulate gastrointestinal homeostasis via production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. Although a constant replenishment by circulating monocytes is required to maintain the pool of resident Mϕs in the colonic mucosa, the homeostatic regulation of Mϕ in the small intestine (SI) remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that direct stimulation by dietary amino acids regulates the homeostasis of intestinal Mϕs in the SI. Mice that received total parenteral nutrition (TPN), which deprives the animals of enteral nutrients, displayed a significant decrease of IL-10-producing Mϕs in the SI, whereas the IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells remained intact. Likewise, enteral nutrient deprivation selectively affected the monocyte-derived F4/80+ Mϕ population, but not non-monocytic precursor-derived CD103+ dendritic cells. Notably, in contrast to colonic Mϕs, the replenishment of SI Mϕs and their IL-10 production were not regulated by the gut microbiota. Rather, SI Mϕs were directly regulated by dietary amino acids. Collectively, our study highlights the diet-dependent, microbiota-independent regulation of IL-10-producing resident Mϕs in the SI. PMID:27302484

  15. Mechanisms of nuclear lamina growth in interphase.

    PubMed

    Zhironkina, Oxana A; Kurchashova, Svetlana Yu; Pozharskaia, Vasilisa A; Cherepanynets, Varvara D; Strelkova, Olga S; Hozak, Pavel; Kireev, Igor I

    2016-04-01

    The nuclear lamina represents a multifunctional platform involved in such diverse yet interconnected processes as spatial organization of the genome, maintenance of mechanical stability of the nucleus, regulation of transcription and replication. Most of lamina activities are exerted through tethering of lamina-associated chromatin domains (LADs) to the nuclear periphery. Yet, the lamina is a dynamic structure demonstrating considerable expansion during the cell cycle to accommodate increased number of LADs formed during DNA replication. We analyzed dynamics of nuclear growth during interphase and changes in lamina structure as a function of cell cycle progression. The nuclear lamina demonstrates steady growth from G1 till G2, while quantitative analysis of lamina meshwork by super-resolution microscopy revealed that microdomain organization of the lamina is maintained, with lamin A and lamin B microdomain periodicity and interdomain gap sizes unchanged. FRAP analysis, in contrast, demonstrated differences in lamin A and B1 exchange rates; the latter showing higher recovery rate in S-phase cells. In order to further analyze the mechanism of lamina growth in interphase, we generated a lamina-free nuclear envelope in living interphase cells by reversible hypotonic shock. The nuclear envelope in nuclear buds formed after such a treatment initially lacked lamins, and analysis of lamina formation revealed striking difference in lamin A and B1 assembly: lamin A reassembled within 30 min post-treatment, whereas lamin B1 did not incorporate into the newly formed lamina at all. We suggest that in somatic cells lamin B1 meshwork growth is coordinated with replication of LADs, and lamin A meshwork assembly seems to be chromatin-independent process.

  16. Operative surgical nuances of modified extradural temporopolar approach with mini-peeling of dura propria based on cadaveric anatomical study of lateral cavernous structures

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Toyooka, Terushige; Fujii, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Mori, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extradural temporopolar approach (ETA) has been modified as less invasive manner and named as trans-superior orbital fissure (SOF) approach with mini-peeling technique. The present study discusses the operative nuances of this modified technique on the basis of cadaveric study of lateral cavernous structures. Methods: In five consecutive cadaveric specimens, we performed an extradural anterior clinoidectomy with mini-peeling of the dura propria to expose the anterior clinoid process entirely. We also investigated the histological characteristics of the lateral cavernous sinus (CS) between the dura propria and periosteal dura at the SOF, foramen rotundum (FR), and foramen ovale (FO) levels, and of each trigeminal nerve division. Results: Coronal histological examination of the lateral wall of the CS showed invagination of the dura propria and periosteal dura into the SOF. In contrast, no such invagination was observed at the levels of the FR and FO. This finding supports the technical rationale of the only skeletonization of the SOF for peeling of the dura propria but not FR. In addition, our modified ETA method needs only minimal dural incision between the SOF and FR where no cranial nerves are present. Conclusion: Our technical modification of ETA may be recommended for surgical treatment of paraclinoid lesions to reduce the risk of intraoperative neurovascular injury. PMID:27500005

  17. Bacterial invasion of the uterus and oviducts in bovine pyometra.

    PubMed

    Karstrup, C C; Pedersen, H G; Jensen, T K; Agerholm, J S

    2017-04-15

    Pyometra is a common disease of cattle that causes infertility and thereby financial losses to the cattle industry. Bacteria involved in the development and progression of pyometra have been investigated by microbial culture but their tissue invading abilities, which is an important aspect of bacterial pathogenicity and development of lesions, have not been investigated. Bacterial invasion of the uterus and oviducts was studied in 21 cows diagnosed with pyometra at the time of slaughter by applying fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, Trueperella pyogenes and the overall bacterial domain Bacteria. Fusobacterium necrophorum and P. levii were found to invade the endometrium, especially if the endometrium was ulcerated, and penetrated deep into the lamina propria. These species co-localized within the tissue thus indicating a synergism. Trueperella pyogenes did not invade the uterine tissue. In addition to endometrial lesions, most cows with pyometra also had salpingitis but without significant bacterial invasion of the oviductal wall.

  18. Identification of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Chen, Zhifen; Kang, Deyong; li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a potential diagnostic tool is attractive. MPM can effectively provide information about morphological and biochemical changes in biological tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, we attempt to identify normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections (both in transverse and longitudinal sections). The results show that MPM can display different microstructure changes in the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. MPM also can quantitatively describe the alteration of collagen content between normal and cancerous muscle layers. These are important pathological findings that MPM images can bring more detailed complementary information about tissue architecture and cell morphology through observing the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. This work demonstrates that MPM can be better for identifying the microstructural characteristics of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria in different sections.

  19. How robust is a trend of ozone lamina characteristics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, Peter; Kozubek, Michal

    2014-05-01

    This poster deals with the dependence of ozone lamina characteristics trend at the European ozonosonde stations to small changes in lamina definition. We change the depth of lamina( 3500,2500 and 1500 m), sharpness of laminae size of laminae (20,30,40nbar) and second minimum definition . We use data of vertical profile of ozone concentration from these European stations which have long series of ozone vertical profile observations: Hoheipeissenberg, Payerne, Uccle, Legionowo and Lindenberg.

  20. Size dependence of ozone lamina characteristics and their correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, Peter; Lastovicka, Jan; Kozubek, Michal

    2015-09-01

    Ozone profiles contain narrow layers of substantially enhanced or reduced ozone, called positive and negative laminae, respectively. They reflect both evolutions of stratospheric ozone content and stratospheric dynamics. Here we deal only with positive laminae. The following lamina characteristics are investigated in dependence on lamina size: the number of laminae per profile, the overall ozone amount in laminae per profile and the ozone amount in one lamina at the European ozonosonde stations. An important role of the vertical resolution of ozonesonde measurements is specified. Lamina characteristics for Legionowo and Lindenberg, and small lamina (<2 mPa) characteristics for all stations suffer with effects of vertical resolution of measurements. For this reason they are not used here for long-term trend investigations. The long-term evolution of the ozone amount in one lamina does not display a trend. The results for the three remaining stations, Hohenpeissenberg, Payerne and Uccle, are largely consistent with our previous results on lamina behaviour, which means that our previous results on trends in laminae (e.g., Križan and Laštovička, 2005; Laštovička et al., 2014) are basically correct. The number of laminae per profile and the overall ozone amount in laminae per profile show negative trends before (1979-1995) and rather positive trends after (1996-2011) the reversal of trends in total columnar ozone over Europe. Both parameters reach the highest values for small laminae and with increasing size they decrease. Correlations between characteristics of laminae of different size ranges at individual stations are better for neighbour lamina ranges than for distant lamina ranges. The number of statistically significant correlations of laminae of the same size between pairs of stations is much higher for large laminae above 4 mPa, probably due to processes responsible for their formation and their expected larger horizontal size.

  1. [Endoscopic submucosal dissection of a leiomyoma originating from the muscularis propria of upper esophagus].

    PubMed

    Kang, Myung Soo; Hong, Su Jin; Han, Jae Pil; Seo, Jung Yeon; Yoon, La Young; Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2013-10-01

    The technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection is occasionally used for resection of myogenic tumors originating from muscularis mucosa or muscularis propria of stomach and esophagus. However, endoscopic treatments for esophageal myogenic tumors >2 cm have rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of large leiomyoma originating from muscularis propria in the upper esophagus. A 59-year-old woman presented with dysphagia. Esophagoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed an esophageal subepithelial tumor which measured 25 × 20 mm in size, originated from muscularis propria, and was located at 20 cm from the central incisors. The tumor was successfully removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection and there were no complications after en bloc resection. Pathologic examination was compatible with leiomyoma.

  2. Initiation of teeth from the dental lamina in the ferret.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Maria; Crespo Yanez, Xenia; Thesleff, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian tooth development is characterized by formation of primary teeth that belong to different tooth classes and are later replaced by a single set of permanent teeth. The first primary teeth are initiated from the primary dental lamina, and the replacement teeth from the successional dental lamina at the lingual side of the primary teeth. An interdental lamina connects the primary tooth germs together. Most mammalian tooth development research is done on mouse, which does not have teeth in all tooth classes, does not replace its teeth, and does not develop an interdental lamina. We have used the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) as a model animal to elucidate the morphological changes and gene expression during the development of the interdental lamina and the initiation of primary teeth. In addition we have analyzed cell-cell signaling taking place in the interdental lamina as well as in the successional lamina during tooth replacement. By 3D reconstructions of serial histological sections we observed that the morphogenesis of the interdental lamina and the primary teeth are intimately linked. Expression of Pitx2 and Foxi3 in the interdental lamina indicates that it has odontogenic identity, and there is active signaling taking place in the interdental lamina. Bmp4 is coexpressed with the stem cell factor Sox2 at its lingual aspect suggesting that the interdental lamina may retain competence for tooth initiation. We show that when tooth replacement is initiated there is Wnt pathway activity in the budding successional lamina and adjacent mesenchyme but no active Fgf or Eda signaling. Genes associated with human tooth replacement phenotypes, including Runx2 and Il11rα, are mostly expressed in the mesenchyme around the successional lamina in the ferret. Our results highlight the importance of the dental lamina in the mammalian tooth development during the initiation of both primary and replacement teeth.

  3. Autophagy mediates degradation of nuclear lamina

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Zhixun; Xu, Caiyue; Donahue, Greg; Shimi, Takeshi; Pan, Ji-An; Zhu, Jiajun; Ivanov, Andrejs; Capell, Brian C.; Drake, Adam M.; Shah, Parisha P.; Catanzaro, Joseph M.; Ricketts, M. Daniel; Lamark, Trond; Adam, Stephen A.; Marmorstein, Ronen; Zong, Wei-Xing; Johansen, Terje; Goldman, Robert D.; Adams, Peter D.; Berger, Shelley L.

    2015-01-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a catabolic membrane trafficking process that degrades a variety of cellular constituents, and is associated with human diseases1–3. While extensive studies have focused on autophagic turnover of cytoplasmic materials, little is known regarding the role of autophagy in degrading nuclear components. Here we report that the autophagy machinery mediates degradation of nuclear lamina components in mammals. The autophagy protein LC3/Atg8, which is involved in autophagy membrane trafficking and substrate delivery4–6, is present in the nucleus and directly interacts with the nuclear lamina protein Lamin B1, and binds to lamin-associated domains (LADs) on chromatin. This LC3-Lamin B1 interaction does not downregulate Lamin B1 during starvation, but mediates its degradation upon oncogenic insults, such as by activated Ras. Lamin B1 degradation is achieved by nucleus-to-cytoplasm transport that delivers Lamin B1 to the lysosome. Inhibiting autophagy or the LC3-Lamin B1 interaction prevents activated Ras-induced Lamin B1 loss and attenuates oncogene-induced senescence in primary human cells. Our study suggests this new function of autophagy as a guarding mechanism protecting cells from tumorigenesis. PMID:26524528

  4. Autophagy mediates degradation of nuclear lamina.

    PubMed

    Dou, Zhixun; Xu, Caiyue; Donahue, Greg; Shimi, Takeshi; Pan, Ji-An; Zhu, Jiajun; Ivanov, Andrejs; Capell, Brian C; Drake, Adam M; Shah, Parisha P; Catanzaro, Joseph M; Ricketts, M Daniel; Lamark, Trond; Adam, Stephen A; Marmorstein, Ronen; Zong, Wei-Xing; Johansen, Terje; Goldman, Robert D; Adams, Peter D; Berger, Shelley L

    2015-11-05

    Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a catabolic membrane trafficking process that degrades a variety of cellular constituents and is associated with human diseases. Although extensive studies have focused on autophagic turnover of cytoplasmic materials, little is known about the role of autophagy in degrading nuclear components. Here we report that the autophagy machinery mediates degradation of nuclear lamina components in mammals. The autophagy protein LC3/Atg8, which is involved in autophagy membrane trafficking and substrate delivery, is present in the nucleus and directly interacts with the nuclear lamina protein lamin B1, and binds to lamin-associated domains on chromatin. This LC3-lamin B1 interaction does not downregulate lamin B1 during starvation, but mediates its degradation upon oncogenic insults, such as by activated RAS. Lamin B1 degradation is achieved by nucleus-to-cytoplasm transport that delivers lamin B1 to the lysosome. Inhibiting autophagy or the LC3-lamin B1 interaction prevents activated RAS-induced lamin B1 loss and attenuates oncogene-induced senescence in primary human cells. Our study suggests that this new function of autophagy acts as a guarding mechanism protecting cells from tumorigenesis.

  5. Dental lamina cysts in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Kamleshwar

    2012-10-09

    Cystic lesions of transient nature viz. Epstein pearls, Bohn's nodules and dental lamina cysts are frequently found in the oral cavities of newborn infants. These cysts arise from the developing dental tissues or from their remnants. These cystic lesions are not commonly seen by the dental surgeons due to their self-limiting nature and ignorance of the parents to seek the professional opinion. However, when contacted by anxious parents seeking treatment, dental surgeons should be able to explain and reassure the parents about the transient nature of these lesions and need for no treatment but regular follow-up. The present case report was written with the purpose to increase the awareness in dental surgeons about the peculiar clinical presentation and self-limiting nature of these cystic lesions, so that unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided in such young infants.

  6. Nuclear lamina at the crossroads of the cytoplasm and nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is a protein meshwork that lines the nuclear envelope in metazoan cells. It is composed largely of a polymeric assembly of lamins, which comprise a distinct sequence homology class of the intermediate filament protein family. On the basis of its structural properties, the lamina originally was proposed to provide scaffolding for the nuclear envelope and to promote anchoring of chromatin and nuclear pore complexes at the nuclear surface. This viewpoint has expanded greatly during the past 25 years, with a host of surprising new insights on lamina structure, molecular composition and functional attributes. It has been established that the self-assembly properties of lamins are very similar to those of cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins, and that the lamin polymer is physically associated with components of the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton and with a multitude of chromatin and inner nuclear membrane proteins. Cumulative evidence points to an important role for the lamina in regulating signaling and gene activity, and in mechanically coupling the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton to the nucleus. The significance of the lamina has been vaulted to the forefront by the discovery that mutations in lamins and lamina-associated polypeptides lead to an array of human diseases. A key future challenge is to understand how the lamina integrates pathways for mechanics and signaling at the molecular level. Understanding the structure of the lamina from the atomic to supramolecular levels will be essential for achieving this goal. PMID:22126840

  7. Multiphoton imaging of low grade, high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and intramucosal invasive cancer of esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Jiang, Liwei; Kang, Deyong; Wu, Xuejing; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is devastating because of its aggressive lymphatic spread and clinical course. It is believed to occur through low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), and intramucosal invasive cancer (IMC) before transforming to submucosal cancer. In particular, these early lesions (LGIN, HGIN and IMC), which involve no lymph node nor distant metastasis, can be cured by endoscopic treatment. Therefore, early identification of these lesions is important so as to offer a curative endoscopic resection, thus slowing down the development of ESCC. In this work, spectral information and morphological features of the normal esophageal mucosa are first studied. Then, the morphological changes of LGIN, HGIN and IMC are described. Lastly, quantitative parameters are also extracted by calculating the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of epithelial cells and the pixel density of collagen in the lamina propria. These results show that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has the ability to identify normal esophageal mucosa, LGIN, HGIN and IMC. With the development of multiphoton endoscope systems for in vivo imaging, combined with a laser ablation system, MPM has the potential to provide immediate pathologic diagnosis and curative treatment of ESCC before the transformation to submucosal cancer in the future.

  8. The nuclear lamina in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Dobrzynska, Agnieszka; Gonzalo, Susana; Shanahan, Catherine; Askjaer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nuclear lamina (NL) is a structural component of the nuclear envelope and makes extensive contacts with integral nuclear membrane proteins and chromatin. These interactions are critical for many cellular processes, such as nuclear positioning, perception of mechanical stimuli from the cell surface, nuclear stability, 3-dimensional organization of chromatin and regulation of chromatin-binding proteins, including transcription factors. The NL is present in all nucleated metazoan cells but its composition and interactome differ between tissues. Most likely, this contributes to the broad spectrum of disease manifestations in humans with mutations in NL-related genes, ranging from muscle dystrophies to neurological disorders, lipodystrophies and progeria syndromes. We review here exciting novel insight into NL function at the cellular level, in particular in chromatin organization and mechanosensation. We also present recent observations on the relation between the NL and metabolism and the special relevance of the NL in muscle tissues. Finally, we discuss new therapeutic approaches to treat NL-related diseases. PMID:27158763

  9. Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, D. J.; Buesking, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.

  10. Thick Prelaminar Tissue Decreases Lamina Cribrosa Visibility

    PubMed Central

    Lucy, Katie A.; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel S.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Ling, Yun; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Liu, Jonathan J.; Fujimoto, James G.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Evaluation of the effect of prelaminar tissue thickness on visualization of the lamina cribrosa (LC) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods The optic nerve head (ONH) region was scanned using OCT. The quality of visible LC microstructure was assessed subjectively using a grading system and objectively by analyzing the signal intensity of each scan's superpixel components. Manual delineations were made separately and in 3-dimensions quantifying prelaminar tissue thickness, analyzable regions of LC microstructure, and regions with a visible anterior LC (ALC) boundary. A linear mixed effect model quantified the association between tissue thickness and LC visualization. Results A total of 17 healthy, 27 glaucoma suspect, and 47 glaucomatous eyes were included. Scans with thicker average prelaminar tissue measurements received worse grading scores (P = 0.007), and superpixels with low signal intensity were associated significantly with regions beneath thick prelaminar tissue (P < 0.05). The average prelaminar tissue thickness in regions of scans where the LC was analyzable (214 μm) was significantly thinner than in regions where the LC was not analyzable (569 μm; P < 0.001). Healthy eyes had significantly thicker average prelaminar tissue measurements than glaucoma or glaucoma suspect eyes (both P < 0.001), and glaucoma suspect eyes had significantly thicker average prelaminar tissue measurements than glaucoma eyes (P = 0.008). Significantly more of the ALC boundary was visible in glaucoma eyes (63% of ONH) than in healthy eyes (41%; P = 0.005). Conclusions Thick prelaminar tissue was associated with impaired visualization of the LC. Healthy subjects generally had thicker prelaminar tissue, which potentially could create a selection bias against healthy eyes when comparing LC structures. PMID:28324116

  11. Reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations in living mouse cochleae

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan; Kemp, David

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the exceptional sensitivity of mammalian hearing depends on outer hair cells which generate forces for amplifying sound-induced basilar membrane vibrations, yet how cellular forces amplify vibrations is poorly understood. In this study, by measuring subnanometer vibrations directly from the reticular lamina at the apical ends of outer hair cells and from the basilar membrane using a custom-built heterodyne low-coherence interferometer, we demonstrate in living mouse cochleae that the sound-induced reticular lamina vibration is substantially larger than the basilar membrane vibration not only at the best frequency but surprisingly also at low frequencies. The phase relation of reticular lamina to basilar membrane vibration changes with frequency by up to 180 degrees from ∼135 degrees at low frequencies to ∼-45 degrees at the best frequency. The magnitude and phase differences between reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations are absent in postmortem cochleae. These results indicate that outer hair cells do not amplify the basilar membrane vibration directly through a local feedback as commonly expected; instead, they actively vibrate the reticular lamina over a broad frequency range. The outer hair cell-driven reticular lamina vibration collaboratively interacts with the basilar membrane traveling wave primarily through the cochlear fluid, which boosts peak responses at the best-frequency location and consequently enhances hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity. PMID:27516544

  12. Importance of greenstick lamina fractures in low lumbar burst fractures

    PubMed Central

    Ersozlu, S.; Aydinli, U.

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar burst fractures (L3–L5) represent a small percentage of all spinal fractures. The treatment of fractures involving the lumbar spine has been controversial. Lamina fractures may be complete or of the greenstick type. Dural tears and nerve root entrapment may accompany these lamina fractures. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of dural tear in patients who had lumbar burst fractures with greenstick lamina fractures and the importance of these lamina fractures when choosing the optimum treatment. Twenty-six patients with 28 lumbar burst fractures were treated from 1995 through 2002. The average follow-up was 60 months (range 32–110 months). The male to female ratio was 21:5 and the mean age was 37 years (17–64). Dural tear was detected in seven (25%) out of 28 burst fractures. The functional outcome of the entire study group was assessed using the Smiley-Webster Scale. Good to excellent results were obtained in 24 (92%) of 26 patients. Lumbar burst fractures with greenstick lamina fractures occur mostly in the L2–L4 area. In the surgical treatment, any reduction manoeuvre will close the fracture and crush the entrapped neural elements. Therefore, it may be better to explore the greenstick lamina fracture whether there is any neural entrapment or not, before any reduction manoeuvre is attempted. PMID:16501977

  13. Fate of the Molar Dental Lamina in the Monophyodont Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S.; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  14. Mononuclear phagocytes contribute to intestinal invasion and dissemination of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Alamir, Hanin; Hahn, Julia; Günter, Manina; Wagner, Samuel; Schütz, Monika; Bohn, Erwin; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Autenrieth, Stella E

    2016-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) enters the host via contaminated food. After colonisation of the small intestine Ye invades the Peyer's patches (PPs) via M cells and disseminates to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen and liver. Whether Ye uses other invasion routes and which pathogenicity factors are required remains elusive. Oral infection of lymphotoxin-β-receptor deficient mice lacking PPs and MLNs with Ye revealed similar bacterial load in the spleen 1h post infection as wild-type mice, demonstrating a PP-independent dissemination route for Ye. Immunohistological analysis of the small intestine revealed Ye in close contact with mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), specifically CX3CR1(+) monocyte-derived cells (MCs) as well as CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs). This finding was confirmed by flow cytometry and imaging flow cytometry analysis of lamina propria (LP) leukocytes showing CD103(+) DCs and MCs with intracellular Ye. Uptake of Ye by LP CD103(+) DCs and MCs was dependent on the pathogenicity factor invasin, whereas the adhesin YadA was dispensable as demonstrated by Ye deletion mutants. Furthermore, Ye were found exclusively associated with CD103(+) DCs in the MLNs from wild-type mice, but not from CCR7(-/-) mice, demonstrating a CCR7 dependent transport of Ye by CD103(+) DCs from LP to the MLNs. In contrast, dissemination of Ye to the spleen was dependent on MCs as significantly less Ye could be recovered from the spleen of CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice compared to wild-type mice. Altogether, MCs and CD103(+) DCs contribute to immediate invasion and dissemination of Ye. This together with data from other bacteria suggests MPs as general pathogenic entry site in the intestine.

  15. Role of histone deacetylases in gene regulation at nuclear lamina.

    PubMed

    Milon, Beatrice C; Cheng, Haibo; Tselebrovsky, Mikhail V; Lavrov, Sergei A; Nenasheva, Valentina V; Mikhaleva, Elena A; Shevelyov, Yuri Y; Nurminsky, Dmitry I

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that gene silencing at the nuclear periphery may involve "closing" of chromatin by transcriptional repressors, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here we provide experimental evidence confirming these predictions. Histone acetylation, chromatin compactness, and gene repression in lamina-interacting multigenic chromatin domains were analyzed in Drosophila S2 cells in which B-type lamin, diverse HDACs, and lamina-associated proteins were downregulated by dsRNA. Lamin depletion resulted in decreased compactness of the repressed multigenic domain associated with its detachment from the lamina and enhanced histone acetylation. Our data reveal the major role for HDAC1 in mediating deacetylation, chromatin compaction, and gene silencing in the multigenic domain, and an auxiliary role for HDAC3 that is required for retention of the domain at the lamina. These findings demonstrate the manifold and central involvement of class I HDACs in regulation of lamina-associated genes, illuminating a mechanism by which these enzymes can orchestrate normal and pathological development.

  16. Role of Histone Deacetylases in Gene Regulation at Nuclear Lamina

    PubMed Central

    Milon, Beatrice C.; Cheng, Haibo; Tselebrovsky, Mikhail V.; Lavrov, Sergei A.; Nenasheva, Valentina V.; Mikhaleva, Elena A.; Shevelyov, Yuri Y.; Nurminsky, Dmitry I.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that gene silencing at the nuclear periphery may involve “closing” of chromatin by transcriptional repressors, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here we provide experimental evidence confirming these predictions. Histone acetylation, chromatin compactness, and gene repression in lamina-interacting multigenic chromatin domains were analyzed in Drosophila S2 cells in which B-type lamin, diverse HDACs, and lamina-associated proteins were downregulated by dsRNA. Lamin depletion resulted in decreased compactness of the repressed multigenic domain associated with its detachment from the lamina and enhanced histone acetylation. Our data reveal the major role for HDAC1 in mediating deacetylation, chromatin compaction, and gene silencing in the multigenic domain, and an auxiliary role for HDAC3 that is required for retention of the domain at the lamina. These findings demonstrate the manifold and central involvement of class I HDACs in regulation of lamina-associated genes, illuminating a mechanism by which these enzymes can orchestrate normal and pathological development. PMID:23226217

  17. Regional specificity in anatomy at the lamina cribrosa.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1981-03-01

    Specimens cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa in normal primate eyes are examined by light microscopy. The density of structural elements, consisting of crosswise-oriented connective-tissue trabeculae, is examined in different regions of the nerve head. It is noted that nasal more than temporal more than superior or inferior regions of the lamina cross section contain increased connective-tissue elements. This regional variation in nerve head anatomy is contrasted with susceptibility patterns of nerve head tissue to pressure elevation in both experimental and clinical glaucoma.

  18. Monosynaptic excitatory inputs to spinal lamina I anterolateral-tract-projecting neurons from neighbouring lamina I neurons.

    PubMed

    Luz, Liliana L; Szucs, Peter; Pinho, Raquel; Safronov, Boris V

    2010-11-15

    Spinal lamina I receives nociceptive primary afferent input to project through diverse ascending pathways, including the anterolateral tract (ALT). Large projection neurons (PNs) form only a few per cent of the cell population in this layer, and little is known about their local input from other lamina I neurons. We combined single-cell imaging in the isolated spinal cord, paired recordings, 3-D reconstructions of biocytin-labelled neurons and computer simulations to study the monosynaptic input to large ALT-PNs from neighbouring (somata separated by less than 80 μm) large lamina I neurons. All 11 connections identified were excitatory. We have found that an axon of a presynaptic neuron forms multiple synapses on an ALT-PN, and both Ca(2+)-permeable and Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptors are involved in transmission. The monosynaptic EPSC latencies (1-12 ms) are determined by both post- and presynaptic factors. The postsynaptic delay, resulting from the electrotonic EPSC propagation in the dendrites of an ALT-PN, could be 4 ms at most. The presynaptic delay, caused by the spike propagation in a narrow highly branched axon of a local-circuit neuron, can be about 10 ms for neighbouring ALT-PNs and longer for more distant neurons. In many cases, the EPSPs evoked by release from a lamina I neuron were sufficient to elicit a spike in an ALT-PN. Our data show that ALT-PNs can receive input from both lamina I local-circuit neurons and other ALT-PNs. We suggest that lamina I is a functionally interconnected layer. The intralaminar network described here can amplify the overall output from the principal spinal nociceptive projection area.

  19. Identifying and quantifying the stromal fibrosis in muscularis propria of colorectal carcinoma by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sijia; Yang, Yinghong; Jiang, Weizhong; Feng, Changyin; Chen, Zhifen; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-10-01

    The examination of stromal fibrosis within colorectal cancer is overlooked, not only because the routine pathological examinations seem to focus more on tumour staging and precise surgical margins, but also because of the lack of efficient diagnostic methods. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to study the muscularis stroma of normal and colorectal carcinoma tissue at the molecular level. In this work, we attempt to show the feasibility of MPM for discerning the microstructure of the normal human rectal muscle layer and fibrosis colorectal carcinoma tissue practicably. Three types of muscularis propria stromal fibrosis beneath the colorectal cancer infiltration were first observed through the MPM imaging system by providing intercellular microstructural details in fresh, unstained tissue samples. Our approach also presents the capability of quantifying the extent of stromal fibrosis from both amount and orientation of collagen, which may further characterize the severity of fibrosis. By comparing with the pathology analysis, these results show that the MPM has potential advantages in becoming a histological tool for detecting the stromal fibrosis and collecting prognosis evidence, which may guide subsequent therapy procedures for patients into good prognosis.

  20. Changes in Muscularis Propria of Anterior Vaginal Wall in Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Vetuschi, A.; D’Alfonso, A.; Sferra, R.; Zanelli, D.; Pompili, S.; Patacchiola, F.; Gaudio, E.; Carta, G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological and immunohistochemical alterations of tissue removed from the upper third of anterior vaginal wall in a sample group of the female population presenting homogenous risk factors associated with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). The case study consisted of 14 patients with POP and there were 10 patients in the control group. Patient selection was carried on the basis of specific criteria and all of the patients involved in the study presented one or more of the recognized POP risk factors. Samples were taken from POP patients during vaginal plastic surgery following colpohysterectomy, and from control patients during closure of the posterior fornix following hysterectomy. Samples were processed for histological and immunohistochemical analyses for Collagen I and Collagen III, α-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA), Platelet-Derived-Growth-Factor (PDGF), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), tissue inhibitors metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), Caspase3. Immunofluorescence analyses for Collagen I and III and PDGF were also carried out. In prolapsed specimens our results show a disorganization of smooth muscle cells that appeared to have been displaced by an increased collagen III deposition resulting in rearrangement of the muscularis propria architecture. These findings suggest that the increase in the expression of collagen fibers in muscularis could probably be due to a phenotypic switch resulting in the dedifferentiation of smooth muscle cells into myofibroblasts. These alterations could be responsible for the compromising of the dynamic functionality of the pelvic floor. PMID:26972719

  1. Endosonographic surveillance of 1-3 cm gastric submucosal tumors originating from muscularis propria

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming-Luen; Wu, Keng-Liang; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2017-01-01

    AIM To observe the natural course of 1-3 cm gastric submucosal tumors originating from the muscularis propria (SMTMPs). METHODS By reviewing the computerized medical records over a period of 14 years (2000-2013), patients with 1-3 cm gastric SMTMPs who underwent at least two endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) examinations were enrolled. Tumor progression was defined as a ≥ 1.2 times enlargement in tumor diameter observed during EUS surveillance. All patients were divided into stationary and progressive subgroups and further analyzed. We also reviewed the patients in the progressive subgroup again in 2016. RESULTS A total of 88 patients were studied, including 25 in the progressive subgroup. The mean time of EUS surveillance was 24.6 mo in the stationary subgroup and 30.7 mo in the progressive subgroup. Risk factors for tumor progression included larger tumor size and irregular border. Initial tumor size > 14.0 mm may be considered a cut-off size for predicting tumor progression. Seventeen patients underwent surgery, of whom 13 had gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and 4 had leiomyomas. Tumor progression was found only in patients with GISTs. All of the tumors exhibited benign behaviors without metastasis until 2016. CONCLUSION Most 1-3 cm gastric SMTMPs (71.6%) are indolent. Tumor progression was found only in GISTs, and it is a good predictor for differentiating GISTs from leiomyomas. Predictors of tumor progression include larger tumor size (> 14.0 mm) and irregular border.

  2. [Urethral recurrence of invasive carcinoma following BCG treatment for bladder Ca in situ].

    PubMed

    Ruoppolo, M; Gozo, M; Milesi, R; Spina, R; Fragapane, G

    2010-01-01

    CIS is a flat, high-grade, non-invasive microscopic urothelial carcinoma. It is considered a precursor of invasive bladder cancer. CIS is classified as primary, secondary or concurrent, when occurred as isolated CIS without cuncurrent papillary tumors, or detected during the follow-up of patients with a previous papillary tumor, or finally in the presence of bladder neoplasm. BCG is widely established as the treatment of choice for CIS with a success rate of approximately 70%. BCG reduces the risk of progression of CIS into invasive carcinoma in 30 to 50% of cases. Direct and prolonged contact between the urothelium and BCG is a prerequisite for successful therapy. Discovery of CIS in the prostatic or membranous urethra represents an ominous sign. CIS may be present only in the epithelial lining of the prostatic urethra or in the ducts, or in the worst case it may be found in the prostatic tissue stroma. Urethral involvement by CIS is at high risk of tumor progression and development of metastases due to reduced thickness of lamina propria and absence of muscolaris mucosa. 83 patients, enrolled from 1/1996 to 12/2005 at our urological department with CIS: primary (focal and multifocal) in 25, secondary in 7 and cuncurrent in 51 (associated with T1bG3 cancer in 37 cases), and urethral CIS in 5 and conservatively treated by TUR and intravescical instillations of BCG, 4 developed afterwords only invasive cancer of the urethra in the absence of bladder involvement. In 2 cases cancer arised from the prostatic fossa after TURP, in 1 from membranous urethra and in the last from prostatic ducts. Among the 4 patients, 3 were treated by cystoprostatourethrectomy and Platinum-based chemotherapy, 1 refused surgical treatment. Two patients died for disseminated disease. 1 patient is alive at 60-month's follow-up. In the last patient cancer relapsed at 36-month's follow-up. We conclude that prostatic/urethral involvement during follow-up after successful intravesical treatment

  3. Properties of Mouse Spinal Lamina I GABAergic Interneurons.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Kimberly J.; Sawchuk, Michael A.; Hochman, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Lamina I is a sensory relay region containing projection cells and local interneurons involved in thermal and nociceptive signaling. These neurons differ in morphology, sensory response modality, and firing characteristics. We examined intrinsic properties of mouse lamina I GABAergic neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). GABAergic neuron identity was confirmed by a high correspondence between GABA immunolabeling and EGFP fluorescence. Morphologies of these EGFP+/GABA+ cells were multipolar (65%), fusiform (31%), and pyramidal (4%). In whole cell recordings, cells fired a single spike (44%), tonically (35%), or an initial burst (21%) in response to current steps, representing a subset of reported lamina I firing properties. Membrane properties of tonic and initial burst cells were indistinguishable and these neurons may represent one functional population because, in individual neurons, their firing patterns could interconvert. Single spike cells were less excitable with lower membrane resistivity and higher rheobase. Most fusiform cells (64%) fired tonically while most multipolar cells (56%) fired single spikes. In summary, lamina I inhibitory interneurons are functionally divisible into at least two major groups both of which presumably function to limit excitatory transmission. PMID:16014799

  4. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria as a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Angkathunyakul, Napat; Treepongkaruna, Suporn; Molagool, Sani; Ruangwattanapaisarn, Nichanan

    2015-06-14

    Visceral myopathy is one of the causes of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Most cases pathologically reveal degenerative changes of myocytes or muscularis propia atrophy and fibrosis. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria is extremely rare. We report a case of a 9-mo-old Thai male baby who presented with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologic findings showed abnormal layering of small intestinal muscularis propria with an additional oblique layer and aberrant muscularization in serosa. The patient also had a short small bowel without malrotation, brachydactyly, and absence of the 2(nd) to 4(th) middle phalanges of both hands. The patient was treated with cisapride and combined parenteral and enteral nutritional support. He had gradual clinical improvement and gained body weight. Subsequently, the parenteral nutrition was discontinued. The previously reported cases are reviewed and discussed.

  5. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria as a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Angkathunyakul, Napat; Treepongkaruna, Suporn; Molagool, Sani; Ruangwattanapaisarn, Nichanan

    2015-01-01

    Visceral myopathy is one of the causes of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Most cases pathologically reveal degenerative changes of myocytes or muscularis propia atrophy and fibrosis. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria is extremely rare. We report a case of a 9-mo-old Thai male baby who presented with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologic findings showed abnormal layering of small intestinal muscularis propria with an additional oblique layer and aberrant muscularization in serosa. The patient also had a short small bowel without malrotation, brachydactyly, and absence of the 2nd to 4th middle phalanges of both hands. The patient was treated with cisapride and combined parenteral and enteral nutritional support. He had gradual clinical improvement and gained body weight. Subsequently, the parenteral nutrition was discontinued. The previously reported cases are reviewed and discussed. PMID:26078585

  6. Axonal transport interruption and anatomy at the lamina cribrosa.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1982-10-01

    Pressure-induced, focal axonal transport abnormalities were studied in 14 cat eyes by the examination of serial step-section tissue radioautogram. Although the patterns of the transport interruption at the lamina cribrosa varied from eye to eye, the temporal sectors of the nerve head were most often involved by this abnormality. The anatomy at the lamina cribrosa was studied in adjacent (6 micrometers) cross-sectional specimens. The thickness of the extra-bundle trabeculae and the nerve fiber bundle dimensions including the cross-sectional area and the number and the shape (the ratio of the major and the minor axis diameters) of the laminar pores were measured by computer-assisted perimeter analysis. There was no correlation between the location of the transport interruption and any of these anatomic measurements.

  7. Matrix-dominated mechanical properties of a fiber composite lamina

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, R.E.; Schumann, D.L.; DeTeresa, S.J.

    1992-05-18

    Matrix-dominated mechanical properties of unidirectional fiber composite laminae were determined from hoop-wound tube specimens and cylindrical rods fabricated from both wet-filament winding and prepreg material systems. Longitudinal shear modulus and strength as well as transverse Young's modulus, transverse tensile strength, and transverse compressive strength were obtained from a thin-walled tube specimen using a new fixturing design. Lamina properties are presented for several carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials. Longitudinal shear moduli were measured for both tubes and rods in torsion. Results obtained in the linear-elastic regimes above and below the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the matrix phase were compared with micromechanics predictions. Although agreement between predicted and measured shear moduli was reasonable below Tg, large discrepancies were observed when the matrix phase was elastomeric.

  8. Matrix-dominated mechanical properties of a fiber composite lamina

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, R.E.; Schumann, D.L.; DeTeresa, S.J.

    1992-05-18

    Matrix-dominated mechanical properties of unidirectional fiber composite laminae were determined from hoop-wound tube specimens and cylindrical rods fabricated from both wet-filament winding and prepreg material systems. Longitudinal shear modulus and strength as well as transverse Young`s modulus, transverse tensile strength, and transverse compressive strength were obtained from a thin-walled tube specimen using a new fixturing design. Lamina properties are presented for several carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials. Longitudinal shear moduli were measured for both tubes and rods in torsion. Results obtained in the linear-elastic regimes above and below the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the matrix phase were compared with micromechanics predictions. Although agreement between predicted and measured shear moduli was reasonable below Tg, large discrepancies were observed when the matrix phase was elastomeric.

  9. Basal lamina reduplication in malignant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Di Muzio, M; Spoletini, L; Strizzi, L; Procopio, A; Tassi, G; Casalini, A; Modesti, A

    1998-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is divided in three morphological variants: epithelioid, sarcomatous, and biphasic. Histological similarities between epithelioid malignant mesothelioma (EMM) and lung adenocarcinoma are responsible for the difficult differential diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies are useful for distinguishing the two neoplasms through immunohistochemical phenotyping, although many cases require ultrastructural characterization for definitive diagnosis. In this study, transmission electron microscopic observations of EMM were compared with those of peripheral adenocarcinoma of the lung (PAL). More specifically, the morphology of the basal lamina is described in 23 cases of EMM and 12 cases of PAL. Reduplication of the basal lamina (RBL) was found in 11 cases (48%) of EMM and in none of the PAL cases. The same cases were immunostained for type IV collagen and the localization of this basement membrane component corresponded to the areas where basal lamina was observed. Since RBL has been associated with neoplastic differentiation in other tumors, this novel feature in EMM needs to be evaluated in future prognostic studies in malignant mesothelioma of the pleura. Moreover, RBL expression in EMM may be an additional ultrastructural parameter used in the differential diagnosis between EMM and adenocarcinoma.

  10. The Leaf Adaxial-Abaxial Boundary and Lamina Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Miyuki; Okada, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, boundaries have a role in preventing the intermingling of two different cell populations and in organizing the morphogenesis of organs and the entire organism. Plant leaves have two different cell populations, the adaxial (or upper) and abaxial (or lower) cell populations, and the boundary is considered to be important for lamina growth. At the boundary between the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, corresponding to the margin, margin-specific structures are developed and structurally separate the adaxial and abaxial epidermis from each other. The adaxial and abaxial cells are determined by the adaxial and abaxial regulatory genes (including transcription factors and small RNAs), respectively. Among many lamina-growth regulators identified by recent genetic analyses, it has been revealed that the phytohormone, auxin, and the WOX family transcription factors act at the adaxial-abaxial boundary downstream of the adaxial-abaxial pattern. Furthermore, mutant analyses of the WOX genes shed light on the role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary in preventing the mixing of the adaxial and abaxial features during lamina growth. In this review, we highlight the recent studies on the dual role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary. PMID:27137371

  11. Implementation of active-type Lamina 3D display system.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sangcheol; Baek, Hogil; Min, Sung-Wook; Park, Soon-Gi; Park, Min-Kyu; Yoo, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Hak-Rin; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-06-15

    Lamina 3D display is a new type of multi-layer 3D display, which utilizes the polarization state as a new dimension of depth information. Lamina 3D display system has advanced properties - to reduce the data amount representing 3D image, to be easily made using the conventional projectors, and to have a potential being applied to the many applications. However, the system might have some limitations in depth range and viewing angle due to the properties of the expressive volume components. In this paper, we propose the volume using the layers of switchable diffusers to implement the active-type Lamina 3D display system. Because the diffusing rate of the layers has no relation with the polarization state, the polarizer wheel is applied to the proposed system in purpose of making the sectioned image synchronized with the diffusing layer at the designated location. The imaging volume of the proposed system consists of five layers of polymer dispersed liquid crystal and the total size of the implemented volume is 24x18x12 mm3(3). The proposed system can achieve the improvements of viewing qualities such as enhanced depth expression and widened viewing angle.

  12. Nuclear Lamin-A Scales with Tissue Stiffness and Enhances Matrix-Directed Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Joe; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Buxboim, Amnon; Harada, Takamasa; Dingal, P. C. Dave P.; Pinter, Joel; Pajerowski, J. David; Spinler, Kyle R.; Shin, Jae-Won; Tewari, Manorama; Rehfeldt, Florian; Speicher, David W.; Discher, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    Tissues can be soft like fat, which bears little stress, or stiff like bone, which sustains high stress, but whether there is a systematic relationship between tissue mechanics and differentiation is unknown. Here, proteomics analyses revealed that levels of the nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A scaled with tissue elasticity, E, as did levels of collagens in the extracellular matrix that determine E. Stem cell differentiation into fat on soft matrix was enhanced by low lamin-A levels, whereas differentiation into bone on stiff matrix was enhanced by high lamin-A levels. Matrix stiffness directly influenced lamin-A protein levels, and, although lamin-A transcription was regulated by the vitamin A/retinoic acid (RA) pathway with broad roles in development, nuclear entry of RA receptors was modulated by lamin-A protein. Tissue stiffness and stress thus increase lamin-A levels, which stabilize the nucleus while also contributing to lineage determination. PMID:23990565

  13. The laryngeal primordium and epithelial lamina. A new interpretation.

    PubMed Central

    Sañudo, J R; Domenech-Mateu, J M

    1990-01-01

    The laryngeal primordium is present in both the laryngotracheal sulcus (LTS) and the primitive pulmonary sac (PPS). Its early period of development may be subdivided into two phases. The first phase (Stage 11) is represented by what is traditionally referred to as the LTS, located directly beneath the PP4 on the ventral wall of the foregut (primary segment), and by the PPS which is situated at its caudal end. The LTS will represent the primordium of the upper or membranous infraglottic cavity region; whereas the PPS, will give rise not only to the bronchial tree, but also to the primordium of the trachea and the lower or cartilaginous region of the infraglottic cavity. The second phase (Stages 13 and 14) is distinguished by the cranial growth of the LTS above the PP4 and therefore by its absorption into the floor of the primitive pharynx in the mesobranchial area (secondary segment), which will develop into the primordium of the vestibule of the larynx. Similarly, we observed that in the development of the laryngeal cavity there are two temporally and spatially separate epithelial structures: the epithelial septum and the epithelial lamina. In this respect we differ from other authors who are of the opinion that there is a single structure (the epithelial lamina). The epithelial septum is a primary structure responsible for the final configuration of the LTS, as it contributes to the development of the lower end of the primary segment of the LTS and also to the creation of the secondary segment. The epithelial lamina is a secondary structure which appears inside the LTS as a result of pressure exerted by the mesenchyme on its lateral walls, without having any effect on the morphogenesis of the LTS. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2081706

  14. Anatomy of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Gonzales, M

    1981-12-01

    Light microscopy of specimens of human eyes cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa showed variation in structural anatomy, as demonstrated previously in certain primate eyes. Connective tissue and glial cell structural elements were greater in nasal-temporal as compared with inferior and superior quadrants of the disc. This regional variation suggests a hypothesis for the specificity of early patterns of optic nerve dysfunction characteristic of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In glaucomatous eyes, nerve head regions with relatively less structural tissue elements may yield early to detrimental effects of persistent pressure elevation.

  15. Inelastic deformation mechanisms in a transverse MMC lamina under compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newaz, Golam M.; Majumdar, Bhaskar S.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the inelastic deformation mechanisms in (90)(sub 8) Ti 15-3/SCS-6 lamina subjected to pure compression. Both mechanical behavior and microstructural evaluation were undertaken at room temperature, 538 and 650 C. Results indicate that mechanical response and deformation characteristics are significantly different in monotonic tension and compression. The inelastic deformation mechanisms in compression are controlled by radial fiber fracture, matrix plasticity and fiber-matrix debonding. The radial fiber fracture is a new damage mode observed for metal-matrix composites (MMC).

  16. Automated Measurement and Statistical Modeling of Elastic Laminae in Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai; Hu, Jin-Jia; Humphrey, Jay D.; Liu, Jyh-Charn

    2010-01-01

    Structural features of elastic laminae within arteries can provide vital information for both the mechanobiology and the biomechanics of the wall. In this paper, we propose, test, and illustrate a new computer-based scheme for automated analysis of regional distributions of elastic laminae thickness, inter-lamellar distances, and fragmentation (furcation points) from standard histological images. Our scheme eliminates potential artifacts produced by tissue cutting, automatically aligns tissue according to physiologic orientations, and performs cross-sectional measurements along radial directions. A statistical randomized complete block design (RCBD) and F-test were used to assess potential (non)-uniformity of lamellar thicknesses and separations along both radial and circumferential directions. Illustrative results for both normotensive and hypertensive thoracic porcine aorta revealed marked heterogeneity along the radial direction in nearly stress-free samples. Clearly, regional measurements can provide more detailed information about morphologic changes that cannot be gained by globally averaged evaluations alone. We also found that quantifying Furcation Point densities offers new information about potential elastin fragmentation, particularly in response to increased loading due to hypertension. PMID:20221934

  17. Heterogeneity of Brunsting-Perry type pemphigoid: a case showing blister formation at the lamina lucida, immune deposition beneath the lamina densa and autoantibodies against the 290-kD polypeptide along the lamina densa.

    PubMed

    Minato, Haruka; Ishii, Norito; Fukuda, Shunpei; Wakasa, Tomoko; Wakasa, Ken'ichi; Sogame, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Takashi; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2011-09-01

    An otherwise healthy 31-year-old man presented with multiple, vesicular, subepidermal blistering on the head, face, chest and oral cavity, leaving shallow scar formation, typical of Brunsting-Perry type pemphigoid. Direct immunofluorescence showed linear deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and C3 along the basement membrane zone (BMZ), and indirect showed anti-BMZ autoantibodies (IgG, >40×) reacting with the dermal side under the salt-split study. Immunofluorescence staining for type IV collagen and laminins, as well as routine electron microscopy, demonstrated that the cleavage level of the blister was intra-lamina lucida. The immunoperoxidase method applied to lesional skin demonstrated IgG deposits along the lamina densa. The post-embedding immunogold method demonstrated that the autoantibodies against BMZ reacted with the lamina densa and the dermis just beneath it. Immunoblot studies demonstrated that the autoantibodies reacted with the 290-kD polypeptide (suggesting type VII collagen) when dermal extract was used as the substrate. The patient was treated with combination therapy consisting of 30 mg prednisolone, 900 mg nicotinamide and 750 mg tetracycline, and the number of newly forming blisters decreased. We concluded that Brunsting-Perry type pemphigoid, a rare autoimmune blistering disease, includes cases showing characteristics of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita as well as bullous pemphigoid. This case showed discrepancy between the blistering level (intra-lamina lucida) and location of antigen (lamina densa and sub-lamina densa areas).

  18. A conserved transcriptional network regulates lamina development in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Cristina; Lopes, Carla S; Casares, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    The visual system of insects is a multilayered structure composed externally by the compound eye and internally by the three ganglia of the optic lobe: lamina, medulla and the lobula complex. The differentiation of lamina neurons depends heavily on Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, which is delivered by the incoming photoreceptor axons, and occurs in a wave-like fashion. Despite the primary role of lamina neurons in visual perception, it is still unclear how these neurons are specified from neuroepithelial (NE) progenitors. Here we show that a homothorax (hth)-eyes absent (eya)-sine oculis (so)-dachshund (dac) gene regulatory cassette is involved in this specification. Lamina neurons differentiate from NE progenitors that express hth, eya and so. One of the first events in the differentiation of lamina neurons is the upregulation of dac expression in response to Hh signaling. We show that this dac upregulation, which marks the transition from NE progenitors into lamina precursors, also requires Eya/So, the expression of which is locked in by mutual feedback. dac expression is crucial for lamina differentiation because it ensures repression of hth, a negative regulator of single-minded, and thus dac allows further lamina neuron differentiation. Therefore, the specification of lamina neurons is controlled by coupling the cell-autonomous hth-eya-so-dac regulatory cassette to Hh signaling.

  19. Effects of Modification in the Laminin-10 Basal Lamina on Prostate Cancer Invasion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Blot Indirect ELISA Western blot Antibody TPOP-1 TPOP-1 TPO 508 MAb Clone 7F6.13 + + TPO 508 Mab Clone 13B1.24 + + TPO 510 MAb Clone 1D11.10...Polyclonal NC 653-2/20/06 n.t. n.t. Polyclonal NC 653-2/20/06 n.t. n.t. TPO 508 MAb Clone 7C6.19 + + TPO 508 MAb Clone 8E11.12 + + Anti-LNα5...dimethylformamide BCIP 50mg/ml in dimethylformamide 12 Day 1: Slides were pretreated as follows: frozen tissues was cut 8um thick, rinsed in PBS

  20. Basal lamina structural alterations in human asymmetric aneurismatic aorta.

    PubMed

    Cotrufo, M; De Santo, L; Della Corte, A; Di Meglio, F; Guerra, G; Quarto, C; Vitale, S; Castaldo, C; Montagnani, S

    2005-01-01

    Basal lamina (BL) is a crucial mechanical and functional component of blood vessels, constituting a sensor of extracellular microenvironment for endothelial cells and pericytes. Recently, an abnormality in the process of matrix microfibrillar component remodeling has been advocated as a mechanism involved in the development of aortic dilation. We focused our attention on BL composition and organization and studied some of the main components of the Extracellular Matrix such as Tenascin, Laminins, Fibronectin, type I, III and IV Collagens. We used surgical fragments from 27 patients, submitted to operation because of aortic root aneurysm and 5 normal aortic wall specimens from heart donors without any evidence for aneurysmal or atherosclerotic diseases of the aorta. Two samples of aortic wall were harvested from each patient, proximal to the sinotubular junction at the aortic convexity and concavity. Each specimen was processed both for immunohistochemical examination and molecular biology study. We compared the convexity of each aortic sample with the concavity of the same vessel, and both of them with the control samples. The synthesis of mRNA and the levels of each protein were assessed, respectively, by RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry elucidated the organization of BL, whose composition was revealed by molecular biology. All pathological samples showed a wall thinner than normal ones. Basal lamina of the aortic wall evidentiated important changes in the tridimensional arrangement of its major components which lost their regular arrangement in pathological specimens. Collagen I, Laminin alpha2 chain and Fibronectin amounts decreased in pathological samples, while type IV Collagen and Tenascin synthesis increased. Consistently with the common macroscopic observation that ascending aorta dilations tend to expand asymmetrically, with prevalent involvement of the vessel convexity and relative sparing of the concavity, Collagen type IV is more

  1. Onset of Sheath Extension and Duration of Lamina Extension are Major Determinants of the Response of Maize Lamina Length to Plant Density

    PubMed Central

    ANDRIEU, BRUNO; HILLIER, JONATHAN; BIRCH, COLIN

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plants regulate their architecture strongly in response to density, and there is evidence that this involves changes in the duration of leaf extension. This questions the approximation, central in crop models, that development follows a fixed thermal time schedule. The aim of this research is to investigate, using maize as a model, how the kinetics of extension of grass leaves change with density, and to propose directions for inclusion of this regulation in plant models. • Methods Periodic dissection of plants allowed the establishment of the kinetics of lamina and sheath extension for two contrasting sowing densities. The temperature of the growing zone was measured with thermocouples. Two-phase (exponential plus linear) models were fitted to the data, allowing analysis of the timing of the phase changes of extension, and the extension rate of sheaths and blades during both phases. • Key Results The duration of lamina extension dictated the variation in lamina length between treatments. The lower phytomers were longer at high density, with delayed onset of sheath extension allowing more time for the lamina to extend. In the upper phytomers—which were shorter at high density—the laminae had a lower relative extension rate (RER) in the exponential phase and delayed onset of linear extension, and less time available for extension since early sheath extension was not delayed. • Conclusions The relative timing of the onset of fast extension of the lamina with that of sheath development is the main determinant of the response of lamina length to density. Evidence is presented that the contrasting behaviour of lower and upper phytomers is related to differing regulation of sheath ontogeny before and after panicle initiation. A conceptual model is proposed to explain how the observed asynchrony between lamina and sheath development is regulated. PMID:16926228

  2. Differential effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, on lamina I and lamina V spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Akiko; Meng, Ian D.

    2009-01-01

    Direct application of cannabinoids to the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) inhibits lamina V nociceptive neurons. The present study compared the effect of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2 (WIN-2) on the activity of lamina I and lamina V MDH neurons using extracellular single unit recording in anesthetized rats. Activity evoked by a contact thermode was measured before and after local application of WIN-2 (0.5-2.0 μg/μl) to the brainstem. Fast and slow heat ramps were used to differentiate between activity evoked primarily by A-delta and C primary afferent fibers, respectively. In lamina V neurons, WIN-2 produced a concentration dependent decrease in activity evoked by both fast and slow heat, reaching significance at 1.0 μg/μl. In lamina I neurons, WIN-2 administration inhibited slow heat evoked activity beginning at 1.0 μg/μl but had no significant effect on fast heat evoked activity, even at the highest concentration (2.0 μg/μl). In separate experiments, the effect of intrathecal administration of WIN-2 to the MDH on head withdrawal latencies elicited by fast and slow heat ramps applied to the whisker pad was assessed in lightly anesthetized rats. Head withdrawal latencies elicited by slow but not fast heat stimulation were increased by WIN-2. Taken together, these results emphasize the importance of lamina I neurons in the control of a nociceptive heat-evoked reflex. PMID:19114295

  3. Contributions of the 12 neuron classes in the fly lamina to motion vision.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, John C; Nern, Aljoscha; Holtz, Stephen L; Rubin, Gerald M; Reiser, Michael B

    2013-07-10

    Motion detection is a fundamental neural computation performed by many sensory systems. In the fly, local motion computation is thought to occur within the first two layers of the visual system, the lamina and medulla. We constructed specific genetic driver lines for each of the 12 neuron classes in the lamina. We then depolarized and hyperpolarized each neuron type and quantified fly behavioral responses to a diverse set of motion stimuli. We found that only a small number of lamina output neurons are essential for motion detection, while most neurons serve to sculpt and enhance these feedforward pathways. Two classes of feedback neurons (C2 and C3), and lamina output neurons (L2 and L4), are required for normal detection of directional motion stimuli. Our results reveal a prominent role for feedback and lateral interactions in motion processing and demonstrate that motion-dependent behaviors rely on contributions from nearly all lamina neuron classes.

  4. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. PMID:26555958

  5. Axon morphology at the lamina cribrosa in monkey eyes.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Klewin, K M

    1986-01-01

    The eyes of 8 monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) were studied. The mean cross-section area and the least diameter of axon cylinders were calculated from measurements made by computer assisted planimetry of electron photomicrographs of sections through the optic nerve head at the level of the lamina cribrosa. The density of intrabundle connective tissue and glial cell elements in nerve fiber bundles was also calculated. The mean cross-section area and minimum diameter of axons in the temporal part were less than in the nasal part of the nerve. The values for axons in the superior and inferior parts of the nerve were intermediate. A similar pattern of increasing dimensions was seen in axons from the more axial nerve compared to neurons in the more circumferential nerve sectors. The density of the intrabundle, nonaxonal tissue elements did not differ significantly across the nerve. Although axon dimensions may play some role in defining the vulnerability of neuronal tissue to a pressure insult, the results of this anatomic investigation do not support the hypothesis that differences in axonal distribution by size across the nerve section define the regional vulnerability of the nerve head to elevated intraocular pressure.

  6. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  7. The proteome of mouse brain microvessel membranes and basal lamina

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Hyun Bae; Scott, Michael; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather; Baird, Andrew; Yates, John; Torbett, Bruce E; Eliceiri, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a multicellular vascular structure separating blood from the brain parenchyma that is composed of endothelial cells with tight intercellular junctions, surrounded by a basal lamina, astrocytes, and pericytes. Previous studies have generated detailed databases of the microvessel transcriptome; however, less information is available on the BBB at the protein level. In this study, we specifically focused on characterization of the membrane fraction of cells within the BBB to generate a more complete understanding of membrane transporters, tight junction proteins, and associated extracellular matrix proteins that are functional hallmarks of the BBB. We used Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology to identify a total of 1,143 proteins in mouse brain microvessels, of which 53% were determined to be membrane associated. Analyses of specific classes of BBB-associated proteins in the context of recent transcriptome reports provide a unique database to assess the relative contribution of genes at the level of both RNA and protein in the maintenance of normal BBB integrity. PMID:21792245

  8. Axon Diversity of Lamina I Local-Circuit Neurons in the Lumbar Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Szucs, Peter; Luz, Liliana L; Pinho, Raquel; Aguiar, Paulo; Antal, Zsófia; Tiong, Sheena YX; Todd, Andrew J; Safronov, Boris V

    2013-01-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key area for relaying and integrating information from nociceptive primary afferents with various other sources of inputs. Although lamina I projection neurons have been intensively studied, much less attention has been given to local-circuit neurons (LCNs), which form the majority of the lamina I neuronal population. In this work the infrared light-emitting diode oblique illumination technique was used to visualize and label LCNs, allowing reconstruction and analysis of their dendritic and extensive axonal trees. We show that the majority of lamina I neurons with locally branching axons fall into the multipolar (with ventrally protruding dendrites) and flattened (dendrites limited to lamina I) somatodendritic categories. Analysis of their axons revealed that the initial myelinated part gives rise to several unmyelinated small-diameter branches that have a high number of densely packed, large varicosities and an extensive rostrocaudal (two or three segments), mediolateral, and dorsoventral (reaching laminae III–IV) distribution. The extent of the axon and the occasional presence of long, solitary branches suggest that LCNs may also form short and long propriospinal connections. We also found that the distribution of axon varicosities and terminal field locations show substantial heterogeneity and that a substantial portion of LCNs is inhibitory. Our observations indicate that LCNs of lamina I form intersegmental as well as interlaminar connections and may govern large numbers of neurons, providing anatomical substrate for rostrocaudal “processing units” in the dorsal horn. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:2719–2741, 2013. PMID:23386329

  9. Axon diversity of lamina I local-circuit neurons in the lumbar spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Peter; Luz, Liliana L; Pinho, Raquel; Aguiar, Paulo; Antal, Zsófia; Tiong, Sheena Y X; Todd, Andrew J; Safronov, Boris V

    2013-08-15

    Spinal lamina I is a key area for relaying and integrating information from nociceptive primary afferents with various other sources of inputs. Although lamina I projection neurons have been intensively studied, much less attention has been given to local-circuit neurons (LCNs), which form the majority of the lamina I neuronal population. In this work the infrared light-emitting diode oblique illumination technique was used to visualize and label LCNs, allowing reconstruction and analysis of their dendritic and extensive axonal trees. We show that the majority of lamina I neurons with locally branching axons fall into the multipolar (with ventrally protruding dendrites) and flattened (dendrites limited to lamina I) somatodendritic categories. Analysis of their axons revealed that the initial myelinated part gives rise to several unmyelinated small-diameter branches that have a high number of densely packed, large varicosities and an extensive rostrocaudal (two or three segments), mediolateral, and dorsoventral (reaching laminae III-IV) distribution. The extent of the axon and the occasional presence of long, solitary branches suggest that LCNs may also form short and long propriospinal connections. We also found that the distribution of axon varicosities and terminal field locations show substantial heterogeneity and that a substantial portion of LCNs is inhibitory. Our observations indicate that LCNs of lamina I form intersegmental as well as interlaminar connections and may govern large numbers of neurons, providing anatomical substrate for rostrocaudal "processing units" in the dorsal horn.

  10. The contributions to the human dorsal column tracts from the spinal cord laminae.

    PubMed

    Kirazlı, Özlem; Solmaz, Bilgehan; Çavdar, Safiye

    2016-09-01

    The dorsal column tracts (fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus) are concerned with discriminative qualities of sensation. There are controversial descriptions related to the relations of dorsal column tracts with the dorsal horn laminae in text-books. The present study aims to define the laminae of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that contribute fibers to the dorsal column tracts in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal level. Series paraffin spinal cords sections of six formalin-embalmed adult human cadavers were evaluated. The present study shows that dorsal column tracts receive fiber contributions from laminae III and V and from Clarke's dorsal nucleus at varying spinal levels. At upper cervical levels (C1-C4) fiber contributions were from lamina V and few from lamina III, and at lower cervical levels (C5-C8) there were, in addition to these laminae, also contributions from the Clarke's dorsal nucleus. At upper thoracic levels (T1-T4) fiber contributions were from lamina V and few from Clarke's dorsal nucleus. At lower thoracic (T5-T12) and lumbar levels (L1-L5), in contrast, fiber contributions were only from Clarke's dorsal nucleus. The detailed knowledge of organization of the dorsal column tracts of the spinal cord may pave the way for future treatments of the spinal cord injuries.

  11. Occurrence of ozone laminae near the boundary of the stratospheric polar vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, S.J.; Vaughan, G. ); Kyro, E. )

    1993-05-20

    The authors report on observations of laminae in ozone distributions observed at high northern latitudes near the polar vortex. Regions of enhanced and depleted ozone density are observed. Data from ozonesonde collections and lidar measurements during the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Expedition (AASE) are analyzed, and compared with earlier work. The ozonesonde archives of the World Meteorological Organization are also examined in this analysis. The laminae are observed to distribute differently as a function of season, and with the potential temperature. Transport of ozone equatorward is also found with a class of these laminae.

  12. Changes in lamina cribrosa and prelaminar tissue after deep sclerectomy

    PubMed Central

    Barrancos, C; Rebolleda, G; Oblanca, N; Cabarga, C; Muñoz-Negrete, F J

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the response of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and prelaminar tissue to a reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) after nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods A total of 28 eyes from 28 patients presenting with primary open angle glaucoma who underwent NPDS were studied. SD-OCT scans using EDI technology were obtained before surgery and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. The OCT device was set to image a 15 × 10° vertical rectangle centred on the optic disc. The scan closest to the optic nerve head (ONH) centre was selected for analysis. The vertical distances from three equidistant points on the reference line (Bruch's membrane opening) to the anterior prelaminar tissue surface and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the LC were measured. Results The IOP decreased from 18.7±4.3 to 9.1±4.0 at the first week, 11.4±3.7 at 1 month, and 13.1±3.6 mm Hg at 3 months postoperatively (P<0.001). There was a significant reduction of the ONH cupping at 1 week (22.3%, P<0.001), 1 month (13.7%, P<0.001), and 3 months (9.8%, P=0.001) after surgery. Anterior displacement of the LC was slight but statistically significant at 1 week (4.5%, P=0.003), 1 month (3.8%, P=0.014), and 3 months postoperatively (3.3%, P=0.010). IOP reduction was significantly correlated with a reduction of ONH cupping and anterior displacement of LC at the first week and first month (P<0.05). Conclusions Cupping reversal after NPDS is mainly due to changes in prelaminar tissue thickness, whereas the LC changes in position are less pronounced. PMID:24232316

  13. Defects of the Lamina Cribrosa in High Myopia and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Atsuya; Ikuno, Yasushi; Asai, Tomoko; Usui, Shinich; Nishida, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of the defects of the lamina cribrosa (LC) in high myopia and glaucoma, and compared them with control eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods One hundred fifty-nine eyes of 108 participants were divided into four subgroups; high myopia with glaucoma (MG, 67 eyes of 46 subjects), glaucoma without high myopia (G, 22 eyes of 13 subjects), high myopia without glaucoma (M, 35 eyes of 29 subjects), and a control group with neither glaucoma nor high myopia (C, 35 eyes of 20 subjects). The LC defects were identified and located using a standardized protocol in serial horizontal OCT scans. The prevalence rates of the defects were compared among the groups. Demographic and ocular factors were compared between eyes with and without defects. Results LC defects were observed in one eye (0.03%) in the C group, 8 eyes (22.9%) in the M group, 11 eyes (50%) in the G group, and 28 eyes (41.8%) in the MG group. The prevalence rates of the defects differed significantly among the groups (P = 0.0009). Most eyes with defects in the G and MG groups (79.5%) had damage in the corresponding visual hemifields. Other factors such as visual acuity, intraocular pressure, axial length, refractive error, disc ovality, or parapapillary atrophy area did not differ significantly between eyes with and without LC defects. Conclusions High myopia and glaucoma significantly increased the risk of LC damage. The LC damage in non-glaucomatous highly myopic eyes may at least partly explain the increased risk of developing glaucoma in myopic eyes. PMID:26366870

  14. Plate-like permanent dental laminae of upper jaw dentition in adult gobiid fish, Sicyopterus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Keita; Watanabe, Shun; Iida, Midori; Sahara, Noriyuki

    2010-04-01

    Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae) possesses a unique upper jaw dentition different from that known for any other teleosts. In the adults, many (up to 30) replacement teeth, from initiation to attachment, are arranged orderly in a semicircular-like strand within a capsule of connective tissue on the labial side of each premaxillary bone. We have applied histological, ultrastructural, and three-dimensional imaging from serial sections to obtain insights into the distribution and morphological features of the dental lamina in the upper jaw dentition of adult S. japonicus. The adult fish has numerous permanent dental laminae, each of which is an infolding of the oral epithelium at the labial side of the functional tooth and forms a thin plate-like structure with a wavy contour. All replacement teeth of a semicircular-like strand are connected to the plate-like dental lamina by the outer dental epithelium and form a tooth family; neighboring tooth families are completely separated from each other. The new tooth germ directly buds off from the ventro-labial margin of the dental lamina, whereas no distinct free end of the dental lamina is present, even adjacent to this region. Cell proliferation concentrated at the ventro-labial margin of the dental lamina suggests that this region is the site for repeated tooth initiation. During tooth development, the replacement tooth migrates along a semicircular-like strand and eventually erupts through the dental lamina into the oral epithelium at the labial side of the functional tooth. This unique thin plate-like permanent dental lamina and the semicircular-like strand of replacement teeth in the upper jaw dentition of adult S. japonicus probably evolved as a dental adaptation related to the rapid replacement of teeth dictated by the specialized feeding habit of this algae-scraping fish.

  15. Co-dependence between trypanosome nuclear lamina components in nuclear stability and control of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Maishman, Luke; Obado, Samson O.; Alsford, Sam; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Chen, Wei-Ming; Ratushny, Alexander V.; Navarro, Miguel; Horn, David; Aitchison, John D.; Chait, Brian T.; Rout, Michael P.; Field, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is a filamentous structure subtending the nuclear envelope and required for chromatin organization, transcriptional regulation and maintaining nuclear structure. The trypanosomatid coiled-coil NUP-1 protein is a lamina component functionally analogous to lamins, the major lamina proteins of metazoa. There is little evidence for shared ancestry, suggesting the presence of a distinct lamina system in trypanosomes. To find additional trypanosomatid lamina components we identified NUP-1 interacting proteins by affinity capture and mass-spectrometry. Multiple components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and a second coiled-coil protein, which we termed NUP-2, were found. NUP-2 has a punctate distribution at the nuclear periphery throughout the cell cycle and is in close proximity to NUP-1, the NPCs and telomeric chromosomal regions. RNAi-mediated silencing of NUP-2 leads to severe proliferation defects, gross alterations to nuclear structure, chromosomal organization and nuclear envelope architecture. Further, transcription is altered at telomere-proximal variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites (ESs), suggesting a role in controlling ES expression, although NUP-2 silencing does not increase VSG switching. Transcriptome analysis suggests specific alterations to Pol I-dependent transcription. NUP-1 is mislocalized in NUP-2 knockdown cells and vice versa, implying that NUP-1 and NUP-2 form a co-dependent network and identifying NUP-2 as a second trypanosomatid nuclear lamina component. PMID:27625397

  16. Cervical myelopathy caused by invagination of anomalous lamina of the axis.

    PubMed

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Yasui, Yukihiko; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Ohzono, Kenji; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2013-12-01

    The authors report a case of cervical myelopathy caused by invagination of the bilaterally separated lamina of the axis. They also present a literature review. The patient was a previously healthy 68-year-old man with a 1-year history of slowly progressive gait disturbance, right-hand clumsiness, and right dominant sensory disturbance in his trunk and extremities. Both MRI and CT showed that the spinal cord was markedly compressed at the C2-3 level, on the right side, by a deeply invaginated anomalous lamina of the axis. A bilaterally separated lamina was also visible. The patient underwent removal of the anomalous invaginated fragment of the separated lamina and the spinous process of the axis. One year after surgery, his myelopathic symptoms had almost completely resolved. Here, the authors present the case of a patient with an extremely rare anomaly of the lamina of the axis. The underlying pathogenesis of this anomaly could be the failure of the 2 chondrification centers on either side to fuse into a single ossification center. Surgical removal of the anomalous invaginated lamina produced a satisfactory outcome.

  17. Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in Monkey Early Experimental Glaucoma: Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Juan; Lockwood, Howard; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Williams, Galen; Yang, Hongli; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize experimental glaucoma (EG) versus control eye differences in lamina cribrosa (LC), beam diameter (BD), pore diameter (PD), connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF), connective tissue volume (CTV), and LC volume (LV) in monkey early EG. Methods Optic nerve heads (ONHs) of 14 unilateral EG and 6 bilateral normal (BN) monkeys underwent three-dimensional reconstruction and LC beam segmentation. Each beam and pore voxel was assigned a diameter based on the largest sphere that contained it before transformation to a common cylinder with inner, middle, and outer layers. Full-thickness and layer averages for BD, PD, CTVF, CTV, and LV were calculated for each ONH. Beam diameter and PD distributions for each ONH were fit to a gamma distribution and summarized by scale and shape parameters. Experimental glaucoma and depth effects were assessed for each parameter by linear mixed-effects (LME) modeling. Animal-specific EG versus control eye differences that exceeded the maximum intereye difference among the six BN animals were considered significant. Results Overall EG eye mean PD was 12.8% larger (28.2 ± 5.6 vs. 25.0 ± 3.3 μm), CTV was 26.5% larger (100.06 ± 47.98 vs. 79.12 ± 28.35 × 106 μm3), and LV was 40% larger (229.29 ± 98.19 vs. 163.63 ± 39.87 × 106 μm3) than control eyes (P ≤ 0.05, LME). Experimental glaucoma effects were significantly different by layer for PD (P = 0.0097) and CTVF (P < 0.0001). Pore diameter expanded consistently across all PDs. Experimental glaucoma eye-specific parameter change was variable in magnitude and direction. Conclusions Pore diameter, CTV, and LV increase in monkey early EG; however, EG eye-specific change is variable and includes both increases and decreases in BD and CTVF. PMID:27362781

  18. Investigating Invasives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  19. Prognostic significance of presence and reduplication of basal lamina in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Di Muzio, M; Spoletini, L; Strizzi, L; Vianale, G; Fontana, V; Orengo, M A; Tassi, G; Casalini, A; Mutti, L; Procopio, A

    2000-11-01

    The prognosis of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MM) is dependent more on tumor extension and differentiation than on therapeutic effects. Reduplication of the basal lamina (RBL) is an ultrastructural feature of some benign and malignant tumors that has been inversely correlated with aggressiveness and was recently described in MM. To investigate whether RBL is important for predicting the survival of patients with MM, transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the presence of basal lamina or RBL in biopsy specimens obtained by thoracoscopy from 35 patients. Cox's regression analysis was used to study the relation of these ultrastructural features to survival. Better outcomes were found for patients whose tumors expressed either basal lamina (HR 0.48; 95% CI, 0.09-2.47) or RBL (HR 0.38; 95% CI 0.12-1.22) compared with the reference category, where basal lamina or RBL was not found. The expression of basal lamina and RBL is an important novel prognostic factors in MM. HUM PATHOL 31:1341-1345.

  20. Distinct structural and mechanical properties of the nuclear lamina in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Kris Noel; Scaffidi, Paola; Islam, Mohammad F; Yodh, Arjun G; Wilson, Katherine L; Misteli, Tom

    2006-07-05

    The nuclear lamina is a network of structural filaments, the A and B type lamins, located at the nuclear envelope and throughout the nucleus. Lamin filaments provide the nucleus with mechanical stability and support many basic activities, including gene regulation. Mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding A type lamins, cause numerous human diseases, including the segmental premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Here we show that structural and mechanical properties of the lamina are altered in HGPS cells. We demonstrate by live-cell imaging and biochemical analysis that lamins A and C become trapped at the nuclear periphery in HGPS patient cells. Using micropipette aspiration, we show that the lamina in HGPS cells has a significantly reduced ability to rearrange under mechanical stress. Based on polarization microscopy results, we suggest that the lamins are disordered in the healthy nuclei, whereas the lamins in HGPS nuclei form orientationally ordered microdomains. The reduced deformability of the HGPS nuclear lamina possibly could be due to the inability of these orientationally ordered microdomains to dissipate mechanical stress. Surprisingly, intact HGPS cells exhibited a degree of resistance to acute mechanical stress similar to that of cells from healthy individuals. Thus, in contrast to the nuclear fragility seen in lmna null cells, the lamina network in HGPS cells has unique mechanical properties that might contribute to disease phenotypes by affecting responses to mechanical force and misregulation of mechanosensitive gene expression.

  1. [Anatomical characteristics of laminae and petioles of 11 species of Salvia and their taxonomic significance].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Shi-Yong; Wang, Long; Wang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Li

    2014-07-01

    Anatomical features of the lamina and petiole of 11 species of Salvia had been compared. The microstructures of 11 species of Salvia were observed by paraffin method, and indexes such as the epidermis, xylems and phloems were measured. The data set was analyzed by principal components analysis method and cluster analysis method. The results indicated that the laminae of 11 species of Salvia were bifacial leaf, and the surface of laminae and petioles were covered with villous. The upper epidermis and lower epidermis of the laminae of 11 species of Salvia were constituted by a dense cuticular layer without stratum corneum. Differences existed in the structure of cross sectio mn of laminae and petioles of 11 species of Salvia. Among them, upper epidermal thickness of nine different micromorphological characters could serve as one of the criteria to identify species of taxonomic Salvia. The identification of genetic relationship of these characters in Salvia were discussed in the paper to provide an evidence of anatomy in Salvia.

  2. Nuclear Envelope Lamin-A Couples Actin Dynamics with Immunological Synapse Architecture and T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    González-Granado, José María; Trigueros-Motos, Laia; Cibrián, Danay; Morlino, Giulia; Blanco-Berrocal, Marta; Osorio, Fernando Garcia; Freije, José María Pérez; López-Otín, Carlos; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Andrés, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    In many cell types, nuclear A-type lamins have been implicated in structural and functional activities, including higher-order genome organization, DNA replication and repair, gene transcription, and signal transduction. However, their role in specialized immune cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we showed that the abundance of A-type lamins is almost negligible in resting naïve T lymphocytes, but that it is substantially increased upon activation of the T cell receptor (TCR), and is an early event that accelerates formation of the immunological synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. We found that lamin-A enhanced the polymerization of F-actin in T cells, a critical step for immunological synapse formation, by physically connecting the nucleus to the plasma membrane through the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. We also showed that lamin-A played a key role in other membrane, cytoplasmic, and nuclear events related to TCR activation, including receptor-clustering, downstream signaling, and target gene expression. Notably, the presence of lamin-A was associated with enhanced extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 signaling, and pharmacological inhibition of this pathway reduced the extent of lamin-A–dependent T cell activation. Moreover, mice deficient in lamin-A exhibited impaired T cell responses in vivo. These findings underscore the importance of A-type lamins for TCR activation, and identify lamin-A as a previously unappreciated regulator of the immune response. PMID:24757177

  3. Nuclear envelope lamin-A couples actin dynamics with immunological synapse architecture and T cell activation.

    PubMed

    González-Granado, José M; Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; Rocha-Perugini, Vera; Trigueros-Motos, Laia; Cibrián, Danay; Morlino, Giulia; Blanco-Berrocal, Marta; Osorio, Fernando G; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Andrés, Vicente

    2014-04-22

    In many cell types, nuclear A-type lamins regulate multiple cellular functions, including higher-order genome organization, DNA replication and repair, gene transcription, and signal transduction; however, their role in specialized immune cells remains largely unexplored. We showed that the abundance of A-type lamins was almost negligible in resting naïve T lymphocytes, but was increased upon activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). The increase in lamin-A was an early event that accelerated formation of the immunological synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Polymerization of F-actin in T cells is a critical step for immunological synapse formation, and lamin-A interacted with the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex to promote F-actin polymerization. We also showed that lamin-A expression accelerated TCR clustering and led to enhanced downstream signaling, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling, as well as increased target gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway reduced lamin-A-dependent T cell activation. Moreover, mice lacking lamin-A in immune cells exhibited impaired T cell responses in vivo. These findings underscore the importance of A-type lamins for TCR activation and identify lamin-A as a previously unappreciated regulator of the immune response.

  4. Effects of changes in composite lamina properties on laminate coefficient of thermal expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.; Funk, Joan G.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of the effects of changes in composite lamina properties on the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, has been made. Low modulus graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and high modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic and near-zero CTE laminate configurations. The effects of changes in lamina properties on the laminate CTE strongly depend upon the type of composite material as well as the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.22 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminates. No significant differences were observed in the sensitivities of the laminate CTEs of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to identical changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can also result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

  5. Responses of Trapa natans L. floating laminae to high concentrations of manganese.

    PubMed

    Baldisserotto, C; Ferroni, L; Anfuso, E; Pagnoni, A; Fasulo, M P; Pancaldi, S

    2007-01-01

    The present study focuses on the responses of floating laminae of the Mn-tolerant hydrophyte Trapa natans L. to 1 mM Mn and their ability to accumulate the metal. Studies were carried out first on young floating laminae belonging to the second verticil of 30-day-old plants which originated from fruits that had been maintained in a 1 mM Mn-treated environment and again on the young floating laminae after 10 days of further treatment with 1 mM Mn. Mn storing was observed from the first days after germination, but only 10-day-treated laminae showed the capability to hyperaccumulate the element inside specialised cells (>20000 microg/g [dry weight]). Electron microscopy and the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction for phenolics revealed deposits of chelated material inside vacuoles of the first palisade layer and of idioblasts in the spongy tissue. X-ray microanalysis indicated that the deposits were Mn chelated with phenolic compounds. Numerous trichomes were observed at the lower epidermis of 10-day-treated laminae. They were rich in phenolics and characterised by Mn concretions at their base. As they are associated with a high concentration of the metal in culture water and sediments, trichomes may constitute a morphological differentiation for the secretion of Mn-chelating molecules into the culture water, as a probable "avoidance" mechanism. Finally, monitoring of the photosynthetic apparatus showed that photosynthetic function was not impaired, though differences in development occurred.

  6. Invasive Species

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  7. Invasive Candidiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida . Unlike Candida ... mouth and throat (also called “thrush”) or vaginal “yeast infections,” invasive candidiasis is a serious infection that ...

  8. Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, M A; Stavenga, D G

    2016-05-01

    Butterflies belonging to the nymphalid subfamily, Morphinae, are famous for their brilliant blue wing coloration and iridescence. These striking optical phenomena are commonly explained as to originate from multilayer reflections by the ridges of the wing scales. Because the lower lamina of the scales of related nymphalid butterflies, the Nymphalinae, plays a dominant role in the wing coloration, by acting as a thin film reflector, we investigated single blue scales of three characteristic Morpho species: M. epistrophus, M. helenor and M. cypris. The experimental data obtained by spectrophotometry, scatterometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that also in the Morpho genus the lower lamina of both the cover and ground scales acts as an optical thin film reflector, contributing importantly to the blue structural coloration of the wings. Melanin pigment has a contrast-enhancing function in a sub-class of ground scales.

  9. Climatology of the relationship between ozone lamina number and daily value of total ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, Peter

    2016-04-01

    This poster deals with relationship between positive and negative lamina number and daily values of total ozone at the ozonosonde stations with sufficient length of observations. We search for this relationship at the European and the Japanese ozonosonde stations as well at the American and Canadian midlatitude stations and at the stations in the high latitudes At the European midlatitude stations there is a strong positive correlations between daily values of positive lamina number and daily values of ozone amount up to 30 km. These correlations are weaker and negative for negative lamina number. Are these findings geographically dependent? Is any latitudinal dependence of this relationship? Are there any differences between the Arctic and the Antarctica? This poster try to answer these question.

  10. Bullous pemphigoid: role of complement and mechanisms for blister formation within the lamina lucida.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Kitajima, Yasuo

    2013-06-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP), an autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin disease, demonstrates tense blisters with or without widespread erythema, blistering along the lamina lucida, immunoglobulin G and/or complement deposits at the basement membrane zone, and the presence of circulating autoantibodies against hemidesmosomal molecules. These autoantibodies usually react against 180-kDa and/or 230-kDa proteins, designated as BP180 and BP230, respectively. The precise blistering mechanisms after autoantibodies bind to antigens are not fully understood. Immune complexes are thought to initially activate the complement cascade, which may induce activation of proteases and/or cytokines and cause dermal-epidermal separation. However, why does separation run specifically within the lamina lucida in a space as narrow as 500 nm wide? This review mainly focuses on the possible mechanisms of BP-specific blistering and how separation occurs along the lamina lucida, based on existing evidence.

  11. Subfrontal trans-lamina terminalis approach to a third ventricular craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Omar; Chang, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are benign, partly cystic epithelial tumors that can rarely occur in a retrochiasmatic location with involvement of the third ventricle. The lamina terminalis is an important neurosurgical corridor to these craniopharyngiomas in the anterior portion of the third ventricle. We present a video case of a large midline suprasellar and third ventricular craniopharyngioma in a 32-year-old male with visual disturbances. The tumor was approached with a subfrontal translamina terminalis exposure, and a gross-total resection of the tumor was achieved. This surgery involved working through a lamina terminalis fenestration around the optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tracts, and the anterior communicating artery complex. This video illustrates the techniques employed in performing a transbasal anterior skull base approach to the third ventricle and demonstrates vivid surgical anatomy of neurovascular structures around the lamina terminalis. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/fCYMgx8SnKs .

  12. Type I collagen reduces the degradation of basal lamina proteoglycan by mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    When mouse mammary epithelial cells are cultured on a plastic substratum, no basal lamina forms. When cultured on a type I collagen gel, the rate of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis is unchanged, but the rate of GAG degradation is markedly reduced and a GAG-rich, basal lamina-like structure accumulates. This effect of collagen was investigated by comparing the culture distribution, nature, and metabolic stability of the 35S-GAG-containing molecules produced by cells on plastic and collagen. During 48 h of labeling with 35SO4, cultures on collagen accumulate 1.4-fold more 35S-GAG per microgram of DNA. In these cultures, most of the extracellular 35S-GAG is immobilized with the lamina and collagen gel, whereas in cultures on plastic all extracellular 35S-GAG is soluble. On both substrata, the cells produce several heparan sulfate-rich 35S-proteoglycan fractions that are distinct by Sepharose CL-4B chromatography. The culture types contain similar amounts of each fraction, except that collagen cultures contain nearly four times more of a fraction that is found largely bound to the lamina and collagen gel. During a chase this proteoglycan fraction is stable in cultures on collagen, but is extensively degraded in cultures on plastic. Thus, collagen-induced formation of a basal lamina correlates with reduced degradation and enhanced accumulation of a specific heparan sulfate-rich proteoglycan fraction. Immobilization and stabilization of basal laminar proteoglycan(s) by interstitial collagen may be a physiological mechanism of basal lamina maintenance and assembly. PMID:7298723

  13. Characterization of the surface and interfacial properties of the lamina splendens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexwinkle, Joe T.; Hunt, Heather K.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.

    2017-01-01

    Joint disease affects approximately 52.5 million patients in the United States alone, costing 80.8 billion USD in direct healthcare costs. The development of treatment programs for joint disease and trauma requires accurate assessment of articular cartilage degradation. The articular cartilage is the interfacial tissue between articulating surfaces, such as bones, and acts as low-friction interfaces. Damage to the lamina splendens, which is the articular cartilage's topmost layer, is an early indicator of joint degradation caused by injury or disease. By gaining comprehensive knowledge on the lamina splendens, particularly its structure and interfacial properties, researchers could enhance the accuracy of human and animal biomechanical models, as well as develop appropriate biomimetic materials for replacing damaged articular cartilage, thereby leading to rational treatment programs for joint disease and injury. Previous studies that utilize light, electron, and force microscopy techniques have found that the lamina splendens is composed of collagen fibers oriented parallel to the cartilage surface and encased in a proteoglycan matrix. Such orientation maximizes wear resistance and proteoglycan retention while promoting the passage of nutrients and synovial fluid. Although the structure of the lamina splendens has been explored in the literature, the low-friction interface of this tissue remains only partially characterized. Various functional models are currently available for the interface, such as pure boundary lubrication, thin films exuded under pressure, and sheets of trapped proteins. Recent studies suggest that each of these lubrication models has certain advantages over one another. Further research is needed to fully model the interface of this tissue. In this review, we summarize the methods for characterizing the lamina splendens and the results of each method. This paper aims to serve as a resource for existing studies to date and a roadmap of the

  14. Histopathology and enhanced detection of tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jey-Hsin; Borges, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Tumor invasion of the peritoneal membrane may have an adverse prognostic significance, but its histopathologic features can be diagnostically difficult to recognize. We observed that local peritoneal injury associated with tumor invasion is characterized by activation and proliferation of serosal stromal cells that express cytokeratin, a characteristic property of injured serosal membranes that may have diagnostic utility. To explore this, we examined 120 primary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreaticobiliary system using cytokeratin and elastic stains to assess for tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes. Peritoneal invasion by tumor was associated with retraction, splaying, and destruction of the elastic lamina and proliferation of keratin-expressing stromal cells of serosal membranes. All 82 peritoneal invasive tumors were characterized by neoplastic cells that invaded the elastic lamina and the serosal connective tissue with neoplastic cells that abutted or were surrounded by keratin-positive stromal cells, whereas all 38 tumors limited to the subserosa showed none of these features. The diagnosis of tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes is enhanced by the combined use of cytokeratin and elastic stains, which in turn would enable better histopathologic correlation with patient treatment and outcome.

  15. Histopathology and enhanced detection of tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Tumor invasion of the peritoneal membrane may have an adverse prognostic significance, but its histopathologic features can be diagnostically difficult to recognize. We observed that local peritoneal injury associated with tumor invasion is characterized by activation and proliferation of serosal stromal cells that express cytokeratin, a characteristic property of injured serosal membranes that may have diagnostic utility. To explore this, we examined 120 primary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreaticobiliary system using cytokeratin and elastic stains to assess for tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes. Peritoneal invasion by tumor was associated with retraction, splaying, and destruction of the elastic lamina and proliferation of keratin-expressing stromal cells of serosal membranes. All 82 peritoneal invasive tumors were characterized by neoplastic cells that invaded the elastic lamina and the serosal connective tissue with neoplastic cells that abutted or were surrounded by keratin-positive stromal cells, whereas all 38 tumors limited to the subserosa showed none of these features. The diagnosis of tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes is enhanced by the combined use of cytokeratin and elastic stains, which in turn would enable better histopathologic correlation with patient treatment and outcome. PMID:28282462

  16. Synthesis by Schwann cells of basal lamina and membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Primary cultures that contain only Schwann cells and sensory nerve cells synthesize basal lamina. The assembly of this basal lamina appears to be essential for normal Schwann cell development. In this study, we demonstrate that Schwann cells synthesize two major heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycans. Both proteoglycans band in dissociative CsCl gradients at densities less than 1.4 g/ml, and therefore, presumably, have relatively low carbohydrate-to-protein ratios. The larger of these proteoglycans elutes from Sepharose CL-4B in 4 M guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) at a Kav of 0.21 and contains heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains of Mr 21,000 in a ratio of approximately 3:1. This proteoglycan is extracted from cultures by 4 M GuHCl but not Triton X-100 and accumulates only when Schwann cells are actively synthesizing basal lamina. The smaller proteoglycan elutes from Sepharose CL-4B at a Kav of 0.44 and contains heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains of Mr 18,000 in a ratio of approximately 4:1. This proteoglycan is extracted by 4 M GuHCl or by Triton X-100. The accumulation of this proteoglycan is independent of basal lamina production. PMID:3160714

  17. The anatomy at the lamina cribrosa in the normal cat eye.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1982-10-01

    In normal cat eyes, the mean cross-sectional area of the nerve fiber bundles is greater in the temporal than in the nasal lamina cribrosa. The area occupied by the interbundle trabeculae is less in the temporal sectors than in the nasal sectors of the nerve. The number and the shape of the laminar pores are similar in all nerve sectors.

  18. Harmonic oscillations of laminae in non-Newtonian fluids: A lattice Boltzmann-Immersed Boundary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the fluid dynamics induced by a rigid lamina undergoing harmonic oscillations in a non-Newtonian calm fluid is investigated. The fluid is modelled through the lattice Boltzmann method and the flow is assumed to be nearly incompressible. An iterative viscosity-correction based procedure is proposed to properly account for the non-Newtonian fluid feature and its accuracy is evaluated. In order to handle the mutual interaction between the lamina and the encompassing fluid, the Immersed Boundary method is adopted. A numerical campaign is performed. In particular, the effect of the non-Newtonian feature is highlighted by investigating the fluid forces acting on a harmonically oscillating lamina for different values of the Reynolds number. The findings prove that the non-Newtonian feature can drastically influence the behaviour of the fluid and, as a consequence, the forces acting upon the lamina. Several considerations are carried out on the time history of the drag coefficient and the results are used to compute the added mass through the hydrodynamic function. Moreover, the computational cost involved in the numerical simulations is discussed. Finally, two applications concerning water resources are investigated: the flow through an obstructed channel and the particle sedimentation. Present findings highlight a strong coupling between the body shape, the Reynolds number, and the flow behaviour index.

  19. Specific intra-tissue responses to manganese in the floating lamina of Trapa natans L.

    PubMed

    Baldisserotto, C; Ferroni, L; Medici, V; Pagnoni, A; Pellizzari, M; Fasulo, M P; Fagioli, F; Bonora, A; Pancaldi, S

    2004-09-01

    Plant tolerance to heavy metals requires morpho-physiological mechanisms that are still poorly understood, especially in hydrophytes. This study focuses on the young floating lamina of the rhyzophyte Trapa natans exposed for 10 d to 130 microM Mn. The lamina has the ability to bioaccumulate Mn (> 3000 microg g(-1)). X-ray microanalysis of Mn cellular distribution revealed accumulation in the upper epidermis, in the first palisade layer, and in the idioblasts of the spongy tissue, which were shown with electron microscopy to contain osmiophilic vacuolar deposits, also observed to a minor extent in the control leaves. On the basis of biochemical and histochemical tests, these deposits were attributed to phenolic compounds that were probably able to chelate Mn. Net photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, room temperature microspectrofluorimetric analyses, and ultrastructural studies of plastids were performed to evaluate the status of the photosynthetic apparatus. A greater development of thylakoid membranes was observed in plastids of the second palisade and spongy tissue, which, however, did not accumulate Mn. Only the spongy tissue experienced inadequate assembly of PS II, but this did not significantly influence the photosynthetic yield of the whole lamina. It was concluded that T. natans can optimise productivity in the presence of Mn by means of specific intra-tissue responses within the framework of the floating lamina.

  20. Inelastic deformation mechanisms in SCS-6/Ti 15-3 MMC lamina under compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newaz, Golam M.; Majumdar, Bhaskar S.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the inelastic deformation mechanisms in (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) Ti 15-3/SCS-6 lamina subjected to pure compression. Monotonic tests were conducted at room temperature (RT), 538 C and 650 C. Results indicate that mechanical response and deformation characteristics were different in monotonic tension and compression loading whereas some of those differences could be attributed to residual stress effects. There were other differences because of changes in damage and failure modes. The inelastic deformation in the (0)(sub 8) lamina under compression was controlled primarily by matrix plasticity, although some evidence of fiber-matrix debonding was observed. Failure of the specimen in compression was due to fiber buckling in a macroscopic shear zone (the failure plane). The inelastic deformation mechanisms under compression in (90)(sub 8) lamina were controlled by radial fiber fracture, matrix plasticity, and fiber-matrix debonding. The radial fiber fracture was a new damage mode observed for MMC's. Constitutive response was predicted for both the (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) laminae, using AGLPLY, METCAN, and Battelle's Unit Cell FEA model. Results from the analyses were encouraging.

  1. Remodeling of the Nuclear Envelope and Lamina during Bovine Preimplantation Development and Its Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Popken, Jens; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Schmid, Volker J.; Strauss, Axel; Guengoer, Tuna; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Wolf, Eckhard; Cremer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a major remodeling of the nuclear envelope and its underlying lamina during bovine preimplantation development. Up to the onset of major embryonic genome activation (MGA) at the 8-cell stage nuclei showed a non-uniform distribution of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). NPCs were exclusively present at sites where DNA contacted the nuclear lamina. Extended regions of the lamina, which were not contacted by DNA, lacked NPCs. In post-MGA nuclei the whole lamina was contacted rather uniformly by DNA. Accordingly, NPCs became uniformly distributed throughout the entire nuclear envelope. These findings shed new light on the conditions which control the integration of NPCs into the nuclear envelope. The switch from maternal to embryonic production of mRNAs was accompanied by multiple invaginations covered with NPCs, which may serve the increased demands of mRNA export and protein import. Other invaginations, as well as interior nuclear segments and vesicles without contact to the nuclear envelope, were exclusively positive for lamin B. Since the abundance of these invaginations and vesicles increased in concert with a massive nuclear volume reduction, we suggest that they reflect a mechanism for fitting the nuclear envelope and its lamina to a shrinking nuclear size during bovine preimplantation development. In addition, a deposit of extranuclear clusters of NUP153 (a marker for NPCs) without associated lamin B was frequently observed from the zygote stage up to MGA. Corresponding RNA-Seq data revealed deposits of spliced, maternally provided NUP153 mRNA and little unspliced, newly synthesized RNA prior to MGA, which increased strongly at the initiation of embryonic expression of NUP153 at MGA. PMID:25932910

  2. Fos induction in lamina I projection neurons in response to noxious thermal stimuli.

    PubMed

    Todd, A J; Spike, R C; Young, S; Puskár, Z

    2005-01-01

    Lamina I of the spinal cord contains many projection neurons: the majority of these are activated by noxious stimulation, although some respond to other stimuli, such as innocuous cooling. In the rat, approximately 80% of lamina I projection neurons express the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor, on which substance P acts. Lamina I neurons can be classified into three main morphological classes: pyramidal, fusiform and multipolar cells. It has been reported that in the cat, pyramidal cells respond to innocuous cooling, and whilst both fusiform and multipolar cells are activated by noxious mechanical and heat stimuli, only cells in the latter group respond to noxious cold [Nat Neurosci 1 (1998) 218]. However, we have previously shown that NK1 receptor-immunoreactive projection neurons belonging to each morphological class are equally likely to up-regulate the transcription factor Fos after noxious chemical stimulation, and that the density of innervation by substance P-containing (nociceptive) afferents is similar for cells of each type [J Neurosci 22 (2002) 4103]. This suggests that the morphological-physiological correlation that has been reported in the cat may not apply in the rat. We have tested this further by examining Fos expression in lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons in the rat after application of noxious heat or noxious cold stimuli under general anesthesia. Following noxious heat, 57-69% of NK1 receptor-immunoreactive spinoparabrachial neurons expressed Fos, and the proportion did not differ significantly between morphological groups. However, after noxious cold stimulation Fos was present in 63% of multipolar neurons, but only 19-26% of fusiform or pyramidal cells. These results suggest that although most NK1 receptor-expressing spinoparabrachial neurons are activated by noxious stimuli, responsiveness to noxious cold is significantly more common in those of the multipolar type. There therefore appears to be a correlation between morphology and function for

  3. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tschopp, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata). Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future. PMID:26907769

  4. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    PubMed

    Tschopp, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata). Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  5. Active Outer Hair Cells Affect the Sound-Evoked Vibration of the Reticular Lamina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Stefan; Fridberger, Anders

    2011-11-01

    It is well established that the organ of Corti uses active mechanisms to enhance its sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Two possible mechanisms have been identified, both capable of producing mechanical forces, which can alter the sound-evoked vibration of the hearing organ. However, little is known about the effect of these forces on the sound-evoked vibration pattern of the reticular lamina. Current injections into scala media were used to alter the amplitude of the active mechanisms in the apex of the guinea pig temporal bone. We used time-resolved confocal imaging to access the vibration pattern of individual outer hair cells. During positive current injection the the sound-evoked vibration of outer hair cell row three increased while row one showed a small decrease. Negative currents reversed the observed effect. We conclude that the outer hair cell mediated modification of reticular lamina vibration patterns could contribute to the inner hair cell stimulation.

  6. Failure of a fiber composite lamina under three-dimensional stresses

    SciTech Connect

    DeTeresa, S J

    1999-08-31

    The efficient use of thick-section fiber composites requires a proven three-dimensional failure model. Numerous failure criteria have been proposed, but the lack of critical experimental results makes it difficult to assess the accuracy of these models. It is shown that the various predictions for failure of a lamina due to the simple state of uniaxial stress plus superposed hydrostatic pressure are disparate. These differences are sufficient to allow evaluation of failure criteria using data that has the normal scatter found for composite materials. A high-pressure test system for fiber composites is described and results for the effects of pressure on the transverse and longitudinal compression strengths of a carbon fiber/epoxy lamina are discussed. Results are compared with a few representative failure models.

  7. Morphology of inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in superficial laminae of the rat dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, David J; Belle, Mino D; Cheunsuang, Ornsiri; Stewart, Anika; Morris, Richard

    2007-10-15

    If we are to stand any chance of understanding the circuitry of the superficial dorsal horn, it is imperative that we can identify which classes of interneuron are excitatory and which are inhibitory. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that there is a correlation between the morphology of an interneuron and its postsynaptic action. We used in vitro slice preparations of the rat spinal cord to characterize and label interneurons in laminae I-III with Neurobiotin. Labelled cells (n = 19) were reconstructed in 3D with Neurolucida and classified according to the scheme proposed by Grudt & Perl (2002). We determined if cells were inhibitory or excitatory by reacting their axon terminals with antibodies to reveal glutamate decrboxylase (for GABAergic cells) or the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (for glutamatergic cells). All five islet cells retrieved were inhibitory. Of the six vertical (stalked) cells analysed, four were excitatory and, surprisingly, two were inhibitory. It was noted that these inhibitory cells had axonal projections confined to lamina II whereas excitatory vertical cells projected to lamina I and II. Of the remaining neurons, three were radial cells (2 inhibitory, 1 excitatory), two were antennae cells (1 inhibitory, 1 excitatory), one was an inhibitory central cell and the remaining two were unclassifiable excitatory cells. Our hypothesis appears to be correct only for islet cells. Other classes of cells have mixed actions, and in the case of vertical cells, the axonal projection appears to be a more important determinant of postsynaptic action.

  8. The influence of microtextured basal lamina analog topography on keratinocyte function and epidermal organization.

    PubMed

    Downing, Brett R; Cornwell, Kevin; Toner, Mehmet; Pins, George D

    2005-01-01

    The rational design of future bioengineered skin substitutes requires an understanding of the mechanisms by which the three-dimensional microarchitecture of tissue scaffolds modulates keratinocyte function. Microtextured basal lamina analogs were developed to investigate the relationship between the characteristic topography at the dermal-epidermal interface of native skin and keratinocyte function. Microfabrication techniques were used to create master patterns, negative replicates, and collagen membranes with ridges and channels of length scales (e.g., grooves of 50-200 microm in depth and width) similar to the invaginations found in basal lamina at the dermal-epidermal junction of native skin. Keratinocytes were seeded on the surfaces of basal lamina analogs, and histological analyses were performed after 7 days of tissue culture at the air-liquid interface. The keratinocytes formed a differentiated and stratified epidermis that conformed to the features of the microtextured membranes. Morphometric analyses of immunostained skin equivalents suggest that keratinocyte stratification and differentiation increases as channel depth increases and channel width decreases. This trend was most pronounced in channels with the highest depth-to-width ratios (i.e., 200 microm deep, 50 microm wide). It is anticipated that the findings from these studies will elucidate design parameters to enhance the performance of future bioengineered skin substitutes.

  9. Fission yeast Lem2 and Man1 perform fundamental functions of the animal cell nuclear lamina.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Yanira; Saito, Akira; Sazer, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    In animal cells the nuclear lamina, which consists of lamins and lamin-associated proteins, serves several functions: it provides a structural scaffold for the nuclear envelope and tethers proteins and heterochromatin to the nuclear periphery. In yeast, proteins and large heterochromatic domains including telomeres are also peripherally localized, but there is no evidence that yeast have lamins or a fibrous nuclear envelope scaffold. Nonetheless, we found that the Lem2 and Man1 proteins of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, evolutionarily distant relatives of the Lap2/Emerin/Man1 (LEM) sub-family of animal cell lamin-associated proteins, perform fundamental functions of the animal cell lamina. These integral inner nuclear membrane localized proteins, with nuclear localized DNA binding Helix-Extension-Helix (HEH) domains, impact nuclear envelope structure and integrity, are essential for the enrichment of telomeres at the nuclear periphery and by means of their HEH domains anchor chromatin, most likely transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin, to the nuclear periphery. These data indicate that the core functions of the nuclear lamina are conserved between fungi and animal cells and can be performed in fission yeast, without lamins or other intermediate filament proteins.

  10. Metal effects on soil invertebrate feeding: measurements using the bait lamina method.

    PubMed

    Filzek, Petra D B; Spurgeon, David J; Broll, Gabriele; Svendsen, Claus; Hankard, Peter K; Parekh, Nisha; Stubberud, Hege E; Weeks, Jason M

    2004-11-01

    Heightened concerns regarding the protection of terrestrial ecosystems at a national level has increased the need to develop a suite of indicators capable of assessing the quality, integrity and fertility of soils. Of the assays currently available, tests that measure aspects of soil function and associated parameters are among the most promising, since these integrate effects on soil quality at the highest level of organisation. In this study we describe results of the deployment of an indicator of soil functional integrity (the bait lamina test) that is designed to measure the feeding activity of soil invertebrates. Bait lamina was used at six grassland sites located along a transect from a smelter at Avonmouth (South-West England) used in the EU funded BIOPRINT II project. Results indicated highest bait removal (feeding) at sites furthest from the factory, intermediate feeding activity at intervening sites and extremely low activities at the two sites closest to the smelter. The strong decline in activity for the group of sites closest to the smelter corresponded with increasing metal concentrations suggesting a clear impact of metals on detritivorous invertebrate feeding. Comparisons of the results of the bait lamina study to previous invertebrate survey work suggested that the differences in observed bait removal can be attributed to direct effects of metals on the abundance and biodiversity of key decomposer groups such as earthworms, isopods, molluscs, myriapods, springtails and mites.

  11. Determination of tensile and compressive moduli of laminae in unidirectionally reinforced laminate by flexural tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklinski, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used in engineering despite of various simplifications. One of which, that do matters in this article, is neglecting the difference between tensile and compressive moduli. Experimental tests reveal that for fibre reinforced composites tensile moduli are generally greater than compressive ones. This paper presents the results of testing the laminate composed of four unidirectionally glass reinforced laminae separated by layers of glass mat. The specimens were subjected to flexural, tensile and compressive loading in order to calculate corresponding moduli of elasticity. The results were compared using equations of Classical Beam Theory. Knowing the tensile and compressive moduli of glass mat reinforced laminae and performing flexural tests of laminate it is possible to calculate the tensile and compressive moduli of unidirectionally glass reinforced laminae. The experimental data taken into calculations correspond to linear normal strains of 0.0005 and 0.0025. The experimental data are consistent with results of calculations within acceptable margin of tolerance.

  12. Insights into the structure and composition of the peritubular dentin organic matrix and the lamina limitans.

    PubMed

    Bertassoni, Luiz Eduardo; Stankoska, Katerina; Swain, Michael Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Dentin is a mineralized dental tissue underlying the outer enamel that has a peculiar micro morphology. It is composed of micrometer sized tubules that are surrounded by a highly mineralized structure, called peritubular dentin (PTD), and embedded in a collagen-rich matrix, named intertubular dentin. The PTD has been thought to be composed of a highly mineralized collagen-free organic matrix with unknown composition. Here we tested the hypothesis that proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, two important organic structural features found in dentin, are key participants in the microstructure and composition of the PTD. To test this hypothesis dentin blocks were demineralized with 10 vol% citric acid for 2 min and either digested with 1mg/ml TPCK-treated trypsin with 0.2 ammonium bicarbonate at pH 7.9 (TRY) or 0.1 U/mL C-ABC with 50mM Tris, 60mM sodium acetate and 0.02% bovine serum albumin at pH 8.0 (C-ABC). TRY is known to cleave the protein core of dentin proteoglycans, whereas C-ABC is expected to selectively remove glycosaminoglycans. All specimens were digested for 48 h in 37°C, dehydrated in ascending grades of acetone, immersed in HMDS, platinum coated and imaged using an FE-SEM. Images of demineralized dentin revealed a meshwork of noncollagenous fibrils protruding towards the tubule lumen following removal of the peritubular mineral and confirmed the lack of collagen in the peritubular matrix. Further, images revealed that the peritubular organic network originates from a sheet-like membrane covering the entire visible length of tubule, called lamina limitans. Confirming our initial hypothesis, after the digestion with C-ABC the organic network appeared to vanish, while the lamina limitans was preserved. This suggests that glycosaminoglycans are the main component of the PTD organic network. Following digestion with TRY, both the organic network and the lamina limitans disappeared, thus suggesting that the lamina limitans may be primarily composed of

  13. Multi-scale Rule-of-Mixtures Model of Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Lamina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Roddick, Jaret C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    A unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy lamina in which the carbon fibers are coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes is modeled with a multi-scale method, the atomistically informed rule-of-mixtures. This multi-scale model is designed to include the effect of the carbon nanotubes on the constitutive properties of the lamina. It included concepts from the molecular dynamics/equivalent continuum methods, micromechanics, and the strength of materials. Within the model both the nanotube volume fraction and nanotube distribution were varied. It was found that for a lamina with 60% carbon fiber volume fraction, the Young's modulus in the fiber direction varied with changes in the nanotube distribution, from 138.8 to 140 GPa with nanotube volume fractions ranging from 0.0001 to 0.0125. The presence of nanotube near the surface of the carbon fiber is therefore expected to have a small, but positive, effect on the constitutive properties of the lamina.

  14. A new source of structural autograft for ACDF surgery: cervical laminae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaming; Xiong, Xu; Long, Xinhua; Shu, Yong; Huang, Shanhu; Yang, Dong; Liu, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Study design: A prospective study and a technical note. Background: Autograft is considered to be the gold standard in achieving optimal fusion in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). In patients with combined postero-anterior cervical procedure, whether the cervical laminae harvested from laminectomy can be used as astructural bone graft in ACDF? Few studies have reported about this. Objective: To describe the clinical and radio graphic outcomes in patients undergoing combined postero-anterior cervical surgery using autologous laminae as bone graft in ACDF. Methods: Twenty-two patients (13 males, 9 females) with cervical spondylotic myelopathy underwent one-level combined postero-anterior procedure with anterior plate fixation from January 2010 to January 2014. All the patients received computed tomography scan before surgery and the heights of the target laminae and the middle intervertebral space were measured. Then, patients underwent combined postero-anterior surgery with laminectomy and ACDF. The structural laminae obtained from laminectomy were used as bone graft in ACDF. The clinical and radiographic outcomes of the patients were analyzed and the effectiveness and safety of the surgery was evaluated. Results: The average heights of the target laminae and the middle intervertebral space were 11.18±1.05 mm and 5.75±0.58 mm, respectively. Statistical significant difference was found between the heights of the laminae and the space (P<0.001). The mean operative time was 192±37 minutes with an average blood loss volume of 235±71 ml. All patients were followed up and the average follow-up period was 17.5±3.1 months. All patients had immediate postoperative resolution of symptoms and radiographic evidence of solid fusion 3 months later. Postoperatively, excellent results were reported in 62.5%, good results in 18.8%, and fair results in 18.8% of the patients according to Odom’s criteria. Visual analog scale score of the neck and extremities pain

  15. Angled Growth of the Dental Lamina Is Accompanied by Asymmetrical Expression of the WNT Pathway Receptor Frizzled 6

    PubMed Central

    Putnová, Iveta; Dosedělová, Hana; Bryja, Vitezslav; Landová, Marie; Buchtová, Marcela; Štembírek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Frizzled 6 (FZD6) belongs to a family of proteins that serve as receptors in the WNT signaling pathway. FZD6 plays an important role in the establishment of planar cell polarity in many embryonic processes such as convergent extension during gastrulation, neural tube closure, or hair patterning. Based on its role during hair development, we hypothesized that FZD6 may have similar expression pattern and function in the dental lamina, which is also a distinct epithelial protrusion growing characteristically angled into the mesenchyme. Diphyodont minipig was selected as a model species because its dentition closely resemble human ones with successional generation of teeth initiated from the dental lamina. We revealed asymmetrical expression of FZD6 in the dental lamina of early as well as late stages during its regression with stronger expression located on the labial side of the dental lamina. During lamina regression, FZD6-positive cells were found in its superficial part and the signal coincided with the upregulation of molecules involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and increased migratory potential of epithelial cells. FZD6-expression was also turned on during differentiation of cells producing hard tissues, in which mature odontoblasts, ameloblasts, or surrounding osteoblasts were FZD6-positive. On the other hand, the tip of successional lamina and its lingual part, in which progenitor cells are located, exhibited FZD6-negativity. In conclusion, asymmetrical expression of FZD6 correlates with the growth directionality and side-specific morphological differences in the dental lamina of diphyodont species. Based on observed expression pattern, we propose that the dental lamina is other epithelial tissue, where planar cell polarity signaling is involved during its asymmetrical growth. PMID:28197104

  16. Significance of host cell kinases in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress and lamin-associated protein disassembly from the nuclear lamina

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Natalie R.; Roller, Richard J.

    2010-10-10

    The nuclear lamina is thought to be a steric barrier to the herpesvirus capsid. Disruption of the lamina accompanied by phosphorylation of lamina proteins is a conserved feature of herpesvirus infection. In HSV-1-infected cells, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and delta isoforms are recruited to the nuclear membrane and PKC delta has been implicated in phosphorylation of emerin and lamin B. We tested two critical hypotheses about the mechanism and significance of lamina disruption. First, we show that chemical inhibition of all PKC isoforms reduced viral growth five-fold and inhibited capsid egress from the nucleus. However, specific inhibition of either conventional PKCs or PKC delta does not inhibit viral growth. Second, we show hyperphosphorylation of emerin by viral and cellular kinases is required for its disassociation from the lamina. These data support hypothesis that phosphorylation of lamina components mediates lamina disruption during HSV nuclear egress.

  17. Sensitization of lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons parallels heat hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, David

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed that spinal lamina I neurons with ascending axons that project to the midbrain play a crucial role in hyperalgesia. To test this hypothesis the quantitative properties of lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain were compared to those of unoperated and sham-operated controls. Behavioural testing showed that animals with a CCI exhibited heat hyperalgesia within 4 days of the injury, and this hyperalgesia persisted throughout the 14-day post-operative testing period. In the CCI, nociceptive lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons had heat thresholds that were significantly lower than controls (43.0 ± 2.8°C vs. 46.7 ± 2.6°C; P < 10−4, ANOVA). Nociceptive lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons were also significantly more responsive to graded heat stimuli in the CCI, compared to controls (P < 0.02, 2-factor repeated-measures ANOVA), and increased after-discharges were also observed. Furthermore, the heat-evoked stimulus–response functions of lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons in CCI animals co-varied significantly (P < 0.03, ANCOVA) with the amplitude of heat hyperalgesia determined behaviourally. Taken together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons have an important mechanistic role in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. PMID:19289544

  18. Harmonic oscillations of a lamina in a viscous fluid near a solid surface: A lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a rigid thickless lamina is immersed in a quiescent viscous fluid and it undergoes transverse finite amplitude harmonic oscillations near a solid surface. The surrounding flow physics is computed through the lattice Boltzmann method. In order to account for the presence of the lamina in the lattice fluid background, the Immersed Boundary method is adopted. Several scenarios are investigated by varying the distance between the initial position of the lamina and the solid wall. For a given lamina-solid surface distance, the effect of the Reynolds number is investigated, together with the influence of the Keulegan-Carpenter number. Findings in terms of drag coefficient show that the force exerted by the encompassing fluid upon the lamina is remarkably influenced by the distance from the solid surface, especially for low values of the Reynolds number. Moreover, such results are confirmed by the computation of the hydrodynamic function. In fact, it highlights that the added mass effect and the non-linear damping experienced by the oscillating lamina grow as the above mentioned distance and the Reynolds number reduce.

  19. Sensitivity of the coefficients of thermal expansion of selected graphite reinforced composite laminates to lamina thermoelastic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Funk, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of the sensitivity of the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, to changes in lamina elastic properties has been made. High modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic, low thermal stress, and 'near-zero' thermal expansion laminate configurations. The effects of a positive or negative 10 percent change in lamina properties on laminate CTE is strongly dependent upon both the composite material and the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in all of the lamina properties had very little effect on the laminate CTE of the HMS/Gl composite laminates investigated. The sensitivity and direction of change in the laminate CTE of Gr/934 depended very strongly on the fiber properties. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.216 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminate. No significant difference was observed in the sensitivity of the laminate CTE of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

  20. Invasive Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Todd P; Pappas, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a collective term that refers to a group of infectious syndromes caused by a variety of species of Candida, 5 of which cause most cases. Candidemia is the most commonly recognized syndrome associated with invasive candidiasis. Certain conditions may influence the likelihood for one species versus another in a specific clinical scenario, and this can have important implications for selection of antifungal therapy and the duration of treatment. Molecular diagnostic technology plays an ever-increasing role as an adjunct to traditional culture-based diagnostics, offering significant potential toward improvement in patient care.

  1. Cortical lamina technique: A therapeutic approach for lateral ridge augmentation using guided bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Raison; Baron, Tarun-Kumar; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom-Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a novel technique, the bone lamina technique, in horizontal ridge augmentation clinically & radiographically using a combination of allogenic cortical shell, particulate xenograft and resorbable collagen membrane. Material and Methods Localized horizontal ridge defects, in ten patients (6 male, 4 female), with bucco-palatal ridge width less than 5 mm were included in this study. Localised ridge augmentation was performed using bone lamina technique with mineralised allogenic shell of 1 mm thickness trimmed to the appropriate size using stereo-lithographic models and fixed to the recipient site with stainless steel micro-screws of 1 mm diameter. The space between the shell & host bone was filled with particulate xenograft followed by placement of collagen membrane and primary closure of the site. Clinical parameters including ridge width before & after flap reflection & radiographic (CBCT) ridge width measurements were recorded pre-operatively,and six months after the augmentation procedure. Results obtained were analysed statistically. Results The mean clinical ridge width before flap reflection (BFR), after flap reflection (AFR) & radiographically was 3.7 ± 0.74 mm, 2 ± 0.70 mm & 1.77 ± 0.71 mm respectively at baseline which increased to 6.8 ± 0.95 mm, 5.15 ± 0.98 mm & 4.90 ± 0.90 mm with a mean gain in ridge width of 3.1 ± 0.63 mm (p< 0.005), 3.15 ± 0.63 mm (p<0.005) & 3.13 ± 0.70 mm (p< 0.005) respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that bone lamina technique can be effective means of horizontal ridge augmentation and the use of mineralized allograft in combination with xenograft and collagen membrane leads to good amount of bone regeneration for subsequent implant placement. Key words:Dental implant, guided bone regeneration, horizontal ridge defect, ridge augmentation. PMID:28149458

  2. Morpho-physiological and biochemical responses in the floating lamina of Trapa natans exposed to molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Baldisserotto, Costanza; Ferroni, Lorenzo; Zanzi, Cristina; Marchesini, Roberta; Pagnoni, Antonella; Pancaldi, Simonetta

    2010-04-01

    The response to molybdenum (Mo) was studied in the metal-tolerant hydrophyte Trapa natans L. Previously, it was shown that the plant accumulates Mn in the floating lamina by means of phenolic compounds and responded with acclimation responses of the chloroplast. Since the involvement of phenolics has been proposed also in Mo resistance, we tested the response of T. natans to increasing doses (5, 50, 150, 600 microM) of Mo using the photosynthetic apparatus as an indicator of cellular stress. Only 5 microM Mo did not cause evident modifications with respect to controls. Conversely, 50 to 600 microM Mo induced progressively marked alterations of the lamina morphology. The chloroplast ultrastructure showed disorganisation of the thylakoid system, and correspondingly, the photosynthetic pigment pattern was altered with a fall-down in photosynthesis. Microspectrofluorimetry indicated alterations of photosystem II, with differences among the three cell layers (first and second palisade and spongy tissues). While the highest dose caused plant death, 50 and 150 microM Mo-treated plants underwent partial recovery, and the plant survived up to the end of the vegetative season. However, reproduction was unsuccessful. Mo treatment did not induce increase in total phenolics, but only in anthocyanin. In contrast to Mn, detoxification of Mo by chelation inside vacuoles, possibly by anthocyanins, is suggested to be an insufficient mechanism to reduce Mo toxicity, which probably includes an impairment of nitrogen metabolism. However, the metal was accumulated in the lamina. On the whole, T. natans showed limited capabilities to survive Mo excess as compared with Mn.

  3. Delayed myelopathy secondary to stab wound with a retained blade tip within the laminae: case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Delayed neurologic deficit after a stab wound with a retained foreign body near the spinal canal is unusual, adequate radiological examination is fundamental in detecting retained foreign bodies, especially the CT scan, surgical extraction of the foreign body is the primary task and the surgical outcome is satisfactory. Here, we report a rare case of delayed myelopathy caused by spinal stenosis secondary to broken blade tip within thoracic laminae in an old man, who was injured in a knife attack 39 years ago. The incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. PMID:26629221

  4. Enhanced depth OCT imaging of the lamina cribrosa for 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Bonilla, Pedro; Giménez-Gómez, Rafael; Ríos-Jiménez, David; Varas-Fabra, María Luísa; Muñoz-Villanueva, María del Carmen; García-Catalán, Rocío; Font-Ugalde, Pilar; Poblador-Fernández, María Soledad; Lancho-Alonso, José Luís; Gallardo-Galera, José María

    2017-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa thickness (LCT) could be affected by dynamic changes in its structure. Using Spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we have studied the behaviour of the laminar region in 14 young subjects over 24h. Significant changes in LCT were observed, depending on the time at which the measurement was taken, with the maximum thickness being observed at 7.30 p.m., and the minimum at 7.30 a.m. This finding could suggests a circadian pattern in the LCT thickness in healthy subjects, which could have implications for the classification, diagnosis and prognosis of both normal and glaucomatous subjects. PMID:28251093

  5. Vibration Measurement on Reticular Lamina and Basilar Membrane at Multiple Longitudinal Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Choudhury, Niloy; Fridberger, Anders; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2011-11-01

    The longitudinal distribution of the organ of Corti vibration is important for both understanding the energy delivery and the timing of the cochlear amplification. Recent development on low coherence interferomtry technique allows measuring vibration inside the cochlea. The reticular lamina (RL) vibration spectrum demonstrates that RL vibration leads the basilar membrane (BM). This phase lead is consistent with the idea that the active process may lead the BM vibration. In this study, measurements on multiple longitudinal locations demonstrated similar phase lead. Results on this study suggests that there may be another longitudinal coupling mechanism inside the cochlea other than the traveling wave on BM.

  6. Serum endostatin levels are elevated in colorectal cancer and correlate with invasion and systemic inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Kantola, T; Väyrynen, J P; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karppinen, S M; Pihlajaniemi, T; Autio-Harmainen, H; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J; Tuomisto, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with anti-tumour functions. However, elevated circulating endostatin concentrations have been found in several human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Serum endostatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay from a series of 143 patients with CRC and from 84 controls, and correlated with detailed clinicopathological features of CRC, serum leukocyte differential count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Patients with CRC had higher serum endostatin levels than the controls (P=0.005), and high levels associated with age, tumour invasion through the muscularis propria and poor differentiation, but not with metastases. Endostatin levels showed a positive correlation with the markers of systemic inflammatory response and a negative correlation with the densities of tumour-infiltrating mast cells and dendritic cells. Collagen XVIII was expressed in tumour stroma most strikingly in blood vessels and capillaries, and in the muscle layer of the bowel wall. Conclusions: Elevated endostatin levels in CRC correlate with systemic inflammation and invasion through the muscularis propria. Increased endostatin level may be a result of invasion-related cleavage of collagen XVIII expressed in the bowel wall. The negative correlations between serum endostatin and intratumoural mast cells and immature dendritic cells may reflect angiogenesis inhibition by endostatin. PMID:25137019

  7. Diverse firing properties and Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-afferent inputs of small local circuit neurons in spinal lamina I.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elisabete C; Luz, Liliana L; Mytakhir, Oleh; Lukoyanov, Nikolai V; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V

    2016-02-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key element of the pain processing system, which integrates primary afferent input and relays it to supraspinal areas. More than 90% of neurons in this layer are local circuit neurons, whose role in the signal processing is poorly understood. We performed whole-cell recordings in a spinal cord preparation with attached dorsal roots to examine morphological features and physiological properties of small local circuit neurons (n = 47) in lamina I. Cells successfully filled with biocytin (n = 17) had fusiform (n = 10), flattened (n = 4), and multipolar (n = 3) somatodendritic morphology; their axons branched extensively and terminated in laminae I-III. Intrinsic firing properties were diverse; in addition to standard tonic (n = 16), adapting (n = 7), and delayed (n = 6) patterns, small local circuit neurons also generated rhythmic discharges (n = 6) and plateau potentials (n = 10), the latter were suppressed by the L-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker nifedipine. The neurons received monosynaptic inputs from Aδ and C afferents and could generate bursts of spikes on the root stimulation. In addition, we identified lamina I neurons (n = 7) with direct inputs from the low-threshold Aβ afferents, which could be picked up by ventral dendrites protruding to lamina III. Stimulation of afferents also evoked a disynaptic inhibition of neurons. Thus, small local circuit neurons exhibit diverse firing properties, can generate rhythmic discharges and plateau potentials, and their dendrites extending into several laminae allow broad integration of Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-afferent inputs. These properties are required for processing diverse modalities of nociceptive inputs in lamina I and may underlie spinal sensitization to pain.

  8. Immunocytochemical localization of the major polypeptides of the nuclear pore complex-lamina fraction. Interphase and mitotic distribution

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    This laboratory has previously isolated a fraction from rat liver nuclei consisting of nuclear pore complexes associated with the proteinaceous lamina which underlies the inner nuclear membrane. Using protein eluted from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels, we have prepared antibodies in chickens to each of the three predominant pore complex- lamina bands. Ouchterlony double diffusion analysis shows that each of these individual bands cross-reacts strongly with all three antisera. In immunofluorescence localization performed on tissue culture cells with these antibodies, we obtain a pattern of intense staining at the periphery of the interphase nucleus, with little or no cytoplasmic reaction. Electron microscope immunoperoxidase staining of rat liver nuclei with these antibodies labels exclusively the nuclear periphery. Furthermore, reaction occurs in areas which contain the lamina, but not at the pore complexes. While our isolation procedure extracts the internal contents of nuclei completely, semiquantitative Ouchterlony analysis shows that it releases negligible amounts of these lamina antigens. Considered together, our results indicate that these three bands represent major components of a peripheral nuclear lamina, and are not structural elements of an internal "nuclear protein matrix." Fluorescence microscopy shows that the perinuclear interphase localization of these lamina proteins undergoes dramatic changes during mitosis. Concomitant with nuclear envelope disassembly in prophase, these antigens assume a diffuse localization throughout the cell. This distribution persists until telophase, when the antigens become progressively and completely localized at the surface of the daughter chromosome masses. We propose that the lamina is a biological polymer which can undergo reversible disassembly during mitosis. PMID:102651

  9. The shaking B gene in Drosophila regulates the number of gap junctions between photoreceptor terminals in the lamina.

    PubMed

    Shimohigashi, M; Meinertzhagen, I A

    1998-04-01

    The molecular structure of insect gap junctions differs from that in vertebrates, and in Drosophila is possibly encoded by the shaking B (= Passover) locus. shaking B2 is a null allele that acts in the nervous system. In the shakB2 mutant, one site of action are gap junctions between photoreceptor terminals in the cartridges of the lamina, beneath the compound eye, which we assayed from the number of close-apposition profiles in thin-section EM. The number of profiles in the Canton-S (C-S) wild type is about 0.5 per cartridge per section in distal and mid-lamina depths, and significantly less, about one quarter this value, closer to the brain, in the proximal lamina. In shakB2, there are fewer profiles, approximately one quarter the number of appositions in distal and mid-lamina depths as in C-S, and their number does not differ significantly from those at the proximal depth in either the mutant or wild type. Thus mutant action is associated with a reduced number of appositions at distal and mid-lamina depths. We propose that R1-R6 gap junctions are partitioned into at least two strata, proximal and distal, and that two populations of gap junctions exist, one extending throughout the lamina that does not require shakB, and a second at distal and mid-depth levels, which does. The number of gap junctions is reduced in mutant shakB2, and surviving appositions at distal and middle lamina depths possibly have wider clefts than in C-S. Gap junctions are reduced equally between all R1-R6 terminals, so the two different types of junction proposed, shakB2- and non-shakB2-dependent, can apparently express in a single receptor terminal.

  10. What Is Cancer of the Esophagus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... The lamina propria is a thin layer of connective tissue right under the epithelium. The muscularis mucosa is ... lamina propria. Submucosa: This is a layer of connective tissue just below the mucosa that contains blood vessels ...

  11. Anchoring of Heterochromatin to the Nuclear Lamina Reinforces Dosage Compensation-Mediated Gene Repression

    PubMed Central

    Brouhard, Elizabeth A.; Jiang, Jianhao; Sifuentes, Margarita H.

    2016-01-01

    Higher order chromosome structure and nuclear architecture can have profound effects on gene regulation. We analyzed how compartmentalizing the genome by tethering heterochromatic regions to the nuclear lamina affects dosage compensation in the nematode C. elegans. In this organism, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to repress transcription two-fold, thus balancing gene expression between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. X chromosome structure is disrupted by mutations in DCC subunits. Using X chromosome paint fluorescence microscopy, we found that X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are also disrupted when the mechanisms that anchor heterochromatin to the nuclear lamina are defective. Strikingly, the heterochromatic left end of the X chromosome is less affected than the gene-rich middle region, which lacks heterochromatic anchors. These changes in X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are accompanied by small, but significant levels of derepression of X-linked genes as measured by RNA-seq, without any observable defects in DCC localization and DCC-mediated changes in histone modifications. We propose a model in which heterochromatic tethers on the left arm of the X cooperate with the DCC to compact and peripherally relocate the X chromosomes, contributing to gene repression. PMID:27690361

  12. Microchannel neural interface manufacture by stacking silicone and metal foil laminae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancashire, Henry T.; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Ajam, Yazan Al; Magee, Elliot; Donaldson, Nick; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Microchannel neural interfaces (MNIs) overcome problems with recording from peripheral nerves by amplifying signals independent of node of Ranvier position. Selective recording and stimulation using an MNI requires good insulation between microchannels and a high electrode density. We propose that stacking microchannel laminae will improve selectivity over single layer MNI designs due to the increase in electrode number and an improvement in microchannel sealing. Approach. This paper describes a manufacturing method for creating MNIs which overcomes limitations on electrode connectivity and microchannel sealing. Laser cut silicone—metal foil laminae were stacked using plasma bonding to create an array of microchannels containing tripolar electrodes. Electrodes were DC etched and electrode impedance and cyclic voltammetry were tested. Main results. MNIs with 100 μm and 200 μm diameter microchannels were manufactured. High electrode density MNIs are achievable with electrodes present in every microchannel. Electrode impedances of 27.2 ± 19.8 kΩ at 1 kHz were achieved. Following two months of implantation in Lewis rat sciatic nerve, micro-fascicles were observed regenerating through the MNI microchannels. Significance. Selective MNIs with the peripheral nervous system may allow upper limb amputees to control prostheses intuitively.

  13. Chronic laminitis is associated with potential bacterial pathogens in the laminae.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Janet C; Park, Joong-Wook; Häggblom, Max M; Fennell, Michael J; Fugaro, Michael N

    2012-08-17

    A common sequella of chronic laminitis in horses is repeated abscesses with variable lameness and drainage. It is unclear whether the exudate represents the debridement phase of a non-septic inflammatory process involving clearance of laminar tissue damaged during the acute episode of laminitis, or a response to a microbial infection developed by ascent of microbes from the environment to the tissue via the white line. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility that an undiagnosed microbial infection in laminar tissue is present in laminar tissue collected from chronically laminitic horses without an active hoof abscess. Methods to collect laminar tissue, aseptically, from control (non-laminitic) horses and those with chronic/recurrent laminitis are described. Laminae homogenates were evaluated for the presence of bacteria. Bacteria were identified using biochemical tests and sequencing of 16S rRNA and virulence genes. Laminae from chronically laminitic horses revealed 100-fold higher levels (P=0.002) of bacteria compared to control, non-laminitic horses. Although environmental organisms were identified, potential pathogens were identified. Included were Gram positive bacteria, Brevibacterium luteolum, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. as well as Gram negative bacteria, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Alcaligenes faecalis. Further research is warranted to evaluate the role of bacteria in equine chronic laminitis.

  14. Genome-wide maps of nuclear lamina interactions in single human cells

    PubMed Central

    Kind, Jop; Pagie, Ludo; de Vries, Sandra S.; Nahidiazar, Leila; Dey, Siddharth S.; Bienko, Magda; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan; de Graaf, Carolyn A.; Amendola, Mario; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Imakaev, Maxim; Mirny, Leonid A.; Jalink, Kees; Dekker, Job; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; van Steensel, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mammalian interphase chromosomes interact with the nuclear lamina (NL) through hundreds of large Lamina Associated Domains (LADs). We report a method to map NL contacts genome-wide in single human cells. Analysis of nearly 400 maps reveals a core architecture of gene-poor LADs that contact the NL with high cell-to-cell consistency, interspersed by LADs with more variable NL interactions. The variable contacts tend to be cell-type specific and are more sensitive to changes in genome ploidy than the consistent contacts. Single-cell maps indicate that NL contacts involve multivalent interactions over hundreds of kilobases. Moreover, we observe extensive intra-chromosomal coordination of NL contacts, even over tens of megabases. Such coordinated loci exhibit preferential interactions as detected by Hi-C. Finally, consistency of NL contacts is inversely linked to gene activity in single cells, and correlates positively with the heterochromatic histone modification H3K9me3. These results highlight fundamental principles of single cell chromatin organization. PMID:26365489

  15. Re-regeneration of lower jaws and the dental lamina in adult urodeles.

    PubMed

    Graver, H T

    1978-09-01

    Transverse amputations were carried out through one-third fully regenerated jaw segments and through normal tissue of the mandible on the same and opposite sides of the jaw in adults of Notophthalmus viridescens. Collectively the results suggest that, in adult urodeles, the mandible and the dental lamina can be replaced in an identical manner more than one time. Although the major histological events are the same in jaw regeneration and re-regeneration, regrowth is more rapid in re-regeneration. It appears that recently differentiated tissues of the regenerate have a higher capacity for regeneration than normal tissues amputated for the first time. Re-regeneration of the jaw occurs by growth of the original regenerate cartilage which has undergone reorganization. In re-regeneration, the skeletal elements exhibit no polarity and regrowth occurs in both directions, while the dental lamina possesses an anterior-posterior polarity and can regrow in an anterior direction only. Information concerning the mechanisms involved in the regenerative events remain to be determined.

  16. Microfabric analysis of Mn-carbonate laminae deposition and Mn-sulfide formation in the Gotland Deep, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Ian T.; Kemp, Alan E. S.

    2002-05-01

    The manganese carbonate deposits of the anoxic Littorina sediments of the Gotland Deep have been commonly related to the periodic renewal of deep water by inflowing saline water from the North Sea. The use of scanning electron microscopy-based techniques allows identification of small-scale sedimentary and geochemical features associated with Mn-carbonate laminae, which has significant implications for models of Mn-carbonate formation. Varves occurring in the Littorina sequence contain up to four laminae that may be placed in a seasonal cycle, and kutnahorite laminae occur within varves only as a winter-early spring deposit. This kutnahorite laminae seasonality is in agreement with the seasonal distribution of major Baltic inflow events recorded in historical records, and a direct causal link between inflows and kutnahorite deposition is implied. Benthic foraminifera tests are found to be heavily encrusted in kutnahorite, implying that benthic recolonization during oxidation events occurs concurrently with kutnahorite formation. The relatively common occurrence of small (50 to 100 μm) hexagonal γ-Mn-sulfide pseudomorphs, associated with 13% of kutnahorite laminae studied, is reported in Gotland Deep sediments for the first time. Although Mn-sulfide crystals are not usually preserved in the sediment, the discovery of Mn-sulfide pseudomorphs suggests that initial formation of Mn-sulfide in the Gotland Deep may occur much more commonly during the process of kutnahorite formation than previous reports of Mn-sulfide occurrence have implied.

  17. Maintenance of Glia in the Optic Lamina Is Mediated by EGFR Signaling by Photoreceptors in Adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yuan-Ming; Sun, Y. Henry

    2015-01-01

    The late onset of neurodegeneration in humans indicates that the survival and function of cells in the nervous system must be maintained throughout adulthood. In the optic lamina of the adult Drosophila, the photoreceptor axons are surrounded by multiple types of glia. We demonstrated that the adult photoreceptors actively contribute to glia maintenance in their target field within the optic lamina. This effect is dependent on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands produced by the R1-6 photoreceptors and transported to the optic lamina to act on EGFR in the lamina glia. EGFR signaling is necessary and sufficient to act in a cell-autonomous manner in the lamina glia. Our results suggest that EGFR signaling is required for the trafficking of the autophagosome/endosome to the lysosome. The loss of EGFR signaling results in cell degeneration most likely because of the accumulation of autophagosomes. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for the role of adult neurons in the maintenance of glia and a novel role for EGFR signaling in the autophagic flux. PMID:25909451

  18. How cellulose-based leaf toughness and lamina density contribute to long leaf lifespans of shade-tolerant species.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Kaoru; Llorens, Anna-Maria; Stefanescu, Carla; Timchenko, Marta Vargas; Lucas, Peter W; Wright, S Joseph

    2012-08-01

    Cell wall fibre and lamina density may interactively affect leaf toughness and leaf lifespan. Here, we tested this with seedlings of 24 neotropical tree species differing in shade tolerance and leaf lifespan under standardized field conditions (140-867 d in gaps; longer in shade). We quantified toughness with a cutting test, explicitly seeking a mechanistic linkage to fibre. Lamina density, but not fracture toughness, exhibited a plastic response to gaps vs shade, while neither trait was affected by leaf age. Toughness corrected for lamina density, a recently recognized indicator of material strength per unit mass, was linearly correlated with cellulose content per unit dry mass. Leaf lifespan was positively correlated with cellulose and toughness in shade-tolerant species but only weakly in gap-dependent species. Leaf lifespan was uncorrelated with lamina thickness, phenolics and tannin concentrations. In path analysis including all species, leaf lifespan was directly enhanced by density and toughness, and indirectly by cellulose via its effect on toughness. Different suites of leaf traits were correlated with early seedling survival in gaps vs shade. In conclusion, cellulose and lamina density jointly enhance leaf fracture toughness, and these carbon-based physical traits, rather than phenolic-based defence, explain species differences in herbivory, leaf lifespan and shade survival.

  19. A particle image velocimetry study of the flow physics generated by a thin lamina oscillating in a viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalalisendi, Mohammad; Panciroli, Riccardo; Cha, Youngsu; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we study the flow physics produced by a thin rigid lamina oscillating in an otherwise quiescent viscous fluid. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to extract the flow kinematics, which is, in turn, utilized to reconstruct the pressure distribution around the lamina through the integration of Navier-Stokes equations. The hydrodynamic loading experienced by the lamina is ultimately estimated from PIV data to investigate added mass and fluid damping phenomena. Experiments are conducted for varying Reynolds and Keulegan-Carpenter numbers to elucidate the relative weight of inertial, convective, and viscous phenomena on the resulting flow physics. In agreement with prior numerical studies, experimental results demonstrate that increasing the Reynolds and the Keulegan-Carpenter numbers results into the formation of coherent structures that are shed at the edges of the lamina and advected by the flow. This phenomenon is associated with nonlinearities in the hydrodynamic loading, whereby fluid damping is found to increase nonlinearly with the oscillation of the lamina.

  20. Interannual Variability of Ozone in the Winter Lower Stratosphere and the Relationship to Lamina and Irreversible Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Yoshida, Yasuko

    2010-01-01

    We use the high-resolution dynamic limb sounder (HIRDLS) high-vertical resolution ozone profiles in the northern hemisphere lower stratosphere to examine the meridional transport out of the tropics. We focus on February 2005.2007 when there are differences in the dynamical background in the lower stratosphere due to the states of the quasibiennial oscillation and polar vortex. HIRDLS data reveal a large number of low ozone laminae that have the characteristics of tropical air at midlatitudes. More laminae are observed in February in 2006 than in 2005 or 2007. Because laminae can form, move out of the tropics, and return to the tropics without mixing into the midlatitude ozone field, the number of laminae is not directly related to the net transport. We use equivalent latitude coordinates to discriminate between reversible and irreversible laminar transport. The equivalent latitude analysis shows greater irreversible transport between the tropics and lower midlatitudes in both 2005 and 2007 compared to 2006 despite the higher number of laminae observed in 2006. Our conclusion that there was more irreversible transport of tropical air into the lower midlatitudes in 2005 and 2007 is supported by equivalent length analysis of mixing using microwave limb sounder N2O measurements. This study shows that reversibility must be considered in order to infer the importance of lamination to net transport.

  1. The Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Promotes the Herpesvirus-Induced Phosphorylation-Dependent Disassembly of the Nuclear Lamina Required for Nucleocytoplasmic Egress

    PubMed Central

    Milbradt, Jens; Hutterer, Corina; Bahsi, Hanife; Wagner, Sabrina; Sonntag, Eric; Kaufer, Benedikt B.; Mori, Yasuko; Sticht, Heinrich; Fossen, Torgils; Marschall, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear lamina lines the inner nuclear membrane providing a structural framework for the nucleus. Cellular processes, such as nuclear envelope breakdown during mitosis or nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein complexes, are functionally linked to the disassembly of the nuclear lamina. In general, lamina disassembly is mediated by phosphorylation, but the precise molecular mechanism is still not completely understood. Recently, we suggested a novel mechanism for lamina disassembly during the nuclear egress of herpesviral capsids which involves the cellular isomerase Pin1. In this study, we focused on mechanistic details of herpesviral nuclear replication to demonstrate the general importance of Pin1 for lamina disassembly. In particular, Ser22-specific lamin phosphorylation consistently generates a Pin1-binding motif in cells infected with human and animal alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we showed that binding of Pin1 to a synthetic lamin peptide induces its cis/trans isomerization in vitro. A detailed bioinformatic evaluation strongly suggests that this structural conversion induces large-scale secondary structural changes in the lamin N-terminus. Thus, we concluded that a Pin1-induced conformational change of lamins may represent the molecular trigger responsible for lamina disassembly. Consistent with this concept, pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 activity blocked lamina disassembly in herpesvirus-infected fibroblasts and consequently impaired virus replication. In addition, a phospho-mimetic Ser22Glu lamin mutant was still able to form a regular lamina structure and overexpression of a Ser22-phosphorylating kinase did not induce lamina disassembly in Pin1 knockout cells. Intriguingly, this was observed in absence of herpesvirus infection proposing a broader importance of Pin1 for lamina constitution. Thus, our results suggest a functional model of similar events leading to disassembly of the nuclear

  2. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  3. The Effect of Various Weave Designs on Mechanical Behavior of Lamina Intraply Composite Made from Kenaf Fiber Yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhazri, M. Y.; Amirhafizan, M. H.; Abdullah, A.; Sihombing, H.; Saarah, A. B.; Fadzol, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    The development of lamina intraply composite is a novel approach that can be adopted to address the challenges of balance mechanical properties of polymer composite. This research will focuses on the effects of weave designs on the mechanical behavior of a single ply or also known as lamina intraply composite. The six (6) specimens of lamina intraply composites were made by kenaf fiber as a reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix in various weave designs which were plain, twill, satin, basket, mock leno and leno weave. The vacuum infusion technique was adopted due to advantages over hand lay-up. It was found that the plain, twill and satin weave exhibited better mechanical properties on tensile strength. The fiber content of the specimen was 40% and the result of the resin content of the specimen was 60% due to the higher permeability of natural fiber.

  4. Composite lamina compressive properties using the Wyoming combined loading compression test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Peter Mark

    The determination of lamina compressive strength and modulus using the Wyoming Combined Loading Compression (CLC) test method was investigated. In this test method an untabbed [90/0]ns cross-ply test coupon is tested in uniaxial compression using the CLC test fixture. The longitudinal modulus and strength of the 0°-plies are determined by applying a back-out factor, calculated using Classical Lamination Theory, to the measured longitudinal laminate modulus and strength. A parametric study revealed that specimen quality, load train alignment, and fixture dimensional tolerances have a large impact on the measured compressive properties. Thus, a significant amount of time was dedicated to developing specimen fabrication and testing procedures to minimize variations in the measured compressive properties. A comparative study of the CLC and IITRI test fixtures showed that the CLC test fixture is superior to the IITRI fixture in many ways. Although the compressive properties measured using these two fixtures are often statistically equivalent, the CLC test fixture is easier to use, less expensive to fabricate, and much less massive than the IITRI fixture. In a second portion of the comparative study, the 0°-ply compressive strength obtained using [90/0]ns cross-ply test specimens was compared to the 0°-ply compressive strength obtained using quasi-isotropic test specimens. This revealed that the 0°-ply compressive strength was independent of the laminate orientation. This "backed-out" 0°-ply compressive strength is then by definition the "design value" for the strength of the composite material in compression. The present study showed that valid "design values" for the compressive strength of laminated composite materials can be obtained using the CLC test method. This was verified by testing two classes of structural components in compression, filament-wound cylinders, and honeycomb sandwich beams. The compressive strength of the 0°-plies at failure in the

  5. The relationship between the high-density lamina and precipitation in the subarctic Lake Mokoto, North Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, K.

    2015-12-01

    Koji Seto (ReCCLE, Shimane Univ.), Hiroyuki Takata (Pusan Univ.), Kota Katsuki (KIGAM), Takeshi Sonoda (Tokyo Univ. of Agr.) In the coastal area of the Sea of Okhotsk in the east part of Hokkaido located to for subarctic zone, many brackish-water lakes are distributed. Lake Mokoto has two-layer structure of polyhaline surface waters and mixoeuhaline bottom water. The bottom water shows the anoxic conditions in summer season. In this reason, the sediments of Lake Mokoto consist of organic mud with the lamination. The 09Mk-1C and 09Mk-2C cores collected from Lake Mokoto at 2009. In the soft X-ray photograph, the cyclic lamina set is observed in their core. The cyclic lamina set consists of low-, intermedium- and high-density lamina. It is considered that this cyclic lamina set is the verve. According to the meteorological data in Abashiri region, the annually precipitation is high from August to September. Probably, the cyclic lamina set is formed by seasonal change of precipitation. In this study, we are discussed about the relationship between the high-density lamina and precipitation by sedimentologic and geochemical high-resolution analysis. The 09Mk-1C and 09Mk-2C cores collected from Lake Mokoto show the length of 1.78 to 3.87m, respectively. In 09Mk-2C core, Ta-a tephra (AD 1739) was observed at the 3.5m depths. The 09Mk-1C core consist of organic mud with the lamination in all cores. The core top 100 cm in this core shows the black (N1.5/0), and it seems to indicate the seasonal anoxic environment as present. The organic mud below 100cm depth shows black (10YR1.7/1). The sedimentation rate in 09Mk-1C core increase from late 1960's for the age of cyclic lamina set. It is suggest that supply of sediment in Lake Mokoto is increasing by land development in drainage basin. Phosphorus flux in 09Mk-1C core increase from late 1950's. The increasing of phosphorus flux may be caused by excess drainage of pollution from stock farm. In 2015, we were able to take the new

  6. Functional coupling between the extracellular matrix and nuclear lamina by Wnt signaling in progeria.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Lidia; Roux, Kyle J; Wong, Esther Sook Miin; Mounkes, Leslie C; Mutalif, Rafidah; Navasankari, Raju; Rai, Bina; Cool, Simon; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Wang, Honghe; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kozlov, Serguei; Grunert, Martin; Keeble, Thomas; Jones, C Michael; Meta, Margarita D; Young, Stephen G; Daar, Ira O; Burke, Brian; Perantoni, Alan O; Stewart, Colin L

    2010-09-14

    The segmental premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGPS) is caused by a truncated and farnesylated form of Lamin A. In a mouse model for HGPS, a similar Lamin A variant causes the proliferative arrest and death of postnatal, but not embryonic, fibroblasts. Arrest is due to an inability to produce a functional extracellular matrix (ECM), because growth on normal ECM rescues proliferation. The defects are associated with inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling, due to reduced nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Lef1, but not Tcf4, in both mouse and human progeric cells. Defective Wnt signaling, affecting ECM synthesis, may be critical to the etiology of HGPS because mice exhibit skeletal defects and apoptosis in major blood vessels proximal to the heart. These results establish a functional link between the nuclear envelope/lamina and the cell surface/ECM and may provide insights into the role of Wnt signaling and the ECM in aging.

  7. Measurement of Basilar Membrane, Reticular Lamina, and Tectorial Membrane Vibrations in the Intact Mouse Cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan

    2011-11-01

    A scanning low-coherence heterodyne interferometer (SLHI) was developed for measuring the microstructural vibration inside the cochlear partition of the intact living cochlea of mice. The sensitivity, frequency response, and dynamic range of the SLHI are comparable with those of a sensitive laser interferometer but the SLHI has a higher spatial resolution along the optical axis. The magnitude and phase of sound-induced vibrations were measured as a function of the focal position along the optical axis. Our data show that the SLHI has sufficient sensitivity, dynamic range, and temporal and spatial resolution to measure sub-nanometer vibrations of the basilar membrane, reticular lamina, and tectorial membrane in the intact living mouse cochlea. High spatial and temporal resolution, compact heterodyne design, and scanning capability make this interferometer an ideal tool to study molecular mechanisms of hearing in normal and genetically-modified mice.

  8. Identifying functional populations among the interneurons in laminae I-III of the spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn receives input from primary afferent axons, which terminate in a modality-specific fashion in different laminae. The incoming somatosensory information is processed through complex synaptic circuits involving excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, before being transmitted to the brain via projection neurons for conscious perception. The dorsal horn is important, firstly because changes in this region contribute to chronic pain states, and secondly because it contains potential targets for the development of new treatments for pain. However, at present, we have only a limited understanding of the neuronal circuitry within this region, and this is largely because of the difficulty in defining functional populations among the excitatory and inhibitory interneurons. The recent discovery of specific neurochemically defined interneuron populations, together with the development of molecular genetic techniques for altering neuronal function in vivo, are resulting in a dramatic improvement in our understanding of somatosensory processing at the spinal level. PMID:28326935

  9. Application of polarization microscopy for the nonstained determination of myo-lamina morphology in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Justin S.; Criscione, John C.; Hudson, Kristen K.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2004-06-01

    The remodeling of cardiac tissues has been implicated in the development of congestive heart failure. Therefore, the current emphasis in cardiovascular research is geared toward understanding the underlying processes in order to facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment regimens by improving the early detection and diagnosis of this disease. This paper focuses on the application of polarized light to address a major drawback of cardiovascular biomechanics research, which is the utilization of toxic chemicals to prepare samples for histological examination. To accomplish this without the use of toxic chemicals, a polarization microscopy imaging technique was developed and applied to a non-stained rat septum sample. This imaging technique provided sufficient enhancement of collagenous structures to determine the myo-lamina sheet angle, β, without the need for caustic staining.

  10. Single-shot lamina thoracic paravertebral block with ketofol for modified radical mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rukewe, Ambrose; Afuwape, Oludolapo O; Ugheoke, Austin; Fatiregun, Akinola A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the use of single-shot lamina thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) with sedation for a 56-year-old female patient who had modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance. Two years ago, she suffered vocal cord palsy post thyroidectomy, which was managed with tracheostomy. The tracheostomy tube was removed 8 months later, leaving the patient with persistent hoarseness of voice and left vocal cord palsy. She declined general anesthesia and consented for TPVB. The surgery lasted 95 minutes and was successfully completed with TPVB. Her vital signs were stable during the operation. She had low pain scores, minimal opioid use, early alimentation, and no postoperative nausea and vomiting and was discharged early. We present the anesthetic management of this case in our setting, where TPVB under ultrasound guidance and modern drug-delivery systems for sedation are unavailable. PMID:27785098

  11. Functional correlates of activity in neurons projecting from the lamina terminalis to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray

    PubMed Central

    Uschakov, Aaron; McGinty, Dennis; Szymusiak, Ronald; McKinley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The lamina terminalis (LT) consists of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the subfornical organ (SFO). All subdivisions of the LT project to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). The LT and the vlPAG are implicated in several homeostatic and behavioral functions including body fluid homeostasis, thermoregulation and the regulation of sleep and waking. By combining visualization of c-Fos protein and retrograde neuroanatomical tracer we have examined the functional correlates of LT-vlPAG projection neurons. Rats were injected with retrograde tracer into the vlPAG and following a one week recovery period, they were subjected to either, hypertonic saline administration (0.5M NaCl, 1ml/100g-i.p.), 24hrs water deprivation, isoproterenol administration (increases circulating AngII; 50μg/kg-s.c.), heat exposure (39°C for 60 mins) or permitted 180 minutes spontaneous sleep. Retrogradely labelled neurons from the vlPAG and double labelled neurons were then identified and quantified throughout the LT. OVLT-vlPAG projection neurons were most responsive to hypertonic saline and water deprivation. SFO-vlPAG projection neurons were most active following isoproterenol administration and MnPO-vlPAG projection neurons displayed significantly more Fos immunostaining following water deprivation, heat exposure and sleep. These results support the existence of functional subdivisions of LT-vlPAG projecting neurons and indicate three patterns of activity that correspond to thermal and sleep wake regulation, osmotic or hormonal stimuli. PMID:20092577

  12. Drosophila male and female germline stem cell niches require the nuclear lamina protein Otefin.

    PubMed

    Barton, Lacy J; Lovander, Kaylee E; Pinto, Belinda S; Geyer, Pamela K

    2016-07-01

    The nuclear lamina is an extensive protein network that underlies the inner nuclear envelope. This network includes the LAP2-emerin-MAN1-domain (LEM-D) protein family, proteins that share an association with the chromatin binding protein Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF). Loss of individual LEM-D proteins causes progressive, tissue-restricted diseases, known as laminopathies. Mechanisms associated with laminopathies are not yet understood. Here we present our studies of one of the Drosophila nuclear lamina LEM-D proteins, Otefin (Ote), a homologue of emerin. Previous studies have shown that Ote is autonomously required for the survival of female germline stem cells (GSCs). We demonstrate that Ote is also required for survival of somatic cells in the ovarian niche, with loss of Ote causing a decrease in cap cell number and altered signal transduction. We show germ cell-restricted expression of Ote rescues these defects, revealing a non-autonomous function for Ote in niche maintenance and emphasizing that GSCs contribute to the maintenance of their own niches. Further, we investigate the requirement of Ote in the male fertility. We show that ote mutant males become prematurely sterile as they age. Parallel to observations in females, this sterility is associated with GSC loss and changes in somatic cells of the niche, phenotypes that are largely rescued by germ cell-restricted Ote expression. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that Ote is required autonomously for survival of two stem cell populations, as well as non-autonomously for maintenance of two somatic niches. Finally, our data add to growing evidence that LEM-D proteins have critical roles in stem cell survival and tissue homeostasis.

  13. Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in Normal Monkey Eyes Part 1: Methods and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Howard; Reynaud, Juan; Gardiner, Stuart; Grimm, Jonathan; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, J. Crawford; Yang, Hongli; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce quantitative postmortem lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture (LMA) assessment and characterize beam diameter (BD), pore diameter (PD), and connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF) in 21 normal monkey eyes. Methods. Optic nerve heads (ONHs) underwent digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and LC beam segmentation. Each beam and pore voxel was assigned a diameter based on the largest sphere that contained it before transformation to one of twelve 30° sectors in a common cylinder. Mean BD, PD, and CTVF within 12 central and 12 peripheral subsectors and within inner, middle, and outer LC depths were assessed for sector, subsector, and depth effects by analysis of variance using general estimating equations. Eye-specific LMA discordance (the pattern of lowest connective tissue density) was plotted for each parameter. Results. The ranges of mean BD, PD, and CTVF were 14.0 to 23.1 μm, 20.0 to 35.6 μm, and 0.247 to 0.638, respectively. Sector, subsector, and depth effects were significant (P < 0.01) for all parameters except subsector on CTVF. Beam diameter and CTVF were smaller and PD was larger within the superior-temporal (ST) and inferior-temporal (IT) sectors (P < 0.05). These differences were enhanced within the central versus peripheral subsectors. Beam diameter and CTVF were larger and PD was smaller (P < 0.05) within the middle LC layer. Lamina cribrosa microarchitecture discordance most commonly occurred within the ST and IT sectors, varied by eye, and generally diminished as CTVF increased. Conclusions. Our data support previous characterizations of diminished connective tissue density within the ST and IT ONH regions. The clinical importance of eye-specific LMA discordance warrants further study. PMID:25650423

  14. Ventral Lamina Terminalis Mediates Enhanced Cardiovascular Responses of RVLM Neurons During Increased Dietary Salt

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Julye M.; Bardgett, Megan E.; Stocker, Sean D.

    2009-01-01

    Increased dietary salt enhances sympathoexcitatory and sympathoinhibitory responses evoked from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether neurons of the forebrain lamina terminalis (LT) mediated these changes in the RVLM. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with and without LT lesions were fed normal chow and given access to water or 0.9% NaCl for 14-15 days. Unilateral injection of L-glutamate into the RVLM produced significantly larger increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) of sham rats ingesting 0.9% NaCl versus water. However, these differences were not observed between ventral LT-lesioned rats drinking 0.9% NaCl versus water. Similar findings were observed when angiotensin II or GABA were injected into the RVLM. Interestingly, a subset of animals drinking 0.9% but with damage restricted to the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis did not show enhanced responses to L-glutamate or GABA. In marked contrast, RVLM injection of L-glutamate or GABA produced exaggerated SNA and ABP responses in animals drinking 0.9% NaCl versus water after an acute ventral LT lesion or chronic lesion of the subfornical organ. Additional experiments demonstrate plasma sodium concentration and osmolality were increased at night in rats ingesting 0.9% NaCl. These findings suggest that neurons of the ventral LT mediate the ability of increased dietary salt to enhance the responsiveness of RVLM sympathetic neurons. PMID:19506102

  15. Disruption of Basal Lamina Components in Neuromotor Synapses of Children with Spastic Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Militar, Jaimee L.; Theroux, Mary C.; Dabney, Kirk W.; Shah, Suken A.; Miller, Freeman; Akins, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a static encephalopathy occurring when a lesion to the developing brain results in disordered movement and posture. Patients present with sometimes overlapping spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, and ataxic symptoms. Spastic CP, which is characterized by stiff muscles, weakness, and poor motor control, accounts for ∼80% of cases. The detailed mechanisms leading to disordered movement in spastic CP are not completely understood, but clinical experience and recent studies suggest involvement of peripheral motor synapses. For example, it is recognized that CP patients have altered sensitivities to drugs that target neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and protein localization studies suggest that NMJ microanatomy is disrupted in CP. Since CP originates during maturation, we hypothesized that NMJ disruption in spastic CP is associated with retention of an immature neuromotor phenotype later in life. Scoliosis patients with spastic CP or idiopathic disease were enrolled in a prospective, partially-blinded study to evaluate NMJ organization and neuromotor maturation. The localization of synaptic acetylcholine esterase (AChE) relative to postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR), synaptic laminin β2, and presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) appeared mismatched in the CP samples; whereas, no significant disruption was found between AChR and SV2. These data suggest that pre- and postsynaptic NMJ components in CP children were appropriately distributed even though AChE and laminin β2 within the synaptic basal lamina appeared disrupted. Follow up electron microscopy indicated that NMJs from CP patients appeared generally mature and similar to controls with some differences present, including deeper postsynaptic folds and reduced presynaptic mitochondria. Analysis of maturational markers, including myosin, syntrophin, myogenin, and AChR subunit expression, and telomere lengths, all indicated similar levels of motor maturation in the two groups. Thus, NMJ

  16. Slow cycling cells in the continuous dental lamina of Scyliorhinus canicula: new evidence for stem cells in sharks.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Sam; Vandeghinste, Robbe; Boutet, Agnes; Mazan, Sylvie; Huysseune, Ann

    2016-05-01

    In the lesser spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), as in most non-mammalian vertebrates, the dentition renews throughout life. To contribute to our understanding of how continuous tooth replacement is achieved, we searched for evidence for the presence of stem cells in this species. Three-dimensional reconstructions of juvenile (2-3 weeks post-hatch) specimens showed that tooth families merge imperceptibly with so-called interdental zones within a continuous and permanent dental lamina. Interdental regions are composed of three layers, continuous with cervical loop, middle, and outer dental epithelium of the tooth families, respectively. A BrdU pulse-chase experiment revealed that cell proliferation is initiated in the lingual part of the dental lamina and the resulting population shifts one tooth position towards the oral epithelium in around four to five weeks. In the longest chase time (114 days) label-retaining and arguably non-differentiated cells were present at the lingual border of the dental lamina. These were found in the outer and middle dental epithelium, both within and between tooth families. This area of the dental lamina did not show expression or distribution of Sox2. Our data support the hypothesis that stem cells reside at the lingual border of the continuous dental lamina, more specifically in the middle dental epithelium at the level of the tooth families, and in its extension between the tooth families. To demonstrate their true stemness and their role in continuous tooth replacement, it remains to be shown that these cells have the potential to give rise to a complete new successor.

  17. Morphological characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn lamina I neurons projecting to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Almarestani, L; Waters, S M; Krause, J E; Bennett, G J; Ribeiro-da-Silva, A

    2007-09-20

    Many Rexed's lamina I neurons are nociceptive and project to the brain. Lamina I projection neurons can be classified as multipolar, fusiform, or pyramidal, based on cell body shape and characteristics of their proximal dendrites in the horizontal plane. There is also evidence that both multipolar and fusiform cells are nociceptive and pyramidal neurons nonnociceptive. In this investigation we identified which types of lamina I neurons belong to the spinoparabrachial tract in the rat and characterized them regarding the presence or absence of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1r) immunoreactivity. For this, cholera toxin subunit B (CTb), conjugated to a fluorescent marker was injected unilaterally into the parabrachial nucleus. Sections were additionally stained for the detection of NK-1r immunoreactivity and were examined using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Serial confocal optical sections and 3D reconstructions were obtained for a considerable number of neurons per animal. Using immunofluorescence, we assessed the proportion of lamina I neurons belonging to the spinoparabrachial (SPB) tract and/or expressing NK-1r. The relative distribution of neurons belonging to the SPB tract was: 38.7% multipolar, 36.8% fusiform, 22.7% pyramidal, and 1.9% unclassified. Most of the SPB neurons expressing NK-1r were either multipolar or fusiform. Pyramidal SPB neurons were seldom immunoreactive for NK-1r, an observation that provides further support to the concept that most lamina I projection neurons of the pyramidal type are nonnociceptive. In addition, our study provides further evidence that these distinct morphological types of neurons differ in their phenotypic properties, but not in their projection patterns.

  18. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  19. Cortical lamina-dependent blood volume changes in human brain at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Huber, Laurentius; Goense, Jozien; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Trampel, Robert; Guidi, Maria; Reimer, Enrico; Ivanov, Dimo; Neef, Nicole; Gauthier, Claudine J; Turner, Robert; Möller, Harald E

    2015-02-15

    Cortical layer-dependent high (sub-millimeter) resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in human or animal brain can be used to address questions regarding the functioning of cortical circuits, such as the effect of different afferent and efferent connectivities on activity in specific cortical layers. The sensitivity of gradient echo (GE) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to large draining veins reduces its local specificity and can render the interpretation of the underlying laminar neural activity impossible. The application of the more spatially specific cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based fMRI in humans has been hindered by the low sensitivity of the noninvasive modalities available. Here, a vascular space occupancy (VASO) variant, adapted for use at high field, is further optimized to capture layer-dependent activity changes in human motor cortex at sub-millimeter resolution. Acquired activation maps and cortical profiles show that the VASO signal peaks in gray matter at 0.8-1.6mm depth, and deeper compared to the superficial and vein-dominated GE-BOLD responses. Validation of the VASO signal change versus well-established iron-oxide contrast agent based fMRI methods in animals showed the same cortical profiles of CBV change, after normalization for lamina-dependent baseline CBV. In order to evaluate its potential of revealing small lamina-dependent signal differences due to modulations of the input-output characteristics, layer-dependent VASO responses were investigated in the ipsilateral hemisphere during unilateral finger tapping. Positive activation in ipsilateral primary motor cortex and negative activation in ipsilateral primary sensory cortex were observed. This feature is only visible in high-resolution fMRI where opposing sides of a sulcus can be investigated independently because of a lack of partial volume effects. Based on the results presented here, we conclude that VASO offers good reproducibility, high sensitivity

  20. Cystatin C deficiency increases elastic lamina degradation and aortic dilatation in apolipoprotein E-null mice.

    PubMed

    Sukhova, Galina K; Wang, Bing; Libby, Peter; Pan, Jie-Hong; Zhang, Yaou; Grubb, Anders; Fang, Kenneth; Chapman, Harold A; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2005-02-18

    The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm involves substantial proteolysis of the arterial extracellular matrix. The lysosomal cysteine proteases can exert potent elastolytic and collagenolytic activity. Human atherosclerotic plaques have increased cysteine protease content and decreased levels of the endogenous inhibitor cystatin C, suggesting an imbalance that would favor matrix degradation in the arterial wall. This study tested directly the hypothesis that impaired expression of cystatin C alters arterial structure. Cystatin C-deficient mice (Cyst C-/-) were crossbred with apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (ApoE-/-) to generate cystatin C and apolipoprotein E-double deficient mice (Cyst C-/-ApoE-/-). After 12 weeks on an atherogenic diet, cystatin C deficiency yielded significantly increased tunica media elastic lamina fragmentation, decreased medial size, and increased smooth muscle cell and collagen content in aortic lesions of ApoE-/- mice. Cyst C-/-ApoE-/- mice also showed dilated thoracic and abdominal aortae compared with control ApoE-/- mice, although atheroma lesion size, intimal macrophage accumulation, and lipid core size did not differ between these mice. These findings demonstrate directly the importance of cysteine protease/protease inhibitor balance in dysregulated arterial integrity and remodeling during experimental atherogenesis.

  1. Conjugation of extracellular matrix proteins to basal lamina analogs enhances keratinocyte attachment.

    PubMed

    Bush, Katie A; Downing, Brett R; Walsh, Sarah E; Pins, George D

    2007-02-01

    The dermal-epidermal junction of skin contains extracellular matrix proteins that are involved in initiating and controlling keratinocyte signaling events such as attachment, proliferation, and terminal differentiation. To characterize the relationship between extracellular matrix proteins and keratinocyte attachment, a biomimetic design approach was used to precisely tailor the surface of basal lamina analogs with biochemistries that emulate the native biochemical composition found at the dermal-epidermal junction. A high-throughput screening device was developed by our laboratory that allows for the simultaneous investigation of the conjugation of individual extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. collagen type I, collagen type IV, laminin, or fibronectin) as well as their effect on keratinocyte attachment, on the surface of an implantable collagen membrane. Fluorescence microscopy coupled with quantitative digital image analyses indicated that the extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to the collagen-GAG membranes in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the relationship between extracellular matrix protein signaling cues and keratinocyte attachment, cells were seeded on protein-conjugated collagen-GAG membranes and a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay was used to quantify viable keratinocyte attachment. Our results indicate that keratinocyte attachment was significantly enhanced on the surfaces of collagen membranes that were conjugated with fibronectin and type IV collagen. These findings define a set of design parameters that will enhance keratinocyte binding efficiency on the surface of collagen membranes and ultimately improve the rate of epithelialization for dermal equivalents.

  2. Aberrant Synaptic Integration in Adult Lamina I Projection Neurons Following Neonatal Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Craig, Paige E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that neonatal tissue damage evokes alterations in spinal pain reflexes which persist into adulthood. However, less is known about potential concomitant effects on the transmission of nociceptive information to the brain, as the degree to which early injury modulates synaptic integration and membrane excitability in mature spinal projection neurons remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury leads to a significant shift in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition onto identified lamina I projection neurons of the adult mouse spinal cord. The strength of direct primary afferent input to mature spino-parabrachial neurons was enhanced following neonatal tissue damage, whereas the efficacy of both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition onto the same population was compromised. This was accompanied by reorganization in the pattern of sensory input to adult projection neurons, which included a greater prevalence of monosynaptic input from low-threshold A-fibers when preceded by early tissue damage. In addition, neonatal incision resulted in greater primary afferent-evoked action potential discharge in mature projection neurons. Overall, these results demonstrate that tissue damage during early life causes a long-term increase in the gain of spinal nociceptive circuits, and suggest that the prolonged consequences of neonatal trauma may not be restricted to the spinal cord but rather include excessive ascending signaling to supraspinal pain centers. PMID:25673839

  3. The Role of Endolithic Cyanobacteria in the Formation of Lithified Laminae in Bahamian Stromatolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prufert-Bebout, L.; Macintyre, I.; Reid, R. P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The microboring activity of endolithic cyanobacteria plays a major role in the formation of lithified laminae in modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. These stromatolites are composed primarily of fine grained carbonate sand that is trapped and bound by the filamentous cyanobacteria Schizothrix sp. Periodic introduction of coccoid endolithic cyanobacteria, Solentia sp., results in formation of lithified horizons, 200 to 1000 micron thick. We used SEM and petrographic analyses to examine both naturally occurring lithified layers dominated by endoliths and fused oolitic crusts generated in the laboratory by activity of endolithic cyanobacteria (Solentia sp.). Fused grain crusts consist of micritized grains that are welded together at point contacts. Micritization results from extensive microboring and rapid (days to weeks) carbonate precipitation within the bore holes. This precipitation appears to occur concurrently with further endolithic activity within the grain, Infilling of bore holes that cross from one grain to another at point contacts results in grain welding, Thus, while microboring destroys original grain textures, at the same time the endolith activity plays a constructional role in stromatolite growth by forming lithified layers of welded grains. These framework structures help to stabilize and preserve the stromatolite deposits.

  4. The Effect of Lamina Intraply Hybrid Composites on the Tensile Properties of Various Weave Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhazri, M. Y.; Amirhafizan, M. H.; Abdullah, A.; Sihombing, H.; Nirmal, U.; Saarah, A. B.; Fadzol, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    The topic of natural fiber is one of the most active areas in thermoset composite research today. This paper will focuses on the effect of weave designs on the mechanical behaviour of lamina intraply hybrid composites. Twelve specimens were used and they were made of kenaf fibre and glass fibre as a reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix in various weave designs which were plain, twill, satin, basket, mock leno, and leno weave. Vacuum infusion technique was used due to its superior advantages over hand lay-up. The specimens were produced in two types which were kenaf fibre in warp direction interlace with glass fibre in weft direction (WK-WG) and glass fibre in warp direction interlace with kenaf fibre in weft direction (WG-WK). Various weave designs were found to affect the tensile properties. Glass fibre in warp direction has a greater effect on tensile strength compared to kenaf fibre in warp direction. Mock leno weave exhibited better mechanical properties for WK-WG and WG-WK, about 54.74 MPa and 99.46 MPa respectively.

  5. Increased dietary sodium alters Fos expression in the lamina terminalis during intravenous angiotensin II infusion.

    PubMed

    Bealer, Steven L; Metcalf, Cameron S; Heyborne, Ryan

    2007-03-01

    These studies examined the effects of increased dietary sodium on expression of Fos, the protein product of c-fos, in forebrain structures in the rat following intravenous infusion with angiotensin II (AngII). Animals were provided with either tap water (Tap) or isotonic saline solution (Iso) as their sole drinking fluid for 3-5 weeks prior to testing. Rats were then implanted with catheters in a femoral artery and vein. The following day, the conscious, unrestrained animals received iv infusion of either isotonic saline (Veh), AngII, or phenylephrine (Phen) for 2 h. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously throughout the procedure. Brains were subsequently processed for evaluation of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-Li IR) in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the subfornical organ (SFO), and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Fos-Li IR was significantly increased in the SFO and OVLT of animals consuming both Tap and Iso following AngII, but not Phen, compared to Veh infusions. Furthermore, Fos-Li IR in the MnPO was increased following AngII infusion in rats consuming a high sodium diet, but not in animals drinking Tap. These data suggest that increased dietary sodium sensitizes the MnPO neurons to excitatory input from brain areas responding to circulating AngII.

  6. Identifying Novel Transcriptional and Epigenetic Features of Nuclear Lamina-associated Genes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feinan; Yao, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Because a large portion of the mammalian genome is associated with the nuclear lamina (NL), it is interesting to study how native genes resided there are transcribed and regulated. In this study, we report unique transcriptional and epigenetic features of nearly 3,500 NL-associated genes (NL genes). Promoter regions of active NL genes are often excluded from NL-association, suggesting that NL-promoter interactions may repress transcription. Active NL genes with higher RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment levels tend to display Pol II promoter-proximal pausing, while Pol II recruitment and Pol II pausing are not correlated among non-NL genes. At the genome-wide scale, NL-association and H3K27me3 distinguishes two large gene classes with low transcriptional activities. Notably, NL-association is anti-correlated with both transcription and active histone mark levels among genes not significantly enriched with H3K9me3 or H3K27me3, suggesting that NL-association may represent a novel gene repression pathway. Interestingly, an NL gene subgroup is not significantly enriched with H3K9me3 or H3K27me3 and is transcribed at higher levels than the rest of NL genes. Furthermore, we identified distal enhancers associated with active NL genes and reported their epigenetic features.

  7. Application of Elliptic Fourier Analysis to Describe the Lamina Cribrosa Shape with Age and Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sanfilippo, P.G.; Grimm, J.L.; Flanagan, J.G.; Lathrop, K.L.; Sigal, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) plays an important biomechanical role in the optic nerve head (ONH). We developed a statistical shape model of the LC and tested if the shape varies with age or IOP. The ONHs of 18 donor eyes (47 to 91 years, mean 76 years) fixed at either 5 or 50 mm Hg of IOP were sectioned, stained, and imaged under a microscope. A 3D model of each ONH was reconstructed and the outline of the vertical sagittal section closest to the geometric centre of the LC extracted. The outline shape was described using elliptic Fourier analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) employed to identify the primary modes of LC shape variation. Linear mixed effect models were used to determine if the shape measurements were associated with age or IOP. The analysis revealed several modes of shape variation: thickness and depth directly (PC1), or inversely (PC2) related, and superior-inferior asymmetry (PC3). Only PC3 was associated with IOP, with higher IOP correlating with greater curvature of the LC superiorly compared to inferiorly. Our analysis enabled a concise and complete characterization of LC shape, revealing variations without defining them a priori. No association between LC shape and age was found for the relatively old population studied. Superior-inferior asymmetry of LC shape was associated with IOP, with more asymmetry at higher IOP. Increased IOP was not associated with LC thickness or depth. PMID:25193035

  8. Application of Elliptic Fourier analysis to describe the lamina cribrosa shape with age and intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, P G; Grimm, J L; Flanagan, J G; Lathrop, K L; Sigal, I A

    2014-11-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) plays an important biomechanical role in the optic nerve head (ONH). We developed a statistical shape model of the LC and tested if the shape varies with age or IOP. The ONHs of 18 donor eyes (47-91 years, mean 76 years) fixed at either 5 or 50 mmHg of IOP were sectioned, stained, and imaged under a microscope. A 3D model of each ONH was reconstructed and the outline of the vertical sagittal section closest to the geometric center of the LC extracted. The outline shape was described using Elliptic Fourier analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) employed to identify the primary modes of LC shape variation. Linear mixed effect models were used to determine if the shape measurements were associated with age or IOP. The analysis revealed several modes of shape variation: thickness and depth directly (PC 1), or inversely (PC 2) related, and superior-inferior asymmetry (PC 3). Only PC 3 was associated with IOP, with higher IOP correlating with greater curvature of the LC superiorly compared to inferiorly. Our analysis enabled a concise and complete characterization of LC shape, revealing variations without defining them a priori. No association between LC shape and age was found for the relatively old population studied. Superior-inferior asymmetry of LC shape was associated with IOP, with more asymmetry at higher IOP. Increased IOP was not associated with LC thickness or depth.

  9. Estrogen status and psychophysical stress modify temporomandibular joint input to medullary dorsal horn neurons in a lamina-specific manner in female rats.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Keiichiro; Thompson, Randall; Katagiri, Ayano; Bereiter, David A

    2013-07-01

    Estrogen status and psychological stress contribute to the expression of several chronic pain conditions including temporomandibular muscle and joint disorders (TMJD). Sensory neurons that supply the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region terminate in laminae I and V of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vc/C1-2 region); however, little is known about lamina-specificity and environmental influences on the encoding properties of TMJ brainstem neurons. To test the hypothesis that Vc/C1-2 neurons integrate both interoceptive and exteroceptive signals relevant for TMJ nociception, we recorded TMJ-evoked activity in superficial and deep laminae of ovariectomized rats under high and low estradiol (E2) and stress conditions. Rats received daily injections of low (LE) or high (HE) dose E2 and were subjected to forced swim (FS) or sham swim conditioning for 3days. The results revealed marked lamina-specificity in that HE rats displayed enhanced TMJ-evoked activity in superficial, but not deep, laminae independent of stress conditioning. By contrast, FS conditioned rats displayed increased background firing and TMJ-evoked activity of neurons in deep, but not superficial, laminae independent of E2 status. FS also enhanced TMJ-evoked masseter muscle activity and suggested the importance of deep dorsal horn neurons in mediating evoked jaw muscle activity. In conclusion, E2 status and psychophysical stress play a significant role in modifying the encoding properties of TMJ-responsive medullary dorsal horn neurons with a marked lamina-specificity.

  10. Cholera toxin B subunit labeling in lamina II of spinal cord dorsal horn following chronic inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing Ping; Tian, Li

    2002-07-26

    We have investigated the effect of inflammation on the labeling pattern of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-conjugated horseradish peroxidase, an A-fiber marker, by an intra-sciatic nerve injection of the tracer. Following chronic inflammation in one hind paw in rats, there was substantial CTB labeling in lamina II of the spinal dorsal horn, which is normally absent. However, there was no change in the labeling pattern of wheat germ agglutinin or fluoride resistant acid phosphatase/thiamine monophosphatase, two C-fiber markers. The CTB labeling in lamina II after peripheral nerve injury has been interpreted as central sprouting of A-fibers or uptake of the tracer by injured C-fibers. Our results suggest that chronic inflammation and nerve injury may share some common mechanisms in generating allodynia and hyperalgesia.

  11. Cervical myelopathy caused by atlas osteochondroma and pseudoarthrosis between the osteochondroma and lamina of the axis: case report.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Kasukawa, Yuji; Shimada, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    A 58-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of progressive cervical myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the cervical spine revealed a bone tumor arising from the posterior arch of the atlas and osteophytes at a pseudoarthrosis between the tumor and the lamina of the axis, resulting in marked spinal cord compression. The patient's symptoms resolved after en bloc resection of the tumor and removal of the osteophytes. The histological diagnosis was osteochondroma. The primary cause of myelopathy in the present case was osteochondroma arising from the posterior arch of the atlas, but the osteophyte formations appearing at the pseudoarthrosis between the atlas osteochondroma and the lamina of the axis might also have contributed to the symptoms, which appeared when the patient was in his late 50s.

  12. Electrically evoked reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations in mice with alpha tectorin C1509G mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical coupling between the tectorial membrane and the hair bundles of outer hair cells is crucial for stimulating mechanoelectrical transduction channels, which convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signal, and for transmitting outer hair cell-generated force back to the basilar membrane to boost hearing sensitivity. It has been demonstrated that the detached tectorial membrane in mice with C1509G alpha tectorin mutation caused hearing loss, but enhanced electrically evoked otoacoustic emissions. To understand how the mutated cochlea emits sounds, the reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations were measured in the electrically stimulated cochlea in this study. The results showed that the electrically evoked basilar membrane vibration decreased dramatically while the reticular lamina vibration and otoacoustic emissions exhibited no significant change in C1509G mutation mice. This result indicates that a functional cochlear amplifier and a normal basilar membrane vibration are not required for the outer hair cell-generated sound to exit the cochlea.

  13. An examination of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy using an outer lamina of spectra (R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    Low velocity instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the effects of an outer lamina of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) on the damage tolerance of carbon epoxy composites. Four types of 16-ply quasi-isotropic panels (0, +45, 90, -45) were tested. Some panels contained no Spectra, while others had a lamina of Spectra bonded to the top (impacted side), bottom, or both sides of the composite plates. The specimens were impacted with energies up to 8.5 J. Force time plots and maximum force versus impact energy graphs were generated for comparison purposes. Specimens were also subjected to cross-sectional analysis and compression after impact tests. The results show that while the Spectra improved the maximum load that the panels could withstand before fiber breakage, the Spectra seemingly reduced the residual strength of the composites.

  14. Selective innervation of NK1 receptor–lacking lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons by presumed nonpeptidergic Aδ nociceptors in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Baseer, Najma; Al-Baloushi, Abdullah S.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Shehab, Safa A.S.; Todd, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Fine myelinated (Aδ) nociceptors are responsible for fast, well-localised pain, but relatively little is known about their postsynaptic targets in the spinal cord, and therefore about their roles in the neuronal circuits that process nociceptive information. Here we show that transganglionically transported cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) labels a distinct set of afferents in lamina I that are likely to correspond to Aδ nociceptors, and that most of these lack neuropeptides. The vast majority of lamina I projection neurons can be retrogradely labelled from the lateral parabrachial area, and these can be divided into 2 major groups based on expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). We show that CTb-labelled afferents form contacts on 43% of the spinoparabrachial lamina I neurons that lack the NK1r, but on a significantly smaller proportion (26%) of those that express the receptor. We also confirm with electron microscopy that these contacts are associated with synapses. Among the spinoparabrachial neurons that received contacts from CTb-labelled axons, contact density was considerably higher on NK1r-lacking cells than on those with the NK1r. By comparing the density of CTb contacts with those from other types of glutamatergic bouton, we estimate that nonpeptidergic Aδ nociceptors may provide over half of the excitatory synapses on some NK1r-lacking spinoparabrachial cells. These results provide further evidence that synaptic inputs to dorsal horn projection neurons are organised in a specific way. Taken together with previous studies, they suggest that both NK1r+ and NK1r-lacking lamina I projection neurons are directly innervated by Aδ nociceptive afferents. PMID:25168670

  15. Both lamin A and lamin C mutations cause lamina instability as well as loss of internal nuclear lamin organization

    SciTech Connect

    Broers, Jos L.V. . E-mail: jos.broers@molcelb.unimaas.nl; Kuijpers, H.J.H.; Oestlund, C.; Worman, H.J.; Endert, J.; Ramaekers, F.C.S.

    2005-04-01

    We have applied the fluorescence loss of intensity after photobleaching (FLIP) technique to study the molecular dynamics and organization of nuclear lamin proteins in cell lines stably transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged A-type lamin cDNA. Normal lamin A and C proteins show abundant decoration of the inner layer of the nuclear membrane, the nuclear lamina, and a generally diffuse localization in the nuclear interior. Bleaching studies revealed that, while the GFP-tagged lamins in the lamina were virtually immobile, the intranuclear fraction of these molecules was partially mobile. Intranuclear lamin C was significantly more mobile than intranuclear lamina A. In search of a structural cause for the variety of inherited diseases caused by A-type lamin mutations, we have studied the molecular organization of GFP-tagged lamin A and lamin C mutants R453W and R386K, found in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), and lamin A and lamin C mutant R482W, found in patients with Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD). In all mutants, a prominent increase in lamin mobility was observed, indicating loss of structural stability of lamin polymers, both at the perinuclear lamina and in the intranuclear lamin organization. While the lamin rod domain mutant showed overall increased mobility, the tail domain mutants showed mainly intranuclear destabilization, possibly as a result of loss of interaction with chromatin. Decreased stability of lamin mutant polymers was confirmed by flow cytometric analyses and immunoblotting of nuclear extracts. Our findings suggest a loss of function of A-type lamin mutant proteins in the organization of intranuclear chromatin and predict the loss of gene regulatory function in laminopathies.

  16. Helicobacter pylori invades the gastric mucosa and translocates to the gastric lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Uchida, Keisuke; Takemura, Tamiko; Nagaoka, Sakae; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Ishige, Ikuo; Ishige, Yuki; Ishida, Noriko; Furukawa, Asuka; Muraoka, Hiroe; Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Masaki; Ando, Noboru; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yamada, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Takashige; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been considered to be non-invasive and to rarely infiltrate the gastric mucosa, even though there is an active Th1 immune response in the lamina propria of the H. pylori-infected stomach. To elucidate whether H. pylori invades the lamina propria and translocates to the gastric lymph nodes, we examined H. pylori in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of stomach and gastric lymph nodes obtained from 51 cancer patients using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a novel anti-H. pylori monoclonal antibody that recognizes lipopolysaccharides. Fresh gastric lymph nodes were used to culture for H. pylori. In 46 patients with H. pylori in the stomach, the bacterium was found in the lymph nodes from 21 patients by culture, 37 patients by PCR, and 29 patients by IHC. H. pylori captured by macrophages was found in the lamina propria of 39 patients. In the lymph nodes, the bacterium was found in many macrophages and a few interdigitating dendritic cells at the paracortical areas. H. pylori was also found in the intracellular canaliculi of parietal cells in 21 patients, but intracytoplasmic invasion into gastric epithelial cells was not identified. When compared to the commercially available anti-H. pylori antibodies, the novel antibody showed the highest sensitivity to detect H. pylori-positive macrophages, whereas no difference was found for H. pylori in the mucous layer. The H. pylori-positive macrophages in the lamina propria correlated with chronic gastritis as well as translocation of such cells to the lymph nodes. These results suggest that H. pylori-induced gastric epithelial damage allows the bacteria to invade the lamina propria and translocate to the gastric lymph nodes, which may chronically stimulate the immune system. The bacteria captured by macrophages, whether remaining alive or not, may contribute to the induction and development of H. pylori-induced chronic gastritis.

  17. De novo expression of neurokinin-1 receptors by spinoparabrachial lamina I pyramidal neurons following a peripheral nerve lesion.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Abeer W; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo

    2013-06-01

    Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn is a major site of integration and transmission to higher centers of nociceptive information from the periphery. One important primary afferent population that transmits such information to the spinal cord expresses substance P (SP). These fibers terminate in contact with lamina I projection neurons that express the SP receptor, also known as the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1r). Three types of lamina I projection neurons have been described: multipolar, fusiform, and pyramidal. Most neurons of the first two types are thought to be nociceptive and express the NK-1r, whereas most pyramidal neurons are nonnociceptive and do not express the NK-1r. In this immunocytochemical and behavioral study, we induced a neuropathic pain-like condition in the rat by means of a polyethylene cuff placed around in the sciatic nerve. We document that this lesion led to a de novo expression of NK-1r on pyramidal neurons as well as a significant increase in SP-immunoreactive innervation onto these neurons. These phenotypic changes were evident at the time of onset of neuropathic pain-related behavior. Additionally, we show that, after a noxious stimulus (intradermal capsaicin injection), these NK-1r on pyramidal neurons were internalized, providing evidence that these neurons become responsive to peripheral noxious stimulation. We suggest that the changes following nerve lesion in the phenotype and innervation pattern of pyramidal neurons are of significance for neuropathic pain and/or limb temperature regulation.

  18. A-type lamins bind both hetero- and euchromatin, the latter being regulated by lamina-associated polypeptide 2 alpha

    PubMed Central

    Gesson, Kevin; Rescheneder, Philipp; Skoruppa, Michael P.; von Haeseler, Arndt; Dechat, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are components of the peripheral nuclear lamina and interact with heterochromatic genomic regions, termed lamina-associated domains (LADs). In contrast to lamin B1 being primarily present at the nuclear periphery, lamin A/C also localizes throughout the nucleus, where it associates with the chromatin-binding protein lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP) 2 alpha. Here, we show that lamin A/C also interacts with euchromatin, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation of euchromatin- and heterochromatin-enriched samples. By way of contrast, lamin B1 was only found associated with heterochromatin. Euchromatic regions occupied by lamin A/C overlap with those bound by LAP2alpha, and lack of LAP2alpha in LAP2alpha-deficient cells shifts binding of lamin A/C toward more heterochromatic regions. These alterations in lamin A/C-chromatin interactions correlate with changes in epigenetic histone marks in euchromatin but do not significantly affect gene expression. Loss of lamin A/C in heterochromatic regions in LAP2alpha-deficient cells, however, correlated with increased gene expression. Our data show a novel role of nucleoplasmic lamin A/C and LAP2alpha in regulating euchromatin. PMID:26798136

  19. Mesoscopic Strains Maps in Woven Composite Laminas During Off-axis Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzelotti, G.; Nicoletto, G.; Riva, E.

    2010-06-01

    The mechanics of woven carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites is influenced by the complex architecture of the reinforcement phase. Computational (i.e. finite element based) approaches have been used increasingly to model not only the global laminate stiffness, but also damage evolution and laminate strength. The modeling combines the identification of the architectural unit cell (UC), the selection of suitable constitutive models of the different phases, the creation of a fine discretization of the UC in finite elements, the application of an incremental solution procedure that solves iteratively for the stresses and strains in the UC, [1]. The experimental validation of computational models is carried out mainly at the macroscopical level, i.e. simulation of the macroscopic stress-strain curve. Damage, however, is a localized, straindependent phenomenon and therefore only accurate strain distribution within the UC (at the mesolevel) can identify critical conditions in terms of damage location, extension and evolution. The validation of computational damage procedures is a key task and full-field optical strain analysis methods appear the ideal instrument. However, only limited examples of direct finte element method (FEM) vs experimental strain correlation are found because of the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of some techniques and the complexity and applicative difficulty of others. The aim of the present paper is to present the application of the digital image correlation (DIC) technique, [2], to the full-field strain analysis at the mesoscopic level (i.e. within the UC) of a woven CFRP lamina when the direction of loading forms an angle to the material direction. The material under consideration is a woven carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite. Orthogonal yarns, each made of of several thousand fibers, are woven according the twill-weave architecture is shown in Fig. 1a. Single-ply laminas were manufactured and tested to eliminate

  20. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  1. Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

    2012-04-01

    capture delayed fluorescence. Experiments determined that there was negligible phosphorescence, that results were reproducible and were not affected by the grain of the film. Images were imported into IP-LAB Spectrum for data retrieval. They displayed strong couplet development with repeated layers of high-low fluorescence. Assuming that each couplet represents one climatic year, Sample AGG-1 was 165 years in age when collected; i.e. it commenced growing in 1827 CE. The true base of Sample AGG-2 was destroyed in extraction; it yielded an age of 156 years. Both are in excellent agreement with the expected ages. Correlation of fluorescence intensity and derived laminae thickness between the two samples is also excellent when fitted with a three-year running mean to avoid misallocation of individual years. Interannual fluorescence intensity grew slightly between ~1830 and 1900 CE, then was stable until minor decline commenced after 1970. Annual calcite lamina generally range between 0.5 and 1.0 mm in thickness in AGG-1 after 1900 CE, slightly less before that time. Thicknesses in AGG-2 follow the same trend but are consistently 0.1 -0.2 mm thinner. There is little correlation with the matching mean temperature and precipitation records from a nearby meteorological station that began operating in 1962. Relationships with much lengthier meteorological records from Miskolc and Budapest are being investigated.

  2. De novo expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor in spinal lamina I pyramidal neurons in polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Almarestani, L; Waters, S M; Krause, J E; Bennett, G J; Ribeiro-da-Silva, A

    2009-05-20

    Spinal lamina I (LI) neurons play a major role in the transmission and integration of pain-related information that is relayed to higher centers. Alterations in the excitability of these neurons influence chronic pain development, and expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1r) is thought to play a major role in such changes. Novel expression of NK-1r may underlie hyperexcitability in new populations of LI neurons. LI projection neurons can be classified morphologically into fusiform, pyramidal, and multipolar cells, differing in their functional properties, with the pyramidal type being nonnociceptive. In agreement with this, we have shown that spinoparabrachial pyramidal neurons seldom express NK-1r, in contrast with the other two cell types. In this study we investigated in the rat the long-term changes in NK-1r expression by spinoparabrachial LI neurons following the unilateral injection in the hindpaw plantar surface of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) was injected unilaterally into the parabrachial nucleus. Our results revealed that, ipsilaterally, pyramidal neurons were seldom immunoreactive for NK-1r both in saline-injected and in CFA-injected rats, up to 10 days post-CFA. However, a considerable number of pyramidal cells were immunoreactive for NK-1r at 15, 21, and 30 days post-CFA. Our data raise the possibility -- which needs to be confirmed by electrophysiology -- that most LI projection neurons of the pyramidal type are likely nonnociceptive in naive animals but might become nociceptive following the development of arthritis.

  3. Inhibitor studies of leaf lamina hydraulic conductance in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Voicu, Mihaela C; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated leaf water transport properties in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) leaves. Leaf lamina hydraulic conductance (K(lam)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were drastically suppressed by NaF (a general metabolic inhibitor). In leaves treated with 0.2 mM HgCl(2) (an aquaporin blocker), K(lam) declined by 22% when the leaves were sampled in June but the decline was not significant when the leaves were sampled in August. The leaves sampled in June that transpired 30 mM beta-mercaptoethanol following mercury application showed similar K(lam) as those in control leaves transpiring distilled water. When leaves were pressure-infiltrated with 0.1 mM HgCl(2), K(lam) significantly declined by 25%. Atrazine (a photosystem II inhibitor) drastically reduced leaf net CO(2) uptake by the leaves from seedlings and mature trees but did not have any effect on K(lam) regardless of the irradiance at the leaf level during the K(lam) measurements. When PTS(3) (trisodium 3-hydroxy-5,8,10-pyrenetrisulphonate) apoplastic tracer was pressure-infiltrated inside the leaves, its concentration in the leaf exudates did not change from ambient light to high irradiance treatment and declined in the presence of HgCl(2) in the treatment solution. Trembling aspen K(lam) appears to be linked to leaf metabolism and is uncoupled from the short-term variations in photosynthesis. Aquaporin-mediated water transport does not appear to constitute the dominant pathway for the pressure-driven water flow in the leaves of trembling aspen trees.

  4. Effects of Peripapillary Scleral Stiffening on the Deformation of the Lamina Cribrosa

    PubMed Central

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Campbell, Ian C.; Read, A. Thomas; Geraldes, Diogo M.; Vo, Nghia T.; Feola, Andrew; Mulvihill, John; Albon, Julie; Abel, Richard L.; Ethier, C. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Scleral stiffening has been proposed as a treatment for glaucoma to protect the lamina cribrosa (LC) from excessive intraocular pressure–induced deformation. Here we experimentally evaluated the effects of moderate stiffening of the peripapillary sclera on the deformation of the LC. Methods An annular sponge, saturated with 1.25% glutaraldehyde, was applied to the external surface of the peripapillary sclera for 5 minutes to stiffen the sclera. Tissue deformation was quantified in two groups of porcine eyes, using digital image correlation (DIC) or computed tomography imaging and digital volume correlation (DVC). In group A (n = 14), eyes were subjected to inflation testing before and after scleral stiffening. Digital image correlation was used to measure scleral deformation and quantify the magnitude of scleral stiffening. In group B (n = 5), the optic nerve head region was imaged using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast microcomputed tomography (PC μCT) at an isotropic spatial resolution of 3.2 μm. Digital volume correlation was used to compute the full-field three-dimensional deformation within the LC and evaluate the effects of peripapillary scleral cross-linking on LC biomechanics. Results On average, scleral treatment with glutaraldehyde caused a 34 ± 14% stiffening of the peripapillary sclera measured at 17 mm Hg and a 47 ± 12% decrease in the maximum tensile strain in the LC measured at 15 mm Hg. The reduction in LC strains was not due to cross-linking of the LC. Conclusions Peripapillary scleral stiffening is effective at reducing the magnitude of biomechanical strains within the LC. Its potential and future utilization in glaucoma axonal neuroprotection requires further investigation. PMID:27183053

  5. Relationship between corneal hysteresis and lamina cribrosa displacement after medical reduction of intraocular pressure

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Lopez, Marta; Palacios-Pozo, Elena; Davo-Cabrera, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between the displacement of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and prelaminar tissue with corneal hysteresis (CH) using spectral-domain coherence tomography (SD-OCT) after reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) with medical treatment. Methods Sixty-one eyes of 61 patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma who were going to start with treatment were imaged by means of 12 cross-sectional scans of the optic nerve using enhanced depth imaging SD-OCT before and after 1 week of treatment. We used the ‘follow-up’ mode to make sure that all the measurements were performed in the same location. We also measured the CH using an Ocular Response Analyzer, and we related it to the magnitude of displacement of LC and prelaminar tissue and the thickness of both structures. Results There was a significant variation of LC thickness from 132.66±37.40 to 160.09±41.13 µm (p<0001). LC distance was significantly reduced from 258.53±145 µm before treatment to 239.86±135 µm after it. No significant changes were found in the thickness and movement of prelaminar tissue before and after treatment. The only factors related with LC displacement were CH (R2=0.48) and age (R2=0.42). Conclusions A significant increase in LC thickness and a reduction in the posterior displacement of LC but not in the prelaminar tissue were demonstrated after IOP reduction with medical treatment. The factors most related with LC displacement were age and CH. PMID:27474156

  6. Circadian expression of the presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot in the lamina of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta; Makuch, Renata; Stefan, Joanna; Görlich, Alicja; Semik, Danuta; Pyza, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    In the fly's visual system, the morphology of cells and the number of synapses change during the day. In the present study we show that in the first optic neuropil (lamina) of Drosophila melanogaster, a presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot (BRP) exhibits a circadian rhythm in abundance. In day/night (or light/dark, LD) conditions the level of BRP increases two times, in the morning and in the evening. The same pattern of changes in the BRP level was detected in whole brain homogenates, thus indicating that the majority of synapses in the brain peaks twice during the day. However, these two peaks in BRP abundance, measured as the fluorescence intensity of immunolabeling, seem to be regulated differently. The peak in the morning is predominantly regulated by light and involves the transduction pathway in the retina photoreceptors. This peak is present neither in wild-type Canton-S flies in constant darkness (DD), nor in norpA(7) phototransduction mutant in LD. However, it also depends on the clock gene per, because it is abolished in the per(0) arrhythmic mutant. In turn, the peak of BRP in the evening is endogenously regulated by an input from the pacemaker located in the brain. This peak is present in Canton-S flies in DD, as well as in the norpA(7) mutant in LD, but is absent in per(01), tim,(01) and cry(01) mutants in LD. In addition both peaks seem to depend on clock gene-expressing photoreceptors and glial cells of the visual system.

  7. The climate reconstruction in Shandong Peninsula, northern China, during the last millennium based on stalagmite laminae together with a comparison to δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Zhou, Houyun; Cheng, Ke; Chi, Hong; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Changshan; Ma, Qianqian

    2016-04-01

    Stalagmite ky1, with a length of 75 mm and the upper part (from top to 42.769 mm depth) consisting of 678 laminae, was collected from Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of Shandong Peninsula, northern China, located in a warm temperate zone in the East Asia monsoon area. Based on high-precision dating with the U-230Th technique and continuous counting of laminae, the 1st and 678th laminae have been confirmed to be AD 1894 ± 20 and 1217 ± 20 from top to bottom, respectively. By the measurement of laminae thickness and δ18O ratios, we haved obtained the time series data of thickness of laminae and δ18O ratios from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, analyzed the climatic-environmental meaning of variations in the thickness of laminae, which have a good correspondence with the cumulative departure curve of the drought-waterlog index in the historical period. The results show that, in the ˜ 678 years from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, both the thickness of the laminae and the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae of stalagmite ky1 have obvious stages of variation and are completely synchronized with the contemporaneous intensity of the summer monsoons and precipitation as time changed. There is a negative correlation between the thickness of the laminae and the summer monsoon intensity and precipitation. There is a positive correlation between the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae and both the intensity of the summer monsoons and the precipitation. Therefore, for the Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of both the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the variations in the thickness of the laminae are not only related to the change in the climatic factors themselves but also related to the degree of climatic stability. In the coastal area belonging to the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the climate change between the LIA (Little Ice Age) and the MWP (Medieval Warm Period), in addition to less precipitation

  8. Collateral projections of neurons in laminae I, III, and IV of rat spinal cord to thalamus, periaqueductal gray matter, and lateral parabrachial area.

    PubMed

    Al-Khater, Khulood M; Todd, Andrew J

    2009-08-20

    Projection neurons in lamina I, together with those in laminae III-IV that express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r), form a major route through which nociceptive information reaches the brain. Axons of these cells innervate various targets, including thalamus, periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), and lateral parabrachial area (LPb), and many cells project to more than one target. The aims of this study were to quantify projections from cervical enlargement to PAG and LPb, to determine the proportion of spinothalamic neurons at lumbar and cervical levels that were labelled from PAG and LPb, and to investigate morphological differences between projection populations. The C7 segment contained fewer lamina I spinoparabrachial cells than L4, but a similar number of spino-PAG cells. Virtually all spinothalamic lamina I neurons at both levels were labelled from LPb and between one-third and one-half from PAG. This suggests that significant numbers project to all three targets. Spinothalamic lamina I neurons differed from those labelled only from LPb in that they were generally larger, were more often multipolar, and (in cervical enlargement) had stronger NK1r immunoreactivity. Most lamina III/IV NK1r cells at both levels projected to LPb, but few were labelled from PAG. The great majority of these cells in C7 and over one-fourth of those in L4 were spinothalamic, and at each level some projected to both thalamus and LPb. These results confirm that neurons in these laminae have extensive collateral projections and suggest that different neuronal subpopulations in lamina I have characteristic patterns of supraspinal projection.

  9. Shift of edge-taxis to scototaxis depends on mean luminance and is predicted by a matched filter theory on the responses of fly lamina LMC cells.

    PubMed

    Pinter, R B; Osorio, D; Srinivasan, M V

    1990-06-01

    The strength of the flanking inhibitory regions of the receptive fields of fly lamina cells (LMC) decreases as the mean luminance is lowered. Simultaneously, the biphasic temporal flash (impulse) response of the lamina cells becomes monophasic on lowering luminance. For a moving-edge stimulus at high mean luminance, this implies that the spatial integration by the lamina cell yields a temporal waveform which is congruent to the waveform of the temporal impulse response of the lamina cell. In other words, the temporal waveform generated by the moving edge is matched to the temporal waveform most preferred by the lamina cell. The edge is the stimulus causing the largest amplitude response at high (above 1 cd/m2) levels of luminance. On lowering luminance, the now monophasic nature of the spatial and temporal impulse responses of the lamina gives a preference not for the edges but for the center of a uniform region. We describe this theory and its behavioral corroboration in walking flies (Lucilia cuprina).

  10. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  11. Invasive species in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

  12. Impact of laminitis on the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in basal epithelial cells of the equine digital laminae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Pawlak, Erica A; Johnson, Philip J; Belknap, James K; Eades, Susan; Stack, Sharon; Cousin, Helene; Black, Samuel J

    2013-01-01

    The digital laminae is a two layer tissue that attaches the distal phalanx to the inner hoof wall, thus suspending the horse's axial skeleton in the hoof capsule. This tissue fails at the epidermal:dermal junction in laminitic horses, causing crippling disease. Basal epithelial cells line the laminar epidermal:dermal junction, undergo physiological change in laminitic horses, and lose versican gene expression. Versican gene expression is purportedly under control of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and is a trigger for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition; thus, its repression in laminar epithelial cells of laminitic horses may be associated with suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and loss of the epithelial cell phenotype. In support of the former contention, we show, using laminae from healthy horses and horses with carbohydrate overload-induced laminitis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting after sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescent tissue staining, that positive and negative regulatory components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are expressed in laminar basal epithelial cells of healthy horses. Furthermore, expression of positive regulators is suppressed and negative regulators elevated in laminae of laminitic compared to healthy horses. We also show that versican gene expression in the epithelial cells correlates positively with that of β-catenin and T-cell Factor 4, consistent with regulation by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In addition, gene and protein expression of β-catenin correlates positively with that of integrin β4 and both are strongly suppressed in laminar basal epithelial cells of laminitic horses, which remain E-cadherin(+)/vimentin(-), excluding mesenchymal transition as contributing to loss of the adherens junction and hemidesmosome components. We propose that suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and accompanying reduced

  13. Detection and origin of different types of annual laminae in recent stalagmites from Zoolithencave, southern Germany: Evaluation of the potential for quantitative reconstruction of past precipitation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Fohlmeister, Jens; Tjallingii, Rik; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Richter, Detlev K.; Brummer, Geert-Jan A.; Scholz, Denis

    2016-04-01

    An arrangement of three stalagmites from Zoolithencave (southern Germany) was analysed for different types of annual laminae using microscopic and geochemical methods. The speleothems show visible laminae (consisting of a pair of a clear and a brownish, pigmented layer) as well as fluorescent and elemental laminae. The growth periods of the speleothems were dated to AD 1800 to 1970 by detection of the 14C bomb peak, 14C-dating of a charcoal piece located below the speleothems, as well as counting of annual laminae. On the annual time-scale, the variability of Mg, Ba, and Sr is controlled by Prior Calcite Precipitation (PCP) resulting in lower values during the wet season (autumn/winter) and vice versa. Both, Y and P are enriched in the brownish, pigmented layers and are proxies for soil activity. However, both elemental concentrations are also influenced by detrital content superimposed on the signal resulting from soil activity. Proxies for detrital content are Al and Mn. Lamina thickness shows a significant correlation with the amount of precipitation of December of the previous year and January, February, March, April, May, and December of the current year (DJFMAMD) recorded at the nearby meteorological station Bamberg. Thus, lamina thickness is a proxy for past precipitation variability. This is confirmed by the good agreement with a precipitation reconstruction based on tree-ring width from the Bavarian forest. This highlights the potential of these speleothems for climate reconstruction at annual resolution (Riechelmann et al., submitted). Riechelmann, D.F.C, Fohlmeister, J., Tjallingii, R., Jochum, K.P., Richter, D.K., Brummer, G.-J. A., Scholz, D., submitted. Detection and origin of different types of annual laminae in recent stalagmites from Zoolithancave, southern Germany: Evaluation of the potential for quantitative reconstruction of past precipitation variability. Hydrology and Earth System Science Discussions.

  14. Environmental enrichment causes a global potentiation of neuronal responses across stimulus complexity and lamina of sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Alwis, Dasuni S.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Enriched social and physical housing produces many molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological and behavior benefits even in adult animals. Much less is known of its effects on cortical electrophysiology, especially in how sensory cortex encodes the altered environment, and extant studies have generally been restricted to neurons in input laminae in sensory cortex. To extend the understanding of how an enriched environment alters the way in which cortex views the world, we investigated enrichment-induced changes in neuronal encoding of sensory stimuli across all laminae of the rat barrel cortex receiving input from the face whisker tactile system. Animals were housed in Enriched (n = 13) or Isolated housing (n = 13) conditions for 8 weeks before extracellular recordings were obtained from barrel cortex in response to simple whisker deflections and whisker motions modeling movements seen in awake animals undertaking a variety of different tasks. Enrichment resulted in increases in neuronal responses to all stimuli, ranging from those modeling exploratory behavior through to discrimination behaviors. These increases were seen throughout the cortex from supragranular layers through to input Layer 4 and for some stimuli, in infragranular Layer 5. The observed enrichment-induced effect is consistent with the postulate that enrichment causes shift in cortical excitatory/inhibitory balance, and we demonstrate this is greatest in supragranular layers. However, we also report that the effects are non-selective for stimulus parameters across a range of stimuli except for one modeling the likely use of whiskers by the rats in the enriched housing. PMID:23964199

  15. Transformation of the output of spinal lamina I neurons after nerve injury and microglia stimulation underlying neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Keller, A Florence; Beggs, Simon; Salter, Michael W; De Koninck, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Background Disinhibition of neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn, via microglia – neuron signaling leading to disruption of chloride homeostasis, is a potential cellular substrate for neuropathic pain. But, a central unresolved question is whether this disinhibition can transform the activity and responses of spinal nociceptive output neurons to account for the symptoms of neuropathic pain. Results Here we show that peripheral nerve injury, local spinal administration of ATP-stimulated microglia or pharmacological disruption of chloride transport change the phenotype of spinal lamina I output neurons, causing them to 1) increase the gain of nociceptive responsiveness, 2) relay innocuous mechanical input and 3) generate spontaneous bursts of activity. The changes in the electrophysiological phenotype of lamina I neurons may account for three principal components of neuropathic pain: hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and spontaneous pain, respectively. Conclusion The transformation of discharge activity and sensory specificity provides an aberrant signal in a primarily nociceptive ascending pathway that may serve as a basis for the symptoms of neuropathic pain. PMID:17900333

  16. Methods to Monitor DNA Repair Defects and Genomic Instability in the Context of a Disrupted Nuclear Lamina

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalo, Susana; Kreienkamp, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The organization of the genome within the nuclear space is viewed as an additional level of regulation of genome function, as well as a means to ensure genome integrity. Structural proteins associated with the nuclear envelope, in particular lamins (A- and B-type) and lamin-associated proteins, play an important role in genome organization. Interestingly, there is a whole body of evidence that links disruptions of the nuclear lamina with DNA repair defects and genomic instability. Here, we describe a few standard techniques that have been successfully utilized to identify mechanisms behind DNA repair defects and genomic instability in cells with an altered nuclear lamina. In particular, we describe protocols to monitor changes in the expression of DNA repair factors (Western blot) and their recruitment to sites of DNA damage (immunofluorescence); kinetics of DNA double-strand break repair after ionizing radiation (neutral comet assays); frequency of chromosomal aberrations (FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization); and alterations in telomere homeostasis (Quantitative-FISH). These techniques have allowed us to shed some light onto molecular mechanisms by which alterations in A-type lamins induce genomic instability, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of aging and aging-related diseases. PMID:27147057

  17. Nuclear envelope proteins Nesprin2 and LaminA regulate proliferation and apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells in response to shear stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Yue; Wang, Lu; Yao, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Guo-Liang; Shen, Bao-Rong; Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Yingxiao; Jiang, Zong-Lai; Qi, Ying-Xin

    2015-05-01

    The dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) influenced by flow shear stress is crucial for vascular remodeling. However, the roles of nuclear envelope (NE) proteins in shear stress-induced EC dysfunction are still unknown. Our results indicated that, compared with normal shear stress (NSS), low shear stress (LowSS) suppressed the expression of two types of NE proteins, Nesprin2 and LaminA, and increased the proliferation and apoptosis of ECs. Targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gene overexpression plasmid transfection revealed that Nesprin2 and LaminA participate in the regulation of EC proliferation and apoptosis. A protein/DNA array was further used to detect the activation of transcription factors in ECs following transfection with target siRNAs and overexpression plasmids. The regulation of AP-2 and TFIID mediated by Nesprin2 and the activation of Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6 by LaminA were verified under shear stress. Furthermore, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and real-time RT-PCR, the effects of Nesprin2 or LaminA on the downstream target genes of AP-2, TFIID, and Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6, respectively, were investigated under LowSS. Our study has revealed that NE proteins are novel mechano-sensitive molecules in ECs. LowSS suppresses the expression of Nesprin2 and LaminA, which may subsequently modulate the activation of important transcription factors and eventually lead to EC dysfunction.

  18. Monosynaptic convergence of somatic and visceral C-fiber afferents on projection and local circuit neurons in lamina I: a substrate for referred pain.

    PubMed

    Luz, Liliana L; Fernandes, Elisabete C; Sivado, Miklos; Kokai, Eva; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V

    2015-10-01

    Referred pain is a phenomenon of feeling pain at a site other than the site of the painful stimulus origin. It arises from a pathological mixing of nociceptive processing pathways for visceral and somatic inputs. Despite numerous studies based on unit recordings from spinal and supraspinal neurons, the exact mechanism and site of this mixing within the central nervous system are not known. Here, we selectively recorded from lamina I neurons, using a visually guided patch-clamp technique, in thoracic spinal cord preparation with preserved intercostal (somatic) and splanchnic (visceral) nerves. We show that somatic and visceral C fibers converge monosynaptically onto a group of lamina I neurons, which includes both projection and local circuit neurons. Other groups of lamina I neurons received inputs from either somatic or visceral afferents. We have also identified a population of lamina I local circuit neurons showing overall inhibitory responses upon stimulation of both nerves. Thus, the present data allow us to draw two major conclusions. First, lamina I of the spinal cord is the first site in the central nervous system where somatic and visceral pathways directly converge onto individual projection and local circuit neurons. Second, the mechanism of somatovisceral convergence is complex and based on functional integration of monosynaptic and polysynaptic excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs in specific groups of neurons. This complex pattern of convergence provides a substrate for alterations in the balance between visceral and somatic inputs causing referred pain.

  19. [Invasive and minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Advanced hemodynamic monitoring is necessary for adequate management of high-risk patients or patients with derangement of circulation. Studies demonstrate a benefit of early goal directed therapy in unstable cardiopulmonary situations. In these days we have different possibilities of minimally invasive or invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Minimally invasive measurements like pulse conture analysis or pulse wave analysis being less accurate under some circumstances, however only an artery catheter is needed for cardiac output monitoring. Pulmonary artery, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution technology have acceptable accuracy in cardiac output measurement. For therapy of unstable circulation there are additionally parameters to obtain. The pulmonary artery catheter is the device with the largest rate of complications, used by a trained crew and with a correct indication, his use is unchained justified.

  20. Myofibroblast distribution is associated with invasive growth types of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuna, Masafumi; Morohashi, Satoko; Yoshizawa, Tadashi; Hirai, Hideaki; Haga, Toshihiro; Ota, Rie; Saito, Kensuke; Wu, Yunyan; Seino, Hiroko; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Terai, Shuji; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Both the invasive growth types of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the number of myofibroblasts have been associated with histopathological factors such as lymph node and liver metastasis, and local recurrence. However, there are few studies, that have assessed the association between invasive growth type and myofibroblast distribution in CRC. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the clinicopathological factors of CRC and two invasive growth types, the expanding and infiltrating types. We categorized 150 cases of pT3 CRC into the expanding and infiltrating types and measured the myofibroblast density of three histological layers: the submucosa (SM), the muscularis propria (MP) and the subserosa (SS). We compared these two invasive growth types and analyzed the relationship between clinicopathological factors and myofibroblast density. Myofibroblast density was significantly higher in the infiltrating type than that in the expanding type (P<0.05). In the lymph node metastasis-positive group of the infiltrating type, myofibroblast density in MP was significantly higher than that in the lymph node metastasis-negative group (P<0.001). In the infiltrating type, the group with the higher level of lymphatic invasion had a significantly higher density of myofibroblasts in the MP than the group with the lower level of lymphatic invasion (P<0.01). These results suggest that myofibroblasts participate more in the infiltrating type compared with the expanding type of CRC. It would appear that myofibroblasts present in the MP play an important role in the malignant potential of the infiltrating type compared to the expanding type. PMID:27779697

  1. A case of transient hypothermia after trans-lamina terminalis and third ventricle clipping of an extremely high-position basilar tip aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ikawa, Fusao; Hamasaki, Osamu; Kurokawa, Yasuharu; Yonezawa, Ushio; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Reports on the trans-lamina terminalis and trans-third ventricular approach are rare. The risk associated with this approach is unknown. After an unsuccessful endovascular surgery, we performed direct surgical clipping via the third ventricle on a 78-year-old woman presenting with an extremely high-positioned, ruptured basilar tip aneurysm. She experienced transient hypothermia for 5 days, and it was considered that this was due to hypothalamic dysfunction. It is necessary to recognize that there is the potential for hypothermia after surgery via the lamina terminalis and third ventricle, even though the mechanisms of hypothalamic thermoregulation are still unclear. PMID:27489684

  2. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-03-05

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma. In later stages of pregnancy, especially in Old World monkeys and apes, cytotrophoblast plays a greater role in the invasive process. Columns of trophoblast cells advance to the base of the implantation site where they spread out to form a cytotrophoblastic shell. In addition, cytotrophoblasts advance into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion that extends remodelling of the spiral arteries to segments in the inner myometrium evolved in the common ancestor of gorilla, chimp and human.

  3. Vector potentials for the gravitational interaction of extended bodies and laminas with analytical solutions for two disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, John T.

    2016-06-01

    The mutual gravitational potential and the force and torque components between two solid bodies are formulated in terms of vector potentials. If one of the bodies is a flat lamina of arbitrary shape and uniform surface density, then the potential and the force and torque components in Cartesian coordinates are expressed in terms of line integrals. For a uniform circular disk, the various potentials are given explicitly in terms of elliptic integrals, and these are applied to a second homogeneous disk of arbitrary orientation and position relative to the first. Simplified formulas are given for disks with parallel axes. Analytical solutions in terms of elliptic integrals are given for the mutual force and potential for coaxial disks and coplanar disks. Numerical results are given for two disks for a selection of relative orientations and positions.

  4. Basilar membrane and reticular lamina motion in a multi-scale finite element model of the mouse cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE) model of the mouse cochlea, based on its anatomy and material properties is presented. The important feature in the model is a lattice of 400 Y-shaped structures in the longitudinal direction, each formed by Deiters cells, phalangeal processes and outer hair cells (OHC). OHC somatic motility is modeled by an expansion force proportional to the shear on the stereocilia, which in turn is proportional to the pressure difference between the scala vestibule and scala tympani. Basilar membrane (BM) and reticular lamina (RL) velocity compare qualitatively very well with recent in vivo measurements in guinea pig [2]. Compared to the BM, the RL is shown to have higher amplification and a shift to higher frequencies. This comes naturally from the realistic Y-shaped cell organization without tectorial membrane tuning.

  5. Lamina 3D display: projection-type depth-fused display using polarization-encoded depth information.

    PubMed

    Park, Soon-gi; Yoon, Sangcheol; Yeom, Jiwoon; Baek, Hogil; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

    2014-10-20

    In order to realize three-dimensional (3D) displays, various multiplexing methods have been proposed to add the depth dimension to two-dimensional scenes. However, most of these methods have faced challenges such as the degradation of viewing qualities, the requirement of complicated equipment, and large amounts of data. In this paper, we further developed our previous concept, polarization distributed depth map, to propose the Lamina 3D display as a method for encoding and reconstructing depth information using the polarization status. By adopting projection optics to the depth encoding system, reconstructed 3D images can be scaled like images of 2D projection displays. 3D reconstruction characteristics of the polarization-encoded images are analyzed with simulation and experiment. The experimental system is also demonstrated to show feasibility of the proposed method.

  6. Heterogeneity of silica and glycan-epitope distribution in epidermal idioblast cell walls in Adiantum raddianum laminae.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Olivier; Leroux, Frederic; Mastroberti, Alexandra Antunes; Santos-Silva, Fernanda; Van Loo, Denis; Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Bals, Sara; Popper, Zoë A; de Araujo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto

    2013-06-01

    Laminae of Adiantum raddianum Presl., a fern belonging to the family Pteridaceae, are characterised by the presence of epidermal fibre-like cells under the vascular bundles. These cells were thought to contain silica bodies, but their thickened walls leave no space for intracellular silica suggesting it may actually be deposited within their walls. Using advanced electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis we showed the presence of silica in the cell walls of the fibre-like idioblasts. However, it was specifically localised to the outer layers of the periclinal wall facing the leaf surface, with the thick secondary wall being devoid of silica. Immunocytochemical experiments were performed to ascertain the respective localisation of silica deposition and glycan polymers. Epitopes characteristic for pectic homogalacturonan and the hemicelluloses xyloglucan and mannan were detected in most epidermal walls, including the silica-rich cell wall layers. The monoclonal antibody, LM6, raised against pectic arabinan, labelled the silica-rich primary wall of the epidermal fibre-like cells and the guard cell walls, which were also shown to contain silica. We hypothesise that the silicified outer wall layers of the epidermal fibre-like cells support the lamina during cell expansion prior to secondary wall formation. This implies that silicification does not impede cell elongation. Although our results suggest that pectic arabinan may be implicated in silica deposition, further detailed analyses are needed to confirm this. The combinatorial approach presented here, which allows correlative screening and in situ localisation of silicon and cell wall polysaccharide distribution, shows great potential for future studies.

  7. Displacement of the Lamina Cribrosa in Response to Acute Intraocular Pressure Elevation in Normal Individuals of African and European Descent

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Massimo A.; Johnstone, John K.; Smith, Brandon; Wang, Lan; Girkin, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess if the in vivo mechanical displacement of the anterior laminar cribrosa surface (ALCS) as a response of an acute elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) differs in individuals of European (ED) and African descent (AD). Methods Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) scans were obtained from 24 eyes of 12 individuals of AD and 18 eyes of 9 individuals of ED at their normal baseline IOP and after 60 seconds IOP elevation using ophthalmodynamometry. Change in depth (displacement) of the LC and to the prelaminar tissue (PLT) were computed in association with the change (delta) in IOP (Δ IOP), race, age, corneal thickness, corneal rigidity (ocular response analyzer [ORA]), and axial. Results In the ED group for small IOP elevations (Δ IOP < 12 mm Hg), the ALCS initially displaced posteriorly but for larger increase of IOP an anterior displacement of the lamina followed. Inversely, in the AD group the ALCS did not show a significant posterior displacement for small Δ IOP, while for larger IOP increases the ALCS significantly displaced posteriorly. Posterior displacement of the lamina cribrosa (LC) was also significantly correlated with longer axial length, higher corneal thickness, and ORA parameters. Prelaminar tissue posteriorly displaced for any magnitude of Δ IOP, in both groups. Conclusions The African descent group demonstrated a greater acute posterior bowing of the LC after adjustment for age, axial length, Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) area, and ORA parameters. Greater PLT posterior displacement was also seen in the AD group with increasing IOP, which was tightly correlated with the displacement of the LC. PMID:27367500

  8. Blood-nerve barrier: distribution of anionic sites on the endothelial plasma membrane and basal lamina of dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bush, M S; Reid, A R; Allt, G

    1991-09-01

    Previous investigations of the blood-nerve barrier have correlated the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels, compared to those of nerve trunks, with the presence of fenestrations and open intercellular junctions. Recent studies have demonstrated reduced endothelial cell surface charge in blood vessels showing greater permeability. To determine the distribution of anionic sites on the plasma membranes and basal laminae of endothelial cells in dorsal root ganglia, cationic colloidal gold and cationic ferritin were used. Electron microscopy revealed the existence of endothelial microdomains with differing labelling densities. Labelling indicated that caveolar and fenestral diaphragms and basal laminae are highly anionic at physiological pH, luminal plasma membranes and endothelial processes are moderately charged and abluminal plasma membranes are weakly anionic. Tracers did not occur in caveolae or cytoplasmic vesicles. In vitro tracer experiments at pH values of 7.3, 5.0, 3.5 and 2.0 indicated that the anionic charge on the various endothelial domains was contributed by chemical groups with differing pKa values. In summary, the labelling of ganglionic and sciatic nerve vessels was similar except for the heavy labelling of diaphragms in a minority of endoneurial vessels in ganglia. This difference is likely to account in part for the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels. The results are discussed with regard to the blood-nerve and -brain barriers and vascular permeability in other tissues and a comparison made between the ultrastructure and anionic microdomains of epi-, peri- and endoneurial vessels of dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves.

  9. Inactivation of retinoblastoma protein does not overcome the requirement for human cytomegalovirus UL97 in lamina disruption and nuclear egress.

    PubMed

    Reim, Natalia I; Kamil, Jeremy P; Wang, Depeng; Lin, Alison; Sharma, Mayuri; Ericsson, Maria; Pesola, Jean M; Golan, David E; Coen, Donald M

    2013-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes one conventional protein kinase, UL97. During infection, UL97 phosphorylates the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) on sites ordinarily phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), inactivating the ability of pRb to repress host genes required for cell cycle progression to S phase. UL97 is important for viral DNA synthesis in quiescent cells, but this function can be replaced by human papillomavirus type 16 E7, which targets pRb for degradation. However, viruses in which E7 replaces UL97 are still defective for virus production. UL97 is also required for efficient nuclear egress of viral nucleocapsids, which is associated with disruption of the nuclear lamina during infection, and phosphorylation of lamin A/C on serine 22, which antagonizes lamin polymerization. We investigated whether inactivation of pRb might overcome the requirement of UL97 for these roles, as pRb inactivation induces CDK1, and CDK1 phosphorylates lamin A/C on serine 22. We found that lamin A/C serine 22 phosphorylation during HCMV infection correlated with expression of UL97 and was considerably delayed in UL97-null mutants, even when E7 was expressed. E7 failed to restore gaps in the nuclear lamina seen in wild-type but not UL97-null virus infections. In electron microscopy analyses, a UL97-null virus expressing E7 was as impaired as a UL97-null mutant in cytoplasmic accumulation of viral nucleocapsids. Our results demonstrate that pRb inactivation is insufficient to restore efficient viral nuclear egress of HCMV in the absence of UL97 and instead argue further for a direct role of UL97 in this stage of the infectious cycle.

  10. Differential wiring of local excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to islet cells in rat spinal lamina II demonstrated by laser scanning photostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Go; Kawasaki, Yasuhiko; Ji, Ru-Rong; Strassman, Andrew M

    2007-01-01

    The substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of the spinal dorsal horn contains inhibitory and excitatory interneurons that are thought to play a critical role in the modulation of nociception. However, the organization of the intrinsic circuitry within lamina II remains poorly understood. We used glutamate uncaging by laser scanning photostimulation to map the location of neurons that give rise to local synaptic inputs to islet cells, a major class of inhibitory interneuron in lamina II. We also mapped the distribution of sites on the islet cells that exhibited direct (non-synaptic) responses to uncaging of excitatory and inhibitory transmitters. Local synaptic inputs to islet cells arose almost entirely from within lamina II, and these local inputs included both excitatory and inhibitory components. Furthermore, there was a striking segregation in the location of sites that evoked excitatory versus inhibitory synaptic inputs, such that inhibitory presynaptic neurons were distributed more proximal to the islet cell soma. This was paralleled in part by a differential distribution of transmitter receptor sites on the islet cell, in that inhibitory sites were confined to the peri-somatic region while excitatory sites were more widespread. This differential organization of excitatory and inhibitory inputs suggests a principle for the wiring of local circuitry within the substantia gelatinosa. PMID:17289782

  11. The irre cell recognition module (IRM) protein Kirre is required to form the reciprocal synaptic network of L4 neurons in the Drosophila lamina.

    PubMed

    Lüthy, Kevin; Ahrens, Birgit; Rawal, Shilpa; Lu, Zhiyuan; Tarnogorska, Dorota; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Each neuropil module, or cartridge, in the fly's lamina has a fixed complement of cells. Of five types of monopolar cell interneurons, only L4 has collaterals that invade neighboring cartridges. In the proximal lamina, these collaterals form reciprocal synapses with both the L2 of their own cartridge and the L4 collateral branches from two other neighboring cartridges. During synaptogenesis, L4 collaterals strongly express the cell adhesion protein Kirre, a member of the irre cell recognition module (IRM) group of proteins ( Fischbach et al., 2009 , J Neurogenet, 23, 48-67). The authors show by mutant analysis and gene knockdown techniques that L4 neurons develop their lamina collaterals in the absence of this cell adhesion protein. Using electron microscopy (EM), the authors demonstrate, however, that without Kirre protein these L4 collaterals selectively form fewer synapses. The collaterals of L4 neurons of various genotypes reconstructed from serial-section EM revealed that the number of postsynaptic sites was dramatically reduced in the absence of Kirre, almost eliminating any synaptic input to L4 neurons. A significant reduction of presynaptic sites was also detected in kirre(0) mutants and gene knockdown flies using RNA interference. L4 neuron reciprocal synapses are thus almost eliminated. A presynaptic marker, Brp-short(GFP) confirmed these data using confocal microscopy. This study reveals that removing Kirre protein specifically disrupts the functional L4 synaptic network in the Drosophila lamina.

  12. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... invasive - discharge Transurethral resection of the prostate - discharge Review Date 6/29/2015 Updated by: Jennifer Sobol, ... the Michigan Institute of Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by ...

  13. Minimally invasive stomas.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Michael D; Al Haddad, Abdullah

    2008-02-01

    Traditionally, stoma creation and end stoma reversal have been performed via a laparotomy incision. However, in many situations, stoma construction may be safely performed in a minimally invasive nature. This may include a trephine, laparoscopic, or combined approach. Furthermore, Hartmann's colostomy reversal, a procedure traditionally associated with substantial morbidity, may also be performed laparoscopically. The authors briefly review patient selection, preparation, and indications, and focus primarily on surgical techniques and results of minimally invasive stoma creation and Hartmann's reversal.

  14. Minimally invasive lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2013-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is a common problem. Nerve root compression can occur at different places along a nerve root's course including in the foramina. Minimal invasive approaches allow easier exposure of the lateral foramina and decompression of the nerve root in the foramina. This video demonstrates a minimally invasive approach to decompress the lumbar nerve root in the foramina with a lateral to medial decompression. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/jqa61HSpzIA.

  15. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  16. A bioinformatics analysis of Lamin-A regulatory network: a perspective on epigenetic involvement in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arancio, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare human genetic disease that leads to premature aging. HGPS is caused by mutation in the Lamin-A (LMNA) gene that leads, in affected young individuals, to the accumulation of the progerin protein, usually present only in aging differentiated cells. Bioinformatics analyses of the network of interactions of the LMNA gene and transcripts are presented. The LMNA gene network has been analyzed using the BioGRID database (http://thebiogrid.org/) and related analysis tools such as Osprey (http://biodata.mshri.on.ca/osprey/servlet/Index) and GeneMANIA ( http://genemania.org/). The network of interaction of LMNA transcripts has been further analyzed following the competing endogenous (ceRNA) hypotheses (RNA cross-talk via microRNAs [miRNAs]) and using the miRWalk database and tools (www.ma.uni-heidelberg.de/apps/zmf/mirwalk/). These analyses suggest particular relevance of epigenetic modifiers (via acetylase complexes and specifically HTATIP histone acetylase) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodelers (via pBAF, BAF, and SWI/SNF complexes).

  17. 3D modeling to characterize lamina cribrosa surface and pore geometries using in vivo images from normal and glaucomatous eyes.

    PubMed

    Sredar, Nripun; Ivers, Kevin M; Queener, Hope M; Zouridakis, George; Porter, Jason

    2013-07-01

    En face adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images of the anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) represent a 2D projected view of a 3D laminar surface. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images acquired in living monkey eyes, a thin plate spline was used to model the ALCS in 3D. The 2D AOSLO images were registered and projected onto the 3D surface that was then tessellated into a triangular mesh to characterize differences in pore geometry between 2D and 3D images. Following 3D transformation of the anterior laminar surface in 11 normal eyes, mean pore area increased by 5.1 ± 2.0% with a minimal change in pore elongation (mean change = 0.0 ± 0.2%). These small changes were due to the relatively flat laminar surfaces inherent in normal eyes (mean radius of curvature = 3.0 ± 0.5 mm). The mean increase in pore area was larger following 3D transformation in 4 glaucomatous eyes (16.2 ± 6.0%) due to their more steeply curved laminar surfaces (mean radius of curvature = 1.3 ± 0.1 mm), while the change in pore elongation was comparable to that in normal eyes (-0.2 ± 2.0%). This 3D transformation and tessellation method can be used to better characterize and track 3D changes in laminar pore and surface geometries in glaucoma.

  18. Ethanol inhibits long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 neurons, irrespective of lamina and stimulus strength, through neurosteroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Binu; Ahmed, Saheeb; Zafar, Noman; Dean, Camin

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol inhibits memory encoding and the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 neurons of the hippocampus. Hippocampal LTP at Schaffer collateral synapses onto CA1 pyramidal neurons has been widely studied as a cellular model of learning and memory, but there is striking heterogeneity in the underlying molecular mechanisms in distinct regions and in response to distinct stimuli. Basal and apical dendrites differ in terms of innervation, input specificity, and molecular mechanisms of LTP induction and maintenance, and different stimuli determine distinct molecular pathways of potentiation. However, lamina or stimulus-dependent effects of ethanol on LTP have not been investigated. Here, we tested the effect of acute application of 60 mM ethanol on LTP induction in distinct dendritic compartments (apical versus basal) of CA1 neurons, and in response to distinct stimulation paradigms (single versus repeated, spaced high frequency stimulation). We found that ethanol completely blocks LTP in apical dendrites, whereas it reduces the magnitude of LTP in basal dendrites. Acute ethanol treatment for just 15 min altered pre- and post-synaptic protein expression. Interestingly, ethanol increases the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, which causes ethanol-dependent inhibition of LTP, more prominently in apical dendrites, where ethanol has greater effects on LTP. This suggests that ethanol has general effects on fundamental properties of synaptic plasticity, but the magnitude of its effect on LTP differs depending on hippocampal sub-region and stimulus strength.

  19. The nuclear envelope lamina network has elasticity and a compressibility limit suggestive of a molecular shock absorber.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Kris Noel; Kahn, Samuel M; Wilson, Katherine L; Discher, Dennis E

    2004-09-15

    Mechanical properties of the nuclear envelope have implications for cell and nuclear architecture as well as gene regulation. Using isolated Xenopus oocyte nuclei, we have established swelling conditions that separate the intact nuclear envelope (membranes, pore complexes and underlying lamin filament network) from nucleoplasm and the majority of chromatin. Swelling proves reversible with addition of high molecular mass dextrans. Micropipette aspiration of swollen and unswollen nuclear envelopes is also reversible and yields a network elastic modulus, unaffected by nucleoplasm, that averages 25 mN/m. Compared to plasma membranes of cells, the nuclear envelope is much stiffer and more resilient. Our results suggest that the nuclear lamina forms a compressed network shell of interconnected rods that is extensible but limited in compressibility from the native state, thus acting as a 'molecular shock absorber'. In light of the conservation of B-type lamins in metazoan evolution, the mechanical properties determined in this investigation suggest physical mechanisms by which mutated lamins can either destabilize nuclear architecture or influence nuclear responses to mechanical signals in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, progeria syndromes (premature 'aging') and other laminopathies.

  20. Cardiac electrical defects in progeroid mice and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome patients with nuclear lamina alterations.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Torres, José; Calvo, Conrado J; Llach, Anna; Guzmán-Martínez, Gabriela; Caballero, Ricardo; González-Gómez, Cristina; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis J; Guadix, Juan A; Osorio, Fernando G; López-Otín, Carlos; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benítez, Raul; Gordon, Leslie B; Jalife, José; Pérez-Pomares, José M; Tamargo, Juan; Delpón, Eva; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Andrés, Vicente

    2016-11-15

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disease caused by defective prelamin A processing, leading to nuclear lamina alterations, severe cardiovascular pathology, and premature death. Prelamin A alterations also occur in physiological aging. It remains unknown how defective prelamin A processing affects the cardiac rhythm. We show age-dependent cardiac repolarization abnormalities in HGPS patients that are also present in the Zmpste24(-/-) mouse model of HGPS. Challenge of Zmpste24(-/-) mice with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol did not trigger ventricular arrhythmia but caused bradycardia-related premature ventricular complexes and slow-rate polymorphic ventricular rhythms during recovery. Patch-clamping in Zmpste24(-/-) cardiomyocytes revealed prolonged calcium-transient duration and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium loading and release, consistent with the absence of isoproterenol-induced ventricular arrhythmia. Zmpste24(-/-) progeroid mice also developed severe fibrosis-unrelated bradycardia and PQ interval and QRS complex prolongation. These conduction defects were accompanied by overt mislocalization of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43). Remarkably, Cx43 mislocalization was also evident in autopsied left ventricle tissue from HGPS patients, suggesting intercellular connectivity alterations at late stages of the disease. The similarities between HGPS patients and progeroid mice reported here strongly suggest that defective cardiac repolarization and cardiomyocyte connectivity are important abnormalities in the HGPS pathogenesis that increase the risk of arrhythmia and premature death.

  1. Cardiac electrical defects in progeroid mice and Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome patients with nuclear lamina alterations

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Torres, José; Calvo, Conrado J.; Llach, Anna; Guzmán-Martínez, Gabriela; Caballero, Ricardo; González-Gómez, Cristina; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis J.; Guadix, Juan A.; Osorio, Fernando G.; López-Otín, Carlos; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benítez, Raul; Gordon, Leslie B.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Tamargo, Juan; Delpón, Eva; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Andrés, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disease caused by defective prelamin A processing, leading to nuclear lamina alterations, severe cardiovascular pathology, and premature death. Prelamin A alterations also occur in physiological aging. It remains unknown how defective prelamin A processing affects the cardiac rhythm. We show age-dependent cardiac repolarization abnormalities in HGPS patients that are also present in the Zmpste24−/− mouse model of HGPS. Challenge of Zmpste24−/− mice with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol did not trigger ventricular arrhythmia but caused bradycardia-related premature ventricular complexes and slow-rate polymorphic ventricular rhythms during recovery. Patch-clamping in Zmpste24−/− cardiomyocytes revealed prolonged calcium-transient duration and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium loading and release, consistent with the absence of isoproterenol-induced ventricular arrhythmia. Zmpste24−/− progeroid mice also developed severe fibrosis-unrelated bradycardia and PQ interval and QRS complex prolongation. These conduction defects were accompanied by overt mislocalization of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43). Remarkably, Cx43 mislocalization was also evident in autopsied left ventricle tissue from HGPS patients, suggesting intercellular connectivity alterations at late stages of the disease. The similarities between HGPS patients and progeroid mice reported here strongly suggest that defective cardiac repolarization and cardiomyocyte connectivity are important abnormalities in the HGPS pathogenesis that increase the risk of arrhythmia and premature death. PMID:27799555

  2. Fine control of nuclear confinement identifies a threshold deformation leading to lamina rupture and induction of specific genes.

    PubMed

    Le Berre, Maël; Aubertin, Johannes; Piel, Matthieu

    2012-11-01

    The quest to understand how the mechanical and geometrical environment of cells impacts their behavior and fate has been a major force driving the recent development of new technologies in cell biology research. Despite rapid advances in this field, many challenges remain in order to bridge the gap between the classical and simple cell culture plate and the biological reality of actual tissue. In tissues, cells have their physical space constrained by neighboring cells and the extracellular matrix. Here, we propose a simple and versatile device to precisely and dynamically control this confinement parameter in cultured cells. We show that there is a precise threshold deformation above which the nuclear lamina breaks and reconstructs, whereas nuclear volume changes. We also show that different nuclear deformations correlate with the expression of specific sets of genes, including nuclear factors and classical mechanotransduction pathways. This versatile device thus enables the precise control of cell and nuclear deformation by confinement and the correlative study of the associated molecular events.

  3. Phase-Contrast Micro-Computed Tomography Measurements of the Intraocular Pressure-Induced Deformation of the Porcine Lamina Cribrosa.

    PubMed

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Geraldes, Diogo M; Vo, Nghia T; Atwood, Robert; Reinhard, Christina; Campbell, Ian C; Raji, Yazdan; Albon, Julie; Abel, Richard L; Ethier, C Ross

    2016-04-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) is a complex mesh-like tissue in the posterior eye. Its biomechanical environment is thought to play a major role in glaucoma, the second most common cause of blindness. Due to its small size and relative inaccessibility, high-resolution measurements of LC deformation, important in characterizing LC biomechanics, are challenging. Here we present a novel noninvasive imaging method, which enables measurement of the three-dimensional deformation of the LC caused by acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Posterior segments of porcine eyes were imaged using synchrotron radiation phase contrast micro-computed tomography (PC μCT) at IOPs between 6 and 37 mmHg. The complex trabecular architecture of the LC was reconstructed with an isotropic spatial resolution of 3.2 μm. Scans acquired at different IOPs were analyzed with digital volume correlation (DVC) to compute full-field deformation within the LC. IOP elevation caused substantial tensile, shearing and compressive devformation within the LC, with maximum tensile strains at 30 mmHg averaging 5.5%, and compressive strains reaching 20%. We conclude that PC μCT provides a novel high-resolution method for imaging the LC, and when combined with DVC, allows for full-field 3D measurement of ex vivo LC biomechanics at high spatial resolution.

  4. Phase-contrast Micro-computed Tomography Measurements of the Intraocular Pressure-induced Deformation of the Porcine Lamina Cribrosa.

    PubMed

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Geraldes, Diogo; Vo, Nghia; Atwood, Robert; Reinhard, Christina; Campbell, Ian; Raji, Yazdan; Albon, Julie; Abel, Richard; Ethier, Ross

    2015-11-30

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) is a complex mesh-like tissue in the posterior eye. Its biomechanical environment is thought to play a major role in glaucoma, the second most common cause of blindness. Due to its small size and relative inaccessibility, highresolution measurements of LC deformation, important in characterizing LC biomechanics, are challenging. Here we present a novel noninvasive imaging method, which enables measurement of the three-dimensional deformation of the LC caused by acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Posterior segments of porcine eyes were imaged using synchrotron radiation phase contrast micro-computed tomography (PC CT) at IOPs between 6 and 37mmHg. The complex trabecular architecture of the LC was reconstructed with an isotropic spatial resolution of 3.2 m. Scans acquired at different IOPs were analyzed with digital volume correlation (DVC) to compute full-field deformation within the LC. IOP elevation caused substantial tensile, shearing and compressive deformation within the LC, with maximum tensile strains at 30mmHg averaging 5.5%, and compressive strains reaching 20%. We conclude that PC CT provides a novel high-resolution method for imaging the LC, and when combined with DVC, allows for full-field 3D measurement of ex vivo LC biomechanics at high spatial resolution.

  5. Hyperactive Dental Lamina in a 24-Year-old Female – A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashu; Nagar, Priya; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Munjal, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    An extra tooth to the normal formula of teeth sequence in any region of dental arch is regarded as Supernumerary teeth (ST). The reasons are still not clearly known, one of them being dichotomy of tooth bud, but the more accepted reason is the hyperactivity theory. Supernumerary teeth are present more in permanent dentition than in primary dentition and can present as a single entity or multiple, unilaterally or bilaterally, impacted or erupted, in either or both the dental arches. This article discusses the supernumerary teeth in detail with a case discussion of a non-syndromic 24-year-old girl, with six ST (bicuspids) present in all the four quadrants. In the mandible, ST’s showed a classical clustered flower like presentation. The interesting feature in the presented case was the sequential orthopantomographs taken at various ages of the patient that showed continuous development of STs in all four quadrants, thus pointing to the theory of hyperactive dental lamina or atavism. An electronic search was conceded in PubMed, Cochrane Library and google scholar databases, and articles dated between December 1932 and December 2012 were selected to review the occurrence patterns of supernumerary teeth in non-syndromic cases. PMID:26436066

  6. Detecting to secret folded composite lamina package pairs in cores related slump dump structures and seismites with high resolution sampling of physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Dursun; Cagatay, Namik; Feray Meydan, Aysegul; Eris, Kadir; Sari, Erol; Akcer, Sena; Makaroglu, Ozlem; Alkislar, Hakan; Biltekin, Demet; Nagehan Arslan, Tugce

    2016-04-01

    The core retrieved from Lake Van consists of seismites that were possibly deposited during the earthquakes around the Van region. Deformed parts of the core sediments display folded laminations that can be attributed to seismites. The problem arises that if the fold axis is deposited perpendicular to the liner and, if the hinge line is far enough, describing the true laminations might be impossible related to real age of basin evolution because extra laminae seem deposited to the area. Scientist must pay attention such problem that dating method like varve counting and basin evolution estimates can totally change due to extra laminae that explained before. For eliminate to wrong interpretations considering reversal reflected anomalies even with angularity effects to one package of pair can show significant difference than other symmetric one due to angle of the hinge line or soft sediment deformation. Considering the situation explained, p-wave is not enough to support the idea however; chemical analyses (x-ray florescence), ICP-MS (asdasd) analysis can provide appropriate results to identify laminae that appear on the limbs of the reversed micro folds. New easy designed extra U-Channel drive tray framework prepared by us. U-Channels are prepared well conditioned, saturated enough to well contact between sediment surface and plastic shield of u-channel samples from cores. Physical parameters are measured by Multi sensor core logger (MSCL) with high resolution step ratio fixed to 1mm. At the p- wave and gamma ray results, we observed together stair upwards form and reverse reflected downward data graphics, thus our interpretation of identifying the fold limbs are now visible. We understand that laminae packages are exactly the same. XRF and MSCL are totally supporting to origin of pairs generated after their sedimentation age with mechanical forces. For this reason, in this study, we attended to solve such problem to analyze deformed folded laminations that must be

  7. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  8. Invasive Bordetella holmesii infections.

    PubMed

    Fishbain, Joel T; Riederer, Kathleen; Sawaf, Hadi; Mody, Rupal

    2015-02-01

    Bordetella holmesii is a rare cause of invasive human disease. The fastidious and unusual nature of this organism makes routine isolation and identification challenging. We report two cases of B. holmesii bacteremia that were rapidly identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) when standard techniques failed to provide speciation. There are no current standards for susceptibility testing or treatment recommendations. The rare occurrence and challenges in identifying this pathogen led us to perform a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and treatment options for this potentially invasive pathogen.

  9. Intracellular Parasite Invasion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, L. D.

    2004-04-01

    Intracellular parasites use various strategies to invade cells and to subvert cellular signaling pathways and, thus, to gain a foothold against host defenses. Efficient cell entry, ability to exploit intracellular niches, and persistence make these parasites treacherous pathogens. Most intracellular parasites gain entry via host-mediated processes, but apicomplexans use a system of adhesion-based motility called ``gliding'' to actively penetrate host cells. Actin polymerization-dependent motility facilitates parasite migration across cellular barriers, enables dissemination within tissues, and powers invasion of host cells. Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.

  10. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    PubMed

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control.

  11. Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes that result in invasion as the three sides of the triangle: (1) attributes of the potential invader; (2) biotic characteristics of a potentially invaded site; and (3) environmental conditions of the site. The invasion triangle also includes the impact of external influences on each side of the triangle, such as climate and land use change. This paper introduces the invasion triangle, discusses how accepted invasion hypotheses are integrated in this framework, describes how the invasion triangle can be used to focus research and management, and provides examples of application. The framework provided by the invasion triangle is easy to use by both researchers and managers and also applicable at any level of data intensity, from expert opinion to highly controlled experiments. The organizational framework provided by the invasion triangle is beneficial for understanding and predicting why species are invasive in specific environments, for identifying knowledge gaps, for facilitating communication, and for directing management in regard to invasive species. PMID:22393528

  12. Distribution of components of basal lamina and dystrophin-dystroglycan complex in the rat pineal gland: differences from the brain tissue and between the subdivisions of the gland.

    PubMed

    Bagyura, Zsolt; Pócsai, Károly; Kálmán, Mihály

    2010-01-01

    The pineal gland is an evagination of the brain tissue, a circumventricular neuroendocrine organ. Our immunohistochemical study investigates basal lamina components (laminin, agrin, perlecan, fibronectin), their receptor, the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex (beta-dystroglycan, dystrophin utrophin), aquaporins (-4,-9) and cellular markers (S100, neurofilament, GFAP, glutamine synthetase) in the adult rat corpus pineale. The aim was to compare the immunohistochemical features of the cerebral and pineal vessels and their environment, and to compare their features in the distal and proximal subdivisions of the so-called 'superficial pineal gland'. In contrast to the cerebral vessels, pineal vessels proved to be immunonegative to alpha1-dystrobrevin, but immunoreactive to laminin. An inner, dense, and an outer, loose layer of laminin as two basal laminae were present. The gap between them contained agrin and perlecan. Basal lamina components enmeshed the pinealocytes, too. Components of dystrophin-dystroglycan complex were also distributed along the vessels. Dystrophin, utrophin and agrin gave a 'patchy' distribution rather than a continuous one. The vessels were interconnected by wing-like structures, composed of basal lamina-components: a delicate network forming nests for cells. Cells immunostained with glutamine synthetase, S100-protein or neurofilament protein contacted the vessels, as well as GFAP- or aquaporin-immunostained astrocytes. Within the body a smaller, proximal, GFAP-and aquaporin-containing subdivision, and a larger, distal, GFAP-and aquaporin-free subdivision could be distinguished. The vascular localization of agrin and utrophin, as well as dystrophin, delineated vessels unequally, preferring the proximal or distal end of the body, respectively.

  13. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  14. Presynaptic functional trkB receptors mediate the release of excitatory neurotransmitters from primary afferent terminals in lamina II (substantia gelatinosa) of postnatal rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Adalberto; Bardoni, Rita; Salio, Chiara; Lossi, Laura; Ferrini, Francesco; Prandini, Massimiliano; Zonta, Micaela; Gustincich, Stefano; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2008-03-01

    A subset of primary sensory neurons produces BDNF, which is implicated in control of nociceptive neurotransmission. We previously localized full-length trkB receptors on their terminals within lamina II. To functionally study these receptors, we here employed patch-clamp recordings, calcium imaging and immunocytochemistry on slices from 8-12 days post-natal rats. In this preparation, BDNF (100-500 ng/mL) enhances the release of sensory neurotransmitters (glutamate, substance P, CGRP) in lamina II by acting on trkB receptors expressed by primary afferent fibers of the peptidergic nociceptive type (PN-PAFs). Effect was blocked by trk antagonist K252a or anti-trkB antibody clone 47. A pre-synaptic mechanism was demonstrated after (i) patch-clamp recordings where the neurotrophin induced a significant increase in frequency, but not amplitude, of AMPA-mediated mEPSCs, (ii) real time calcium imaging, where sustained application of BDNF evoked an intense response in up to 57% lamina II neurons with a significant frequency rise. Antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors and NK(1) receptors completely inhibited the calcium response to BDNF. Reduction of CGRP (a specific marker of PN-PAFs) and substance P content in dorsal horn following BDNF preincubation, and analysis of the calcium response after depletion with capsaicin, confirmed that the neurotrophin presynaptically enhanced neurotransmitter release from PN-PAFs. This is the first demonstration that trkB receptors expressed by PN-PAF terminals in lamina II are functional during postnatal development. Implications of this finding are discussed considering that BDNF can be released by these same terminals and microglia, a fraction of which (as shown here) contains BDNF also in unactivated state.

  15. Two major cuticular proteins are required for assembly of horizontal laminae and vertical pore canals in rigid cuticle of Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kanost, Michael R; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-10-01

    The insect exoskeleton is composed of cuticle primarily formed from structural cuticular proteins (CPs) and the polysaccharide chitin. Two CPs, TcCPR27 and TcCPR18, are major proteins present in the elytron (highly sclerotized and pigmented modified forewing) as well as the pronotum (dorsal sclerite of the prothorax) and ventral abdominal cuticle of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both CPs belong to the CPR family, which includes proteins that have an amino acid sequence motif known as the Rebers & Riddiford (R&R) consensus sequence. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 resulted in insects with shorter, wrinkled, warped and less rigid elytra than those from control insects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of CPs in cuticle assembly, we analyzed for the precise localization of TcCPR27 and the ultrastructural architecture of cuticle in TcCPR27- and TcCPR18-deficient elytra. Transmission electron microscopic analysis combined with immunodetection using gold-labeled secondary antibody revealed that TcCPR27 is present in dorsal elytral procuticle both in the horizontal laminae and in vertical pore canals. dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of TcCPR27 resulted in abnormal electron-lucent laminae and pore canals in elytra except for the boundary between these two structures in which electron-dense molecule(s) apparently accumulated. Insects subjected to RNAi for TcCPR18 also had disorganized laminae and pore canals in the procuticle of elytra. Similar ultrastructural defects were also observed in other body wall regions with rigid cuticle such as the thorax and legs of adult T. castaneum. TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are required for proper formation of the horizontal chitinous laminae and vertical pore canals that are critical for formation and stabilization of rigid adult cuticle.

  16. Bait-lamina assay as a tool to assess the effects of metal contamination in the feeding activity of soil invertebrates within a uranium mine area.

    PubMed

    André, A; Antunes, S C; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

    2009-01-01

    As part of the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment, this study was the first reporting an intensive in situ application of the bait-lamina assay; two exposure periods (7 and 14 days) were tested during four seasons in ten different sites, within a uranium mine area and at two different depths. The most contaminated sites (by deposition of sludge from the effluent treatment pond) were discriminated after 14 days of exposure because extremely low percentages of feeding activity were recorded. Previous sub-lethal ecotoxicological assays, already had demonstrated that the habitat function of these soils is compromised. Nevertheless, seasonality has proved to have a significant influence on responses. Thus to strength conclusions about the impact of contaminants, the in situ bait-lamina assay should be performed on different annual seasons, at least for temperate regions. It was also found that some environmental parameters (e.g. soil moisture and litter) can act as confounding factors in the bait-lamina assay.

  17. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young’s moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  18. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his…

  19. Minimally invasive valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Traditional cardiac valve replacement surgery is being rapidly supplanted by innovative, minimally invasive approaches toward the repair of these valves. Patients are experiencing benefits ranging from less bleeding and pain to faster recovery and greater satisfaction. These operations are proving to be safe, highly effective, and durable, and their use will likely continue to increase and become even more widely applicable.

  20. Invasion percolation with memory

    SciTech Connect

    Kharabaf, H.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1997-06-01

    Motivated by the problem of finding the minimum threshold path (MTP) in a lattice of elements with random thresholds {tau}{sub i}, we propose a new class of invasion processes, in which the front advances by minimizing or maximizing the measure S{sub n}={summation}{sub i}{tau}{sub i}{sup n} for real n. This rule assigns long-time memory to the invasion process. If the rule minimizes S{sub n} (case of minimum penalty), the fronts are stable and connected to invasion percolation in a gradient [J. P. Hulin, E. Clement, C. Baudet, J. F. Gouyet, and M. Rosso, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 61}, 333 (1988)] but in a correlated lattice, with invasion percolation [D. Wilkinson and J. F. Willemsen, J. Phys. A {bold 16}, 3365 (1983)] recovered in the limit {vert_bar}n{vert_bar}={infinity}. For small n, the MTP is shown to be related to the optimal path of the directed polymer in random media (DPRM) problem [T. Halpin-Healy and Y.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rep. {bold 254}, 215 (1995)]. In the large n limit, however, it reduces to the backbone of a mixed site-bond percolation cluster. The algorithm allows for various properties of the MTP and the DPRM to be studied. In the unstable case (case of maximum gain), the front is a self-avoiding random walk. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. The collagen fibril architecture in the lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera predicted by a computational remodeling approach.

    PubMed

    Grytz, Rafael; Meschke, Günther; Jonas, Jost B

    2011-06-01

    The biomechanics of the optic nerve head is assumed to play an important role in ganglion cell loss in glaucoma. Organized collagen fibrils form complex networks that introduce strong anisotropic and nonlinear attributes into the constitutive response of the peripapillary sclera (PPS) and lamina cribrosa (LC) dominating the biomechanics of the optic nerve head. The recently presented computational remodeling approach (Grytz and Meschke in Biomech Model Mechanobiol 9:225-235, 2010) was used to predict the micro-architecture in the LC and PPS, and to investigate its impact on intraocular pressure-related deformations. The mechanical properties of the LC and PPS were derived from a microstructure-oriented constitutive model that included the stretch-dependent stiffening and the statistically distributed orientations of the collagen fibrils. Biomechanically induced adaptation of the local micro-architecture was captured by allowing collagen fibrils to be reoriented in response to the intraocular pressure-related loading conditions. In agreement with experimental observations, the remodeling algorithm predicted the existence of an annulus of fibrils around the scleral canal in the PPS, and a predominant radial orientation of fibrils in the periphery of the LC. The peripapillary annulus significantly reduced the intraocular pressure-related expansion of the scleral canal and shielded the LC from high tensile stresses. The radial oriented fibrils in the LC periphery reinforced the LC against transversal shear stresses and reduced LC bending deformations. The numerical approach presents a novel and reasonable biomechanical explanation of the spatial orientation of fibrillar collagen in the optic nerve head.

  2. The Effect of Fenestration of Lamina Terminalis on the Vasospasm and Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus in Patients Following Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hatefi, Masoud; Azhary, Shirzad; Naebaghaee, Hussein; Mohamadi, Hasan Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: SAH (Sub Arachnoid Haemorrhage) is a life threatening that is associated with complications such as vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of FLT (Fenestration of Lamina Terminalis) on the incidence of vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in ACoA (Anterior Communicating Artery) aneurismal in SAH. Materials and Methods: The data of 50 ruptured ACoA aneurism patients were selected during the year 2001-2009 admitted to Imam Hussein hospital, Tehran, IR. In a randomized double-blind trial patients assigned in two group {with fenestration (FLT, n=25), without fenestration (No FLT, n=25)}. All patients underwent craniotomy by a single neurosurgeon. Patient’s age, sex, Hunt-Hess grade, Fisher grade, vasospasm, presence of hydrocephalus and incidences of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus were compared between groups. Results: There were no significant differences among groups in relation to demographic characteristics, neurological scale scores (Hunt-Hess grade) and the severity of the SAH (Fisher grade) (p>0.05). The rate of hydrocephalus on admission, were 24% and 16% in FLT and no FLT group respectively (p>0.05). The shunt placement postoperatively in FLT and no FLT group were 16% and 12% respectively (p>0.05). The clinical vasospasm was 20% and 24% in FLT and no FLT group respectively (p>0.05). Conclusion: Despite FLT can be a safe method there were not significant differences of FLT on the incidence of vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. A systematic evaluation with multisurgeon, multicentre and with greater sample size to disclose reality is suggested. PMID:26393164

  3. Nuclear Membrane-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Ali, Moustafa R K; Wu, Yue; Ghosh, Deepraj; Do, Brian H; Chen, Kuangcai; Dawson, Michelle R; Fang, Ning; Sulchek, Todd A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2017-03-27

    Most cancer patients die from metastasis. Recent studies have shown that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can slow down the migration/invasion speed of cancer cells and suppress metastasis. Since nuclear stiffness of the cell largely decreases cell migration, our hypothesis is that targeting AuNPs to the cell nucleus region could enhance nuclear stiffness, and therefore inhibit cell migration and invasion. Our results showed that upon nuclear targeting of AuNPs, the ovarian cancer cell motilities decrease significantly, compared with nontargeted AuNPs. Furthermore, using atomic force microscopy, we observed an enhanced cell nuclear stiffness. In order to understand the mechanism of cancer cell migration/invasion inhibition, the exact locations of the targeted AuNPs were clearly imaged using a high-resolution three-dimensional imaging microscope, which showed that the AuNPs were trapped at the nuclear membrane. In addition, we observed a greatly increased expression level of lamin A/C protein, which is located in the inner nuclear membrane and functions as a structural component of the nuclear lamina to enhance nuclear stiffness. We propose that the AuNPs that are trapped at the nuclear membrane both (1) add to the mechanical stiffness of the nucleus and (2) stimulate the overexpression of lamin A/C located around the nuclear membrane, thus increasing nuclear stiffness and slowing cancer cell migration and invasion.

  4. Giant invasive prolactinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, F.Y.; Vesely, D.L.; Jordan, R.M.; Flanigan, S.; Kohler, P.O.

    1987-11-01

    Two of the largest prolactinomas ever documented that have been followed for nine and 10 years, respectively, demonstrate how aggressive prolactinomas may become and how difficult invasive prolactinomas are to treat. One of these prolactinomas invaded both internal auditory canals and simultaneously grew inferiorly, reducing the bony support of the skull and necessitating the patient to utilize both hands to hold his head up. The second patient's prolactinoma invaded the sphenoidal, ethmoidal, and cavernous sinuses. Both of these patients had neurosurgical debulking of their tumors followed by radiation therapy. Neither patient's prolactin levels decreased significantly during their first five years post-surgically, at which time bromocriptine was added. Since then, there has been a gradual lowering of serum prolactin levels and a decrease in the size of these tumors. These cases demonstrate that prolonged treatment and very large doses of bromocriptine may be necessary for tumor reduction in patients with invasive prolactinomas.

  5. Biogeography of Mediterranean Invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, R. H.; di Castri, F.

    The Mediterranean basin, California, Chile, the western Cape of South Africa, and southern Australia share a Mediterranean climate characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. These five regions have differing patterns of human settlement, but similarities in natural vegetation and some faunal assemblages. These likenesses are enhanced with time by an increasing level of biotic exchange among the regions. An initiative of a subcommittee of SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment), which realized that the integrity of many natural ecosystems is being threatened by the ingress of invasive species, this book uniquely documents the introduced floras and faunas, especially plants, buds, and mammals, in these five regions of Mediterranean climate, and aims to increase our understanding of the ecology of biological invasions. In doing so, it points a way to more effectively manage the biota of these regions.

  6. [Emerging invasive fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Alvez, F; Figueras, C; Roselló, E

    2010-07-01

    The frequency and diversity of invasive fungal infections has changed over the last 25 years. The emergence of less common, but medically important fungi has increased, and the children at risk has expanded, with the inclusion of medical conditions such as cancer, mainly haematological malignancy or stem cell transplant, immunosuppressive therapy, prolonged neutropenia, and T-cell immunodeficiency. Among mould infections, fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis (Dematiaceous fungi) have been increasingly reported in this group of patients. To successfully manage these challenging infections, it is imperative that paediatricians and sub-specialists remain aware of the optimal and timely diagnosis and therapeutic options. Unlike other common mycoses that cause human disease, there no simple antigen or serological tests available to detect these pathogens in tissue or blood. The outcome for these disseminate, and often refractory fungal infections in neutropenic patients and transplant recipients remains extremely poor, requiring early and aggressive therapy. Unfortunately there are no guidelines outlining the choices for optimal therapy in the treatment of paediatric invasive fungal infections do not exist, and on the other hand are limited paediatric data available comparing antifungal agents in children with proven, probable or suspected invasive fungal infection. The options for treatment rest mainly on some adult guidelines that comment on the treatment of these emerging and uncommon important fungi in children. Despite the sparse clinical trials available on treatment and its poor outcome, options for treatment of invasive fungal infections have increased with the advance of new antifungal agents, with improved tolerability and increased range of activity. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis are discussed in this article.

  7. [Minimally invasive thymus surgery].

    PubMed

    Rückert, J C; Ismail, M; Swierzy, M; Braumann, C; Badakhshi, H; Rogalla, P; Meisel, A; Rückert, R I; Müller, J M

    2008-01-01

    There are absolute and relative indications for complete removal of the thymus gland. In the complex therapy of autoimmune-related myasthenia gravis, thymectomy plays a central role and is performed with relative indication. In case of thymoma with or without myasthenia, thymectomy is absolutely indicated. Thymus resection is further necessary for cases of hyperparathyroidism with ectopic intrathymic parathyroids or with certain forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The transcervical operation technique traditionally reflected the well-founded desire for minimal invasiveness for thymectomy. Due to the requirement of radicality however, most of these operations were performed using sternotomy. With the evolution of therapeutic thoracoscopy in thoracic surgery, several pure or extended minimally invasive operation techniques for thymectomy have been developed. At present uni- or bilateral, subxiphoid, and modified transcervical single or combination thoracoscopic techniques are in use. Recently a very precise new level of thoracoscopic operation technique was developed using robotic-assisted surgery. There are special advantages of this technique for thymectomy. An overview of the development and experiences with minimally invasive thymectomy is presented, including data from the largest series published so far.

  8. Organization of the Zone of Transition between the Pretectum and the Thalamus, with Emphasis on the Pretectothalamic Lamina

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Legorreta, Emmanuel; Horta-Júnior, José de Anchieta C.; Berrebi, Albert S.; Saldaña, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The zone of transition between the pretectum, derived from prosomere 1, and the thalamus, derived from prosomere 2, is structurally complex and its understanding has been hampered by cytoarchitectural and terminological confusion. Herein, using a battery of complementary morphological approaches, including cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and the expression of molecular markers, we pinpoint the features or combination of features that best characterize each nucleus of the pretectothalamic transitional zone of the rat. Our results reveal useful morphological criteria to identify and delineate, with unprecedented precision, several [mostly auditory] nuclei of the posterior group of the thalamus, namely the pretectothalamic lamina (PTL; formerly known as the posterior limitans nucleus), the medial division of the medial geniculate body (MGBm), the suprageniculate nucleus (SG), and the ethmoid, posterior triangular and posterior nuclei of the thalamus. The PTL is a sparsely-celled and fiber rich flattened nucleus apposed to the lateral surface of the anterior pretectal nucleus (APT) that marks the border between the pretectum and the thalamus; this structure stains selectively with the Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), and is essentially immunonegative for the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV). The MGBm, located medial to the ventral division of the MGB (MGBv), can be unequivocally identified by the large size of many of its neurons, its dark immunostaining for PV, and its rather selective staining for WFA. The SG, which extends for a considerable caudorostral distance and deviates progressively from the MGB, is characterized by its peculiar cytoarchitecture, the paucity of myelinated fibers, and the conspicuous absence of staining for calretinin (CR); indeed, in many CR-stained sections, the SG stands out as a blank spot. Because most of these nuclei are small and show unique anatomical relationships, the information provided in this article will

  9. Nitric oxide synthase-cyclo-oxygenase pathways in organum vasculosum laminae terminalis: possible role in pyrogenic fever in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, J. H.; Lin, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    1. Fever was induced in rabbits by administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS; 0.001-10 micrograms) into the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT). Deep body temperature was evaluated over a period of 7 h. 2. The LPS-induced febrile response was mimicked by intra-OVLT injection of the nitric oxide (NO) donors, S-nitroso-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 1-10 micrograms), sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 micrograms), or hydroxylamine (10 micrograms), the cyclic GMP analogue 8-bromo-cyclic GMP (8-Br-cyclic GMP, 10-100 micrograms), or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 0.2 micrograms). 3. Dexamethasone (Dex, a potent inhibitor of the transcription of inducible NO synthase, iNOS, 10 micrograms), anisomycin (a protein synthesis inhibitor, 100 micrograms), L-N5-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine (L-NIO; an irreversible NOS inhibitor, 10-200 micrograms), aminoguanidine (a specific iNOS inhibitor, 1000 micrograms), or NG-methyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA, a NOS inhibitor, 100 micrograms) inhibited fever induced by LPS when injected into the OVLT 1 h before LPS injection. An intra-OVLT dose of 1000 micrograms of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a potent inhibitor of constitutive NOS) did not exhibit antipyretic effects. 4. Methylene blue (an inhibitor of NOS and soluble guanylate cyclase, 1-10 micrograms), 6-(phenylamino)-5,8-quinolinedione (LY-83583; an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase and NO release, 20 micrograms), or indomethacin (an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, COX, 400 micrograms) inhibited fever induced by LPS when injected into the OVLT 1 h before LPS injection. Pretreatment with methylene blue or haemoglobin (a NO scavenger, 100 micrograms) attenuated the fever induced by intra-OVLT injection of SNAP. 5. The PGE2-induced fever was potentiated, rather then attenuated, by pretreatment with an intra-OVLT dose of animoguanidine (1000 micrograms), L-NMMA (100 micrograms) or L-NIO (200 micrograms). 6. These results suggest that iNOS-COX pathways in the

  10. Peripherally driven low-threshold inhibitory inputs to lamina I local-circuit and projection neurones: a new circuit for gating pain responses

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Liliana L; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V

    2014-01-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key element of the pain processing system which relays primary afferent input to supraspinal areas. However, little is known about how the signal is modulated by its intrinsic network including local-circuit neurones (LCNs) and much less numerous anterolateral tract projection neurones (PNs). Here, we used whole-cell patch clamp recordings in an isolated spinal cord preparation to examine properties of identified LCNs (n = 85) and PNs (n = 73) in their functionally preserved local networks. Forty LCNs showed spontaneous rhythmic firing (2–7 Hz) at zero current injection, which persisted in the presence of blockers of fast synaptic transmission. In the remaining cases, most LCNs and PNs fired tonically in response to depolarizing current injections. We identified LCNs and PNs receiving low-threshold primary afferent-driven inhibitory inputs, which in many cases were disynaptic and temporally preceded classical high-threshold excitatory inputs. This direct inhibitory link between low-threshold afferents and PNs can function as a postsynaptic gate controlling the nociceptive information flow in the spinal cord. The LCNs were found to be integrated into the superficial dorsal horn network by their receipt of monosynaptic and disynaptic inputs from other lamina I and II neurones. One-third of LCNs and two-thirds of PNs tested responded to substance P application. Thus, substance P released by a noxious afferent stimulation may excite PNs in two ways: directly, and via the activation of presynaptic LCN circuitries. In conclusion, we have described important properties of identified lamina I neurones and their roles in a new circuit for gating pain responses. PMID:24421354

  11. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  12. Invasive mycoses: diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of newer antifungal drugs, outcomes for patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) continue to be poor, in large part due to delayed diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Standard histopathologic diagnostic techniques are often untenable in at-risk patients, and culture-based diagnostics typically are too insensitive or nonspecific, or provide results after too long a delay for optimal IFI management. Newer surrogate markers of IFIs with improved sensitivity and specificity are needed to enable earlier diagnosis and, ideally, to provide prognostic information and/or permit therapeutic monitoring. Surrogate assays should also be accessible and easy to implement in the hospital. Several nonculture-based assays of newer surrogates are making their way into the medical setting or are currently under investigation. These new or up-and-coming surrogates include antigens/antibodies (mannan and antimannan antibodies) or fungal metabolites (d-arabinitol) for detection of invasive candidiasis, the Aspergillus cell wall component galactomannan used to detect invasive aspergillosis, or the fungal cell wall component and panfungal marker β-glucan. In addition, progress continues with use of polymerase chain reaction- or other nucleic acid- or molecular-based assays for diagnosis of either specific or generic IFIs, although the various methods must be better standardized before any of these approaches can be more fully implemented into the medical setting. Investigators are also beginning to explore the possibility of combining newer surrogate markers with each other or with more standard diagnostic approaches to improve sensitivity, specificity, and capacity for earlier diagnosis, at a time when fungal burden is still relatively low and more responsive to antifungal therapy.

  13. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  14. Clinical Factors Associated with Lamina Cribrosa Thickness in Patients with Glaucoma, as Measured with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Omodaka, Kazuko; Takahashi, Seri; Matsumoto, Akiko; Maekawa, Shigeto; Kikawa, Tsutomu; Himori, Noriko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of various risk factors on thinning of the lamina cribrosa (LC), as measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; Topcon). Methods This retrospective study comprised 150 eyes of 150 patients: 22 normal subjects, 28 preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) patients, and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients. Average LC thickness was determined in a 3 x 3 mm cube scan of the optic disc, over which a 4 x 4 grid of 16 points was superimposed (interpoint distance: 175 μm), centered on the circular Bruch’s membrane opening. The borders of the LC were defined as the visible limits of the LC pores. The correlation of LC thickness with Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation (MD; SITA standard 24–2), circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT), the vertical cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio, and tissue mean blur rate (MBR) was determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The relationship of LC thickness with age, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP), MD, the vertical C/D ratio, central corneal thickness (CCT), and tissue MBR was determined with multiple regression analysis. Average LC thickness and the correlation between LC thickness and MD were compared in patients with the glaucomatous enlargement (GE) optic disc type and those with non-GE disc types, as classified with Nicolela’s method. Results We found that average LC thickness in the 16 grid points was significantly associated with overall LC thickness (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). The measurement time for this area was 12.4 ± 2.4 minutes. Average LC thickness in this area had a correlation coefficient of 0.57 with cpRNFLT (P < 0.001) and 0.46 (P < 0.001) with MD. Average LC thickness differed significantly between the groups (normal: 268 ± 23 μm, PPG: 248 ± 13 μm, OAG: 233 ± 20 μm). Multiple regression analysis showed that MD (β = 0.29, P = 0.013), vertical C/D ratio (β = -0.25, P = 0.020) and tissue MBR (β = 0.20, P = 0.034) were

  15. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  16. Extramural venous invasion detected by MDCT as an adverse imaging feature for predicting synchronous metastases in T4 gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin; Wu, Jing; Ye, Yingjiang; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Yinli; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Background Extramural venous invasion (EMVI) is defined histologically as the active invasion of tumor cells to the lumens of mesenteric vessels beyond the muscularis propria in advanced gastrointestinal cancer, resulting in distant metastases. Purpose To determine the association between synchronous metastatic disease in patients with T4 gastric cancer and EMVI detected on contrast-enhanced multiple-row detector computed tomography (MDCT). Material and Methods A total of 152 patients with T4 gastric carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed and divided into EMVI-positive and EMVI-negative groups where EMVI, as detected on MDCT, was defined as a tubular or nodular soft tissue thickening extending from the tumor along the vessels of the mesentery. Synchronous metastases were detected by MDCT and/or confirmed by postoperative diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the predictive factors of synchronous metastases in gastric cancer. Results Synchronous metastases were found in 47 of 152 (30.9%) patients with T4 gastric cancer. Thirty-one of 77 (40.3%) patients in the EMVI-positive group had evidence of metastases compared to 16 (21.3%) of 75 patients in the EMVI-negative group ( P = 0.019). Synchronous metastases were significantly associated with EMVI with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.250 (95% CI, 1.072-4.724). Conclusion EMVI-positive tumors, as an adverse imaging feature, were significantly associated with synchronous metastases in patients with T4 gastric cancer.

  17. Invasive and minimally invasive surgical techniques for back pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, William; Carl, Allen; Lavelle, Elizabeth Demers

    2007-12-01

    This article summarizes current issues related to invasive and minimally invasive surgical techniques for back pain conditions. It describes pain generators and explains theories about how discs fail. The article discusses techniques for treating painful sciatica, painful motion segments, and spinal stenosis. Problems related to current imaging are also presented. The article concludes with a discussion about physical therapy.

  18. The effect of fenestration of the lamina terminalis on the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (FISH)

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chuanyuan; Fan, Chaofeng; Hu, Xin; Ma, Junpeng; Ma, Lu; Li, Hao; Liu, Yi; Sun, Hong; He, Min; You, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDH) is a well-known sequela following aneurysmal hemorrhage, adversely affecting the outcome after securing ruptured aneurysm. Fenestration of lamina terminalis (FLT) creates an anterior ventriculostomy, facilitates cerebrospinal fluid circulation and clot clearance in the basal cistern. However, controversy exists over whether microsurgical FLT during aneurysm repair can decrease the incidence of SDH. Aims: The study is designed to determine the efficacy of lamina terminalis fenestration on the reduction of SDH after aneurysm clipping. Methods/Design: A total of 288 patients who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomized into single aneurysm clipping or aneurysm clipping plus FLT in the Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital. Follow-up was performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after aneurysm clipping. The primary outcome is the incidence of SDH and the secondary outcomes include cerebral vasospasm, functional outcome evaluated by the modified Rankin Scale and Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, and mortality. Discussion: The FISH trial is a large randomized, parallel controlled clinical trial to define the therapeutic value of FLT, the results of which will help to guide the surgical procedure and resolve the long-puzzled debate in the neurosurgical community. Conclusions: This protocol will determine the efficacy of FLT in the setting of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Trial registration identifier: http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=15691&htm=4 Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-INR-16009249. PMID:28033279

  19. The defective nuclear lamina in Hutchinson-gilford progeria syndrome disrupts the nucleocytoplasmic Ran gradient and inhibits nuclear localization of Ubc9.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Joshua B; Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J; Chatterjee, Mandovi; Ni, Li; Spencer, Adam; Yang, Chun-Song; Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Matunis, Michael J; Paschal, Bryce M

    2011-08-01

    The mutant form of lamin A responsible for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (termed progerin) acts as a dominant negative protein that changes the structure of the nuclear lamina. How the perturbation of the nuclear lamina in progeria is transduced into cellular changes is undefined. Using patient fibroblasts and a variety of cell-based assays, we determined that progerin expression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transport of several factors with key roles in nuclear function. We found that progerin reduces the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration of the Ran GTPase and inhibits the nuclear localization of Ubc9, the sole E2 for SUMOylation, and of TPR, the nucleoporin that forms the basket on the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex. Forcing the nuclear localization of Ubc9 in progerin-expressing cells rescues the Ran gradient and TPR import, indicating that these pathways are linked. Reducing nuclear SUMOylation decreases the nuclear mobility of the Ran nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 in vivo, and the addition of SUMO E1 and E2 promotes the dissociation of RCC1 and Ran from chromatin in vitro. Our data suggest that the cellular effects of progerin are transduced, at least in part, through reduced function of the Ran GTPase and SUMOylation pathways.

  20. Proliferation of progeria cells is enhanced by lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) through expression of extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Vidak, Sandra; Kubben, Nard; Dechat, Thomas; Foisner, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) localizes throughout the nucleoplasm and interacts with the fraction of lamins A/C that is not associated with the peripheral nuclear lamina. The LAP2α-lamin A/C complex negatively affects cell proliferation. Lamins A/C are encoded by LMNA, a single heterozygous mutation of which causes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). This mutation generates the lamin A variant progerin, which we show here leads to loss of LAP2α and nucleoplasmic lamins A/C, impaired proliferation, and down-regulation of extracellular matrix components. Surprisingly, contrary to wild-type cells, ectopic expression of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin restores proliferation and extracellular matrix expression but not the levels of nucleoplasmic lamins A/C. We conclude that, in addition to its cell cycle-inhibiting function with lamins A/C, LAP2α can also regulate extracellular matrix components independently of lamins A/C, which may help explain the proliferation-promoting function of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin.

  1. Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc. lamina anatomy as a tool for taxonomic distinction from B. odorata (Barb. Rodr.) Noblick comb. nov (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Carvalho Júnior, Wellington G O; Amaral, Vanessa B

    2015-03-01

    The distinction between Butia capitata and B. odorata is based only on a few morphological characteristics, therefore there is a need for additional studies for supporting the separation of the species. As lamina anatomy characteristics are relevant in circumscribing Arecaceae taxa, this work aimed to describe B. capitata lamina anatomy and compare it with B. odorata. Samples from the middle portion of the pinnae were collected and processed in accordance with standard plant anatomy techniques. The epidermis is uniseriate and composed of a thick cuticle and epicuticular waxes into like hooked filaments. The subsidiary cells that arch over the guard cells are located at the hypodermis. The mesophyll is isobilateral and compact. The vascular bundles are collateral with a sclerenchymatic sheath extension that reaches the hypodermis. The stegmata cells have spherical and druse-like silica bodies. The midrib faces the adaxial surface with a thick fibrous layer surrounding the vascular bundles adjacent to the chlorenchyma. The stratified expansion tissue is on the abaxial surface, within the boundary between the mesophyll and midrib. Raphides are only found in B. capitata. Small bundles of the midrib fully surround the fibrous cylinder only in B. odorata. These characteristics are diagnostic and useful for supporting the proposed separation.

  2. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  3. Defining an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P P

    2010-04-01

    The definition of an invasive species will depend on the viewpoint of the observer, who in some cases may be responsible for introducing the species. History has taught us that humans are the species that has invaded the largest surface area of the planet. So, before going on to propose a few definitions, this article describes three different examples or types of example in which domestic animal species, wild animal species and microorganisms (for biological pest control) have been transported intentionally. By doing so, this paper uses a variety of situations to support the definitions. A contemporary argument would counter a strictly biogeographical definition with a more ecological definition. The two are probably complementary. In any case, these definitions should remain practical. The consequences of species movements vary. However, their health impacts should not be underestimated.

  4. Minimally invasive valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Seeburger, Joerg; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2007-01-01

    As alternatives to standard sternotomy, surgeons have developed innovative, minimally invasive approaches to conducting valve surgery. Through very small skin incisions and partial upper sternal division for aortic valve surgery and right minithoracotomy for mitral surgery, surgeons have become adept at performing complex valve procedures. Beyond cosmetic appeal, apparent benefits range from decreased pain and bleeding to improved respiratory function and recovery time. The large retrospective studies and few small prospective randomized studies are herein briefly summarized. The focus is then directed toward describing specific intraoperative technical details in current clinical use, covering anesthetic preparation, incision, mediastinal access, cardiovascular cannulation, valve exposure, and valve reconstruction. Finally, unique situations such as pulmonic valve surgery, reoperations, beating heart surgery, and robotics are discussed.

  5. Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    deBeche-Adams, Teresa; Nassif, George

    2015-01-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was first described in 2010 as a crossover between single-incision laparoscopic surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to allow access to the proximal and mid-rectum for resection of benign and early-stage malignant rectal lesions. The TAMIS technique can also be used for noncurative intent surgery of more advanced lesions in patients who are not candidates for radical surgery. Proper workup and staging should be done before surgical decision-making. In addition to the TAMIS port, instrumentation and set up include readily available equipment found in most operating suites. TAMIS has proven its usefulness in a wide range of applications outside of local excision, including repair of rectourethral fistula, removal of rectal foreign body, control of rectal hemorrhage, and as an adjunct in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. TAMIS is an easily accessible, technically feasible, and cost-effective alternative to TEM. PMID:26491410

  6. Minimally invasive esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Herbella, Fernando A; Patti, Marco G

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal resection is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) might theoretically decrease this rate. We reviewed the current literature on MIE, with a focus on the available techniques, outcomes and comparison with open surgery. This review shows that the available literature on MIE is still crowded with heterogeneous studies with different techniques. There are no controlled and randomized trials, and the few retrospective comparative cohort studies are limited by small numbers of patients and biased by historical controls of open surgery. Based on the available literature, there is no evidence that MIE brings clear benefits compared to conventional esophagectomy. Increasing experience and the report of larger series might change this scenario. PMID:20698044

  7. [Invasive gastroenteritis, anything new?].

    PubMed

    Echeita Sarrionandia, M Aurora; León, Silvia Herrera; Baamonde, Cristina Simón

    2011-03-01

    Invasive gastroenteritis is characterized by fever and inflammatory diarrhea and can be caused by nontyphoideal Salmonella serotypes and Shigella spp.-enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), among other pathogens. This review describes emerging monophasic variants of Salmonella enterica serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:- and provides an evolutionary consideration of Shigella spp.-EIEC as a single pathotype. In 1997, a monophasic variant of S. enterica serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:-, phage-type U302, multidrug resistant (ACGSSuTSxT), lacking the fljBA operon, appeared in Spain constituting a "Spanish" clonal line. Subsequently, strains of S. 4[5],12:i:-, of different phage types with a new resistance genomic island (ASSuT) were detected in Italy, forming part of a European clonal line. Finally, an "American" clonal line with a deletion of fljBA different from the Spanish clonal line appeared. Therefore, probably by convergent evolution, different clonal lines of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which can carry resistance genes on chromosomes or plasmids, with Salmonella Typhimurium as ancestor, have emerged in the world. Although Shigella belongs to the E. coli species and despite the biological inconsistency involved, this genus has traditionally been considered to cause bacillary dysentery. The EIEC group shares virulence mechanisms and clinical manifestations with Shigella. Both lack some metabolic genes and harbor similar plasmids of invasion. Shigella spp. and EIEC evolved from independent clonal lines of E. coli, by horizontal acquisition of virulence factors, forming a single pathotype. IpaH gene detection is an alternative to attribute the corresponding pathogenic role to non-agglutinable strains that are biochemically compatible with Shigella spp.

  8. Integrated assessment of biological invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the main annalists of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists should be able to provide information that can guide management practices. Managers often want to know about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in the sites under their ...

  9. Spread dynamics of invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Arim, Matías; Abades, Sebastián R.; Neill, Paula E.; Lima, Mauricio; Marquet, Pablo A.

    2006-01-01

    Species invasions are a principal component of global change, causing large losses in biodiversity as well as economic damage. Invasion theory attempts to understand and predict invasion success and patterns of spread. However, there is no consensus regarding which species or community attributes enhance invader success or explain spread dynamics. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that regulation of spread dynamics is possible; however, the conditions for its existence have not yet been empirically demonstrated. If invasion spread is a regulated process, the structure that accounts for this regulation will be a main determinant of invasion dynamics. Here we explore the existence of regulation underlying changes in the rate of new site colonization. We employ concepts and analytical tools from the study of abundance dynamics and show that spread dynamics are, in fact, regulated processes and that the regulation structure is notably consistent among invasions occurring in widely different contexts. We base our conclusions on the analysis of the spread dynamics of 30 species invasions, including birds, amphibians, fish, invertebrates, plants, and a virus, all of which exhibited similar regulation structures. In contrast to current beliefs that species invasions are idiosyncratic phenomena, here we provide evidence that general patterns do indeed exist. PMID:16387862

  10. Leaf-lamina conductance contributes to an equal distribution of water delivery in current-year shoots of kudzu-vine shoot, Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Taneda, Haruhiko; Tateno, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Leaf-lamina resistance, R(L), accounts for a large fraction of branch resistance across a wide range of plant species. This work hypothesized that large R(L) is essential for distributing water equally to leaves on the shoot, and tested this hypothesis through theoretical analyses and measurements using over 10-m-long current-year shoots of kudzu vine, Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi. First, the hydraulic architecture and the distribution of the motive force achieving equal distribution of water delivery were theoretically obtained by simulating water flow through a hypothetical shoot comprising an axial pathway and several lateral pathways as a stem and leaves, respectively, in a kudzu-vine shoot. The model predicts that large resistance of the lateral pathway relative to that of the axial pathway is associated strongly with small variation in the hydraulic conductance of a pathway from the base of the axial pathways to the lateral pathway among the nodes, rendering water delivery to each lateral pathway equal under small variation in motive force for water flow. For the kudzu-vine shoot, the measured ratio of the lateral (a petiole) to the axial (a stem) resistance was 115. When R(L) was added to the lateral pathway, the ratio increased to 1136. According to the model prediction, these values imply that the hydraulic conductance of a pathway comprising a stem and a petiole, K(BP), is favored strongly at the basal nodes, while the hydraulic conductance of a pathway including a stem, a petiole and a lamina, K(SL), is slightly different across the nodes. For the shoots with leaf lamina, the diurnal change in transpiration rate was not different between the leaves on the three nodes dividing the shoot into four parts. K(SL) was not related significantly to node number. Conversely, K(BP) at the distal node was ~0.06-fold that at the basal node. Furthermore, the motive force for water flow should vary by 6.64-fold among nodes to compensate for the favored distribution of

  11. Integrated assessment of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Ines; Diez, Jeffrey M; Miller, Luke P; Olden, Julian D; Sorte, Cascade J B; Blumenthal, Dana M; Bradley, Bethany A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Early, Regan I; Grosholz, Edwin D; Lawler, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    As the main witnesses of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists seek to provide the relevant science that informs managers about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in their region(s) of interest. Yet, the assorted literature that could inform such forecasts is rarely integrated to do so, and further, the diverse nature of the data available complicates synthesis and quantitative prediction. Here we present a set of analytical tools for synthesizing different levels of distributional and/or demographic data to produce meaningful assessments of invasion potential that can guide management at multiple phases of ongoing invasions, from dispersal to colonization to proliferation. We illustrate the utility of data-synthesis and data-model assimilation approaches with case studies of three well-known invasive species--a vine, a marine mussel, and a freshwater crayfish--under current and projected future climatic conditions. Results from the integrated assessments reflect the complexity of the invasion process and show that the most relevant climatic variables can have contrasting effects or operate at different intensities across habitat types. As a consequence, for two of the study species climate trends will increase the likelihood of invasion in some habitats and decrease it in others. Our results identified and quantified both bottlenecks and windows of opportunity for invasion, mainly related to the role of human uses of the landscape or to disruption of the flow of resources. The approach we describe has a high potential to enhance model realism, explanatory insight, and predictive capability, generating information that can inform management decisions and optimize phase-specific prevention and control efforts for a wide range of biological invasions.

  12. Neonatal invasive candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Stronati, M; Decembrino, L

    2006-12-01

    Over the last two decades, systemic fungal infections have emerged to play a primary role in hospital-acquired infections. C. albicans is involved in 75% of neonatal candidiasis; however, the incidence of infection from C. parapsilosis is also increasing significantly. The higher incidence observed in the high-risk group of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is linked to their special physical characteristics and the diagnostic and therapeutic invasive procedures they undergo. Colonization is a relevant risk factor depending on the colonized site , the fungal species and the type of colonization. Serological tests have a low specificity and sensitivity; in many cases, they do not distinguish between colonization and infection. Blood culture, although the best diagnostic test for determining systemic infection, can result negative, even in cases of deep organ involvement. In addition, fungi grow more slowly than bacteria in cultures. So, the difficulty in diagnosing systemic candidiasis and its aspecific clinical features may make empirical therapy appropriate. Amphotericin B (AmB) alone or combined with 5-fluorocytosine remains the drug of choice. Fluconazole represents a valid alternative. Recently developed new formulations of amphotericin incapsulated in liposomes can avoid possible adverse effects. Prognosis depends on the specific micro-organism involved; mortality is higher in the presence of C. albicans. As prognosis is associated with high mortality, prevention measures to reduce risk factors are of critical importance.

  13. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery.

  14. Differential basal-to-apical accessibility of lamin A/C epitopes in the nuclear lamina regulated by changes in cytoskeletal tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihalainen, Teemu O.; Aires, Lina; Herzog, Florian A.; Schwartlander, Ruth; Moeller, Jens; Vogel, Viola

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear lamins play central roles at the intersection between cytoplasmic signalling and nuclear events. Here, we show that at least two N- and C-terminal lamin epitopes are not accessible at the basal side of the nuclear envelope under environmental conditions known to upregulate cell contractility. The conformational epitope on the Ig-domain of A-type lamins is more buried in the basal than apical nuclear envelope of human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenesis (but not adipogenesis), and in fibroblasts adhering to rigid (but not soft) polyacrylamide hydrogels. This structural polarization of the lamina is promoted by compressive forces, emerges during cell spreading, and requires lamin A/C multimerization, intact nucleoskeleton-cytoskeleton linkages (LINC), and apical-actin stress-fibre assembly. Notably, the identified Ig-epitope overlaps with emerin, DNA and histone binding sites, and comprises various laminopathy mutation sites. Our findings should help decipher how the physical properties of cellular microenvironments regulate nuclear events.

  15. Differential basal-to-apical accessibility of lamin A/C epitopes in the nuclear lamina regulated by changes in cytoskeletal tension

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Florian A.; Schwartlander, Ruth; Moeller, Jens; Vogel, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear lamins play central roles at the intersection between cytoplasmic signalling and nuclear events. Here, we show that at least two N- and C-terminal lamin epitopes are not accessible at the basal side of the nuclear envelope under environmental conditions known to upregulate cell contractility. The conformational epitope on the Ig-domain of A-type lamins is more buried in the basal than apical nuclear envelope of human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenesis (but not adipogenesis), and in fibroblasts adhering to rigid (but not soft) polyacrylamide hydrogels. This structural polarization of the lamina is promoted by compressive forces, emerges during cell spreading, and requires lamin A/C multimerization, intact nucleoskeleton-cytoskeleton linkages (LINC), and apical-actin stress-fibre assembly. Notably, the identified Igepitope overlaps with emerin, DNA and histone binding sites, and comprises various laminopathy mutation sites. Our findings should help deciphering how the physical properties of cellular microenvironments regulate nuclear events. PMID:26301768

  16. Hydrogen bonding motifs, spectral characterization, theoretical computations and anticancer studies on chloride salt of 6-mercaptopurine: An assembly of corrugated lamina shows enhanced solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2015-10-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (an anti cancer drug), is coming under the class II Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In order to enhance the solubility with retained physiochemical/pharmaceutical properties, the present work was attempted with its salt form. The single crystals of 6-mercaptopurinium chloride (6MPCl) were successfully grown by slow evaporation technique under ambient temperature. The X-ray diffraction study shows that the crystal packing is dominated by N-H⋯Cl classical hydrogen bonds leading to corrugated laminar network. The hydrogen bonds present in the lamina can be dismantled as three chain C21(6), C21(7) and C21(8) motifs running along ab-diagonal of the unit cell. These primary chain motifs are interlinked to each other forming ring R63(21) motifs. These chain and ring motifs are aggregated like a dendrimer structure leading to the above said corrugated lamina. This low dimensional molecular architecture differs from the ladder like arrays in pure drug though it possess lattice water molecule in lieu of the chloride anion in the present compound. Geometrical optimizations of 6MPCl were done by Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP function with two different basis sets. The optimized molecular geometries and computed vibrational spectra are compared with their experimental counterparts. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to interpret hyperconjugative interaction and Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT). The chemical hardness, electronegativity, chemical potential and electrophilicity index of 6MPCl were found along with the HOMO-LUMO plot. The lower band gap value obtained from the Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) analysis reiterates the pharmaceutical activity of the compound. The anticancer studies show that 6MPCl retains its activity against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Hence, this anticancer efficacy and improved solubility demands 6MPCl towards the further pharmaceutical applications.

  17. Lamin A and lamin C form homodimers and coexist in higher complex forms both in the nucleoplasmic fraction and in the lamina of cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Thorsten; Maass, Kendra; Hergt, Michaela; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated and quantified the nuclear A-type lamin pool from human HeLa S3 suspension cells with respect to their distribution to detergent soluble and insoluble fractions. We devised a sequential extraction protocol and found that maximally 10% of A-type lamins are recovered in the soluble fraction. Notably, lamin C is enriched in low detergent fractions and only with 0.5% Nonidet P-40 lamin A and C are recovered in ratios nearly equivalent to those found in whole cell extracts and in the lamina fraction. Authentic nucleoplasmic proteins such as LAP2a, pRB and p53 are co-extracted to a large part together with the A-type lamins in these fractions. By sucrose density centrifugation we revealed that the majority of lamins co-sedimented with human IgG indicating they form rather small complexes in the range of dimers and slightly larger complexes. Some lamin A - but not lamin C - is obtained in addition in a much faster sedimenting fraction. Authentic nuclear proteins such as PCNA, p53 and LAP2a were found both in the light and the heavy sucrose fractions together with lamin A. Last but not least, immunoprecipitation experiments from both soluble fractions and from RIPA lysates of whole cells revealed that lamin A and lamin C do not form heterodimers but segregate practically completely. Correspondingly, immunofluorescence microscopy of formaldehyde-fixed cells clearly demonstrated that lamin A and C are localized at least in part to distinct patches within the lamina. Hence, the structural segregation of lamin A and C is indeed retained in the nuclear envelope to some extent too.

  18. Endomorphin-2 Inhibition of Substance P Signaling within Lamina I of the Spinal Cord Is Impaired in Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Fa-Ping; Bai, Yang; Kou, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Ting; Li, Hui; Wang, Ya-Yun; Li, Yun-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Opiate analgesia in the spinal cord is impaired in diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), but until now the reason is unknown. We hypothesized that it resulted from a decreased inhibition of substance P (SP) signaling within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated the effects of endomorphin-2 (EM2), an endogenous ligand of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), on SP release within lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) in rats with DNP. We established the DNP rat model and compared the analgesic efficacy of EM2 between inflammation pain and DNP rat models. Behavioral results suggested that the analgesic efficacy of EM2 was compromised in the condition of painful diabetic neuropathy. Then, we measured presynaptic SP release induced by different stimulating modalities via neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) internalization. Although there was no significant change in basal and evoked SP release between control and DNP rats, EM2 failed to inhibit SP release by noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli in DNP but not in control and inflammation pain model. We also observed that EM2 decreased the number of FOS-positive neurons within lamina I of the SDH but did not change the amount of FOS/NK1R double-labeled neurons. Finally, we identified a remarkable decrease in MORs within the primary afferent fibers and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Taken together, these data suggest that reduced presynaptic MOR expression might account for the loss of the inhibitory effect of EM2 on SP signaling, which might be one of the neurobiological foundations for decreased opioid efficacy in the treatment of DNP. PMID:28119567

  19. Utility of bioassays (lettuce, red clover, red fescue, Microtox, MetSTICK, Hyalella, bait lamina) in ecological risk screening of acid metal (Zn) contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Chapman, E Emily V; Hedrei Helmer, Stephanie; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess selected bioassays and ecological screening tools for their suitability in a weight of evidence risk screening process of acidic metal contaminated soil. Intact soil cores were used for the tests, which minimizes changes in pH and metal bioavailability that may result from homogenization and drying of the soil. Soil cores were spiked with ZnCl(2) or CaCl(2). Leachate collected from the soil cores was used to account for the exposure pathways through pore water and groundwater. Tests assessed included MetSTICK in soil cores and Microtox in soil leachate, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), red fescue (Festuca rubra) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) in the soil cores and lettuce and red clover in soil leachate, Hyallella azteca in soil leachate, and an ecological soil function test using Bait Lamina in soil cores. Microtox, H. azteca, lettuce and red fescue showed higher sensitivity to low pH than to Zn concentrations and are therefore not recommended as tests on intact acidic soil cores and soil leachate. The Bait Lamina test appeared sensitive to pH levels below 3.7 but should be investigated further as a screening tool in less acidic soils. Among the bioassays, the MetSTICK and the T. pratense bioassays in soil cores were the most sensitive to Zn, with the lowest nominal NOEC of 200 and 400mg Zn/kg d.w., respectively. These bioassays were also tolerant of low pH, which make them suitable for assessing hazards of metal contaminated acid soils.

  20. Cheatgrass invasion and wildlife habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has altered native plant communities and the wildlife species that depend on these communities. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent...

  1. Plant invasions and extinction debts.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Levine, Jonathan M

    2013-01-29

    Whether introduced species invasions pose a major threat to biodiversity is hotly debated. Much of this debate is fueled by recent findings that competition from introduced organisms has driven remarkably few plant species to extinction. Instead, native plant species in invaded ecosystems are often found in refugia: patchy, marginal habitats unsuitable to their nonnative competitors. However, whether the colonization and extinction dynamics of these refugia allow long-term native persistence is uncertain. Of particular concern is the possibility that invasive plants may induce an extinction debt in the native flora, where persistence over the short term masks deterministic extinction trajectories. We examined how invader impacts on landscape structure influence native plant persistence by combining recently developed quantitative techniques for evaluating metapopulation persistence with field measurements of an invaded plant community. We found that European grass invasion of an edaphically heterogeneous California landscape has greatly decreased the likelihood of the persistence of native metapopulations. It does so via two main pathways: (i) decreasing the size of native refugia, which reduces seed production and increases local extinction, and (ii) eroding the dispersal permeability of the matrix between refugia, which reduces their connectivity. Even when native plant extinction is the deterministic outcome of invasion, the time to extinction can be on the order of hundreds of years. We conclude that the relatively short time since invasion in many parts of the world is insufficient to observe the full impact of plant invasions on native biodiversity.

  2. The diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. H.; Du, Y.

    2016-06-01

    We have attempted to explore the intrinsic differences in the optical properties of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and normal tissue by optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT imaging of normal tissue provided three layers of epithelium, lamina propria, and the brighter interface of basement membrane; while carcinomas disrupted the layered construction embedded in signal-poor images. The morphologies were consistent with histological findings. Sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 100%, respectively. This pilot study demonstrates that NPC could be diagnosed by visualization, which implies that OCT might be potentially used to differentiate normal from NPC tissue in the early stage as an invasive biopsy.

  3. Common Ground for Managing Invasive Annual Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses often reach their full biological potential in ecosystems of the western United States. This suggests that crucial ecosystem "checks and balances" are not functioning. In other words, invasion occurs because ecosystems have lost resistance to invasion, and invasive plants a...

  4. Invasive and non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jonathan Chung-Fai; Loong, Thomson Chi-Wang; Pang, James; Wei, Jeremy Lok; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun

    2017-03-30

    Portal hypertension is the central driver of complications in patients with chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis. The diagnosis of portal hypertension has important prognostic and clinical implications. In particular, screening for varices in patients with portal hypertension can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality of variceal bleeding. In this article, we review the invasive and non-invasive methods to assess portal hypertension. Hepatic venous pressure gradient remains the gold standard to measure portal pressure but is invasive and seldom performed outside expert centers and research settings. In recent years, a number of non-invasive tests of fibrosis have shown good correlation with liver histology. They also show promise in identifying patients with portal hypertension and large varices. As a result, the latest Baveno VI consensus guidelines endorse the use of liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography and platelet count as initial assessment to select patients for varices screening. On the other hand, the performance of non-invasive tests in assessing the response to non-selective beta-blockers or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting is either suboptimal or unclear.

  5. SOST Inhibits Prostate Cancer Invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Bryan D.; Hum, Nicholas R.; Thomas, Cynthia B.; Kohlgruber, Ayano; Sebastian, Aimy; Collette, Nicole M.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Christiansen, Blaine A.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2015-11-06

    Inhibitors of Wnt signaling have been shown to be involved in prostate cancer (PC) metastasis; however the role of Sclerostin (Sost) has not yet been explored. Here we show that elevated Wnt signaling derived from Sost deficient osteoblasts promotes PC invasion, while rhSOST has an inhibitory effect. In contrast, rhDKK1 promotes PC elongation and filopodia formation, morphological changes characteristic of an invasive phenotype. Furthermore, rhDKK1 was found to activate canonical Wnt signaling in PC3 cells, suggesting that SOST and DKK1 have opposing roles on Wnt signaling in this context. Gene expression analysis of PC3 cells co-cultured with OBs exhibiting varying amounts of Wnt signaling identified CRIM1 as one of the transcripts upregulated under highly invasive conditions. We found CRIM1 overexpression to also promote cell-invasion. These findings suggest that bone-derived Wnt signaling may enhance PC tropism by promoting CRIM1 expression and facilitating cancer cell invasion and adhesion to bone. We concluded that SOST and DKK1 have opposing effects on PC3 cell invasion and that bone-derived Wnt signaling positively contributes to the invasive phenotypes of PC3 cells by activating CRIM1 expression and facilitating PC-OB physical interaction. As such, we investigated the effects of high concentrations of SOST in vivo. In conclusion, we found that PC3-cells overexpressing SOST injected via the tail vein in NSG mice did not readily metastasize, and those injected intrafemorally had significantly reduced osteolysis, suggesting that targeting the molecular bone environment may influence bone metastatic prognosis in clinical settings.

  6. SOST Inhibits Prostate Cancer Invasion

    DOE PAGES

    Hudson, Bryan D.; Hum, Nicholas R.; Thomas, Cynthia B.; ...

    2015-11-06

    Inhibitors of Wnt signaling have been shown to be involved in prostate cancer (PC) metastasis; however the role of Sclerostin (Sost) has not yet been explored. Here we show that elevated Wnt signaling derived from Sost deficient osteoblasts promotes PC invasion, while rhSOST has an inhibitory effect. In contrast, rhDKK1 promotes PC elongation and filopodia formation, morphological changes characteristic of an invasive phenotype. Furthermore, rhDKK1 was found to activate canonical Wnt signaling in PC3 cells, suggesting that SOST and DKK1 have opposing roles on Wnt signaling in this context. Gene expression analysis of PC3 cells co-cultured with OBs exhibiting varyingmore » amounts of Wnt signaling identified CRIM1 as one of the transcripts upregulated under highly invasive conditions. We found CRIM1 overexpression to also promote cell-invasion. These findings suggest that bone-derived Wnt signaling may enhance PC tropism by promoting CRIM1 expression and facilitating cancer cell invasion and adhesion to bone. We concluded that SOST and DKK1 have opposing effects on PC3 cell invasion and that bone-derived Wnt signaling positively contributes to the invasive phenotypes of PC3 cells by activating CRIM1 expression and facilitating PC-OB physical interaction. As such, we investigated the effects of high concentrations of SOST in vivo. In conclusion, we found that PC3-cells overexpressing SOST injected via the tail vein in NSG mice did not readily metastasize, and those injected intrafemorally had significantly reduced osteolysis, suggesting that targeting the molecular bone environment may influence bone metastatic prognosis in clinical settings.« less

  7. Cell migration and invasion assays.

    PubMed

    Moutasim, Karwan A; Nystrom, Maria L; Thomas, Gareth J

    2011-01-01

    A number of in vitro assays have been developed to study tumor cell motility. Historically, assays have been mainly monocellular, where carcinoma cells are studied in isolation. Scratch assays can be used to study the collective and directional movement of populations of cells, whereas two chamber assays lend themselves to the analysis of chemotactic/haptotactic migration and cell invasion. However, an inherent disadvantage of these assays is that they grossly oversimplify the complex process of invasion, lacking the tumor structural architecture and stromal components. Organotypic assays, where tumor cells are grown at an air/liquid interface on gels populated with stromal cells, are a more physiologically relevant method for studying 3-dimensional tumor invasion.

  8. Approximating spatially exclusive invasion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Joshua V.; Binder, Benjamin J.

    2014-05-01

    A number of biological processes, such as invasive plant species and cell migration, are composed of two key mechanisms: motility and reproduction. Due to the spatially exclusive interacting behavior of these processes a cellular automata (CA) model is specified to simulate a one-dimensional invasion process. Three (independence, Poisson, and 2D-Markov chain) approximations are considered that attempt to capture the average behavior of the CA. We show that our 2D-Markov chain approximation accurately predicts the state of the CA for a wide range of motility and reproduction rates.

  9. Recent Advances in Invasive Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Garbe, George J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes recent advances in invasive cardiology that enable the primary-care physician to offer his/her patient a wider range of effective treatments. Major developments in the investigation and management of the acute coronary syndromes, unstable angina and myocardial infarction, have revolutionized the care of patients with these conditions. The primary-care physician must be aware of the treatment modalities, the lines of referral, and strategies for management available in his/her clinical setting to allow prompt application of these modalities. A sampling of exciting advances in other areas of invasive cardiology are also described. PMID:21263906

  10. A study of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy laminates by utilizing an outer lamina of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Lance, David G.

    1991-01-01

    The damage tolerance of carbon/epoxy was examined when an outer layer of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) material was utilized on the specimen. Four types of 16 ply quasi-isotropic panels, (0,+45,90,-45)s2 were tested. The first contained no Spectra, while the others had one lamina of Spectra placed on either the top (impacted side), bottom or both surfaces of the composite plate. A range of impact energies up to approximately 8.5 Joules (6.3 ft-lbs) was used to inflict damage upon these specimens. Glass/Phenolic honeycomb beams with a core density of 314 N/m3 (2.0 lb/ft3) and 8 ply quasi-isotropic facesheets were also tested for compression-after-impact strength with and without Spectra at impact energies of 1,2,3 and 4 Joules (.74, 1.47, 2.21 and 2.95 ft-lbs). It was observed that the composite plates had little change in damage tolerance due to the Spectra, while the honeycomb panels demonstrated a slight increase in damage tolerance when Spectra was added, the damage tolerance level being more improved at higher impact energies.

  11. FAK Is Required for Schwann Cell Spreading on Immature Basal Lamina to Coordinate the Radial Sorting of Peripheral Axons with Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Without Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), developing murine Schwann cells (SCs) proliferate poorly, sort axons inefficiently, and cannot myelinate peripheral nerves. Here we show that FAK is required for the development of SCs when their basal lamina (BL) is fragmentary, but not when it is mature in vivo. Mutant SCs fail to spread on fragmentary BL during development in vivo, and this is phenocopied by SCs lacking functional FAK on low laminin (LN) in vitro. Furthermore, SCs without functional FAK initiate differentiation prematurely, both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to their behavior on high levels of LN, SCs lacking functional FAK grown on low LN display reduced spreading, proliferation, and indicators of contractility (i.e., stress fibers, arcs, and focal adhesions) and are primed to differentiate. Growth of SCs lacking functional FAK on increasing LN concentrations in vitro revealed that differentiation is not regulated by G1 arrest but rather by cell spreading and the level of contractile actomyosin. The importance of FAK as a critical regulator of the specific response of developing SCs to fragmentary BL was supported by the ability of adult FAK mutant SCs to remyelinate demyelinated adult nerves on mature BL in vivo. We conclude that FAK promotes the spreading and actomyosin contractility of immature SCs on fragmentary BL, thus maintaining their proliferation, and preventing differentiation until they reach high density, thereby promoting radial sorting. Hence, FAK has a critical role in the response of SCs to limiting BL by promoting proliferation and preventing premature SC differentiation. PMID:25274820

  12. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    PubMed Central

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F. sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F. sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F. japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

  13. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  14. Biological Warfare in Invasive Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is an invasive species in temperate forests throughout North America that has led to a decrease in species diversity and alterations in nutrient cycling. Garlic mustard produces an arsenal of secondary chemicals in the glucosinolate family that have strong biocid...

  15. Evolutionary origins of invasive populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Carol Eunmi; Gelembiuk, Gregory William

    2008-01-01

    What factors shape the evolution of invasive populations? Recent theoretical and empirical studies suggest that an evolutionary history of disturbance might be an important factor. This perspective presents hypotheses regarding the impact of disturbance on the evolution of invasive populations, based on a synthesis of the existing literature. Disturbance might select for life-history traits that are favorable for colonizing novel habitats, such as rapid population growth and persistence. Theoretical results suggest that disturbance in the form of fluctuating environments might select for organismal flexibility, or alternatively, the evolution of evolvability. Rapidly fluctuating environments might favor organismal flexibility, such as broad tolerance or plasticity. Alternatively, longer fluctuations or environmental stress might lead to the evolution of evolvability by acting on features of the mutation matrix. Once genetic variance is generated via mutations, temporally fluctuating selection across generations might promote the accumulation and maintenance of genetic variation. Deeper insights into how disturbance in native habitats affects evolutionary and physiological responses of populations would give us greater capacity to predict the populations that are most likely to tolerate or adapt to novel environments during habitat invasions. Moreover, we would gain fundamental insights into the evolutionary origins of invasive populations. PMID:25567726

  16. Invasion Percolation and Global Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabási, Albert-László

    1996-05-01

    Invasion bond percolation (IBP) is mapped exactly into Prim's algorithm for finding the shortest spanning tree of a weighted random graph. Exploring this mapping, which is valid for arbitrary dimensions and lattices, we introduce a new IBP model that belongs to the same universality class as IBP and generates the minimal energy tree spanning the IBP cluster.

  17. What is minimally invasive dentistry?

    PubMed

    Ericson, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.

  18. A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Fischer, Markus

    2010-02-01

    A major aim in ecology is identifying determinants of invasiveness. We performed a meta-analysis of 117 field or experimental-garden studies that measured pair-wise trait differences of a total of 125 invasive and 196 non-invasive plant species in the invasive range of the invasive species. We tested whether invasiveness is associated with performance-related traits (physiology, leaf-area allocation, shoot allocation, growth rate, size and fitness), and whether such associations depend on type of study and on biogeographical or biological factors. Overall, invasive species had significantly higher values than non-invasive species for all six trait categories. More trait differences were significant for invasive vs. native comparisons than for invasive vs. non-invasive alien comparisons. Moreover, for comparisons between invasive species and native species that themselves are invasive elsewhere, no trait differences were significant. Differences in physiology and growth rate were larger in tropical regions than in temperate regions. Trait differences did not depend on whether the invasive alien species originates from Europe, nor did they depend on the test environment. We conclude that invasive alien species had higher values for those traits related to performance than non-invasive species. This suggests that it might become possible to predict future plant invasions from species traits.

  19. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    .../coastal environments in the world, with over 50 invasive species that threaten the Bay's vibrant economy... within invasive species efforts, ballast water related issues, and the development of state...

  20. The progress of interdisciplinarity in invasion science.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Ana S; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A; Richardson, David M; Schindler, Stefan; Muñoz-Pajares, A Jesús; Vicente, Joana R; Martins, João; Hui, Cang; Kühn, Ingolf; Honrado, João P

    2017-02-01

    Interdisciplinarity is needed to gain knowledge of the ecology of invasive species and invaded ecosystems, and of the human dimensions of biological invasions. We combine a quantitative literature review with a qualitative historical narrative to document the progress of interdisciplinarity in invasion science since 1950. Our review shows that 92.4% of interdisciplinary publications (out of 9192) focus on ecological questions, 4.4% on social ones, and 3.2% on social-ecological ones. The emergence of invasion science out of ecology might explain why interdisciplinarity has remained mostly within the natural sciences. Nevertheless, invasion science is attracting social-ecological collaborations to understand ecological challenges, and to develop novel approaches to address new ideas, concepts, and invasion-related questions between scholars and stakeholders. We discuss ways to reframe invasion science as a field centred on interlinked social-ecological dynamics to bring science, governance and society together in a common effort to deal with invasions.

  1. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

  2. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    .... The full ISAC will also consider a white paper entitled, Invasive Species and Climate Change, as drafted by the ISAC Task Team on Climate Change. DATES: Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory...

  3. Council Coordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Chris Dionigi, Assistant Director, Domestic Policy National Invasive Species Council Coordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts Report...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CouncilCoordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...ADDRESS(ES) National Invasive Species Council (NISC) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  4. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery II

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, J. Alan; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Farivar, R. Saeid; Khan, Junaid H.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Moront, Michael G.; Ryan, William H.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Lehr, Eric J.; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement continue to evolve. This expert opinion, the second of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices for nonrobotic, minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and for postoperative care after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. PMID:27654406

  5. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  6. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting (via Teleconference) of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to...

  7. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect dates. This document corrects those.... Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday, March 7, 2013 through Friday, March...

  8. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-28743] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory..., notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the...

  9. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  10. Cabergoline treatment in invasive giant prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically.

  11. Plant community associations of the invasive thistles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to combat the growing problems associated with biological invasions, many researchers have focused on identifying which communities are most vulnerable to invasion by exotic species. Once established, invasive species can significantly change the composition of the communities that they inv...

  12. Human mobility and epidemic invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, Vittoria

    2010-03-01

    The current H1N1 influenza pandemic is just the latest example of how human mobility helps drive infectious diseases. Travel has grown explosively in the last decades, contributing to an emerging complex pattern of traffic flows that unfolds at different scales, shaping the spread of epidemics. Restrictions on people's mobility are thus investigated to design possible containment measures. By considering a theoretical framework in terms of reaction-diffusion processes, it is possible to study the invasion dynamics of epidemics in a metapopulation system with heterogeneous mobility patterns. The system is found to exhibit a global invasion threshold that sets the critical mobility rate below which the epidemic is contained. The results provide a general framework for the understanding of the numerical evidence from detailed data-driven simulations that show the limited benefit provided by travel flows reduction in slowing down or containing an emerging epidemic.

  13. Outcomes After Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Luketich, James D.; Pennathur, Arjun; Awais, Omar; Levy, Ryan M.; Keeley, Samuel; Shende, Manisha; Christie, Neil A.; Weksler, Benny; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Abbas, Ghulam; Schuchert, Matthew J.; Nason, Katie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy is a complex operation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to lower morbidity, we have adopted a minimally invasive approach to esophagectomy. Objectives Our primary objective was to evaluate the outcomes of minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) in a large group of patients. Our secondary objective was to compare the modified McKeown minimally invasive approach (videothoracoscopic surgery, laparoscopy, neck anastomosis [MIE-neck]) with our current approach, a modified Ivor Lewis approach (laparoscopy, videothoracoscopic surgery, chest anastomosis [MIE-chest]). Methods We reviewed 1033 consecutive patients undergoing MIE. Elective operation was performed on 1011 patients; 22 patients with nonelective operations were excluded. Patients were stratified by surgical approach and perioperative outcomes analyzed. The primary endpoint studied was 30-day mortality. Results The MIE-neck was performed in 481 (48%) and MIE-Ivor Lewis in 530 (52%). Patients undergoing MIE-Ivor Lewis were operated in the current era. The median number of lymph nodes resected was 21. The operative mortality was 1.68%. Median length of stay (8 days) and ICU stay (2 days) were similar between the 2 approaches. Mortality rate was 0.9%, and recurrent nerve injury was less frequent in the Ivor Lewis MIE group (P < 0.001). Conclusions MIE in our center resulted in acceptable lymph node resection, postoperative outcomes, and low mortality using either an MIE-neck or an MIE-chest approach. The MIE Ivor Lewis approach was associated with reduced recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and mortality of 0.9% and is now our preferred approach. Minimally invasive esophagectomy can be performed safely, with good results in an experienced center. PMID:22668811

  14. Minimally invasive PCNL-MIP.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Stefano Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Gallioli, Andrea; Talso, Michele; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) has increased in popularity in recent years and is now widely used to overcome the therapeutic gap between conventional PCNL and less-invasive procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) for the treatment of renal stones. However, despite its minimally invasive nature, the superiority in terms of safety, as well as the similar efficacy of mini-PCNL compared to conventional procedures, is still under debate. The aim of this chapter is to present one of the most recent advancements in terms of mini-PCNL: the Karl Storz "minimally invasive PCNL" (MIP). A literature search for original and review articles either published or e-published up to December 2016 was performed using Google and the PubMed database. Keywords included: minimally invasive PCNL; MIP. The retrieved articles were gathered and examined. The complete MIP set is composed of different sized rigid metallic fiber-optic nephroscopes and different sized metallic operating sheaths, according to which the MIP is categorized into extra-small (XS), small (S), medium (M) and large (L). Dilation can be performed either in one-step or with a progressive technique, as needed. The reusable devices of the MIP and vacuum cleaner efect make PCNL with this set a cheap procedure. The possibility to shift from a small to a larger instrument within the same set (Matrioska technique) makes MIP a very versatile technique suitable for the treatment of almost any stone. Studies in the literature have shown that MIP is equally effective, with comparable rates of post-operative complications, as conventional PCNL, independently from stone size. MIP does not represent a new technique, but rather a combination of the last ten years of PCNL improvements in a single system that can transversally cover all available techniques in the panorama of percutaneous stone treatment.

  15. Identification of candidates for interacting partners of the tail domain of DcNMCP1, a major component of the Daucus carota nuclear lamina-like structure.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Ryota; Tsugama, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Michihiro; Fujino, Kaien; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2017-02-01

    NMCP/CRWN (NUCLEAR MATRIX CONSTITUENT PROTEIN/CROWDED NUCLEI) is a major component of a protein fibrous meshwork (lamina-like structure) on the plant inner nuclear membrane. NMCP/CRWN contributes to regulating nuclear shape and nuclear functions. An NMCP/CRWN protein in Daucus carota (DcNMCP1) is localized to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells, and surrounds chromosomes in cells in metaphase and anaphase. The N-terminal region and the C-terminal region of DcNMCP1 are both necessary for localizing DcNMCP1 to the nuclear periphery. Here candidate interacting partners of the amino acid position 975-1053 of DcNMCP1 (T975-1053), which is present in the C-terminal region and contains a conserved sequence that plays a role in localizing DcNMCP1 to the nuclear periphery, are screened for. Arabidopsis thaliana nuclear proteins were subjected to far-Western blotting with GST-fused T975-1053 as a probe, and signals were detected at the positions corresponding to ∼70, ∼40, and ∼18 kDa. These ∼70, ∼40, and ∼18 kDa nuclear proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and subjected to a yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) analysis with T975-1053 as bait. In this analysis, the ∼40 kDa protein ARP7, which is a nuclear actin-related protein possibly involved in regulating chromatin structures, was confirmed to interact with T975-1053. Independently of the far-Western blotting, a Y2H screen was performed using T975-1053 as bait. Targeted Y2H assays confirmed that 3 proteins identified in the screen, MYB3, SINAT1, and BIM1, interact with T975-1053. These proteins might have roles in NMCP/CRWN protein-mediated biologic processes.

  16. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine hypomethylated leafless inflorescence, evergreen dwarf and irregular leaf lamina mutants of Catharanthus roseus possessing Mendelian inheritance.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Renu; Sharma, Vishakha; Sharma, Vinay; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    In Catharanthus roseus, three morphological cum salt-tolerant chemically induced mutants of Mendelian inheritance and their wild-type parent cv Nirmal were characterized for overall cytosine methylation at DNA repeats, expression of 119 protein coding and seven miRNA-coding genes and 50 quantitative traits. The mutants, named after their principal morphological feature(s), were leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill). The Southern-blot analysis of MspI digested DNAs of mutants probed with centromeric and 5S and 18S rDNA probes indicated that, in comparison to wild type, the mutants were extensively demethylated at cytosine sites. Among the 126 genes investigated for transcriptional expression, 85 were upregulated and 41 were downregulated in mutants. All of the five genes known to be stress responsive had increased expression in mutants. Several miRNA genes showed either increased or decreased expression in mutants. The C. roseus counterparts of CMT3, DRM2 and RDR2 were downregulated in mutants. Among the cell, organ and plant size, photosynthesis and metabolism related traits studied, 28 traits were similarly affected in mutants as compared to wild type. Each of the mutants also expressed some traits distinctively. The egd mutant possessed superior photosynthesis and water retention abilities. Biomass was hyperaccumulated in roots, stems, leaves and seeds of the lli mutant. The ill mutant was richest in the pharmaceutical alkaloids catharanthine, vindoline, vincristine and vinblastine. The nature of mutations, origins of mutant phenotypes and evolutionary importance of these mutants are discussed.

  17. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Brian C; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Angeler, David G; Herrmann, Dustin L; Stow, Craig A; Nyström, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R

    2016-12-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services.

  18. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Angeler, David G.; Herrmann, Dustin L.; Stow, Craig A.; Nystrom, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E.; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services.

  19. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    PubMed Central

    Bellard, C.; Thuiller, W.; Leroy, B.; Genovesi, P.; Bakkenes, M.; Courchamp, F.

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the “100 of the world’s worst invasive species” defined by the IUCN, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. PMID:23913552

  20. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Tim M; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, Sven; Carlton, James T; Duncan, Richard P; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2011-07-01

    There has been a dramatic growth in research on biological invasions over the past 20 years, but a mature understanding of the field has been hampered because invasion biologists concerned with different taxa and different environments have largely adopted different model frameworks for the invasion process, resulting in a confusing range of concepts, terms and definitions. In this review, we propose a unified framework for biological invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features of the most commonly used invasion frameworks into a single conceptual model that can be applied to all human-mediated invasions. The unified framework combines previous stage-based and barrier models, and provides a terminology and categorisation for populations at different points in the invasion process.

  1. Novel chemistry of invasive exotic plants

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccino, Naomi; Arnason, J.Thor

    2006-01-01

    Of the many exotic plants that have become naturalized in North America, only a small proportion are pests capable of invading and dominating intact natural communities. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the most invasive plants are phytochemically unique in their new habitats. A comparison of exotic plant species that are highly invasive in North America with exotics that are widespread, but non-invasive revealed that the invasive plants were more likely to have potent secondary compounds that have not been reported from North American native plants. On average, the compounds found in the invasive plants were reported from fewer species, fewer genera and fewer families than those from non-invasive plants. Many of the unique phytochemicals from invasive plants have been reported to have multiple activities, including antiherbivore, antifungal, antimicrobial and allelopathic (phytotoxic) effects, which may provide the plants with several advantages in their new environments. PMID:17148359

  2. Chick Heart Invasion Assay for Testing the Invasiveness of Cancer Cells and the Activity of Potentially Anti-invasive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Roman, Bart I; Stevens, Christian V; Mus, Liselot M; Parmar, Virinder S; De Wever, Olivier; Mareel, Marc M

    2015-06-06

    The goal of the chick heart assay is to offer a relevant organ culture method to study tumor invasion in three dimensions. The assay can distinguish between invasive and non-invasive cells, and enables study of the effects of test compounds on tumor invasion. Cancer cells - either as aggregates or single cells - are confronted with fragments of embryonic chick heart. After organ culture in suspension for a few days or weeks the confronting cultures are fixed and embedded in paraffin for histological analysis. The three-dimensional interaction between the cancer cells and the normal tissue is then reconstructed from serial sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin or after immunohistochemical staining for epitopes in the heart tissue or the confronting cancer cells. The assay is consistent with the recent concept that cancer invasion is the result of molecular interactions between the cancer cells and their neighbouring stromal host elements (myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix components, etc.). Here, this stromal environment is offered to the cancer cells as a living tissue fragment. Supporting aspects to the relevance of the assay are multiple. Invasion in the assay is in accordance with the criteria of cancer invasion: progressive occupation and replacement in time and space of the host tissue, and invasiveness and non-invasiveness in vivo of the confronting cells generally correlates with the outcome of the assay. Furthermore, the invasion pattern of cells in vivo, as defined by pathologists, is reflected in the histological images in the assay. Quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) analysis of the results obtained with numerous potentially anti-invasive organic congener compounds allowed the study of structure-activity relations for flavonoids and chalcones, and known anti-metastatic drugs used in the clinic (e.g., microtubule inhibitors) inhibit invasion in the assay as well. However, the assay does not take into account

  3. [The role of gut microbiota in the regulation of the immune response].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Pedro; González, Margarita; Castro, Érica

    2016-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract hosts around 10(14) bacterial microorganisms, in a constantly growing density from the stomach to the distal colon. This microbiota is composed by more than 500 species of bacteria, which are quickly acquired after birth, fairly stable during the host’s life, and essential for human homeostasis. These bacteria have important functions, such as stimulating the immune system, protecting the host from invading bacteria and viruses, and improving digestion, especially of complex carbohydrates. Also, the gut microbiota interacts directly with the immune system. However, the interaction of the intestinal epithelium and its microbiota with the immune system has yet to be fully understood. Secretory immunoglobulin A, produced by the plasma cells in Peyer’s patches and in the lamina propria, maintains non-invasive commensal bacteria and neutralize invasive pathogens. Dendritic cells migrate from the lamina propria of the secondary lymphoid organs to regulate gut immunity. They also have a key role maintaining luminal IgA and inducing the growth of regulatory T cells. Dendritic cells supervise the gut microenvironment too, keeping an immunological equilibrium and tolerance. The importance of the gut microbiota in regulating the immune system lies mostly in the homeostasis-or positive equilibrium. Thus, many diseases are a consequence of poor interactions or a loss of this equilibrium.

  4. The Body Image Dissatisfaction and Psychological Symptoms among Invasive and Minimally Invasive Aesthetic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Y. Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Hayatbini, Niki; Asgharnejad Farid, Ali Asghar; Gharaee, Banafsheh; Latifi, Noor Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elective aesthetic surgeries are increasing in the Iranian population with reasons linked to body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms. This study compared the body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms among invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery patients and a control group. METHODS Data from 90 participants (invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, minimally invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, and control group=30 Ss) were included. Subjects were assessed on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms to provide an evidence for a continuum of body image dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery clients. RESULTS Between the three groups of invasive, minimally invasive aesthetic surgeries and control on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity), there was a significant difference. CONCLUSION These findings have implications for pre-surgical assessment as well as psychological interventions rather than invasive medical interventions at first step. PMID:27579270

  5. Heparan Sulfate Degradation: Relation to Tumor Invasive and Metastatic Properties of Mouse B16 Melanoma Sublines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Motowo; Irimura, Tatsuro; di Ferrante, Daniela; di Ferrante, Nicola; Nicolson, Garth L.

    1983-05-01

    After transport in the blood and implantation in the microcirculation, metastatic tumor cells must invade the vascular endothelium and underlying basal lamina. Mouse B16 melanoma sublines were used to determine the relation between metastatic properties and the ability of the sublines to degrade enzymatically the sulfated glycosaminoglycans present in the extracellular matrix of cultured vascular endothelial cells. Highly invasive and metastatic B16 sublines degraded matrix glycosaminoglycans faster than did sublines of lower metastatic potential. The main products of this matrix degradation were heparan sulfate fragments. Intact B16 cells (or their cell-free homogenates) with a high potential for lung colonization degraded purified heparan sulfate from bovine lung at higher rates than did B16 cells with a poor potential for lung colonization. Analysis of the degradation fragments indicated that B16 cells have a heparan sulfate endoglycosidase. Thus the abilities of B16 melanoma cells to extravasate and successfully colonize the lung may be related to their capacities to degrade heparan sulfate in the walls of pulmonary blood vessels.

  6. Colonization and Intrusive Invasion of Potato Psyllid by 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum'.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Joseph M; Fisher, Tonja W; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Stansly, Philip A; Brown, Judith K

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the fastidious bacterial plant pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso) is transmitted circulatively and propagatively by the potato psyllid (PoP) Bactericera cockerelli. In this study, the temporal and spatial interrelationships between CLso PoP were investigated by scanning electron microscopy of the digestive system of PoP immature and adult instars and salivary glands of adults post CLso ingestion. CLso biofilms were not detectable on the outer midgut surface of the first and second instars; however, for third to fifth instars and teneral and mature adults, biofilms were observed in increasing numbers in each successive developmental stage. In adult PoP midguts, CLso cells were observed between the basal lamina and basal epithelial cell membranes; in basal laminar perforations, on the outer basal laminar surface, and in the ventricular lumen, epithelial cytosol, and filter chamber periventricular space. CLso were also abundantly visible in the salivary gland pericellular spaces and in the epidermal cell cytosol of the head. Collectively, these results point to an intrusive, systemic invasion of PoP by CLso that employs an endo/exocytosis-like mechanism, in the context of a propagative, circulative mode of transmission.

  7. A New Less Invasive Technique for Multiple-Level Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematomas: Wash-and-Go Technique.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Osman; Gungor, Abuzer; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Okay, Onder; Kamaci, Umit

    2017-03-01

    Aim Spinal epidural hematomas are rare entity in neurosurgery practice. Most of them are spontaneous due to anticoagulant therapy and called spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas (SSEHs). Laminectomy or hemilaminectomy for affected levels is still the first choice in the operative treatment of an SSEH. We describe a new less invasive surgical technique, performing single-level laminectomy and washing with 0.9% sodium chloride through a thin soft catheter for a 12-level thoracic-cervical SSEH in a patient under anticoagulant therapy. Patient and Operative Technique A 55-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department with a rapid onset of pain in her upper back and both legs with weakness of her lower extremities. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the whole spine showed a SEH. During the operation, after T2 laminectomy, a thin soft catheter was epidurally placed under the T1 lamina and gently pushed forward rostrally. Then continuous saline irrigation was utilized and aspiration made via the catheter to wash out the hematoma. Drainage of blood was observed. The procedure was performed for 15 minutes. Then the catheter was epidurally placed under the T3 lamina, and the procedure for the hematoma in the lower segment was repeated. Decompression of spinal cord and nerve roots was observed. Result Postoperative early MRI of the thoracic-cervical spine showed gross total evacuation of the SEH. Accordingly, the patient's muscle strength improved. Conclusion Although multiple laminectomy or hemilaminectomy for affected levels to evacuate the hematoma and decompress the spinal cord is the main choice of surgical treatment, single-level laminectomy and irrigation plus aspiration via a thin soft catheter can be performed successfully with good results in SSEH.

  8. The population biology of fungal invasions.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, P; Feurtey, A; Hood, M E; Snirc, A; Clavel, J; Dutech, C; Roy, M; Giraud, T

    2015-05-01

    Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous, and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther-smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life history traits are particularly unfavourable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions.

  9. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis".

  10. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  11. Serine Protease-mediated Host Invasion by the Parasitic Nematode Steinernema carpocapsae*

    PubMed Central

    Toubarro, Duarte; Lucena-Robles, Miguel; Nascimento, Gisela; Santos, Romana; Montiel, Rafael; Veríssimo, Paula; Pires, Euclides; Faro, Carlos; Coelho, Ana V.; Simões, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae is an insect parasitic nematode used in biological control, which infects insects penetrating by mouth and anus and invading the hemocoelium through the midgut wall. Invasion has been described as a key factor in nematode virulence and suggested to be mediated by proteases. A serine protease cDNA from the parasitic stage was sequenced (sc-sp-1); the recombinant protein was produced in an Escherichia coli system, and a native protein was purified from the secreted products. Both proteins were confirmed by mass spectrometry to be encoded by the sc-sp-1 gene. Sc-SP-1 has a pI of 8.7, a molecular mass of 27.3 kDa, a catalytic efficiency of 22.2 × 104 s−1 m−1 against N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA, and is inhibited by chymostatin (IC 0.07) and PMSF (IC 0.73). Sc-SP-1 belongs to the chymotrypsin family, based on sequence and biochemical analysis. Only the nematode parasitic stage expressed sc-sp-1. These nematodes in the midgut lumen, prepared to invade the insect hemocoelium, expressed higher levels than those already in the hemocoelium. Moreover, parasitic nematode sense insect peritrophic membrane and hemolymph more quickly than they do other tissues, which initiates sc-sp-1 expression. Ex vivo, Sc-SP-1 was able to bind to insect midgut epithelium and to cause cell detachment from basal lamina. In vitro, Sc-SP-1 formed holes in an artificial membrane model (Matrigel), whereas Sc-SP-1 treated with PMSF did not, very likely because it hydrolyzes matrix glycoproteins. These findings highlight the S. carpocapsae-invasive process that is a key step in the parasitism thus opening new perspectives for improving nematode virulence to use in biological control. PMID:20656686

  12. Laboratory diagnosis of invasive mycoses.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Elizabeth M; Shea, Yvonne M; Witebsky, Frank G

    2003-03-01

    Rising numbers of immunocompromised patients have led to an ever-increasing population at risk of invasive fungal disease. Much has been achieved in the laboratory diagnosis of these infections, such as advances in blood culture systems, and the development of new biochemical, antigen detection assays, and molecular methodologies. More standardized susceptibility testing guidelines provide for better therapeutic interventions. In an era of economic cutbacks in health care, future challenges include the development of cost-effective and technically simplified systems, which provide early detection and identification of common and emerging fungal pathogens. It will, however, take some time to establish the clinical relevance of these new methodologies in different patient populations.

  13. Minimally invasive therapy in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schou, I

    1993-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is beginning to have impacts on health care in Denmark, although diffusion has been delayed compared to diffusion in other European countries. Now policy makers are beginning to appreciate the potential advantages in terms of closing hospitals and shifting treatment to the out-patient setting, and diffusion will probably go faster in the future. Denmark does not have a system for technology assessment, neither central nor regional, and there is no early warning mechanism to survey international developments. This implies lack of possibilities for the planning of diffusion, training, and criteria for treatment.

  14. Role of glial and neuronal glycine transporters in the control of glycinergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in lamina X of the rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Bradaïa, Amyaouch; Schlichter, Rémy; Trouslard, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    Using whole cell voltage clamp recordings from lamina X neurones in rat spinal cord slices, we investigated the effect of glycine transporter (GlyT) antagonists on both glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSCs) and glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSCs). We used ORG 24598 and ORG 25543, selective antagonists of the glial GlyT (GlyT1) and neuronal GlyT (GlyT2), respectively. In rats (P12–P16) and in the presence of kynurenic acid, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and bicuculline, ORG 24598 and ORG 25543 applied individually at a concentration of 10 μm induced a mean inward current of −10/−50 pA at −60 mV and increased significantly the decay time constants of miniature (mIPSCs), spontaneous (sIPSCs) and electrically evoked glycinergic (eIPSCs) inhibitory postsynaptic currents. ORG 25543, but not ORG 24598, decreased the frequency of mIPSCs and sIPSCs. Replacing extracellular sodium with N-methyl-d-glucamine or superfusing the slice with micromolar concentrations of glycine also increased the decay time constant of glycinergic IPSCs. By contrast, the decay time constant, amplitude and frequency of miniature GABAergic IPSCs recorded in the presence of strychnine were not affected by ORG 24598 and ORG 25543. In the presence of strychnine, bicuculline and CNQX, we recorded electrically evoked NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs (eEPSCs). eEPSCs were suppressed by 30 μmd-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), an antagonist of the NMDA receptor, and by 30 μm dichlorokynurenic acid (DCKA), an antagonist of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. Glycine (1–5 μm) and d-serine (10 μm) increased the amplitude of eEPSCs whereas l-serine had no effect. ORG 24598 and ORG 25543 increased significantly the amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated eEPSCs without affecting the amplitude of non-NMDA receptor-mediated eEPSCs. We conclude that blocking glial and/or neuronal glycine transporters increased the level of glycine in spinal cord slices

  15. Biological invasions and the conservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Pascal, M; Le Guyader, H; Simberloff, D

    2010-08-01

    Consideration of definitions of 'biological invasion' and 'biodiversity' shows why invasions have recently generated great interest among conservationists. Many studies show that invasion numbers have increased drastically over the last five centuries, that this exponential increase is not levelling off, and that human activities are the only reason for the phenomenon. Many mechanisms are portrayed in an evolutionary framework and their consequences for biodiversity are described at three levels of life--gene, species and ecosystem. Examples from islands show that insular ecosystems are especially prone to damage from invasions; they also serve as 'laboratories' to elucidate the nature of invasion impacts. An important management approach--eradication--is discussed. Eradicating invaders not only aids understanding of their impacts on native species but also in understanding how ecosystems function. In fact, biological invasions can be seen as 'experiments', providing a rare opportunity to help answer certain fundamental scientific questions.

  16. Cabergoline Treatment in Invasive Giant Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically. PMID:25002819

  17. Biological Invasions: A Challenge In Ecological Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Smith, J. A.; Stohlgren, T. J.; Graves, S.; Trees, C.; Rood, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The spread of invasive species is one of the most daunting environmental, economic, and human-health problems facing the United States and the World today. It is one of several grand challenge environmental problems being considered by NASA's Earth Science Vision for 2025. The invasive species problem is complex and presents many challenges. Developing an invasive species predictive capability could significantly advance the science and technology of ecological forecasting.

  18. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis.

  19. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa D; Gharat, Leena A; Tupsakhare, Suyog D; Gabhane, Mahesh H

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption exhibiting no external signs. The resorptive condition is often detected by routine radiographic examination. The clinical features vary from a small defect at the gingival margin to a pink coronal discoloration of the tooth crown resulting in ultimate cavitation of the overlying enamel which is painless unless pulpal or periodontal infection supervenes. Radiographic features of lesions vary from well-delineated to irregularly bordered mottled radiolucencies, and these can be confused with dental caries. A characteristic radiopaque line generally separates the image of the lesion from that of the root canal, because the pulp remains protected by a thin layer of predentin until late in the process. Histopathologically, the lesions contain fibrovascular tissue with resorbing clastic cells adjacent to the dentin surface. More advanced lesions display fibro-osseous characteristics with deposition of ectopic bonelike calcifications both within the resorbing tissue and directly on the dentin surface. How to cite this article: Kandalgaonkar SD, Gharat LA, Tupsakhare SD, Gabhane MH. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(6):124-30 . PMID:24453457

  20. Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakley, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    There are two little words, when taken together have great implications: ``What IF'' In the US alone, there are millions who are burdened with diabetes and who must maintain their glucose levels by taking blood samples and having it analyzed. Even though this procedure has improved over time, still it is very intrusive and is a burden to many that must live with it. What if it were not necessary? Although it is current practice to measure glucose levels invasively (using blood samples), it may be possible to measure glucose non-invasively. Although several companies around the world have invested millions of dollars to address this problem, none have been successful thus far. However, there are many methods that hold a potential and many approaches that have not yet been explored. We are working on a review of what has been approached thus far and are entertaining proposals for a combined interdisciplinary approach which combines expertise from bioengineering, physics, and biology. We hope to learn from the unsuccessful attempts of others whilst employing innovative new approaches to this problem.

  1. [Combination therapy for invasive aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel

    2011-03-01

    The frequency of invasive fungal infections, and specifically invasive aspergillosis, has increased in the last few decades. Despite the development of new antifungal agents, these infections are associated with high mortality, ranging from 40% to 80%, depending on the patient and the localization of the infection. To reduce these figures, several therapeutic strategies have been proposed, including combination therapy. Most of the available data on the efficacy of these combinations are from experimental models, in vitro data and retrospective observational studies or studies with a small number of patients that have included both patients in first-line treatment and those receiving rescue therapy; in addition there are many patients with possible forms of aspergillosis and few with demonstrated or probable forms. To date, there is no evidence that combination therapy has significantly higher efficacy than monotherapy; however, combination therapy could be indicated in severe forms of aspergillosis, or forms with central nervous involvement or extensive pulmonary involvement with respiratory insufficiency, etc. Among the combinations, the association of an echinocandin--the group that includes micafungin--with voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin B seems to show synergy. These combinations are those most extensively studied in clinical trials and therefore, although the grade of evidence is low, are recommended by the various scientific societies.

  2. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis.

  3. Can biological invasions save Caribbean coral reefs?

    PubMed

    Bellwood, David Roy; Robert Goatley, Christopher Harry

    2017-01-09

    It is widely accepted that coral reefs are in decline globally, due to climate change as well as more direct human impacts such as poor water quality and overharvesting [1-3]. Biological invasions are also seen as a major threat [4-6]; however, they may not all be negative. An invasion of Red Sea rabbitfishes is disrupting Mediterranean ecosystems by removing macro-algae - meanwhile, in contrast, the Caribbean is suffering from excess macro-algal growth. We suggest that an invasion of the Caribbean by rabbitfishes may prove beneficial, and that the future of Caribbean coral reefs may depend upon a rabbitfish invasion.

  4. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: Prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herron, P.M.; Martine, C.T.; Latimer, A.M.; Leicht-Young, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of introduced species requires the early identification of species that pose a significant threat of becoming invasive. To better understand the invasive ecology of species in New England, USA, we compiled a character data set with which to compare non-native species that are known invaders to non-native species that are not currently known to be invasive. In contrast to previous biological trait-based models, we employed a Bayesian hierarchical analysis to identify sets of plant traits associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms (vines, shrubs, and trees). The resulting models identify a suite of 'invasive traits' highlighting the ecology associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms. The most effective predictors of invasiveness that emerged from our model were 'invasive elsewhere', 'fast growth rate', 'native latitudinal range', and 'growth form'. The contrast among growth forms was pronounced. For example, 'wind dispersal' was positively correlated with invasiveness in trees, but negatively correlated in shrubs and vines. The predictive model was able to correctly classify invasive plants 67% of the time (22/33), and non-invasive plants 95% of the time (204/215). A number of potential future invasive species in New England that deserve management consideration were identified. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  5. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

  6. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade.

  7. Contemporary review of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Rui; Turley, Ryan S; Blazer, Dan G

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the current literature describing various minimally invasive techniques for and to review short-term outcomes after minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS PD remains the only potentially curative treatment for periampullary malignancies, including, most commonly, pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Minimally invasive approaches to this complex operation have begun to be increasingly reported in the literature and are purported by some to reduce the historically high morbidity of PD associated with the open technique. In this systematic review, we have searched the literature for high-quality publications describing minimally invasive techniques for PD-including laparoscopic, robotic, and laparoscopic-assisted robotic approaches (hybrid approach). We have identified publications with the largest operative experiences from well-known centers of excellence for this complex procedure. We report primarily short term operative and perioperative results and some short term oncologic endpoints. RESULTS Minimally invasive techniques include laparoscopic, robotic and hybrid approaches and each of these techniques has strong advocates. Consistently, across all minimally invasive modalities, these techniques are associated less intraoperative blood loss than traditional open PD (OPD), but in exchange for longer operating times. These techniques are relatively equivalent in terms of perioperative morbidity and short term oncologic outcomes. Importantly, pancreatic fistula rate appears to be comparable in most minimally invasive series compared to open technique. Impact of minimally invasive technique on length of stay is mixed compared to some traditional open series. A few series have suggested that initiation of and time to adjuvant therapy may be improved with minimally invasive techniques, however this assertion remains controversial. In terms of short-terms costs, minimally invasive PD is significantly higher than that of OPD. CONCLUSION Minimally

  8. Anaesthesia for minimally invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dec, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity. It offers well-known benefits to the patient. However, restricted access to the surgical site and gas insufflation into the body cavities may result in severe complications. From the anaesthetic point of view MIS poses unique challenges associated with creation of pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide absorption, specific positioning and monitoring a patient to whom the anaesthetist has often restricted access, in a poorly lit environment. Moreover, with refinement of surgical procedures and growing experience the anaesthetist is presented with patients from high-risk groups (obese, elderly, with advanced cardiac and respiratory disease) who once were deemed unsuitable for the laparoscopic technique. Anaesthetic management is aimed at getting the patient safely through the procedure, minimizing the specific risks arising from laparoscopy and the patient's coexisting medical problems, ensuring quick recovery and a relatively pain-free postoperative course with early return to normal function. PMID:26865885

  9. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  10. Non-invasive glucose monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A non-invasive method for determining blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 700 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor in the anterior chamber is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated aqueous humor; and then determining the blood glucose level (or the level of another analyte of interest) for the subject from the Raman spectrum. Preferably, the detecting step is followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing method is also disclosed.

  11. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  12. Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

  13. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion

  14. Invasive disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Crump, John A; van Ingen, Jakko; Morrissey, Anne B; Boeree, Martin J; Mavura, Daudi R; Swai, Britta; Thielman, Nathan M; Bartlett, John A; Grossman, Henning; Maro, Venance P; van Soolingen, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Data on nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. During 2006-2008, we identified 3 HIV-infected patients in northern Tanzania who had invasive NTM; 2 were infected with "Mycobacterium sherrisii" and 1 with M. avium complex sequevar MAC-D. Invasive NTM disease is present in HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery I

    PubMed Central

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Mehall, John R.; Wolfe, J. Alan; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Farivar, R. Saeid; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Hargrove, W. Clark; Khan, Junaid H.; Lehr, Eric J.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Widespread adoption of minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement may be fostered by practice consensus and standardization. This expert opinion, first of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices in patient evaluation and selection for minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and discusses preoperative planning for cannulation and myocardial protection. PMID:27654407

  16. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  17. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Isabella; Nunn, Charles L.; Barton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Placental invasiveness—the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood—is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness. PMID:26168031

  18. Indirect effects of parasites in invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduced species disrupt native communities and biodiversity worldwide. Parasitic infections (and at times, their absence) are thought to be a key component in the success and impact of biological invasions by plants and animals. They can facilitate or limit invasions, and positively or negatively...

  19. Mitochondrial redox signaling and cancer invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Enns, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The concept that invasive cancer is associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by mitochondria is consistent with an ROS-mediated signaling mechanism. As a tumor grows, it encounters adverse microenvironments, one of which is low oxygen (hypoxia), which selects tumor cells with characteristics of increased invasiveness. Hypoxic environments select for tumor cells with stabilized HIF1 apha, a transcription factor that regulates genes coding for pro-tumor cytokines that signal stromal cells such as macrophages and fibroblasts to support an invasive tumor cell phenotype. HIF1 alpha-mediated switches in the energy production of tumor cells from OXPHOS to glycolysis, as well as age-associated decreases in the metabolic rate of the host, enhance invasive qualities of tumor cells. An increase in environmental oxygen in combination with a mitochondrial targeted catalase mimetic and a metabolism booster may be of interest to investigate as a treatment strategy for invasive cancer. PMID:22886605

  20. Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Arian D; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G; O'Neill, Adam J

    2010-08-01

    Invasive species are regarded as one of the top five drivers of the global extinction crisis. In response, extreme measures have been applied in an attempt to control or eradicate invasives, with little success overall. We tested the idea that state shifts to invasive dominance are symptomatic of losses in ecosystem resilience, due to the suppression of apex predators. This concept was investigated in Australia where the high rate of mammalian extinctions is largely attributed to the destructive influence of invasive species. Intensive pest control is widely applied across the continent, simultaneously eliminating Australia's apex predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). We show that predator management accounts for shifts between two main ecosystem states. Lethal control fractures dingo social structure and leads to bottom-up driven increases in invasive mesopredators and herbivores. Where control is relaxed, dingoes re-establish top-down regulation of ecosystems, allowing for the recovery of biodiversity and productivity.

  1. The hallmarks of CAFs in cancer invasion.

    PubMed

    Attieh, Youmna; Vignjevic, Danijela Matic

    2016-11-01

    The ability of cancer cells to move out of the primary tumor and disseminate through the circulation to form metastases is one of the main contributors to poor patient outcome. The tumor microenvironment provides a niche that supports cancer cell invasion and proliferation. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a highly enriched cell population in the tumor microenvironment that plays an important role in cancer invasion. However, it remains unclear whether CAFs directly stimulate cancer cell invasion or they remodel the extracellular matrix to make it more permissive for invasion. Here we discuss paracrine communication between cancer cells and CAFs that promotes tumor invasion but also stimulates CAFs to remodel the matrix increasing cancer dissemination.

  2. Foam invasion through a single pore.

    PubMed

    Delbos, Aline; Pitois, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    We investigate experimentally the behavior of liquid foams pumped at a given flow rate through a single pore, in the situation where the pore diameter is smaller than the bubble diameter. Results reveal that foam invasion can be observed only within a restricted range of values for the dimensionless flow rate and the foam liquid fraction. Within this foam invasion regime, the liquid content of invading foams is measured to be three times higher than the initial liquid content. Outside this regime, both gas alone and liquid alone invasion regimes can be observed. The gas invasion regime results from the rupture of foam films during local T1, during bubble rearrangements events induced by foam flow, whereas the liquid invasion regime is allowed by the formation of a stable cluster of jammed bubbles at the pore's opening.

  3. Lack of belowground mutualisms hinders Pinaceae invasions.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Martin A; Horton, Thomas R; Simberloff, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Why particular invasions succeed and others fail is not well understood. The role of soil biota has been proposed as important. However, the role of mutualists has received much less attention than that of pathogens. Here we report that lack of adequate ectomycorrhizal fungi hinders invasion by exotic Pinaceae on Isla Victoria, Argentina, by reducing both the probability of establishment and growth of invading individuals. More than one hundred exotic tree species were introduced to this island ca. 80 years ago, but invasive trees are found in high densities only in areas adjacent to plantations. With a series of greenhouse and field experiments we found lower mycorrhizal colonization levels and few fungal species far from original plantings, and key fungal mutualists are confined to areas near plantations, probably owing to dispersal limitations. Low inoculum levels far from the plantations are retarding the invasion. Our experiments indicate that positive interactions belowground can play a key but underappreciated role in invasion dynamics.

  4. 76 FR 36896 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Forestwide Invasive Plant Treatment Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... an aggressive invasive plant management program, the number, density, and distribution of invasive... invasive species laws and policies requires aggressive invasive plant management. This analysis...

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of tree invasions: complementing the unified framework for biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Zenni, Rafael Dudeque; Dickie, Ian A; Wingfield, Michael J; Hirsch, Heidi; Crous, Casparus J; Meyerson, Laura A; Burgess, Treena I; Zimmermann, Thalita G; Klock, Metha M; Siemann, Evan; Erfmeier, Alexandra; Aragon, Roxana; Montti, Lia; Le Roux, Johannes J

    2016-12-30

    Evolutionary processes greatly impact the outcomes of biological invasions. An extensive body of research suggests that invasive populations often undergo phenotypic and ecological divergence from their native sources. Evolution also operates at different and distinct stages during the invasion process. Thus, it is important to incorporate evolutionary change into frameworks of biological invasions because it allows us to conceptualize how these processes may facilitate or hinder invasion success. Here, we review such processes, with an emphasis on tree invasions, and place them in the context of the unified framework for biological invasions. The processes and mechanisms described are pre-introduction evolutionary history, sampling effect, founder effect, genotype-by-environment interactions, admixture, hybridization, polyploidization, rapid evolution, epigenetics, and second-genomes. For the last, we propose that co-evolved symbionts, both beneficial and harmful, which are closely physiologically associated with invasive species, contain critical genetic traits that affect the evolutionary dynamics of biological invasions. By understanding the mechanisms underlying invasion success, researchers will be better equipped to predict, understand, and manage biological invasions.

  6. Invasive plants may promote predator-mediated feedback that inhibits further invasion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of invasive species requires placing invasion within a full community context. Plant invaders are often considered in the context of herbivores that may drive invasion by avoiding invaders while consuming natives (enemy escape), or inhibit invasion by consuming invaders (biotic resistance). However, predators that attack those herbivores are rarely considered as major players in invasion. Invasive plants often promote predators, generally by providing improved habitat. Here, we show that predator-promoting invaders may initiate a negative feedback loop that inhibits invasion. By enabling top-down control of herbivores, predator-promoting invaders lose any advantage gained through enemy escape, indirectly favoring natives. In cases where palatable invaders encounter biotic resistance, predator promotion may allow an invader to persist, but not dominate. Overall, results indicate that placing invaders in a full community context may reveal reduced impacts of invaders compared to expectations based on simple plant–plant or plant–herbivore subsystems. PMID:26120430

  7. Non-invasive (and minimally invasive) diagnosis of oesophageal varices.

    PubMed

    de Franchis, Roberto

    2008-10-01

    Current guidelines recommend screening all cirrhotic patients by endoscopy, to identify patients at risk of bleeding who should undergo prophylactic treatment. However, since the prevalence of varices in cirrhotic patients is variable, universal screening would imply a large number of unnecessary endoscopies and a heavy burden for endoscopy units. In addition, compliance to screening programs may be hampered by the perceived unpleasantness of endoscopy. Predicting the presence of oesophageal varices by non-invasive means might increase compliance and would permit to restrict the performance of endoscopy to those patients with a high probability of having varices. Over the years, several studies have addressed this issue by assessing the potential of biochemical, clinical and ultrasound parameters, transient elastography, CT scanning and video capsule endoscopy. The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio, CT scanning and video capsule endoscopy have shown promising performance characteristics, although none of them is equivalent to EGD. These methods are perceived by patients as preferable to endoscopy and thus might increase adherence to screening programs. Whether this will compensate for the lower sensitivity of these alternative techniques, and ultimately improve the outcomes if more patients undergo screening, is the crucial question that will have to be answered in the future.

  8. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  9. Quantifying levels of biological invasion: towards the objective classification of invaded and invasible ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Catford, Jane A; Vesk, Peter A; Richardson, David M; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions are a global phenomenon that threatens biodiversity, and few, if any, ecosystems are free from alien species. The outcome of human-mediated introductions is affected by the invasiveness of species and invasibility of ecosystems, but research has primarily focused on defining, characterizing and identifying invasive species; ecosystem invasibility has received much less attention. A prerequisite for characterizing invasibility is the ability to compare levels of invasion across ecosystems. In this paper, we aim to identify the best way to quantify the level of invasion by nonnative animals and plants by reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of different metrics. We explore how interpretation and choice of these measures can depend on the objective of a study or management intervention. Based on our review, we recommend two invasion indices and illustrate their use by applying them to two case studies. Relative alien species richness and relative alien species abundance indicate the contribution that alien species make to a community. They are easy to measure, can be applied to various taxa, are independent of scale and are comparable across regions and ecosystems, and historical data are often available. The relationship between relative alien richness and abundance can indicate the presence of dominant alien species and the trajectory of invasion over time, and can highlight ecosystems and sites that are heavily invaded or especially susceptible to invasion. Splitting species into functional groups and examining invasion patterns of transformer species may be particularly instructive for gauging effects of alien invasion on ecosystem structure and function. Establishing standard, transparent ways to define and quantify invasion level will facilitate meaningful comparisons among studies, ecosystem types and regions. It is essential for progress in ecology and will help guide ecosystem restoration and management.

  10. Successful approaches for battling invasive species in developed countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological invasions increasingly threaten natural resources and reduce biological diversity worldwide. To curtail biological invasions, developed countries have adopted multitire approaches that systematically address the process of invasion, encompassing introduction, establishment, spread and nat...

  11. Roles for herpes simplex virus type 1 U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 proteins in disrupting the nuclear lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 egress

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerke, Susan L.; Roller, Richard J. . E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.edu

    2006-04-10

    Cells infected with wild type HSV-1 showed significant lamin A/C and lamin B rearrangement, while U{sub L}34-null virus-infected cells exhibited few changes in lamin localization, indicating that U{sub L}34 is necessary for lamin disruption. During HSV infection, U{sub S}3 limited the development of disruptions in the lamina, since cells infected with a U{sub S}3-null virus developed large perforations in the lamin layer. U{sub S}3 regulation of lamin disruption does not correlate with the induction of apoptosis. Expression of either U{sub L}34 or U{sub S}3 proteins alone disrupted lamin A/C and lamin B localization. Expression of U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 together had little effect on lamin A/C localization, suggesting a regulatory interaction between the two proteins. The data presented in this paper argue for crucial roles for both U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 in regulating the state of the nuclear lamina during viral infection.

  12. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  13. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  14. Invasive predators and global biodiversity loss

    PubMed Central

    Glen, Alistair S.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Ritchie, Euan G.; Dickman, Chris R.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species threaten biodiversity globally, and invasive mammalian predators are particularly damaging, having contributed to considerable species decline and extinction. We provide a global metaanalysis of these impacts and reveal their full extent. Invasive predators are implicated in 87 bird, 45 mammal, and 10 reptile species extinctions—58% of these groups’ contemporary extinctions worldwide. These figures are likely underestimated because 23 critically endangered species that we assessed are classed as “possibly extinct.” Invasive mammalian predators endanger a further 596 species at risk of extinction, with cats, rodents, dogs, and pigs threatening the most species overall. Species most at risk from predators have high evolutionary distinctiveness and inhabit insular environments. Invasive mammalian predators are therefore important drivers of irreversible loss of phylogenetic diversity worldwide. That most impacted species are insular indicates that management of invasive predators on islands should be a global conservation priority. Understanding and mitigating the impact of invasive mammalian predators is essential for reducing the rate of global biodiversity loss. PMID:27638204

  15. Eating the competition speeds up invasions.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard J

    2011-04-23

    Many introduced species engage in intraguild predation (IGP), the consumption of species with which they compete for shared resources. While the factors influencing local persistence of IG predator and prey species are well-understood, using these factors to predict the invasion speed of an introduced IG predator has received less attention. Existing theory predicts that native competitors slow invasions via depletion of shared resources, but this fails to account for additional resources acquired when an invader consumes competitors. Here, I outline a general framework for understanding the effect of IGP on invasion speeds. I find that invaders that consume native competitors may be able to spread where invasion by pure competitors would fail, and that invasion speed increases with increasing levels of IGP. Notably, if the benefit from consuming competitors outweighs the loss of shared resources to competitors, invasion proceeds faster than invasion in the absence of competitors. This may explain empirical observations of rapid spread rates of invaders that feed at multiple trophic levels.

  16. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-05

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.

  17. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    FORT is also the administrative home of the National Institute of Invasive Species Science, a growing consortium of partnerships between government and private organizations established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its many cooperators. The Institute was formed to develop cooperative approaches for invasive species science that meet the urgent needs of land managers and the public. Its mission is to work with others to coordinate data and research from many sources to predict and reduce the effects of harmful nonnative plants, animals, and diseases in natural areas and throughout the United States, with a strategic approach to information management, research, modeling, technical assistance, and outreach. The Institute research team will develop local-, regional-, and national- scale maps of invasive species and identify priority invasive species, vulnerable habitats, and pathways of invasion. County-level and point data on occurrence will be linked to plot-level and site-level information on species abundance and spread. FORT scientists and Institute partners are working to integrate remote sensing data and GIS-based predictive models to track the spread of invasive species across the country. This information will be linked to control and restoration efforts to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. Understanding both successes and failures will advance the science of invasive species containment and control as well as restoration of habitats and native biodiversity.

  18. Stakeholder participation in management of invasive vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ford-Thompson, Adriana E S; Snell, Carolyn; Saunders, Glen; White, Piran C L

    2012-04-01

    Stakeholders are increasingly involved in species conservation. We sought to understand what features of a participatory conservation program are associated with its ecological and social outcomes. We conducted a case study of the management of invasive vertebrates in Australia. Invasive vertebrates are a substantial threat to Australia's native species, and stakeholder participation in their management is often necessary for their control. First, we identified potential influences on the ecological and social outcomes of species conservation programs from the literature. We used this information to devise an interview questionnaire, which we administered to managers of 34 participatory invasive-vertebrate programs. Effects of invasive species were related to program initiator (agency or citizen), reasons for use of a participatory approach, and stakeholder composition. Program initiator was also related to the participation methods used, level of governance (i.e., governed by an agency or citizens), changes in stakeholder interactions, and changes in abundance of invasive species. Ecological and social outcomes were related to changes in abundance of invasive species and stakeholder satisfaction. We identified relations between changes in the number of participants, stakeholder satisfaction, and occurrence of conflict. Potential ways to achieve ecological and social goals include provision of governmental support (e.g., funding) to stakeholders and minimization of gaps in representation of stakeholder groups or individuals to, for example, increase conflict mitigation. Our findings provide guidance for increasing the probability of achieving ecological and social objectives in management of invasive vertebrates and may be applicable to other participatory conservation programs.

  19. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  20. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  1. Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chimera, Charles; Clifford, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. Conclusions/Significance Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the “polluter-pays” principle. PMID:19384412

  2. Dynamics of an experimental microbial invasion

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Francisco; Zamor, Richard M.; Najar, Fares Z.; Roe, Bruce A.; Hambright, K. David

    2015-01-01

    The ecological dynamics underlying species invasions have been a major focus of research in macroorganisms for the last five decades. However, we still know little about the processes behind invasion by unicellular organisms. To expand our knowledge of microbial invasions, we studied the roles of propagule pressure, nutrient supply, and biotic resistance in the invasion success of a freshwater invasive alga, Prymnesium parvum, using microcosms containing natural freshwater microbial assemblages. Microcosms were subjected to a factorial design with two levels of nutrient-induced diversity and three levels of propagule pressure, and incubated for 7 d, during which P. parvum densities and microbial community composition were tracked. Successful invasion occurred in microcosms receiving high propagule pressure whereas nutrients or community diversity played no role in invasion success. Invaded communities experienced distinctive changes in composition compared with communities where the invasion was unsuccessful. Successfully invaded microbial communities had an increased abundance of fungi and ciliates, and decreased abundances of diatoms and cercozoans. Many of these changes mirrored the microbial community changes detected during a natural P. parvum bloom in the source system. This role of propagule pressure is particularly relevant for P. parvum in the reservoir-dominated southern United States because this species can form large, sustained blooms that can generate intense propagule pressures for downstream sites. Human impact and global climate change are currently causing widespread environmental changes in most southern US freshwater systems that may facilitate P. parvum establishment and, when coupled with strong propagule pressure, could put many more systems at risk for invasion. PMID:26324928

  3. Spontaneous extraskeletal osteosarcoma in the duodenum of a Crlj:CD1 (ICR) mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Ryo; Ikezaki, Shinichiro; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Hoshiya, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is a very rare tumor in humans and animals. This paper describes a case of extraskeletal osteosarcoma observed in the duodenum of a male ICR mouse. Grossly, a solid mass pushing up the tunica serosa was observed in the duodenal wall. Histologically, the tumor was located in the lamina propria mucosae and tela mucosa. Neoplastic cells densely proliferated in these areas, and replaced of the normal tissue components. A small amount of osteoid and a small clump of bone tissue were observed in the area of neoplastic cell proliferation, especially in the lamina propria mucosae. Neoplastic cells consisted of atypical polygonal cells and pleomorphic spindle-shaped cells, and the former were predominant. Mitotic figures were occasionally observed. Neither invasion of vessels in the duodenum nor metastasis to distant organs was observed. There were no skeletal tumors in the body. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for anti-osteocalcin, osteonectin, vimentin, and S-100 protein. Judging from these results, the present tumor was diagnosed as extraskeletal osteosarcoma. This is the first report of spontaneous extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising from the duodenum of a mouse. PMID:27821914

  4. Invasion exponents in biological networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Gundlach, Volker Matthias; Ochs, Gunter

    2009-03-01

    This article is concerned with the characterization of invasion exponents in biological networks defined by a population of replicating elements: molecules, cells, higher organisms. We show that the outcome of competition between an invader and a resident population is a stochastic process, determined by the rate at which a population returns to its steady state after a random perturbation in the parameters that characterize the replicating elements. This return rate is defined by the macroscopic parameter evolutionary entropy, a measure of the diversity of the interaction between the individuals in the population. We also show that the evolutionary stability of a population, that is the invulnerability of a resident to the introduction of an invader competing for the available resources, are given by extremal states of entropy. These results which pertain to networks of interacting molecules, cells and higher organisms, are generalizations of results established for demographic networks, that is populations of replicating organisms parametrized by the ages at which they reproduce and die.

  5. Galactomannan antigenemia in invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, E; Lehmann, P F

    1979-01-01

    Galactomannan (GM) extracted from mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus with cold dilute alkali reacted with antiserum specific for an antigen that circulated in invasive aspergillosis in rabbits and humans. The GM was purified by its affinity for concanavalin A and was separated from a nonantigenic glucan by gel permeation on Sephacryl S-200. The GM molecular weight of between 25,000 to 75,000 was smaller than the antigen present in infected rabbit serum which was retained by an ultrafiltration membrane that had a nominal molecular weight limit of 125,000. The ratio of galactose to mannose present in GM was 1:1.17. The serological activity of GM was stable to boiling but labile to 0.01 N HCl, implicating galactofuranose as an antigenic determinant. Analysis of purified GM by methylation-gas chromatography suggested a structure consisting of a 1 leads to 6-linked mannan backbone with oligogalactoside side chains 3 units long, terminating in galactofuranose. The presence of mannose as a side chain component was also inferred. Another antigen of A. fumigatus, which did not bind to concanavalin A, was isolated after tandem chromatography on diethylaminoethyl- and carboxymethyl-Sephadex and was identified as a galactan. The galactan inhibited the immune precipitation of GM was specific antiserum. Images PMID:383620

  6. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    PubMed

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  7. Invasive leaf resources alleviate density dependence in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Zarrabi, Ali A.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between invasive species can have important consequences for the speed and impact of biological invasions. Containers occupied by the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse, may be sensitive to invasive plants whose leaves fall into this larval habitat. To examine the potential for interactions between invasive leaf species and larval A. albopictus, we conducted a field survey of leaf material found with A. albopictus in containers in Palm Beach County, Florida and measured density dependent responses of A. albopictus larvae to two invasive and one native leaf species in laboratory experiments. We found increased diversity of leaf species, particularly invasive species, in areas further from the urbanized coast, and a significant positive association between the presence of Schinus terebinthifolious (Brazilian pepper) and the abundance of A. albopictus. In laboratory experiments, we determined that larval growth and survivorship were significantly affected by both larval density and leaf species which, in turn, resulted in higher population performance on the most abundant invasive species (Brazilian pepper) relative to the most abundant native species, Quercus virginiana (live oak). These results suggest invasive leaf species can alleviate density dependent reductions in population performance in A. albopictus, and may contribute to its invasion success and potential to spread infectious disease. PMID:22523473

  8. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  9. Minimally invasive treatments for venous compression syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hulsberg, Paul C.; McLoney, Eric; Partovi, Sasan; Davidson, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    The management of venous compression syndromes has historically been reliant on surgical treatment when conservative measures fail. There are, however, several settings in which endovascular therapy can play a significant role as an adjunct or even a replacement to more invasive surgical methods. We explore the role of minimally invasive treatment options for three of the most well-studied venous compression syndromes. The clinical aspects and pathophysiology of Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS), nutcracker syndrome, and May-Thurner syndrome are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the role that interventionalists can play in minimally invasive treatment. PMID:28123978

  10. Evolution Arrests Invasions of Cooperative Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, Kirill S.

    2015-11-01

    Population expansions trigger many biomedical and ecological transitions, from tumor growth to invasions of non-native species. Although population spreading often selects for more invasive phenotypes, we show that this outcome is far from inevitable. In cooperative populations, mutations reducing dispersal have a competitive advantage. Such mutations then steadily accumulate at the expansion front, bringing invasion to a halt. Our findings are a rare example of evolution driving the population into an unfavorable state, and they could lead to new strategies to combat unwelcome invaders.

  11. [CD147 expression in non-invasive and invasive breast carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Saki; Sakurai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Hara, Yukiko; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Hirano, Tomohisa; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi

    2014-10-01

    CD147 is a multifunctional membrane glycoprotein involved in tumor invasion, and is overexpressed in many solid tumors. However, the role of CD147 in breast cancer is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate CD147 expression in non-invasive and invasive ductal carcinomas. We recruited 156 breast cancer patients who underwent radical operations at our hospital up until 2002. We performed immunohistochemistry on their tumor specimens, and compared these data with clinicopathological factors. We divided the patients into two groups: group A was comprised of non-invasive ductal carcinomas and group B, invasive ductal carcinomas. The CD147-positive rate was 62.8% for all patients and was higher in group B than group A. In all cases, the CD147-positive rate correlated with clinical stage, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and tumor size. These results implied that CD147 may be involved in the process of breast cancer invasion.

  12. Cell-ECM Interactions in Tumor Invasion.

    PubMed

    He, Xiuxiu; Lee, Byoungkoo; Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The cancer cells obtain their invasion potential not only by genetic mutations, but also by changing their cellular biophysical and biomechanical features and adapting to the surrounding microenvironments. The extracellular matrix, as a crucial component of the tumor microenvironment, provides the mechanical support for the tissue, mediates the cell-microenvironment interactions, and plays a key role in cancer cell invasion. The biomechanics of the extracellular matrix, particularly collagen, have been extensively studied in the biomechanics community. Cell migration has also enjoyed much attention from both the experimental and modeling efforts. However, the detailed mechanistic understanding of tumor cell-ECM interactions, especially during cancer invasion, has been unclear. This chapter reviews the recent advances in the studies of ECM biomechanics, cell migration, and cell-ECM interactions in the context of cancer invasion.

  13. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ..., ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause. The Council is co-chaired by the Secretary... the Pacific Northwest. A ``systems thinking'' approach to this meeting in both ecological...

  14. Will extreme climatic events facilitate biological invasions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme climatic events, such as intense heat waves, hurricanes, floods and droughts, can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and more extreme events are projected with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of these events for biological invasions, which themselves...

  15. Invasive exotics on the Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, K.; Chaney, S.

    1999-01-01

    Contains spatial distributions of 80 invasive taxa from field surveys 1998-1999 on five islands. Linked database includes information such as occurrence density, vigor, phenology, habitat condition, associated species, substrates.

  16. How to manage biological invasions under globalization.

    PubMed

    Perrings, Charles; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Touza, Julia; Williamson, Mark

    2005-05-01

    Protecting national borders against biological invasions is becoming increasingly difficult because those whose actions result in invasions seldom bear legal responsibility for those actions. Invasion costs are often an externality (an unintended side effect) of international trade. Externalities are best dealt with by internalizing them; that is, by getting those who harm society to meet the cost. This is the 'polluter pays principle', which, under current trade rules, is difficult to implement. Tariffs could, however, be used to confront exporters with the costs of their actions, and the right to do this should be embedded in trade agreements. At the same time, international aid could be used to protect donor societies against the inability of some other countries to take appropriate biosecurity measures. The impact of invasions can thus be reduced by tackling their economic externalities.

  17. Invasive Aspergillosis: Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Kevin S; Kauffman, Carol A

    2015-10-01

    Invasive aspergillosis remains an often fatal, difficult-to treat infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients not classically defined as immunocompromised, especially those in an intensive care unit setting, also develop invasive aspergillosis. Clinical clues suggesting angioinvasion and radiographic modalities, especially computed tomographic scans, combined with newer non-culture-based diagnostic techniques, have allowed earlier recognition of invasive aspergillosis. Although mortality remains high, it has greatly decreased over the past 15 years. Voriconazole has supplanted amphotericin B, with its various toxicities, as primary treatment for invasive aspergillosis. Combination therapy with voriconazole and an echinocandin for initial therapy, based on results from a recent controlled clinical trial, could become the standard of care in high-risk patients.

  18. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest . 2012;141(2 ... bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart failure - overview High blood cholesterol ...

  19. Territorial Invasion in the Classroom: Invadee Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Gilda Moss

    1980-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study testing dominance and subordination among the spatially central and peripheral in 14 college classrooms. Differences in the defense of territory, upon invasion, between spatially central and spatially peripheral humans were investigated. (BT)

  20. EBIPM 2013 planner for preventing weed invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a calendar format, this publication is designed for land managers to make management decisions for preventing weed invasions in a timely manner. For each month there are recommendations for wee prevention management actions....

  1. Molecular basis of invasion in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McSherry, E A; Donatello, S; Hopkins, A M; McDonnell, S

    2007-12-01

    Cancer cell invasion involves the breaching of tissue barriers by cancer cells, and the subsequent infiltration of these cells throughout the surrounding tissue. In breast cancer, invasion at the molecular level requires the coordinated efforts of numerous processes within the cancer cell and its surroundings. Accumulation of genetic changes which impair the regulation of cell growth and death is generally accepted to initiate cancer. Loss of cell-adhesion molecules, resulting in a loss in tissue architecture, in parallel with matrix remodelling may also confer a motile or migratory advantage to breast cancer cells. The tumour microenvironment may further influence the behaviour of these cancer cells through expression of cytokines, growth factors, and proteases promoting chemotaxis and invasion. This review will attempt to summarise recent work on these fundamental processes influencing or facilitating breast cancer cell invasion. (Part of a Multi-author Review).

  2. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiv...

  3. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiven...

  4. Microbial invasions: the process, patterns, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Cyrus Alexander; Elsas, Jan Dirk van; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2015-11-01

    There has recently been a surge of literature examining microbial invasions into a variety of environments. These studies often include a component of biological diversity as a major factor determining an invader's fate, yet common results are rarely cross-compared. Since many studies only present a snapshot of the entire invasion process, a bird's eye view is required to piece together the entire continuum, which we find consists of introduction, establishment, spread, and impact phases. We further examine the patterns and mechanisms associated with invasion resistance and create a mechanistic synthesis governed by the species richness, species evenness, and resource availability of resident communities. We conclude by exploring the advantages of using a theoretical invasion framework across different fields.

  5. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Aquatic plant community invasibility and scale-dependent patterns in native and invasive species richness.

    PubMed

    Capers, Robert S; Selsky, Roslyn; Bugbee, Gregory J; White, Jason C

    2007-12-01

    Invasive species richness often is negatively correlated with native species richness at the small spatial scale of sampling plots, but positively correlated in larger areas. The pattern at small scales has been interpreted as evidence that native plants can competitively exclude invasive species. Large-scale patterns have been understood to result from environmental heterogeneity, among other causes. We investigated species richness patterns among submerged and floating-leaved aquatic plants (87 native species and eight invasives) in 103 temperate lakes in Connecticut (northeastern USA) and found neither a consistently negative relationship at small (3-m2) scales, nor a positive relationship at large scales. Native species richness at sampling locations was uncorrelated with invasive species richness in 37 of the 60 lakes where invasive plants occurred; richness was negatively correlated in 16 lakes and positively correlated in seven. No correlation between native and invasive species richness was found at larger spatial scales (whole lakes and counties). Increases in richness with area were uncorrelated with abiotic heterogeneity. Logistic regression showed that the probability of occurrence of five invasive species increased in sampling locations (3 m2, n = 2980 samples) where native plants occurred, indicating that native plant species richness provided no resistance against invasion. However, the probability of three invasive species' occurrence declined as native plant density increased, indicating that density, if not species richness, provided some resistance with these species. Density had no effect on occurrence of three other invasive species. Based on these results, native species may resist invasion at small spatial scales only in communities where density is high (i.e., in communities where competition among individuals contributes to community structure). Most hydrophyte communities, however, appear to be maintained in a nonequilibrial condition by

  7. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  8. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  9. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    PubMed

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to

  10. [DIAGNOSIS OF VASCULAR INVASION BY PANCREATIC TUMORS].

    PubMed

    Dronov, O I; Zemskov, S V; Bakunets, P P

    2016-02-01

    Basing on analysis of own material (84 patients) and data of literature there was established, that vascular invasion by pancreatic tumors constitutes the main obstacle for conduction of the patients' radical treatment. Early diagnosis permits radical resectability of the patients, what constitutes the only one effective method of treatment. In vascular invasion by tumor a surgeon experience and professional preparation determines possibility of the extended operation performance with intervention on affected main vessel, enhancing the treatment radicalism.

  11. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.

  12. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis technique for articular fractures.

    PubMed

    Beale, Brian S; Cole, Grayson

    2012-09-01

    Articular fractures require accurate reduction and rigid stabilization to decrease the chance of osteoarthritis and joint dysfunction. Articular fractures have been traditionally repaired by arthrotomy and internal fixation. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been introduced to treat articular fractures, reducing patient morbidity and improving the accuracy of reduction. A variety of techniques, including distraction, radiographic imaging, and arthroscopy, are used with the minimally invasive osteosynthesis technique of articular fractures to achieve a successful repair and outcome.

  13. Dynamics of cancerous tissue correlates with invasiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Ann-Katrine Vransø; Wullkopf, Lena; Christensen, Amalie; Leijnse, Natascha; Tarp, Jens Magelund; Mathiesen, Joachim; Erler, Janine Terra; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2017-03-01

    Two of the classical hallmarks of cancer are uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasion, which turn the disease into a systemic, life-threatening condition. Although both processes are studied, a clear correlation between cell division and motility of cancer cells has not been described previously. Here, we experimentally characterize the dynamics of invasive and non-invasive breast cancer tissues using human and murine model systems. The intrinsic tissue velocities, as well as the divergence and vorticity around a dividing cell correlate strongly with the invasive potential of the tissue, thus showing a distinct correlation between tissue dynamics and aggressiveness. We formulate a model which treats the tissue as a visco-elastic continuum. This model provides a valid reproduction of the cancerous tissue dynamics, thus, biological signaling is not needed to explain the observed tissue dynamics. The model returns the characteristic force exerted by an invading cell and reveals a strong correlation between force and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, thus pinpointing the importance of mechanics for cancer invasion.

  14. PERSPECTIVE: Physical aspects of cancer invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiot, Caterina; Pugno, Nicola; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2007-12-01

    Invasiveness, one of the hallmarks of tumor progression, represents the tumor's ability to expand into the host tissue by means of several complex biochemical and biomechanical processes. Since certain aspects of the problem present a striking resemblance with well-known physical mechanisms, such as the mechanical insertion of a solid inclusion in an elastic material specimen (G Eaves 1973 The invasive growth of malignant tumours as a purely mechanical process J. Pathol. 109 233; C Guiot, N Pugno and P P Delsanto 2006 Elastomechanical model of tumor invasion Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 233901) or a water drop impinging on a surface (C Guiot, P P Delsanto and T S Deisboeck 2007 Morphological instability and cancer invasion: a 'splashing water drop' analogy Theor. Biol. Med. Model 4 4), we propose here an analogy between these physical processes and a cancer system's invasive branching into the surrounding tissue. Accounting for its solid and viscous properties, we then arrive, as a unifying model, to an analogy with a granular solid. While our model has been explicitly formulated for multicellular tumor spheroids in vitro, it should also contribute to a better understanding of tumor invasion in vivo.

  15. Perspectives on trans-Pacific biological invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2002-01-01

    Trans-Pacific biological invasion is one of the most striking and influential biological phenomena occurring in modern times and the process is still accelerating, and the associated invasives form neo-disjuncts (cf. many well-known paleo-disjuncts) between eastern Asia and North America. To better understand this phenomenon and the related taxa, I address the following questions: 1) what types of species (e.g., life/growth form) have been, or are likely to be, associated with trans-Pacific (eastern Asia, North America) invasions; 2) what has happened or may happen to these species after their remote geographic separation, and 3) what aspects of these species and their native and non-native habitats should be better understood for improved control. To answer these questions, comparisons of the invasive species' characteristics in their native and invaded habitats need to be examined, including: l) genetics, 2) life history/morphology (e.g., plant size, seed size, etc.), 3) ecology (e.g., life/growth forms, pollinators, competitors), 4) distributions (e.g., range size, shape, latitude) in their native (source) and introduced (target) ranges or habitats, and 5) physical factors such as soil, water, and climate. The purpose of these studies is 1) to identify the limiting factors that restrict the distributions of exotic species in native ranges, 2) to understand why invasive species are successful in the introduced ranges, 3) to predict possible future invasions, and, ultimately, 4) to provide information for more efficient and effective management.

  16. Invasive species management and research using GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcombe, Tracy R.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2007-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are powerful tools in the field of invasive species management. GIS can be used to create potential distribution maps for all manner of taxa, including plants, animals, and diseases. GIS also performs well in the early detection and rapid assessment of invasive species. Here, we used GIS applications to investigate species richness and invasion patterns in fish in the United States (US) at the 6-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) level. We also created maps of potential spread of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in the southeastern US at the 8-digit HUC level using regression and environmental envelope techniques. Equipped with this potential map, resource managers can target their field surveys to areas most vulnerable to invasion. Advances in GIS technology, maps, data, and many of these techniques can be found on websites such as the National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org). Such websites provide a forum for data sharing and analysis that is an invaluable service to the invasive species community.

  17. Dynamics of cancerous tissue correlates with invasiveness.

    PubMed

    West, Ann-Katrine Vransø; Wullkopf, Lena; Christensen, Amalie; Leijnse, Natascha; Tarp, Jens Magelund; Mathiesen, Joachim; Erler, Janine Terra; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2017-03-06

    Two of the classical hallmarks of cancer are uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasion, which turn the disease into a systemic, life-threatening condition. Although both processes are studied, a clear correlation between cell division and motility of cancer cells has not been described previously. Here, we experimentally characterize the dynamics of invasive and non-invasive breast cancer tissues using human and murine model systems. The intrinsic tissue velocities, as well as the divergence and vorticity around a dividing cell correlate strongly with the invasive potential of the tissue, thus showing a distinct correlation between tissue dynamics and aggressiveness. We formulate a model which treats the tissue as a visco-elastic continuum. This model provides a valid reproduction of the cancerous tissue dynamics, thus, biological signaling is not needed to explain the observed tissue dynamics. The model returns the characteristic force exerted by an invading cell and reveals a strong correlation between force and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, thus pinpointing the importance of mechanics for cancer invasion.

  18. The evolutionary consequences of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Andrew V; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge of invasion biology is the development of a predictive framework that prevents new invasions. This is inherently difficult because different biological characteristics are important at the different stages of invasion: opportunity/transport, establishment and spread. Here, we draw from recent research on a variety of taxa to examine the evolutionary causes and consequences of biological invasions. The process of introduction may favour species with characteristics that promote success in highly disturbed, human-dominated landscapes, thus exerting novel forms of selection on introduced populations. Moreover, evidence is accumulating that multiple introductions can often be critical to the successful establishment and spread of introduced species, as they may be important sources of genetic variation necessary for adaptation in new environments or may permit the introduction of novel traits. Thus, not only should the introduction of new species be prevented, but substantial effort should also be directed to preventing the secondary introduction of previously established species (and even movement of individuals among introduced populations). Modern molecular techniques can take advantage of genetic changes postintroduction to determine the source of introduced populations and their vectors of spread, and to elucidate the mechanisms of success of some invasive species. Moreover, the growing availability of genomic tools will permit the identification of underlying genetic causes of invasive success.

  19. Dynamics of cancerous tissue correlates with invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    West, Ann-Katrine Vransø; Wullkopf, Lena; Christensen, Amalie; Leijnse, Natascha; Tarp, Jens Magelund; Mathiesen, Joachim; Erler, Janine Terra; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2017-01-01

    Two of the classical hallmarks of cancer are uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasion, which turn the disease into a systemic, life-threatening condition. Although both processes are studied, a clear correlation between cell division and motility of cancer cells has not been described previously. Here, we experimentally characterize the dynamics of invasive and non-invasive breast cancer tissues using human and murine model systems. The intrinsic tissue velocities, as well as the divergence and vorticity around a dividing cell correlate strongly with the invasive potential of the tissue, thus showing a distinct correlation between tissue dynamics and aggressiveness. We formulate a model which treats the tissue as a visco-elastic continuum. This model provides a valid reproduction of the cancerous tissue dynamics, thus, biological signaling is not needed to explain the observed tissue dynamics. The model returns the characteristic force exerted by an invading cell and reveals a strong correlation between force and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, thus pinpointing the importance of mechanics for cancer invasion. PMID:28262796

  20. Invasive Insects Differ from Non-Invasive in Their Thermal Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kenis, Marc; Honěk, Alois; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether two basic thermal requirements for insect development, lower developmental thresholds, i.e. temperatures at which development ceases, and sums of effective temperatures, i.e. numbers of day degrees above the lower developmental thresholds necessary to complete development, differ among insect species that proved to be successful invaders in regions outside their native range and those that did not. Focusing on species traits underlying invasiveness that are related to temperature provides insights into the mechanisms of insect invasions. The screening of thermal requirements thus could improve risk-assessment schemes by incorporating these traits in predictions of potentially invasive insect species. We compared 100 pairs of taxonomically-related species originating from the same continent, one invasive and the other not reported as invasive. Invasive species have higher lower developmental thresholds than those never recorded outside their native ranges. Invasive species also have a lower sum of effective temperatures, though not significantly. However, the differences between invasive and non-invasive species in the two physiological measures were significantly inversely correlated. This result suggests that many species are currently prevented from invading by low temperatures in some parts of the world. Those species that will overcome current climatic constraints in regions outside their native distribution due to climate change could become even more serious future invaders than present-day species, due to their potentially faster development. PMID:26090826

  1. Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management.

    PubMed

    Leger, Elizabeth A; Espeland, Erin K

    2010-03-01

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely to compete with invaders. When population sizes and genetic diversity of native species are large enough, natives may be able to evolve traits that allow them to co-occur with invasive species. Native species may also evolve to become significant competitors with invasive species, and thus affect the fitness of invaders. Invasive species may respond in turn, creating either transient or continuing coevolution between competing species. In addition to demographic factors such as population size and growth rates, a number of factors including gene flow, genetic drift, the number of selection agents, encounter rates, and genetic diversity may affect the ability of native and invasive species to evolve competitive ability against one another. We discuss how these factors may differ between populations of native and invasive plants, and how this might affect their ability to respond to selection. Management actions that maintain genetic diversity in native species while reducing population sizes and genetic diversity in invasive species could promote the ability of natives to evolve improved competitive ability.

  2. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species) and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring. PMID:26882479

  3. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  4. Adaptive invasive species distribution models: A framework for modeling incipient invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Corral, Lucia; Fricke, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of species distribution model(s) (SDM) for approximating, explaining, and predicting changes in species’ geographic locations is increasingly promoted for proactive ecological management. Although frameworks for modeling non-invasive species distributions are relatively well developed, their counterparts for invasive species—which may not be at equilibrium within recipient environments and often exhibit rapid transformations—are lacking. Additionally, adaptive ecological management strategies address the causes and effects of biological invasions and other complex issues in social-ecological systems. We conducted a review of biological invasions, species distribution models, and adaptive practices in ecological management, and developed a framework for adaptive, niche-based, invasive species distribution model (iSDM) development and utilization. This iterative, 10-step framework promotes consistency and transparency in iSDM development, allows for changes in invasive drivers and filters, integrates mechanistic and correlative modeling techniques, balances the avoidance of type 1 and type 2 errors in predictions, encourages the linking of monitoring and management actions, and facilitates incremental improvements in models and management across space, time, and institutional boundaries. These improvements are useful for advancing coordinated invasive species modeling, management and monitoring from local scales to the regional, continental and global scales at which biological invasions occur and harm native ecosystems and economies, as well as for anticipating and responding to biological invasions under continuing global change.

  5. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator.

    PubMed

    Acosta, André L; Giannini, Tereza C; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Saraiva, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species) and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring.

  6. Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Elizabeth A; Espeland, Erin K

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely to compete with invaders. When population sizes and genetic diversity of native species are large enough, natives may be able to evolve traits that allow them to co-occur with invasive species. Native species may also evolve to become significant competitors with invasive species, and thus affect the fitness of invaders. Invasive species may respond in turn, creating either transient or continuing coevolution between competing species. In addition to demographic factors such as population size and growth rates, a number of factors including gene flow, genetic drift, the number of selection agents, encounter rates, and genetic diversity may affect the ability of native and invasive species to evolve competitive ability against one another. We discuss how these factors may differ between populations of native and invasive plants, and how this might affect their ability to respond to selection. Management actions that maintain genetic diversity in native species while reducing population sizes and genetic diversity in invasive species could promote the ability of natives to evolve improved competitive ability. PMID:25567917

  7. Human pathogens utilize host extracellular matrix proteins laminin and collagen for adhesion and invasion of the host.

    PubMed

    Singh, Birendra; Fleury, Christophe; Jalalvand, Farshid; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2012-11-01

    Laminin (Ln) and collagen are multifunctional glycoproteins that play an important role in cellular morphogenesis, cell signalling, tissue repair and cell migration. These proteins are ubiquitously present in tissues as a part of the basement membrane (BM), constitute a protective layer around blood capillaries and are included in the extracellular matrix (ECM). As a component of BMs, both Lns and collagen(s), thus function as major mechanical containment molecules that protect tissues from pathogens. Invasive pathogens breach the basal lamina and degrade ECM proteins of interstitial spaces and connective tissues using various ECM-degrading proteases or surface-bound plasminogen and matrix metalloproteinases recruited from the host. Most pathogens associated with the respiratory, gastrointestinal, or urogenital tracts, as well as with the central nervous system or the skin, have the capacity to bind and degrade Lns and collagen(s) in order to adhere to and invade host tissues. In this review, we focus on the adaptability of various pathogens to utilize these ECM proteins as enhancers for adhesion to host tissues or as a targets for degradation in order to breach the cellular barriers. The major pathogens discussed are Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Yersinia, Treponema, Mycobacterium, Clostridium, Listeria, Porphyromonas and Haemophilus; Candida, Aspergillus, Pneumocystis, Cryptococcus and Coccidioides; Acanthamoeba, Trypanosoma and Trichomonas; retrovirus and papilloma virus.

  8. Cortactin is associated with perineural invasion in the deep invasive front area of laryngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Eliane Papa; Rosa, Fabíola Encinas; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custódio; Villacis, Rolando André Rios; Coudry, Renata de Almeida; Tagliarini, José Vicente; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2011-09-01

    The cortactin gene, mapped at 11q13, has been associated with an aggressive clinical course in many cancers because of its function of invasiveness. This study evaluated CTTN protein and its prognostic value in the deep invasive front and superficial areas of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The transcript expression levels were evaluated in a subset of cases. Overexpression of CTTN cytoplasmatic protein (80% of cases in both the deep invasive front and superficial areas) and transcript (30% of samples) was detected in a significant number of cases. In more than 20% of cases, observation verified membrane immunostaining in the deep invasive front and superficial areas. Perineural invasion was significantly associated with N stage and recurrence (P = .0058 and P = .0037, respectively). Higher protein expression levels were correlated with perineural invasion (P = .004) in deep invasive front cells, suggesting that this area should be considered a prognostic tool in laryngeal carcinomas. Although most cases had moderate to strong CTTN expression on the tumor surface, 2 sets of cases revealed a differential expression pattern in the deep invasive front. A group of cases with absent to weak expression of CTTN in the deep invasive front showed good prognosis parameters, and a second group with moderate to strong expression of CTTN were associated with an unfavorable prognosis, suggesting an association with worse outcome. Taken together, these results suggest that the deep invasive front might be considered a grading system in laryngeal carcinomas and that cortactin is a putative marker of worse outcome in the deep invasive front of laryngeal carcinomas.

  9. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Ruyi; Tang, Jianjun; Yang, Haishui; Hu, Shuijin; Chen, Xin

    2010-08-24

    Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum) while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum) that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  10. Global phylogenetics of Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae), an invasive aphid species: Evidence for multiple invasions into North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Critical to the study of an invasive species is understanding the number and origin of invasions that have occurred, as well as the rate or potential of post-invasion adaptation and geographic range expansion. One virulent, invasive insect species that has caused much damage in the United States is...

  11. Positional and Curvature Difference of Lamina Cribrosa According to the Baseline Intraocular Pressure in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Woo; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the variation of lamina cribrosa (LC) structure based on the baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and healthy individuals using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods A total of 108 eyes with POAG and 61 healthy eyes were recruited. Based on the baseline IOP, the POAG eyes were divided into higher-baseline IOP (HTG; baseline IOP > 21 mmHg, n = 38 eyes) and lower-baseline IOP (NTG; baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg, n = 70 eyes). The anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID), mean LC depth (mLCD), and the LC curvature index (mLCD–ALID) were measured, and compared among the three groups. The regional variation of LC structure was evaluated by vertical-horizontal ALID difference. Results The mLCD and LC curvature index were greatest in HTG eyes (520.3 ± 123.0 and 80.9 ± 30.7 μm), followed by NTG (463.2 ± 110.5 and 64.5 ± 30.7 μm) and healthy eyes (382.9 ± 107.6 and 47.6 ± 25.7 μm, all P < 0.001). However, there were no significant difference in ALID between HTG and NTG eyes. The vertical-horizontal ALID difference was larger in NTG eyes (72.8 ± 56.2 μm) than in HTG (32.7 ± 61.4 μm, P = 0.004) and healthy eyes (25.5 ± 34.8 μm, P < 0.001). Conclusions Lamina cribrosa position and curvature differed in POAG eyes with low and high IOP. This would support the theory that IOP induced biomechanical effects on the optic play a role on glaucoma. PMID:27611970

  12. Two populations of neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing projection neurons in lamina I of the rat spinal cord that differ in AMPA receptor subunit composition and density of excitatory synaptic input

    PubMed Central

    Polgár, E.; Al Ghamdi, K.S.; Todd, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Lamina I of the spinal cord contains many projection neurons that express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). It has been reported that these cells can undergo long-term potentiation (LTP), which may result from insertion of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPArs) containing GluA1 or GluA4 subunits. We therefore investigated synaptic AMPAr expression on these cells with immunocytochemistry following antigen-retrieval. We also examined their density of glutamatergic input (by analysing AMPAr synaptic puncta and contacts from glutamatergic boutons), and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERKs) following noxious stimulation. Our results indicate that there are two populations of NK1r-expressing projection neurons: large GluA4+/GluA1− cells with a high density of glutamatergic input and small GluA1+/GluA4− cells with a much lower input density. Results from pERK experiments suggested that the two groups may not differ in the types of noxious stimulus that activate them. Glutamatergic synapses on distal dendrites of the large cells were significantly longer than those on proximal dendrites, which presumably compensates for the greater attenuation of distally-generated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Both types of cell received contacts from peptidergic primary afferents, however, on the large cells these appeared to constitute over half of the glutamatergic synapses, and were often associated with elongated AMPAr puncta. This suggests that these afferents, which probably contain substance P, provide a powerful, secure synaptic input to large NK1r-expressing projection neurons. These results demonstrate the importance of GluA4-containing AMPArs in nociceptive transmission and raise the possibility that different forms of LTP in lamina I projection neurons may be related to differential expression of GluA1/GluA4. PMID:20303396

  13. Admixture between native and invasive populations may increase invasiveness of Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, Mark; Röckle, Michael; Stift, Marc

    2015-09-22

    Self-fertilization and admixture of genotypes from different populations can have major fitness consequences in native species. However, few studies have addressed their potential roles in invasive species. Here, we used plants of Mimulus guttatus from seven native North American, three invasive Scottish and four invasive New Zealand populations to address this. We created seeds from self-fertilization, within-population outcrossing, between-population outcrossing within the same range, and outcrossing between the native and invasive ranges. A greenhouse experiment showed that native and invasive plants of M. guttatus suffered to similar degrees from inbreeding depression, in terms of asexual reproduction and biomass production. After outcrossing with plants from other populations, M. guttatus benefited from heterosis, in terms of asexual and sexual reproduction, and biomass production, particularly when plants from native and invasive populations were crossed. This suggests that, when novel genotypes of M. guttatus from the native North American range will be introduced to the invasive ranges, subsequent outcrossing with M. guttatus plants that are already there might further boost invasiveness of this species.

  14. In vitro cell migration and invasion assays.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Nina; Walzl, Angelika; Unger, Christine; Rosner, Margit; Krupitza, Georg; Hengstschläger, Markus; Dolznig, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Determining the migratory and invasive capacity of tumor and stromal cells and clarifying the underlying mechanisms is most relevant for novel strategies in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, drug development and treatment. Here we shortly summarize the different modes of cell travelling and review in vitro methods, which can be used to evaluate migration and invasion. We provide a concise summary of established migration/invasion assays described in the literature, list advantages, limitations and drawbacks, give a tabular overview for convenience and depict the basic principles of the assays graphically. In many cases particular research problems and specific cell types do not leave a choice for a broad variety of usable assays. However, for most standard applications using adherent cells, based on our experience we suggest to use exclusion zone assays to evaluate migration/invasion. We substantiate our choice by demonstrating that the advantages outbalance the drawbacks e.g. the simple setup, the easy readout, the kinetic analysis, the evaluation of cell morphology and the feasibility to perform the assay with standard laboratory equipment. Finally, innovative 3D migration and invasion models including heterotypic cell interactions are discussed. These methods recapitulate the in vivo situation most closely. Results obtained with these assays have already shed new light on cancer cell spreading and potentially will uncover unknown mechanisms.

  15. Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis ranges from 5 to 10 cases per 1,000 ICU admissions and represents 5% to 10% of all ICU-acquired infections, with an overall mortality comparable to that of severe sepsis/septic shock. A large majority of them are due to Candida albicans, but the proportion of strains with decreased sensitivity or resistance to fluconazole is increasingly reported. A high proportion of ICU patients become colonized, but only 5% to 30% of them develop an invasive infection. Progressive colonization and major abdominal surgery are common risk factors, but invasive candidiasis is difficult to predict and early diagnosis remains a major challenge. Indeed, blood cultures are positive in a minority of cases and often late in the course of infection. New nonculture-based laboratory techniques may contribute to early diagnosis and management of invasive candidiasis. Both serologic (mannan, antimannan, and betaglucan) and molecular (Candida-specific PCR in blood and serum) have been applied as serial screening procedures in high-risk patients. However, although reasonably sensitive and specific, these techniques are largely investigational and their clinical usefulness remains to be established. Identification of patients susceptible to benefit from empirical antifungal treatment remains challenging, but it is mandatory to avoid antifungal overuse in critically ill patients. Growing evidence suggests that monitoring the dynamic of Candida colonization in surgical patients and prediction rules based on combined risk factors may be used to identify ICU patients at high risk of invasive candidiasis susceptible to benefit from prophylaxis or preemptive antifungal treatment. PMID:21906271

  16. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-07

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance.

  17. Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, M.B.; Wikle, C.K.; Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing. ?? 2006, The International Biometric Society.

  18. Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Wikle, Christopher K.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing.

  19. Biological invasions, climate change and genomics

    PubMed Central

    Chown, Steven L; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Griffin, Philippa C; Oakeshott, John G; Byrne, Margaret; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    The rate of biological invasions is expected to increase as the effects of climate change on biological communities become widespread. Climate change enhances habitat disturbance which facilitates the establishment of invasive species, which in turn provides opportunities for hybridization and introgression. These effects influence local biodiversity that can be tracked through genetic and genomic approaches. Metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches provide a way of monitoring some types of communities under climate change for the appearance of invasives. Introgression and hybridization can be followed by the analysis of entire genomes so that rapidly changing areas of the genome are identified and instances of genetic pollution monitored. Genomic markers enable accurate tracking of invasive species’ geographic origin well beyond what was previously possible. New genomic tools are promoting fresh insights into classic questions about invading organisms under climate change, such as the role of genetic variation, local adaptation and climate pre-adaptation in successful invasions. These tools are providing managers with often more effective means to identify potential threats, improve surveillance and assess impacts on communities. We provide a framework for the application of genomic techniques within a management context and also indicate some important limitations in what can be achieved. PMID:25667601

  20. Tumor invasion as dysregulated cell motility.

    PubMed

    Kassis, J; Lauffenburger, D A; Turner, T; Wells, A

    2001-04-01

    Investigations across a range of disciplines over the past decade have brought the study of cell motility and its role in invasion to an exciting threshold. The biophysical forces proximally involved in generating cell locomotion, as well as the underlying signaling and genomic regulatory processes, are gradually becoming elucidated. We now appreciate the intricacies of the many cellular and extracellular events that modulate cell migration. This has enabled the demonstration of a causal role of cell motility in tumor progression, with various points of 'dysregulation' of motility being responsible for promoting invasion. In this paper, we describe key fundamental principles governing cell motility and branch out to describe the essence of the data that describe these principles. It has become evident that many proposed models may indeed be converging into a tightly-woven tapestry of coordinated events which employ various growth factors and their receptors, adhesion receptors (integrins), downstream molecules, cytoskeletal components, and altered genomic regulation to accomplish cell motility. Tumor invasion occurs in response to dysregulation of many of these modulatory points; specific examples include increased signaling from the EGF receptor and through PLC gamma, altered localization and expression of integrins, changes in actin modifying proteins and increased transcription from specific promoter sites. This diversity of alterations all leading to tumor invasion point to the difficulty of correcting causal events leading to tumor invasion and rather suggest that the underlying common processes required for motility be targeted for therapeutic intervention.

  1. Biological invasions, climate change and genomics.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Griffin, Philippa C; Oakeshott, John G; Byrne, Margaret; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    The rate of biological invasions is expected to increase as the effects of climate change on biological communities become widespread. Climate change enhances habitat disturbance which facilitates the establishment of invasive species, which in turn provides opportunities for hybridization and introgression. These effects influence local biodiversity that can be tracked through genetic and genomic approaches. Metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches provide a way of monitoring some types of communities under climate change for the appearance of invasives. Introgression and hybridization can be followed by the analysis of entire genomes so that rapidly changing areas of the genome are identified and instances of genetic pollution monitored. Genomic markers enable accurate tracking of invasive species' geographic origin well beyond what was previously possible. New genomic tools are promoting fresh insights into classic questions about invading organisms under climate change, such as the role of genetic variation, local adaptation and climate pre-adaptation in successful invasions. These tools are providing managers with often more effective means to identify potential threats, improve surveillance and assess impacts on communities. We provide a framework for the application of genomic techniques within a management context and also indicate some important limitations in what can be achieved.

  2. Eight questions about invasions and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Strayer, David L

    2012-10-01

    I pose eight questions central to understanding how biological invasions affect ecosystems, assess progress towards answering those questions and suggest ways in which progress might be made. The questions concern the frequency with which invasions affect ecosystems; the circumstances under which ecosystem change is most likely; the functions that are most often affected by invaders; the relationships between changes to ecosystems, communities, and populations; the long-term responses of ecosystems to invasions; interactions between biological invasions and other anthropogenic activities and the difficulty of managing undesirable impacts of non-native species. Some questions have been answered satisfactorily, others require more data and thought, and others might benefit from being reformulated or abandoned. Actions that might speed progress include careful development of trait-based approaches; strategic collection and publication of new data, including more frequent publication of negative results; replacement of expert opinion with hard data where needed; careful consideration of whether questions really need to be answered, especially in cases where answers are being provided for managers and policy-makers; explicit attention to and testing of the domains of theories; integrating invasions better into an ecosystem context; and remembering that our predictive ability is limited and will remain so for the foreseeable future.

  3. The difference in miR-21 expression levels between invasive and non-invasive breast cancers emphasizes its role in breast cancer invasion.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Nina; Mandušić, Vesna; Stanojević, Boban; Lukić, Silvana; Todorović, Lidija; Roganović, Jelena; Dimitrijević, Bogomir

    2014-03-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) overexpression is characteristic for various types of tumors, but it is still unknown whether its expression levels differ between invasive and non-invasive breast carcinomas. The main goal of the study was to determine the difference in miR-21 expression among normal tissue, non-invasive, invasive with non-invasive component, and pure invasive breast cancer samples, to explain its potential role and significance in breast cancer invasiveness. The second goal was to propose miR-21 as molecular marker of breast cancer invasiveness and potential target for future anti-miR therapies for the prevention of invasion and metastasis. In order to reveal the role of miR-21 in breast cancer invasiveness, we measured miR-21 expression levels in 44 breast cancer and four normal samples by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR using TaqMan technology. Relative expression levels of miR-21 were significantly higher in invasive than in other groups (P=0.002) and significantly higher in invasive compared with invasive with non-invasive component group in histological (P=0.043) and nuclear grade 2 (P=0.036), estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) (P=0.006), progesterone-receptor-positive (PR+) (P=0.008), ER+PR+ (P=0.007), and proliferation index (Ki-67)≤20% (P=0.036) tumors. Our findings suggest that miR-21 could be independent molecular marker of breast cancer invasiveness and potential target for future anti-miR therapies for the prevention of invasion and metastasis.

  4. [General epidemiology of invasive fungal disease].

    PubMed

    Pemán, Javier; Salavert, Miguel

    2012-02-01

    Invasive mycoses associated with high morbidity and mortality rates are increasing among immunocompromised or severely ill patients. Candida, Cryptococcus, Pneumocystis and Aspergillus are most prevalent agents with varying distribution as regards geography, patient condition and hospital units. The latest multicentre candidaemia survey conducted in Spain, showed C. albicans as the most frequently isolated species followed by C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. krusei in contrast with other European or American studies where C. glabrata was second in rank. Aspergillus spp. is the leading agent causing invasive mycoses among filamentous fungi followed by Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. and zygomycetes. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common agent in invasive aspergillosis (and azole-resistant isolates have been reported) but in the last few years Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus have been isolated with increasing frequency variable with geographical factors, patients' underlying conditions or previous antifungal treatments.

  5. Arthropod invasion disrupts Cycas micronesica seedling recruitment.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Terry, L Irene

    2011-11-01

    We recently described characteristics of reproductive effort for the cycad Cycas micronesica on the island of Guam. The data were serendipitously recorded just prior to the devastating invasion of the armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui. This invasion decimated the cycad population and after six years of infestation no recruitment is occurring among the survivors. We describe various underlying mechanisms that may explain how this homopteran insect has eliminated host recruitment among categories including plant-pollinator mutualism disruptions, direct damage to reproductive structures, population level responses to declining plant health, and failures of seedlings to establish. Our pre-invasion data on reproductive effort will serve as the benchmark for quantifying how this alien pest is endangering the endemic cycad.

  6. Climate change and invasive species: double jeopardy.

    PubMed

    Mainka, Susan A; Howard, Geoffrey W

    2010-06-01

    Two of the key drivers of biodiversity loss today are climate change and invasive species. Climate change is already having a measurable impact on species distributions, reproduction and behavior, and all evidence suggests that things will get worse even if we act tomorrow to mitigate any future increases in greenhouse gas emissions: temperature will increase, precipitation will change, sea level will rise and ocean chemistry will change. At the same time, biological invasions remain an important threat to biodiversity, causing species loss, changes in distribution and habitat degradation. Acting together, the impacts of each of these drivers of change are compounded and interactions between these two threats present even greater challenges to field conservationists as well as policymakers. Similarly, the social and economic impacts of climate change and invasive species, already substantial, will be magnified. Awareness of the links between the two should underpin all biodiversity management planning and policy.

  7. [Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2015-03-01

    Chronic liver diseases represent a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prognosis and management of chronic liver diseases depend on the amount of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy has long remained the gold standard for assessment of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy is an invasive procedure with associated morbidity, it is rarely the cause for mortality, and has a few limitations. During the past two decades, in an attempt to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, non-invasive methods for the evaluation of liver fibrosis have been developed, mainly in the field of viral hepatitis. This review will focus on different methods available for non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis including a biological approach which quantifies serum levels of biomarkers of fibrosis and physical techniques which measure liver stiffness by transient elastography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance based elastography, their accuracy, advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Developing From Fibroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Oğuz Uğur; Soylu, Lütfi; Ercan, Aydan İlkme; Bilezikçi, Banu; Koçak, Savaş

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenomas are the most common benign breast lesions in adolescent and young women. It is most frequently observed in the 3rd decade. Although it is considered benign, evidence of malignant transformation is available. Cancer development may be from ground of fibroadenoma or near breast tissue. A case of a fibroadenoma coexisting with an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast in a 31-year-old female is presented. The patient presented with the chief complaint of having a palpable mass in her right breast for the last 10 years. Mammography revealed a mass with microcalcifications. Core biopsy was performed, and the results indicated an invasive carcinoma. Breast-conserving surgery with sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. The pathological features revealed a fibroadenoma coexisting with an invasive ductal carcinoma. This case suggests that clinicians and radiologists should always pay attention to the associated malignant imaging characteristics whenever a mass was followed up as fibroadenoma.

  9. Invasive aspergillosis in a "healthy" patient.

    PubMed Central

    Ascah, K J; Hyland, R H; Hutcheon, M A; Urbanski, S J; Pruzanski, W; St Louis, E L; Jones, D P; Keystone, E C

    1984-01-01

    A case of invasive aspergillosis complicated by the formation of an aspergilloma is described. The patient, a 48-year-old man, was apparently healthy except for mild alcoholic steatosis of the liver. A review of the literature revealed that 5 of the 14 previously reported cases of invasive aspergillosis in seemingly immunocompetent hosts were associated with liver disease. Immunologic investigation in this case revealed transient cutaneous anergy during the acute illness and normal lymphocyte function. Assessment of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, however, showed abnormalities of phagocytosis as well as impairment of intracellular bactericidal activity. These abnormalities may have contributed to a relative immunodeficiency. Impairment of immune function may play a role in the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis in some apparently healthy patients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6378350

  10. [Minimally invasive operations in vascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Stádler, Petr; Sedivý, Petr; Dvorácek, Libor; Slais, Marek; Vitásek, Petr; El Samman, Khaled; Matous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery provides an attractive alternative compared with conventional surgical approaches and is popular with patients, particularly because of its favourable cosmetic results. Vascular surgery has taken its inspiration from general surgery and, over the past few years, has also been reducing the invasiveness of its operating methods. In addition to traditional laparoscopic techniques, we most frequently encounter the endovascular treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and, most recently, robot-assisted surgery in the area of the abdominal aorta and pelvic arteries. Minimally invasive surgical interventions also have other advantages, including less operative trauma, a reduction in post-operative pain, shorter periods spent in the intensive care unit and overall hospitalization times, an earlier return to normal life and, finally, a reduction in total treatment costs.

  11. Invasion Biology: Specific Problems and Possible Solutions.

    PubMed

    Courchamp, Franck; Fournier, Alice; Bellard, Céline; Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Bonnaud, Elsa; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Russell, James C

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions have been unambiguously shown to be one of the major global causes of biodiversity loss. Despite the magnitude of this threat and recent scientific advances, this field remains a regular target of criticism - from outright deniers of the threat to scientists questioning the utility of the discipline. This unique situation, combining internal strife and an unaware society, greatly hinders the progress of invasion biology. It is crucial to identify the specificities of this discipline that lead to such difficulties. We outline here 24 specificities and problems of this discipline and categorize them into four groups: understanding, alerting, supporting, and implementing the issues associated with invasive alien species, and we offer solutions to tackle these problems and push the field forward.

  12. Projecting rates of spread for invasive species.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Michael G; Parker, Ingrid M

    2004-08-01

    All else being equal, the faster an invading species spreads, the more dangerous its invasion. The projection of spread rate therefore ought to be a central part of the determination of invasion risk. Originally formulated in the 1970s to describe the spatial spread of advantageous alleles, integrodifference equation (IDE) models have since been co-opted by population biologists to describe the spread of populations. More recently, they have been modified to include population structure and environmental variability. We review how IDE models are formulated, how they are parameterized, and how they can be analyzed to project spread rates and the sensitivity of those rates to changes in model parameters. For illustrative purposes, we apply these models to Cytisus scoparius, a large shrub in the legume family that is considered a noxious invasive species in eastern and western North America, Chile, Australia, and New Zealand.

  13. Minimally invasive neurosurgery for cerebrospinal fluid disorders.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Daniel J

    2010-10-01

    This article focuses on minimally invasive approaches used to address disorders of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. The author covers the primary CSF disorders that are amenable to minimally invasive treatment, including aqueductal stenosis, fourth ventricular outlet obstruction (including Chiari malformation), isolated lateral ventricle, isolated fourth ventricle, multiloculated hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, and tumors that block CSF flow. General approaches to evaluating disorders of CSF circulation, including detailed imaging studies, are discussed. Approaches to minimally invasive management of such disorders are described in general, and for each specific entity. For each procedure, indications, surgical technique, and known outcomes are detailed. Specific complications as well as strategies for their avoidance and management are addressed. Lastly, future directions and the need for structured outcome studies are discussed.

  14. Riparian invasive alters stream nitrogen dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineau, M.; Baxter, C.; Marcarelli, A.; Minshall, G.

    2008-12-01

    Invasive species may be most likely to have strong effects on the ecosystem they invade when they contribute a new function such as nitrogen (N) fixation. Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia) is a non-native invasive tree which is rapidly spreading along riparian corridors in the American West. Russian olive is a nitrogen fixing plant due to a symbiotic relationship with Actinomycetes and is invading systems that frequently lack a strong native N fixer. The contribution of reactive N by these invasive riparian plants to soils may also be altering N cycling and processing in the adjacent streams. We measured nutrient limitation via periphyton growth on nutrient diffusing substrates and nitrate uptake using short term nitrate additions in Deep Creek, ID. Measurements were made in three reaches along a Russian olive invasion gradient, with an upstream reference reach that has no Russian olive and two downstream invaded reaches, one with moderate density and one with high density. Periphyton growth in Deep Creek was significantly N limited in the reference reach while the moderately invaded reach showed no significant limitation and the highly invaded reach was significantly P limited. The nitrate uptake velocity (Vf) for both of the invaded reaches was an order of magnitude less than the reference reach, implying that biological demand for nitrate is significantly less in the invaded reaches than the reference. Considering the current extent of Russian olive invasion and its continued rapid spread, possible alteration of N cycling in waterways may have important implications for the management of both this invasive species and management of nutrient pollution in waters of the western U.S.

  15. Molecular ecology of zebra mussel invasions.

    PubMed

    May, Gemma E; Gelembiuk, Gregory W; Panov, Vadim E; Orlova, Marina I; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2006-04-01

    The invasion of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, into North American waters has resulted in profound ecological disturbances and large monetary losses. This study examined the invasion history and patterns of genetic diversity among endemic and invading populations of zebra mussels using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Patterns of haplotype frequency indicate that all invasive populations of zebra mussels from North America and Europe originated from the Ponto-Caspian Sea region. The distribution of haplotypes was consistent with invasive populations arising from the Black Sea drainage, but could not exclude the possibility of an origin from the Caspian Sea drainage. Similar haplotype frequencies among North American populations of D. polymorpha suggest colonization by a single founding population. There was no evidence of invasive populations arising from tectonic lakes in Turkey, while lakes in Greece and Macedonia contained only Dreissena stankovici. Populations in Turkey might be members of a sibling species complex of D. polymorpha. Ponto-Caspian derived populations of D. polymorpha (theta = 0.0011) and Dreissena bugensis (one haplotype) exhibited low levels of genetic diversity at the COI gene, perhaps as a result of repeated population bottlenecks. In contrast, geographically isolated tectonic lake populations exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (theta = 0.0032 to 0.0134). It is possible that the fluctuating environment of the Ponto-Caspian basin facilitated the colonizing habit of invasive populations of D. polymorpha and D. bugensis. Our findings were concordant with the general trend of destructive freshwater invaders in the Great Lakes arising from the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin.

  16. A neurocentric perspective on glioma invasion

    PubMed Central

    Cuddapah, Vishnu Anand; Robel, Stefanie; Watkins, Stacey; Sontheimer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are devastating tumours that frequently kill patients within 1 year of diagnosis. The major obstacle to a cure is diffuse invasion, which enables tumours to escape complete surgical resection and chemo- and radiation therapy. Gliomas use the same tortuous extracellular routes of migration that are travelled by immature neurons and stem cells, frequently using blood vessels as guides. They repurpose ion channels to dynamically adjust their cell volume to accommodate to narrow spaces and breach the blood-brain barrier through disruption of astrocytic endfeet, which envelop blood vessels. The unique biology of glioma invasion provides hitherto unexplored brain-specific therapeutic targets for this devastating disease. PMID:24946761

  17. Asiatic clam invasion: causes and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J.; Graney, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The recent introduction and subsequent invasion of the Asiatic clam has offered a new problem of infestation in power plant intake systems that conventional intermittent chlorination procedures may not resolve. These clam invasions adversely affect intake systems and irrigation works by clogging the systems and causing erosion of pipes. Heated power plant discharges were found to be a source of thermal enrichment for the clams. Methods of temperature control followed by chlorination appear to offer short-term solutions; harvesting of the clams for protein and calcium contents present an additional solution.

  18. Minimally invasive treatments for perforator vein insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M.; Ganguli, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease. PMID:28123979

  19. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring: Invasive versus Non-Invasive Methods—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Raboel, P. H.; Bartek, J.; Andresen, M.; Bellander, B. M.; Romner, B.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been used for decades in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. There are multiple techniques: invasive as well as noninvasive. This paper aims to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the most common and well-known methods as well as assess whether noninvasive techniques (transcranial Doppler, tympanic membrane displacement, optic nerve sheath diameter, CT scan/MRI and fundoscopy) can be used as reliable alternatives to the invasive techniques (ventriculostomy and microtransducers). Ventriculostomy is considered the gold standard in terms of accurate measurement of pressure, although microtransducers generally are just as accurate. Both invasive techniques are associated with a minor risk of complications such as hemorrhage and infection. Furthermore, zero drift is a problem with selected microtransducers. The non-invasive techniques are without the invasive methods' risk of complication, but fail to measure ICP accurately enough to be used as routine alternatives to invasive measurement. We conclude that invasive measurement is currently the only option for accurate measurement of ICP. PMID:22720148

  20. Parasites and invasions: changes in gastrointestinal helminth assemblages in invasive and native rodents in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diagne, Christophe; Ribas, Alexis; Charbonnel, Nathalie; Dalecky, Ambroise; Tatard, Caroline; Gauthier, Philippe; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Fossati-Gaschignard, Odile; Bâ, Khalilou; Kane, Mamadou; Niang, Youssoupha; Diallo, Mamoudou; Sow, Aliou; Piry, Sylvain; Sembène, Mbacké; Brouat, Carine

    2016-12-01

    Understanding why some exotic species become widespread and abundant in their colonised range is a fundamental issue that still needs to be addressed. Among many hypotheses, newly established host populations may benefit from a parasite loss ("enemy release" hypothesis) through impoverishment of their original parasite communities or reduced infection levels. Moreover, the fitness of competing native hosts may be negatively affected by the acquisition of exotic taxa from invaders ("parasite spillover") and/or by an increased transmission risk of native parasites due to their amplification by invaders ("parasite spillback"). We focused on gastrointestinal helminth communities to determine whether these predictions could explain the ongoing invasion success of the commensal house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) and black rat (Rattus rattus), as well as the associated decrease in native Mastomys spp., in Senegal. For both invasive species, our results were consistent with the predictions of the enemy release hypothesis. A decrease in overall gastrointestinal helminth prevalence and infracommunity species richness was observed along the invasion gradients as well as lower specific prevalence/abundance (Aspiculuris tetraptera in Mus musculus domesticus, Hymenolepis diminuta in Rattus rattus) on the invasion fronts. Conversely, we did not find strong evidence of GIH spillover or spillback in invasion fronts, where native and invasive rodents co-occurred. Further experimental research is needed to determine whether and how the loss of gastrointestinal helminths and reduced infection levels along invasion routes may result in any advantageous effects on invader fitness and competitive advantage.

  1. The invasive stoloniferous clonal plant Alternanthera philoxeroides outperforms its co-occurring non-invasive functional counterparts in heterogeneous soil environments – invasion implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong; Hu, Jiangtao; Miao, Linlin; Yu, Dan; Liu, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Environmental heterogeneity is considered to play a defining role in promoting invasion success, and it favours clonal plants. Although clonality has been demonstrated to be correlated with the invasion success of several species of clonal invasive plants in heterogeneous environments, little is known about how the spatial scale of heterogeneity affects their performance. In addition, the factors that distinguish invasive from non-invasive clonal species and that enhance the invasive potential of clonal exotic invaders in heterogeneous environments remain unclear. In this study, we compared several traits of a noxious clonal invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides, with its co-occurring non-invasive functional counterparts, the native congener Alternanthera sessilis, the exotic Myriophyllum aquaticum and the native Jussiaea repens, in three manipulative substrates with different soil distribution patterns. We found that the invasive performance of A. philoxeroides was not enhanced by heterogeneity and that it was generally scale independent. However, A. philoxeroides showed some advantages over the three non-invasives with respect to trait values and phenotypic variation. These advantages may enhance the competitive capacity of A. philoxeroides and thus promote its invasion success in heterogeneous environments. PMID:27897247

  2. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Annie; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Madsen, John; Westbrooks, Randy G.; Fournier, Christine; Mehrhoff, Les; Browne, Michael; Graham, Jim; Sellers, Elizabet