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Sample records for lamina propria invasion

  1. Origin of the Lamina Propria Dendritic Cell Network

    PubMed Central

    Bogunovic, Milena; Ginhoux, Florent; Helft, Julie; Shang, Limin; Hashimoto, Daigo; Greter, Melanie; Liu, Kang; Jakubzick, Claudia; Ingersoll, Molly A.; Leboeuf, Marylene; Stanley, E. Richard; Nussenzweig, Michel; Lira, Sergio A.; Randolph, Gwendalyn; Merad, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    CX3CR1+ and CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) in intestinal lamina propria (LP) play a key role in mucosal immunity. However, the origin and the developmental pathways that regulate their differentiation in the LP remain unclear. Our results reveal that monocytes give rise exclusively to CX3CR1+CD103− LP DCs under the control of M-CSFR and Flt3 ligands. In contrast, common DC progenitors (CDP) and pre-DCs, which give rise to lymphoid organ DCs but not to monocytes, differentiate exclusively into CD103+CX3CR1− LP DCs under the control of Flt3 ligand and GM-CSF. CD103+CX3CR1− DCs but not CX3CR1+CD103− DCs in the LP constitutively express CCR7 and are the first DCs to transport pathogenic Salmonella from the intestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Altogether, these results underline the diverse origin of the LP DC network and identify mucosal DCs that arise from pre-DC as key sentinels of the gut immune system. PMID:19733489

  2. A biphasic theory for the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria in stress relaxation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Czerwonka, Lukasz; Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J

    2008-03-01

    In this study, a biphasic theory is applied to investigate the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria during stress relaxation. The vocal fold lamina propria tissue is described as a biphasic material composed of a solid phase and an interstitial fluid phase. The biphasic theory reveals the interaction between the solid and the fluid. For the one-dimensional case, the analytical solutions of solid displacement, fluid velocity, and stress are derived. The biphasic theory predicts the stress relaxation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The quasilinear viscoelastic model as well as its higher-order elastic parameters can be derived from this biphasic theory. Furthermore, the fluid is found to support the majority of the stress at the early stage of stress relaxation; however, when the time becomes sufficiently large, the solid eventually bears all the stress. The early fluid stress support is much higher than the eventual solid support and may be important for understanding the effects of dehydration on tissue damage. By considering the solid-fluid structure of the vocal fold lamina propria, the biphasic theory allows for a more physical theory of tissue viscoelasticity than a single phase solid description and may provide a valuable physical mechanism for the observed vocal fold rheologic behaviors.

  3. Modeling of the transient responses of the vocal fold lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W

    2009-01-01

    The human voice is produced by flow-induced self-sustained oscillation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The mechanical properties of vocal fold tissues are important for understanding phonation, including the time-dependent and transient changes in fundamental frequency (F(0)). Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on a group of specimens of the vocal fold lamina propria, including the superficial layer (vocal fold cover) (5 male, 5 female) and the deeper layers (vocal ligament) (6 male, 6 female). Results showed that the vocal fold lamina propria, like many other soft tissues, exhibits both elastic and viscous behavior. Specifically, the transient mechanical responses of cyclic stress relaxation and creep were observed. A three-network constitutive model composed of a hyperelastic equilibrium network in parallel with two viscoplastic time-dependent networks proves effective in characterizing the cyclic stress relaxation and creep behavior. For male vocal folds at a stretch of 1.4, significantly higher peak stress was found in the vocal ligament than in the vocal fold cover. Also, the male vocal ligament was significantly stiffer than the female vocal ligament. Our findings may help explain the mechanisms of some widely observed transient phenomena in F(0) regulation during phonation, such as the global declination in F(0) during the production of declarative sentences, and local F(0) changes such as overshoot and undershoot.

  4. Spontaneous secretion of interferon γ and interleukin 4 by human intraepithelial and lamina propria gut lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Carol, M; Lambrechts, A; Van Gossum, A; Libin, M; Goldman, M; Mascart-Lemone, F

    1998-01-01

    Background—Cytokines secreted by intestinal T lymphocytes probably play a critical role in regulation of the gut associated immune responses. 
Aims—To quantify interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) secreting cells (SC) among human intraepithelial (IEL) and lamina propria (LPL) lymphocytes from the duodenum and right colon in non-pathological situations and in the absence of in vitro stimulation. 
Patients—Duodenal and right colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with no inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. 
Methods—Intraepithelial and lamina propria cell suspensions were assayed for numbers of cells spontaneously secreting IFN-γ and IL-4 by a two site reverse enzyme linked immunospot technique (ELISPOT). 
Results—The relatively high proportion of duodenal lymphocytes spontaneously secreting IFN-γ (IEL 3.6%; LPL 1.9%) and IL-4 (IEL 1.3%; LPL 0.7%) contrasted with the very low numbers of spontaneously IFN-γ SC and the absence of spontaneously IL-4 SC among peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In the basal state, both IFN-γ and IL-4 were mainly produced by CD4+ cells. Within the colon, only 0.2% of IEL and LPL secreted IFN-γ in the basal state, and 0.1% secreted IL-4. 
Conclusions—Compared with peripheral lymphocytes substantial proportions of intestinal epithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes spontaneously secrete IFN-γ and/or IL-4. These cytokines are probably involved in the normal homoeostasis of the human intestinal mucosa. Disturbances in their secretion could play a role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases. 

 Keywords: intestinal lymphocytes; ELISPOT; interferon γ; interleukin 4 PMID:9659157

  5. A rabbit vocal fold laser scarring model for testing lamina propria tissue engineering therapies

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Ted; Du, Mindy; Xu, Chet C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To develop a vocal fold scarring model using an ablative laser in the rabbit as a platform for testing bioengineered therapies for missing or damaged lamina propria. Study Design Prospective controlled animal study. Methods An optimal laser energy level was first determined by assessing the depths of vocal fold injury created by a Holmium:YAG laser at various energy levels on fresh cadaveric rabbit larynges. The selected energy level was then used to create controlled unilateral injuries in vocal folds of New Zealand white rabbits, with the contralateral folds serving as uninjured controls. After 4 weeks, the larynges were harvested and subjected to excised-larynx phonation with high-speed imaging and immunohistochemical staining for collagen types I and III, elastin, and hyaluronic acid (HA) with quantitative histological analysis. Results 1.8 joules produced full-thickness injury of the lamina propria without extensive muscle injury. After 4 weeks, the injured vocal folds vibrated with reduced amplitude (P = 0.036) in excised-larynx phonation compared to normal vocal folds. The injured vocal folds contained a higher relative density of collagen type I (P = 0.004), higher elastin (P = 0.022), and lower HA (P = 0.030) compared to normal controls. Collagen type III was unchanged. Conclusions With its potential for higher precision of injury, this laser vocal fold scarring model may serve as an alternative to scarring produced by cold instruments for studying the effects of vocal fold lamina propria bioengineered therapies. Level of Evidence N/A. PMID:24715695

  6. An optimized protocol for isolating lymphoid stromal cells from the intestinal lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Stzepourginski, Igor; Eberl, Gérard; Peduto, Lucie

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells in lymphoid organs, also called lymphoid stromal cells (LSCs), play a pivotal role in immunity by forming specialized microenvironments that provide signals for leukocyte migration, positioning, and survival. Best characterized in lymphoid organs, LSCs are also abundant in the intestinal mucosa, which harbors a rich repertoire of immune cells. However, the lack of efficient procedures for isolation and purification of LSCs from the intestine has been a major limitation to their characterization. Here we report a new method to efficiently isolate, in addition to immune cells, viable lymphoid stromal cells and other stromal subsets from the intestinal lamina propria for subsequent phenotypic and functional analysis.

  7. Synergy Between Intraepithelial Lymphocytes and Lamina Propria T Cells Drives Intestinal Inflammation During Infection

    PubMed Central

    Egan, C. E.; Maurer, K. J.; Cohen, S. B.; Mack, M.; Simpson, K. W.; Denkers, E. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Oral infection of C57BL/6 mice with Toxoplasma gondii triggers severe necrosis in the ileum within 7–10 days of infection. Lesion development is mediated by Th-1 cytokines, CD4+ T cells, and sub-epithelial bacterial translocation. As such, these features share similarity to Crohn’s disease. Recently, we uncovered a role for intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in mediating pathology after Toxoplasma infection. We show here that αβ and not γδ T cell IELs mediate intestinal damage. By adoptive transfer of mucosal T cells into naive Rag1−/− mice, we demonstrate that IEL do not function alone to cause inflammatory lesions, but act with CD4+ T lymphocytes from the lamina propria. Furthermore, recipient mice pretreated with broad-spectrum antibiotics to eliminate intestinal flora resisted intestinal disease after transfer of IEL and lamina propria lymphocytes. Our data provide valuable new insight into mechanisms of intestinal inflammation, findings that have important implications for understanding human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21796113

  8. Telocytes in gastric lamina propria of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Shengwei; Yu, Pengcheng; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Zuohong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to identify gastric telocytes (TCs) of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Toluidine blue staining showed TCs with one to two very thin and long telopodes (Tps) that were located in gastric lamina propria. Tps had characteristic structures, including podoms, podomers and dichotomous branching. Immunohistochemistry showed the existence of CD34+/PDGFRα+ TCs with moniliform Tps in stroma and were close to gastric glands and blood vessels. TEM micrographs also demonstrated the presence of TCs in interstitium between gastric glands. TCs/Tps were located in close proximity to gastric glands, blood vessels, endocrine cells and stem cells. In particular, Tps frequently surrounded stem cells. TCs and Tps, Tps and stem cells established close contacts. Moreover, the exosomes were also found near TCs/Tps. Our data confirmed the presence of TCs in gastric lamina propria of the amphibian, and suggested that TCs cooperate with resident stem cells to regulate endocrine cells and gastric glands regeneration and homeostasis. PMID:27629815

  9. Telocytes in gastric lamina propria of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Shengwei; Yu, Pengcheng; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Zuohong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to identify gastric telocytes (TCs) of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Toluidine blue staining showed TCs with one to two very thin and long telopodes (Tps) that were located in gastric lamina propria. Tps had characteristic structures, including podoms, podomers and dichotomous branching. Immunohistochemistry showed the existence of CD34(+)/PDGFRα(+) TCs with moniliform Tps in stroma and were close to gastric glands and blood vessels. TEM micrographs also demonstrated the presence of TCs in interstitium between gastric glands. TCs/Tps were located in close proximity to gastric glands, blood vessels, endocrine cells and stem cells. In particular, Tps frequently surrounded stem cells. TCs and Tps, Tps and stem cells established close contacts. Moreover, the exosomes were also found near TCs/Tps. Our data confirmed the presence of TCs in gastric lamina propria of the amphibian, and suggested that TCs cooperate with resident stem cells to regulate endocrine cells and gastric glands regeneration and homeostasis. PMID:27629815

  10. Microbiota Controls the Homeostasis of Glial Cells in the Gut Lamina Propria

    PubMed Central

    Kabouridis, Panagiotis S.; Lasrado, Reena; McCallum, Sarah; Chng, Song Hui; Snippert, Hugo J.; Clevers, Hans; Pettersson, Sven; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Summary The intrinsic neural networks of the gastrointestinal tract are derived from dedicated neural crest progenitors that colonize the gut during embryogenesis and give rise to enteric neurons and glia. Here, we study how an essential subpopulation of enteric glial cells (EGCs) residing within the intestinal mucosa is integrated into the dynamic microenvironment of the alimentary tract. We find that under normal conditions colonization of the lamina propria by glial cells commences during early postnatal stages but reaches steady-state levels after weaning. By employing genetic lineage tracing, we provide evidence that in adult mice the network of mucosal EGCs is continuously renewed by incoming glial cells originating in the plexi of the gut wall. Finally, we demonstrate that both the initial colonization and homeostasis of glial cells in the intestinal mucosa are regulated by the indigenous gut microbiota. PMID:25578362

  11. Empirical measurements of biomechanical anisotropy of the human vocal fold lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Jordan E; Siegmund, Thomas; Du, Mindy; Naseri, Elhum; Chan, Roger W

    2013-06-01

    The vocal folds are known to be mechanically anisotropic due to the microstructural arrangement of fibrous proteins such as collagen and elastin in the lamina propria. Even though this has been known for many years, the biomechanical anisotropic properties have rarely been experimentally studied. We propose that an indentation procedure can be used with uniaxial tension in order to obtain an estimate of the biomechanical anisotropy within a single specimen. Experiments were performed on the lamina propria of three male and three female human vocal folds dissected from excised larynges. Two experiments were conducted: each specimen was subjected to cyclic uniaxial tensile loading in the longitudinal (i.e., anterior-posterior) direction, and then to cyclic indentation loading in the transverse (i.e., medial-lateral) direction. The indentation experiment was modeled as contact on a transversely isotropic half-space using the Barnett-Lothe tensors. The longitudinal elastic modulus E(L) was computed from the tensile test, and the transverse elastic modulus E(T) and longitudinal shear modulus G(L) were obtained by inverse analysis of the indentation force-displacement response. It was discovered that the average of E(L) /E(T) was 14 for the vocal ligament and 39 for the vocal fold cover specimens. Also, the average of E(L)/G(L), a parameter important for models of phonation, was 28 for the vocal ligament and 54 for the vocal fold cover specimens. These measurements of anisotropy could contribute to more accurate models of fundamental frequency regulation and provide potentially better insights into the mechanics of vocal fold vibration.

  12. The Neonatal Development of Intraepithelial and Lamina Propria Lymphocytes in the Murine Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Buurman, Wim A.; Forget, Pierre-Philippe

    1997-01-01

    During early neonatal life, important changes occur in the gut. The intestine is challenged by both milk and a microbial flora. Later on, at weaning, the diet of mice changes from milk to pelleted food leading to changes in microbial contents. This period seems essential for a complete development of the mucosal immune system. We investigated the development of both intraepithelial (IEL) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), from day 5, and every 5 days, up to day 30 after birth. IEL and LPL were isolated from the small intestine and the phenotype was assessed by FACS analyses, using antibodies for detection of T-cell markers CD3, TCRαβ, TCRγδ, CD4, CD8α, CD8β, CD5, CD18, CD54, and CD49d. Our data show a clear increase in the number of LPL just before weaning, while the number of IEL increased after day 15. A more mature pattern of membrane antigen expression of both IEL and LPL was observed at weaning. The adhesion molecules CD18, CD54, and CD49d, essential for cellular communication of lymphocytes, showed an expression peak at weaning. In conclusion, the mouse mucosal immune system develops during the first 3 weeks of neonatal life leading to the formation of a more mature immune system at weaning. PMID:9587712

  13. TLR5 mediates CD172α+ intestinal lamina propria dendritic cell induction of Th17 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Chen, Feidi; Wu, Wei; Cao, Anthony T; Xue, Xiaochang; Yao, Suxia; Evans-Marin, Heather L; Li, Yan-Qing; Cong, Yingzi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms exist in regulation of host responses to massive challenges from microbiota to maintain immune homeostasis in the intestines. Among these is the enriched Th17 cells in the intestines, which regulates intestinal homeostasis through induction of antimicrobial peptides and secretory IgA among others. However, the means by which Th17 cells develop in response to microbiota is still not completely understood. Although both TLR5 and CD172α+ lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDC) have been shown to promote Th17 cell development, it is still unclear whether TLR5 mediates the CD172α+LPDC induction of Th17 cells. By using a microbiota antigen-specific T cell reporter mouse system, we demonstrated that microbiota antigen-specific T cells developed into Th17 cells in the intestinal LP, but not in the spleen when transferred into TCRβxδ−/− mice. LPDCs expressed high levels of TLR5, and most CD172α+LPDCs also co-expressed TLR5. LPDCs produced high levels of IL-23, IL-6 and TGFβ when stimulated with commensal flagellin and promoted Th17 cell development when cultured with full-length CBir1 flagellin but not CBir1 peptide. Wild-type CD172α+, but not CD172α−, LPDCs induced Th17 cells, whereas TLR5-deficient LPDC did not induce Th17 cells. Our data thereby demonstrated that TLR5 mediates CD172α+LPDC induction of Th17 cells in the intestines. PMID:26907705

  14. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 modulates immune inflammatory responses in the enteric lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Andrade, Norman; Lamana, Amalia; Sancho, David; Gisbert, Javier P; Gonzalez-Amaro, Roberto; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; Urzainqui, Ana

    2011-06-01

    P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a leukocyte adhesion receptor that interacts with selectins, induces a tolerogenic programme in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which in turn promotes the generation of T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes. In the present study, we have used a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and studied the characteristics of the inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria (LP), mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and Peyer's patches (PPs) to assess the possible role of PSGL-1 in the modulation of the enteric immune response. We have found that untreated PSGL-1-deficient mice showed an altered proportion of innate and adaptive immune cells in mLNs and PPs as well as an activated phenotype of macrophages and DCs in the colonic LP that mainly produced pro-inflammatory cytokines. Administration of an anti-PSGL-1 antibody also reduced the total numbers of macrophages, DCs and B cells in the colonic LP, and induced a lower expression of MHC-II by DCs and macrophages. After DSS treatment, PSGL-1(-/-) mice developed colitis earlier and with higher severity than wild-type (WT) mice. Accordingly, the colonic LP of these animals showed an enhanced number of Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes, with enhanced synthesis of IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-22, and increased activation of LP macrophages. Together, our data indicate that PSGL-1 has a relevant homeostatic role in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue under steady-state conditions, and that this adhesion receptor is able to down-regulate the inflammatory phenomenon in DSS-induced colitis.

  15. Microbial colonization influences early B-lineage development in the gut lamina propria

    PubMed Central

    Wesemann, Duane R.; Portuguese, Andrew J.; Meyers, Robin M.; Gallagher, Michael P.; Cluff-Jones, Kendra; Magee, Jennifer M.; Panchakshari, Rohit A.; Rodig, Scott J.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Alt, Frederick W.

    2013-01-01

    The RAG1/RAG2 endonuclease ("RAG") initiates the V(D)J recombination reaction that assembles Ig heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chain variable region exons from germline gene segments to generate primary antibody repertoires1. IgH V(D)J assembly occurs in progenitor (pro-) B cells followed by that of IgL in precursor (pre-) B cells. Expression of IgH μ and IgL (Igκ or Igλ) chains generates IgM, which is expressed on immature B cells as the B cell antigen-binding receptor ("BCR"). Rag expression can continue in immature B cells2, allowing continued Igκ V(D)J recombination that replaces the initial VκJκ exon with one that generates a new specificity3–5. This “receptor editing” process, which also can lead to Igλ V(D)J recombination and expression3,6,7, provides a mechanism whereby antigen-encounter at the Rag-expressing immature B cell stage helps shape pre-immune BCR repertoires. As the major site of post-natal B cell development, the bone marrow is the principal location of primary Ig repertoire diversification in mice. Here, we report that early B cell development also occurs within the mouse intestinal lamina propria (LP), where the associated V(D)J recombination/receptor editing processes modulate primary LP Ig repertoires. At weanling age in normally housed mice, the LP contains a population of Rag-expressing B lineage cells that harbor intermediates indicative of ongoing V(D)J recombination and which contain cells with pro-B, pre-B, and editing phenotypes. Consistent with LP-specific receptor editing, Rag-expressing LP B-lineage cells have similar VH repertoires, but significantly different Vκ repertoires, compared to those of Rag2-expressing BM counterparts. Moreover, colonization of germ-free mice leads to an increased ratio of Igλ-expressing versus Igκ-expressing B cells specifically in the LP. We conclude that B cell development occurs in the intestinal mucosa, where it is regulated by extra-cellular signals from commensal microbes that

  16. Microbial colonization influences early B-lineage development in the gut lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Wesemann, Duane R; Portuguese, Andrew J; Meyers, Robin M; Gallagher, Michael P; Cluff-Jones, Kendra; Magee, Jennifer M; Panchakshari, Rohit A; Rodig, Scott J; Kepler, Thomas B; Alt, Frederick W

    2013-09-01

    The RAG1/RAG2 endonuclease (RAG) initiates the V(D)J recombination reaction that assembles immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chain variable region exons from germline gene segments to generate primary antibody repertoires. IgH V(D)J assembly occurs in progenitor (pro-) B cells followed by that of IgL in precursor (pre-) B cells. Expression of IgH μ and IgL (Igκ or Igλ) chains generates IgM, which is expressed on immature B cells as the B-cell antigen-binding receptor (BCR). Rag expression can continue in immature B cells, allowing continued Igκ V(D)J recombination that replaces the initial VκJκ exon with one that generates a new specificity. This 'receptor editing' process, which can also lead to Igλ V(D)J recombination and expression, provides a mechanism whereby antigen encounter at the Rag-expressing immature B-cell stage helps shape pre-immune BCR repertoires. As the major site of postnatal B-cell development, the bone marrow is the principal location of primary immunoglobulin repertoire diversification in mice. Here we report that early B-cell development also occurs within the mouse intestinal lamina propria (LP), where the associated V(D)J recombination/receptor editing processes modulate primary LP immunoglobulin repertoires. At weanling age in normally housed mice, the LP contains a population of Rag-expressing B-lineage cells that harbour intermediates indicative of ongoing V(D)J recombination and which contain cells with pro-B, pre-B and editing phenotypes. Consistent with LP-specific receptor editing, Rag-expressing LP B-lineage cells have similar VH repertoires, but significantly different Vκ repertoires, compared to those of Rag2-expressing bone marrow counterparts. Moreover, colonization of germ-free mice leads to an increased ratio of Igλ-expressing versus Igκ-expressing B cells specifically in the LP. We conclude that B-cell development occurs in the intestinal mucosa, where it is regulated by extracellular signals from commensal

  17. How to measure the increase in elastic system fibres in the lamina propria of the uterine cervix of pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Battlehner, C N; Caldini, E G; Pereira, J C R; Luque, E H; Montes, G S

    2003-01-01

    As the uterus enlarges to accommodate the growing fetus during pregnancy, the cervix behaves essentially as a barrier. During ripening and delivery, it needs to become soft and distensible to allow dilation and the passage of the conceptus. As the transformations of the collagen-containing fibres are known to be essential for ripening and delivery, it has been hypothesized that the elastic system fibres, owing to their intrinsic mechanical properties (reversible extensibility), could be involved in the shape-recovering process immediately after delivery. In sections stained by Weigert's resorcin–fuchsin (with previous oxidation), we describe the elastic system fibres in the lamina propria of the rat uterine cervix. They are distributed following different patterns when in the endocervix or in the ectocervical–vaginal region. A third distinctive pattern (named the ‘elastic tendon’) is described here for the first time in the uterine–cervical transition. A special morphometrical protocol has been designed in order to overcome problems during the quantification process. Using the so-called intercept counting method, it was possible to demonstrate that the elastic system fibres are increased in the cervix at the end of pregnancy. They may be involved in the immediate shape-recovering of the cervix after delivery as well as in helping to strengthen the anchoring of the epithelium to the lamina propria, thus minimizing birth trauma. PMID:14620380

  18. [CELLULAR COMPOSITION OF THE LAMINA PROPRIA OF JEJUNAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE IN C57BL/6 MICE DURING THE RECOVERY PERIOD AFTER PROLONGED SPACE FLIGHT].

    PubMed

    Aminova, G G

    2015-01-01

    The jejunum of C57 BL/6 mice (n = 5) was examined 7 days after a 30-day-long space flight and in vivarium control animals (n = 6). The cellular composition of the lamina propria of the mucous membranes of the villi and crypt region was studied using histological and morphometric methods. It was found that on Day 7 the recovery of normal cellular composition of the lamina propria was incomplete. In the villi, the number of medium and small lymphocytes, as well as of the plasma cells was reduced. In the crypt region, the changes were less pronounced. In the lamina propria in experimental animals the number of large lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, disintegrating cells and stromal cells was increased. The number of eosinophils was reduced.

  19. Aberrant activation of nuclear factor of activated T cell 2 in lamina propria mononuclear cells in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Tsung-Chieh; Hsieh, Sen-Yung; Hsieh, Yi-Yueh; Chen, Tse-Chin; Yeh, Chien-Yu; Lin, Chun-Jung; Lin, Deng-Yn; Chiu, Cheng-Tang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of nuclear factor of activated T cell 2 (NFAT2), the major NFAT protein in peripheral T cells, in sustained T cell activation and intractable inflammation in human ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: We used two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis, immunohistochemistry, double immunohistochemical staining, and confocal microscopy to inspect the expression of NFAT2 in 107, 15, 48 and 5 cases of UC, Crohn’s disease (CD), non-specific colitis, and 5 healthy individuals, respectively. RESULTS: Up-regulation with profound nucleo-translocation/activation of NFAT2 of lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) of colonic mucosa was found specifically in the affected colonic mucosa from patients with UC, as compared to CD or NC (P < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Nucleo-translocation/activation of NFAT2 primarily occurred in CD8+T, but was less prominent in CD4+ T cells or CD20+B cells. It was strongly associated with the disease activity, including endoscopic stage (τ = 0.2145, P = 0.0281) and histologic grade (τ = 0.4167, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We disclose for the first time the nucleo-translocation/activatin of NFAT2 in lamina propria mononuclear cells in ulcerative colitis. Activation of NFAT2 was specific for ulcerative colitis and highly associated with disease activity. Since activation of NFAT2 is implicated in an auto-regulatory positive feedback loop of sustained T-cell activation and NFAT proteins play key roles in the calcium/calcineurin signaling pathways, our results not only provide new insights into the mechanism for sustained intractable inflammation, but also suggest the calcium-calcineurin/NFAT pathway as a new therapeutic target for ulcerative colitis. PMID:18350607

  20. Total parenteral nutrition-associated lamina propria inflammation in mice is mediated by a MyD88 dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Feng, Yongjia; Poroyko, Valeriy; Falkowski, Nicole R.; Erb-Downward, John; Gillilland, Merritt G.; Mason, Katie L.; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Enteral nutrient-deprivation, via total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration leads to local mucosal inflammatory responses, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Methods Wild-type (WT) and MyD88-/- mice underwent jugular vein cannulation. One group received TPN without chow and controls received standard chow. After 7days, we harvested intestinal mucosally-associated bacteria, and isolated small-bowel lamina propria (LP) cells. Bacterial populations were analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing. LP cells were analyzed using quantitative PCR and multi-color flow cytometry. Results WT, control mucosally-associated microbiota were Firmicutes-dominant while WT TPN mice were Proteobacteria-domiant. Similar changes were observed in MyD88-/- mice with TPN administration. Unifrac analysis showed divergent small bowel and colonic bacterial communities in controls, merging towards similar microbiota (but distinct from controls) with TPN. The percentage of LP T-regulatory cells significantly decreased with TPN in WT mice. F4/80+CD11b+CD11cdull-neg macrophage derived pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly increased with TPN. These pro-inflammatory immunologic changes were significantly abrogated in MyD88-/- TPN mice. Conclusions TPN administration is associated with significant expansion of Proteobacteria within the intestinal microbiota and increased pro-inflammatory LP cytokines. MyD88 signaling blockade abrogated this pro-inflammatory response. PMID:23667106

  1. Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the murine lamina propria requires retinoic acid-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Patrycja; Ferstl, Ruth; Ziegler, Mario; Frei, Remo; Nehrbass, Dirk; Lauener, Roger P; Akdis, Cezmi A; O'Mahony, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103(+) dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis) feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+)retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH)(+) dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP). Foxp3(+) lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral) treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103(+)RALDH(+) dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3(+) lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH(+) dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH(+) dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103(+)RALDH(+) LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation.

  2. Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the Murine Lamina Propria Requires Retinoic Acid-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Konieczna, Patrycja; Ferstl, Ruth; Ziegler, Mario; Frei, Remo; Nehrbass, Dirk; Lauener, Roger P.; Akdis, Cezmi A.; O'Mahony, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103+ dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis) feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103+retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH)+ dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP). Foxp3+ lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral) treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103+RALDH+ dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3+ lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH+ dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH+ dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103+RALDH+ LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation. PMID:23704880

  3. IL-33 Aggravates DSS-Induced Acute Colitis in Mouse Colon Lamina Propria by Enhancing Th2 Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junfeng; Yang, Fangli; Sang, Lixuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yue, Dan; Li, Shengjun; Li, Yan; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is an important modulator of the immune system associated with several immune-mediated diseases. IL-33 was expressed in high level on epithelial cells of intestinal tract. It suggested that IL-33 plays a potential role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We investigated the role of interleukin- (IL-) 33 in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced acute colitis in mice using recombinant mouse IL-33 protein (rIL-33). We found that DSS-induced acute colitis was aggravated by rIL-33 treatment. rIL-33-treated DSS mice showed markedly reduced levels of interferon- (IFN-)γ and IL-17A in their colon lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), but the levels of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13, in these cells were significantly increased, compared to DSS mice treated with PBS. Our results suggested that IL-33 stimulated CD4(+)T cells and caused the cell to adopt a Th2-type response but at the same time suppressed Th17 and Th1 cell responses. Therefore, IL-33 may be involved in pathogenesis of DSS-induced acute colitis by promoting Th2 cell response in intestinal mucosa of mice. Modulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling by monoclonal antibody (mAb) could be a novel biological therapy in DSS-induced acute colitis.

  4. Microbiota of the Small Intestine Is Selectively Engulfed by Phagocytes of the Lamina Propria and Peyer’s Patches

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Masatoshi; Tsujibe, Satoshi; Kiyoshima-Shibata, Junko; Watanabe, Yohei; Kato-Nagaoka, Noriko; Shida, Kan; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytes such as dendritic cells and macrophages, which are distributed in the small intestinal mucosa, play a crucial role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis by sampling the luminal gut microbiota. However, there is limited information regarding microbial uptake in a steady state. We investigated the composition of murine gut microbiota that is engulfed by phagocytes of specific subsets in the small intestinal lamina propria (SILP) and Peyer’s patches (PP). Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences revealed that: 1) all the phagocyte subsets in the SILP primarily engulfed Lactobacillus (the most abundant microbe in the small intestine), whereas CD11bhi and CD11bhiCD11chi cell subsets in PP mostly engulfed segmented filamentous bacteria (indigenous bacteria in rodents that are reported to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells); and 2) among the Lactobacillus species engulfed by the SILP cell subsets, L. murinus was engulfed more frequently than L. taiwanensis, although both these Lactobacillus species were abundant in the small intestine under physiological conditions. These results suggest that small intestinal microbiota is selectively engulfed by phagocytes that localize in the adjacent intestinal mucosa in a steady state. These observations may provide insight into the crucial role of phagocytes in immune surveillance of the small intestinal mucosa. PMID:27701454

  5. Uptake and storage of vitamin A as lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of cells in the lamina propria mucosae of the rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Senoo, Haruki; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Morii, Mayako; Hebiguchi, Taku; Miura, Mitsutaka; Imai, Katsuyuki

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) was injected subcutaneously or administered to rats by tube feeding. After subcutaneous injection, vitamin A was taken up and stored in cells of the lamina propria mucosae of the rat intestine. After oral administration, vitamin A was absorbed by the intestinal absorptive epithelial cells and transferred to cells of the lamina propria mucosae, where cells took up and stored the transferred vitamin A. The morphology of these cells was similar to that of hepatic stellate cells (also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells or Ito cells). Thus, these cells in the intestine could take up vitamin A from the systemic circulation and as well as by intestinal absorption, and store the vitamin in the lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. The data suggest that these cells are extrahepatic stellate cells of the digestive tract that may play roles in both the absorption and homeostasis of vitamin A. PMID:23765517

  6. Uptake and storage of vitamin A as lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of cells in the lamina propria mucosae of the rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Senoo, Haruki; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Morii, Mayako; Hebiguchi, Taku; Miura, Mitsutaka; Imai, Katsuyuki

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) was injected subcutaneously or administered to rats by tube feeding. After subcutaneous injection, vitamin A was taken up and stored in cells of the lamina propria mucosae of the rat intestine. After oral administration, vitamin A was absorbed by the intestinal absorptive epithelial cells and transferred to cells of the lamina propria mucosae, where cells took up and stored the transferred vitamin A. The morphology of these cells was similar to that of hepatic stellate cells (also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells or Ito cells). Thus, these cells in the intestine could take up vitamin A from the systemic circulation and as well as by intestinal absorption, and store the vitamin in the lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. The data suggest that these cells are extrahepatic stellate cells of the digestive tract that may play roles in both the absorption and homeostasis of vitamin A.

  7. Oral administration of lipopolysaccharides activates B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity and lamina propria of the gut and induces autoimmune symptoms in an autoantibody transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    About a half of the antierythrocyte autoantibody transgenic (autoAb Tg) mice, in which almost all B cells are detected in the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches, but not in the peritoneal cavity, suffer from autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The occurrence of this disease is strongly linked to production of autoAb by activated peritoneal B-1 cells in the Tg mice. In this study, we have shown that oral administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activated B-1 cells in the lamina propria of the gut as well as the peritoneal cavity in the healthy Tg mice and induced the autoimmune symptoms in all the Tg mice. The activation of peritoneal and lamina propria B-1 cells by enteric LPS is found not only in the anti-RBC autoAb Tg mice and normal mice but also in the aly mice which congenitally lack lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. These results suggest that B-1 cells in the two locations may form a common pool independent of Peyer's patches and lymph nodes, and can be activated by enteric thymus-independent antigens or polyclonal activators such as LPS. The induction of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in the Tg mice by enteric LPS through the activation of B-1 cells in the lamina propria of gut and in the peritoneal cavity suggests that B-1 cells and bacterial infection may play a pathogenic role in the onset of autoimmune diseases. PMID:8006578

  8. Identical T Cell Clones Are Located within the Mouse Gut Epithelium and Lamina Propria and Circulate in the Thoracic Duct Lymph

    PubMed Central

    Arstila, Tuula; Arstila, T. Petteri; Calbo, Sébastien; Selz, Françoise; Malassis-Seris, Michèle; Vassalli, Pierre; Kourilsky, Philippe; Guy-Grand, Delphine

    2000-01-01

    Murine gut intraepithelial (IEL) T cell receptor (TCR)-α/β1 lymphocytes bearing CD8α/β or CD8α/α coreceptors have been shown previously to express different oligoclonal TCR β chain repertoires in the same mouse, in agreement with other evidence indicating that these two populations belong to different ontogenic lineages, with only CD8α/β1 IELs being fully thymus dependent. CD8α/β1, but not CD8α/α1, T lymphocytes are also present in the lamina propria. Here, we show that CD8α/β+ lymphocytes from the lamina propria and the epithelium are both oligoclonal, and that they share the same TCR-β clonotypes in the same mouse, as is also the case for CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, identical T cell clones were detected among CD8α/β1 IELs and CD8α/β1 blasts circulating into the thoracic duct (TD) lymph of the same mouse, whereas TD small lymphocytes are polyclonal. These findings must be considered in light of previous observations showing that T blasts, but not small T lymphocytes, circulating in the TD lymph have the capacity of homing into the gut epithelium and lamina propria. These combined observations have interesting implications for our understanding of the recirculation of gut thymus-dependent lymphocytes and their precursors, and of the events leading up to the selection of their restricted TCR repertoire. PMID:10755885

  9. Nectin-4-Dependent Measles Virus Spread to the Cynomolgus Monkey Tracheal Epithelium: Role of Infected Immune Cells Infiltrating the Lamina Propria

    PubMed Central

    Frenzke, Marie; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao X.; Delpeut, Sébastien; Mateo, Mathieu; von Messling, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    After the contagion measles virus (MV) crosses the respiratory epithelium within myeloid cells that express the primary receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), it replicates briskly in SLAM-expressing cells in lymphatic organs. Later, the infection spreads to epithelia expressing nectin-4, an adherens junction protein expressed preferentially in the trachea, but how it gets there is not understood. To characterize the mechanisms of spread, we infected groups of 5 or 6 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with either a wild-type MV or its “N4-blind” derivative, which is unable to enter nectin-4-expressing cells because of the targeted mutation of two hemagglutinin residues. As expected, both viruses caused similar levels of immunosuppression, as monitored by reductions in white blood cell counts and lymphocyte proliferation activity. However, monkeys infected with the N4-blind MV cleared infection more rapidly. Wild-type virus-infected monkeys secreted virus, while marginal virus titers were detected in tracheal lavage fluid cells of N4-blind MV-infected hosts. Analyses of tracheal rings obtained at necropsy (day 12) documented widespread infection of individual cells or small cell clusters in the subepithelial lamina propria of monkeys infected with either virus. However, only wild-type MV spread to the epithelium, forming numerous infectious centers comprised of many contiguous columnar cells. Infected CD11c+ myeloid (macrophage or dendritic) cells were frequently observed in the lamina propria below epithelial infectious centers. Thus, MV may use myeloid cells as vehicles not only immediately after contagion but also to infect epithelia of tissues expressing nectin-4, including the trachea. PMID:23255790

  10. Intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes show distinct patterns of apoptosis whereas both populations are active in Fas based cytotoxicity in coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Di, S; Ciccocioppo, R; D'Alo, S; Parroni, R; Millimaggi, D; Cifone, M; Corazza, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Lamina propria (LPLs) and intraepithelial (IELs) lymphocytes are markedly increased in coeliac mucosa, and are thought to play a crucial role in the generation of villous atrophy in coeliac disease (CD). However, the mechanisms by which they mediate the killing of enterocytes in this condition are still poorly characterised.
AIM—We investigated Fas mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis of both LPLs and IELs, isolated from 10 untreated coeliac patients, 10 coeliac patients on a gluten free diet, and 10 biopsied controls.
METHODS—Fas and Fas ligand expression were assessed by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Lymphocyte cytotoxicity against Fas expressing Jurkat cells was determined by the Jam test. The effect of the antagonist ZB4 anti-Fas antibody on apoptotic activity exerted by coeliac lymphocytes against enterocytes was analysed. Lymphocyte apoptosis was assessed by oligonucleosome ELISA.
RESULTS—LPLs and IELs showed increased apoptotic activity and higher levels of Fas ligand expression in untreated CD compared with treated CD patients and controls. Enterocyte apoptosis observed after coculturing coeliac lymphocytes and enterocytes in the presence of ZB4 antibody was reduced. In active CD, LPLs manifested increased apoptosis whereas IELs showed decreased apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS—Our results support the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand system in CD associated enterocyte apoptosis. Increased LPL apoptosis is likely to downregulate mucosal inflammation whereas decreased IEL apoptosis could be responsible for autoimmune and malignant complications of CD.


Keywords: apoptosis; coeliac disease; cytotoxicity assay; Fas/Fas ligand system; intraepithelial lymphocytes; lamina propria lymphocytes PMID:11511560

  11. Characterization of extracellular matrix proteins during wound healing in the lamina propria of vocal fold in a canine model: a long-term and consecutive study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Xu, Wen; Ling, Wei; Wang, Qi; Wu, Yan; Han, Demin

    2014-06-01

    The characterization of vocal fold wound healing can be reflected by the changes of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the lamina propria. Although the expression of ECM proteins after vocal fold injury has been widely studied, such observations have lacked time continuity and integrity of marker proteins. In this study, we observed the morphology of injured vocal folds in a canine model. We used immunofluorescence staining to evaluate the expression and distribution of ECM proteins, such as collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, decorin and fibronectin, from 15 days to 6 months after injury. The results showed that large amounts of ECM proteins were secreted 15-40 days after injury. Collagen and fibronectin secretion increased significantly, and were disorderly deposited. The secretion of decorin and elastin increased slightly, while hyaluronic acid decreased. The 15-40 day post-injury period may be the critical intervention stage in wound healing of vocal folds. From 3 to 6 months after injury, the secretion of ECM proteins declined. However, collagen and fibronectin secretion were still significantly higher than normal with irregular arrangement, while the secretion of elastin, hyaluronic acid and decorin decreased significantly at 6 months. This led to vocal fold inelasticity and stiffness, which required effective long-term interventions to treat scar formation.

  12. MD-1 deficiency attenuates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis through modulating the function of colonic lamina propria dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huaqin; Zhang, Guqin; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Shang, Jian; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhao, Qiu; Li, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Available evidence suggests that both dysregulated innate and adaptive immune pathways contribute to the aberrant intestinal inflammatory response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Myeloid Differentiation 1 (MD-1), also known as Lymphocyte Antigen 86 (Ly86), a secreted protein interacting with radioprotective 105 (RP105), plays an important role in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Previous studies showed that MD-1 may be involved in the (patho) physiological regulation of the innate immune system and inflammation. In this study, we reported for the first time that MD-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in both human IBD patients and DSS-treated WT mice. We showed that MD-1(-/-) mice were less susceptible to the development of colitis than WT controls as demonstrated by significantly reduced weight loss, disease activity index, colon histological scores, cellular infiltration and expression of inflammatory mediators. In addition, mucosal barrier function seemed to be intact in response to the loss of MD-1. Finally, lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) from the colon of MD-1(-/-) mice after DSS exposure not only decreased in number but also significantly down-regulated the expression of surface maturation co-stimulatory molecules MHC-II, CD40 and CD86 compared with those from WT mice. Taken together, our results reveal that MD-1 deficiency is of critical importance in down-regulating induction and progression of DSS colitis, thereby suggesting that MD-1 might be a target for future interventional therapies of IBD.

  13. IL-33 alleviates DSS-induced chronic colitis in C57BL/6 mice colon lamina propria by suppressing Th17 cell response as well as Th1 cell response.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junfeng; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fangli; Sang, Lixuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Li, Shengjun; Li, Yan; Wang, Danan; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is associated with autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). A few studies on animal models have shown that IL-33 can suppress Th1 cell response and improve Th2 cell response in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and sera. However, there is little data published about the effect of IL-33 on Th17 cell in and Th1/Th2 cell in colon lamina propria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-33 on Th17 cell in colon lamina propria of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced chronic colitis. We studied the influence of IL-33 on colonic tissue injury and clinical symptoms of colitis. The T cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the production of cytokines secreted by lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) was measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. We have found that rIL-33 treatment led to a significant alleviation of DSS induced chronic colitis as evidenced by 1) alleviation of weight loss, DAI, macroscopic changes and histological score; 2) down-regulating the rates and absolute cell numbers of Th17 and Th1 cell in LPL; 3) inducing secretion of lower levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A. It is therefore concluded that IL-33 may play a therapeutic role in DSS-induced chronic colitis in mice by suppressing Th17 response and switching Th1 to Th2 response.

  14. The influence of elastin-like recombinant polymer on the self-renewing potential of a 3D tissue equivalent derived from human lamina propria fibroblasts and oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Rodríguez-Cabello, José Carlos; Damour, Odile; Hasirci, Vasif

    2011-09-01

    Three-dimensional epithelial tissue equivalents tend to lose their self-renewing potential progressively during culture as their epithelial cells lose their proliferative capacity with time. Even though the tissue engineered construct can mimic the native tissue well, it rapidly degrades after implantation due to the insufficient number of proliferating cells in the equivalent. In the present study we demonstrate for the first time that the use of an elastin-like recombinant polymer (ELR) engineered to contain the cell adhesion peptide RGD can result in a 3D tissue equivalent with high self-renewing potential, containing as many proliferative cells as the native tissue itself. The 3D tissue equivalent was reconstructed by the coculture of human lamina propria fibroblasts and oral epithelial cells in the nanofibrous ELR-collagen scaffold. Histological, immunohistological and transmission electron microscopic analyses of this oral mucosa equivalent demonstrated the expression of markers characteristic of epithelial proliferation (Ki67) and differentiation (keratin 13), and also the presence of a pluristratified epithelium and an ultrastructurally well-organized basement membrane expressing laminin 332. The synthesis of new extracellular matrix by the fibroblasts was also demonstrated. The scaffold proposed here presents great potential for tissue engineering applications, and also for studies of epithelial proliferation, and epithelial disorders including carcinogenesis. PMID:21592566

  15. Peritoneal elastic lamina invasion: limitations in its use as a prognostic marker in stage II colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Grin, Andrea; Messenger, David E; Cook, Megan; O'Connor, Brenda I; Hafezi, Sara; El-Zimaity, Hala; Kirsch, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Peritoneal involvement in colorectal cancer (CRC) is an adverse prognostic feature, which may prompt consideration of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II disease. Controversies and challenges surrounding its assessment have led to consideration of peritoneal elastic lamina invasion (ELI) as an alternative marker of advanced local spread. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the prognostic significance of peritoneal ELI in stage II CRC and (2) to determine the feasibility of ELI assessment in routine practice with the use of an elastic stain. Two hundred seventeen patients with stage II CRC (186, pT3; 31, pT4) were assessed for ELI and other established adverse histologic features. Of the pT3 tumors, 31 (16.7%) were ELI positive, 121 (65%) were ELI negative, and 34 (18.3%) lacked an identifiable elastic lamina. There were no significant differences in disease-free survival between pT3 ELI-negative and ELI-positive tumors (P = .517). The disease-free survival of pT4 tumors was significantly lower than that of pT3 ELI-negative tumors (P = .024) and pT3 ELI-positive tumors (P = .026), respectively. The elastic lamina was detected less frequently in right-sided pT3 tumors compared with left-sided tumors (65/91 [71.4%] versus 87/95 [91.6%], P < .001). Right-sided tumors were also associated with a reduction in the staining intensity of the elastic lamina (P < .001). In conclusion, peritoneal ELI was not an adverse prognostic factor in this study. The frequent absence of an identifiable elastic lamina, particularly in right-sided tumors, may limit the use of ELI as a prognostic marker in CRC.

  16. Restructuring the Vocal Fold Lamina Propria with Endoscopic Microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Hoffman, Henry T.; Dailey, Seth H.; Bock, Jonathan M.; Klemuk, Sarah A.; Askeland, Ryan W.; Ahlrichs-Hanson, Jan S.; Heaford, Andrew C.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purposes of this preclinical study were to investigate histologic and rheologic outcomes of Microendoscopy of Reinke’s space (MERS)-guided minithyrotomy and to assess its instrumentation. Study Design Human cadaveric and in vivo animal study. Methods Three human cadaveric larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of Radiesse VoiceGel and immediately evaluated histologically for biomaterial location. In the second part of this investigation, two scarred porcine larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of HyStem-VF and rheologically evaluated 6 weeks later. Student t tests determined differences in viscoelastic properties of treated/untreated vocal folds. Sialendoscopes and microendoscopes were subjectively compared for their visualization capacity. Results MERS imaged the subepithelial area and vocal ligament, guiding both tissue dissection and biomaterial positioning. Sialendoscopes provided adequate visualization and feature incorporated working channels. Enhanced image clarity was created in a gas-filled rather than saline-filled environment, per rater judgment. Histological analysis revealed desirable biomaterial positioning with MERS. Per rheological analysis, viscoelastic properties of the MERS-treated porcine vocal folds compared to uninjured vocal folds 6 weeks following treatment did not statistically differ. Conclusions MERS-guided laryngoplasty using sialendoscopes yielded satisfactory biomaterial positioning in the short-term and normalized rheologic tissue properties in the long-term, contributing to proof of concept for MERS in the treatment of scarring. Strengths of MERS include direct, real-time visualization of Reinke’s space and an ability to manipulate surgical instruments parallel to the vocal fold edge while maintaining an intact epithelium. Future work will explore the clinical utility of MERS for addressing scarring, sulcus vocalis, and other intracordal processes. PMID:23959803

  17. Linearized texture of three-dimensional extracellular matrix is mandatory for bladder cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Massimo; Nebuloni, Manuela; Allevi, Raffaele; Zerbi, Pietro; Longhi, Erika; Lucianò, Roberta; Locatelli, Irene; Pecoraro, Angela; Indrieri, Marco; Speziali, Chantal; Doglioni, Claudio; Milani, Paolo; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering simulating the native microenvironment is of utmost importance. As a major component of the microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to tissue homeostasis, whereas modifications of native features are associated with pathological conditions. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) geometry is an important feature of synthetic scaffolds favoring cell stemness, maintenance and differentiation. We analyzed the 3D structure, geometrical measurements and anisotropy of the ECM isolated from (i) human bladder mucosa (basal lamina and lamina propria) and muscularis propria; and, (ii) bladder carcinoma (BC). Next, binding and invasion of bladder metastatic cell line was observed on synthetic scaffold recapitulating anisotropy of tumoral ECM, but not on scaffold with disorganized texture typical of non-neoplastic lamina propria. This study provided information regarding the ultrastructure and geometry of healthy human bladder and BC ECMs. Likewise, using synthetic scaffolds we identified linearization of the texture as a mandatory feature for BC cell invasion. Integrating microstructure and geometry with biochemical and mechanical factors could support the development of an innovative synthetic bladder substitute or a tumoral scaffold predictive of chemotherapy outcomes. PMID:27779205

  18. Smoothelin and caldesmon are reliable markers for distinguishing muscularis propria from desmoplasia: a critical distinction for accurate staging colorectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jordan A; Waters, Lindsay; Ro, Jae Y; Zhai, Qihui Jim

    2014-01-01

    An accurate distinction between deep muscularis propria invasion versus subserosal invasion by colonic adenocarcinoma is essential for the accurate staging of cancer and subsequent optimal patient management. However, problems may arise in pathologic staging when extensive desmoplasia blurs the junction between deep muscularis propria and subserosal fibroadipose tissue. To address this issue, forty-three (43) cases of colonic adenocarcinoma resections from 2007-2009 at The Methodist Hospital in Houston, TX were reviewed. These cases were selected to address possible challenges in differentiating deep muscularis propria invasion from superficial subserosal invasion based on H&E staining alone. Immunohistochemical staining using smooth muscle actin (SMA), smoothelin, and caldesmon were performed on 51 cases: 8 cases of pT1 tumors (used mainly as control); 12 pT2 tumors; and 31 pT3 tumors. All 51 (100%) had diffuse, strong (3+) immunoreactivity for caldesmon and smoothelin in the muscularis propria with a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern. However, the desmoplastic areas of these tumors, composed of spindled fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, showed negative immunostaining for caldesmon and smoothelin (0/35). SMA strongly stained the muscularis propria and weakly (1+) or moderately (2+) stained the spindled fibroblasts in the desmoplastic areas (the latter presumably because of myofibroblastic differentiation). Compared to SMA, caldesmon and smoothelin are more specific stains that allow better delineation of the muscularis propria from the desmoplastic stromal reaction which provides a critical aide for proper staging of colonic adenocarcinoma and subsequent patient care. PMID:24551305

  19. Endoscopic full thickness resection for gastric tumors originating from muscularis propria

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepanshu; Mahmood, Ejaz; Desai, Aakash; Singhal, Shashideep

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To do systematic review of current literature for endoscopic full thickness resection (EFTR) technique for gastric tumors originating from muscularis propria. METHODS: An extensive English literature search was done till December 2015; using PubMed and Google scholar to identify the peer reviewed original and review articles using keywords-EFTR, gastric tumor, muscularis propria. Human only studies were included. The references of pertinent studies were manually searched to identify additional relevant studies. The indications, procedural details, success rates, clinical outcomes, complications and limitations were considered. For the purpose of review, data from individual studies was combined to calculate mean. No other statistical test was applied. RESULTS: A total of 9 original articles were identified. Four articles were from same institute and the time frames of these studies were overlapping. To avoid duplication of data, only the study with patients over the longest time interval was included and other three were excluded. In total six studies were included in the final review. In our systematic review, the mean success rate for EFTR of gastric tumors originating from muscularis propria was 96.8%. The mean procedure time varied from a minimum of 37 min to a maximum of 105 min. There was no reported mortality from the technique itself. The most common histological diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumors and leiomyoma. Gastric wall defect closure by either metallic clips or over the scope clip (OTSC) had similar outcomes although experience with OTSC was limited to smaller lesions (< 3 cm). CONCLUSION: EFTR is a minimally invasive technique to resect gastric submucosal tumors originating from muscularis propria with a high success rate and low complication rate. PMID:27499831

  20. The intriguing plant nuclear lamina

    PubMed Central

    Ciska, Malgorzata; Moreno Díaz de la Espina, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is a complex protein mesh attached to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which is also associated with nuclear pore complexes. It provides mechanical support to the nucleus and nuclear envelope, and as well as facilitating the connection of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton, it is also involved in chromatin organization, gene regulation, and signaling. In metazoans, the nuclear lamina consists of a polymeric layer of lamins and other interacting proteins responsible for its association with the INM and chromatin. In plants, field emission scanning electron microscopy of nuclei, and thin section transmission electron microscopy of isolated nucleoskeletons, reveals the lamina to have a similar structure to that of metazoans. Moreover, although plants lack lamin genes and the genes encoding most lamin-binding proteins, the main functions of the lamina are fulfilled in plants. Hence, it would appear that the plant lamina is not based on lamins and that other proteins substitute for lamins in plant cells. The nuclear matrix constituent proteins are the best characterized structural proteins in the plant lamina. Although these proteins do not display strong sequence similarity to lamins, their predicted secondary structure and sub-nuclear distribution, as well as their influence on nuclear size and shape, and on heterochromatin organization, suggest they could be functional lamin analogs. In this review we shall summarize what is currently known about the organization and composition of the plant nuclear lamina and its interacting complexes, and we will discuss the activity of this structure in the plant cell and its nucleus. PMID:24808902

  1. Diet-dependent, microbiota-independent regulation of IL-10-producing lamina propria macrophages in the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Takanori; Feng, Yongjia; Kitamoto, Sho; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Kuffa, Peter; Atarashi, Koji; Honda, Kenya; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Kamada, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal resident macrophages (Mϕs) regulate gastrointestinal homeostasis via production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. Although a constant replenishment by circulating monocytes is required to maintain the pool of resident Mϕs in the colonic mucosa, the homeostatic regulation of Mϕ in the small intestine (SI) remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that direct stimulation by dietary amino acids regulates the homeostasis of intestinal Mϕs in the SI. Mice that received total parenteral nutrition (TPN), which deprives the animals of enteral nutrients, displayed a significant decrease of IL-10-producing Mϕs in the SI, whereas the IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells remained intact. Likewise, enteral nutrient deprivation selectively affected the monocyte-derived F4/80+ Mϕ population, but not non-monocytic precursor-derived CD103+ dendritic cells. Notably, in contrast to colonic Mϕs, the replenishment of SI Mϕs and their IL-10 production were not regulated by the gut microbiota. Rather, SI Mϕs were directly regulated by dietary amino acids. Collectively, our study highlights the diet-dependent, microbiota-independent regulation of IL-10-producing resident Mϕs in the SI. PMID:27302484

  2. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Isharwal, Sumit; Konety, Badrinath

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) comprises about 70% of all newly diagnosed bladder cancer, and includes tumors with stage Ta, T1 and carcinoma in situ (CIS.) Since, NMIBC patients with progression to muscle-invasive disease tend to have worse prognosis than with patients with primary muscle-invasive disease, there is a need to significantly improve risk stratification and earlier definitive treatment for high-risk NMIBC. Materials and Methods: A detailed Medline search was performed to identify all publications on the topic of prognostic factors and risk predictions for superficial bladder cancer/NMIBC. The manuscripts were reviewed to identify variables that could predict recurrence and progression. Results: The most important prognostic factor for progression is grade of tumor. T category, tumor size, number of tumors, concurrent CIS, intravesical therapy, response to bacillus Calmette–Guerin at 3- or 6-month follow-up, prior recurrence rate, age, gender, lymphovascular invasion and depth of lamina propria invasion are other important clinical and pathological parameters to predict recurrence and progression in patients with NMIBC. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the Spanish Club UrológicoEspañol de Tratamiento Oncológico (CUETO) risk tables are the two best-established predictive models for recurrence and progression risk calculation, although they tend to overestimate risk and have poor discrimination for prognostic outcomes in external validation. Molecular biomarkers such as Ki-67, FGFR3 and p53 appear to be promising in predicting recurrence and progression but need further validation prior to using them in clinical practice. Conclusion: EORTC and CUETO risk tables are the two best-established models to predict recurrence and progression in patients with NMIBC though they tend to overestimate risk and have poor discrimination for prognostic outcomes in external validation. Future

  3. Endoscopic treatments for small gastric subepithelial tumors originating from muscularis propria layer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Ye, Li-Ping; Mao, Xin-Li

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive endoscopic resection has become an increasingly popular method for patients with small (less than 3.5 cm in diameter) gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs) originating from the muscularis propria (MP) layer. Currently, the main endoscopic therapies for patients with such tumors are endoscopic muscularis excavation, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. Although these endoscopic techniques can be used for complete resection of the tumor and provide an accurate pathological diagnosis, these techniques have been associated with several negative events, such as incomplete resection, perforation, and bleeding. This review provides detailed information on the technical details, likely treatment outcomes, and complications associated with each endoscopic method for treating/removing small gastric SETs that originate from the MP layer. PMID:26327758

  4. Lamina Cribrosa in Glaucoma: Diagnosis and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Ricardo Y.; Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Tatham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa is the putative site of retinal ganglion cell axonal injury in glaucoma. Although histological studies have provided evidence of structural changes to the lamina cribrosa, even in early stages of glaucoma, until recently, the ability to evaluate the lamina cribrosa in vivo has been limited. Recent advances in optical coherence tomography, including enhanced depth and swept-source imaging, have changed this, providing a means to image the lamina cribrosa. Imaging has identified general and localized configurational changes in the lamina of glaucomatous eyes, including posterior laminar displacement, altered laminar thickness, and focal laminar defects with spatial association with conventional structural and functional losses. In addition, although the temporal relationship between changes to the lamina cribrosa and glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell loss is yet to be elucidated, quantitative measurements of laminar microarchitecture have good reproducibility and offer the potential to serve as biomarkers for glaucoma diagnosis and progression. PMID:26052477

  5. Mechanisms of nuclear lamina growth in interphase.

    PubMed

    Zhironkina, Oxana A; Kurchashova, Svetlana Yu; Pozharskaia, Vasilisa A; Cherepanynets, Varvara D; Strelkova, Olga S; Hozak, Pavel; Kireev, Igor I

    2016-04-01

    The nuclear lamina represents a multifunctional platform involved in such diverse yet interconnected processes as spatial organization of the genome, maintenance of mechanical stability of the nucleus, regulation of transcription and replication. Most of lamina activities are exerted through tethering of lamina-associated chromatin domains (LADs) to the nuclear periphery. Yet, the lamina is a dynamic structure demonstrating considerable expansion during the cell cycle to accommodate increased number of LADs formed during DNA replication. We analyzed dynamics of nuclear growth during interphase and changes in lamina structure as a function of cell cycle progression. The nuclear lamina demonstrates steady growth from G1 till G2, while quantitative analysis of lamina meshwork by super-resolution microscopy revealed that microdomain organization of the lamina is maintained, with lamin A and lamin B microdomain periodicity and interdomain gap sizes unchanged. FRAP analysis, in contrast, demonstrated differences in lamin A and B1 exchange rates; the latter showing higher recovery rate in S-phase cells. In order to further analyze the mechanism of lamina growth in interphase, we generated a lamina-free nuclear envelope in living interphase cells by reversible hypotonic shock. The nuclear envelope in nuclear buds formed after such a treatment initially lacked lamins, and analysis of lamina formation revealed striking difference in lamin A and B1 assembly: lamin A reassembled within 30 min post-treatment, whereas lamin B1 did not incorporate into the newly formed lamina at all. We suggest that in somatic cells lamin B1 meshwork growth is coordinated with replication of LADs, and lamin A meshwork assembly seems to be chromatin-independent process.

  6. The lamina cribrosa of Ornithorhynchus (Monotremata, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Zeller, U

    1988-01-01

    A vestigial and transitory lamina cribrosa was found in nestling platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). The heads of two nest-young (180 and 333 mm length), one subadult and one adult Ornithorhynchus were serially sectioned and studied with special reference to the development of the nasal region. In nest-young Ornithorhynchus an irregularly shaped bar of cartilage develops at the foramen olfactorium advehens. In the subadult it is largely resorbed, and in the osseous skull of the adult it is completely lacking. Ontogeny and topographical relationships of this bar of cartilage indicate that it is part of a lamina cribrosa. It embraces the ramus medialis of the nervus ethmoidalis and the arteria ethmoidalis, as do the corresponding parts of the lamina cribrosa of Tachyglossus. Compared to other parts of the chondrocranium this bar develops late in ontogeny, as does the lamina cribrosa of other mammals. Therefore, it can be concluded that part of the lamina cribrosa is present for a short period during the ontogeny of Ornithorhynchus, contrary to earlier reports. As in many other water-adapted mammals, the olfactory system of Ornithorhynchus is reduced. This suggests that the rest of the lamina cribrosa of Ornithorhynchus is secondarily reduced. The common ancestor of Ornithorhynchus and Tachyglossidae most probably possessed a lamina cribrosa which can be traced back to the common mammalian stock. The lamina cribrosa developed only once in the phylogeny of mammals. Its lack in the adult Ornithorhynchus is not a "reptilian" character.

  7. Operative surgical nuances of modified extradural temporopolar approach with mini-peeling of dura propria based on cadaveric anatomical study of lateral cavernous structures

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Toyooka, Terushige; Fujii, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Mori, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extradural temporopolar approach (ETA) has been modified as less invasive manner and named as trans-superior orbital fissure (SOF) approach with mini-peeling technique. The present study discusses the operative nuances of this modified technique on the basis of cadaveric study of lateral cavernous structures. Methods: In five consecutive cadaveric specimens, we performed an extradural anterior clinoidectomy with mini-peeling of the dura propria to expose the anterior clinoid process entirely. We also investigated the histological characteristics of the lateral cavernous sinus (CS) between the dura propria and periosteal dura at the SOF, foramen rotundum (FR), and foramen ovale (FO) levels, and of each trigeminal nerve division. Results: Coronal histological examination of the lateral wall of the CS showed invagination of the dura propria and periosteal dura into the SOF. In contrast, no such invagination was observed at the levels of the FR and FO. This finding supports the technical rationale of the only skeletonization of the SOF for peeling of the dura propria but not FR. In addition, our modified ETA method needs only minimal dural incision between the SOF and FR where no cranial nerves are present. Conclusion: Our technical modification of ETA may be recommended for surgical treatment of paraclinoid lesions to reduce the risk of intraoperative neurovascular injury. PMID:27500005

  8. Identification of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Chen, Zhifen; Kang, Deyong; li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a potential diagnostic tool is attractive. MPM can effectively provide information about morphological and biochemical changes in biological tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, we attempt to identify normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections (both in transverse and longitudinal sections). The results show that MPM can display different microstructure changes in the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. MPM also can quantitatively describe the alteration of collagen content between normal and cancerous muscle layers. These are important pathological findings that MPM images can bring more detailed complementary information about tissue architecture and cell morphology through observing the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. This work demonstrates that MPM can be better for identifying the microstructural characteristics of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria in different sections.

  9. Characterization of intestinal invasion by Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin and effect of a mutation in the invH gene.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, P R; Paulin, S M; Bland, A P; Jones, P W; Wallis, T S

    1995-01-01

    The relative levels of invasiveness of two bovine isolates each of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin and of invH mutants of S. typhimurium were determined in MDCK and Int 407 cultured-cell assays and in bovine ileal loops. S. dublin was found to be significantly less invasive in cultured cells than S. typhimurium, but this difference was not observed in bovine intestines. The invH mutants exhibited a significant reduction in invasion in both cultured cells and bovine intestines. The invasive phenotypes of the strains were confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The wild-type strains were observed in the laminae propriae of the intestinal villi, while in contrast the invH mutants were generally associated with the enterocyte layer. The degree of damage in the bovine ileum was related to the magnitude of the invasion. There was no difference in the amount of S. typhimurium or S. dublin recovered from the bovine ileum either with or without Peyer's patches 3 h after inoculation of the loop. PMID:7790093

  10. Neural invasion of two virulent suid herpesvirus 1 strains in neonatal pigs with or without maternal immunity.

    PubMed

    Kritas, S K; Pensaert, M B; Nauwynck, H J; Kyriakis, S C

    1999-09-15

    The neural invasion of two virulent Suid Herpesvirus 1 (SHV1) strains was examined in neonatal pigs with or without maternal immunity. One-week-old pigs with comparable levels of maternal immunity (SN-titer = 12-48) were intranasally inoculated with 10(7.0) TCID50 of either of the Ka or E21 strains. The invasion of the strains was examined in the nasal mucosa and in three neuronal levels of the trigeminal nervous pathway as well as in three levels of the olfactory nervous pathway by virus titration and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In control pigs without specific antibodies, both strains invaded up to the end level of each neural pathway. In pigs with maternal immunity, the Ka strain invaded only up to the 2nd level of each pathway with titers being significantly lower (p<0.05) than in the negative controls. However, the E21 strain invaded up to the end levels in both neural pathways of immune pigs with virus titers being similar to those observed in non-immune pigs (p>0.05). IHC revealed that maternal antibodies can protect against a fibroblast-mediated spread of the Ka strain in the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa, as well as against a local spread of the Ka and E21 strains from neurons to their satellite cells in the trigeminal ganglion. In conclusion, the nature of virus strain determines the invasion of SHV1 within the nervous system of maternally-immune neonatal pigs.

  11. IL-21/IL-21R signaling suppresses intestinal inflammation induced by DSS through regulation of Th responses in lamina propria in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Zhu, Junfeng; Dan Yue; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiao; You, Yong; Wang, Biao; Xu, Ying; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Serum level of IL-21 is increased in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), suggesting that IL-21/IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, the role of IL-21/IL-21 receptor signaling plays in the pathogenesis of IBD is not very clear. In this study, using IL-21R.KO mice, we tested the role of IL-21/IL-21R signaling in the regulation of T helper cell responses during intestinal inflammation. Here we found that IL-21R.KO mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis as compared with C57BL/6 mice. The spontaneous inflammatory cytokines released by macrophages in LP of colon were significantly increased, and Th2, Th17 and Treg responses were down-regulated markedly. However, Th1 responses were significantly up-regulated in IL-21R.KO mice. Meanwhile, the population of CD8+CD44+IFN-γ+ T cells was markedly elevated in LP of inflammatory intestine of IL-21RKO mice. In vivo, after disease onset, DSS-induced intestinal inflammation was ameliorated in C57BL/6 mice treated with rIL-21. Our results demonstrate that IL-21/IL-21R signaling contributes to protection against DSS-induced acute colitis through suppression of Th1 and activation of Th2, Th17 and Treg responses in mice. Therefore, therapeutic manipulation of IL-21/IL-21R activity may allow improved immunotherapy for IBD and other inflammatory diseases associated with Th cell responses. PMID:27545302

  12. IL-21/IL-21R signaling suppresses intestinal inflammation induced by DSS through regulation of Th responses in lamina propria in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Zhu, Junfeng; Dan Yue; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiao; You, Yong; Wang, Biao; Xu, Ying; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2016-08-22

    Serum level of IL-21 is increased in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), suggesting that IL-21/IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, the role of IL-21/IL-21 receptor signaling plays in the pathogenesis of IBD is not very clear. In this study, using IL-21R.KO mice, we tested the role of IL-21/IL-21R signaling in the regulation of T helper cell responses during intestinal inflammation. Here we found that IL-21R.KO mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis as compared with C57BL/6 mice. The spontaneous inflammatory cytokines released by macrophages in LP of colon were significantly increased, and Th2, Th17 and Treg responses were down-regulated markedly. However, Th1 responses were significantly up-regulated in IL-21R.KO mice. Meanwhile, the population of CD8(+)CD44(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells was markedly elevated in LP of inflammatory intestine of IL-21RKO mice. In vivo, after disease onset, DSS-induced intestinal inflammation was ameliorated in C57BL/6 mice treated with rIL-21. Our results demonstrate that IL-21/IL-21R signaling contributes to protection against DSS-induced acute colitis through suppression of Th1 and activation of Th2, Th17 and Treg responses in mice. Therefore, therapeutic manipulation of IL-21/IL-21R activity may allow improved immunotherapy for IBD and other inflammatory diseases associated with Th cell responses.

  13. IL-21/IL-21R signaling suppresses intestinal inflammation induced by DSS through regulation of Th responses in lamina propria in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Zhu, Junfeng; Dan Yue; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiao; You, Yong; Wang, Biao; Xu, Ying; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Serum level of IL-21 is increased in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), suggesting that IL-21/IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, the role of IL-21/IL-21 receptor signaling plays in the pathogenesis of IBD is not very clear. In this study, using IL-21R.KO mice, we tested the role of IL-21/IL-21R signaling in the regulation of T helper cell responses during intestinal inflammation. Here we found that IL-21R.KO mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis as compared with C57BL/6 mice. The spontaneous inflammatory cytokines released by macrophages in LP of colon were significantly increased, and Th2, Th17 and Treg responses were down-regulated markedly. However, Th1 responses were significantly up-regulated in IL-21R.KO mice. Meanwhile, the population of CD8(+)CD44(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells was markedly elevated in LP of inflammatory intestine of IL-21RKO mice. In vivo, after disease onset, DSS-induced intestinal inflammation was ameliorated in C57BL/6 mice treated with rIL-21. Our results demonstrate that IL-21/IL-21R signaling contributes to protection against DSS-induced acute colitis through suppression of Th1 and activation of Th2, Th17 and Treg responses in mice. Therefore, therapeutic manipulation of IL-21/IL-21R activity may allow improved immunotherapy for IBD and other inflammatory diseases associated with Th cell responses. PMID:27545302

  14. Initiation of teeth from the dental lamina in the ferret.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Maria; Crespo Yanez, Xenia; Thesleff, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian tooth development is characterized by formation of primary teeth that belong to different tooth classes and are later replaced by a single set of permanent teeth. The first primary teeth are initiated from the primary dental lamina, and the replacement teeth from the successional dental lamina at the lingual side of the primary teeth. An interdental lamina connects the primary tooth germs together. Most mammalian tooth development research is done on mouse, which does not have teeth in all tooth classes, does not replace its teeth, and does not develop an interdental lamina. We have used the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) as a model animal to elucidate the morphological changes and gene expression during the development of the interdental lamina and the initiation of primary teeth. In addition we have analyzed cell-cell signaling taking place in the interdental lamina as well as in the successional lamina during tooth replacement. By 3D reconstructions of serial histological sections we observed that the morphogenesis of the interdental lamina and the primary teeth are intimately linked. Expression of Pitx2 and Foxi3 in the interdental lamina indicates that it has odontogenic identity, and there is active signaling taking place in the interdental lamina. Bmp4 is coexpressed with the stem cell factor Sox2 at its lingual aspect suggesting that the interdental lamina may retain competence for tooth initiation. We show that when tooth replacement is initiated there is Wnt pathway activity in the budding successional lamina and adjacent mesenchyme but no active Fgf or Eda signaling. Genes associated with human tooth replacement phenotypes, including Runx2 and Il11rα, are mostly expressed in the mesenchyme around the successional lamina in the ferret. Our results highlight the importance of the dental lamina in the mammalian tooth development during the initiation of both primary and replacement teeth.

  15. Altering lamina assembly reveals lamina-dependent and -independent functions for A-type lamins

    PubMed Central

    Zwerger, Monika; Roschitzki-Voser, Heidi; Zbinden, Reto; Denais, Celine; Herrmann, Harald; Lammerding, Jan; Grütter, Markus G.; Medalia, Ohad

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lamins are intermediate filament proteins that form a fibrous meshwork, called the nuclear lamina, between the inner nuclear membrane and peripheral heterochromatin of metazoan cells. The assembly and incorporation of lamin A/C into the lamina, as well as their various functions, are still not well understood. Here, we employed designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) as new experimental tools for lamin research. We screened for DARPins that specifically bound to lamin A/C, and interfered with lamin assembly in vitro and with incorporation of lamin A/C into the native lamina in living cells. The selected DARPins inhibited lamin assembly and delocalized A-type lamins to the nucleoplasm without modifying lamin expression levels or the amino acid sequence. Using these lamin binders, we demonstrate the importance of proper integration of lamin A/C into the lamina for nuclear mechanical properties and nuclear envelope integrity. Finally, our study provides evidence for cell-type-specific differences in lamin functions. PMID:26275827

  16. Altering lamina assembly reveals lamina-dependent and -independent functions for A-type lamins.

    PubMed

    Zwerger, Monika; Roschitzki-Voser, Heidi; Zbinden, Reto; Denais, Celine; Herrmann, Harald; Lammerding, Jan; Grütter, Markus G; Medalia, Ohad

    2015-10-01

    Lamins are intermediate filament proteins that form a fibrous meshwork, called the nuclear lamina, between the inner nuclear membrane and peripheral heterochromatin of metazoan cells. The assembly and incorporation of lamin A/C into the lamina, as well as their various functions, are still not well understood. Here, we employed designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) as new experimental tools for lamin research. We screened for DARPins that specifically bound to lamin A/C, and interfered with lamin assembly in vitro and with incorporation of lamin A/C into the native lamina in living cells. The selected DARPins inhibited lamin assembly and delocalized A-type lamins to the nucleoplasm without modifying lamin expression levels or the amino acid sequence. Using these lamin binders, we demonstrate the importance of proper integration of lamin A/C into the lamina for nuclear mechanical properties and nuclear envelope integrity. Finally, our study provides evidence for cell-type-specific differences in lamin functions. PMID:26275827

  17. Autophagy mediates degradation of nuclear lamina

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Zhixun; Xu, Caiyue; Donahue, Greg; Shimi, Takeshi; Pan, Ji-An; Zhu, Jiajun; Ivanov, Andrejs; Capell, Brian C.; Drake, Adam M.; Shah, Parisha P.; Catanzaro, Joseph M.; Ricketts, M. Daniel; Lamark, Trond; Adam, Stephen A.; Marmorstein, Ronen; Zong, Wei-Xing; Johansen, Terje; Goldman, Robert D.; Adams, Peter D.; Berger, Shelley L.

    2015-01-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a catabolic membrane trafficking process that degrades a variety of cellular constituents, and is associated with human diseases1–3. While extensive studies have focused on autophagic turnover of cytoplasmic materials, little is known regarding the role of autophagy in degrading nuclear components. Here we report that the autophagy machinery mediates degradation of nuclear lamina components in mammals. The autophagy protein LC3/Atg8, which is involved in autophagy membrane trafficking and substrate delivery4–6, is present in the nucleus and directly interacts with the nuclear lamina protein Lamin B1, and binds to lamin-associated domains (LADs) on chromatin. This LC3-Lamin B1 interaction does not downregulate Lamin B1 during starvation, but mediates its degradation upon oncogenic insults, such as by activated Ras. Lamin B1 degradation is achieved by nucleus-to-cytoplasm transport that delivers Lamin B1 to the lysosome. Inhibiting autophagy or the LC3-Lamin B1 interaction prevents activated Ras-induced Lamin B1 loss and attenuates oncogene-induced senescence in primary human cells. Our study suggests this new function of autophagy as a guarding mechanism protecting cells from tumorigenesis. PMID:26524528

  18. Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, D. J.; Buesking, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.

  19. The nuclear lamina in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Dobrzynska, Agnieszka; Gonzalo, Susana; Shanahan, Catherine; Askjaer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nuclear lamina (NL) is a structural component of the nuclear envelope and makes extensive contacts with integral nuclear membrane proteins and chromatin. These interactions are critical for many cellular processes, such as nuclear positioning, perception of mechanical stimuli from the cell surface, nuclear stability, 3-dimensional organization of chromatin and regulation of chromatin-binding proteins, including transcription factors. The NL is present in all nucleated metazoan cells but its composition and interactome differ between tissues. Most likely, this contributes to the broad spectrum of disease manifestations in humans with mutations in NL-related genes, ranging from muscle dystrophies to neurological disorders, lipodystrophies and progeria syndromes. We review here exciting novel insight into NL function at the cellular level, in particular in chromatin organization and mechanosensation. We also present recent observations on the relation between the NL and metabolism and the special relevance of the NL in muscle tissues. Finally, we discuss new therapeutic approaches to treat NL-related diseases. PMID:27158763

  20. The nuclear envelope lamina is reversibly depolymerized during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Gerace, L; Blobel, G

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear envelope lamina is a supramolecular protein assembly associated with the nucleoplasmic surface of the inner nuclear membrane, which contains three predominant polypeptide components in mammalian cells (lamins A, B and C). We previously demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy that the lamina is reversibly disassembled during cell division, coincident with the disassembly and reconstruction of the mitotic nuclear envelope architecture. In this paper, these immunocytochemical observations are extended with cell fractionation and immunoprecipitation studies performed on synchronized populations of tissue culture cells. With these techniques, we have established that during mitosis, lamina A and C occur in a soluble and nonmembrane-associated state. In contrast, the mitotic lamin B may be associated with membrane fragments derived from the disassembled interphase nuclear envelope. From sedimentation analysis on sucrose gradients, we have determined that all three lamins are monomeric at periods of mitotic lamina disassembly. These results, together with quantitative immunoprecipitation studies, demonstrate that the lamina is reversibly depolymerized during cell division. Attendant with the depolymerized state of the lamina, the mitotic lamins (which are phosphoproteins) have a distinctly more acidic isoelectric point and a substantially higher level of phosphorylation compared to their interphase counterparts. This indicates that reversible enzymatic phosphorylations of the lamins may be involved in modulating the state of polymerization of the lamina and its reversible mitotic disassembly. PMID:7357605

  1. Reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations in living mouse cochleae.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan; Kemp, David

    2016-08-30

    It is commonly believed that the exceptional sensitivity of mammalian hearing depends on outer hair cells which generate forces for amplifying sound-induced basilar membrane vibrations, yet how cellular forces amplify vibrations is poorly understood. In this study, by measuring subnanometer vibrations directly from the reticular lamina at the apical ends of outer hair cells and from the basilar membrane using a custom-built heterodyne low-coherence interferometer, we demonstrate in living mouse cochleae that the sound-induced reticular lamina vibration is substantially larger than the basilar membrane vibration not only at the best frequency but surprisingly also at low frequencies. The phase relation of reticular lamina to basilar membrane vibration changes with frequency by up to 180 degrees from ∼135 degrees at low frequencies to ∼-45 degrees at the best frequency. The magnitude and phase differences between reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations are absent in postmortem cochleae. These results indicate that outer hair cells do not amplify the basilar membrane vibration directly through a local feedback as commonly expected; instead, they actively vibrate the reticular lamina over a broad frequency range. The outer hair cell-driven reticular lamina vibration collaboratively interacts with the basilar membrane traveling wave primarily through the cochlear fluid, which boosts peak responses at the best-frequency location and consequently enhances hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity. PMID:27516544

  2. Reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations in living mouse cochleae.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan; Kemp, David

    2016-08-30

    It is commonly believed that the exceptional sensitivity of mammalian hearing depends on outer hair cells which generate forces for amplifying sound-induced basilar membrane vibrations, yet how cellular forces amplify vibrations is poorly understood. In this study, by measuring subnanometer vibrations directly from the reticular lamina at the apical ends of outer hair cells and from the basilar membrane using a custom-built heterodyne low-coherence interferometer, we demonstrate in living mouse cochleae that the sound-induced reticular lamina vibration is substantially larger than the basilar membrane vibration not only at the best frequency but surprisingly also at low frequencies. The phase relation of reticular lamina to basilar membrane vibration changes with frequency by up to 180 degrees from ∼135 degrees at low frequencies to ∼-45 degrees at the best frequency. The magnitude and phase differences between reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations are absent in postmortem cochleae. These results indicate that outer hair cells do not amplify the basilar membrane vibration directly through a local feedback as commonly expected; instead, they actively vibrate the reticular lamina over a broad frequency range. The outer hair cell-driven reticular lamina vibration collaboratively interacts with the basilar membrane traveling wave primarily through the cochlear fluid, which boosts peak responses at the best-frequency location and consequently enhances hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity.

  3. PEAPOD regulates lamina size and curvature in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    White, Derek W. R.

    2006-01-01

    Although a complex pattern of interspersed cell proliferation and cell differentiation is known to occur during leaf blade development in eudicot plants, the genetic mechanisms coordinating this growth are unclear. In Arabidopsis, deletion of the PEAPOD (PPD) locus increases leaf lamina size and results in dome-shaped rather than flat leaves. Siliques are also altered in shape because of extra lamina growth. The curvature of a Δppd leaf reflects the difference between excess growth of the lamina and a limitation to the extension capacity of its perimeter. Excess lamina growth in Δppd plants is due to a prolonged phase of dispersed meristematic cell (DMC) proliferation (for example, the meristemoid and procambium cells that form stomatal stem cells and vascular cells, respectively) during blade development. The PPD locus is composed of two homologous genes, PPD1 and PPD2, which encode plant-specific putative DNA-binding proteins. Overexpression of PPD reduces lamina size by promoting the early arrest of DMC proliferation during leaf and silique development. Therefore, by regulating the arrest of DMC proliferation, the PPD genes coordinate tissue growth, modulate lamina size, and limit curvature of the leaf blade. I propose a revised model of leaf development with two cell-cycle arrest fronts progressing from the tip to the base: the known primary front, which determines arrest of general cell proliferation, followed by a secondary front that involves PPD and arrests DMC division. PMID:16916932

  4. The in situ transverse lamina strength of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaggs, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the work reported in this presentation is to determine the in situ transverse strength of a lamina within a composite laminate. From a fracture mechanics standpoint, in situ strength may be viewed as constrained cracking that has been shown to be a function of both lamina thickness and the stiffness of adjacent plies that serve to constrain the cracking process. From an engineering point of view, however, constrained cracking can be perceived as an apparent increase in lamina strength. With the growing need to design more highly loaded composite structures, the concept of in situ strength may prove to be a viable means of increasing the design allowables of current and future composite material systems. A simplified one dimensional analytical model is presented that is used to predict the strain at onset of transverse cracking. While it is accurate only for the most constrained cases, the model is important in that the predicted failure strain is seen to be a function of a lamina's thickness d and of the extensional stiffness bE theta of the adjacent laminae that constrain crack propagation in the 90 deg laminae.

  5. Fate of the molar dental lamina in the monophyodont mouse.

    PubMed

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  6. Effect of the concentration of maternal antibodies on the neural invasion of Aujeszky's disease virus in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Kritas, S K; Nauwynck, H J; Pensaert, M B; Kyriakis, S C

    1997-04-01

    The degree to which maternally derived antibodies may affect neural invasion of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) in neonatal pigs was examined. One-week-old pigs with different levels of maternal immunity were inoculated intranasally with 10(7.0) TCID50 of the Ka strain. The invasion of the virus was studied in both the trigeminal neural pathway (nasal mucosa, trigeminal ganglion = 1st level, pons/medulla = 2nd level and cerebellum/thalamus = 3rd level) and the olfactory neural pathway (olfactory mucosa = 1st level, olfactory bulb = 2nd level and lateral olfactory gyrus = 3rd level) by virus titration and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In control pigs without specific antibodies, virus invaded all neuronal levels in both neural pathways. In pigs with a low concentration of maternal antibodies (SN-titer = 2-3), virus infected all neuronal levels in both neural pathways but, compared to the controls, virus titers were significantly lower (approximately 2 log10) in the trigeminal pathway. In pigs with a high concentration of maternal antibodies (SN-titer = 272-384), virus reached the 2nd neuronal level of the olfactory pathway while no neural tissue had been infected in the trigeminal pathway. Virus titers in the affected neuronal levels of the latter pigs were significantly lower than in the controls. IHC revealed, in non-immune pigs, a fibroblast-mediated spread of the virus in the nasal lamina propria, and a local spread of the virus from neurons to their satellite cells in the trigeminal ganglion. Such a spread of the virus was rarely seen in the nasal mucosa and in the trigeminal ganglion of passively immune pigs. These findings suggest that, in the presence of maternal immunity, defence mechanisms operate at these sites. In conclusion, we can state that a correlation exists between the level of maternal immunity and the protection against invasion of ADV in the nervous system of neonatal pigs.

  7. Activation of spinobulbar lamina I neurons by static muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L B; Andrew, D; Craig, A D

    2002-03-01

    Spinal lamina I neurons are selectively activated by small-diameter somatic afferents, and they project to brain stem sites that are critical for homeostatic control. Because small-diameter afferent activity evoked by contraction of skeletal muscle reflexly elicits exercise-related cardiorespiratory activation, we tested whether spinobulbar lamina I cells respond to muscle contraction. Spinobulbar lamina I neurons were identified in chloralose-anesthetized cats by antidromic activation from the ipsilateral caudal ventrolateral medulla. Static contractions of the ipsilateral triceps surae muscle were evoked by tibial nerve stimulation using parameters that avoid afferent activation, and arterial blood pressure responses were recorded. Recordings were maintained from 13 of 17 L(7) lamina I spinobulbar neurons during static muscle contraction, and 5 of these neurons were excited. Three were selectively activated only by muscle afferents and did not have a cutaneous receptive field. Spinobulbar lamina I neurons activated by muscle contraction provide an ascending link for the reflex cardiorespiratory adjustments that accompany muscular work. This study provides an important first step in elucidating an ascending afferent pathway for somato-autonomic reflexes.

  8. Ultrasonographic thickening of the muscularis propria in feline small intestinal small cell T-cell lymphoma and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Daniaux, Lise A; Laurenson, Michele P; Marks, Stanley L; Moore, Peter F; Taylor, Sandra L; Chen, Rachel X; Zwingenberger, Allison L

    2014-02-01

    Gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common form of lymphoma in the cat. More recently, an ultrasonographic pattern associated with feline small cell T-cell gastrointestinal lymphoma has been recognized as a diffuse thickening of the muscularis propria of the small intestine. This pattern is also described with feline inflammatory bowel disease. To evaluate the similarities between the diseases, we quantified the thickness of the muscularis propria layer in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 14 cats affected by small cell T-cell lymphoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 19 healthy cats. We found a significantly increased thickness of the muscularis propria in cats with lymphoma and IBD compared with healthy cats. The mean thickness of the muscularis propria in cats with lymphoma or IBD was twice the thickness of that of healthy cats, and was the major contributor to significant overall bowel wall thickening in the duodenum and jejunum. A muscularis to submucosa ratio >1 is indicative of an abnormal bowel segment. Colic lymph nodes in cats with lymphoma were increased in size compared with healthy cats. In cats with gastrointestinal lymphoma and histologic transmural infiltration of the small intestines, colic or jejunal lymph nodes were rounded, increased in size and hypoechoic.

  9. Giant Ethmoid Osteoma Originated from the Lamina Papyracea

    PubMed Central

    Torun, Mümtaz Taner; Turan, Fatih; Tuncel, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Osteomas are slow- growing, benign tumors. They are the most common neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses. They are usually originates from the frontal and ethmoid sinus and much less frequently seen in the maxillary and sphenoid sinuses. Although the lamina papyracea is a part of ethmoid bone, a giant osteoma originated from the lamina papyracea is very uncommon. An osteoma of the paranasal sinus is usually asymptomatic. Headache, proptosis, epiphora, diplopia, dizziness, facial deformity, face pain and cerebral complications are possible symptoms. The treatment of the paranasal osteomas are controversial. Case report: A 65 year old patient that applied with stuffiness and headache to our clinic. She has had a smooth mass in the right nasal cavity. Paranasal sinus tomography showed an osseous lesion, the size of 4x 3 cm, arising from the right lamina papyracea. The mass excised endoscopically and reported as osteoma histopathologically. There was no complication. After 9 months, there was no recurrence. Conclusion: Giant osteomas of paranasal sinuses, especially originated from the lamina papyracea are rare. They can be treated successfully by endoscopic approaches without any recurrence and complication despite its size. PMID:25568536

  10. Changes in Muscularis Propria of Anterior Vaginal Wall in Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Vetuschi, A.; D’Alfonso, A.; Sferra, R.; Zanelli, D.; Pompili, S.; Patacchiola, F.; Gaudio, E.; Carta, G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological and immunohistochemical alterations of tissue removed from the upper third of anterior vaginal wall in a sample group of the female population presenting homogenous risk factors associated with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). The case study consisted of 14 patients with POP and there were 10 patients in the control group. Patient selection was carried on the basis of specific criteria and all of the patients involved in the study presented one or more of the recognized POP risk factors. Samples were taken from POP patients during vaginal plastic surgery following colpohysterectomy, and from control patients during closure of the posterior fornix following hysterectomy. Samples were processed for histological and immunohistochemical analyses for Collagen I and Collagen III, α-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA), Platelet-Derived-Growth-Factor (PDGF), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), tissue inhibitors metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), Caspase3. Immunofluorescence analyses for Collagen I and III and PDGF were also carried out. In prolapsed specimens our results show a disorganization of smooth muscle cells that appeared to have been displaced by an increased collagen III deposition resulting in rearrangement of the muscularis propria architecture. These findings suggest that the increase in the expression of collagen fibers in muscularis could probably be due to a phenotypic switch resulting in the dedifferentiation of smooth muscle cells into myofibroblasts. These alterations could be responsible for the compromising of the dynamic functionality of the pelvic floor. PMID:26972719

  11. Identifying and quantifying the stromal fibrosis in muscularis propria of colorectal carcinoma by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sijia; Yang, Yinghong; Jiang, Weizhong; Feng, Changyin; Chen, Zhifen; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-10-01

    The examination of stromal fibrosis within colorectal cancer is overlooked, not only because the routine pathological examinations seem to focus more on tumour staging and precise surgical margins, but also because of the lack of efficient diagnostic methods. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to study the muscularis stroma of normal and colorectal carcinoma tissue at the molecular level. In this work, we attempt to show the feasibility of MPM for discerning the microstructure of the normal human rectal muscle layer and fibrosis colorectal carcinoma tissue practicably. Three types of muscularis propria stromal fibrosis beneath the colorectal cancer infiltration were first observed through the MPM imaging system by providing intercellular microstructural details in fresh, unstained tissue samples. Our approach also presents the capability of quantifying the extent of stromal fibrosis from both amount and orientation of collagen, which may further characterize the severity of fibrosis. By comparing with the pathology analysis, these results show that the MPM has potential advantages in becoming a histological tool for detecting the stromal fibrosis and collecting prognosis evidence, which may guide subsequent therapy procedures for patients into good prognosis.

  12. A sideways view of stromatolites: complexity metrics for stromatolite laminae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Awramik, Stanley M.

    2006-08-01

    Stromatolites offer a unique window into 3.5 billion years of evolution of the microbial communities that built them within the context of an evolving Earth. Our interest is not in the microbial life or their external matrix as independent entities, but the appearance and evolution of complexity itself within this biogeological system. We adopt the canonical definition of complexity as the emergence and detection of previously unseen properties (structures, functions, information), and we propose that the defining emergent property of stromatolites apparent to the human expert eye is the lamination. To develop a quantitative complexity metric for stromatolites, we must ask what makes it possible for the human brain to perceive lamination? Our visual system operates optimally as a difference machine rapidly identifying variations in signal intensity and redundancy in neighboring regions. In stromatolites, such differences are detected by first scanning parallel to the growth surface and then placing layers in context by scanning orthogonal to that surface. We propose that the fundamental metric for stromatolite complexity resides in the laminae themselves and that easily measured differences in luminance, variability, and redundancy between alternating laminae is an emergent feature of stromatolite complexity. The metrics calculated for laminae in photomicrographs revealed significant differences between putative biotic/abiotic laminae. The statistical indices calculated can contribute to stromatolite recognition, description, and classification. The indices are easily calculated in the laboratory or in the field on personal computers. We propose that such statistical information metrics be included as a standard component in the description of extant and fossil stromatolites.

  13. Statistical characterization of the fatigue behavior of composite lamina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J. N.; Jones, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to predict statistically the effects of constant and variable amplitude fatigue loadings on the residual strength and fatigue life of composite lamina. The parameters in the model were established from the results of a series of static tensile tests and a fatigue scan and a number of verification tests were performed. Abstracts for two other papers on the effect of load sequence on the statistical fatigue of composites are also presented.

  14. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria as a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Angkathunyakul, Napat; Treepongkaruna, Suporn; Molagool, Sani; Ruangwattanapaisarn, Nichanan

    2015-06-14

    Visceral myopathy is one of the causes of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Most cases pathologically reveal degenerative changes of myocytes or muscularis propia atrophy and fibrosis. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria is extremely rare. We report a case of a 9-mo-old Thai male baby who presented with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologic findings showed abnormal layering of small intestinal muscularis propria with an additional oblique layer and aberrant muscularization in serosa. The patient also had a short small bowel without malrotation, brachydactyly, and absence of the 2(nd) to 4(th) middle phalanges of both hands. The patient was treated with cisapride and combined parenteral and enteral nutritional support. He had gradual clinical improvement and gained body weight. Subsequently, the parenteral nutrition was discontinued. The previously reported cases are reviewed and discussed.

  15. Adaptations for nocturnal and diurnal vision in the hawkmoth lamina.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Anna L; Ribi, Willi A; Warrant, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Animals use vision over a wide range of light intensities, from dim starlight to bright sunshine. For animals active in very dim light the visual system is challenged by several sources of visual noise. Adaptations in the eyes, as well as in the neural circuitry, have evolved to suppress the noise and enhance the visual signal, thereby improving vision in dim light. Among neural adaptations, spatial summation of visual signals from neighboring processing units is suggested to increase the reliability of signal detection and thus visual sensitivity. In insects, the likely neural candidates for carrying out spatial summation are the lamina monopolar cells (LMCs) of the first visual processing area of the insect brain (the lamina). We have classified LMCs in three species of hawkmoths with considerably different activity periods but very similar ecology-the diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum, the nocturnal Deilephila elpenor and the crepuscular-nocturnal Manduca sexta. Using this classification, we investigated the anatomical adaptations of hawkmoth LMCs suited for spatial summation. We found that specific types of LMCs have dendrites extending to significantly more neighboring cartridges in the two nocturnal and crepuscular species than in the diurnal species, making these LMC types strong candidates for spatial summation. Moreover, while the absolute number of cartridges visited by the LMCs differed between the two dim-light species, their dendritic extents were very similar in terms of visual angle, possibly indicating a limiting spatial acuity. The overall size of the lamina neuropil did not correlate with the size of its LMCs. PMID:26100612

  16. The Leaf Adaxial-Abaxial Boundary and Lamina Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Miyuki; Okada, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, boundaries have a role in preventing the intermingling of two different cell populations and in organizing the morphogenesis of organs and the entire organism. Plant leaves have two different cell populations, the adaxial (or upper) and abaxial (or lower) cell populations, and the boundary is considered to be important for lamina growth. At the boundary between the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, corresponding to the margin, margin-specific structures are developed and structurally separate the adaxial and abaxial epidermis from each other. The adaxial and abaxial cells are determined by the adaxial and abaxial regulatory genes (including transcription factors and small RNAs), respectively. Among many lamina-growth regulators identified by recent genetic analyses, it has been revealed that the phytohormone, auxin, and the WOX family transcription factors act at the adaxial-abaxial boundary downstream of the adaxial-abaxial pattern. Furthermore, mutant analyses of the WOX genes shed light on the role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary in preventing the mixing of the adaxial and abaxial features during lamina growth. In this review, we highlight the recent studies on the dual role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary. PMID:27137371

  17. The interaction between intracranial pressure, intraocular pressure and lamina cribrosal compression in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2016-05-01

    This review examines some of the biomechanical consequences associated with the opposing intraocular and intracranial forces. These forces compress the lamina cribrosa and are a potential source of glaucomatous pathology. A difference between them creates a displacement force on the lamina cribrosa. Increasing intraocular pressure and/or decreasing intracranial pressure will increase the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference and the risk of its posterior displacement, canal expansion and the formation of pathological cupping. Both intraocular pressure and intracranial pressure can be elevated during a Valsalva manoeuvre with associated increases in both anterior and posterior lamina cribrosa loading as well as its compression. Any resulting thinning of or damage to the lamina cribrosa and/or retinal ganglion cell axons and/or astrocyte and glial cells attached to the matrix of the lamina cribrosa and/or reduction in blood flow to the lamina cribrosa may contribute to glaucomatous neuropathy. Thinning of the lamina cribrosa reduces its stiffness and increases the risk of its posterior displacement. Optic nerve head posterior displacement warrants medical or surgical lowering of intraocular pressure; however, compared to intraocular pressure, the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference may be more important in pressure-related pathology of the optic nerve head region. Similarly important could be increased compression loading of the lamina cribrosa. Reducing participation in activities which elevate intraocular and intracranial pressure will decrease lamina cribrosa compression exposure and may contribute to glaucoma management and may have prognostic significance for glaucoma suspects. PMID:27079432

  18. Nuclear Lamin-A Scales with Tissue Stiffness and Enhances Matrix-Directed Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Joe; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Buxboim, Amnon; Harada, Takamasa; Dingal, P. C. Dave P.; Pinter, Joel; Pajerowski, J. David; Spinler, Kyle R.; Shin, Jae-Won; Tewari, Manorama; Rehfeldt, Florian; Speicher, David W.; Discher, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    Tissues can be soft like fat, which bears little stress, or stiff like bone, which sustains high stress, but whether there is a systematic relationship between tissue mechanics and differentiation is unknown. Here, proteomics analyses revealed that levels of the nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A scaled with tissue elasticity, E, as did levels of collagens in the extracellular matrix that determine E. Stem cell differentiation into fat on soft matrix was enhanced by low lamin-A levels, whereas differentiation into bone on stiff matrix was enhanced by high lamin-A levels. Matrix stiffness directly influenced lamin-A protein levels, and, although lamin-A transcription was regulated by the vitamin A/retinoic acid (RA) pathway with broad roles in development, nuclear entry of RA receptors was modulated by lamin-A protein. Tissue stiffness and stress thus increase lamin-A levels, which stabilize the nucleus while also contributing to lineage determination. PMID:23990565

  19. The laryngeal primordium and epithelial lamina. A new interpretation.

    PubMed Central

    Sañudo, J R; Domenech-Mateu, J M

    1990-01-01

    The laryngeal primordium is present in both the laryngotracheal sulcus (LTS) and the primitive pulmonary sac (PPS). Its early period of development may be subdivided into two phases. The first phase (Stage 11) is represented by what is traditionally referred to as the LTS, located directly beneath the PP4 on the ventral wall of the foregut (primary segment), and by the PPS which is situated at its caudal end. The LTS will represent the primordium of the upper or membranous infraglottic cavity region; whereas the PPS, will give rise not only to the bronchial tree, but also to the primordium of the trachea and the lower or cartilaginous region of the infraglottic cavity. The second phase (Stages 13 and 14) is distinguished by the cranial growth of the LTS above the PP4 and therefore by its absorption into the floor of the primitive pharynx in the mesobranchial area (secondary segment), which will develop into the primordium of the vestibule of the larynx. Similarly, we observed that in the development of the laryngeal cavity there are two temporally and spatially separate epithelial structures: the epithelial septum and the epithelial lamina. In this respect we differ from other authors who are of the opinion that there is a single structure (the epithelial lamina). The epithelial septum is a primary structure responsible for the final configuration of the LTS, as it contributes to the development of the lower end of the primary segment of the LTS and also to the creation of the secondary segment. The epithelial lamina is a secondary structure which appears inside the LTS as a result of pressure exerted by the mesenchyme on its lateral walls, without having any effect on the morphogenesis of the LTS. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2081706

  20. The surface lamina of the articular cartilage of human zygapophyseal joints.

    PubMed

    Giles, L G

    1992-07-01

    Literature referring to the conflicting results of investigations into the possible existence and composition of the lamina splendens is reviewed. Two hundred micrometer thick histological sections from 80 human cadaveric lower lumbar zygapophyseal joint articular cartilages were examined by ordinary light and darkfield microscopy. The findings illustrate what appears to be an acellular surface lamina on the opposing cartilaginous surfaces. No speculation is made regarding the possible physiological significance of the lamina based on this anatomical study. PMID:1609968

  1. Heterogeneity of Brunsting-Perry type pemphigoid: a case showing blister formation at the lamina lucida, immune deposition beneath the lamina densa and autoantibodies against the 290-kD polypeptide along the lamina densa.

    PubMed

    Minato, Haruka; Ishii, Norito; Fukuda, Shunpei; Wakasa, Tomoko; Wakasa, Ken'ichi; Sogame, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Takashi; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2011-09-01

    An otherwise healthy 31-year-old man presented with multiple, vesicular, subepidermal blistering on the head, face, chest and oral cavity, leaving shallow scar formation, typical of Brunsting-Perry type pemphigoid. Direct immunofluorescence showed linear deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and C3 along the basement membrane zone (BMZ), and indirect showed anti-BMZ autoantibodies (IgG, >40×) reacting with the dermal side under the salt-split study. Immunofluorescence staining for type IV collagen and laminins, as well as routine electron microscopy, demonstrated that the cleavage level of the blister was intra-lamina lucida. The immunoperoxidase method applied to lesional skin demonstrated IgG deposits along the lamina densa. The post-embedding immunogold method demonstrated that the autoantibodies against BMZ reacted with the lamina densa and the dermis just beneath it. Immunoblot studies demonstrated that the autoantibodies reacted with the 290-kD polypeptide (suggesting type VII collagen) when dermal extract was used as the substrate. The patient was treated with combination therapy consisting of 30 mg prednisolone, 900 mg nicotinamide and 750 mg tetracycline, and the number of newly forming blisters decreased. We concluded that Brunsting-Perry type pemphigoid, a rare autoimmune blistering disease, includes cases showing characteristics of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita as well as bullous pemphigoid. This case showed discrepancy between the blistering level (intra-lamina lucida) and location of antigen (lamina densa and sub-lamina densa areas).

  2. Robust nuclear lamina-based cell classification of aging and senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Righolt, Christiaan H.; van 't Hoff, Merel L.R.; Vermolen, Bart J.; Young, Ian T.; Raz, Vered

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the shape of the nuclear lamina are exhibited in senescent cells, as well as in cells expressing mutations in lamina genes. To identify cells with defects in the nuclear lamina we developed an imaging method that quantifies the intensity and curvature of the nuclear lamina. We show that this method accurately describes changes in the nuclear lamina. Spatial changes in nuclear lamina coincide with redistribution of lamin A proteins and local reduction in protein mobility in senescent cell. We suggest that local accumulation of lamin A in the nuclear envelope leads to bending of the structure. A quantitative distinction of the nuclear lamina shape in cell populations was found between fresh and senescent cells, and between primary myoblasts from young and old donors. Moreover, with this method mutations in lamina genes were significantly distinct from cells with wild-type genes. We suggest that this method can be applied to identify abnormal cells during aging, in in vitro propagation, and in lamina disorders. PMID:22199022

  3. Biointegration of the osteo-odonto lamina in the modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis: engineering of tissue to restore lost vision.

    PubMed

    Sawatari, Yoh; Marx, Robert E; Perez, Victor L; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis (MOOKP) is a biologic keratoprosthesis that is used to treat a severely scarred cornea. The procedure involves multiple stages, including the transplantation of buccal mucosa to the damaged ocular surface and the implantation of an osteo-odonto lamina with a mounted polymethylmethacrylate lens. Among the keratoprostheses currently available, the MOOKP has proven to be the most effective based on the number of patients who have undergone the procedure and the duration of documented follow-up. Upon successful biointegration of the osteo-odonto lamina, the keratoprosthesis is able to resist resorption, provide stability, and prevent bacterial invasion and epithelial ingrowth. The effectiveness of the MOOKP is dependent on the anatomic and physiologic characteristics of the dental tissues and periodontal ligament. PMID:24066348

  4. Evolution of centrosomes and the nuclear lamina: Amoebozoan assets.

    PubMed

    Gräf, Ralph; Batsios, Petros; Meyer, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The current eukaryotic tree of life groups most eukaryotes into one of five supergroups, the Opisthokonta, Amoebozoa, Archaeplastida, Excavata and SAR (Stramenopile, Alveolata, Rhizaria). Molecular and comparative morphological analyses revealed that the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) already contained a rather sophisticated equipment of organelles including a mitochondrion, an endomembrane system, a nucleus with a lamina, a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), and a flagellar apparatus. Recent studies of MTOCs, basal bodies/centrioles, and nuclear envelope organization of organisms in different supergroups have clarified our picture of how the nucleus and MTOCs co-evolved from LECA to extant eukaryotes. In this review we summarize these findings with special emphasis on valuable contributions of research on a lamin-like protein, nuclear envelope proteins, and the MTOC in the amoebozoan model organism Dictyostelium discoideum. PMID:25952183

  5. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    PubMed

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (< 0. 1 mm), and 17 healthy and six atretic antral follicles (0.5-12 mm in diameter) were processed for light and electron microscopy to investigate the relationship the between follicular basal lamina and membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles laminae of a single layer adjacent to the basal granulosa cells were observed in healthy follicles at the preantral and antral stages. However, at the preantral stage, the conventional types of basal lamina were enlarged or even partially laminated. A second type of basal lamina, described as 'loopy', occurred in about half the preantral follicles and in half the antral follicles laminae were not observed in larger follicles. 'Loopy' basal laminae were composed of basal laminae aligning the basal surface of basal granulosa cells, but with additional layers or loops often branching from the innermost layer. Each loop was usually < 1 microm long and had vesicles (20-30 nm) attached to the inner aspect. Basal cellular processes were also common, and vesicles could be seen budding off from these processes. In antral follicles, conventional basal laminae occurred in follicles with rounded basal granulosa cells. Other follicles with columnar cells, and atretic follicles, had the 'loopy' basal lamina phenotype. Thus, follicles have different basal laminae that relate to the morphology of the membrana granulosa. PMID:10864785

  6. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Mason, Helen D.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined follicles from human ovaries (n = 18) by electron microscopy and found that many follicles had additional layers of basal lamina. Oocytes (n = 222) from bovine follicles with normal or unusual basal laminas were isolated and their ability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to blastocyst was compared. Healthy bovine follicles with a single layer of basal lamina had oocytes with significantly (P < 0.01) greater developmental competence than healthy follicles with additional layers of follicular basal lamina (65% versus 28%). CONCLUSIONS These findings provide direct evidence that the phenotype of the follicular basal lamina is related to oocyte competence. PMID:19095662

  7. Contributions of the 12 neuron classes in the fly lamina to motion vision.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, John C; Nern, Aljoscha; Holtz, Stephen L; Rubin, Gerald M; Reiser, Michael B

    2013-07-10

    Motion detection is a fundamental neural computation performed by many sensory systems. In the fly, local motion computation is thought to occur within the first two layers of the visual system, the lamina and medulla. We constructed specific genetic driver lines for each of the 12 neuron classes in the lamina. We then depolarized and hyperpolarized each neuron type and quantified fly behavioral responses to a diverse set of motion stimuli. We found that only a small number of lamina output neurons are essential for motion detection, while most neurons serve to sculpt and enhance these feedforward pathways. Two classes of feedback neurons (C2 and C3), and lamina output neurons (L2 and L4), are required for normal detection of directional motion stimuli. Our results reveal a prominent role for feedback and lateral interactions in motion processing and demonstrate that motion-dependent behaviors rely on contributions from nearly all lamina neuron classes.

  8. Polarized Integrin Mediates Human Keratinocyte Adhesion to Basal Lamina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, Michele; Tamura, Richard N.; Kajiji, Shama; Bondanza, Sergio; Rossino, Paola; Cancedda, Ranieri; Carlo Marchisio, Pier; Quaranta, Vito

    1990-09-01

    Epithelial cell interactions with matrices are critical to tissue organization. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitations of cell lysates prepared from stratified cultures of human epidermal cells showed that the major integrins expressed by keratinocytes are α_Eβ_4 (also called α_6β_4) and α_2β_1/α_3β_1. The α_Eβ_4 integrin is localized at the surface of basal cells in contact with the basement membrane, whereas α_2β_1/ α_3β_1 integrins are absent from the basal surface and are localized only on the lateral surface of basal and spinous keratinocytes. Anti-β_4 antibodies potently inhibited keratinocyte adhesion to matrigel or purified laminin, whereas anti-β_1 antibodies were ineffective. Only anti-β_4 antibodies were able to detach established keratinocyte colonies. These data suggest that α_Eβ_4 mediates keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina, whereas the β_1 subfamily is involved in cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes.

  9. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. PMID:26555958

  10. How lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) activates Torsin

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Brian A; Demircioglu, F Esra; Chen, James Z; Ingram, Jessica; Ploegh, Hidde L; Schwartz, Thomas U

    2014-01-01

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) resides at the nuclear envelope and interacts with Torsins, poorly understood endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized AAA+ ATPases, through a conserved, perinuclear domain. We determined the crystal structure of the perinuclear domain of human LAP1. LAP1 possesses an atypical AAA+ fold. While LAP1 lacks canonical nucleotide binding motifs, its strictly conserved arginine 563 is positioned exactly where the arginine finger of canonical AAA+ ATPases is found. Based on modeling and electron microscopic analysis, we propose that LAP1 targets Torsin to the nuclear envelope by forming an alternating, heterohexameric (LAP1-Torsin)3 ring, in which LAP1 acts as the Torsin activator. The experimental data show that mutation of arginine 563 in LAP1 reduces its ability to stimulate TorsinA ATPase hydrolysis. This knowledge may help scientists understand the etiology of DYT1 primary dystonia, a movement disorder caused by a single glutamate deletion in TorsinA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03239.001 PMID:25149450

  11. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  12. Axon diversity of lamina I local-circuit neurons in the lumbar spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Peter; Luz, Liliana L; Pinho, Raquel; Aguiar, Paulo; Antal, Zsófia; Tiong, Sheena Y X; Todd, Andrew J; Safronov, Boris V

    2013-08-15

    Spinal lamina I is a key area for relaying and integrating information from nociceptive primary afferents with various other sources of inputs. Although lamina I projection neurons have been intensively studied, much less attention has been given to local-circuit neurons (LCNs), which form the majority of the lamina I neuronal population. In this work the infrared light-emitting diode oblique illumination technique was used to visualize and label LCNs, allowing reconstruction and analysis of their dendritic and extensive axonal trees. We show that the majority of lamina I neurons with locally branching axons fall into the multipolar (with ventrally protruding dendrites) and flattened (dendrites limited to lamina I) somatodendritic categories. Analysis of their axons revealed that the initial myelinated part gives rise to several unmyelinated small-diameter branches that have a high number of densely packed, large varicosities and an extensive rostrocaudal (two or three segments), mediolateral, and dorsoventral (reaching laminae III-IV) distribution. The extent of the axon and the occasional presence of long, solitary branches suggest that LCNs may also form short and long propriospinal connections. We also found that the distribution of axon varicosities and terminal field locations show substantial heterogeneity and that a substantial portion of LCNs is inhibitory. Our observations indicate that LCNs of lamina I form intersegmental as well as interlaminar connections and may govern large numbers of neurons, providing anatomical substrate for rostrocaudal "processing units" in the dorsal horn.

  13. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for in vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilupuru, Abhiram S.; Rangaswamy, Nalini V.; Frishman, Laura J.; Smith, Earl L., III; Harwerth, Ronald S.; Roorda, Austin

    2007-05-01

    The lamina cribrosa has been postulated from in vitro studies as an early site of damage in glaucoma. Prior in vivo measures of laminar morphology have been confounded by ocular aberrations. In this study the lamina cribrosa was imaged after correcting for ocular aberrations using the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) in normal and glaucomatous eyes of rhesus monkeys. All measured laminar morphological parameters showed increased magnitudes in glaucomatous eyes relative to fellow control eyes, indicating altered structure. The AOSLO provides high-quality images of the lamina cribrosa and may have potential as a tool for early identification of glaucoma.

  14. Robust internal elastic lamina fenestration in skeletal muscle arteries.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Brett S; Bruhl, Allison; Sullivan, Michelle N; Francis, Michael; Dinenno, Frank A; Earley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Holes within the internal elastic lamina (IEL) of blood vessels are sites of fenestration allowing for passage of diffusible vasoactive substances and interface of endothelial cell membrane projections with underlying vascular smooth muscle. Endothelial projections are sites of dynamic Ca(2+) events leading to endothelium dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated relaxations and the activity of these events increase as vessel diameter decreases. We tested the hypothesis that IEL fenestration is greater in distal vs. proximal arteries in skeletal muscle, and is unlike other vascular beds (mesentery). We also determined ion channel protein composition within the endothelium of intramuscular and non-intramuscular skeletal muscle arteries. Popliteal arteries, subsequent gastrocnemius feed arteries, and first and second order intramuscular arterioles from rat hindlimb were isolated, cut longitudinally, fixed, and imaged using confocal microscopy. Quantitative analysis revealed a significantly larger total fenestration area in second and first order arterioles vs. feed and popliteal arteries (58% and 16% vs. 5% and 3%; N = 10 images/artery), due to a noticeably greater average size of holes (9.5 and 3.9 µm(2) vs 1.5 and 1.9 µm(2)). Next, we investigated via immunolabeling procedures whether proteins involved in EDH often embedded in endothelial cell projections were disparate between arterial segments. Specific proteins involved in EDH, such as inositol trisphosphate receptors, small and intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, and the canonical (C) transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPC3 were present in both popliteal and first order intramuscular arterioles. However due to larger IEL fenestration in first order arterioles, a larger spanning area of EDH proteins is observed proximal to the smooth muscle cell plasma membrane. These observations highlight the robust area of fenestration within intramuscular arterioles and indicate that the

  15. Changes in lamina cribrosa and prelaminar tissue after deep sclerectomy

    PubMed Central

    Barrancos, C; Rebolleda, G; Oblanca, N; Cabarga, C; Muñoz-Negrete, F J

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the response of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and prelaminar tissue to a reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) after nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods A total of 28 eyes from 28 patients presenting with primary open angle glaucoma who underwent NPDS were studied. SD-OCT scans using EDI technology were obtained before surgery and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. The OCT device was set to image a 15 × 10° vertical rectangle centred on the optic disc. The scan closest to the optic nerve head (ONH) centre was selected for analysis. The vertical distances from three equidistant points on the reference line (Bruch's membrane opening) to the anterior prelaminar tissue surface and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the LC were measured. Results The IOP decreased from 18.7±4.3 to 9.1±4.0 at the first week, 11.4±3.7 at 1 month, and 13.1±3.6 mm Hg at 3 months postoperatively (P<0.001). There was a significant reduction of the ONH cupping at 1 week (22.3%, P<0.001), 1 month (13.7%, P<0.001), and 3 months (9.8%, P=0.001) after surgery. Anterior displacement of the LC was slight but statistically significant at 1 week (4.5%, P=0.003), 1 month (3.8%, P=0.014), and 3 months postoperatively (3.3%, P=0.010). IOP reduction was significantly correlated with a reduction of ONH cupping and anterior displacement of LC at the first week and first month (P<0.05). Conclusions Cupping reversal after NPDS is mainly due to changes in prelaminar tissue thickness, whereas the LC changes in position are less pronounced. PMID:24232316

  16. Analysis of Isentropic Transport in the Lower Tropical Stratosphere from Laminae Observed in Shadoz Ozone Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portafaix, T.; Bencherif, H.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Begue, N.; Culot, A.

    2014-12-01

    The subtropical dynamical barrier located in the lower stratosphere on the edge of the Tropical Stratospheric Reservoir (TSR), controls and limits exchanges between tropical and extratropical lower stratosphere. The geographical position of stations located near from the edge of the Tropical Stratospheric Reservoir is interesting since they are regularly interested by air-mass filaments originated from TSR or mid-latitudes. During such filamentary events, profiles of chemical species are modified according to the origin and the height of the air mass. These perturbations called "laminae" are generally associated to quasi-horizontal transport events. Many SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) stations from all around the southern tropics were selected in order to study the variability of laminae. Profiles from ozonesondes were analyzed to detect laminae using a statistical standard deviation method from the climatology. Time series of laminae were investigated by a multilinear regression model in order to estimate the influence of several proxy on laminae variability from 1998 to 2013. Different forcings such as QBO, ENSO or IOD were applied. The first objective is to better quantify isentropic transport as function of the station location and the influence of the QBO on the laminae occurrences. Finally, cases studies were conducted from high-resolution advection model MIMOSA. These allow us to identify the air mass origin and to highlight privileged roads where meridional transport occurs between tropics and midlatitudes.

  17. Investigating Invasives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  18. Distinctive membrane and discharge properties of rat spinal lamina I projection neurones in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Heinke, Bernhard; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Most lamina I neurones with a projection to the brainstem express the neurokinin 1 receptor and thus belong to a small subgroup of lamina I neurones that are necessary for the development of hyperalgesia in rat models of persisting pain. These neurones are prone to synaptic plasticity following primary afferent stimulation in the noxious range while other nociceptive lamina I neurones are not. Here, we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from lamina I neurones in young rat spinal cord transverse slices to test if projection neurones possess membrane properties that set them apart from other lamina I neurones. Neurones with a projection to the parabrachial area or the periaqueductal grey (PAG) were identified by retrograde labelling with the fluorescent tracer DiI. The properties of lamina I projection neurones were found to be fundamentally different from those of unidentified, presumably propriospinal lamina I neurones. Two firing patterns, the gap and the bursting firing pattern, occurred almost exclusively in projection neurones. Most spino-parabrachial neurones showed the gap firing pattern while the bursting firing pattern was characteristic of spino-PAG neurones. The underlying membrane currents had the properties of an A-type K+ current and a Ca2+ curent with a low activation threshold, respectively. Projection neurones, especially those of the burst firing type, were more easily excitable than unidentified neurones and received a larger proportion of monosynaptic input from primary afferent C-fibres. Intracellular labelling with Lucifer yellow showed that projection neurones had larger somata than unidentified neurones and many had a considerable extension in the mediolateral plane. PMID:14694142

  19. Long-term trends in the northern extratropical ozone laminae with focus on European stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovicka, Jan; Krizan, Peter; Kozubek, Michal

    2014-12-01

    Narrow layers of substantially enhanced ozone concentration in ozonesonde-observed ozone profiles, called positive ozone laminae, reveal much stronger trend than the stratospheric and total ozone itself. They seem to be sensitive to both the ozone concentration and even more to changes in the stratospheric dynamics. We are studying long-term trends of strong positive laminae based on balloon-borne ozone sounding in Europe, Japan, North America and Arctic over 1970-2011 with focus on European stations due to their highest frequency of ozone sounding. Laminae characteristics exhibit strong negative trend till the mid-1990s (decrease by 50% or more). In more recent years this negative trend reverses to a positive trend. According to regression analysis, several factors play a role in the trend in laminae in Europe, namely NAO, EESC and the behavior of the winter polar stratospheric vortex represented here by the 10 hPa polar temperature. On the other hand, several factors are found not to play a significant role in the long-term trend in laminae.

  20. The Meiotic Nuclear Lamina Regulates Chromosome Dynamics and Promotes Efficient Homologous Recombination in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Johannes; Göb, Eva; Baar, Johannes; Ortega, Sagrario; Benavente, Ricardo; Alsheimer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is the structural scaffold of the nuclear envelope and is well known for its central role in nuclear organization and maintaining nuclear stability and shape. In the past, a number of severe human disorders have been identified to be associated with mutations in lamins. Extensive research on this topic has provided novel important clues about nuclear lamina function. These studies have contributed to the knowledge that the lamina constitutes a complex multifunctional platform combining both structural and regulatory functions. Here, we report that, in addition to the previously demonstrated significance for somatic cell differentiation and maintenance, the nuclear lamina is also an essential determinant for germ cell development. Both male and female mice lacking the short meiosis-specific A-type lamin C2 have a severely defective meiosis, which at least in the male results in infertility. Detailed analysis revealed that lamin C2 is required for telomere-driven dynamic repositioning of meiotic chromosomes. Loss of lamin C2 affects precise synapsis of the homologs and interferes with meiotic double-strand break repair. Taken together, our data explain how the nuclear lamina contributes to meiotic chromosome behaviour and accurate genome haploidization on a mechanistic level. PMID:23382700

  1. Effects of changes in composite lamina properties on laminate coefficient of thermal expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.; Funk, Joan G.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of the effects of changes in composite lamina properties on the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, has been made. Low modulus graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and high modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic and near-zero CTE laminate configurations. The effects of changes in lamina properties on the laminate CTE strongly depend upon the type of composite material as well as the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.22 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminates. No significant differences were observed in the sensitivities of the laminate CTEs of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to identical changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can also result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

  2. Auxin-mediated lamina growth in tomato leaves is restricted by two parallel mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ben-Gera, Hadas; Dafna, Asaf; Alvarez, John Paul; Bar, Maya; Mauerer, Mareike; Ori, Naomi

    2016-06-01

    In the development of tomato compound leaves, local auxin maxima points, separated by the expression of the Aux/IAA protein SlIAA9/ENTIRE (E), direct the formation of discrete leaflets along the leaf margin. The local auxin maxima promote leaflet initiation, while E acts between leaflets to inhibit auxin response and lamina growth, enabling leaflet separation. Here, we show that a group of auxin response factors (ARFs), which are targeted by miR160, antagonizes auxin response and lamina growth in conjunction with E. In wild-type leaf primordia, the miR160-targeted ARFs SlARF10A and SlARF17 are expressed in leaflets, and SlmiR160 is expressed in provascular tissues. Leaf overexpression of the miR160-targeted ARFs SlARF10A, SlARF10B or SlARF17, led to reduced lamina and increased leaf complexity, and suppressed auxin response in young leaves. In agreement, leaf overexpression of miR160 resulted in simplified leaves due to ectopic lamina growth between leaflets, reminiscent of e leaves. Genetic interactions suggest that E and miR160-targeted ARFs act partially redundantly but are both required for local inhibition of lamina growth between initiating leaflets. These results show that different types of auxin signal antagonists act cooperatively to ensure leaflet separation in tomato leaf margins. PMID:27121172

  3. Polystyrene replicas of neuronal basal lamina act as excellent guides for regenerating neurites.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Martin; Johansson, Fredrik; Kanje, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Various scaffolds, natural or artificial, have been used for neural repair, including basal lamina scaffolds obtained through extraction of nerves. Here we tested whether plastic casts of such preparations could be used for neurite guidance. To this end, longitudinal micron thick sections of rat sciatic nerve were extracted with detergents and treated with Dnase, yielding an acellular basal lamina master. From the basal lamina master a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold was made. Then a polystyrene replica was made using the PDMS mold as the master. The polystyrene replica showed high similarity to the master within nanometer resolution as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Organ cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia grown on the polystyrene replica and the master preparation exhibited guided outgrowth of neurites as assayed by two-dimensional fast Fourier transform analysis on preparations, where the neurites had been visualized by β-III-tubulin staining. The neurites aligned longitudally in the direction of the original basal lamina tubes. Thus, using inexpensive methods it is possible to make replicas of basal lamina which can be used for neurite guidance. This opens a new avenue for nerve reconstruction.

  4. Quantitative characterization of low-threshold mechanoreceptor inputs to lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Andrew, David

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that primary afferent C-fibres that respond to innocuous tactile stimuli are important in the sensation of pleasurable touch. Although it is known that C-tactile fibres terminate in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of the spinal cord, virtually all of the neurons in this region are interneurons, and currently it is not known how impulses in C-mechanoreceptors are transmitted to higher centres. In the current study, I have tested the quantitative response properties of 'wide dynamic range' projection neurons in lamina I of the spinal cord to graded velocity brushing stimuli to identify whether low-threshold mechanoreceptor input to these neurons arises from myelinated or umyelinated nerve fibres. Graded velocity brushing stimuli (6.6-126 cm s(-1)) were used to characterize the mechanoreceptor inputs to 'wide dynamic range' neurons in lamina I of the dorsal horn that had axons that projected to the contralateral parabrachial nucleus. The most effective tactile stimuli for activation of 'wide dynamic range' lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons were low velocity brush strokes: peak discharge occurred at a mean velocity of 9.2 cm s(-1) (range 6.6-20.4 cm s(-1), s.d. 5.0 cm s(-1)), and declined exponentially as brush velocity increased. The data indicate that C-fibres, but not A-fibres, conveyed low-threshold mechanoreceptor inputs to lamina I projection neurons.

  5. ACCURACY OF RADIOGRAPHIC DETECTION OF THE CRANIAL MARGIN OF THE DORSAL LAMINA OF THE CANINE SACRUM.

    PubMed

    Blume, Lauren M; Worth, Andrew J; Cohen, Eli B; Bridges, Janis P; Hartman, Angela C

    2015-01-01

    An elongated sacral lamina has been described as one of the contributing factors for dogs with cauda equina syndrome due to degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS); however, published evidence is lacking on the accuracy of radiographic screening for the presence of this lesion. Objectives of this prospective, cross-sectional cadaver study were to describe the accuracy and repeatability of detection of the cranial sacral lamina margin on plain lateral radiographs of the lumbosacral junction in dogs. Twenty-five medium and large breed canine cadavers were radiographed before and after placement of a radiopaque hook in the cranial margin of the sacral lamina. Three independent evaluators placed digital markers at the perceived margin on preinterventional radiographs. The distance from perceived location to the true location on postinterventional radiographs was recorded for each dog and observer. A discordance threshold (distance between perceived and actual margin) of 1.5 mm was subjectively defined as clinically relevant. The three evaluators demonstrated good repeatability, although the accuracy for margin detection was only fair (mean discordance 1.7 mm). Evaluators demonstrated greater accuracy in identifying the landmark in juveniles (1.4 mm) vs. adults (1.8 mm; P < 0.01). Results of this study indicated that observer repeatability is good and accuracy is fair for correctly identifying the radiographic cranial margin of the sacral lamina in dogs. This should be taken into consideration when interpreting elongation of the sacral lamina in radiographs of dogs with suspected DLSS, especially adults. PMID:26304022

  6. Galanin-immunoreactivity identifies a distinct population of inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III of the rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inhibitory interneurons constitute 30-40% of neurons in laminae I-III and have an important anti-nociceptive role. However, because of the difficulty in classifying them we know little about their organisation. Previous studies have identified 3 non-overlapping groups of inhibitory interneuron, which contain neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or parvalbumin, and have shown that these differ in postsynaptic targets. Some inhibitory interneurons contain galanin and the first aim of this study was to determine whether these form a different population from those containing NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin. We also estimated the proportion of neurons and GABAergic axons that contain galanin in laminae I-III. Results Galanin cells were concentrated in laminae I-IIo, with few in laminae IIi-III. Galanin showed minimal co-localisation with NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin in laminae I-II, but most galanin-containing cells in lamina III were nNOS-positive. Galanin cells constituted ~7%, 3% and 2% of all neurons in laminae I, II and III, and we estimate that this corresponds to 26%, 10% and 5% of the GABAergic neurons in these laminae. However, galanin was only found in ~6% of GABAergic boutons in laminae I-IIo, and ~1% of those in laminae IIi-III. Conclusions These results show that galanin, NPY, nNOS and parvalbumin can be used to define four distinct neurochemical populations of inhibitory interneurons. Together with results of a recent study, they suggest that the galanin and NPY populations account for around half of the inhibitory interneurons in lamina I and a quarter of those in lamina II. PMID:21569622

  7. Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, M A; Stavenga, D G

    2016-05-01

    Butterflies belonging to the nymphalid subfamily, Morphinae, are famous for their brilliant blue wing coloration and iridescence. These striking optical phenomena are commonly explained as to originate from multilayer reflections by the ridges of the wing scales. Because the lower lamina of the scales of related nymphalid butterflies, the Nymphalinae, plays a dominant role in the wing coloration, by acting as a thin film reflector, we investigated single blue scales of three characteristic Morpho species: M. epistrophus, M. helenor and M. cypris. The experimental data obtained by spectrophotometry, scatterometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that also in the Morpho genus the lower lamina of both the cover and ground scales acts as an optical thin film reflector, contributing importantly to the blue structural coloration of the wings. Melanin pigment has a contrast-enhancing function in a sub-class of ground scales. PMID:27072662

  8. Climatology of the relationship between ozone lamina number and daily value of total ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, Peter

    2016-04-01

    This poster deals with relationship between positive and negative lamina number and daily values of total ozone at the ozonosonde stations with sufficient length of observations. We search for this relationship at the European and the Japanese ozonosonde stations as well at the American and Canadian midlatitude stations and at the stations in the high latitudes At the European midlatitude stations there is a strong positive correlations between daily values of positive lamina number and daily values of ozone amount up to 30 km. These correlations are weaker and negative for negative lamina number. Are these findings geographically dependent? Is any latitudinal dependence of this relationship? Are there any differences between the Arctic and the Antarctica? This poster try to answer these question.

  9. Bullous pemphigoid: role of complement and mechanisms for blister formation within the lamina lucida.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Kitajima, Yasuo

    2013-06-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP), an autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin disease, demonstrates tense blisters with or without widespread erythema, blistering along the lamina lucida, immunoglobulin G and/or complement deposits at the basement membrane zone, and the presence of circulating autoantibodies against hemidesmosomal molecules. These autoantibodies usually react against 180-kDa and/or 230-kDa proteins, designated as BP180 and BP230, respectively. The precise blistering mechanisms after autoantibodies bind to antigens are not fully understood. Immune complexes are thought to initially activate the complement cascade, which may induce activation of proteases and/or cytokines and cause dermal-epidermal separation. However, why does separation run specifically within the lamina lucida in a space as narrow as 500 nm wide? This review mainly focuses on the possible mechanisms of BP-specific blistering and how separation occurs along the lamina lucida, based on existing evidence.

  10. Invasive Candidiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida . Unlike Candida ... mouth and throat (also called “thrush”) or vaginal “yeast infections,” invasive candidiasis is a serious infection that ...

  11. Seasonal Evolution of Rossby and Gravity Wave Induced Laminae in Ozonesonde Data Obtained from Wallops Island, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grant, William B.

    1998-01-01

    A method for evaluating the seasonal evolution of ozone laminae using ozonesonde data is discussed. The method uses the correlation between small-scale ozone and potential temperature variations to distinguish between laminae generated by quasi-isentropic filamentation by Rossby waves and by vertical displacements of material surfaces by gravity waves. Data from Wallops Island, Virginia show that Rossby wave induced ozone laminae are most frequently encountered at Wallops during the winter months near 15 km while statistically significant gravity wave induced laminae occur above 15 km during the early winter and at the tropopause from late winter through early spring.

  12. Alterations in structure of elastic laminae of rat pulmonary arteries in hypoxic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Liu, S Q

    1996-11-01

    The effect of hypoxic hypertension on the remodeling process of the elastic laminae of the rat hilar pulmonary arteries (PAs) was studied by electron microscopy. Rats were exposed to hypoxia (10% O2) for periods of 0.5, 2,6,12,48,96,144, and 240 h. Changes in the structure of the PA elastic laminae were examined and analyzed with respect to changes in the PA wall tensile stress. The PA blood pressure increased rapidly within the first several hours of hypoxia and reached a stable level within 2 days, whereas the PA wall tensile stress increased initially due to elevated blood pressure and then decreased after 48 h due to vessel wall thickening and returned to the control level after 4 days. In association with these changes, the elastic laminae, which appeared homogeneous in normal control rats, changed into structures composed of randomly oriented filaments and edematous contents with an increase in the volume during the early period of hypoxia and regained their homogeneous appearance and normal volume after 4 days. The changes in the elastic laminae were correlated with changes in the tensile stress. These changes were associated with a transient decrease in the stiffness of the PAs. In hypoxic rats given nifedipine, no change was found in the blood pressure, the tensile stress, or the structure of the elastic laminae of the PAs despite continuous exposure to hypoxia. These results suggested that altered tensile stress in the PA wall played a critical role in the initiation and regulation of structural changes in the elastic laminae and that these changes might contribute to alterations in the mechanical properties of the PA in hypoxic hypertension. PMID:8941540

  13. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhado, A. C. M.; Whittaker, R. J.; Malhi, Y.; Ladle, R. J.; Ter Steege, H.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Quesada, C. A.; Araujo, A. M.; Phillips, O. L.; Peacock, J.; López-González, G.; Baker, T. R.; Butt, N.; Anderson, L. O.; Arroyo, L.; Almeida, S.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T. J.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D. A.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Prieto, A.; Salomão, R. P.; Silva, N.; Vásquez-M., R.; Laurance, W. F.; Alexiades, M. N.; Ramírez A., H.

    2009-02-01

    Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: (1) describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; (2) identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60-70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as elliptic (=the widest part of a leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf). Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions and low nutrient soils. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between the proportion of trees with non-entire laminas (dissected, toothed, etc.) and mean annual temperature once again

  14. The lamina splendens of articular cartilage is an artefact of phase contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Aspden, R M; Hukins, D W

    1979-11-30

    The so-called lamina splendens of articular cartilage is shown to be a characteristic of phase contrast microscopy; this technique provides no evidence for an anatomically distinct surface layer. Fresnel diffraction occurs at edges separating regions of different refractive indices. These diffraction effects, when viewed under phase contrast, lead to the appearance of a bright line along the edge. PMID:42065

  15. Simultaneous labelling of basal lamina components and acetylcholinesterase at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Stephens, H; Bendayan, M; Gisiger, V

    1985-11-01

    A double labelling technique has been developed which permits the concomitant localization of basal lamina constituents together with acetylcholinesterase in mouse skeletal muscles. First, using the protein A-gold technique, type IV collagen and laminin were revealed on basal laminae ensheathing skeletal muscle fibres. The immunolabelling for both proteins was higher in synaptic than extrasynaptic regions. At synaptic sites the anti-type IV collagen immunolabelling exhibited an asymmetry; it was more intense on the portion of basal lamina closest to the postsynaptic membrane, whereas the anti-laminin immunolabelling was more uniformly distributed. It was also observed that the laminin immunoreactivity associated with Schwann and perineural cells was higher than that of skeletal muscle fibres. Secondly, the two basal lamina antigens were revealed simultaneously with another synaptic protein, acetylcholinesterase, using a refined cytochemical technique prior to the immunolabelling. The cytochemical reaction, which facilitates the location of endplates, did not alter the immunolabelling pattern. This double labelling procedure permits ready comparison of the distributions of type IV collagen and laminin with that of acetylcholinesterase, and may prove to be a useful approach in studies on synaptic components in developing and diseased muscle.

  16. Harmonic oscillations of laminae in non-Newtonian fluids: A lattice Boltzmann-Immersed Boundary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the fluid dynamics induced by a rigid lamina undergoing harmonic oscillations in a non-Newtonian calm fluid is investigated. The fluid is modelled through the lattice Boltzmann method and the flow is assumed to be nearly incompressible. An iterative viscosity-correction based procedure is proposed to properly account for the non-Newtonian fluid feature and its accuracy is evaluated. In order to handle the mutual interaction between the lamina and the encompassing fluid, the Immersed Boundary method is adopted. A numerical campaign is performed. In particular, the effect of the non-Newtonian feature is highlighted by investigating the fluid forces acting on a harmonically oscillating lamina for different values of the Reynolds number. The findings prove that the non-Newtonian feature can drastically influence the behaviour of the fluid and, as a consequence, the forces acting upon the lamina. Several considerations are carried out on the time history of the drag coefficient and the results are used to compute the added mass through the hydrodynamic function. Moreover, the computational cost involved in the numerical simulations is discussed. Finally, two applications concerning water resources are investigated: the flow through an obstructed channel and the particle sedimentation. Present findings highlight a strong coupling between the body shape, the Reynolds number, and the flow behaviour index.

  17. Inelastic deformation mechanisms in SCS-6/Ti 15-3 MMC lamina under compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newaz, Golam M.; Majumdar, Bhaskar S.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the inelastic deformation mechanisms in (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) Ti 15-3/SCS-6 lamina subjected to pure compression. Monotonic tests were conducted at room temperature (RT), 538 C and 650 C. Results indicate that mechanical response and deformation characteristics were different in monotonic tension and compression loading whereas some of those differences could be attributed to residual stress effects. There were other differences because of changes in damage and failure modes. The inelastic deformation in the (0)(sub 8) lamina under compression was controlled primarily by matrix plasticity, although some evidence of fiber-matrix debonding was observed. Failure of the specimen in compression was due to fiber buckling in a macroscopic shear zone (the failure plane). The inelastic deformation mechanisms under compression in (90)(sub 8) lamina were controlled by radial fiber fracture, matrix plasticity, and fiber-matrix debonding. The radial fiber fracture was a new damage mode observed for MMC's. Constitutive response was predicted for both the (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) laminae, using AGLPLY, METCAN, and Battelle's Unit Cell FEA model. Results from the analyses were encouraging.

  18. Remodeling of the Nuclear Envelope and Lamina during Bovine Preimplantation Development and Its Functional Implications.

    PubMed

    Popken, Jens; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Schmid, Volker J; Strauss, Axel; Guengoer, Tuna; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Wolf, Eckhard; Cremer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a major remodeling of the nuclear envelope and its underlying lamina during bovine preimplantation development. Up to the onset of major embryonic genome activation (MGA) at the 8-cell stage nuclei showed a non-uniform distribution of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). NPCs were exclusively present at sites where DNA contacted the nuclear lamina. Extended regions of the lamina, which were not contacted by DNA, lacked NPCs. In post-MGA nuclei the whole lamina was contacted rather uniformly by DNA. Accordingly, NPCs became uniformly distributed throughout the entire nuclear envelope. These findings shed new light on the conditions which control the integration of NPCs into the nuclear envelope. The switch from maternal to embryonic production of mRNAs was accompanied by multiple invaginations covered with NPCs, which may serve the increased demands of mRNA export and protein import. Other invaginations, as well as interior nuclear segments and vesicles without contact to the nuclear envelope, were exclusively positive for lamin B. Since the abundance of these invaginations and vesicles increased in concert with a massive nuclear volume reduction, we suggest that they reflect a mechanism for fitting the nuclear envelope and its lamina to a shrinking nuclear size during bovine preimplantation development. In addition, a deposit of extranuclear clusters of NUP153 (a marker for NPCs) without associated lamin B was frequently observed from the zygote stage up to MGA. Corresponding RNA-Seq data revealed deposits of spliced, maternally provided NUP153 mRNA and little unspliced, newly synthesized RNA prior to MGA, which increased strongly at the initiation of embryonic expression of NUP153 at MGA.

  19. Photoreceptor projection and termination pattern in the lamina of gonodactyloid stomatopods (mantis shrimp).

    PubMed

    Kleinlogel, Sonja; Marshall, N Justin

    2005-08-01

    The apposition compound eyes of gonodactyloid stomatopods are divided into a ventral and a dorsal hemisphere by six equatorial rows of enlarged ommatidia, the mid-band (MB). Whereas the hemispheres are specialized for spatial vision, the MB consists of four dorsal rows of ommatidia specialized for colour vision and two ventral rows specialized for polarization vision. The eight retinula cell axons (RCAs) from each ommatidium project retinotopically onto one corresponding lamina cartridge, so that the three retinal data streams (spatial, colour and polarization) remain anatomically separated. This study investigates whether the retinal specializations are reflected in differences in the RCA arrangement within the corresponding lamina cartridges. We have found that, in all three eye regions, the seven short visual fibres (svfs) formed by retinula cells 1-7 (R1-R7) terminate at two distinct lamina levels, geometrically separating the terminals of photoreceptors sensitive to either orthogonal e-vector directions or different wavelengths of light. This arrangement is required for the establishment of spectral and polarization opponency mechanisms. The long visual fibres (lvfs) of the eighth retinula cells (R8) pass through the lamina and project retinotopically to the distal medulla externa. Differences between the three eye regions exist in the packing of svf terminals and in the branching patterns of the lvfs within the lamina. We hypothesize that the R8 cells of MB rows 1-4 are incorporated into the colour vision system formed by R1-R7, whereas the R8 cells of MB rows 5 and 6 form a separate neural channel from R1 to R7 for polarization processing. PMID:15947970

  20. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhado, A. C. M.; Whittaker, R. J.; Malhi, Y.; Ladle, R. J.; Ter Steege, H.; Butt, N.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Quesada, C. A.; Murakami-Araujo, A.; Phillips, O. L.; Peacock, J.; López-González, G.; Baker, T. R.; Anderson, L. O.; Arroyo, L.; Almeida, S.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T. J.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D. A.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Prieto, A.; Salomão, R. P.; Vásquez-M., R.; Laurance, W. F.; Ramírez A., H.

    2009-08-01

    Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1) describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2) identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60-70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf). Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between the proportion of

  1. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    PubMed

    Tschopp, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata). Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future. PMID:26907769

  2. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tschopp, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata). Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future. PMID:26907769

  3. Failure of a fiber composite lamina under three-dimensional stresses

    SciTech Connect

    DeTeresa, S J

    1999-08-31

    The efficient use of thick-section fiber composites requires a proven three-dimensional failure model. Numerous failure criteria have been proposed, but the lack of critical experimental results makes it difficult to assess the accuracy of these models. It is shown that the various predictions for failure of a lamina due to the simple state of uniaxial stress plus superposed hydrostatic pressure are disparate. These differences are sufficient to allow evaluation of failure criteria using data that has the normal scatter found for composite materials. A high-pressure test system for fiber composites is described and results for the effects of pressure on the transverse and longitudinal compression strengths of a carbon fiber/epoxy lamina are discussed. Results are compared with a few representative failure models.

  4. Active Outer Hair Cells Affect the Sound-Evoked Vibration of the Reticular Lamina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Stefan; Fridberger, Anders

    2011-11-01

    It is well established that the organ of Corti uses active mechanisms to enhance its sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Two possible mechanisms have been identified, both capable of producing mechanical forces, which can alter the sound-evoked vibration of the hearing organ. However, little is known about the effect of these forces on the sound-evoked vibration pattern of the reticular lamina. Current injections into scala media were used to alter the amplitude of the active mechanisms in the apex of the guinea pig temporal bone. We used time-resolved confocal imaging to access the vibration pattern of individual outer hair cells. During positive current injection the the sound-evoked vibration of outer hair cell row three increased while row one showed a small decrease. Negative currents reversed the observed effect. We conclude that the outer hair cell mediated modification of reticular lamina vibration patterns could contribute to the inner hair cell stimulation.

  5. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Insertion in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Kim, Tae-Woo; Weinreb, Robert N.; Lee, Eun Ji; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) whether there are differences in the location of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertion (ALI) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and healthy subjects. Methods Fifty three eyes from 53 patients with POAG, and 53 eyes from 53 age-matched healthy subjects were included prospectively in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Twelve radial line B-scans centered on the optic disc in every half-clock-hour meridian were acquired using SS-OCT. The ALI position was assessed by measuring two parameters: (1) ALI distance (ALID)—the distance from the anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) to the ALI; and (2) marginal anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (mALCSD)—the perpendicular distance from the ASCO plane to the anterior lamina cribrosa surface. These parameters were compared between the two groups for each meridian. Results Both ALID (256±54 vs. 209±37 µm, mean ± SD, p<0.001) and mALCSD (232±63 vs. 187±40 µm, p<0.001) were significantly greater in the POAG group than in the normal group. The largest difference was observed at the 6.5 o′clock and 11.5 o′clock meridians for both ALID and mALCSD. Multiple regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and both ALID and mALCSD in the control group, and a negative correlation between mean deviation of the visual field test and both ALID and mALCSD in the POAG group. Conclusions The ALI was displaced posteriorly in eyes with POAG compared to those of healthy controls. This finding suggests that the posteriorly located lamina cribrosa insertion is an important component of glaucomatous optic nerve excavation. PMID:25531761

  6. Fission yeast Lem2 and Man1 perform fundamental functions of the animal cell nuclear lamina.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Yanira; Saito, Akira; Sazer, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    In animal cells the nuclear lamina, which consists of lamins and lamin-associated proteins, serves several functions: it provides a structural scaffold for the nuclear envelope and tethers proteins and heterochromatin to the nuclear periphery. In yeast, proteins and large heterochromatic domains including telomeres are also peripherally localized, but there is no evidence that yeast have lamins or a fibrous nuclear envelope scaffold. Nonetheless, we found that the Lem2 and Man1 proteins of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, evolutionarily distant relatives of the Lap2/Emerin/Man1 (LEM) sub-family of animal cell lamin-associated proteins, perform fundamental functions of the animal cell lamina. These integral inner nuclear membrane localized proteins, with nuclear localized DNA binding Helix-Extension-Helix (HEH) domains, impact nuclear envelope structure and integrity, are essential for the enrichment of telomeres at the nuclear periphery and by means of their HEH domains anchor chromatin, most likely transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin, to the nuclear periphery. These data indicate that the core functions of the nuclear lamina are conserved between fungi and animal cells and can be performed in fission yeast, without lamins or other intermediate filament proteins.

  7. Multi-scale Rule-of-Mixtures Model of Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Lamina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Roddick, Jaret C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    A unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy lamina in which the carbon fibers are coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes is modeled with a multi-scale method, the atomistically informed rule-of-mixtures. This multi-scale model is designed to include the effect of the carbon nanotubes on the constitutive properties of the lamina. It included concepts from the molecular dynamics/equivalent continuum methods, micromechanics, and the strength of materials. Within the model both the nanotube volume fraction and nanotube distribution were varied. It was found that for a lamina with 60% carbon fiber volume fraction, the Young's modulus in the fiber direction varied with changes in the nanotube distribution, from 138.8 to 140 GPa with nanotube volume fractions ranging from 0.0001 to 0.0125. The presence of nanotube near the surface of the carbon fiber is therefore expected to have a small, but positive, effect on the constitutive properties of the lamina.

  8. Possible sources and sites of action of the nitric oxide involved in synaptic plasticity at spinal lamina I projection neurons.

    PubMed

    Ruscheweyh, R; Goralczyk, A; Wunderbaldinger, G; Schober, A; Sandkühler, J

    2006-08-25

    The synaptic long-term potentiation between primary afferent C-fibers and spinal lamina I projection neurons is a cellular model for hyperalgesia [Ikeda H, Heinke B, Ruscheweyh R, Sandkühler J (2003) Synaptic plasticity in spinal lamina I projection neurons that mediate hyperalgesia. Science 299:1237-1240]. In lamina I neurons with a projection to the periaqueductal gray, this long-term potentiation is dependent on nitric oxide. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to detect possible sources and sites of action of the nitric oxide necessary for the long-term potentiation at lamina I spino-periaqueductal gray neurons in rats. None of the three isoforms of the nitric oxide synthase was expressed in a significant number of lamina I spino-periaqueductal gray neurons or primary afferent C-fibers (as evaluated by staining of their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia). However, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase were found throughout the spinal cord vasculature and neuronal nitric oxide synthase was present in a number of neurons in laminae II and III. The nitric oxide target soluble guanylyl cyclase was detected in most lamina I spino-periaqueductal gray neurons and in approximately 12% of the dorsal root ganglion neurons, all of them nociceptive as evaluated by coexpression of substance P. Synthesis of cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate upon stimulation by a nitric oxide donor confirmed the presence of active guanylyl cyclase in at least a portion of the spino-periaqueductal gray neuronal cell bodies. We therefore propose that nitric oxide generated in neighboring neurons or blood vessels acts on the spino-periaqueductal gray neuron and/or the primary afferent C-fiber to enable long-term potentiation. Lamina I spino-parabrachial neurons were stained for comparison and yielded similar results.

  9. Differentiation of axon-related Schwann cells in vitro. I. Ascorbic acid regulates basal lamina assembly and myelin formation

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Rat Schwann cells cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons in a serum- free defined medium fail to ensheathe or myelinate axons or assemble basal laminae. Replacement of defined medium with medium that contains human placental serum (HPS) and chick embryo extract (EE) results in both basal lamina and myelin formation. In the present study, the individual effects of HPS and EE on basal lamina assembly and on myelin formation by Schwann cells cultured with neurons have been examined. Some batches of HPS were unable to promote myelin formation in the absence of EE, as assessed by quantitative evaluation of cultures stained with Sudan black; such HPS also failed to promote basal lamina assembly, as assessed by immunofluorescence using antibodies against laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The addition of EE or L-ascorbic acid with such HPS led to the formation of large quantities of myelin and to the assembly of basal laminae. Pretreatment of EE with ascorbic acid oxidase abolished the EE activity, whereas trypsin did not. Other batches of HPS were found to promote both basal lamina and myelin formation in the absence of either EE or ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid oxidase treatment or dialysis of these batches of HPS abolished their ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation, whereas the subsequent addition of ascorbic acid restored that ability. Ascorbic acid in the absence of serum was relatively ineffective in promoting either basal lamina or myelin formation. Fetal bovine serum was as effective as HPS in allowing ascorbic acid (and several analogs but not other reducing agents) to manifest its ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation. We suggest that ascorbic acid promotes Schwann cell myelin formation by enabling the Schwann cell to assemble a basal lamina, which is required for complete differentiation. PMID:3624305

  10. Significance of host cell kinases in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress and lamin-associated protein disassembly from the nuclear lamina

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Natalie R.; Roller, Richard J.

    2010-10-10

    The nuclear lamina is thought to be a steric barrier to the herpesvirus capsid. Disruption of the lamina accompanied by phosphorylation of lamina proteins is a conserved feature of herpesvirus infection. In HSV-1-infected cells, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and delta isoforms are recruited to the nuclear membrane and PKC delta has been implicated in phosphorylation of emerin and lamin B. We tested two critical hypotheses about the mechanism and significance of lamina disruption. First, we show that chemical inhibition of all PKC isoforms reduced viral growth five-fold and inhibited capsid egress from the nucleus. However, specific inhibition of either conventional PKCs or PKC delta does not inhibit viral growth. Second, we show hyperphosphorylation of emerin by viral and cellular kinases is required for its disassociation from the lamina. These data support hypothesis that phosphorylation of lamina components mediates lamina disruption during HSV nuclear egress.

  11. Sensitivity of the coefficients of thermal expansion of selected graphite reinforced composite laminates to lamina thermoelastic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Funk, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of the sensitivity of the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, to changes in lamina elastic properties has been made. High modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic, low thermal stress, and 'near-zero' thermal expansion laminate configurations. The effects of a positive or negative 10 percent change in lamina properties on laminate CTE is strongly dependent upon both the composite material and the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in all of the lamina properties had very little effect on the laminate CTE of the HMS/Gl composite laminates investigated. The sensitivity and direction of change in the laminate CTE of Gr/934 depended very strongly on the fiber properties. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.216 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminate. No significant difference was observed in the sensitivity of the laminate CTE of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

  12. Sensitization of lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons parallels heat hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Andrew, David

    2009-05-01

    It has been proposed that spinal lamina I neurons with ascending axons that project to the midbrain play a crucial role in hyperalgesia. To test this hypothesis the quantitative properties of lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain were compared to those of unoperated and sham-operated controls. Behavioural testing showed that animals with a CCI exhibited heat hyperalgesia within 4 days of the injury, and this hyperalgesia persisted throughout the 14-day post-operative testing period. In the CCI, nociceptive lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons had heat thresholds that were significantly lower than controls (43.0 +/- 2.8 degrees C vs. 46.7 +/- 2.6 degrees C; P < 10(-4), ANOVA). Nociceptive lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons were also significantly more responsive to graded heat stimuli in the CCI, compared to controls (P < 0.02, 2-factor repeated-measures ANOVA), and increased after-discharges were also observed. Furthermore, the heat-evoked stimulus-response functions of lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons in CCI animals co-varied significantly (P < 0.03, ANCOVA) with the amplitude of heat hyperalgesia determined behaviourally. Taken together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons have an important mechanistic role in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain.

  13. Invasive arthropods.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C J; Mellor, P S; Wilson, A J

    2010-08-01

    Many arthropod species have been transported around the globe and successfully invaded new regions. Invasive arthropods can have severe impacts on animal and human health, agriculture and forestry, and the biodiversity of natural habitats as well as those modified by humans. The economic and environmental effects of invasion can be both direct, through feeding and competition, and indirect, such as the transmission of pathogens. In this paper, the authors consider ten examples that illustrate the main mechanisms of introduction, the characteristics that enable species to rapidly expand their ranges and some of the consequences of their arrival.

  14. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Holstege, Jan C.; de Graaff, Wim; Hossaini, Mehdi; Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Jaarsma, Dick; van den Akker, Eric; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Although Hox gene expression has been linked to motoneuron identity, a role of these genes in development of the spinal sensory system remained undocumented. Hoxb genes are expressed at high levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Hoxb8 null mutants manifest a striking phenotype of excessive grooming and hairless lesions on the lower back. Applying local anesthesia underneath the hairless skin suppressed excessive grooming, indicating that this behavior depends on peripheral nerve activity. Functional ablation of mouse Hoxb8 also leads to attenuated response to nociceptive and thermal stimuli. Although spinal ganglia were normal, a lower postmitotic neural count was found in the dorsalmost laminae at lumbar levels around birth, leading to a smaller dorsal horn and a correspondingly narrowed projection field of nociceptive and thermoceptive afferents. The distribution of the dorsal neuronal cell types that we assayed, including neurons expressing the itch-specific gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, was disorganized in the lumbar region of the mutant. BrdU labeling experiments and gene-expression studies at stages around the birth of these neurons suggest that loss of Hoxb8 starts impairing development of the upper laminae of the lumbar spinal cord at approximately embryonic day (E)15.5. Because none of the neuronal markers used was unexpressed in the adult dorsal horn, absence of Hoxb8 does not impair neuronal differentiation. The data therefore suggest that a lower number of neurons in the upper spinal laminae and neuronal disorganization in the dorsal horn underlie the sensory defects including the excessive grooming of the Hoxb8 mutant. PMID:18430798

  15. Stage-dependent remodeling of the nuclear envelope and lamina during rabbit early embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    POPKEN, Jens; SCHMID, Volker J.; STRAUSS, Axel; GUENGOER, Tuna; WOLF, Eckhard; ZAKHARTCHENKO, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing 3D structured illumination microscopy, we investigated the quality and quantity of nuclear invaginations and the distribution of nuclear pores during rabbit early embryonic development and identified the exact time point of nucleoporin 153 (NUP153) association with chromatin during mitosis. Contrary to bovine early embryonic nuclei, featuring almost exclusively nuclear invaginations containing a small volume of cytoplasm, nuclei in rabbit early embryonic stages show additionally numerous invaginations containing a large volume of cytoplasm. Small-volume invaginations frequently emanated from large-volume nuclear invaginations but not vice versa, indicating a different underlying mechanism. Large- and small-volume nuclear envelope invaginations required the presence of chromatin, as they were restricted to chromatin-positive areas. The chromatin-free contact areas between nucleolar precursor bodies (NPBs) and large-volume invaginations were free of nuclear pores. Small-volume invaginations were not in contact with NPBs. The number of invaginations and isolated intranuclear vesicles per nucleus peaked at the 4-cell stage. At this stage, the nuclear surface showed highly concentrated clusters of nuclear pores surrounded by areas free of nuclear pores. Isolated intranuclear lamina vesicles were usually NUP153 negative. Cytoplasmic, randomly distributed NUP153-positive clusters were highly abundant at the zygote stage and decreased in number until they were almost absent at the 8-cell stage and later. These large NUP153 clusters may represent a maternally provided NUP153 deposit, but they were not visible as clusters during mitosis. Major genome activation at the 8- to 16-cell stage may mark the switch from a necessity for a deposit to on-demand production. NUP153 association with chromatin is initiated during metaphase before the initiation of the regeneration of the lamina. To our knowledge, the present study demonstrates for the first time major remodeling

  16. Delayed myelopathy secondary to stab wound with a retained blade tip within the laminae: case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Delayed neurologic deficit after a stab wound with a retained foreign body near the spinal canal is unusual, adequate radiological examination is fundamental in detecting retained foreign bodies, especially the CT scan, surgical extraction of the foreign body is the primary task and the surgical outcome is satisfactory. Here, we report a rare case of delayed myelopathy caused by spinal stenosis secondary to broken blade tip within thoracic laminae in an old man, who was injured in a knife attack 39 years ago. The incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis are discussed.

  17. Delayed myelopathy secondary to stab wound with a retained blade tip within the laminae: case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Delayed neurologic deficit after a stab wound with a retained foreign body near the spinal canal is unusual, adequate radiological examination is fundamental in detecting retained foreign bodies, especially the CT scan, surgical extraction of the foreign body is the primary task and the surgical outcome is satisfactory. Here, we report a rare case of delayed myelopathy caused by spinal stenosis secondary to broken blade tip within thoracic laminae in an old man, who was injured in a knife attack 39 years ago. The incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. PMID:26629221

  18. Vibration Measurement on Reticular Lamina and Basilar Membrane at Multiple Longitudinal Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Choudhury, Niloy; Fridberger, Anders; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2011-11-01

    The longitudinal distribution of the organ of Corti vibration is important for both understanding the energy delivery and the timing of the cochlear amplification. Recent development on low coherence interferomtry technique allows measuring vibration inside the cochlea. The reticular lamina (RL) vibration spectrum demonstrates that RL vibration leads the basilar membrane (BM). This phase lead is consistent with the idea that the active process may lead the BM vibration. In this study, measurements on multiple longitudinal locations demonstrated similar phase lead. Results on this study suggests that there may be another longitudinal coupling mechanism inside the cochlea other than the traveling wave on BM.

  19. Ultrastructural verification of anchoring role of lamina fibroreticularis of dental basement membrane in odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sawada, T; Inoue, S

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study of the developing tooth a characteristic fibrillar layer associated with the basement membrane of the inner enamel epithelium was found to be a highly specialized lamina fibroreticularis of the basement membrane which is unusually rich in basotubules, 10 nm wide microfibril-like structures. In this study this layer was further examined in detail in the hope of ultrastructurally elucidating its role in odontogenesis. Tooth germs of the monkey (Macaca fuscata) were processed for thin section observations. Dental papilla cell processes were inserted into the lamina fibroreticularis and their surface was closely associated with numerous parallel basotubules. With high-resolution observations the space between the surface and nearest basotubules as well as the spaces between neighbouring basotubules were bridged by 1.5-3 nm wide filaments running perpendicular to the axis of basotubules. These results indicate that the processes of dental papilla cells are linked to groups of basotubules by means of 1.5-3 nm wide filaments. Immunoperoxidase staining showed the presence of fibronectin along basotubules as well as within the space between the process and basotubule. This result, together with the comparison of these filaments with microfibril-associated 1.2-3 nm wide fibronectin filaments and the reported abundance of fibronectin in the basement membrane area during odontogenesis, indicates that these 1.5-3 nm wide filaments are composed of fibronectin. After immunostaining for amyloid P component, done with the rat tissue because of the nature of an available antiserum, basotubules in the lamina fibroreticularis were positively stained, as has been shown in basotubules/microfibrils in other locations. Microfibrils function as anchoring rods by interlinking connective tissue components to one another and to the cells. Basotubules, thought to be basement membrane-incorporated microfibrils, in the lamina fibroreticularis in this study are also likely to

  20. Diverse firing properties and Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-afferent inputs of small local circuit neurons in spinal lamina I.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elisabete C; Luz, Liliana L; Mytakhir, Oleh; Lukoyanov, Nikolai V; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V

    2016-02-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key element of the pain processing system, which integrates primary afferent input and relays it to supraspinal areas. More than 90% of neurons in this layer are local circuit neurons, whose role in the signal processing is poorly understood. We performed whole-cell recordings in a spinal cord preparation with attached dorsal roots to examine morphological features and physiological properties of small local circuit neurons (n = 47) in lamina I. Cells successfully filled with biocytin (n = 17) had fusiform (n = 10), flattened (n = 4), and multipolar (n = 3) somatodendritic morphology; their axons branched extensively and terminated in laminae I-III. Intrinsic firing properties were diverse; in addition to standard tonic (n = 16), adapting (n = 7), and delayed (n = 6) patterns, small local circuit neurons also generated rhythmic discharges (n = 6) and plateau potentials (n = 10), the latter were suppressed by the L-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker nifedipine. The neurons received monosynaptic inputs from Aδ and C afferents and could generate bursts of spikes on the root stimulation. In addition, we identified lamina I neurons (n = 7) with direct inputs from the low-threshold Aβ afferents, which could be picked up by ventral dendrites protruding to lamina III. Stimulation of afferents also evoked a disynaptic inhibition of neurons. Thus, small local circuit neurons exhibit diverse firing properties, can generate rhythmic discharges and plateau potentials, and their dendrites extending into several laminae allow broad integration of Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-afferent inputs. These properties are required for processing diverse modalities of nociceptive inputs in lamina I and may underlie spinal sensitization to pain.

  1. What Is Cancer of the Esophagus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... The lamina propria is a thin layer of connective tissue right under the epithelium. The muscularis mucosa is ... lamina propria. Submucosa: This is a layer of connective tissue just below the mucosa that contains blood vessels ...

  2. Microchannel neural interface manufacture by stacking silicone and metal foil laminae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancashire, Henry T.; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Ajam, Yazan Al; Magee, Elliot; Donaldson, Nick; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Microchannel neural interfaces (MNIs) overcome problems with recording from peripheral nerves by amplifying signals independent of node of Ranvier position. Selective recording and stimulation using an MNI requires good insulation between microchannels and a high electrode density. We propose that stacking microchannel laminae will improve selectivity over single layer MNI designs due to the increase in electrode number and an improvement in microchannel sealing. Approach. This paper describes a manufacturing method for creating MNIs which overcomes limitations on electrode connectivity and microchannel sealing. Laser cut silicone—metal foil laminae were stacked using plasma bonding to create an array of microchannels containing tripolar electrodes. Electrodes were DC etched and electrode impedance and cyclic voltammetry were tested. Main results. MNIs with 100 μm and 200 μm diameter microchannels were manufactured. High electrode density MNIs are achievable with electrodes present in every microchannel. Electrode impedances of 27.2 ± 19.8 kΩ at 1 kHz were achieved. Following two months of implantation in Lewis rat sciatic nerve, micro-fascicles were observed regenerating through the MNI microchannels. Significance. Selective MNIs with the peripheral nervous system may allow upper limb amputees to control prostheses intuitively.

  3. Lamina-dependent calibrated BOLD response in human primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Maria; Huber, Laurentius; Lampe, Leonie; Gauthier, Claudine J; Möller, Harald E

    2016-11-01

    Disentangling neural activity at different cortical depths during a functional task has recently generated growing interest, since this would allow to separate feedforward and feedback activity. The majority of layer-dependent studies have, so far, relied on gradient-recalled echo (GRE) blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) acquisitions, which are weighted towards the large draining veins at the cortical surface. The current study aims to obtain quantitative brain activity responses in the primary motor cortex on a laminar scale without the contamination due to accompanying secondary vascular effects. Evoked oxidative metabolism was evaluated using the Davis model, to investigate its applicability, advantages, and limits in lamina-dependent fMRI. Average values for the calibration parameter, M, and for changes in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) during a unilateral finger-tapping task were (11±2)% and (30±7)%, respectively, with distinct variation features across the cortical depth. The results presented here showed an uncoupling between BOLD-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and metabolic changes across cortical depth, while the tight coupling between CMRO2 and CBV was conserved across cortical layers. We conclude that the Davis model can help to obtain estimates of lamina-dependent metabolic changes without contamination from large draining veins, with high consistency and reproducibility across participants.

  4. Re-regeneration of lower jaws and the dental lamina in adult urodeles.

    PubMed

    Graver, H T

    1978-09-01

    Transverse amputations were carried out through one-third fully regenerated jaw segments and through normal tissue of the mandible on the same and opposite sides of the jaw in adults of Notophthalmus viridescens. Collectively the results suggest that, in adult urodeles, the mandible and the dental lamina can be replaced in an identical manner more than one time. Although the major histological events are the same in jaw regeneration and re-regeneration, regrowth is more rapid in re-regeneration. It appears that recently differentiated tissues of the regenerate have a higher capacity for regeneration than normal tissues amputated for the first time. Re-regeneration of the jaw occurs by growth of the original regenerate cartilage which has undergone reorganization. In re-regeneration, the skeletal elements exhibit no polarity and regrowth occurs in both directions, while the dental lamina possesses an anterior-posterior polarity and can regrow in an anterior direction only. Information concerning the mechanisms involved in the regenerative events remain to be determined.

  5. Lamina-dependent calibrated BOLD response in human primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Maria; Huber, Laurentius; Lampe, Leonie; Gauthier, Claudine J; Möller, Harald E

    2016-11-01

    Disentangling neural activity at different cortical depths during a functional task has recently generated growing interest, since this would allow to separate feedforward and feedback activity. The majority of layer-dependent studies have, so far, relied on gradient-recalled echo (GRE) blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) acquisitions, which are weighted towards the large draining veins at the cortical surface. The current study aims to obtain quantitative brain activity responses in the primary motor cortex on a laminar scale without the contamination due to accompanying secondary vascular effects. Evoked oxidative metabolism was evaluated using the Davis model, to investigate its applicability, advantages, and limits in lamina-dependent fMRI. Average values for the calibration parameter, M, and for changes in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) during a unilateral finger-tapping task were (11±2)% and (30±7)%, respectively, with distinct variation features across the cortical depth. The results presented here showed an uncoupling between BOLD-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and metabolic changes across cortical depth, while the tight coupling between CMRO2 and CBV was conserved across cortical layers. We conclude that the Davis model can help to obtain estimates of lamina-dependent metabolic changes without contamination from large draining veins, with high consistency and reproducibility across participants. PMID:27364473

  6. Anchoring of Heterochromatin to the Nuclear Lamina Reinforces Dosage Compensation-Mediated Gene Repression

    PubMed Central

    Brouhard, Elizabeth A.; Jiang, Jianhao; Sifuentes, Margarita H.

    2016-01-01

    Higher order chromosome structure and nuclear architecture can have profound effects on gene regulation. We analyzed how compartmentalizing the genome by tethering heterochromatic regions to the nuclear lamina affects dosage compensation in the nematode C. elegans. In this organism, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to repress transcription two-fold, thus balancing gene expression between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. X chromosome structure is disrupted by mutations in DCC subunits. Using X chromosome paint fluorescence microscopy, we found that X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are also disrupted when the mechanisms that anchor heterochromatin to the nuclear lamina are defective. Strikingly, the heterochromatic left end of the X chromosome is less affected than the gene-rich middle region, which lacks heterochromatic anchors. These changes in X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are accompanied by small, but significant levels of derepression of X-linked genes as measured by RNA-seq, without any observable defects in DCC localization and DCC-mediated changes in histone modifications. We propose a model in which heterochromatic tethers on the left arm of the X cooperate with the DCC to compact and peripherally relocate the X chromosomes, contributing to gene repression. PMID:27690361

  7. A microfluidics approach to study the accumulation of molecules at basal lamina interfaces.

    PubMed

    Arends, Fabienna; Sellner, Sabine; Seifert, Philipp; Gerland, Ulrich; Rehberg, Markus; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-08-21

    For an efficient distribution of drugs and drug carriers through biological barriers such as the vascular system, the size and surface properties of nanoparticles and molecules play a key role. To screen for important parameters which determine the ability of drugs or drug carriers to translocate through complex biological barriers, an in vitro assay which correctly predicts the behavior of those objects in vivo would be highly desirable. Here, we present a microfluidic setup to probe the diffusive spreading of molecules with different net charges and molecular weights through a basal lamina interface - a biopolymer system which contributes to the barrier function of the vascular system and the skin. From our data, we find a charge dependent accumulation of molecules at the gel interface which is consistent with transient binding of those molecules to the gel constituents. We also observe a similar charge-dependent accumulation of molecules in living mice where the test molecules colocalize with collagen IV, a key component of the basal lamina. Our assay may serve as a platform to perform penetration experiments with even more complex interfaces combining cellular barriers with biopolymer coatings. PMID:26152353

  8. LAMINA: a tool for rapid quantification of leaf size and shape parameters

    PubMed Central

    Bylesjö, Max; Segura, Vincent; Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Rae, Anne M; Trygg, Johan; Gustafsson, Petter; Jansson, Stefan; Street, Nathaniel R

    2008-01-01

    Background An increased understanding of leaf area development is important in a number of fields: in food and non-food crops, for example short rotation forestry as a biofuels feedstock, leaf area is intricately linked to biomass productivity; in paleontology leaf shape characteristics are used to reconstruct paleoclimate history. Such fields require measurement of large collections of leaves, with resulting conclusions being highly influenced by the accuracy of the phenotypic measurement process. Results We have developed LAMINA (Leaf shApe deterMINAtion), a new tool for the automated analysis of images of leaves. LAMINA has been designed to provide classical indicators of leaf shape (blade dimensions) and size (area), which are typically required for correlation analysis to biomass productivity, as well as measures that indicate asymmetry in leaf shape, leaf serration traits, and measures of herbivory damage (missing leaf area). In order to allow Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to be performed, the location of a chosen number of equally spaced boundary coordinates can optionally be returned. Conclusion We demonstrate the use of the software on a set of 500 scanned images, each containing multiple leaves, collected from a common garden experiment containing 116 clones of Populus tremula (European trembling aspen) that are being used for association mapping, as well as examples of leaves from other species. We show that the software provides an efficient and accurate means of analysing leaf area in large datasets in an automated or semi-automated work flow. PMID:18647399

  9. A chloroplast-localized protein LESION AND LAMINA BENDING affects defence and growth responses in rice.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Muluneh; Takagi, Hiroki; Abe, Akira; Yokota, Takao; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Haruko; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Fujisaki, Koki; Oikawa, Kaori; Uemura, Aiko; Natsume, Satoshi; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Umemura, Kenji; Terry, Matthew J; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how plants allocate their resources to growth or defence is of long-term importance to the development of new and improved varieties of different crops. Using molecular genetics, plant physiology, hormone analysis and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based transcript profiling, we have isolated and characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) LESION AND LAMINA BENDING (LLB) gene that encodes a chloroplast-targeted putative leucine carboxyl methyltransferase. Loss of LLB function results in reduced growth and yield, hypersensitive response (HR)-like lesions, accumulation of the antimicrobial compounds momilactones and phytocassanes, and constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related genes. Consistent with these defence-associated responses, llb shows enhanced resistance to rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). The lesion and resistance phenotypes are likely to be caused by the over-accumulation of jasmonates (JAs) in the llb mutant including the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid. Additionally, llb shows an increased lamina inclination and enhanced early seedling growth due to elevated brassinosteroid (BR) synthesis and/or signalling. These findings show that LLB functions in the chloroplast to either directly or indirectly repress both JA- and BR-mediated responses, revealing a possible mechanism for controlling how plants allocate resources for defence and growth. PMID:26864209

  10. Genome-wide maps of nuclear lamina interactions in single human cells

    PubMed Central

    Kind, Jop; Pagie, Ludo; de Vries, Sandra S.; Nahidiazar, Leila; Dey, Siddharth S.; Bienko, Magda; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan; de Graaf, Carolyn A.; Amendola, Mario; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Imakaev, Maxim; Mirny, Leonid A.; Jalink, Kees; Dekker, Job; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; van Steensel, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mammalian interphase chromosomes interact with the nuclear lamina (NL) through hundreds of large Lamina Associated Domains (LADs). We report a method to map NL contacts genome-wide in single human cells. Analysis of nearly 400 maps reveals a core architecture of gene-poor LADs that contact the NL with high cell-to-cell consistency, interspersed by LADs with more variable NL interactions. The variable contacts tend to be cell-type specific and are more sensitive to changes in genome ploidy than the consistent contacts. Single-cell maps indicate that NL contacts involve multivalent interactions over hundreds of kilobases. Moreover, we observe extensive intra-chromosomal coordination of NL contacts, even over tens of megabases. Such coordinated loci exhibit preferential interactions as detected by Hi-C. Finally, consistency of NL contacts is inversely linked to gene activity in single cells, and correlates positively with the heterochromatic histone modification H3K9me3. These results highlight fundamental principles of single cell chromatin organization. PMID:26365489

  11. Interannual Variability of Ozone in the Winter Lower Stratosphere and the Relationship to Lamina and Irreversible Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Yoshida, Yasuko

    2010-01-01

    We use the high-resolution dynamic limb sounder (HIRDLS) high-vertical resolution ozone profiles in the northern hemisphere lower stratosphere to examine the meridional transport out of the tropics. We focus on February 2005.2007 when there are differences in the dynamical background in the lower stratosphere due to the states of the quasibiennial oscillation and polar vortex. HIRDLS data reveal a large number of low ozone laminae that have the characteristics of tropical air at midlatitudes. More laminae are observed in February in 2006 than in 2005 or 2007. Because laminae can form, move out of the tropics, and return to the tropics without mixing into the midlatitude ozone field, the number of laminae is not directly related to the net transport. We use equivalent latitude coordinates to discriminate between reversible and irreversible laminar transport. The equivalent latitude analysis shows greater irreversible transport between the tropics and lower midlatitudes in both 2005 and 2007 compared to 2006 despite the higher number of laminae observed in 2006. Our conclusion that there was more irreversible transport of tropical air into the lower midlatitudes in 2005 and 2007 is supported by equivalent length analysis of mixing using microwave limb sounder N2O measurements. This study shows that reversibility must be considered in order to infer the importance of lamination to net transport.

  12. Microfabric analysis of Mn-carbonate laminae deposition and Mn-sulfide formation in the Gotland Deep, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Ian T.; Kemp, Alan E. S.

    2002-05-01

    The manganese carbonate deposits of the anoxic Littorina sediments of the Gotland Deep have been commonly related to the periodic renewal of deep water by inflowing saline water from the North Sea. The use of scanning electron microscopy-based techniques allows identification of small-scale sedimentary and geochemical features associated with Mn-carbonate laminae, which has significant implications for models of Mn-carbonate formation. Varves occurring in the Littorina sequence contain up to four laminae that may be placed in a seasonal cycle, and kutnahorite laminae occur within varves only as a winter-early spring deposit. This kutnahorite laminae seasonality is in agreement with the seasonal distribution of major Baltic inflow events recorded in historical records, and a direct causal link between inflows and kutnahorite deposition is implied. Benthic foraminifera tests are found to be heavily encrusted in kutnahorite, implying that benthic recolonization during oxidation events occurs concurrently with kutnahorite formation. The relatively common occurrence of small (50 to 100 μm) hexagonal γ-Mn-sulfide pseudomorphs, associated with 13% of kutnahorite laminae studied, is reported in Gotland Deep sediments for the first time. Although Mn-sulfide crystals are not usually preserved in the sediment, the discovery of Mn-sulfide pseudomorphs suggests that initial formation of Mn-sulfide in the Gotland Deep may occur much more commonly during the process of kutnahorite formation than previous reports of Mn-sulfide occurrence have implied.

  13. Maintenance of Glia in the Optic Lamina Is Mediated by EGFR Signaling by Photoreceptors in Adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yuan-Ming; Sun, Y. Henry

    2015-01-01

    The late onset of neurodegeneration in humans indicates that the survival and function of cells in the nervous system must be maintained throughout adulthood. In the optic lamina of the adult Drosophila, the photoreceptor axons are surrounded by multiple types of glia. We demonstrated that the adult photoreceptors actively contribute to glia maintenance in their target field within the optic lamina. This effect is dependent on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands produced by the R1-6 photoreceptors and transported to the optic lamina to act on EGFR in the lamina glia. EGFR signaling is necessary and sufficient to act in a cell-autonomous manner in the lamina glia. Our results suggest that EGFR signaling is required for the trafficking of the autophagosome/endosome to the lysosome. The loss of EGFR signaling results in cell degeneration most likely because of the accumulation of autophagosomes. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for the role of adult neurons in the maintenance of glia and a novel role for EGFR signaling in the autophagic flux. PMID:25909451

  14. Directed targeting of chromatin to the nuclear lamina is mediated by chromatin state and A-type lamins

    PubMed Central

    Harr, Jennifer C.; Luperchio, Teresa Romeo; Wong, Xianrong; Cohen, Erez; Wheelan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear organization has been implicated in regulating gene activity. Recently, large developmentally regulated regions of the genome dynamically associated with the nuclear lamina have been identified. However, little is known about how these lamina-associated domains (LADs) are directed to the nuclear lamina. We use our tagged chromosomal insertion site system to identify small sequences from borders of fibroblast-specific variable LADs that are sufficient to target these ectopic sites to the nuclear periphery. We identify YY1 (Ying-Yang1) binding sites as enriched in relocating sequences. Knockdown of YY1 or lamin A/C, but not lamin A, led to a loss of lamina association. In addition, targeted recruitment of YY1 proteins facilitated ectopic LAD formation dependent on histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation and histone H3 lysine di- and trimethylation. Our results also reveal that endogenous loci appear to be dependent on lamin A/C, YY1, H3K27me3, and H3K9me2/3 for maintenance of lamina-proximal positioning. PMID:25559185

  15. Changes in lamina structure are followed by spatial reorganization of heterochromatic regions in caspase-8-activated human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Raz, Vered; Carlotti, Françoise; Vermolen, Bart J; van der Poel, Egge; Sloos, Willem C R; Knaän-Shanzer, Shoshan; de Vries, Antoine A F; Hoeben, Rob C; Young, Ian T; Tanke, Hans J; Garini, Yuval; Dirks, Roeland W

    2006-10-15

    Apoptosis is fundamental to the regulation of homeostasis of stem cells in vivo. Whereas the pathways underlying the molecular and biochemical details of nuclear breakdown that accompanies apoptosis have been elucidated, the precise nature of nuclear reorganization that precedes the demolition phase is not fully understood. Here, we expressed an inducible caspase-8 in human mesenchymal stem cells, and quantitatively followed the early changes in nuclear organization during apoptosis. We found that caspase-8 induces alteration of the nuclear lamina and a subsequent spatial reorganization of both centromeres, which are shifted towards a peripheral localization, and telomeres, which form aggregates. This nuclear reorganization correlates with caspase-3 sensitivity of lamina proteins, because the expression of lamin mutant constructs with caspase-3 hypersensitivity resulted in a caspase-8-independent appearance of lamina intranuclear structures and telomere aggregates, whereas application of a caspase inhibitor restrains these changes in nuclear reorganization. Notably, upon activation of apoptosis, we observed no initial changes in the spatial organization of the promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs). We suggest that during activation of the caspase-8 pathway changes in the lamina structure precede changes in heterochromatin spatial organization, and the subsequent breakdown of lamina and PML-NB.

  16. The Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Promotes the Herpesvirus-Induced Phosphorylation-Dependent Disassembly of the Nuclear Lamina Required for Nucleocytoplasmic Egress

    PubMed Central

    Milbradt, Jens; Hutterer, Corina; Bahsi, Hanife; Wagner, Sabrina; Sonntag, Eric; Kaufer, Benedikt B.; Mori, Yasuko; Sticht, Heinrich; Fossen, Torgils; Marschall, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear lamina lines the inner nuclear membrane providing a structural framework for the nucleus. Cellular processes, such as nuclear envelope breakdown during mitosis or nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein complexes, are functionally linked to the disassembly of the nuclear lamina. In general, lamina disassembly is mediated by phosphorylation, but the precise molecular mechanism is still not completely understood. Recently, we suggested a novel mechanism for lamina disassembly during the nuclear egress of herpesviral capsids which involves the cellular isomerase Pin1. In this study, we focused on mechanistic details of herpesviral nuclear replication to demonstrate the general importance of Pin1 for lamina disassembly. In particular, Ser22-specific lamin phosphorylation consistently generates a Pin1-binding motif in cells infected with human and animal alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we showed that binding of Pin1 to a synthetic lamin peptide induces its cis/trans isomerization in vitro. A detailed bioinformatic evaluation strongly suggests that this structural conversion induces large-scale secondary structural changes in the lamin N-terminus. Thus, we concluded that a Pin1-induced conformational change of lamins may represent the molecular trigger responsible for lamina disassembly. Consistent with this concept, pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 activity blocked lamina disassembly in herpesvirus-infected fibroblasts and consequently impaired virus replication. In addition, a phospho-mimetic Ser22Glu lamin mutant was still able to form a regular lamina structure and overexpression of a Ser22-phosphorylating kinase did not induce lamina disassembly in Pin1 knockout cells. Intriguingly, this was observed in absence of herpesvirus infection proposing a broader importance of Pin1 for lamina constitution. Thus, our results suggest a functional model of similar events leading to disassembly of the nuclear

  17. The Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Promotes the Herpesvirus-Induced Phosphorylation-Dependent Disassembly of the Nuclear Lamina Required for Nucleocytoplasmic Egress.

    PubMed

    Milbradt, Jens; Hutterer, Corina; Bahsi, Hanife; Wagner, Sabrina; Sonntag, Eric; Horn, Anselm H C; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Mori, Yasuko; Sticht, Heinrich; Fossen, Torgils; Marschall, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear lamina lines the inner nuclear membrane providing a structural framework for the nucleus. Cellular processes, such as nuclear envelope breakdown during mitosis or nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein complexes, are functionally linked to the disassembly of the nuclear lamina. In general, lamina disassembly is mediated by phosphorylation, but the precise molecular mechanism is still not completely understood. Recently, we suggested a novel mechanism for lamina disassembly during the nuclear egress of herpesviral capsids which involves the cellular isomerase Pin1. In this study, we focused on mechanistic details of herpesviral nuclear replication to demonstrate the general importance of Pin1 for lamina disassembly. In particular, Ser22-specific lamin phosphorylation consistently generates a Pin1-binding motif in cells infected with human and animal alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we showed that binding of Pin1 to a synthetic lamin peptide induces its cis/trans isomerization in vitro. A detailed bioinformatic evaluation strongly suggests that this structural conversion induces large-scale secondary structural changes in the lamin N-terminus. Thus, we concluded that a Pin1-induced conformational change of lamins may represent the molecular trigger responsible for lamina disassembly. Consistent with this concept, pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 activity blocked lamina disassembly in herpesvirus-infected fibroblasts and consequently impaired virus replication. In addition, a phospho-mimetic Ser22Glu lamin mutant was still able to form a regular lamina structure and overexpression of a Ser22-phosphorylating kinase did not induce lamina disassembly in Pin1 knockout cells. Intriguingly, this was observed in absence of herpesvirus infection proposing a broader importance of Pin1 for lamina constitution. Thus, our results suggest a functional model of similar events leading to disassembly of the nuclear

  18. The Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Promotes the Herpesvirus-Induced Phosphorylation-Dependent Disassembly of the Nuclear Lamina Required for Nucleocytoplasmic Egress.

    PubMed

    Milbradt, Jens; Hutterer, Corina; Bahsi, Hanife; Wagner, Sabrina; Sonntag, Eric; Horn, Anselm H C; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Mori, Yasuko; Sticht, Heinrich; Fossen, Torgils; Marschall, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear lamina lines the inner nuclear membrane providing a structural framework for the nucleus. Cellular processes, such as nuclear envelope breakdown during mitosis or nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein complexes, are functionally linked to the disassembly of the nuclear lamina. In general, lamina disassembly is mediated by phosphorylation, but the precise molecular mechanism is still not completely understood. Recently, we suggested a novel mechanism for lamina disassembly during the nuclear egress of herpesviral capsids which involves the cellular isomerase Pin1. In this study, we focused on mechanistic details of herpesviral nuclear replication to demonstrate the general importance of Pin1 for lamina disassembly. In particular, Ser22-specific lamin phosphorylation consistently generates a Pin1-binding motif in cells infected with human and animal alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we showed that binding of Pin1 to a synthetic lamin peptide induces its cis/trans isomerization in vitro. A detailed bioinformatic evaluation strongly suggests that this structural conversion induces large-scale secondary structural changes in the lamin N-terminus. Thus, we concluded that a Pin1-induced conformational change of lamins may represent the molecular trigger responsible for lamina disassembly. Consistent with this concept, pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 activity blocked lamina disassembly in herpesvirus-infected fibroblasts and consequently impaired virus replication. In addition, a phospho-mimetic Ser22Glu lamin mutant was still able to form a regular lamina structure and overexpression of a Ser22-phosphorylating kinase did not induce lamina disassembly in Pin1 knockout cells. Intriguingly, this was observed in absence of herpesvirus infection proposing a broader importance of Pin1 for lamina constitution. Thus, our results suggest a functional model of similar events leading to disassembly of the nuclear

  19. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  20. The relationship between the high-density lamina and precipitation in the subarctic Lake Mokoto, North Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, K.

    2015-12-01

    Koji Seto (ReCCLE, Shimane Univ.), Hiroyuki Takata (Pusan Univ.), Kota Katsuki (KIGAM), Takeshi Sonoda (Tokyo Univ. of Agr.) In the coastal area of the Sea of Okhotsk in the east part of Hokkaido located to for subarctic zone, many brackish-water lakes are distributed. Lake Mokoto has two-layer structure of polyhaline surface waters and mixoeuhaline bottom water. The bottom water shows the anoxic conditions in summer season. In this reason, the sediments of Lake Mokoto consist of organic mud with the lamination. The 09Mk-1C and 09Mk-2C cores collected from Lake Mokoto at 2009. In the soft X-ray photograph, the cyclic lamina set is observed in their core. The cyclic lamina set consists of low-, intermedium- and high-density lamina. It is considered that this cyclic lamina set is the verve. According to the meteorological data in Abashiri region, the annually precipitation is high from August to September. Probably, the cyclic lamina set is formed by seasonal change of precipitation. In this study, we are discussed about the relationship between the high-density lamina and precipitation by sedimentologic and geochemical high-resolution analysis. The 09Mk-1C and 09Mk-2C cores collected from Lake Mokoto show the length of 1.78 to 3.87m, respectively. In 09Mk-2C core, Ta-a tephra (AD 1739) was observed at the 3.5m depths. The 09Mk-1C core consist of organic mud with the lamination in all cores. The core top 100 cm in this core shows the black (N1.5/0), and it seems to indicate the seasonal anoxic environment as present. The organic mud below 100cm depth shows black (10YR1.7/1). The sedimentation rate in 09Mk-1C core increase from late 1960's for the age of cyclic lamina set. It is suggest that supply of sediment in Lake Mokoto is increasing by land development in drainage basin. Phosphorus flux in 09Mk-1C core increase from late 1950's. The increasing of phosphorus flux may be caused by excess drainage of pollution from stock farm. In 2015, we were able to take the new

  1. Distribution and role in regeneration of N-CAM in the basal laminae of muscle and Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Rieger, F; Nicolet, M; Pinçon-Raymond, M; Murawsky, M; Levi, G; Edelman, G M

    1988-08-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is a membrane glycoprotein involved in neuron-neuron and neuron-muscle adhesion. It can be synthesized in various forms by both nerve and muscle and it becomes concentrated at the motor endplate. Biochemical analysis of a frog muscle extract enriched in basal lamina revealed the presence of a polydisperse, polysialylated form of N-CAM with an average Mr of approximately 160,000 as determined by SDS-PAGE, which was converted to a form of 125,000 Mr by treatment with neuraminidase. To define further the role of N-CAM in neuromuscular junction organization, we studied the distribution of N-CAM in an in vivo preparation of frog basal lamina sheaths obtained by inducing the degeneration of both nerve and muscle fibers. Immunoreactive material could be readily detected by anti-N-CAM antibodies in such basal lamina sheaths. Ultrastructural analysis using immunogold techniques revealed N-CAM in close association with the basal lamina sheaths, present in dense accumulation at places that presumably correspond to synaptic regions. N-CAM epitopes were also associated with collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix. The ability of anti-N-CAM antibodies to perturb nerve regeneration and reinnervation of the remaining basal lamina sheaths was then examined. In control animals, myelinating Schwann cells wrapped around the regenerated axon and reinnervation occurred only at the old synaptic areas; new contacts between nerve and basal lamina had a terminal Schwann cell capping the nerve terminal. In the presence of anti-N-CAM antibodies, three major abnormalities were observed in the regeneration and reinnervation processes: (a) regenerated axons in nerve trunks that had grown back into the old Schwann cell basal lamina were rarely associated with myelinating Schwann cell processes, (b) ectopic synapses were often present, and (c) many of the axon terminals lacked a terminal Schwann cell capping the nerve-basal lamina contact area. These

  2. Myelin contrast across lamina at 7T, ex-vivo and in-vivo dataset.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Alessio; van Veluw, Susanne J; Visser, Fredy; Luijten, Peter R; Spliet, Wim; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Dumoulin, Serge O; Petridou, Natalia

    2016-09-01

    In this article we report the complete data obtained in-vivo for the paper: "Lines of Baillarger in vivo and ex-vivo: myelin contrast across lamina at 7T MRI and histology" (Fracasso et al., 2015) [1]. Single participant data (4 participants) from the occipital lobe acquisition are reported for axial, coronal and sagittal slices; early visual area functional localization and laminar profiles are reported. Data from whole brain images are reported and described (5 participants), for axial, coronal and sagittal slices. Laminar profiles from occipital, parietal and frontal lobes are reported. The data reported in this manuscript complements the paper (Fracasso et al., 2015) [1] by providing the full set of results from the complete pool of participants, on a single-participant basis. Moreover, we provide histological images from the ex-vivo sample reported in Fracasso et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:27508254

  3. Single-shot lamina thoracic paravertebral block with ketofol for modified radical mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rukewe, Ambrose; Afuwape, Oludolapo O; Ugheoke, Austin; Fatiregun, Akinola A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the use of single-shot lamina thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) with sedation for a 56-year-old female patient who had modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance. Two years ago, she suffered vocal cord palsy post thyroidectomy, which was managed with tracheostomy. The tracheostomy tube was removed 8 months later, leaving the patient with persistent hoarseness of voice and left vocal cord palsy. She declined general anesthesia and consented for TPVB. The surgery lasted 95 minutes and was successfully completed with TPVB. Her vital signs were stable during the operation. She had low pain scores, minimal opioid use, early alimentation, and no postoperative nausea and vomiting and was discharged early. We present the anesthetic management of this case in our setting, where TPVB under ultrasound guidance and modern drug-delivery systems for sedation are unavailable. PMID:27785098

  4. Measurement of Basilar Membrane, Reticular Lamina, and Tectorial Membrane Vibrations in the Intact Mouse Cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan

    2011-11-01

    A scanning low-coherence heterodyne interferometer (SLHI) was developed for measuring the microstructural vibration inside the cochlear partition of the intact living cochlea of mice. The sensitivity, frequency response, and dynamic range of the SLHI are comparable with those of a sensitive laser interferometer but the SLHI has a higher spatial resolution along the optical axis. The magnitude and phase of sound-induced vibrations were measured as a function of the focal position along the optical axis. Our data show that the SLHI has sufficient sensitivity, dynamic range, and temporal and spatial resolution to measure sub-nanometer vibrations of the basilar membrane, reticular lamina, and tectorial membrane in the intact living mouse cochlea. High spatial and temporal resolution, compact heterodyne design, and scanning capability make this interferometer an ideal tool to study molecular mechanisms of hearing in normal and genetically-modified mice.

  5. The biophysical properties of Basal lamina gels depend on the biochemical composition of the gel.

    PubMed

    Arends, Fabienna; Nowald, Constantin; Pflieger, Kerstin; Boettcher, Kathrin; Zahler, Stefan; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The migration of cells within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) depends sensitively on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the matrix. An example for a biological ECM is given by reconstituted basal lamina gels purified from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma of mice. Here, we compare four different commercial variants of this ECM, which have all been purified according to the same protocol. Nevertheless, in those gels, we detect strong differences in the migration behavior of leukocyte cells as well as in the Brownian motion of nanoparticles. We show that these differences correlate with the mechanical properties and the microarchitecture of the gels which in turn arise from small variations in their biochemical composition. PMID:25689062

  6. Changes in activity of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis in the annual cycle in Rana temporaria.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, S; Dziubek, K; Lach, H

    1978-01-01

    In 70 sexually mature male and femal Rana temporaria frogs captured in natural habitat, mean nuclear volumes for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) were determined in seven characteristic stages in life. The mean nuclear volume for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the OVLT showed distinct annual fluctuation. Maximum nuclear volume of the cells in both investigated parts of the OVLT were observed during the breeding period (Ist decade of April), and minimum volume of the nuclei of the pars ependymalis at the beginning of hibernation (IIIrd decade of October), and in the pars parenchymalis near the end of active life (Ist decade of September).

  7. The Biophysical Properties of Basal Lamina Gels Depend on the Biochemical Composition of the Gel

    PubMed Central

    Pflieger, Kerstin; Boettcher, Kathrin; Zahler, Stefan; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The migration of cells within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) depends sensitively on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the matrix. An example for a biological ECM is given by reconstituted basal lamina gels purified from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma of mice. Here, we compare four different commercial variants of this ECM, which have all been purified according to the same protocol. Nevertheless, in those gels, we detect strong differences in the migration behavior of leukocyte cells as well as in the Brownian motion of nanoparticles. We show that these differences correlate with the mechanical properties and the microarchitecture of the gels which in turn arise from small variations in their biochemical composition. PMID:25689062

  8. Application of polarization microscopy for the nonstained determination of myo-lamina morphology in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Justin S.; Criscione, John C.; Hudson, Kristen K.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2004-06-01

    The remodeling of cardiac tissues has been implicated in the development of congestive heart failure. Therefore, the current emphasis in cardiovascular research is geared toward understanding the underlying processes in order to facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment regimens by improving the early detection and diagnosis of this disease. This paper focuses on the application of polarized light to address a major drawback of cardiovascular biomechanics research, which is the utilization of toxic chemicals to prepare samples for histological examination. To accomplish this without the use of toxic chemicals, a polarization microscopy imaging technique was developed and applied to a non-stained rat septum sample. This imaging technique provided sufficient enhancement of collagenous structures to determine the myo-lamina sheet angle, β, without the need for caustic staining.

  9. Myelin contrast across lamina at 7T, ex-vivo and in-vivo dataset.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Alessio; van Veluw, Susanne J; Visser, Fredy; Luijten, Peter R; Spliet, Wim; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Dumoulin, Serge O; Petridou, Natalia

    2016-09-01

    In this article we report the complete data obtained in-vivo for the paper: "Lines of Baillarger in vivo and ex-vivo: myelin contrast across lamina at 7T MRI and histology" (Fracasso et al., 2015) [1]. Single participant data (4 participants) from the occipital lobe acquisition are reported for axial, coronal and sagittal slices; early visual area functional localization and laminar profiles are reported. Data from whole brain images are reported and described (5 participants), for axial, coronal and sagittal slices. Laminar profiles from occipital, parietal and frontal lobes are reported. The data reported in this manuscript complements the paper (Fracasso et al., 2015) [1] by providing the full set of results from the complete pool of participants, on a single-participant basis. Moreover, we provide histological images from the ex-vivo sample reported in Fracasso et al. (2015) [1].

  10. The role of lamina cribrosa cells in optic nerve head fibrosis in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Deborah M; O'Brien, Colm J

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic progressive optic neuropathy. There are extracellular matrix (ECM) changes associated with optic disc cupping in the optic nerve head (ONH) and subsequent visual field defects. The primary risk factor for onset and progression of glaucoma is raised intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated IOP causes deformation at the ONH specifically at the lamina cribrosa (LC) region where there is also deposition of ECM causing the LC to initially undergo thickening and posterior migration with eventual shearing and collapse of the LC plates leading to a thin fibrotic connective tissue structure/scar. Cells that populate the LC region of the ONH are those cells that are positive for GFAP (the astrocytes) and those negative for GFAP (the LC cells). The LC cell plays an integral role in ECM remodelling producing ECM when exposed to high level mechanical stretch, TGF- β1 and a hypoxic environment. PMID:26675406

  11. Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in Normal Monkey Eyes Part 1: Methods and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Howard; Reynaud, Juan; Gardiner, Stuart; Grimm, Jonathan; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, J. Crawford; Yang, Hongli; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce quantitative postmortem lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture (LMA) assessment and characterize beam diameter (BD), pore diameter (PD), and connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF) in 21 normal monkey eyes. Methods. Optic nerve heads (ONHs) underwent digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and LC beam segmentation. Each beam and pore voxel was assigned a diameter based on the largest sphere that contained it before transformation to one of twelve 30° sectors in a common cylinder. Mean BD, PD, and CTVF within 12 central and 12 peripheral subsectors and within inner, middle, and outer LC depths were assessed for sector, subsector, and depth effects by analysis of variance using general estimating equations. Eye-specific LMA discordance (the pattern of lowest connective tissue density) was plotted for each parameter. Results. The ranges of mean BD, PD, and CTVF were 14.0 to 23.1 μm, 20.0 to 35.6 μm, and 0.247 to 0.638, respectively. Sector, subsector, and depth effects were significant (P < 0.01) for all parameters except subsector on CTVF. Beam diameter and CTVF were smaller and PD was larger within the superior-temporal (ST) and inferior-temporal (IT) sectors (P < 0.05). These differences were enhanced within the central versus peripheral subsectors. Beam diameter and CTVF were larger and PD was smaller (P < 0.05) within the middle LC layer. Lamina cribrosa microarchitecture discordance most commonly occurred within the ST and IT sectors, varied by eye, and generally diminished as CTVF increased. Conclusions. Our data support previous characterizations of diminished connective tissue density within the ST and IT ONH regions. The clinical importance of eye-specific LMA discordance warrants further study. PMID:25650423

  12. Disruption of Basal Lamina Components in Neuromotor Synapses of Children with Spastic Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Militar, Jaimee L.; Theroux, Mary C.; Dabney, Kirk W.; Shah, Suken A.; Miller, Freeman; Akins, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a static encephalopathy occurring when a lesion to the developing brain results in disordered movement and posture. Patients present with sometimes overlapping spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, and ataxic symptoms. Spastic CP, which is characterized by stiff muscles, weakness, and poor motor control, accounts for ∼80% of cases. The detailed mechanisms leading to disordered movement in spastic CP are not completely understood, but clinical experience and recent studies suggest involvement of peripheral motor synapses. For example, it is recognized that CP patients have altered sensitivities to drugs that target neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and protein localization studies suggest that NMJ microanatomy is disrupted in CP. Since CP originates during maturation, we hypothesized that NMJ disruption in spastic CP is associated with retention of an immature neuromotor phenotype later in life. Scoliosis patients with spastic CP or idiopathic disease were enrolled in a prospective, partially-blinded study to evaluate NMJ organization and neuromotor maturation. The localization of synaptic acetylcholine esterase (AChE) relative to postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR), synaptic laminin β2, and presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) appeared mismatched in the CP samples; whereas, no significant disruption was found between AChR and SV2. These data suggest that pre- and postsynaptic NMJ components in CP children were appropriately distributed even though AChE and laminin β2 within the synaptic basal lamina appeared disrupted. Follow up electron microscopy indicated that NMJs from CP patients appeared generally mature and similar to controls with some differences present, including deeper postsynaptic folds and reduced presynaptic mitochondria. Analysis of maturational markers, including myosin, syntrophin, myogenin, and AChR subunit expression, and telomere lengths, all indicated similar levels of motor maturation in the two groups. Thus, NMJ

  13. Infantile demyelinating neuropathy associated with a de novo point mutation on Ser72 in PMP22 and basal lamina onion bulbs in skin biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ceuterick-de Groote, C; De Jonghe, P; Timmerman, V; Van Goethem, G; Löfgren, A; Ceulemans, B; Van Broeckhoven, C; Martin, J J

    2001-01-01

    Codon 72 has been designated as a hot spot for distinct missense mutations in the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Ser72Leu substitution was associated with Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) in four patients and with congenital hypomyelination neuropathy (CHN) in one patient. Our objective was to report one other DSS patient with Ser72Leu substitution in PMP22 and to concurrently illustrate how less invasive procedures such as skin biopsy could provide a rapid and reliable alternative to conventional sural nerve biopsy for the characterization of histophenotypic features. A skin biopsy was carried out in a 2 4/12-year-old girl with muscle atrophy, hypotonia and weakness, as well as generalized areflexia and absent sensory and motor nerve responses. Standard electron microscope techniques were used. PMP22 was screened by automated direct nucleotide sequencing analysis. Morphological examination revealed basal lamina onion bulbs surrounding a de- or hypomyelinated axon in all nerve bundles. Mutation analysis demonstrated a missense point mutation in codon 72 of the PMP22 gene leading to a Ser72Leu substitution. Further genotype-phenotype correlations will have to determine whether morphologically distinct phenotypes can be correlated with specific mutations. For this purpose, cutaneous nerve bundles could serve as an alternative tool to help identify and classify subtypes in this heterogeneous syndrome. PMID:11314784

  14. Stromatolitic knobs in Storr's Lake (San Salvador, Bahamas): a model system for formation and alteration of laminae.

    PubMed

    Dupraz, C; Fowler, A; Tobias, C; Visscher, P T

    2013-11-01

    The initial lamination in young, metabolically active Scytonema knobs developing in Storr's Lake (Bahamas) results from the iterative succession of two different stages of microbial growth at the top of this microbialite. Stage 1 is dominated by vertically oriented cyanobacterial filaments and is characterized by a high porosity of the fabric. Stage 2 shows a higher microbial density with the filaments oriented horizontally and with higher carbonate content. The more developed, dense microbial community associated with Stage 2 of the Scytonema knobs rapidly degrades extracellular organic matter (EOM) and coupled to this, precipitates carbonate. The initial nucleation forms high-Mg calcite nanospheroids that progressively replace the EOM. No precipitation is observed within the thick sheath of the Scytonema filaments, possibly because of strong cross-linking of calcium and EOM (forming EOM-Ca-EOM complexes), which renders Ca unavailable for carbonate nucleation (inhibition process). Eventually, organominerals precipitate and form an initial lamina through physicochemical and microbial processes, including high rates of photosynthetic activity that lead to (13) C-enriched DIC available for initial nucleation. As this lamina moves downward by the iterative production of new laminae at the top of the microbialite, increased heterotrophic activity further alters the initial mineral product at depth. Although some rare relic preservation of 'Stage 1-Stage 2' laminae in subfossil knobs exists, the very fine primary lamination is considerably altered and almost completely lost when the knobs develop into larger and more complex morphologies due to the increased accommodation space and related physicochemical and/or biological alteration. Despite considerable differences in microstructure, the emerging ecological model of community succession leading to laminae formation described here for the Scytonema knobs can be applied to the formation of coarse-grained, open marine

  15. Slow cycling cells in the continuous dental lamina of Scyliorhinus canicula: new evidence for stem cells in sharks.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Sam; Vandeghinste, Robbe; Boutet, Agnes; Mazan, Sylvie; Huysseune, Ann

    2016-05-01

    In the lesser spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), as in most non-mammalian vertebrates, the dentition renews throughout life. To contribute to our understanding of how continuous tooth replacement is achieved, we searched for evidence for the presence of stem cells in this species. Three-dimensional reconstructions of juvenile (2-3 weeks post-hatch) specimens showed that tooth families merge imperceptibly with so-called interdental zones within a continuous and permanent dental lamina. Interdental regions are composed of three layers, continuous with cervical loop, middle, and outer dental epithelium of the tooth families, respectively. A BrdU pulse-chase experiment revealed that cell proliferation is initiated in the lingual part of the dental lamina and the resulting population shifts one tooth position towards the oral epithelium in around four to five weeks. In the longest chase time (114 days) label-retaining and arguably non-differentiated cells were present at the lingual border of the dental lamina. These were found in the outer and middle dental epithelium, both within and between tooth families. This area of the dental lamina did not show expression or distribution of Sox2. Our data support the hypothesis that stem cells reside at the lingual border of the continuous dental lamina, more specifically in the middle dental epithelium at the level of the tooth families, and in its extension between the tooth families. To demonstrate their true stemness and their role in continuous tooth replacement, it remains to be shown that these cells have the potential to give rise to a complete new successor.

  16. Stochastic and cyclic deposition of multiple subannual laminae in an urban lake (Twin Lake, Golden Valley, Minnesota, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrbo, A.; Ustipak, K.; Demet, B.

    2013-12-01

    Twin Lake, a small, deep, meromictic urban lake in Minneapolis, Minnesota, annually deposits two to 10 laminae that are distinguished from one another by composition and resulting color. Sediment sources are both autochthonous and allochthonous, including pure and mixed laminae of authigenic calcite, algal organic matter, and diatoms, as well as at least three distinct types of sediment gravity flow deposits. Diagenetic iron sulfide and iron phosphate phases are minor components, but can affect color out of proportion to their abundance. We used L*a*b* color from digital images of a freeze core slab, and petrographic smear slides of individual laminae, to categorize 1080 laminae deposited between 1963 and 2010 CE (based on lead-210 dating). Some causal relationships exist between the ten categories identified: diatom blooms often occur directly above the debris of gravity flows that probably disrupt the phosphate-rich monimolomnion and fertilize the surface waters; calcite whitings only occur after diatom blooms that increase calcite saturation. Stochastic events, as represented by laminae rich in siliciclastics and other terrigenous material, or shallow-water microfossils and carbonate morphologies, are the dominant sediment source. The patterns of cyclic deposition (e.g., summer and winter sedimentation) that produce 'normal' varve couplets in some lakes are continually interrupted by these stochastic events, to such an extent that spectral analysis finds only a weak one-year cycle. Sediments deposited before about 1900, and extending through the entire Holocene sequence (~10m) are varve couplets interrupted by thick (20-90 cm) debris layers, indicating that gravity flows were lower in frequency but greater in magnitude before the historical period, probably due to an increased frequency of disturbance under urban land-use.

  17. Slow cycling cells in the continuous dental lamina of Scyliorhinus canicula: new evidence for stem cells in sharks.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Sam; Vandeghinste, Robbe; Boutet, Agnes; Mazan, Sylvie; Huysseune, Ann

    2016-05-01

    In the lesser spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), as in most non-mammalian vertebrates, the dentition renews throughout life. To contribute to our understanding of how continuous tooth replacement is achieved, we searched for evidence for the presence of stem cells in this species. Three-dimensional reconstructions of juvenile (2-3 weeks post-hatch) specimens showed that tooth families merge imperceptibly with so-called interdental zones within a continuous and permanent dental lamina. Interdental regions are composed of three layers, continuous with cervical loop, middle, and outer dental epithelium of the tooth families, respectively. A BrdU pulse-chase experiment revealed that cell proliferation is initiated in the lingual part of the dental lamina and the resulting population shifts one tooth position towards the oral epithelium in around four to five weeks. In the longest chase time (114 days) label-retaining and arguably non-differentiated cells were present at the lingual border of the dental lamina. These were found in the outer and middle dental epithelium, both within and between tooth families. This area of the dental lamina did not show expression or distribution of Sox2. Our data support the hypothesis that stem cells reside at the lingual border of the continuous dental lamina, more specifically in the middle dental epithelium at the level of the tooth families, and in its extension between the tooth families. To demonstrate their true stemness and their role in continuous tooth replacement, it remains to be shown that these cells have the potential to give rise to a complete new successor. PMID:26988117

  18. Differential contribution of TRPV1 to thermal responses and tissue injury-induced sensitization of dorsal horn neurons in laminae I and V in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W A; Julius, D; Basbaum, A I

    2006-12-15

    Our previous recordings from dorsal root ganglion and spinal lamina V neurons from TRPV1-mutant mice showed dramatic decreases in responses to temperatures near the activation threshold of this channel (43-49 degrees C). Somewhat unexpectedly, we only observed behavioral deficits in these mice at higher temperatures (50-58 degrees C). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the noxious heat-evoked pain behavior that persists in TRPV1-mutant mice reflects residual responsiveness of neurons in the superficial, but not deep, dorsal horn. To this end, we performed in vivo extracellular recordings of spinal nociresponsive neurons in laminae I and V in wild type (WT) and TRPV1 mutant mice. Neurons in WT and mutant mice from both laminae did not differ in their spontaneous activity or evoked responses to mechanical or cold stimuli. By contrast, most lamina I neurons from mutant mice responded to noxious heat with significantly higher thresholds than in WT mice. In contrast, lamina V neurons from mutant mice were virtually unresponsive to noxious heat before and after topical mustard oil-induced tissue injury. Interestingly, lamina I neurons in mutant mice displayed thermal sensitization following tissue injury, comparable in magnitude, but of shorter duration, than in WT mice. We conclude that TRPV1 is necessary for noxious heat-evoked responses of lamina V neurons, both before and after tissue injury. It is also an essential contributor to the normal activation threshold of lamina I neurons to noxious heat and for the full duration of thermal sensitization of lamina I neurons following injury. Finally, our results suggest that the processing of noxious thermal messages by neurons in lamina I involves convergent inputs from a heterogeneous population of primary afferent thermal nociceptors.

  19. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  20. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Fabbretti, Fabiana; Iannetti, Ilaria; Guglielmi, Loredana; Perconti, Susanna; Evangelistella, Chiara; Proietti De Santis, Luca; Bongiorni, Silvia; Prantera, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL), underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL. PMID:26963718

  1. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fabbretti, Fabiana; Iannetti, Ilaria; Guglielmi, Loredana; Perconti, Susanna; Evangelistella, Chiara; Proietti De Santis, Luca; Bongiorni, Silvia; Prantera, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL), underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL.

  2. Lamina Associated Polypeptide 1 (LAP1) Interactome and Its Functional Features

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Joana B.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; Rebelo, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) is a type II transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane encoded by the human gene TOR1AIP1. LAP1 is involved in maintaining the nuclear envelope structure and appears be involved in the positioning of lamins and chromatin. To date, LAP1’s precise function has not been fully elucidated but analysis of its interacting proteins will permit unraveling putative associations to specific cellular pathways and cellular processes. By assessing public databases it was possible to identify the LAP1 interactome, and this was curated. In total, 41 interactions were identified. Several functionally relevant proteins, such as TRF2, TERF2IP, RIF1, ATM, MAD2L1 and MAD2L1BP were identified and these support the putative functions proposed for LAP1. Furthermore, by making use of the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis tool and submitting the LAP1 interactors, the top two canonical pathways were “Telomerase signalling” and “Telomere Extension by Telomerase” and the top functions “Cell Morphology”, “Cellular Assembly and Organization” and “DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair”. Once again, putative LAP1 functions are reinforced but novel functions are emerging. PMID:26784240

  3. Aberrant Synaptic Integration in Adult Lamina I Projection Neurons Following Neonatal Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Craig, Paige E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that neonatal tissue damage evokes alterations in spinal pain reflexes which persist into adulthood. However, less is known about potential concomitant effects on the transmission of nociceptive information to the brain, as the degree to which early injury modulates synaptic integration and membrane excitability in mature spinal projection neurons remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury leads to a significant shift in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition onto identified lamina I projection neurons of the adult mouse spinal cord. The strength of direct primary afferent input to mature spino-parabrachial neurons was enhanced following neonatal tissue damage, whereas the efficacy of both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition onto the same population was compromised. This was accompanied by reorganization in the pattern of sensory input to adult projection neurons, which included a greater prevalence of monosynaptic input from low-threshold A-fibers when preceded by early tissue damage. In addition, neonatal incision resulted in greater primary afferent-evoked action potential discharge in mature projection neurons. Overall, these results demonstrate that tissue damage during early life causes a long-term increase in the gain of spinal nociceptive circuits, and suggest that the prolonged consequences of neonatal trauma may not be restricted to the spinal cord but rather include excessive ascending signaling to supraspinal pain centers. PMID:25673839

  4. The Role of Endolithic Cyanobacteria in the Formation of Lithified Laminae in Bahamian Stromatolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prufert-Bebout, L.; Macintyre, I.; Reid, R. P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The microboring activity of endolithic cyanobacteria plays a major role in the formation of lithified laminae in modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. These stromatolites are composed primarily of fine grained carbonate sand that is trapped and bound by the filamentous cyanobacteria Schizothrix sp. Periodic introduction of coccoid endolithic cyanobacteria, Solentia sp., results in formation of lithified horizons, 200 to 1000 micron thick. We used SEM and petrographic analyses to examine both naturally occurring lithified layers dominated by endoliths and fused oolitic crusts generated in the laboratory by activity of endolithic cyanobacteria (Solentia sp.). Fused grain crusts consist of micritized grains that are welded together at point contacts. Micritization results from extensive microboring and rapid (days to weeks) carbonate precipitation within the bore holes. This precipitation appears to occur concurrently with further endolithic activity within the grain, Infilling of bore holes that cross from one grain to another at point contacts results in grain welding, Thus, while microboring destroys original grain textures, at the same time the endolith activity plays a constructional role in stromatolite growth by forming lithified layers of welded grains. These framework structures help to stabilize and preserve the stromatolite deposits.

  5. Tooth replacement without a dental lamina: the search for epithelial stem cells in Polypterus senegalus.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Sam; De Clercq, Adelbert; Huysseune, Ann

    2014-07-01

    Most actinopterygians replace their teeth continuously throughout life. To address the question of where and how replacement teeth form in actinopterygians, it is advisable to investigate well-chosen representatives within the lineage. The African bichir, Polypterus senegalus, belongs to the earliest diverged group of the actinopterygian lineage with currently living representatives. Its well characterized dentition, together with its phylogenetic position, make this species an attractive model to answer following questions: (1) when and where does the replacement tooth form and how is it connected with the dental organ of the predecessor, and (2) is there any evidence for the presence of epithelial stem cells, hypothesized to play a role in replacement? Serial sections show that one tooth family can contain up to three members, which are all interconnected by dental epithelium. Replacement teeth develop without the presence of a successional dental lamina. We propose that this is the plesiomorphic condition for tooth replacement in actinopterygians. BrdU pulse-chase experiments reveal cells in the outer and middle dental epithelium, proliferating at the time of initiation of a new replacement tooth. It is tempting to assume that these cell layers provide a stem cell niche. The observed absence of label-retaining cells after long chase times (up to 8 weeks) is held against the light of divergent views on cell cycling properties of stem cells. At present, our data do not support, neither reject, the hypothesis on involvement of epithelial stem cells within the process of continuous tooth replacement.

  6. Cortical Lamina Binding of PET Amyloid and Tau Tracers in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Tsui, Wai; Rusinek, Henry; Butler, Tracy; Mosconi, Lisa; Pirraglia, Elizabeth.; Mozley, David; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Harada, Ryuichi; Furumoto, Shozo; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Okamura, Nobuyuki; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neurofibrillary tau pathology and amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, characteristic lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD), show different neocortical laminar distributions. NFT-tau pathology tends to be located closer to the gray-white-matter boundary (G-WB) whereas Aβ is dispersed throughout the width of the cortical ribbon. Methods Using PET radiotracers for tau and Aβ lesions, we developed an image analysis tool to measure the distance of tracer-positive voxels to the G-WB. We studied 5 AD and 5 healthy subjects with both 18F-THK5117 (tau) and 11C-PiB (Aβ) PET. Results We observed that on average tau positive-voxels were closer to the white matter than the Aβ positive voxels. This effect was found for all AD subjects and for all regions, both before and after regionally adjusting for the non-specific white matter binding of both tracers. The differential laminar pattern was validated at post mortem. Conclusion Within cortical lamina distance measures may be of value in testing PET tracers for their anatomical selectivity. PMID:25572087

  7. Tagged Chromosomal Insertion Site System: A Method to Study Lamina-Associated Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Harr, Jennifer C; Reddy, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome is important for chromatin regulation. This organization is nonrandom and appears to be tightly correlated with or regulated by chromatin state and scaffolding proteins. To understand how specific DNA and chromatin elements contribute to the functional organization of the genome, we developed a new tool-the tagged chromosomal insertion site (TCIS) system-to identify and study minimal DNA sequences that drive nuclear compartmentalization and applied this system to specifically study the role of cis elements in targeting DNA to the nuclear lamina. The TCIS system allows Cre-recombinase-mediated site-directed integration of any DNA fragment into a locus tagged with lacO arrays, thus enabling both functional molecular studies and positional analysis of the altered locus. This system can be used to study the minimal DNA sequences that target the nuclear periphery (or other nuclear compartments), allowing researchers to understand how genome-wide results obtained, for example, by DNA adenine methyltransferase identification, chromosome conformation capture (HiC), or related methods, connect to the actual organization of DNA and chromosomes at the single-cell level. Finally, TCIS allows one to test roles for specific proteins in chromatin reorganization and to determine how changes in nuclear environment affect chromatin state and gene regulation at a single locus.

  8. Conjugation of extracellular matrix proteins to basal lamina analogs enhances keratinocyte attachment.

    PubMed

    Bush, Katie A; Downing, Brett R; Walsh, Sarah E; Pins, George D

    2007-02-01

    The dermal-epidermal junction of skin contains extracellular matrix proteins that are involved in initiating and controlling keratinocyte signaling events such as attachment, proliferation, and terminal differentiation. To characterize the relationship between extracellular matrix proteins and keratinocyte attachment, a biomimetic design approach was used to precisely tailor the surface of basal lamina analogs with biochemistries that emulate the native biochemical composition found at the dermal-epidermal junction. A high-throughput screening device was developed by our laboratory that allows for the simultaneous investigation of the conjugation of individual extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. collagen type I, collagen type IV, laminin, or fibronectin) as well as their effect on keratinocyte attachment, on the surface of an implantable collagen membrane. Fluorescence microscopy coupled with quantitative digital image analyses indicated that the extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to the collagen-GAG membranes in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the relationship between extracellular matrix protein signaling cues and keratinocyte attachment, cells were seeded on protein-conjugated collagen-GAG membranes and a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay was used to quantify viable keratinocyte attachment. Our results indicate that keratinocyte attachment was significantly enhanced on the surfaces of collagen membranes that were conjugated with fibronectin and type IV collagen. These findings define a set of design parameters that will enhance keratinocyte binding efficiency on the surface of collagen membranes and ultimately improve the rate of epithelialization for dermal equivalents.

  9. Application of Elliptic Fourier Analysis to Describe the Lamina Cribrosa Shape with Age and Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sanfilippo, P.G.; Grimm, J.L.; Flanagan, J.G.; Lathrop, K.L.; Sigal, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) plays an important biomechanical role in the optic nerve head (ONH). We developed a statistical shape model of the LC and tested if the shape varies with age or IOP. The ONHs of 18 donor eyes (47 to 91 years, mean 76 years) fixed at either 5 or 50 mm Hg of IOP were sectioned, stained, and imaged under a microscope. A 3D model of each ONH was reconstructed and the outline of the vertical sagittal section closest to the geometric centre of the LC extracted. The outline shape was described using elliptic Fourier analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) employed to identify the primary modes of LC shape variation. Linear mixed effect models were used to determine if the shape measurements were associated with age or IOP. The analysis revealed several modes of shape variation: thickness and depth directly (PC1), or inversely (PC2) related, and superior-inferior asymmetry (PC3). Only PC3 was associated with IOP, with higher IOP correlating with greater curvature of the LC superiorly compared to inferiorly. Our analysis enabled a concise and complete characterization of LC shape, revealing variations without defining them a priori. No association between LC shape and age was found for the relatively old population studied. Superior-inferior asymmetry of LC shape was associated with IOP, with more asymmetry at higher IOP. Increased IOP was not associated with LC thickness or depth. PMID:25193035

  10. Dscam and Sidekick proteins direct lamina-specific synaptic connections in vertebrate retina.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Masahito; Sanes, Joshua R

    2008-01-24

    Synaptic circuits in the retina transform visual input gathered by photoreceptors into messages that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send to the brain. Processes of retinal interneurons (amacrine and bipolar cells) form synapses on dendrites of RGCs in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The IPL is divided into at least 10 parallel sublaminae; subsets of interneurons and RGCs arborize and form synapses in just one or a few of them. These lamina-specific circuits determine the visual features to which RGC subtypes respond. Here we show that four closely related immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) adhesion molecules--Dscam (Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule), DscamL (refs 6-9), Sidekick-1 and Sidekick-2 (ref. 10)--are expressed in chick by non-overlapping subsets of interneurons and RGCs that form synapses in distinct IPL sublaminae. Moreover, each protein is concentrated within the appropriate sublaminae and each mediates homophilic adhesion. Loss- and gain-of-function studies in vivo indicate that these IgSF members participate in determining the IPL sublaminae in which synaptic partners arborize and connect. Thus, vertebrate Dscams, like Drosophila Dscams, play roles in neural connectivity. Together, our results on Dscams and Sidekicks suggest the existence of an IgSF code for laminar specificity in retina and, by implication, in other parts of the central nervous system. PMID:18216854

  11. Tagged Chromosomal Insertion Site System: A Method to Study Lamina-Associated Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Harr, Jennifer C; Reddy, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome is important for chromatin regulation. This organization is nonrandom and appears to be tightly correlated with or regulated by chromatin state and scaffolding proteins. To understand how specific DNA and chromatin elements contribute to the functional organization of the genome, we developed a new tool-the tagged chromosomal insertion site (TCIS) system-to identify and study minimal DNA sequences that drive nuclear compartmentalization and applied this system to specifically study the role of cis elements in targeting DNA to the nuclear lamina. The TCIS system allows Cre-recombinase-mediated site-directed integration of any DNA fragment into a locus tagged with lacO arrays, thus enabling both functional molecular studies and positional analysis of the altered locus. This system can be used to study the minimal DNA sequences that target the nuclear periphery (or other nuclear compartments), allowing researchers to understand how genome-wide results obtained, for example, by DNA adenine methyltransferase identification, chromosome conformation capture (HiC), or related methods, connect to the actual organization of DNA and chromosomes at the single-cell level. Finally, TCIS allows one to test roles for specific proteins in chromatin reorganization and to determine how changes in nuclear environment affect chromatin state and gene regulation at a single locus. PMID:26778570

  12. Computer simulation of wound closure in epithelial tissues: Cell-basal-lamina adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Tatsuzo; Honda, Hisao

    2009-12-01

    The mechanism of wound closure in epithelial tissues, i.e., cell monolayer sheets, is investigated through computer simulations. A wound means an area in which some cells have been removed from the normal tissue. The vertex dynamics cell model [T. Nagai and H. Honda, Philos. Mag. B 81, 699 (2001)], which describes morphogenesis of epithelial tissues using the concepts of statistical physics, is modified and applied to the closure of small wounds without mitosis. It is shown that cell-basal-lamina adhesion governs the wound closure competing with cell-cell adhesion and cell elasticity. The simulation results reproduce the actual wound closure process qualitatively and partly quantitatively. The closing proceeds with the translation of the edges of wound polygons toward the wound center and the intermittent reduction in the number of polygon edges. Over time, the process leads to an exponential decrease in the wound area. A shape factor is introduced to describe the wound shape quantitatively and is used to examine the time variation thereof. A method for determining model parameters by comparison with the experiments is given.

  13. Increased dietary sodium alters Fos expression in the lamina terminalis during intravenous angiotensin II infusion.

    PubMed

    Bealer, Steven L; Metcalf, Cameron S; Heyborne, Ryan

    2007-03-01

    These studies examined the effects of increased dietary sodium on expression of Fos, the protein product of c-fos, in forebrain structures in the rat following intravenous infusion with angiotensin II (AngII). Animals were provided with either tap water (Tap) or isotonic saline solution (Iso) as their sole drinking fluid for 3-5 weeks prior to testing. Rats were then implanted with catheters in a femoral artery and vein. The following day, the conscious, unrestrained animals received iv infusion of either isotonic saline (Veh), AngII, or phenylephrine (Phen) for 2 h. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously throughout the procedure. Brains were subsequently processed for evaluation of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-Li IR) in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the subfornical organ (SFO), and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Fos-Li IR was significantly increased in the SFO and OVLT of animals consuming both Tap and Iso following AngII, but not Phen, compared to Veh infusions. Furthermore, Fos-Li IR in the MnPO was increased following AngII infusion in rats consuming a high sodium diet, but not in animals drinking Tap. These data suggest that increased dietary sodium sensitizes the MnPO neurons to excitatory input from brain areas responding to circulating AngII.

  14. Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior. Final technical report, December 1984-November 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, D.J.; Buesking, K.W.

    1986-09-01

    An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.

  15. Identification and localization of lamina cribrosa cells in the human optic nerve head.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Vidales, Tara; Wordinger, Robert J; Clark, Abbot F

    2016-06-01

    One of the central features of glaucoma is progressive cupping and excavation of the optic nerve head (ONH). Unmyelinated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons exit the eye through the ONH, which is supported by the lamina cribrosa (LC) consisting of plates of connective tissue with channels for bundles of RGC axons. The LC progressively remodels during glaucoma, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for this remodeling are poorly understood. Two major cell types have been isolated and cultured from the human ONH, which differ in their characteristics. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive ONH astrocytes are the major cell type and are reactive in glaucoma. GFAP negative LC cells are the second major cell type isolated from the human ONH, and in contrast to ONH astrocytes, are α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive. Although a number of in vitro studies have been conducted with LC cells, to date there has been no direct evidence for these cells in situ in the human ONH. We used GFAP and α-SMA immunofluorescent staining of human eyes to clearly demonstrate the presence of not only ONH astrocytes within the human ONH, but also LC cells within the cribriform (e.g. laminar) plates/beams of the LC region. Both of these cell types likely play important roles in the homeostatic maintenance of the ONH and pathogenic changes that occur in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). PMID:27167365

  16. Intrahaemocoelic infection of Trichoplusia ni with the baculovirus Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus does not induce tracheal cell basal lamina remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Means, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Infection of the lepidopteran insect Trichoplusia ni with the baculovirus Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) by the oral route stimulates activation of host matrix metalloproteases (MMP) and effector caspases, a process dependent on expression of the viral fibroblast growth factor (vFGF). This pathway leads to tracheal cell basal lamina remodelling, enabling virus escape from the primary site of infection, the midgut epithelium, and establishment of efficient systemic infection. In this study, we asked whether the MMP–caspase pathway was also activated following infection by intrahaemocoelic injection. We found that intrahaemocoelic infection did not lead to any observable tracheal cell or midgut epithelium basal lamina remodelling. MMP and caspase activities were not significantly stimulated. We conclude that the main role of the AcMNPV vFGF is in facilitating virus midgut escape. PMID:24300553

  17. An examination of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy using an outer lamina of spectra (R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    Low velocity instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the effects of an outer lamina of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) on the damage tolerance of carbon epoxy composites. Four types of 16-ply quasi-isotropic panels (0, +45, 90, -45) were tested. Some panels contained no Spectra, while others had a lamina of Spectra bonded to the top (impacted side), bottom, or both sides of the composite plates. The specimens were impacted with energies up to 8.5 J. Force time plots and maximum force versus impact energy graphs were generated for comparison purposes. Specimens were also subjected to cross-sectional analysis and compression after impact tests. The results show that while the Spectra improved the maximum load that the panels could withstand before fiber breakage, the Spectra seemingly reduced the residual strength of the composites.

  18. Electrically evoked reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations in mice with alpha tectorin C1509G mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical coupling between the tectorial membrane and the hair bundles of outer hair cells is crucial for stimulating mechanoelectrical transduction channels, which convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signal, and for transmitting outer hair cell-generated force back to the basilar membrane to boost hearing sensitivity. It has been demonstrated that the detached tectorial membrane in mice with C1509G alpha tectorin mutation caused hearing loss, but enhanced electrically evoked otoacoustic emissions. To understand how the mutated cochlea emits sounds, the reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations were measured in the electrically stimulated cochlea in this study. The results showed that the electrically evoked basilar membrane vibration decreased dramatically while the reticular lamina vibration and otoacoustic emissions exhibited no significant change in C1509G mutation mice. This result indicates that a functional cochlear amplifier and a normal basilar membrane vibration are not required for the outer hair cell-generated sound to exit the cochlea.

  19. Both lamin A and lamin C mutations cause lamina instability as well as loss of internal nuclear lamin organization.

    PubMed

    Broers, Jos L V; Kuijpers, H J H; Ostlund, C; Worman, H J; Endert, J; Ramaekers, F C S

    2005-04-01

    We have applied the fluorescence loss of intensity after photobleaching (FLIP) technique to study the molecular dynamics and organization of nuclear lamin proteins in cell lines stably transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged A-type lamin cDNA. Normal lamin A and C proteins show abundant decoration of the inner layer of the nuclear membrane, the nuclear lamina, and a generally diffuse localization in the nuclear interior. Bleaching studies revealed that, while the GFP-tagged lamins in the lamina were virtually immobile, the intranuclear fraction of these molecules was partially mobile. Intranuclear lamin C was significantly more mobile than intranuclear lamina A. In search of a structural cause for the variety of inherited diseases caused by A-type lamin mutations, we have studied the molecular organization of GFP-tagged lamin A and lamin C mutants R453W and R386K, found in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), and lamin A and lamin C mutant R482W, found in patients with Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD). In all mutants, a prominent increase in lamin mobility was observed, indicating loss of structural stability of lamin polymers, both at the perinuclear lamina and in the intranuclear lamin organization. While the lamin rod domain mutant showed overall increased mobility, the tail domain mutants showed mainly intranuclear destabilization, possibly as a result of loss of interaction with chromatin. Decreased stability of lamin mutant polymers was confirmed by flow cytometric analyses and immunoblotting of nuclear extracts. Our findings suggest a loss of function of A-type lamin mutant proteins in the organization of intranuclear chromatin and predict the loss of gene regulatory function in laminopathies.

  20. Three-dimensional lamina architecture alters light-harvesting efficiency in Fagus: a leaf-scale analysis.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Stefan; Niinemets, Ulo; Cescatti, Alessandro; Tenhunen, John D

    2003-06-01

    Modification of foliage exposition and morphology by seasonal average integrated quantum flux density (Qint) was investigated in the canopies of the shade-tolerant late-successional deciduous tree species Fagus orientalis Lipsky and Fagus sylvatica L. Because the leaves were not entirely flat anywhere in the canopy, the leaf lamina was considered to be three-dimensional and characterized by the cross-sectional angle between the leaf halves (theta). Both branch and lamina inclination angles with respect to the horizontal scaled positively with irradiance in the canopy, allowing light to penetrate to deeper canopy horizons. Lamina cross-sectional angle varied from 170 degrees in the most shaded leaves to 90-100 degrees in leaves in the top of the canopy. Thus, the degree of leaf rolling increased with increasing Qint, further reducing the light-interception efficiency of the upper-canopy leaves. Simulations of the dependence of foliage light-interception efficiency on theta demonstrated that decreases in theta primarily reduce the interception efficiency of direct irradiance, but that diffuse irradiance was equally efficiently intercepted over the entire range of theta values in our study. Despite strong alteration in foliage light-harvesting capacity within the canopy and greater transmittance of the upper crown compared with the lower canopy, mean incident irradiances varied more than 20-fold within the canopy, indicating inherent limitations in light partitioning within the canopy. This extensive canopy light gradient was paralleled by plastic changes in foliar structure and chemistry. Leaf dry mass per unit area varied 3-4-fold between the canopy top and bottom, providing an important means of scaling foliage nitrogen contents and photosynthetic capacity per unit area with Qint. Although leaf structure versus light relationships were qualitatively similar in all cases, there were important tree-to-tree and species-to-species variations, as well as evidence of

  1. Both lamin A and lamin C mutations cause lamina instability as well as loss of internal nuclear lamin organization

    SciTech Connect

    Broers, Jos L.V. . E-mail: jos.broers@molcelb.unimaas.nl; Kuijpers, H.J.H.; Oestlund, C.; Worman, H.J.; Endert, J.; Ramaekers, F.C.S.

    2005-04-01

    We have applied the fluorescence loss of intensity after photobleaching (FLIP) technique to study the molecular dynamics and organization of nuclear lamin proteins in cell lines stably transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged A-type lamin cDNA. Normal lamin A and C proteins show abundant decoration of the inner layer of the nuclear membrane, the nuclear lamina, and a generally diffuse localization in the nuclear interior. Bleaching studies revealed that, while the GFP-tagged lamins in the lamina were virtually immobile, the intranuclear fraction of these molecules was partially mobile. Intranuclear lamin C was significantly more mobile than intranuclear lamina A. In search of a structural cause for the variety of inherited diseases caused by A-type lamin mutations, we have studied the molecular organization of GFP-tagged lamin A and lamin C mutants R453W and R386K, found in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), and lamin A and lamin C mutant R482W, found in patients with Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD). In all mutants, a prominent increase in lamin mobility was observed, indicating loss of structural stability of lamin polymers, both at the perinuclear lamina and in the intranuclear lamin organization. While the lamin rod domain mutant showed overall increased mobility, the tail domain mutants showed mainly intranuclear destabilization, possibly as a result of loss of interaction with chromatin. Decreased stability of lamin mutant polymers was confirmed by flow cytometric analyses and immunoblotting of nuclear extracts. Our findings suggest a loss of function of A-type lamin mutant proteins in the organization of intranuclear chromatin and predict the loss of gene regulatory function in laminopathies.

  2. Unravelling crucial biomechanical resilience of myelinated peripheral nerve fibres provided by the Schwann cell basal lamina and PMP22

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Gonzalo; Liashkovich, Ivan; Gess, Burkhard; Young, Peter; Kun, Alejandra; Shahin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for the research of the close and enigmatic relationship between nerve biomechanics and the development of neuropathies. Here we present a research strategy based on the application atomic force and confocal microscopy for simultaneous nerve biomechanics and integrity investigations. Using wild-type and hereditary neuropathy mouse models, we reveal surprising mechanical protection of peripheral nerves. Myelinated peripheral wild-type fibres promptly and fully recover from acute enormous local mechanical compression while maintaining functional and structural integrity. The basal lamina which enwraps each myelinated fibre separately is identified as the major contributor to the striking fibre's resilience and integrity. In contrast, neuropathic fibres lacking the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), which is closely connected with several hereditary human neuropathies, fail to recover from light compression. Interestingly, the structural arrangement of the basal lamina of Pmp22−/− fibres is significantly altered compared to wild-type fibres. In conclusion, the basal lamina and PMP22 act in concert to contribute to a resilience and integrity of peripheral nerves at the single fibre level. Our findings and the presented technology set the stage for a comprehensive research of the links between nerve biomechanics and neuropathies. PMID:25446378

  3. A-type lamins bind both hetero- and euchromatin, the latter being regulated by lamina-associated polypeptide 2 alpha

    PubMed Central

    Gesson, Kevin; Rescheneder, Philipp; Skoruppa, Michael P.; von Haeseler, Arndt; Dechat, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are components of the peripheral nuclear lamina and interact with heterochromatic genomic regions, termed lamina-associated domains (LADs). In contrast to lamin B1 being primarily present at the nuclear periphery, lamin A/C also localizes throughout the nucleus, where it associates with the chromatin-binding protein lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP) 2 alpha. Here, we show that lamin A/C also interacts with euchromatin, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation of euchromatin- and heterochromatin-enriched samples. By way of contrast, lamin B1 was only found associated with heterochromatin. Euchromatic regions occupied by lamin A/C overlap with those bound by LAP2alpha, and lack of LAP2alpha in LAP2alpha-deficient cells shifts binding of lamin A/C toward more heterochromatic regions. These alterations in lamin A/C-chromatin interactions correlate with changes in epigenetic histone marks in euchromatin but do not significantly affect gene expression. Loss of lamin A/C in heterochromatic regions in LAP2alpha-deficient cells, however, correlated with increased gene expression. Our data show a novel role of nucleoplasmic lamin A/C and LAP2alpha in regulating euchromatin. PMID:26798136

  4. Contrasting growth responses in lamina and petiole during neighbor detection depend on differential auxin responsiveness rather than different auxin levels.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Mieke; Ljung, Karin; Fankhauser, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Foliar shade triggers rapid growth of specific structures that facilitate access of the plant to direct sunlight. In leaves of many plant species, this growth response is complex because, although shade triggers the elongation of petioles, it reduces the growth of the lamina. How the same external cue leads to these contrasting growth responses in different parts of the leaf is not understood. Using mutant analysis, pharmacological treatment and gene expression analyses, we investigated the role of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR7 (PIF7) and the growth-promoting hormone auxin in these contrasting leaf growth responses. Both petiole elongation and lamina growth reduction are dependent on PIF7. The induction of auxin production is both necessary and sufficient to induce opposite growth responses in petioles vs lamina. However, these contrasting growth responses are not caused by different auxin concentrations in the two leaf parts. Our work suggests that a transient increase in auxin levels triggers tissue-specific growth responses in different leaf parts. We provide evidence suggesting that this may be caused by the different sensitivity to auxin in the petiole vs the blade and by tissue-specific gene expression.

  5. Fine-scale study of a thick stratospheric ozone lamina at the edge of the southern subtropical barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portafaix, Thierry; Morel, BéAtrice; Bencherif, Hassan; Baldy, Serge; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2003-03-01

    A large-scale transport event resulting in a thick ozone lamina originating from midlatitudes is observed in the tropical stratosphere over Reunion island (55°E, 21°S). This isentropic transport was detected from stratospheric balloon-borne ozone measurements that showed the occurrence of the lamina and was investigated using different tools based on Ertel's potential vorticity (Epv) analyses. An original software (DYBAL) using surface coordinate and the equivalent length of Epv contours as diagnostic tools in conjunction with high-resolution outputs from an Epv advection model MIMOSA allows us to specify the origin of the lamina. The results indicate that a broad layer of stratospheric air was isentropically advected from midlatitudes across the southern edge of tropical reservoir and reached Reunion island on 12 July 2000. In addition, Eliassen-Palm's flux vectors, calculated from ECMWF analysis, show that planetary wave activity was quite large during that time period, with wave-breaking occurring around 30 km, and could have driven that exchange. In contrast with analyses of filamentation events based on model and satellite data, the present study focuses on a fine-scale vertical survey from in situ measurements. The filament reported in this paper is characterized by a large vertical extension and is located around the maximum of ozone concentration in the tropical stratosphere (600 K). The analysis of such events, poorly documented in the tropics, could complement satellite studies and contribute to a better determination of the transport between the tropics and the midlatitudes.

  6. Unravelling crucial biomechanical resilience of myelinated peripheral nerve fibres provided by the Schwann cell basal lamina and PMP22.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Gonzalo; Liashkovich, Ivan; Gess, Burkhard; Young, Peter; Kun, Alejandra; Shahin, Victor

    2014-12-02

    There is an urgent need for the research of the close and enigmatic relationship between nerve biomechanics and the development of neuropathies. Here we present a research strategy based on the application atomic force and confocal microscopy for simultaneous nerve biomechanics and integrity investigations. Using wild-type and hereditary neuropathy mouse models, we reveal surprising mechanical protection of peripheral nerves. Myelinated peripheral wild-type fibres promptly and fully recover from acute enormous local mechanical compression while maintaining functional and structural integrity. The basal lamina which enwraps each myelinated fibre separately is identified as the major contributor to the striking fibre's resilience and integrity. In contrast, neuropathic fibres lacking the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), which is closely connected with several hereditary human neuropathies, fail to recover from light compression. Interestingly, the structural arrangement of the basal lamina of Pmp22(-/-) fibres is significantly altered compared to wild-type fibres. In conclusion, the basal lamina and PMP22 act in concert to contribute to a resilience and integrity of peripheral nerves at the single fibre level. Our findings and the presented technology set the stage for a comprehensive research of the links between nerve biomechanics and neuropathies.

  7. The organization of the lamina ganglionaris of the hemipteran insects, Notonecta glauca, Corixa punctata and Gerris lacustris.

    PubMed

    Wolburg-Buchholz, K

    1979-03-01

    Neuronal elements, i.e. first and second order neurons, of the first optic ganglion of three waterbugs, N. glauca, C. punctata and G. lacustris, are analyzed on the basis of light- and electron microscopy. Eight retinula cell axons, leaving each ommatidium, disperse to different cartridges as they enter the laminar outer plexiform layer. Such a pattern of divergence is one of the conditions for neuronal superposition; it is observed for all three species of waterbugs. The manner in which the receptors of a single bundle of ommatidia split of within the lamina, whereby information from receptors up to three or five horizontal rows away can converge upon the same cartridge, differs among the species. Six of the eight axons of retinula cells R1--6, the short visual fibers end at different levels within the bilayered lamina, whereas the central pair of retinula cells R7/8, the long visual fibers, run directly through the lamina to a corresponding unit of the medulla. Four types of monopolar cells L1-L4 are classified; their branching patterns seem to be correlated to the splitting and termination of retinula cell axons. The topographical relationship and synaptic organization between retinula cell terminals and monopolar cells in the two laminar layers are identified by examination of serial ultrathin sections of single Golgi-stained neurons. An attempt is made to correlate some anatomical findings, especially the neuronal superposition, to results from physiological investigations on the hemipteran retina.

  8. De novo expression of neurokinin-1 receptors by spinoparabrachial lamina I pyramidal neurons following a peripheral nerve lesion.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Abeer W; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo

    2013-06-01

    Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn is a major site of integration and transmission to higher centers of nociceptive information from the periphery. One important primary afferent population that transmits such information to the spinal cord expresses substance P (SP). These fibers terminate in contact with lamina I projection neurons that express the SP receptor, also known as the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1r). Three types of lamina I projection neurons have been described: multipolar, fusiform, and pyramidal. Most neurons of the first two types are thought to be nociceptive and express the NK-1r, whereas most pyramidal neurons are nonnociceptive and do not express the NK-1r. In this immunocytochemical and behavioral study, we induced a neuropathic pain-like condition in the rat by means of a polyethylene cuff placed around in the sciatic nerve. We document that this lesion led to a de novo expression of NK-1r on pyramidal neurons as well as a significant increase in SP-immunoreactive innervation onto these neurons. These phenotypic changes were evident at the time of onset of neuropathic pain-related behavior. Additionally, we show that, after a noxious stimulus (intradermal capsaicin injection), these NK-1r on pyramidal neurons were internalized, providing evidence that these neurons become responsive to peripheral noxious stimulation. We suggest that the changes following nerve lesion in the phenotype and innervation pattern of pyramidal neurons are of significance for neuropathic pain and/or limb temperature regulation.

  9. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  10. Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

    2012-04-01

    capture delayed fluorescence. Experiments determined that there was negligible phosphorescence, that results were reproducible and were not affected by the grain of the film. Images were imported into IP-LAB Spectrum for data retrieval. They displayed strong couplet development with repeated layers of high-low fluorescence. Assuming that each couplet represents one climatic year, Sample AGG-1 was 165 years in age when collected; i.e. it commenced growing in 1827 CE. The true base of Sample AGG-2 was destroyed in extraction; it yielded an age of 156 years. Both are in excellent agreement with the expected ages. Correlation of fluorescence intensity and derived laminae thickness between the two samples is also excellent when fitted with a three-year running mean to avoid misallocation of individual years. Interannual fluorescence intensity grew slightly between ~1830 and 1900 CE, then was stable until minor decline commenced after 1970. Annual calcite lamina generally range between 0.5 and 1.0 mm in thickness in AGG-1 after 1900 CE, slightly less before that time. Thicknesses in AGG-2 follow the same trend but are consistently 0.1 -0.2 mm thinner. There is little correlation with the matching mean temperature and precipitation records from a nearby meteorological station that began operating in 1962. Relationships with much lengthier meteorological records from Miskolc and Budapest are being investigated.

  11. Basilar membrane and osseous spiral lamina motion in human cadavers with air and bone conduction stimuli.

    PubMed

    Stenfelt, Stefan; Puria, Sunil; Hato, Naohito; Goode, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    It is generally accepted that bone conduction (BC) stimuli yield a traveling wave on the basilar membrane (BM) and hence stimulate the cochlea by the same mechanisms as normal air conduction (AC). The basis for this is the ability to cancel or mask a BC tone with an AC tone and the ability to generate two tone distortion products with a BC tone and an AC tone. The hypothesis is proposed that BC stimulates the BM not only through the hydrodynamics of the scala vestibuli and scala tympani, but also through osseous spiral lamina (OSL) vibrations. To test this hypothesis the BM and OSL response with AC as well as BC stimulation was measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Human temporal bones mounted on a shaker were used to record the velocities of the bone per se, the BM and the OSL. The measurements were then converted to relative BM and OSL velocities. The results from the basal turn of the cochlea show similar behavior with AC and BC stimulation. The motion of the OSL at the edge where it connects to the BM is in phase and is typically 6 dB lower than the BM motion. With BC stimulation, there is less phase accumulation in the OSL after the cochlea is drained; the OSL moves due to inertial forces and resonates at approximately 7 kHz. Inertial vibration of the OSL may partially contribute to the total response of BC sound, especially at the high frequencies, although current models of the cochlea assume a rigid OSL. The measurements reported here can be used to include a flexible OSL in cochlear models.

  12. Effects of Peripapillary Scleral Stiffening on the Deformation of the Lamina Cribrosa

    PubMed Central

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Campbell, Ian C.; Read, A. Thomas; Geraldes, Diogo M.; Vo, Nghia T.; Feola, Andrew; Mulvihill, John; Albon, Julie; Abel, Richard L.; Ethier, C. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Scleral stiffening has been proposed as a treatment for glaucoma to protect the lamina cribrosa (LC) from excessive intraocular pressure–induced deformation. Here we experimentally evaluated the effects of moderate stiffening of the peripapillary sclera on the deformation of the LC. Methods An annular sponge, saturated with 1.25% glutaraldehyde, was applied to the external surface of the peripapillary sclera for 5 minutes to stiffen the sclera. Tissue deformation was quantified in two groups of porcine eyes, using digital image correlation (DIC) or computed tomography imaging and digital volume correlation (DVC). In group A (n = 14), eyes were subjected to inflation testing before and after scleral stiffening. Digital image correlation was used to measure scleral deformation and quantify the magnitude of scleral stiffening. In group B (n = 5), the optic nerve head region was imaged using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast microcomputed tomography (PC μCT) at an isotropic spatial resolution of 3.2 μm. Digital volume correlation was used to compute the full-field three-dimensional deformation within the LC and evaluate the effects of peripapillary scleral cross-linking on LC biomechanics. Results On average, scleral treatment with glutaraldehyde caused a 34 ± 14% stiffening of the peripapillary sclera measured at 17 mm Hg and a 47 ± 12% decrease in the maximum tensile strain in the LC measured at 15 mm Hg. The reduction in LC strains was not due to cross-linking of the LC. Conclusions Peripapillary scleral stiffening is effective at reducing the magnitude of biomechanical strains within the LC. Its potential and future utilization in glaucoma axonal neuroprotection requires further investigation. PMID:27183053

  13. Anterior Displacement of Lamina Cribrosa during Valsalva Maneuver in Young Healthy Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Woo; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Jeoung, Jin Wook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate lamina cribrosa (LC) displacement during the Valsalva maneuver in young healthy eyes using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Forty-eight eyes of 48 young healthy volunteers (age range: 20–34 years) underwent intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by Goldmann applanation tonometry as well as Cirrus HD-OCT scans before and during the Valsalva maneuver. The optic nerve head (ONH) parameters (average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, rim area, disc area, average C/D ratio, vertical C/D ratio, cup volume), anterior LC depth (LCD), subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, and neural canal opening diameter were measured on compensated OCT and compared during Valsalva challenge. The subjects were asked to take a five-minute break after each Valsalva maneuver. Results During the Valsalva maneuver, the IOP significantly increased, from 12.7 ± 3.0 mmHg to 16.0 ± 3.2 mmHg (P < 0.001), while the LCD sharply decreased, from 463.4 ± 118.8 μm to 427.3 ± 106.4 μm (P < 0.001). The subfoveal choroidal thickness (300.7 ± 90.6 vs. 309.6 ± 93.5 μm), peripapilllary choroidal thickness (152.2 ± 55.4 vs. 150.8 ± 49.3 μm), neural canal opening diameter (1651.8 ± 204.2 vs. 1651.0 ± 217.6 μm), and all of the ONH parameters did not change significantly (all P > 0.05). Conclusions The Valsalva maneuver induced anterior displacement of the LC, but did not alter the choroidal thickness or ONH morphology. The data describe the positional characteristics of the LC in response to the Valsalva maneuver in young healthy eyes. PMID:27442120

  14. A quantitative study of neurochemically defined excitatory interneuron populations in laminae I–III of the mouse spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Furuta, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Excitatory interneurons account for the majority of neurons in laminae I–III, but their functions are poorly understood. Several neurochemical markers are largely restricted to excitatory interneuron populations, but we have limited knowledge about the size of these populations or their overlap. The present study was designed to investigate this issue by quantifying the neuronal populations that express somatostatin (SST), neurokinin B (NKB), neurotensin, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and the γ isoform of protein kinase C (PKCγ), and assessing the extent to which they overlapped. Since it has been reported that calretinin- and SST-expressing cells have different functions, we also looked for co-localisation of calretinin and SST. Results SST, preprotachykinin B (PPTB, the precursor of NKB), neurotensin, PKCγ or calretinin were detected with antibodies, while cells expressing GRP were identified in a mouse line (GRP-EGFP) in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was expressed under control of the GRP promoter. We found that SST-, neurotensin-, PPTB- and PKCγ-expressing cells accounted for 44%, 7%, 12% and 21% of the neurons in laminae I–II, and 16%, 8%, 4% and 14% of those in lamina III, respectively. GRP-EGFP cells made up 11% of the neuronal population in laminae I–II. The neurotensin, PPTB and GRP-EGFP populations showed very limited overlap, and we estimate that between them they account for ∼40% of the excitatory interneurons in laminae I–II. SST which is expressed by ∼60% of excitatory interneurons in this region, was found in each of these populations, as well as in cells that did not express any of the other peptides. Neurotensin and PPTB were often found in cells with PKCγ, and between them, constituted around 60% of the PKCγ cells. Surprisingly, we found extensive co-localisation of SST and calretinin. Conclusions These results suggest that cells expressing neurotensin, NKB or GRP form largely non-overlapping sets

  15. The climate reconstruction in Shandong Peninsula, northern China, during the last millennium based on stalagmite laminae together with a comparison to δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Zhou, Houyun; Cheng, Ke; Chi, Hong; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Changshan; Ma, Qianqian

    2016-04-01

    Stalagmite ky1, with a length of 75 mm and the upper part (from top to 42.769 mm depth) consisting of 678 laminae, was collected from Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of Shandong Peninsula, northern China, located in a warm temperate zone in the East Asia monsoon area. Based on high-precision dating with the U-230Th technique and continuous counting of laminae, the 1st and 678th laminae have been confirmed to be AD 1894 ± 20 and 1217 ± 20 from top to bottom, respectively. By the measurement of laminae thickness and δ18O ratios, we haved obtained the time series data of thickness of laminae and δ18O ratios from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, analyzed the climatic-environmental meaning of variations in the thickness of laminae, which have a good correspondence with the cumulative departure curve of the drought-waterlog index in the historical period. The results show that, in the ˜ 678 years from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, both the thickness of the laminae and the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae of stalagmite ky1 have obvious stages of variation and are completely synchronized with the contemporaneous intensity of the summer monsoons and precipitation as time changed. There is a negative correlation between the thickness of the laminae and the summer monsoon intensity and precipitation. There is a positive correlation between the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae and both the intensity of the summer monsoons and the precipitation. Therefore, for the Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of both the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the variations in the thickness of the laminae are not only related to the change in the climatic factors themselves but also related to the degree of climatic stability. In the coastal area belonging to the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the climate change between the LIA (Little Ice Age) and the MWP (Medieval Warm Period), in addition to less precipitation

  16. Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) determines lamina joint bending by suppressing auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo brassinosteroids in rice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing Miao; Park, Soon Ju; Huang, Jin; Lee, Eun Jin; Xuan, Yuan Hu; Je, Byoung Il; Kumar, Vikranth; Priatama, Ryza A.; Raj K, Vimal; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Myung Ki; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kim, Tae Ho; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Jung, Ki Hong; Takatsuto, Suguru; Fujioka, Shozo; Han, Chang-deok

    2016-01-01

    Lamina inclination is a key agronomical character that determines plant architecture and is sensitive to auxin and brassinosteroids (BRs). Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) in rice (Oryza sativa) and its Arabidopsis homologues (SGR5/AtIDD15) have been reported to control plant architecture and auxin homeostasis. This study explores the role of LPA1 in determining lamina inclination in rice. LPA1 acts as a positive regulator to suppress lamina bending. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that LPA1 suppresses the auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs, which regulates lamina inclination independently of OsBRI1. Mutant lpa1 plants are hypersensitive to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the lamina inclination response, which is suppressed by the brassinazole (Brz) inhibitor of C-22 hydroxylase involved in BR synthesis. A strong synergic effect is detected between lpa1 and d2 (the defective mutant for catalysis of C-23-hydroxylated BRs) during IAA-mediated lamina inclination. No significant interaction between LPA1 and OsBRI1 was identified. The lpa1 mutant is sensitive to C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs in the d61-1 (rice BRI1 mutant) background. We present evidence verifying that two independent pathways function via either BRs or BRI1 to determine IAA-mediated lamina inclination in rice. RNA sequencing analysis and qRT-PCR indicate that LPA1 influences the expression of three OsPIN genes (OsPIN1a, OsPIN1c and OsPIN3a), which suggests that auxin flux might be an important factor in LPA1-mediated lamina inclination in rice. PMID:26826218

  17. Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) determines lamina joint bending by suppressing auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo brassinosteroids in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Miao; Park, Soon Ju; Huang, Jin; Lee, Eun Jin; Xuan, Yuan Hu; Je, Byoung Il; Kumar, Vikranth; Priatama, Ryza A; Raj K, Vimal; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Myung Ki; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kim, Tae Ho; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Jung, Ki Hong; Takatsuto, Suguru; Fujioka, Shozo; Han, Chang-Deok

    2016-03-01

    Lamina inclination is a key agronomical character that determines plant architecture and is sensitive to auxin and brassinosteroids (BRs). Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) in rice (Oryza sativa) and its Arabidopsis homologues (SGR5/AtIDD15) have been reported to control plant architecture and auxin homeostasis. This study explores the role of LPA1 in determining lamina inclination in rice. LPA1 acts as a positive regulator to suppress lamina bending. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that LPA1 suppresses the auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs, which regulates lamina inclination independently of OsBRI1. Mutant lpa1 plants are hypersensitive to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the lamina inclination response, which is suppressed by the brassinazole (Brz) inhibitor of C-22 hydroxylase involved in BR synthesis. A strong synergic effect is detected between lpa1 and d2 (the defective mutant for catalysis of C-23-hydroxylated BRs) during IAA-mediated lamina inclination. No significant interaction between LPA1 and OsBRI1 was identified. The lpa1 mutant is sensitive to C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs in the d61-1 (rice BRI1 mutant) background. We present evidence verifying that two independent pathways function via either BRs or BRI1 to determine IAA-mediated lamina inclination in rice. RNA sequencing analysis and qRT-PCR indicate that LPA1 influences the expression of three OsPIN genes (OsPIN1a, OsPIN1c and OsPIN3a), which suggests that auxin flux might be an important factor in LPA1-mediated lamina inclination in rice.

  18. Clinical Assessment of Lamina Cribrosa Curvature in Eyes with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Woo; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Kim, Dai Woo; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Quantitative evaluation of lamina cribrosa (LC) posterior bowing in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods Patients with POAG (n = 123 eyes) and healthy individuals of a similar age (n = 92 eyes) were prospectively recruited. Anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID) was defined as the vertical distance between the anterior laminar insertion and a reference plane connecting the Bruch’s membrane openings (BMO). The mean LC depth (mLCD) was approximated by dividing the area enclosed by the anterior LC, the BMO reference plane, and the two vertical lines for ALID measurement by the length between those two vertical lines. The LC curvature index was defined as the difference between the mLCD and the ALID. The factors influencing the LC curvature index were evaluated. Results The ALID and mLCD were significantly larger in POAG eyes than in healthy controls (P < 0.05). The LC curvature index was significantly larger in POAG eyes than in healthy controls on both the horizontal (85.8 ± 34.1 vs. 68.2 ± 32.3 μm) and vertical meridians (49.8 ± 38.5 vs. 32.2 ± 31.1 μm, all P < 0.001). Multivariate regression showed significant associations of greater disc area (P < 0.001), vertical C/D ratio (P < 0.001) and mLCD (P < 0.001), smaller rim area (P = 0.001), thinner average RNFLT (P < 0.001), and myopic refraction (P = 0.049) with increased LC curvature index. There was no difference in the LC curvature index between mild (MD > –6 dB) and moderate-to-advanced glaucoma (MD < –6 dB, P = 0.95). Conclusions LC posterior bowing was increased in POAG eyes, and was significantly associated with structural optic nerve head (ONH) changes but not with functional glaucoma severity. Quantitative evaluation of LC curvature can facilitate assessment of glaucomatous ONH change. PMID:26963816

  19. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  20. Several morphological types of terminal arborizations of primary afferents in laminae I-II of the rat spinal cord, as shown after HRP labeling and Golgi impregnation.

    PubMed

    Cruz, F; Lima, D; Coimbra, A

    1987-07-01

    The morphology of the terminal arborizations in laminae I-II of primary afferent fibers was studied in sections stained by the heavy metal (nickel and cobalt) intensification of diaminobenzidine (DAB) after crushing one dorsal root with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) crystals, and with the mixed Golgi method which duplicated the staining provided by the first method. Besides the flame-shaped arbors located in deep lamina IIi as an extension of the arbors of lamina III, which were derived from 1.7-micron thick stem fibers (probably A alpha beta fibers), six types of terminal arbors, all rostrocaudally oriented, arising from fine stem fibers and having preferential locations, were disclosed. The lateral third of laminae I-II contained a longitudinal plexus of parallel 0.8-micron thick stem fibers (C fibers) with longitudinal side branches generating many boutons en passant. Laminae I and IIo, in their middle third, contained dichotomizing longitudinal fibers with elongated boutons, arising from 1-micron thick stem fibers (C or A delta), and, in the medial third, a dense plexus with terminal networks carrying large boutons, which arose from 1.3-micron thick stem fibers (A delta). Fibers ending in terminal bouquets and issuing from 1-micron thick stem fibers (C or A delta) occupied the dorsal part of middle and medial lamina IIi, while the intermediate part contained clusters (swarms) of ultrafine boutons arising from extremely fine fibers. The whole medial lamina IIi also contained fine undulating fibers arising from 0.3 micron-thick stem fibers (C fibers) with large boutons near their ends. The functional meaning of this multiplicity of morphological types and locations is still unclear. It may be clarified when single unit analysis of HRP-injected fine fibers is made possible, or immunocytochemical stainings disclose the neurotransmitters utilized by each fiber type.

  1. Detection and origin of different types of annual laminae in recent stalagmites from Zoolithencave, southern Germany: Evaluation of the potential for quantitative reconstruction of past precipitation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Fohlmeister, Jens; Tjallingii, Rik; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Richter, Detlev K.; Brummer, Geert-Jan A.; Scholz, Denis

    2016-04-01

    An arrangement of three stalagmites from Zoolithencave (southern Germany) was analysed for different types of annual laminae using microscopic and geochemical methods. The speleothems show visible laminae (consisting of a pair of a clear and a brownish, pigmented layer) as well as fluorescent and elemental laminae. The growth periods of the speleothems were dated to AD 1800 to 1970 by detection of the 14C bomb peak, 14C-dating of a charcoal piece located below the speleothems, as well as counting of annual laminae. On the annual time-scale, the variability of Mg, Ba, and Sr is controlled by Prior Calcite Precipitation (PCP) resulting in lower values during the wet season (autumn/winter) and vice versa. Both, Y and P are enriched in the brownish, pigmented layers and are proxies for soil activity. However, both elemental concentrations are also influenced by detrital content superimposed on the signal resulting from soil activity. Proxies for detrital content are Al and Mn. Lamina thickness shows a significant correlation with the amount of precipitation of December of the previous year and January, February, March, April, May, and December of the current year (DJFMAMD) recorded at the nearby meteorological station Bamberg. Thus, lamina thickness is a proxy for past precipitation variability. This is confirmed by the good agreement with a precipitation reconstruction based on tree-ring width from the Bavarian forest. This highlights the potential of these speleothems for climate reconstruction at annual resolution (Riechelmann et al., submitted). Riechelmann, D.F.C, Fohlmeister, J., Tjallingii, R., Jochum, K.P., Richter, D.K., Brummer, G.-J. A., Scholz, D., submitted. Detection and origin of different types of annual laminae in recent stalagmites from Zoolithancave, southern Germany: Evaluation of the potential for quantitative reconstruction of past precipitation variability. Hydrology and Earth System Science Discussions.

  2. β-arrestin-2 regulates NMDA receptor function in spinal lamina II neurons and duration of persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Xie, Rou-Gang; Gao, Yong-Jing; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Zhao, Lin-Xia; Bang, Sangsu; Berta, Temugin; Park, Chul-Kyu; Lay, Mark; Chen, Wei; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of acute pain transition to chronic pain are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate an active role of β-arrestin 2 (Arrb2) in regulating spinal cord NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function and the duration of pain. Intrathecal injection of the mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala(2), NMe-Phe(4), Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin produces paradoxical behavioural responses: early-phase analgesia and late-phase mechanical allodynia which requires NMDAR; both phases are prolonged in Arrb2 knockout (KO) mice. Spinal administration of NMDA induces GluN2B-dependent mechanical allodynia, which is prolonged in Arrb2-KO mice and conditional KO mice lacking Arrb2 in presynaptic terminals expressing Nav1.8. Loss of Arrb2 also results in prolongation of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain and enhancement of GluN2B-mediated NMDA currents in spinal lamina IIo not lamina I neurons. Finally, spinal over-expression of Arrb2 reverses chronic neuropathic pain after nerve injury. Thus, spinal Arrb2 may serve as an intracellular gate for acute to chronic pain transition via desensitization of NMDAR. PMID:27538456

  3. Transformation of the output of spinal lamina I neurons after nerve injury and microglia stimulation underlying neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Keller, A Florence; Beggs, Simon; Salter, Michael W; De Koninck, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Background Disinhibition of neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn, via microglia – neuron signaling leading to disruption of chloride homeostasis, is a potential cellular substrate for neuropathic pain. But, a central unresolved question is whether this disinhibition can transform the activity and responses of spinal nociceptive output neurons to account for the symptoms of neuropathic pain. Results Here we show that peripheral nerve injury, local spinal administration of ATP-stimulated microglia or pharmacological disruption of chloride transport change the phenotype of spinal lamina I output neurons, causing them to 1) increase the gain of nociceptive responsiveness, 2) relay innocuous mechanical input and 3) generate spontaneous bursts of activity. The changes in the electrophysiological phenotype of lamina I neurons may account for three principal components of neuropathic pain: hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and spontaneous pain, respectively. Conclusion The transformation of discharge activity and sensory specificity provides an aberrant signal in a primarily nociceptive ascending pathway that may serve as a basis for the symptoms of neuropathic pain. PMID:17900333

  4. Methods to Monitor DNA Repair Defects and Genomic Instability in the Context of a Disrupted Nuclear Lamina

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalo, Susana; Kreienkamp, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The organization of the genome within the nuclear space is viewed as an additional level of regulation of genome function, as well as a means to ensure genome integrity. Structural proteins associated with the nuclear envelope, in particular lamins (A- and B-type) and lamin-associated proteins, play an important role in genome organization. Interestingly, there is a whole body of evidence that links disruptions of the nuclear lamina with DNA repair defects and genomic instability. Here, we describe a few standard techniques that have been successfully utilized to identify mechanisms behind DNA repair defects and genomic instability in cells with an altered nuclear lamina. In particular, we describe protocols to monitor changes in the expression of DNA repair factors (Western blot) and their recruitment to sites of DNA damage (immunofluorescence); kinetics of DNA double-strand break repair after ionizing radiation (neutral comet assays); frequency of chromosomal aberrations (FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization); and alterations in telomere homeostasis (Quantitative-FISH). These techniques have allowed us to shed some light onto molecular mechanisms by which alterations in A-type lamins induce genomic instability, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of aging and aging-related diseases. PMID:27147057

  5. In vivo pathway of Autographa californica baculovirus invasion and infection.

    PubMed

    Granados, R R; Lawler, K A

    1981-01-30

    The pathway of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) infection in cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, larval midgut cells was studied by ultrastructural and virus titration methods. Enveloped virions interacted with microvilli of columnar cells resulting in apparent fusion of the viral envelope and microvillus membrane. After entry into the cell cytoplasm, the intact nucleocapsids appeared to enter the nucleus through nuclear pores, and uncoating of the viral genome took place in the nucleoplasm. Viral progeny were first observed at 8 hr postinoculation (p. i.) and the developmental cycle of the virus was essentially completed by 24 hr p.i. Inoculum virus nucleocapsids also moved to the basal plasma membrane and budded into the hemocoel through the basal lamina within 0.5 hr p.i. We propose that this budded virus, possessing an envelope with a peplomer structure, is the primary inoculum for the systemic invasion of the insect host.

  6. Monosynaptic convergence of somatic and visceral C-fiber afferents on projection and local circuit neurons in lamina I: a substrate for referred pain.

    PubMed

    Luz, Liliana L; Fernandes, Elisabete C; Sivado, Miklos; Kokai, Eva; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V

    2015-10-01

    Referred pain is a phenomenon of feeling pain at a site other than the site of the painful stimulus origin. It arises from a pathological mixing of nociceptive processing pathways for visceral and somatic inputs. Despite numerous studies based on unit recordings from spinal and supraspinal neurons, the exact mechanism and site of this mixing within the central nervous system are not known. Here, we selectively recorded from lamina I neurons, using a visually guided patch-clamp technique, in thoracic spinal cord preparation with preserved intercostal (somatic) and splanchnic (visceral) nerves. We show that somatic and visceral C fibers converge monosynaptically onto a group of lamina I neurons, which includes both projection and local circuit neurons. Other groups of lamina I neurons received inputs from either somatic or visceral afferents. We have also identified a population of lamina I local circuit neurons showing overall inhibitory responses upon stimulation of both nerves. Thus, the present data allow us to draw two major conclusions. First, lamina I of the spinal cord is the first site in the central nervous system where somatic and visceral pathways directly converge onto individual projection and local circuit neurons. Second, the mechanism of somatovisceral convergence is complex and based on functional integration of monosynaptic and polysynaptic excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs in specific groups of neurons. This complex pattern of convergence provides a substrate for alterations in the balance between visceral and somatic inputs causing referred pain.

  7. Nuclear envelope proteins Nesprin2 and LaminA regulate proliferation and apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells in response to shear stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Yue; Wang, Lu; Yao, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Guo-Liang; Shen, Bao-Rong; Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Yingxiao; Jiang, Zong-Lai; Qi, Ying-Xin

    2015-05-01

    The dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) influenced by flow shear stress is crucial for vascular remodeling. However, the roles of nuclear envelope (NE) proteins in shear stress-induced EC dysfunction are still unknown. Our results indicated that, compared with normal shear stress (NSS), low shear stress (LowSS) suppressed the expression of two types of NE proteins, Nesprin2 and LaminA, and increased the proliferation and apoptosis of ECs. Targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gene overexpression plasmid transfection revealed that Nesprin2 and LaminA participate in the regulation of EC proliferation and apoptosis. A protein/DNA array was further used to detect the activation of transcription factors in ECs following transfection with target siRNAs and overexpression plasmids. The regulation of AP-2 and TFIID mediated by Nesprin2 and the activation of Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6 by LaminA were verified under shear stress. Furthermore, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and real-time RT-PCR, the effects of Nesprin2 or LaminA on the downstream target genes of AP-2, TFIID, and Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6, respectively, were investigated under LowSS. Our study has revealed that NE proteins are novel mechano-sensitive molecules in ECs. LowSS suppresses the expression of Nesprin2 and LaminA, which may subsequently modulate the activation of important transcription factors and eventually lead to EC dysfunction.

  8. Climate Versus Local Cave Environment Controls on Trace Element and Stable Isotopic Cycles in Annual Laminae in Speleothem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattey, D.; Grassineau, N. V.; Muller, W.; Garcia-Anton, E.; Fairchild, I. J.

    2011-12-01

    Three types of laminae are commonly observed in stalagmites: visible, resulting from alternating crystal morphology, fluid inclusion abundance or calcite-aragonite couplets; fluorescent, related to captured organic matter and cryptic, defined by cyclical abundances of trace elements or stable isotopes. Many processes generate laminae but in regions where there are strong primary cycles in climate, annual lamination may form as a direct result of seasonal change in precipitation, temperature and vegetation or the indirect effects of local cave processes such as ventilation. Visible, fluorescent and cryptic lamination types are often all present and closely correlated in the same stalagmite, but the correspondence of annual cycles in fabric, trace element and stable isotopes, can be dissimilar in different regions of the world, or even from different areas in the same cave system. This especially applies to the interrelationships among trace elements and stable isotopes where controls on their behavior seem specific to the local environment, making generalised interpretations problematic. This study presents seasonally resolved stable isotope (20-100 μm resolution) and trace element (10 μm resolution by LA-ICPMS) data for visible laminae for which there is compelling evidence for annularity. Five cave sites with diverse regional climates and local microenvironments are compared: Voli Voli, Fiji (VV) and Krem Umsynrang, India (KU) are caves from tropical or subtropical environments with strong seasonal rainfall in summer months and a relatively small annual temperature range; New St Michaels Cave, Gibraltar (NSM) is a strongly seasonal Mediterranean site with winter rainfall and a large annual temperature range; Marble Arch, N. Ireland (MA) and High Pasture, Skye (HP) are British cave sites from temperate maritime climates where seasonality in temperature and rainfall is weaker. Laminae at the tropical sites with highest rainfall, VV and KU, show weakest seasonality

  9. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma. In later stages of pregnancy, especially in Old World monkeys and apes, cytotrophoblast plays a greater role in the invasive process. Columns of trophoblast cells advance to the base of the implantation site where they spread out to form a cytotrophoblastic shell. In addition, cytotrophoblasts advance into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion that extends remodelling of the spiral arteries to segments in the inner myometrium evolved in the common ancestor of gorilla, chimp and human. PMID:25602074

  10. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Anthony M.; Enders, Allen C.; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma. In later stages of pregnancy, especially in Old World monkeys and apes, cytotrophoblast plays a greater role in the invasive process. Columns of trophoblast cells advance to the base of the implantation site where they spread out to form a cytotrophoblastic shell. In addition, cytotrophoblasts advance into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion that extends remodelling of the spiral arteries to segments in the inner myometrium evolved in the common ancestor of gorilla, chimp and human. PMID:25602074

  11. Basilar membrane and reticular lamina motion in a multi-scale finite element model of the mouse cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE) model of the mouse cochlea, based on its anatomy and material properties is presented. The important feature in the model is a lattice of 400 Y-shaped structures in the longitudinal direction, each formed by Deiters cells, phalangeal processes and outer hair cells (OHC). OHC somatic motility is modeled by an expansion force proportional to the shear on the stereocilia, which in turn is proportional to the pressure difference between the scala vestibule and scala tympani. Basilar membrane (BM) and reticular lamina (RL) velocity compare qualitatively very well with recent in vivo measurements in guinea pig [2]. Compared to the BM, the RL is shown to have higher amplification and a shift to higher frequencies. This comes naturally from the realistic Y-shaped cell organization without tectorial membrane tuning.

  12. Blood-nerve barrier: distribution of anionic sites on the endothelial plasma membrane and basal lamina of dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bush, M S; Reid, A R; Allt, G

    1991-09-01

    Previous investigations of the blood-nerve barrier have correlated the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels, compared to those of nerve trunks, with the presence of fenestrations and open intercellular junctions. Recent studies have demonstrated reduced endothelial cell surface charge in blood vessels showing greater permeability. To determine the distribution of anionic sites on the plasma membranes and basal laminae of endothelial cells in dorsal root ganglia, cationic colloidal gold and cationic ferritin were used. Electron microscopy revealed the existence of endothelial microdomains with differing labelling densities. Labelling indicated that caveolar and fenestral diaphragms and basal laminae are highly anionic at physiological pH, luminal plasma membranes and endothelial processes are moderately charged and abluminal plasma membranes are weakly anionic. Tracers did not occur in caveolae or cytoplasmic vesicles. In vitro tracer experiments at pH values of 7.3, 5.0, 3.5 and 2.0 indicated that the anionic charge on the various endothelial domains was contributed by chemical groups with differing pKa values. In summary, the labelling of ganglionic and sciatic nerve vessels was similar except for the heavy labelling of diaphragms in a minority of endoneurial vessels in ganglia. This difference is likely to account in part for the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels. The results are discussed with regard to the blood-nerve and -brain barriers and vascular permeability in other tissues and a comparison made between the ultrastructure and anionic microdomains of epi-, peri- and endoneurial vessels of dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves.

  13. Uranium/Thorium Dating and Growth Laminae Counting of Stalagmites Reveal a Record of Major Earthquakes in the Midwestern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Lundstrom, C.; Panno, S.; Hackley, K. C.; Fouke, B. W.; Curry, B.

    2009-12-01

    The recurrence interval of large New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) earthquakes is uncertain because of the limited number and likely incomplete nature of the record of dated seismic events. Data on paleoseismicity in this area is necessary for refining estimates of a recurrence interval for these earthquakes and for characterizing the geophysical nature of the NMSZ. Studies of the paleoseismic history of the NMSZ have previously used liquefaction features and flood plain deposits along the Mississippi River to estimate recurrence interval with considerable uncertainties. More precise estimates of the number and ages of paleoseismic events would enhance the ability of federal, state, and local agencies to make critical preparedness decisions. Initiation of new speleothems (cave deposits) has been shown in several localities to record large earthquake events. Our ongoing work in caves of southwestern Illinois, Missouri, Indiana and Arkansas has used both U/Th age dating techniques and growth laminae counting of actively growing stalagmites to determine the age of initiation of stalagmites in caves across the Midwestern U.S. These age initiations cluster around two known events, the great NMSZ earthquakes of 1811-1812 and the Missouri earthquake of 1917, suggesting that cave deposits in this region constitute a unique record of paleo-seismic history of the NMSZ. Furthermore, the U-Th disequilibria growth laminae ages of young, white stalagmites and of older stalagmites on which they grew, plus published Holocene stalagmite ages of initiation and regrowth from Missouri caves, are all coincident with suspected NMSZ earthquakes based on liquefaction and other paleoseimic techniques. We hypothesize that these speleothems were initiated by earthquake-induced opening/closing of fracture-controlled flowpaths in the ceilings of cave passages.

  14. Heterogeneity of silica and glycan-epitope distribution in epidermal idioblast cell walls in Adiantum raddianum laminae.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Olivier; Leroux, Frederic; Mastroberti, Alexandra Antunes; Santos-Silva, Fernanda; Van Loo, Denis; Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Bals, Sara; Popper, Zoë A; de Araujo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto

    2013-06-01

    Laminae of Adiantum raddianum Presl., a fern belonging to the family Pteridaceae, are characterised by the presence of epidermal fibre-like cells under the vascular bundles. These cells were thought to contain silica bodies, but their thickened walls leave no space for intracellular silica suggesting it may actually be deposited within their walls. Using advanced electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis we showed the presence of silica in the cell walls of the fibre-like idioblasts. However, it was specifically localised to the outer layers of the periclinal wall facing the leaf surface, with the thick secondary wall being devoid of silica. Immunocytochemical experiments were performed to ascertain the respective localisation of silica deposition and glycan polymers. Epitopes characteristic for pectic homogalacturonan and the hemicelluloses xyloglucan and mannan were detected in most epidermal walls, including the silica-rich cell wall layers. The monoclonal antibody, LM6, raised against pectic arabinan, labelled the silica-rich primary wall of the epidermal fibre-like cells and the guard cell walls, which were also shown to contain silica. We hypothesise that the silicified outer wall layers of the epidermal fibre-like cells support the lamina during cell expansion prior to secondary wall formation. This implies that silicification does not impede cell elongation. Although our results suggest that pectic arabinan may be implicated in silica deposition, further detailed analyses are needed to confirm this. The combinatorial approach presented here, which allows correlative screening and in situ localisation of silicon and cell wall polysaccharide distribution, shows great potential for future studies.

  15. Rapid Development of Brain Abscess Caused by Streptococcus Pyogenes Following Penetrating Skull Injury via the Ethmoidal Sinus and Lamina Cribrosa

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Gerilmez; Cömert, Serhat; Altinors, Nur

    2010-01-01

    Objective Streptococcus pyogenes is a beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to Lancefield serogroup A, also known as group A streptococci (GAS). There have been five reported case in terms of PubMed-based search but no reported case of brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes as a result of penetrating skull injury. We present a patient who suffered from penetrating skull injury that resulted in a brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Methods The patient was a 12-year-old boy who fell down from his bicycle while cycling and ran into a tree. A wooden stick penetrated his skin below the right lower eyelid and advanced to the cranium. He lost consciousness on the fifth day of the incident and his body temperature was measured as 40℃. While being admitted to our hospital, a cranial computed tomography revealed a frontal cystic mass with a perilesional hypodense zone of edema. There was no capsule formation around the lesion after intravenous contrast injection. Paranasal CT showed a bone defect located between the ethmoidal sinus and lamina cribrosa. Results Bifrontal craniotomy was performed. The abscess located at the left frontal lobe was drained and the bone defect was repaired. Conclusion Any penetrating lesion showing a connection between the lamina cribrosa and ethmoidal sinus may result in brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. These patients should be treated urgently to repair the defect and drain the abscess with appropriate antibiotic therapy started due to the fulminant course of the brain abscess caused by this microorganism. PMID:20717517

  16. Blood-nerve barrier: distribution of anionic sites on the endothelial plasma membrane and basal lamina of dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bush, M S; Reid, A R; Allt, G

    1991-09-01

    Previous investigations of the blood-nerve barrier have correlated the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels, compared to those of nerve trunks, with the presence of fenestrations and open intercellular junctions. Recent studies have demonstrated reduced endothelial cell surface charge in blood vessels showing greater permeability. To determine the distribution of anionic sites on the plasma membranes and basal laminae of endothelial cells in dorsal root ganglia, cationic colloidal gold and cationic ferritin were used. Electron microscopy revealed the existence of endothelial microdomains with differing labelling densities. Labelling indicated that caveolar and fenestral diaphragms and basal laminae are highly anionic at physiological pH, luminal plasma membranes and endothelial processes are moderately charged and abluminal plasma membranes are weakly anionic. Tracers did not occur in caveolae or cytoplasmic vesicles. In vitro tracer experiments at pH values of 7.3, 5.0, 3.5 and 2.0 indicated that the anionic charge on the various endothelial domains was contributed by chemical groups with differing pKa values. In summary, the labelling of ganglionic and sciatic nerve vessels was similar except for the heavy labelling of diaphragms in a minority of endoneurial vessels in ganglia. This difference is likely to account in part for the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels. The results are discussed with regard to the blood-nerve and -brain barriers and vascular permeability in other tissues and a comparison made between the ultrastructure and anionic microdomains of epi-, peri- and endoneurial vessels of dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves. PMID:1960538

  17. Ultrastructural and neurochemical analysis of synaptic input to trigemino-thalamic projection neurones in lamina I of the rat: a combined immunocytochemical and retrograde labelling study.

    PubMed

    Priestley, J V; Cuello, A C

    1989-07-22

    The synaptology of lamina I thalamic projection neurones in the spinal trigeminal nucleus of the rat was investigated by combining electron microscopic immunocytochemistry with the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. Fifteen retrogradely labelled neurones were serially sectioned and their dendrites were traced for up to 160 microns in order to characterise the synaptic input to their cell bodies and proximal dendrites. Projection neurones receive synapses from dome-shaped substance P and enkephalin immunoreactive terminals, which make simple axosomatic or axodendritic synapses. In addition, the cells receive synapses from numerous nonimmunoreactive terminals including a wide range of different dome-shaped terminals and various scalloped or glomerular terminals. Dome-shaped terminals synapse with small stubby spines in addition to cell bodies or dendritic shafts and they are probably derived from lamina II interneurones and from descending bulbospinal pathways. Glomerular terminals occur in two main classes: small type A terminals with dark axoplasm and larger type B terminals. Type B terminals participate in synaptic triads in which a peripheral terminal synapses both axoaxonically with the glomerular terminal and axodendritically with the projection neurone. Type A and type B terminals closely resemble the central terminals of spinal cord lamina II glomeruli and are probably derived from C and A delta I degrees afferent fibers. The results indicate that lamina I projection neurones are under pre- and postsynaptic control from diverse sources. Their complex synaptic organisation highlights the key role that such cells play in the rostrad transmission of somatosensory information. PMID:2474583

  18. Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Nicolas H.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac valve surgery is life saving for many patients. The advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques has historically allowed for improvement in both post-operative convalescence and important clinical outcomes. The development of minimally invasive cardiac valve repair and replacement surgery over the past decade is poised to revolutionize the care of cardiac valve patients. Here, we present a review of the history and current trends in minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve repair and replacement, including the development of sutureless bioprosthetic valves. PMID:24797148

  19. Adenocarcinoma arising from a gastric duplication cyst with invasion to the stomach: a case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kuraoka, K; Nakayama, H; Kagawa, T; Ichikawa, T; Yasui, W

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising from a gastric duplication cyst, with invasion to the stomach wall, in a 40 year old Japanese man. A cystic lesion was found between the stomach and the spleen. The cyst had a well circumscribed smooth muscle layer, corresponding to the muscularis propria of the stomach and the mucosa of the alimentary tract. A well differentiated adenocarcinoma was found within the duplication cyst, invading its serosa. Well differentiated adenocarcinoma was independently found in the fundus of the stomach; the tumour of the cyst was connected by fibrous tissue. Microscopically, there was neither adenocarcinoma in situ nor precancerous lesions, such as epithelial dysplasia, suggesting that the carcinoma derived from a gastric duplication cyst that invaded the stomach. Duplication cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the gastrointestinal tract, and the possibility of malignancy within these cysts should be considered. PMID:15047751

  20. Invasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, A.

    1988-01-01

    Invasive prenatal diagnosis is a major diagnostic tool which is used in modern obstetrical care. A synopsis of these techniques is provided to assist the family practitioner in providing this information to his patients. PMID:21253097

  1. Differential global and extra-cellular matrix focused gene expression patterns between normal and glaucomatous human lamina cribrosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Wordinger, Robert J.; Clark, Abbot F.; O'Brien, Colm J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Marked extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling occurs in the human optic nerve head in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) negative lamina cribrosa cell may play an important role in this remodeling process. We report the first study of global and ECM-focused gene transcription differentials between GFAP-negative lamina cribrosa (LC) cells from normal and POAG human donors. Methods GFAP-negative LC cell lines were generated from the optic nerve tissue of four normal (n=4) and four POAG (n=4) human donors. Using Affymetrix U133A arrays the transcriptional profile between the normal and diseased groups were compared. Bioinformatic analysis was performed using robust multichip average (RMA Express) and EASE/David. Real time TaqMan PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed to validate the microarray data. Results 183 genes were upregulated by greater than 1.5 fold and 220 were down regulated by greater than 1.5 fold in the POAG LC cells versus normal controls. Upregulated genes in POAG LC cells included, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), secreted acid protein cysteine rich (SPARC), periostin (POSTN), thrombospondin-1 (THBS1), cartilage linking protein-1 (CRTL-1), and collagen type I (COL1A1), collagen type V (COL5A1), and collagen type XI (COL11A1). Downregulated ECM genes in POAG included fibulin 1 (FBLN1), decorin (DCN), and collagen type XVIII (COL18A1). All TaqMan PCR validation assays were significant (*p<0.05) and consistent with the array data. Immunohistochemistry of one target (periostin) confirmed its differential expression at the protein level in POAG optic nerve head tissue compared with non-glaucomatous controls. Functional annotation and over-representation analysis identified ECM genes as a statistically over-represented class of genes in POAG LC cells compared with normal LC cells. Conclusions This study reports for the first time that POAG LC cells in-vitro demonstrate upregulated ECM

  2. The stress-strain relationships in wood and fiber-reinforced plastic laminae of reinforced glued-laminated wood beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingley, Daniel Arthur

    The reinforcement of wood and wood composite structural products to improve their mechanical properties has been in practice for many years. Recently, the use of high-strength fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) as a reinforcement in such applications has been commercialized. The reinforcement is manufactured using a standard pultrusion process or alternatively a sheet-forming process commonly referred to as "pulforming". The high-modulus fibers are predominately unidirectional, although off-axis fibers are often used to enhance off-axis properties. The fibers used are either of a single type or multiple types, which are called "hybrids". Unidirectional, single, and hybrid fiber FRP physical properties and characteristics were compared to wood. Full-scale reinforced glulams were tested. Aramid-reinforced plastics (ARP) used as tensile reinforcements were found to be superior in strength applications to other types of FRP made with fiber, such as carbon and fiberglass. Carbon/aramid-reinforced plastic (CARP) was shown to be superior in both modulus and strength design situations. Fiberglass was shown to be suitable only in hybrid situations with another fiber such as aramid or carbon and only in limited use situations where modulus was a design criteria. The testing and analysis showed that the global response of reinforced glulam beams is controlled by localized strength variations in the wood such as slope of grain, knots, finger joints, etc. in the tensile zone. The elemental tensile strains in the extreme wood tensile laminae, due to global applied loads, were found to be well below the strain at failure in clear wood samples recovered from the failure area. Two areas affecting the relationship between the wood and the FRP were investigated: compatibility of the wood and FRP materials and interface characteristics between the wood and FRP. The optimum strain value at yield point for an FRP was assessed to be slightly higher than the clear wood value in tension for a

  3. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  4. Deep trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling in the placental bed of the chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Pijnenborg, R; Vercruysse, L; Carter, A M

    2011-05-01

    Deep trophoblast invasion is usually considered to be a unique feature of human placentation as compared to other primates. Because of the occasional occurrence of preeclampsia in great apes, which in the human is associated with impaired deep invasion, this uniqueness may be questioned. The availability of two well-documented pregnant chimpanzee uteri in the Hubrecht Collection (Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin) allowed us to evaluate the extent of trophoblast invasion in this species. By adjusting currently used protocols, we obtained successful immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin and α-actin, as well as Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA1) lectin staining, in this archival material. In both specimens interstitial trophoblast invasion had occurred in both decidua and myometrium. Because of a lack of published data on fetal growth for this species, fetal sizes (7cm and 13cm) could not be strictly related to gestational ages and thus be compared with the time-course of human trophoblast invasion. However, since the earlier specimen did not show any endovascular trophoblast invasion in spiral arteries - in contrast to pregnant human uteri with equivalent fetal sizes - endovascular migration seems to begin at a different gestational age in the chimpanzee. In the later specimen endovascular trophoblast was associated with spiral artery remodelling in the inner myometrium, and this invasion was extended to include a radial artery, which at that stage still showed relatively intact vascular smooth muscle and elastic lamina. We conclude that invasion depth and spiral artery remodelling are basically similar in chimpanzees and humans, although the seemingly different time of onset may have implications for uteroplacental oxygen supply and fetal development.

  5. Detecting to secret folded composite lamina package pairs in cores related slump dump structures and seismites with high resolution sampling of physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Dursun; Cagatay, Namik; Feray Meydan, Aysegul; Eris, Kadir; Sari, Erol; Akcer, Sena; Makaroglu, Ozlem; Alkislar, Hakan; Biltekin, Demet; Nagehan Arslan, Tugce

    2016-04-01

    The core retrieved from Lake Van consists of seismites that were possibly deposited during the earthquakes around the Van region. Deformed parts of the core sediments display folded laminations that can be attributed to seismites. The problem arises that if the fold axis is deposited perpendicular to the liner and, if the hinge line is far enough, describing the true laminations might be impossible related to real age of basin evolution because extra laminae seem deposited to the area. Scientist must pay attention such problem that dating method like varve counting and basin evolution estimates can totally change due to extra laminae that explained before. For eliminate to wrong interpretations considering reversal reflected anomalies even with angularity effects to one package of pair can show significant difference than other symmetric one due to angle of the hinge line or soft sediment deformation. Considering the situation explained, p-wave is not enough to support the idea however; chemical analyses (x-ray florescence), ICP-MS (asdasd) analysis can provide appropriate results to identify laminae that appear on the limbs of the reversed micro folds. New easy designed extra U-Channel drive tray framework prepared by us. U-Channels are prepared well conditioned, saturated enough to well contact between sediment surface and plastic shield of u-channel samples from cores. Physical parameters are measured by Multi sensor core logger (MSCL) with high resolution step ratio fixed to 1mm. At the p- wave and gamma ray results, we observed together stair upwards form and reverse reflected downward data graphics, thus our interpretation of identifying the fold limbs are now visible. We understand that laminae packages are exactly the same. XRF and MSCL are totally supporting to origin of pairs generated after their sedimentation age with mechanical forces. For this reason, in this study, we attended to solve such problem to analyze deformed folded laminations that must be

  6. Hyperactive Dental Lamina in a 24-Year-old Female – A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashu; Nagar, Priya; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Munjal, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    An extra tooth to the normal formula of teeth sequence in any region of dental arch is regarded as Supernumerary teeth (ST). The reasons are still not clearly known, one of them being dichotomy of tooth bud, but the more accepted reason is the hyperactivity theory. Supernumerary teeth are present more in permanent dentition than in primary dentition and can present as a single entity or multiple, unilaterally or bilaterally, impacted or erupted, in either or both the dental arches. This article discusses the supernumerary teeth in detail with a case discussion of a non-syndromic 24-year-old girl, with six ST (bicuspids) present in all the four quadrants. In the mandible, ST’s showed a classical clustered flower like presentation. The interesting feature in the presented case was the sequential orthopantomographs taken at various ages of the patient that showed continuous development of STs in all four quadrants, thus pointing to the theory of hyperactive dental lamina or atavism. An electronic search was conceded in PubMed, Cochrane Library and google scholar databases, and articles dated between December 1932 and December 2012 were selected to review the occurrence patterns of supernumerary teeth in non-syndromic cases. PMID:26436066

  7. Pro-fibrotic pathway activation in trabecular meshwork and lamina cribrosa is the main driving force of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Kanherkar, Riya R; Izumchenko, Evgeny; Teka, Mahder; Cantor, Charles; Manaye, Kebreten; Sidransky, David; West, Michael D; Makarev, Eugene; Csoka, Antonei Benjamin

    2016-06-17

    While primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, it still does not have a clear mechanism that can explain all clinical cases of the disease. Elevated IOP is associated with increased accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the trabecular meshwork (TM) that prevents normal outflow of aqueous humor (AH) and has damaging effects on the fine mesh-like lamina cribrosa (LC) through which the optic nerve fibers pass. Applying a pathway analysis algorithm, we discovered that an elevated level of TGFβ observed in glaucoma-affected tissues could lead to pro-fibrotic pathway activation in TM and in LC. In turn, activated pro-fibrotic pathways lead to ECM remodeling in TM and LC, making TM less efficient in AH drainage and making LC more susceptible to damage from elevated IOP via ECM transformation in LC. We propose pathway targets for potential therapeutic interventions to delay or avoid fibrosis initiation in TM and LC tissues. PMID:27229292

  8. Isolation and characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes protein that binds to basal laminae of human cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Winters, B D; Ramasubbu, N; Stinson, M W

    1993-01-01

    A 9-kDa glycosaminoglycan-binding protein (GAG-BP) was isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on heparin-agarose. The protein selectively bound to the basal laminae of human cardiac muscle and had an apparent dissociation constant of 2.5 x 10(-7) M. Chemical analyses indicated that the GAG-BP was rich in alanine, lysine, and arginine (pI 9.5) and devoid of tyrosine, methionine, histidine, and half-cystine. There were no detectable carbohydrate or phosphate substituents. The amino acid sequence of the N terminus of GAG-BP showed homology with those of histone-like DNA-binding proteins of several other bacteria. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the protein was made up of 50% beta-sheet and 50% beta-turn and random coil in aqueous solution; however, when the protein complexed with heparin, it adopted a more ordered structure containing 25% alpha-helix, 50% beta-sheet, and 25% beta-turn and random coil. The GAG-BP cross-reacted serologically with a component of similar size in extracts of other group A streptococci and was present in the culture medium during late logarithmic growth. Images PMID:8335359

  9. A bioinformatics analysis of Lamin-A regulatory network: a perspective on epigenetic involvement in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arancio, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare human genetic disease that leads to premature aging. HGPS is caused by mutation in the Lamin-A (LMNA) gene that leads, in affected young individuals, to the accumulation of the progerin protein, usually present only in aging differentiated cells. Bioinformatics analyses of the network of interactions of the LMNA gene and transcripts are presented. The LMNA gene network has been analyzed using the BioGRID database (http://thebiogrid.org/) and related analysis tools such as Osprey (http://biodata.mshri.on.ca/osprey/servlet/Index) and GeneMANIA ( http://genemania.org/). The network of interaction of LMNA transcripts has been further analyzed following the competing endogenous (ceRNA) hypotheses (RNA cross-talk via microRNAs [miRNAs]) and using the miRWalk database and tools (www.ma.uni-heidelberg.de/apps/zmf/mirwalk/). These analyses suggest particular relevance of epigenetic modifiers (via acetylase complexes and specifically HTATIP histone acetylase) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodelers (via pBAF, BAF, and SWI/SNF complexes).

  10. Hypertonicity sensing in organum vasculosum lamina terminalis neurons: a mechanical process involving TRPV1 but not TRPV4.

    PubMed

    Ciura, Sorana; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Bourque, Charles W

    2011-10-12

    Primary osmosensory neurons in the mouse organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) transduce hypertonicity via the activation of nonselective cation channels that cause membrane depolarization and increased action potential discharge, and this effect is absent in mice lacking expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (Trpv1) gene (Ciura and Bourque, 2006). However other experiments have indicated that channels encoded by Trpv4 also contribute to central osmosensation in mice (Liedtke and Friedman, 2003; Mizuno et al., 2003). At present, the mechanism by which hypertonicity modulates cation channels in OVLT neurons is unknown, and it remains unclear whether Trpv1 and Trpv4 both contribute to this process. Here, we show that physical shrinking is necessary and sufficient to mediate hypertonicity sensing in OVLT neurons isolated from adult mice. Steps coupling progressive decreases in cell volume to increased neuronal activity were quantitatively equivalent whether shrinking was evoked by osmotic pressure or mechanical aspiration. Finally, modulation of OVLT neurons by tonicity or mechanical stimulation was unaffected by deletion of trpv4 but was abolished in cells lacking Trpv1 or wild-type neurons treated with the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. Thus, hypertonicity sensing is a mechanical process requiring Trpv1, but not Trpv4. PMID:21994383

  11. Pro-fibrotic pathway activation in trabecular meshwork and lamina cribrosa is the main driving force of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Izumchenko, Evgeny; Kanherkar, Riya R.; Teka, Mahder; Cantor, Charles; Manaye, Kebreten; Sidransky, David; West, Michael D.; Makarev, Eugene; Csoka, Antonei Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT While primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, it still does not have a clear mechanism that can explain all clinical cases of the disease. Elevated IOP is associated with increased accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the trabecular meshwork (TM) that prevents normal outflow of aqueous humor (AH) and has damaging effects on the fine mesh-like lamina cribrosa (LC) through which the optic nerve fibers pass. Applying a pathway analysis algorithm, we discovered that an elevated level of TGFβ observed in glaucoma-affected tissues could lead to pro-fibrotic pathway activation in TM and in LC. In turn, activated pro-fibrotic pathways lead to ECM remodeling in TM and LC, making TM less efficient in AH drainage and making LC more susceptible to damage from elevated IOP via ECM transformation in LC. We propose pathway targets for potential therapeutic interventions to delay or avoid fibrosis initiation in TM and LC tissues. PMID:27229292

  12. High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy and Immuno-Gold Labeling of the Nuclear Lamina and Nuclear Pore Complex.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Martin W

    2016-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a technique used to image surfaces. Field emission SEMs (feSEMs) can resolve structures that are ~0.5-1.5 nm apart. FeSEM, therefore is a useful technique for imaging molecular structures that exist at surfaces such as membranes. The nuclear envelope consists of four membrane surfaces, all of which may be accessible for imaging. Imaging of the cytoplasmic face of the outer membrane gives information about ribosomes and cytoskeletal attachments, as well as details of the cytoplasmic peripheral components of the nuclear pore complex, and is the most easily accessed surface. The nucleoplasmic face of the inner membrane is easily accessible in some cells, such as amphibian oocytes, giving valuable details about the organization of the nuclear lamina and how it interacts with the nuclear pore complexes. The luminal faces of both membranes are difficult to access, but may be exposed by various fracturing techniques. Protocols are presented here for the preparation, labeling, and feSEM imaging of Xenopus laevis oocyte nuclear envelopes.

  13. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  14. Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, E

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery is feasible and safe. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy should be widely adopted for benign lesions of the pancreas. Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, although technically demanding, in the setting of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a number of advantages including shorter hospital stay, faster recovery, allowing patients to recover in a timelier manner and pursue adjuvant treatment options. Furthermore, it seems that progression-free survival is longer in patients undergoing laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy in comparison with those undergoing open pancreaticoduodenectomy. Minimally invasive middle pancreatectomy seems appropriate for benign or borderline tumors of the neck of the pancreas. Technological advances including intraoperative ultrasound and intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are expected to facilitate the wide adoption of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. Although, the oncological outcome seems similar with that of open surgery, there are still concerns, as the majority of relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies. Large multicenter randomized studies comparing laparoscopic with open pancreatectomy as well as robotic assisted with both open and laparoscopic approaches are needed. Robotic approach could be possibly shown to be less invasive than conventional laparoscopic approach through the less traumatic intra-abdominal handling of tissues. In addition, robotic approach could enable the wide adoption of the technique by surgeon who is not that trained in advanced laparoscopic surgery. A putative clinical benefit of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery could be the attenuated surgical stress response leading to reduced morbidity and mortality as well as lack of the detrimental immunosuppressive effect especially for the oncological patients. PMID:26530291

  15. Alien invasive birds.

    PubMed

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  16. A gastric artery aneurysm complicated by a dissection of gastric and hepatic arteries: possible role of adventitial inflammation and disruption of internal elastic lamina in splanchnic artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Mellen, Paul F

    2008-06-01

    A 77-year-old woman was found deceased at home. An autopsy examination revealed a hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured false aneurysm of a branch of the left gastric artery. A long dissection extending from the aneurysm involved splanchnic arteries including the left gastric, common hepatic, right and left branches of proper hepatic, and intrahepatic arteries. An intimal tear was identified in the common hepatic artery. Neutrophils infiltrating in the adventitia may have been reactive and may have triggered the adventitial rupture of aneurysm or development of the dissection. Disruption of the internal elastic lamina, which has been proposed to cause dissection of intracranial arteries, was seen in the dissected arteries. Little is currently known about aneurysms or dissections of splanchnic arteries; however, observation of adventitial inflammation and internal elastic lamina may help disclose the etiology and pathogenesis. PMID:18520493

  17. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  18. Two major cuticular proteins are required for assembly of horizontal laminae and vertical pore canals in rigid cuticle of Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kanost, Michael R; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-10-01

    The insect exoskeleton is composed of cuticle primarily formed from structural cuticular proteins (CPs) and the polysaccharide chitin. Two CPs, TcCPR27 and TcCPR18, are major proteins present in the elytron (highly sclerotized and pigmented modified forewing) as well as the pronotum (dorsal sclerite of the prothorax) and ventral abdominal cuticle of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both CPs belong to the CPR family, which includes proteins that have an amino acid sequence motif known as the Rebers & Riddiford (R&R) consensus sequence. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 resulted in insects with shorter, wrinkled, warped and less rigid elytra than those from control insects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of CPs in cuticle assembly, we analyzed for the precise localization of TcCPR27 and the ultrastructural architecture of cuticle in TcCPR27- and TcCPR18-deficient elytra. Transmission electron microscopic analysis combined with immunodetection using gold-labeled secondary antibody revealed that TcCPR27 is present in dorsal elytral procuticle both in the horizontal laminae and in vertical pore canals. dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of TcCPR27 resulted in abnormal electron-lucent laminae and pore canals in elytra except for the boundary between these two structures in which electron-dense molecule(s) apparently accumulated. Insects subjected to RNAi for TcCPR18 also had disorganized laminae and pore canals in the procuticle of elytra. Similar ultrastructural defects were also observed in other body wall regions with rigid cuticle such as the thorax and legs of adult T. castaneum. TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are required for proper formation of the horizontal chitinous laminae and vertical pore canals that are critical for formation and stabilization of rigid adult cuticle.

  19. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    PubMed

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control.

  20. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young’s moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  1. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P R

    2015-05-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young's moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  2. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P R

    2015-05-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young's moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses.

  3. Neurons and glial cells of the rat organum vasculosum laminae terminalis directly respond to lipopolysaccharide and pyrogenic cytokines.

    PubMed

    Ott, Daniela; Murgott, Jolanta; Rafalzik, Sandra; Wuchert, Florian; Schmalenbeck, Babette; Roth, Joachim; Gerstberger, Rüdiger

    2010-12-01

    During systemic immune challenge, the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) with its dense vascularization by fenestrated capillaries lacking blood-brain barrier function allows direct access of circulating pyrogens to brain tissue located in close vicinity to the preoptic area. We aimed to analyze direct responses of OVLT cells to exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1) or the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6. A primary microculture of the OVLT was established from topographically excised rat pup brain tissue, with cellular identification by marker protein-specific immunocytochemistry. Employing the ratio calcium imaging technique, pyrogen-induced calcium signaling in single OVLT cells could be characterized. LPS--as opposed to FSL-1--stimulation caused fast, transient rises in intracellular calcium concentration in 17% of neurons, 9% of astrocytes, and <5% of microglial cells investigated. LPS additionally led to enhanced expression of TNF-α and IL-1β exclusively in microglial cells, as well as a time-dependent release of TNF-α and IL-6 from OVLT microcultures. TNF-α evoked calcium signals in 11% of neurons, 22% of astrocytes, and 5% of microglial cells tested. A considerable population of neurons (11%) but only few astrocytes and microglial cells responded to IL-6, whereas 8% of microglial cells and 3% of astrocytes or neurons were activated by IL-1β. The demonstration of direct cellular responses of OVLT-intrinsic cells to stimulations with LPS or cytokines reinforces the suggested role of this brain structure as a responsive brain site to circulating pyrogens. PMID:20883673

  4. Correlation between Lamina Cribrosa Tilt Angles, Myopia and Glaucoma Using OCT with a Wide Bandwidth Femtosecond Mode-Locked Laser

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Takuhei; Kuroda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Masayuki; Baba, Motoyoshi; Hangai, Masanori; Araie, Makoto; Yoneya, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To measure horizontal and vertical lamina cribrosa (LC) tilt angles and investigate associated factors using prototype optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a broad wavelength laser light source. Design Cross sectional study. Methods Twenty-eight no glaucoma eyes (from 15 subjects) and 25 glaucoma eyes (from 14 patients) were enrolled. A total of 300 optic nerve head B-scans were obtained in 10 µm steps and the inner edge of Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) was identified as the reference plane. The vertical and horizontal angles between BMO line and approximate the best-fitting line for the surface of the LC were measured and potential associated factors were estimated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The median (interquartile range) horizontal and vertical tilt angles were 7.10 (2.43–11.45) degrees and 4.15 (2.60–6.85) degrees in eyes without glaucoma and 8.50 (4.40–14.10) degrees and 9.30 (6.90–14.15) degrees in glaucoma eyes, respectively. The refractive errors had a statistically significant association with horizontal LC tilt angles (coefficients, −1.53 per diopter) and glaucoma had a significant correlation with vertical tilt angles (coefficients, 6.56) using multiple logistic regression analysis (p<0.001). Conclusions OCT allowed evaluation of the internal tilting of the LC compared with the BMO. The horizontal internal LC tilt angle was correlated with refractive errors, corresponding to myopic physiological changes, and vertical internal LC tilt was correlated with glaucoma, corresponding to glaucomatous pathological changes. These parameters have important implications for investigation of the correlation between myopia, glaucoma and LC morphological features. PMID:25551632

  5. The Effect of Fenestration of Lamina Terminalis on the Vasospasm and Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus in Patients Following Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hatefi, Masoud; Azhary, Shirzad; Naebaghaee, Hussein; Mohamadi, Hasan Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: SAH (Sub Arachnoid Haemorrhage) is a life threatening that is associated with complications such as vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of FLT (Fenestration of Lamina Terminalis) on the incidence of vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in ACoA (Anterior Communicating Artery) aneurismal in SAH. Materials and Methods: The data of 50 ruptured ACoA aneurism patients were selected during the year 2001-2009 admitted to Imam Hussein hospital, Tehran, IR. In a randomized double-blind trial patients assigned in two group {with fenestration (FLT, n=25), without fenestration (No FLT, n=25)}. All patients underwent craniotomy by a single neurosurgeon. Patient’s age, sex, Hunt-Hess grade, Fisher grade, vasospasm, presence of hydrocephalus and incidences of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus were compared between groups. Results: There were no significant differences among groups in relation to demographic characteristics, neurological scale scores (Hunt-Hess grade) and the severity of the SAH (Fisher grade) (p>0.05). The rate of hydrocephalus on admission, were 24% and 16% in FLT and no FLT group respectively (p>0.05). The shunt placement postoperatively in FLT and no FLT group were 16% and 12% respectively (p>0.05). The clinical vasospasm was 20% and 24% in FLT and no FLT group respectively (p>0.05). Conclusion: Despite FLT can be a safe method there were not significant differences of FLT on the incidence of vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. A systematic evaluation with multisurgeon, multicentre and with greater sample size to disclose reality is suggested. PMID:26393164

  6. Robust Adaptive 3-D Segmentation of Vessel Laminae From Fluorescence Confocal Microscope Images and Parallel GPU Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswamy, Arunachalam; Dwarakapuram, Saritha; Bjornsson, Christopher S.; Cutler, Barbara M.; Shain, William

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents robust 3-D algorithms to segment vasculature that is imaged by labeling laminae, rather than the lumenal volume. The signal is weak, sparse, noisy, nonuniform, low-contrast, and exhibits gaps and spectral artifacts, so adaptive thresholding and Hessian filtering based methods are not effective. The structure deviates from a tubular geometry, so tracing algorithms are not effective. We propose a four step approach. The first step detects candidate voxels using a robust hypothesis test based on a model that assumes Poisson noise and locally planar geometry. The second step performs an adaptive region growth to extract weakly labeled and fine vessels while rejecting spectral artifacts. To enable interactive visualization and estimation of features such as statistical confidence, local curvature, local thickness, and local normal, we perform the third step. In the third step, we construct an accurate mesh representation using marching tetrahedra, volume-preserving smoothing, and adaptive decimation algorithms. To enable topological analysis and efficient validation, we describe a method to estimate vessel centerlines using a ray casting and vote accumulation algorithm which forms the final step of our algorithm. Our algorithm lends itself to parallel processing, and yielded an 8× speedup on a graphics processor (GPU). On synthetic data, our meshes had average error per face (EPF) values of (0.1–1.6) voxels per mesh face for peak signal-to-noise ratios from (110–28 dB). Separately, the error from decimating the mesh to less than 1% of its original size, the EPF was less than 1 voxel/face. When validated on real datasets, the average recall and precision values were found to be 94.66% and 94.84%, respectively. PMID:20199906

  7. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Relationship with the Position of the Central Retinal Vessel Trunk

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Baek-Lok; Kim, Hyunjoong; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the factors influencing the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface depth (LCD) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG), focusing on the association between LCD and the position of the central retinal vessel trunk (CRVT) at the anterior LC surface. Methods Optic nerve heads of 205 OAG eyes were scanned using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). After processing the images using adaptive compensation, the LCD was determined from 11 horizontal B-scan images that divided the optic disc vertically into 12 equal parts. Eyes were divided into two groups (central or peripheral) according to where the CRVT exits from the anterior LC surface. The influence of CRVT position on LCD was evaluated, taking into account age, gender, untreated intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP at optic-disc scanning, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, visual-field mean deviation, central corneal thickness, and axial length. Results Patients in the peripheral CRVT group were younger and more myopic, and had a larger mean LCD and thinner global RNFL than those in the central CRVT group (all P≤0.023). On multivariate analysis, the peripheral CRVT location was significantly associated with a larger LCD (P = 0.002), together with the significant association of younger age (P<0.001), higher untreated IOP (P = 0.010), and thinner RNFL (P = 0.003) on the larger LCD. Conclusion In OAG, CRVT location was an independent factor influencing the LCD, together with age, untreated IOP, and global RNFL thickness. The data indicate that the CRVT may contribute to the resistance of the LC against deformation. A longitudinal prospective observation is required to clarify this relationship. PMID:27355646

  8. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

  9. Aquatic invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

  10. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; İdilman, İlkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  11. [Pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi

    2012-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections remain a life-threatening disease. The development of invasive fungal disease is dependent on multiple factors, such us colonization and efficient host immune response. We aimed to review the pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections, in particular, those caused by Candida and Aspergillus. For this we propose, to describe the fungal characteristics, to detail the host defence mechanisms against fungus and to analyse the host risk factors for invasive fungal infection.

  12. Invasive species and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

  13. Organization of the Zone of Transition between the Pretectum and the Thalamus, with Emphasis on the Pretectothalamic Lamina

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Legorreta, Emmanuel; Horta-Júnior, José de Anchieta C.; Berrebi, Albert S.; Saldaña, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The zone of transition between the pretectum, derived from prosomere 1, and the thalamus, derived from prosomere 2, is structurally complex and its understanding has been hampered by cytoarchitectural and terminological confusion. Herein, using a battery of complementary morphological approaches, including cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and the expression of molecular markers, we pinpoint the features or combination of features that best characterize each nucleus of the pretectothalamic transitional zone of the rat. Our results reveal useful morphological criteria to identify and delineate, with unprecedented precision, several [mostly auditory] nuclei of the posterior group of the thalamus, namely the pretectothalamic lamina (PTL; formerly known as the posterior limitans nucleus), the medial division of the medial geniculate body (MGBm), the suprageniculate nucleus (SG), and the ethmoid, posterior triangular and posterior nuclei of the thalamus. The PTL is a sparsely-celled and fiber rich flattened nucleus apposed to the lateral surface of the anterior pretectal nucleus (APT) that marks the border between the pretectum and the thalamus; this structure stains selectively with the Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), and is essentially immunonegative for the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV). The MGBm, located medial to the ventral division of the MGB (MGBv), can be unequivocally identified by the large size of many of its neurons, its dark immunostaining for PV, and its rather selective staining for WFA. The SG, which extends for a considerable caudorostral distance and deviates progressively from the MGB, is characterized by its peculiar cytoarchitecture, the paucity of myelinated fibers, and the conspicuous absence of staining for calretinin (CR); indeed, in many CR-stained sections, the SG stands out as a blank spot. Because most of these nuclei are small and show unique anatomical relationships, the information provided in this article will

  14. Organization of the Zone of Transition between the Pretectum and the Thalamus, with Emphasis on the Pretectothalamic Lamina.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Legorreta, Emmanuel; Horta-Júnior, José de Anchieta C; Berrebi, Albert S; Saldaña, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The zone of transition between the pretectum, derived from prosomere 1, and the thalamus, derived from prosomere 2, is structurally complex and its understanding has been hampered by cytoarchitectural and terminological confusion. Herein, using a battery of complementary morphological approaches, including cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and the expression of molecular markers, we pinpoint the features or combination of features that best characterize each nucleus of the pretectothalamic transitional zone of the rat. Our results reveal useful morphological criteria to identify and delineate, with unprecedented precision, several [mostly auditory] nuclei of the posterior group of the thalamus, namely the pretectothalamic lamina (PTL; formerly known as the posterior limitans nucleus), the medial division of the medial geniculate body (MGBm), the suprageniculate nucleus (SG), and the ethmoid, posterior triangular and posterior nuclei of the thalamus. The PTL is a sparsely-celled and fiber rich flattened nucleus apposed to the lateral surface of the anterior pretectal nucleus (APT) that marks the border between the pretectum and the thalamus; this structure stains selectively with the Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), and is essentially immunonegative for the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV). The MGBm, located medial to the ventral division of the MGB (MGBv), can be unequivocally identified by the large size of many of its neurons, its dark immunostaining for PV, and its rather selective staining for WFA. The SG, which extends for a considerable caudorostral distance and deviates progressively from the MGB, is characterized by its peculiar cytoarchitecture, the paucity of myelinated fibers, and the conspicuous absence of staining for calretinin (CR); indeed, in many CR-stained sections, the SG stands out as a blank spot. Because most of these nuclei are small and show unique anatomical relationships, the information provided in this article will

  15. Giant invasive prolactinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, F.Y.; Vesely, D.L.; Jordan, R.M.; Flanigan, S.; Kohler, P.O.

    1987-11-01

    Two of the largest prolactinomas ever documented that have been followed for nine and 10 years, respectively, demonstrate how aggressive prolactinomas may become and how difficult invasive prolactinomas are to treat. One of these prolactinomas invaded both internal auditory canals and simultaneously grew inferiorly, reducing the bony support of the skull and necessitating the patient to utilize both hands to hold his head up. The second patient's prolactinoma invaded the sphenoidal, ethmoidal, and cavernous sinuses. Both of these patients had neurosurgical debulking of their tumors followed by radiation therapy. Neither patient's prolactin levels decreased significantly during their first five years post-surgically, at which time bromocriptine was added. Since then, there has been a gradual lowering of serum prolactin levels and a decrease in the size of these tumors. These cases demonstrate that prolonged treatment and very large doses of bromocriptine may be necessary for tumor reduction in patients with invasive prolactinomas.

  16. [Emerging invasive fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Alvez, F; Figueras, C; Roselló, E

    2010-07-01

    The frequency and diversity of invasive fungal infections has changed over the last 25 years. The emergence of less common, but medically important fungi has increased, and the children at risk has expanded, with the inclusion of medical conditions such as cancer, mainly haematological malignancy or stem cell transplant, immunosuppressive therapy, prolonged neutropenia, and T-cell immunodeficiency. Among mould infections, fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis (Dematiaceous fungi) have been increasingly reported in this group of patients. To successfully manage these challenging infections, it is imperative that paediatricians and sub-specialists remain aware of the optimal and timely diagnosis and therapeutic options. Unlike other common mycoses that cause human disease, there no simple antigen or serological tests available to detect these pathogens in tissue or blood. The outcome for these disseminate, and often refractory fungal infections in neutropenic patients and transplant recipients remains extremely poor, requiring early and aggressive therapy. Unfortunately there are no guidelines outlining the choices for optimal therapy in the treatment of paediatric invasive fungal infections do not exist, and on the other hand are limited paediatric data available comparing antifungal agents in children with proven, probable or suspected invasive fungal infection. The options for treatment rest mainly on some adult guidelines that comment on the treatment of these emerging and uncommon important fungi in children. Despite the sparse clinical trials available on treatment and its poor outcome, options for treatment of invasive fungal infections have increased with the advance of new antifungal agents, with improved tolerability and increased range of activity. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis are discussed in this article.

  17. USGS invasive species solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Land managers must meet the invasive species challenge every day, starting with identification of problem species, then the collection of best practices for their control, and finally the implementation of a plan to remove the problem. At each step of the process, the availability of reliable information is essential to success. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a suite of resources for early detection and rapid response, along with data management and sharing.

  18. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Dannan, Aous

    2011-10-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes.

  19. Type VII collagen associated with the basement membrane of amniotic epithelium forms giant anchoring rivets which penetrate a massive lamina reticularis.

    PubMed

    Ockleford, C D; McCracken, S A; Rimmington, L A; Hubbard, A R D; Bright, N A; Cockcroft, N; Jefferson, T B; Waldron, E; d'Lacey, C

    2013-09-01

    In human amnion a simple cuboidal epithelium and underlying fibroblast layer are separated by an almost acellular compact layer rich in collagen types I and III. This (>10 μm) layer, which may be a thick lamina reticularis, apparently presents an unusual set of conditions. Integration of the multilaminous tissue across it is apparently achieved by waisted structures which we have observed with the light microscope in frozen, paraffin-wax and semi-thin resin sections. We have also captured transmission and scanning electron micrographs of the structures. These structures which cross the compact layer we call "rivets". The composition of these "rivets" has been examined immunocytochemically and in three dimensions using the confocal laser scanning epi-fluorescence microscope. The rivets contain type VII collagen and an α6 integrin. They associate with type IV collagen containing structures (basement membrane lamina densa and spongy coils) and a special population of fibroblasts which may generate, maintain or anchor rivets to the underlying mesenchymal layer. Although type VII collagen is well known to anchor basal lamina to underlying mesodermal collagen fibres these "rivets" are an order of magnitude larger than any previously described type VII collagen containing anchoring structures. Intriguing possible functions of these features include nodes for growth of fibrous collagen sheets and sites of possible enzymatic degradation during regulated amnion weakening approaching term. If these sites are confirmed to be involved in amnion degradation and growth they may represent important targets for therapeutic agents that are designed to delay preterm premature rupture of the membranes a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality.

  20. 3D Histomorphometry of the Normal and Early Glaucomatous Monkey Optic Nerve Head: Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Scleral Position and Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongli; Downs, J. Crawford; Girkin, Christopher; Sakata, Lisandro; Bellezza, Anthony; Thompson, Hilary; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To three-dimensionally delineate the anterior and posterior surface of the lamina cribrosa, scleral flange and peripapillary sclera so as to determine the position and thickness of these structures within digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the monkey optic nerve head (ONH). Methods The trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of three early glaucoma (EG) monkeys (one eye Normal, one eye given laser-induced EG) were serial-sectioned at 3-μm thickness, with the embedded tissue block face stained and imaged after each cut. Images were aligned and stacked to create 3D reconstructions, within which Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera were delineated in 40 serial, radial (4.5° interval), digital, sagittal sections. For each eye, a BMO zero reference plane was fit to the 80 BMO points, which served as the reference from which all position measurements were made. Regional laminar, scleral flange, and peripapillary scleral position and thickness were compared between the Normal and EG eyes of each monkey and between treatment groups by analysis of variance. Results Laminar thickness varies substantially within the Normal eyes and is profoundly thicker within the three EG eyes. Laminar position is permanently posteriorly deformed in all three EG eyes, with substantial differences in the magnitude and extent of deformation among them. Scleral flange and peripapillary scleral thickness vary regionally within each Normal ONH with the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera thinnest nasally. Overall, the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera immediately surrounding the ONH are posteriorly displaced relative to the more peripheral sclera. Conclusion Profound fixed posterior deformation and thickening of the lamina is accompanied by mild posterior deformation and thinning of the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera at the onset of confocal scanning laser

  1. Populations of inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in lamina II of the adult rat spinal dorsal horn revealed by a combined electrophysiological and anatomical approach

    PubMed Central

    Yasaka, Toshiharu; Tiong, Sheena Y.X.; Hughes, David I.; Riddell, John S.; Todd, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Lamina II contains a large number of interneurons involved in modulation and transmission of somatosensory (including nociceptive) information. However, its neuronal circuitry is poorly understood due to the difficulty of identifying functional populations of interneurons. This information is important for understanding nociceptive processing and for identifying changes that underlie chronic pain. In this study, we compared morphology, neurotransmitter content, electrophysiological and pharmacological properties for 61 lamina II neurons recorded in slices from adult rat spinal cord. Morphology was related to transmitter content, since islet cells were GABAergic, while radial and most vertical cells were glutamatergic. However, there was considerable diversity among the remaining cells, some of which could not be classified morphologically. Transmitter phenotype was related to firing pattern, since most (18/22) excitatory cells, but few (2/23) inhibitory cells had delayed, gap or reluctant patterns, which are associated with A-type potassium (IA) currents. Somatostatin was identified in axons of 14/24 excitatory neurons. These had variable morphology, but most of those tested showed delayed-firing. Excitatory interneurons are therefore likely to contribute to pain states associated with synaptic plasticity involving IA currents. Although noradrenaline and serotonin evoked outward currents in both inhibitory and excitatory cells, somatostatin produced these currents only in inhibitory neurons, suggesting that its pro-nociceptive effects are mediated by disinhibition. Our results demonstrate that certain distinctive populations of inhibitory and excitatory interneuron can be recognised in lamina II. Combining this approach with identification of other neurochemical markers should allow further clarification of neuronal circuitry in the superficial dorsal horn. PMID:20817353

  2. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  3. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  4. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents.

  5. Clinical Factors Associated with Lamina Cribrosa Thickness in Patients with Glaucoma, as Measured with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Omodaka, Kazuko; Takahashi, Seri; Matsumoto, Akiko; Maekawa, Shigeto; Kikawa, Tsutomu; Himori, Noriko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of various risk factors on thinning of the lamina cribrosa (LC), as measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; Topcon). Methods This retrospective study comprised 150 eyes of 150 patients: 22 normal subjects, 28 preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) patients, and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients. Average LC thickness was determined in a 3 x 3 mm cube scan of the optic disc, over which a 4 x 4 grid of 16 points was superimposed (interpoint distance: 175 μm), centered on the circular Bruch’s membrane opening. The borders of the LC were defined as the visible limits of the LC pores. The correlation of LC thickness with Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation (MD; SITA standard 24–2), circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT), the vertical cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio, and tissue mean blur rate (MBR) was determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The relationship of LC thickness with age, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP), MD, the vertical C/D ratio, central corneal thickness (CCT), and tissue MBR was determined with multiple regression analysis. Average LC thickness and the correlation between LC thickness and MD were compared in patients with the glaucomatous enlargement (GE) optic disc type and those with non-GE disc types, as classified with Nicolela’s method. Results We found that average LC thickness in the 16 grid points was significantly associated with overall LC thickness (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). The measurement time for this area was 12.4 ± 2.4 minutes. Average LC thickness in this area had a correlation coefficient of 0.57 with cpRNFLT (P < 0.001) and 0.46 (P < 0.001) with MD. Average LC thickness differed significantly between the groups (normal: 268 ± 23 μm, PPG: 248 ± 13 μm, OAG: 233 ± 20 μm). Multiple regression analysis showed that MD (β = 0.29, P = 0.013), vertical C/D ratio (β = -0.25, P = 0.020) and tissue MBR (β = 0.20, P = 0.034) were

  6. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  7. The defective nuclear lamina in Hutchinson-gilford progeria syndrome disrupts the nucleocytoplasmic Ran gradient and inhibits nuclear localization of Ubc9.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Joshua B; Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J; Chatterjee, Mandovi; Ni, Li; Spencer, Adam; Yang, Chun-Song; Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Matunis, Michael J; Paschal, Bryce M

    2011-08-01

    The mutant form of lamin A responsible for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (termed progerin) acts as a dominant negative protein that changes the structure of the nuclear lamina. How the perturbation of the nuclear lamina in progeria is transduced into cellular changes is undefined. Using patient fibroblasts and a variety of cell-based assays, we determined that progerin expression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transport of several factors with key roles in nuclear function. We found that progerin reduces the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration of the Ran GTPase and inhibits the nuclear localization of Ubc9, the sole E2 for SUMOylation, and of TPR, the nucleoporin that forms the basket on the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex. Forcing the nuclear localization of Ubc9 in progerin-expressing cells rescues the Ran gradient and TPR import, indicating that these pathways are linked. Reducing nuclear SUMOylation decreases the nuclear mobility of the Ran nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 in vivo, and the addition of SUMO E1 and E2 promotes the dissociation of RCC1 and Ran from chromatin in vitro. Our data suggest that the cellular effects of progerin are transduced, at least in part, through reduced function of the Ran GTPase and SUMOylation pathways.

  8. Proliferation of progeria cells is enhanced by lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) through expression of extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Vidak, Sandra; Kubben, Nard; Dechat, Thomas; Foisner, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) localizes throughout the nucleoplasm and interacts with the fraction of lamins A/C that is not associated with the peripheral nuclear lamina. The LAP2α-lamin A/C complex negatively affects cell proliferation. Lamins A/C are encoded by LMNA, a single heterozygous mutation of which causes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). This mutation generates the lamin A variant progerin, which we show here leads to loss of LAP2α and nucleoplasmic lamins A/C, impaired proliferation, and down-regulation of extracellular matrix components. Surprisingly, contrary to wild-type cells, ectopic expression of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin restores proliferation and extracellular matrix expression but not the levels of nucleoplasmic lamins A/C. We conclude that, in addition to its cell cycle-inhibiting function with lamins A/C, LAP2α can also regulate extracellular matrix components independently of lamins A/C, which may help explain the proliferation-promoting function of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin.

  9. Proliferation of progeria cells is enhanced by lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) through expression of extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Vidak, Sandra; Kubben, Nard; Dechat, Thomas; Foisner, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) localizes throughout the nucleoplasm and interacts with the fraction of lamins A/C that is not associated with the peripheral nuclear lamina. The LAP2α-lamin A/C complex negatively affects cell proliferation. Lamins A/C are encoded by LMNA, a single heterozygous mutation of which causes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). This mutation generates the lamin A variant progerin, which we show here leads to loss of LAP2α and nucleoplasmic lamins A/C, impaired proliferation, and down-regulation of extracellular matrix components. Surprisingly, contrary to wild-type cells, ectopic expression of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin restores proliferation and extracellular matrix expression but not the levels of nucleoplasmic lamins A/C. We conclude that, in addition to its cell cycle-inhibiting function with lamins A/C, LAP2α can also regulate extracellular matrix components independently of lamins A/C, which may help explain the proliferation-promoting function of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin. PMID:26443848

  10. Clarifying debates in invasion biology: a survey of invasion biologists.

    PubMed

    Young, Ashley M; Larson, Brendon M H

    2011-10-01

    Invasion biology is a relatively new field, so there are ongoing debates about foundational issues regarding terminology and assessment of the causes and consequences of invasive species. These debates largely reflect differing views about the extent to which invasion biologists should advocate on behalf of native species. We surveyed reviewers of the journal Biological Invasions to obtain a better sense of how invasion biologists evaluate several foundational issues. We received 422 replies, which represented a very good response rate for an online survey of 42.5% of those contacted. Responses to several debates in the field were distributed bimodally, but respondents consistently indicated that contemporary biological invasions are unprecedented. Even still, this was not seen as justification for exaggerated language (hyperbole). In contrast to prevalent claims in the literature, only 27.3% of respondents ranked invasive species as the first or second greatest threat to biodiversity. The responses also highlighted the interaction of invasive species with other threats and the role of human activity in their spread. Finally, the respondents agreed that they need to be both more objective and better at communicating their results so that those results can be effectively integrated into management. PMID:21757195

  11. Resolving the genetic basis of invasiveness and predicting invasions.

    PubMed

    Weinig, Cynthia; Brock, Marcus T; Dechaine, Jenny A; Welch, Stephen M

    2007-02-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in determining traits underlying invasiveness. Yet, identifying a set of traits that commonly confers invasiveness in a range of species has proven elusive, and almost nothing is known about genetic loci affecting invasive success. Incorporating genetic model organisms into ecologically relevant studies is one promising avenue to begin dissecting the genetic underpinnings of invasiveness. Molecular biologists are rapidly characterizing genes mediating developmental responses to diverse environmental cues, i.e., genes for plasticity, as well as to environmental factors likely to impose strong selection on invading species, e.g., resistance to herbivores and competitors, coordination of life-history events with seasonal changes, and physiological tolerance of heat, drought, or cold. Here, we give an overview of molecular genetic tools increasingly used to characterize the genetic basis of adaptation and that may be used to begin identifying genetic mechanisms of invasiveness. Given the divergent traits that affect invasiveness, "invasiveness genes" common to many clades are unlikely, but the combination of developmental genetic advances with further evolutionary studies and modeling may provide a framework for identifying genes that account for invasiveness in related species.

  12. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  13. Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    deBeche-Adams, Teresa; Nassif, George

    2015-01-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was first described in 2010 as a crossover between single-incision laparoscopic surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to allow access to the proximal and mid-rectum for resection of benign and early-stage malignant rectal lesions. The TAMIS technique can also be used for noncurative intent surgery of more advanced lesions in patients who are not candidates for radical surgery. Proper workup and staging should be done before surgical decision-making. In addition to the TAMIS port, instrumentation and set up include readily available equipment found in most operating suites. TAMIS has proven its usefulness in a wide range of applications outside of local excision, including repair of rectourethral fistula, removal of rectal foreign body, control of rectal hemorrhage, and as an adjunct in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. TAMIS is an easily accessible, technically feasible, and cost-effective alternative to TEM. PMID:26491410

  14. [Minimal invasive implantology].

    PubMed

    Bruck, N; Zagury, A; Nahlieli, O

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic surgery has changed the philosophy and practice of modern surgery in all aspects of medicine. It gave rise to minimally invasive surgery procedures based on the ability to visualize and to operate via small channels. In maxillofacial surgery, our ability to see clearly the surgical field opened an entirely new world of exploration, as conditions that were once almost impossible to control and whose outcome was uncertain can be now predictably managed. in this article we will descripe the advantage of using the oral endoscope during the dental implantology procedure, and we will describe a unique implant which enable us in combination with the oral endoscope to create a maxillary sinus lift with out the need of the major surgery with all of its risks and complication.

  15. [Minimally invasive breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Kunos, Csaba; Sávolt, Akos; Farkas, Emil; Szollár, András; Kásler, Miklós

    2014-02-01

    Due to the development in medical science and industrial technology, minimally invasive procedures have appeared in the surgery of benign and malignant breast diseases. In general , such interventions result in significantly reduced breast and chest wall scars, shorter hospitalization and less pain, but they require specific, expensive devices, longer surgical time compared to open surgery. Furthermore, indications or oncological safety have not been established yet. It is quite likely, that minimally invasive surgical procedures with high-tech devices - similar to other surgical subspecialties -, will gradually become popular and it may form part of routine breast surgery even. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy with a therapeutic indication is suitable for the removal of benign fibroadenomas leaving behind an almost invisible scar, while endoscopically assisted skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, axillary staging and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap are all feasible through the same short axillary incision. Endoscopic techniques are also suitable for the diagnostics and treatment of intracapsular complications of implant-based breast reconstructions (intracapsular fluid, implant rupture, capsular contracture) and for the biopsy of intracapsular lesions with uncertain pathology. Perception of the role of radiofrequency ablation of breast tumors requires further hands-on experience, but it is likely that it can serve as a replacement of surgical removal in a portion of primary tumors in the future due to the development in functional imaging and anticancer drugs. With the reduction of the price of ductoscopes routine examination of the ductal branch system, guided microdochectomy and targeted surgical removal of terminal ducto-lobular units or a "sick lobe" as an anatomical unit may become feasible. The paper presents the experience of the authors and provides a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian language on the subject. Orv. Hetil

  16. Spread dynamics of invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Arim, Matías; Abades, Sebastián R.; Neill, Paula E.; Lima, Mauricio; Marquet, Pablo A.

    2006-01-01

    Species invasions are a principal component of global change, causing large losses in biodiversity as well as economic damage. Invasion theory attempts to understand and predict invasion success and patterns of spread. However, there is no consensus regarding which species or community attributes enhance invader success or explain spread dynamics. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that regulation of spread dynamics is possible; however, the conditions for its existence have not yet been empirically demonstrated. If invasion spread is a regulated process, the structure that accounts for this regulation will be a main determinant of invasion dynamics. Here we explore the existence of regulation underlying changes in the rate of new site colonization. We employ concepts and analytical tools from the study of abundance dynamics and show that spread dynamics are, in fact, regulated processes and that the regulation structure is notably consistent among invasions occurring in widely different contexts. We base our conclusions on the analysis of the spread dynamics of 30 species invasions, including birds, amphibians, fish, invertebrates, plants, and a virus, all of which exhibited similar regulation structures. In contrast to current beliefs that species invasions are idiosyncratic phenomena, here we provide evidence that general patterns do indeed exist. PMID:16387862

  17. Genetic reconstructions of invasion history.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-05-01

    A diverse array of molecular markers and constantly evolving analytical approaches have been employed to reconstruct the invasion histories of the most notorious invasions. Detailed information on the source(s) of introduction, invasion route, type of vectors, number of independent introductions and pathways of secondary spread has been corroborated for a large number of biological invasions. In this review, I present the promises and limitations of current techniques while discussing future directions. Broad phylogeographic surveys of native and introduced populations have traced back invasion routes with surprising precision. These approaches often further clarify species boundaries and reveal complex patterns of genetic relationships with noninvasive relatives. Moreover, fine-scale analyses of population genetics or genomics allow deep inferences on the colonization dynamics across invaded ranges and can reveal the extent of gene flow among populations across various geographical scales, major demographic events such as genetic bottlenecks as well as other important evolutionary events such as hybridization with native taxa, inbreeding and selective sweeps. Genetic data have been often corroborated successfully with historical, geographical and ecological data to enable a comprehensive reconstruction of the invasion process. The advent of next-generation sequencing, along with the availability of extensive databases of repository sequences generated by barcoding projects opens the opportunity to broadly monitor biodiversity, to identify early invasions and to quantify failed invasions that would otherwise remain inconspicuous to the human eye. PMID:25703061

  18. Integrated assessment of biological invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the main annalists of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists should be able to provide information that can guide management practices. Managers often want to know about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in the sites under their ...

  19. Neural invasion in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, M; Adachi, Y; Kamakura, T; Ikeda, Y; Maehara, Y; Sugimachi, K

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine whether neural invasion in advanced gastric cancer is of clinicopathological significance. METHODS--The study population comprised 121 cases of primary advanced gastric carcinoma. Two paraffin wax embedded blocks taken from the central tissue slice in each primary tumour were used. For definitive recognition of neural invasion, immunostaining for S-100 protein was applied to one slide; the other slide was stained with haematoxylin and eosin. RESULTS--Neural invasion was recognised in 34 of 121 (28%) primary gastric carcinomas. There were significant differences in tumour size, depth of tumour invasion, stage, and curability between patients with and without neural invasion. The five year survival rates of patients with and without neural invasion were 10 and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis, however, demonstrated that neural invasion was not an independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS--Neural invasion could be an additional useful factor for providing information about the malignant potential of gastric carcinoma. This may be analogous to vessel permeation which is thought to be important, but is not an independent prognostic factor. Images PMID:7745113

  20. Prioritizing invasive plant management strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plants are seriously impacting rangelands by displacing desirable species. Management of these species is expensive and careful allocation of scarce dollars is necessary. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) has the potential to provide an improved decision-making process ...

  1. Differential basal-to-apical accessibility of lamin A/C epitopes in the nuclear lamina regulated by changes in cytoskeletal tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihalainen, Teemu O.; Aires, Lina; Herzog, Florian A.; Schwartlander, Ruth; Moeller, Jens; Vogel, Viola

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear lamins play central roles at the intersection between cytoplasmic signalling and nuclear events. Here, we show that at least two N- and C-terminal lamin epitopes are not accessible at the basal side of the nuclear envelope under environmental conditions known to upregulate cell contractility. The conformational epitope on the Ig-domain of A-type lamins is more buried in the basal than apical nuclear envelope of human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenesis (but not adipogenesis), and in fibroblasts adhering to rigid (but not soft) polyacrylamide hydrogels. This structural polarization of the lamina is promoted by compressive forces, emerges during cell spreading, and requires lamin A/C multimerization, intact nucleoskeleton-cytoskeleton linkages (LINC), and apical-actin stress-fibre assembly. Notably, the identified Ig-epitope overlaps with emerin, DNA and histone binding sites, and comprises various laminopathy mutation sites. Our findings should help decipher how the physical properties of cellular microenvironments regulate nuclear events.

  2. Integrated assessment of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Ines; Diez, Jeffrey M; Miller, Luke P; Olden, Julian D; Sorte, Cascade J B; Blumenthal, Dana M; Bradley, Bethany A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Early, Regan I; Grosholz, Edwin D; Lawler, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    As the main witnesses of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists seek to provide the relevant science that informs managers about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in their region(s) of interest. Yet, the assorted literature that could inform such forecasts is rarely integrated to do so, and further, the diverse nature of the data available complicates synthesis and quantitative prediction. Here we present a set of analytical tools for synthesizing different levels of distributional and/or demographic data to produce meaningful assessments of invasion potential that can guide management at multiple phases of ongoing invasions, from dispersal to colonization to proliferation. We illustrate the utility of data-synthesis and data-model assimilation approaches with case studies of three well-known invasive species--a vine, a marine mussel, and a freshwater crayfish--under current and projected future climatic conditions. Results from the integrated assessments reflect the complexity of the invasion process and show that the most relevant climatic variables can have contrasting effects or operate at different intensities across habitat types. As a consequence, for two of the study species climate trends will increase the likelihood of invasion in some habitats and decrease it in others. Our results identified and quantified both bottlenecks and windows of opportunity for invasion, mainly related to the role of human uses of the landscape or to disruption of the flow of resources. The approach we describe has a high potential to enhance model realism, explanatory insight, and predictive capability, generating information that can inform management decisions and optimize phase-specific prevention and control efforts for a wide range of biological invasions.

  3. Hydrogen bonding motifs, spectral characterization, theoretical computations and anticancer studies on chloride salt of 6-mercaptopurine: An assembly of corrugated lamina shows enhanced solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2015-10-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (an anti cancer drug), is coming under the class II Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In order to enhance the solubility with retained physiochemical/pharmaceutical properties, the present work was attempted with its salt form. The single crystals of 6-mercaptopurinium chloride (6MPCl) were successfully grown by slow evaporation technique under ambient temperature. The X-ray diffraction study shows that the crystal packing is dominated by N-H⋯Cl classical hydrogen bonds leading to corrugated laminar network. The hydrogen bonds present in the lamina can be dismantled as three chain C21(6), C21(7) and C21(8) motifs running along ab-diagonal of the unit cell. These primary chain motifs are interlinked to each other forming ring R63(21) motifs. These chain and ring motifs are aggregated like a dendrimer structure leading to the above said corrugated lamina. This low dimensional molecular architecture differs from the ladder like arrays in pure drug though it possess lattice water molecule in lieu of the chloride anion in the present compound. Geometrical optimizations of 6MPCl were done by Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP function with two different basis sets. The optimized molecular geometries and computed vibrational spectra are compared with their experimental counterparts. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to interpret hyperconjugative interaction and Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT). The chemical hardness, electronegativity, chemical potential and electrophilicity index of 6MPCl were found along with the HOMO-LUMO plot. The lower band gap value obtained from the Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) analysis reiterates the pharmaceutical activity of the compound. The anticancer studies show that 6MPCl retains its activity against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Hence, this anticancer efficacy and improved solubility demands 6MPCl towards the further pharmaceutical applications.

  4. Superficial Bladder Cancer: An Update on Etiology, Molecular Development, Classification, and Natural History

    PubMed Central

    Pasin, Erik; Josephson, David Y; Mitra, Anirban P; Cote, Richard J; Stein, John P

    2008-01-01

    Superficial “non—muscle-invasive” bladder tumors represent a heterogeneous group of cancers, including those that are (1) papillary in nature and limited to the mucosa, (2) high grade and flat and confined to the epithelium, and (3) invasive into the submucosa, or lamina propria. The goal of treatment is 2-fold: (1) to reduce tumor recurrence and the subsequent need for additional therapies and the morbidity associated with these treatments and (2) to prevent tumor progression and the subsequent need for more aggressive therapy. This update reviews important contemporary concepts in the etiology, molecular mechanisms, classification, and natural history of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:18470273

  5. The diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. H.; Du, Y.

    2016-06-01

    We have attempted to explore the intrinsic differences in the optical properties of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and normal tissue by optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT imaging of normal tissue provided three layers of epithelium, lamina propria, and the brighter interface of basement membrane; while carcinomas disrupted the layered construction embedded in signal-poor images. The morphologies were consistent with histological findings. Sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 100%, respectively. This pilot study demonstrates that NPC could be diagnosed by visualization, which implies that OCT might be potentially used to differentiate normal from NPC tissue in the early stage as an invasive biopsy.

  6. Cheatgrass invasion and wildlife habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has altered native plant communities and the wildlife species that depend on these communities. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent...

  7. Nonpalpable invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, M C; Edge, S B; Cole, D D; deParedes, E; Frierson, H F

    1991-01-01

    The use of mammography has resulted in 1464 breast biopsies for nonpalpable abnormalities at the University of Virginia in the 10 years 1980 to 1989. Two hundred sixty-four cancerous lesions (18%) were found. One hundred seventy-eight of these (67%) were in situ lesions. Invasive cancer (86 of 264 lesions or 33%) forms the basis for this report. Mammographic findings leading to biopsy were a mass in 61 of 86 cases (71%), microcalcifications in 23 of 86 (27%), or both in 2 of 86 cases. Histologic subtypes were infiltrating ductal (63 of 86), infiltrating lobular (14 of 86), and other infiltrating (9 of 86). Mastectomy was performed in 71 of 86 lesions (82%), lumpectomy/radiation in 14 of 86 (16%), and lumpectomy alone in 1 of 86 lesions. Division of the tumors into size with nodal status revealed 19 of 86 lesions (22%) less than 0.5 cm with 0 of 14 positive nodes. Thirty-nine of eighty-six lesions (46%) measured 0.6 to 1.0 cm with 10 (26%) positive nodes. Twenty-eight of eighty-six lesions (32%) measured more than 1.0 cm with 8 of 28 (28%) positive nodes. Nodal status is unknown for eight patients. Overall 18 of 78 lesions (23%) had positive nodes. Median follow-up is 44 months. Disease-free survival rate is 92% (79 of 86 patients) and overall survival rate is 94% (81 of 86 patients). Six of seven recurrences occurred in node-positive patients. For those with negative or unknown nodes, the disease-free survival rate is 98% (67 of 68 patients). These findings emphasize the benefit of early detection of breast cancer through the use of mammography. PMID:2039291

  8. Concha bullosa mucocele with orbital invasion and secondary frontal sinusitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although concha bullosa (CB) is the most common variants of the middle turbinate, mucocele of CB is uncommon. Furthermore, CB mucocele with orbital invasion and secondary frontal sinusitis has not been reported previously. Case presentation A 42-year-old Korean male presented with gradually progressive proptosis of right eye and right-sided frontal headache. He had previously undergone endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) 15 and 9 years ago. The endoscopic examination showed an expansive, large middle turbinate with normal mucosa filled the majority of right nasal cavity and displaced the septum to the left. A computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a well demarcated cystic huge mass at right nasal cavity extending to ethmoid sinus and orbit. The mass caused a bony defect on the lamina papyracea and displaced medial rectus muscle and orbit laterally. Moreover, the right frontal and ethmoid sinus was totally opacified. This article reports orbital invasion and frontal sinusitis complicating a CB mucocele, which was successfully treated by endoscopic resection of the lateral wall of CB and frontal sinusotomy. Conclusions This case illustrates that CB mucocele could develop to such a massive extent that it leads to orbital complication and secondary frontal sinusitis. Therefore, we consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of orbital complications and secondary sinusitis caused by intranasal mass. PMID:24299615

  9. Invasion of distal nephron precursors associates with tubular interconnection during nephrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Robert M; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Drummond, Iain A; McMahon, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    Formation of a functional renal network requires the interconnection of two epithelial tubes: the nephron, which arises from kidney mesenchyme, and the collecting system, which originates from the branching ureteric epithelium. How this connection occurs, however, is incompletely understood. Here, we used high-resolution image analysis in conjunction with genetic labeling of epithelia to visualize and characterize this process. Although the focal absence of basal lamina from renal vesicle stages ensures that both epithelial networks are closely apposed, we found that a patent luminal interconnection is not established until S-shaped body stages. Precursor cells of the distal nephron in the interconnection zone exhibit a characteristic morphology consisting of ill-defined epithelial junctional complexes but without expression of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and Snai2. Live-cell imaging revealed that before luminal interconnection, distal cells break into the lumen of the collecting duct epithelium, suggesting that an invasive behavior is a key step in the interconnection process. Furthermore, loss of distal cell identity, which we induced by activating the Notch pathway, prevented luminal interconnection. Taken together, these data support a model in which establishing the distal identity of nephron precursor cells closest to the nascent collecting duct epithelium leads to an active cell invasion, which in turn contributes to a patent tubular interconnection between the nephron and collecting duct epithelia.

  10. Increased Leaf Angle1, a Raf-Like MAPKKK That Interacts with a Nuclear Protein Family, Regulates Mechanical Tissue Formation in the Lamina Joint of Rice[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Jing; Zhang, Baocai; Wang, Nili; Zhou, Yihua; Xiong, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs), which function at the top level of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, are clustered into three groups. However, no Group C Raf-like MAPKKKs have yet been functionally identified. We report here the characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, increased leaf angle1 (ila1), resulting from a T-DNA insertion in a Group C MAPKKK gene. The increased leaf angle in ila1 is caused by abnormal vascular bundle formation and cell wall composition in the leaf lamina joint, as distinct from the mechanism observed in brassinosteroid-related mutants. Phosphorylation assays revealed that ILA1 is a functional kinase with Ser/Thr kinase activity. ILA1 is predominantly resident in the nucleus and expressed in the vascular bundles of leaf lamina joints. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified six closely related ILA1 interacting proteins (IIPs) of unknown function. Using representative IIPs, the interaction of ILA1 and IIPs was confirmed in vivo. IIPs were localized in the nucleus and showed transactivation activity. Furthermore, ILA1 could phosphorylate IIP4, indicating that IIPs may be the downstream substrates of ILA1. Microarray analyses of leaf lamina joints provided additional evidence for alterations in mechanical strength in ila1. ILA1 is thus a key factor regulating mechanical tissue formation at the leaf lamina joint. PMID:22207574

  11. SOST Inhibits Prostate Cancer Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Bryan D.; Hum, Nicholas R.; Thomas, Cynthia B.; Kohlgruber, Ayano; Sebastian, Aimy; Collette, Nicole M.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Christiansen, Blaine A.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of Wnt signaling have been shown to be involved in prostate cancer (PC) metastasis; however the role of Sclerostin (Sost) has not yet been explored. Here we show that elevated Wnt signaling derived from Sost deficient osteoblasts promotes PC invasion, while rhSOST has an inhibitory effect. In contrast, rhDKK1 promotes PC elongation and filopodia formation, morphological changes characteristic of an invasive phenotype. Furthermore, rhDKK1 was found to activate canonical Wnt signaling in PC3 cells, suggesting that SOST and DKK1 have opposing roles on Wnt signaling in this context. Gene expression analysis of PC3 cells co-cultured with OBs exhibiting varying amounts of Wnt signaling identified CRIM1 as one of the transcripts upregulated under highly invasive conditions. We found CRIM1 overexpression to also promote cell-invasion. These findings suggest that bone-derived Wnt signaling may enhance PC tropism by promoting CRIM1 expression and facilitating cancer cell invasion and adhesion to bone. We concluded that SOST and DKK1 have opposing effects on PC3 cell invasion and that bone-derived Wnt signaling positively contributes to the invasive phenotypes of PC3 cells by activating CRIM1 expression and facilitating PC-OB physical interaction. As such, we investigated the effects of high concentrations of SOST in vivo. We found that PC3-cells overexpressing SOST injected via the tail vein in NSG mice did not readily metastasize, and those injected intrafemorally had significantly reduced osteolysis, suggesting that targeting the molecular bone environment may influence bone metastatic prognosis in clinical settings. PMID:26545120

  12. SOST Inhibits Prostate Cancer Invasion.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Bryan D; Hum, Nicholas R; Thomas, Cynthia B; Kohlgruber, Ayano; Sebastian, Aimy; Collette, Nicole M; Coleman, Matthew A; Christiansen, Blaine A; Loots, Gabriela G

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of Wnt signaling have been shown to be involved in prostate cancer (PC) metastasis; however the role of Sclerostin (Sost) has not yet been explored. Here we show that elevated Wnt signaling derived from Sost deficient osteoblasts promotes PC invasion, while rhSOST has an inhibitory effect. In contrast, rhDKK1 promotes PC elongation and filopodia formation, morphological changes characteristic of an invasive phenotype. Furthermore, rhDKK1 was found to activate canonical Wnt signaling in PC3 cells, suggesting that SOST and DKK1 have opposing roles on Wnt signaling in this context. Gene expression analysis of PC3 cells co-cultured with OBs exhibiting varying amounts of Wnt signaling identified CRIM1 as one of the transcripts upregulated under highly invasive conditions. We found CRIM1 overexpression to also promote cell-invasion. These findings suggest that bone-derived Wnt signaling may enhance PC tropism by promoting CRIM1 expression and facilitating cancer cell invasion and adhesion to bone. We concluded that SOST and DKK1 have opposing effects on PC3 cell invasion and that bone-derived Wnt signaling positively contributes to the invasive phenotypes of PC3 cells by activating CRIM1 expression and facilitating PC-OB physical interaction. As such, we investigated the effects of high concentrations of SOST in vivo. We found that PC3-cells overexpressing SOST injected via the tail vein in NSG mice did not readily metastasize, and those injected intrafemorally had significantly reduced osteolysis, suggesting that targeting the molecular bone environment may influence bone metastatic prognosis in clinical settings.

  13. How to reduce invasiveness in non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Chiandotto, Valeria

    2012-10-01

    Non invasive ventilation plays a key role in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) activity and several instruments have recently been developed that are designed to maintain positive pressure in order to improve functional residual capacity of the lung. However, devices used to provide non-invasive respiratory assistance are frequently a cause of discomfort when applied to a fragile neonate. Indeed, they are applied for lengthy periods in low birth weight (VLBW) infants. In addition to these side effects we have to consider several other stressful events. In our opinion, reducing invasiveness in the NICU is a process where the main steps are recognizing a need for the organization of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with respect for the rhythm of the newborn, recognizing the fragility of preterm newborns and their brain plasticity, improving environmental standards in both structural terms and staff behaviour, and promoting the active role of parents in supporting the development of the newborn.

  14. Invasive Cervical Cancer and Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hsiang-Lin; Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Chiao-Fan; Liang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Kuo-You; Chiu, Wei-Che; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S.; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To our knowledge, no prior population-based study has been published wherein the primary aim was to evaluate whether an association between psychotropic drug prescription and cervical cancer exists. Herein we have conducted the first study that primarily aimed to determine the association between antidepressants use and risk of invasive cervical cancer in the general population. This is a population-based study utilizing Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 26,262 cases with invasive cervical cancer and 129,490 controls. We adopted the conditional logistic regression model as the statistical method and adjusted for potential confounding factors. The prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (adjusted OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.84–1.04), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), mirtazapine and bupropion, adjusting for cumulative dose, was not associated with an increased, or decreased, risk for invasive cervical cancer. An association between trazodone prescription and invasive cervical cancer was observed (adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.03–1.43). An association between the major classes of antidepressants and invasive cervical cancer was not observed herein. Our preliminary finding regarding a possible association between trazodone and cervical cancer requires replication. PMID:26496343

  15. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Leucocyte Subsets in the Sinonasal Mucosa of Cats with Upper Respiratory Tract Aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Whitney, J L; Krockenberger, M B; Day, M J; Beatty, J A; Dhand, N K; Barrs, V R

    2016-01-01

    Leucocyte populations in the sinonasal mucosa of cats with and without upper respiratory tract aspergillosis were compared using immunohistochemistry and computer-aided morphometry. Inflammation was identified in the nasal mucosa of all affected cats, comprising predominantly of lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the lamina propria associated with epithelial proliferation and degeneration. There was intense and diffuse expression of class II antigens of the major histocompatibility complex, associated with sites of hyphal invasion with hyperplasia and ulceration of the epithelium adjacent to fungal elements. Significantly more CD79b(+) cells, total lymphocytes, immunoglobulin (Ig)-expressing cells and MAC387(+) cells infiltrated the epithelium and more IgG(+) cells and total Ig-expressing cells infiltrated the lamina propria in affected cats compared with controls. Importantly, the inflammatory profile in affected cats was not consistent with the T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cell-mediated response that confers protective acquired immunity against invasive aspergillosis in dogs and people and in murine models of the infection. This finding may help to explain the development of invasive aspergillosis in systemically immunocompetent cats. PMID:27576043

  16. The importance of quantifying propagule pressure to understand invasion: an examination of riparian forest invasibility.

    PubMed

    Eschtruth, Anne K; Battles, John J

    2011-06-01

    The widely held belief that riparian communities are highly invasible to exotic plants is based primarily on comparisons of the extent of invasion in riparian and upland communities. However, because differences in the extent of invasion may simply result from variation in propagule supply among recipient environments, true comparisons of invasibility require that both invasion success and propagule pressure are quantified. In this study, we quantified propagule pressure in order to compare the invasibility of riparian and upland forests and assess the accuracy of using a community's level of invasion as a surrogate for its invasibility. We found the extent of invasion to be a poor proxy for invasibility. The higher level of invasion in the studied riparian forests resulted from greater propagule availability rather than higher invasibility. Furthermore, failure to account for propagule pressure may confound our understanding of general invasion theories. Ecological theory suggests that species-rich communities should be less invasible. However, we found significant relationships between species diversity and invasion extent, but no diversity-invasibility relationship was detected for any species. Our results demonstrate that using a community's level of invasion as a surrogate for its invasibility can confound our understanding of invasibility and its determinants.

  17. Isolation of invasive Plasmodium yoelii merozoites with a long half-life to evaluate invasion dynamics and potential invasion inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mutungi, Joe Kimanthi; Yahata, Kazuhide; Sakaguchi, Miako; Kaneko, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    Malaria symptoms and pathogenesis are caused by blood stage parasite burdens of Plasmodium spp., for which invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by merozoites is essential. Successful targeting by either drugs or vaccines directed against the whole merozoite or its antigens during its transient extracellular status would contribute to malaria control by impeding RBC invasion. To understand merozoite invasion biology and mechanisms, it is desired to obtain merozoites that retain their invasion activity in vitro. Accordingly, methods have been developed to isolate invasive Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. Rodent malaria parasite models offer ease in laboratory maintenance and experimental genetic modifications; however, no methods have been reported regarding isolation of high numbers of invasive rodent malaria merozoites. In this study, Plasmodium yoelii-infected RBCs were obtained from infected mice, and mature schizont-infected RBCs enriched via Histodenz™ density gradients. Merozoites retaining invasion activity were then isolated by passing the preparations through a filter membrane. RBC-invaded parasites developed to mature stages in vitro in a synchronous manner. Isolated merozoites were evaluated for retention of invasion activity following storage at different temperatures prior to incubation with uninfected mouse RBCs. Isolated merozoites retained their invasion activity 4h after isolation at 10 or 15 °C, whereas their invasion activity reduced to 0-10% within 30 min when incubated on ice or at 37 °C prior to RBC invasion assay. Images of merozoites at successive steps during RBC invasion were captured by light and transmission electron microscopy. Synthetic peptides derived from the amino acid sequence of the P. yoelii invasion protein RON2 efficiently inhibited RBC invasion. The developed method to isolate and keep invasive P. yoelii merozoites for up to 4h is a powerful tool to study the RBC invasion biology of this parasite

  18. The nuclear membrane-associated honeycomb structure of the unicellular organism Amoeba proteus: on the search for homologies with the nuclear lamina of metazoa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Grossmann, U; Krohne, G

    1995-07-01

    In the protozoon Amoeba proteus, a complex and highly organized structure with the morphology of a honeycomb is associated with the nucleoplasmic surface of the nuclear membrane. We have tested whether this structure exhibits similarity to the nuclear lamina of metazoic organisms. First, we have shown that the honeycomb layer is composed of 3 to 5 nm thick protein fibrils resistant to treatment with detergent, high salt, and digestion with nucleases, thus possessing properties typical for karyoskeletal elements. However, in contrast to the meshwork of lamin filaments in somatic cells of metazoic organisms, the honeycomb layer is not tightly anchored to the nucleoplasmic side of pore complexes, or to the inner nuclear membrane. Second, in microinjection experiments we investigated whether fluorescently labeled lamins of Xenopus laevis (lamins A and LI) and Drosophila melanogaster (lamin Dmo) were able to associate in vivo with the Amoeba proteus honeycomb structure. In microinjected amoeba these three lamins were efficiently transported into the nucleus, but did not associate with the nuclear envelope. Our results suggest that the Amoeba proteus nuclear envelope, including the honeycomb layer, does not contain proteins exhibiting high homologies to lamins of metazoan species thus preventing the localized assembly of microinjected lamins along the nuclear periphery.

  19. A study of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy laminates by utilizing an outer lamina of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Lance, David G.

    1991-01-01

    The damage tolerance of carbon/epoxy was examined when an outer layer of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) material was utilized on the specimen. Four types of 16 ply quasi-isotropic panels, (0,+45,90,-45)s2 were tested. The first contained no Spectra, while the others had one lamina of Spectra placed on either the top (impacted side), bottom or both surfaces of the composite plate. A range of impact energies up to approximately 8.5 Joules (6.3 ft-lbs) was used to inflict damage upon these specimens. Glass/Phenolic honeycomb beams with a core density of 314 N/m3 (2.0 lb/ft3) and 8 ply quasi-isotropic facesheets were also tested for compression-after-impact strength with and without Spectra at impact energies of 1,2,3 and 4 Joules (.74, 1.47, 2.21 and 2.95 ft-lbs). It was observed that the composite plates had little change in damage tolerance due to the Spectra, while the honeycomb panels demonstrated a slight increase in damage tolerance when Spectra was added, the damage tolerance level being more improved at higher impact energies.

  20. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  1. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    PubMed Central

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F. sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F. sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F. japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

  2. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  3. [Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery].

    PubMed

    Achiron, Asaf; Sharif, Nardeen; Achiron, Romi Noy; Nisimov, Sagee; Burgansky-Eliash, Sagee

    2014-10-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction is the current treatment in glaucoma. In recent years, minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) has been added to the arsenal of surgical options. MIGS can reduce trabecular meshwork resistance to outflow and decrease the IOP with mild side effects. In this article, we review the clinical experience gathered with iSTENT, Bypass, Gold Micro Shunt and the Trabectome.

  4. What is minimally invasive dentistry?

    PubMed

    Ericson, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.

  5. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  6. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success.

    PubMed

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F. sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F. sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F. japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

  7. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  8. Managing acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Dwyhalo, Kristina M; Donald, Carrlene; Mendez, Anthony; Hoxworth, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis and can be fatal, especially in patients who are immunosuppressed. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial and potentially lifesaving, so primary care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion for this disease. Patients may need to be admitted to the hospital for IV antifungal therapy and surgical debridement.

  9. Biological Warfare in Invasive Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is an invasive species in temperate forests throughout North America that has led to a decrease in species diversity and alterations in nutrient cycling. Garlic mustard produces an arsenal of secondary chemicals in the glucosinolate family that have strong biocid...

  10. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

  11. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting (via Teleconference) of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to...

  12. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect dates. This document corrects those.... Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday, March 7, 2013 through Friday, March...

  13. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  14. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery II

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, J. Alan; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Farivar, R. Saeid; Khan, Junaid H.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Moront, Michael G.; Ryan, William H.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Lehr, Eric J.; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement continue to evolve. This expert opinion, the second of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices for nonrobotic, minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and for postoperative care after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. PMID:27654406

  15. Isolation and characterization of a proteinaceous subnuclear fraction composed of nuclear matrix, peripheral lamina, and nuclear pore complexes from embryos of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fisher, P A; Berrios, M; Blobel, G

    1982-03-01

    Morphologically intact nuclei have been prepared from embryos of Drosophila melanogaster by a simple and rapid procedure. These nuclei have been further treated with high concentrations of DNase I and RNase A followed by sequential extraction with 2% Triton X-100 and 1 M NaCl to produce a structurally and biochemically distinct preparation designated Drosophila subnuclear fraction I (DSNF-I). As seen by phase-contrast microscopy, DSNF-I is composed of material which closely resembles unfractionated nuclei; residual internal nuclear structures including nucleolar remnants are clearly visible. By transmission electron microscopy, nuclear lamina, pore complexes, and a nuclear matrix are similarly identified. Biochemically, DSNF-I is composed almost entirely of protein (greater than 93%). SDS PAGE analysis reveals several major polypeptides; species at 174,000, 74,000, and 42,000 predominate. A polypeptide coincident with the Coomassie Blue-stainable 174-kdalton band has been shown by a novel technique of lectin affinity labeling to be a glycoprotein; a glycoprotein of similar or identical molecular weight has been found to be a component of nuclear envelope fractions isolated from the livers of rats, guinea pigs, opossums, and chickens. Antisera against several of the polypeptides in DSNF-I have been obtained from rabbits, and all of them show only little or no cross-reactivity with Drosophila cytoplasmic fractions. Initial results of immunocytochemical studies, while failing to positively localize either the 174- or 16-kdalton polypeptides, demonstrate a nuclear localization of the 74-kdalton antigen in all of several interphase cell types obtained from both Drosophila embryos and third-instar larvae. PMID:6177701

  16. Annual-Resolution Precipitation Record of Lake Suigetsu Based on Lamina Thickness and Its Chemical Composition during the Last 350 Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Tada, R.; Irino, T.; Yamada, K.; Nagashima, K.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Suigetsu sediment has distinct lamination since ca. 1664 A.D. when Urami trench was cut to lower the lake level that increased because of the closure of the outlet due to the 1660 A.D. earthquake. Approximately 3 m deep Urami Trench allowed intrusion of brackish water that caused density stratification within the lake and development euxinic bottom water. This distinct parallel lamination is considered as varves, but previous "varve"counting fails to prove its annual origin. In this study, we sampled top several tens of centimeter of the Lake Suigetsu sediment using Limnos Sediment Sampler. A high-resolution age-depth model based on radioisotopes 137Cs and 210Pb profiles and 14C dating are compared with the age-depth model based on varve counting. The two curves agreed within the error that is less than 10 years at the bottom. Thus, the lamination is proved to be varves. This age model allows us to examine annual-resolution record of river discharge, eolian dust flux, and seismic events. Lamination is generally from 1 to 2 mm thick, dark gray in color and rich in diatom. In addition, there are a few thicker (>2mm) lamina characterized with sharp and slightly erosional at the bottom and gradational at the top. Based on these characteristics, we call them "Event layers". Light gray Event layers are common in the Suigetsu sediments, and interpreted as representing flood events although supporting evidence is insufficient. We correlated them to contemporary observational precipitation record. These light gray Event layers are well correlated to the historical record of the flood disasters in Lake Suigetsu within +/_ 3 years during the past 70 years. Assuming these light gray event layers represents flood events, we fine-tuned the age-depth model and examined the correlation between precipitation record and flux of detrital materials estimated from the sedimentary record. The result will be presented and implication will be discussed.

  17. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  18. Electrical stimulation of low-threshold afferent fibers induces a prolonged synaptic depression in lamina II dorsal horn neurons to high-threshold afferent inputs in mice.

    PubMed

    Sdrulla, Andrei D; Xu, Qian; He, Shao-Qiu; Tiwari, Vinod; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Chen; Shu, Bin; Shechter, Ronen; Raja, Srinivasa N; Wang, Yun; Dong, Xinzhong; Guan, Yun

    2015-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of low-threshold Aβ-fibers (Aβ-ES) is used clinically to treat neuropathic pain conditions that are refractory to pharmacotherapy. However, it is unclear how Aβ-ES modulates synaptic responses to high-threshold afferent inputs (C-, Aδ-fibers) in superficial dorsal horn. Substantia gelatinosa (SG) (lamina II) neurons are important for relaying and modulating converging spinal nociceptive inputs. We recorded C-fiber-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) in spinal cord slices in response to paired-pulse test stimulation (500 μA, 0.1 millisecond, 400 milliseconds apart). We showed that 50-Hz and 1000-Hz, but not 4-Hz, Aβ-ES (10 μA, 0.1 millisecond, 5 minutes) induced prolonged inhibition of C-fiber eEPSCs in SG neurons in naive mice. Furthermore, 50-Hz Aβ-ES inhibited both monosynaptic and polysynaptic forms of C-fiber eEPSC in naive mice and mice that had undergone spinal nerve ligation (SNL). The paired-pulse ratio (amplitude second eEPSC/first eEPSC) increased only in naive mice after 50-Hz Aβ-ES, suggesting that Aβ-ES may inhibit SG neurons by different mechanisms under naive and nerve-injured conditions. Finally, 50-Hz Aβ-ES inhibited both glutamatergic excitatory and GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, which were identified by fluorescence in vGlut2-Td and glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice after SNL. These findings show that activities in Aβ-fibers lead to frequency-dependent depression of synaptic transmission in SG neurons in response to peripheral noxious inputs. However, 50-Hz Aβ-ES failed to induce cell-type-selective inhibition in SG neurons. The physiologic implication of this novel form of synaptic depression for pain modulation by Aβ-ES warrants further investigation. PMID:25974163

  19. COOH-terminal collagen Q (COLQ) mutants causing human deficiency of endplate acetylcholinesterase impair the interaction of ColQ with proteins of the basal lamina.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Juan; Lara, Marian; Ng, Fiona; Gochez, Danielle A; Lee, Diana C; Logia, Stephanie P; Nguyen, Joanna; Maselli, Ricardo A

    2014-05-01

    Collagen Q (ColQ) is a key multidomain functional protein of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), crucial for anchoring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to the basal lamina (BL) and accumulating AChE at the NMJ. The attachment of AChE to the BL is primarily accomplished by the binding of the ColQ collagen domain to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan and the COOH-terminus to the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), which in turn plays a fundamental role in the development and maintenance of the NMJ. Yet, the precise mechanism by which ColQ anchors AChE at the NMJ remains unknown. We identified five novel mutations at the COOH-terminus of ColQ in seven patients from five families affected with endplate (EP) AChE deficiency. We found that the mutations do not affect the assembly of ColQ with AChE to form asymmetric forms of AChE or impair the interaction of ColQ with perlecan. By contrast, all mutations impair in varied degree the interaction of ColQ with MuSK as well as basement membrane extract (BME) that have no detectable MuSK. Our data confirm that the interaction of ColQ to perlecan and MuSK is crucial for anchoring AChE to the NMJ. In addition, the identified COOH-terminal mutants not only reduce the interaction of ColQ with MuSK, but also diminish the interaction of ColQ with BME. These findings suggest that the impaired attachment of COOH-terminal mutants causing EP AChE deficiency is in part independent of MuSK, and that the COOH-terminus of ColQ may interact with other proteins at the BL.

  20. Renal responses produced by microinjection of the kappa opioid receptor agonist, U50-488H, into sites within the rat lamina terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Cynthia; Fortepiani, Lourdes; Nguyen, Tin; Rangel, Yolanda; Strong, Randy; Gottlieb, Helmut B

    2015-01-01

    Activation of central kappa opioid receptors (KOR) has been demonstrated to produce marked free water diuresis with a concurrent increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). This study investigated the cardiovascular (CV) and renal effects evoked by central activation of KOR in two lamina terminalis sites, the median preoptic area (MPA) and anterolateral division of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST). Rats anesthetized with urethane alpha-chloralose were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure, heart rate, RSNA, and urine output (V). Rats were infused with isotonic saline (25 μL/min) and urine samples were collected during two 10-min control periods and six consecutive 10-min experimental periods following microinjection of vehicle, U50-448H (U50, KOR agonist) alone or norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI, KOR antagonist) plus U50. Microinjection of U50 into the BST increased V (peak at 30 min, 84.8 ± 12.9 μL/min) as compared to its respective control, vehicle, or nor-BNI plus U50. This diuretic effect occurred without any significant changes in CV parameters, RSNA, or urinary sodium excretion. In contrast, U50 injection into the MPA significantly increased RSNA (peak at 20 mins: 129 ± 9.9) without increasing the other parameters. This study demonstrated novel sites through which activation of KOR selectively increases V and RSNA. The ability of U50 to increase V without affecting sodium excretion and RSNA raises the possibility that LT neurons could be an important substrate through which drugs targeting KOR could selectively facilitate water excretion in sodium-retaining diseases such as congestive heart failure. PMID:26038693

  1. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine hypomethylated leafless inflorescence, evergreen dwarf and irregular leaf lamina mutants of Catharanthus roseus possessing Mendelian inheritance.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Renu; Sharma, Vishakha; Sharma, Vinay; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    In Catharanthus roseus, three morphological cum salt-tolerant chemically induced mutants of Mendelian inheritance and their wild-type parent cv Nirmal were characterized for overall cytosine methylation at DNA repeats, expression of 119 protein coding and seven miRNA-coding genes and 50 quantitative traits. The mutants, named after their principal morphological feature(s), were leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill). The Southern-blot analysis of MspI digested DNAs of mutants probed with centromeric and 5S and 18S rDNA probes indicated that, in comparison to wild type, the mutants were extensively demethylated at cytosine sites. Among the 126 genes investigated for transcriptional expression, 85 were upregulated and 41 were downregulated in mutants. All of the five genes known to be stress responsive had increased expression in mutants. Several miRNA genes showed either increased or decreased expression in mutants. The C. roseus counterparts of CMT3, DRM2 and RDR2 were downregulated in mutants. Among the cell, organ and plant size, photosynthesis and metabolism related traits studied, 28 traits were similarly affected in mutants as compared to wild type. Each of the mutants also expressed some traits distinctively. The egd mutant possessed superior photosynthesis and water retention abilities. Biomass was hyperaccumulated in roots, stems, leaves and seeds of the lli mutant. The ill mutant was richest in the pharmaceutical alkaloids catharanthine, vindoline, vincristine and vinblastine. The nature of mutations, origins of mutant phenotypes and evolutionary importance of these mutants are discussed.

  2. Renal responses produced by microinjection of the kappa opioid receptor agonist, U50-488H, into sites within the rat lamina terminalis.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Cynthia; Fortepiani, Lourdes; Nguyen, Tin; Rangel, Yolanda; Strong, Randy; Gottlieb, Helmut B

    2015-03-01

    Activation of central kappa opioid receptors (KOR) has been demonstrated to produce marked free water diuresis with a concurrent increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). This study investigated the cardiovascular (CV) and renal effects evoked by central activation of KOR in two lamina terminalis sites, the median preoptic area (MPA) and anterolateral division of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST). Rats anesthetized with urethane alpha-chloralose were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure, heart rate, RSNA, and urine output (V). Rats were infused with isotonic saline (25 μL/min) and urine samples were collected during two 10-min control periods and six consecutive 10-min experimental periods following microinjection of vehicle, U50-448H (U50, KOR agonist) alone or norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI, KOR antagonist) plus U50. Microinjection of U50 into the BST increased V (peak at 30 min, 84.8 ± 12.9 μL/min) as compared to its respective control, vehicle, or nor-BNI plus U50. This diuretic effect occurred without any significant changes in CV parameters, RSNA, or urinary sodium excretion. In contrast, U50 injection into the MPA significantly increased RSNA (peak at 20 mins: 129 ± 9.9) without increasing the other parameters. This study demonstrated novel sites through which activation of KOR selectively increases V and RSNA. The ability of U50 to increase V without affecting sodium excretion and RSNA raises the possibility that LT neurons could be an important substrate through which drugs targeting KOR could selectively facilitate water excretion in sodium-retaining diseases such as congestive heart failure. PMID:26038693

  3. Invasive cervical cancer in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    La Russa, M; Jeyarajah, A R

    2016-05-01

    Detection of invasive cervical cancer during pregnancy is rare, with reported incidence rates ranging from 0.05% to 0.1%. However, cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies diagnosed during pregnancy. The management of invasive cervical cancer in pregnancy is extremely challenging and requires a multidisciplinary team approach to optimise the treatment for the patient by simultaneously providing the best chance of survival for the foetus. The approach is based mainly on the following factors: gestational age at the time of the diagnosis, stage, histological subtype, desire regarding fertility and quality of life. The gold standard treatment for this condition in pregnancy is not yet established. This is due to the absence of prospective studies and clinical trials. Therefore, its management presents a dilemma that requires individualisation of care. The various factors that need to be considered for obtaining a good outcome for both mother and child are described in this study. PMID:26586539

  4. Invasive procedures with questionable indications

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in application of invasive methods without sufficient indications. Here is presented an overview of renal and pancreatic biopsy studies performed in the course of the operations of pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients. Furthermore a surgical procedure of lung denervation as a treatment method of asthma as well as the use of bronchoscopy for research in asthmatics are discussed here. Today, the upturn in Russian economy enables acquisition of modern equipment; and medical research is on the increase. Under these circumstances, the purpose of this letter was to remind that, performing surgical or other invasive procedures, the risk-to-benefit ratio should be kept as low as possible. PMID:25568799

  5. Dural invasion by pituitary tumours.

    PubMed

    Shaffi, O M; Wrightson, P

    1975-04-23

    In 12 cases of pituitary tumour the dura mater of the sella turcica or diaphragma sellae in contact with the tumour was examined histologically. In nine cases tumour cells were found lying deep in the substance of the dura. Dura from the sella of seven subjects without pituitary disease, obtianed at autopsy, showed no inclusions of pituitary tissue. Four of the cases studied were known before death to suffer from an invasive pituitary adenoma. Of eight surviving cases operated upon in the last two years, five showed dural invasion by tumour. The present report suggests that the condition may be more frequent than expected and that with more study it may provide an index of prognosis. It also defines a requirement for the surgeon aiming to prevent recurrence of tumour after operation or to achieve a complete endocrine ablation.

  6. Human mobility and epidemic invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, Vittoria

    2010-03-01

    The current H1N1 influenza pandemic is just the latest example of how human mobility helps drive infectious diseases. Travel has grown explosively in the last decades, contributing to an emerging complex pattern of traffic flows that unfolds at different scales, shaping the spread of epidemics. Restrictions on people's mobility are thus investigated to design possible containment measures. By considering a theoretical framework in terms of reaction-diffusion processes, it is possible to study the invasion dynamics of epidemics in a metapopulation system with heterogeneous mobility patterns. The system is found to exhibit a global invasion threshold that sets the critical mobility rate below which the epidemic is contained. The results provide a general framework for the understanding of the numerical evidence from detailed data-driven simulations that show the limited benefit provided by travel flows reduction in slowing down or containing an emerging epidemic.

  7. Invasive Salmonellosis in Kilifi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muthumbi, Esther; Morpeth, Susan C.; Ooko, Michael; Mwanzu, Alfred; Mwarumba, Salim; Mturi, Neema; Etyang, Anthony O.; Berkley, James A.; Williams, Thomas N.; Kariuki, Samuel; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Invasive salmonelloses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa, but the incidence and case fatality of each disease vary markedly by region. We aimed to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of invasive salmonelloses among children and adults in Kilifi, Kenya. Methods. We analyzed integrated clinical and laboratory records for patients presenting to the Kilifi County Hospital between 1998 and 2014. We calculated incidence, and summarized clinical features and multidrug resistance. Results. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) accounted for 10.8% and 5.8% of bacteremia cases in children and adults, respectively, while Salmonella Typhi accounted for 0.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Among 351 NTS isolates serotyped, 160 (45.6%) were Salmonella Enteritidis and 152 (43.3%) were Salmonella Typhimurium. The incidence of NTS in children aged <5 years was 36.6 per 100 000 person-years, being highest in infants aged <7 days (174/100 000 person-years). The overall incidence of NTS in children varied markedly by location and declined significantly during the study period; the pattern of dominance of the NTS serotypes also shifted from Salmonella Enteritidis to Salmonella Typhimurium. Risk factors for invasive NTS disease were human immunodeficiency virus infection, malaria, and malnutrition; the case fatality ratio was 22.1% (71/321) in children aged <5 years and 36.7% (11/30) in adults. Multidrug resistance was present in 23.9% (84/351) of NTS isolates and 46.2% (12/26) of Salmonella Typhi isolates. Conclusions. In Kilifi, the incidence of invasive NTS was high, especially among newborn infants, but typhoid fever was uncommon. NTS remains an important cause of bacteremia in children <5 years of age. PMID:26449944

  8. Minimally invasive surgery. Future developments.

    PubMed

    Wickham, J E

    1994-01-15

    The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery means that there will be fundamental changes in interventional treatment. Technological advances will allow new minimally invasive procedures to be developed. Application of robotics will allow some procedures to be done automatically, and coupling of slave robotic instruments with virtual reality images will allow surgeons to perform operations by remote control. Miniature motors and instruments designed by microengineering could be introduced into body cavities to perform operations that are currently impossible. New materials will allow changes in instrument construction, such as use of memory metals to make heat activated scissors or forceps. With the reduced trauma associated with minimally invasive surgery, fewer operations will require long hospital stays. Traditional surgical wards will become largely redundant, and hospitals will need to cope with increased through-put of patients. Operating theatres will have to be equipped with complex high technology equipment, and hospital staff will need to be trained to manage it. Conventional nursing care will be carried out more in the community. Many traditional specialties will be merged, and surgical training will need fundamental revision to ensure that surgeons are competent to carry out the new procedures. PMID:8312776

  9. [The role of gut microbiota in the regulation of the immune response].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Pedro; González, Margarita; Castro, Érica

    2016-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract hosts around 10(14) bacterial microorganisms, in a constantly growing density from the stomach to the distal colon. This microbiota is composed by more than 500 species of bacteria, which are quickly acquired after birth, fairly stable during the host’s life, and essential for human homeostasis. These bacteria have important functions, such as stimulating the immune system, protecting the host from invading bacteria and viruses, and improving digestion, especially of complex carbohydrates. Also, the gut microbiota interacts directly with the immune system. However, the interaction of the intestinal epithelium and its microbiota with the immune system has yet to be fully understood. Secretory immunoglobulin A, produced by the plasma cells in Peyer’s patches and in the lamina propria, maintains non-invasive commensal bacteria and neutralize invasive pathogens. Dendritic cells migrate from the lamina propria of the secondary lymphoid organs to regulate gut immunity. They also have a key role maintaining luminal IgA and inducing the growth of regulatory T cells. Dendritic cells supervise the gut microenvironment too, keeping an immunological equilibrium and tolerance. The importance of the gut microbiota in regulating the immune system lies mostly in the homeostasis-or positive equilibrium. Thus, many diseases are a consequence of poor interactions or a loss of this equilibrium. PMID:27661555

  10. [The role of gut microbiota in the regulation of the immune response].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Pedro; González, Margarita; Castro, Érica

    2016-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract hosts around 10(14) bacterial microorganisms, in a constantly growing density from the stomach to the distal colon. This microbiota is composed by more than 500 species of bacteria, which are quickly acquired after birth, fairly stable during the host’s life, and essential for human homeostasis. These bacteria have important functions, such as stimulating the immune system, protecting the host from invading bacteria and viruses, and improving digestion, especially of complex carbohydrates. Also, the gut microbiota interacts directly with the immune system. However, the interaction of the intestinal epithelium and its microbiota with the immune system has yet to be fully understood. Secretory immunoglobulin A, produced by the plasma cells in Peyer’s patches and in the lamina propria, maintains non-invasive commensal bacteria and neutralize invasive pathogens. Dendritic cells migrate from the lamina propria of the secondary lymphoid organs to regulate gut immunity. They also have a key role maintaining luminal IgA and inducing the growth of regulatory T cells. Dendritic cells supervise the gut microenvironment too, keeping an immunological equilibrium and tolerance. The importance of the gut microbiota in regulating the immune system lies mostly in the homeostasis-or positive equilibrium. Thus, many diseases are a consequence of poor interactions or a loss of this equilibrium.

  11. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    PubMed

    Bellard, Celine; Thuiller, Wilfried; Leroy, Boris; Genovesi, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the 100 of the world's worst invasive species defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity.

  12. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Tim M; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, Sven; Carlton, James T; Duncan, Richard P; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2011-07-01

    There has been a dramatic growth in research on biological invasions over the past 20 years, but a mature understanding of the field has been hampered because invasion biologists concerned with different taxa and different environments have largely adopted different model frameworks for the invasion process, resulting in a confusing range of concepts, terms and definitions. In this review, we propose a unified framework for biological invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features of the most commonly used invasion frameworks into a single conceptual model that can be applied to all human-mediated invasions. The unified framework combines previous stage-based and barrier models, and provides a terminology and categorisation for populations at different points in the invasion process.

  13. Biology of cancer invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Mareel, M M; Crombez, R

    1992-01-01

    Current concepts of invasion eventually leading to metastasis are discussed and exemplified by cancers of the head and neck mucosa. Invasion occurs at a number of steps, each step making an ecosystem comprising not only the neoplastic cells but also their normal counterparts, a variety of host cells and the extracellular matrix. The ecosystem concept may explain aspects of metastasis such as site-dependence and organ-specificity of cancer metastasis as well as invasiveness of normal leucocytes. Genes implicated in invasion and metastasis are actively searched for. Recently, the epithelial cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin has been identified as an i- (invasion suppressor) gene product, i.e. a molecule the expression of which counterbalances i+ (invasion promotor) gene activity. Downregulation of E-cadherin in human head and neck cancers may account for their invasive and metastatic behaviour.

  14. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    PubMed Central

    Bellard, C.; Thuiller, W.; Leroy, B.; Genovesi, P.; Bakkenes, M.; Courchamp, F.

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the “100 of the world’s worst invasive species” defined by the IUCN, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. PMID:23913552

  15. Immunohistochemical characterization of brain-invasive meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Backer-Grøndahl, Thomas; Moen, Bjørnar H; Arnli, Magnus B; Torseth, Kathrin; Torp, Sverre H

    2014-01-01

    Brain-invasive meningiomas have an adverse prognosis, so it is important to detect and correctly evaluate brain invasion by light microscopy. Furthermore, the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for brain-invasive growth are incompletely understood. The primary aim of this study was to identify immunohistochemical markers that could improve identification and evaluation of brain invasion in meningiomas. A second aim was to investigate the process of brain invasion using immunohistochemical markers of proliferation, extracellular matrix modulation, and cell adhesion. From a series of 196 human meningiomas, 67 cases were selected for analysis because of the presence of brain tissue in tumor specimens. Fourteen of these 67 meningiomas were brain-invasive. Invasiveness was determined primarily by evaluation of hematoxylin-erytrosin-saffron- (HES-) stained specimens, although glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), anti-collagen IV, and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) markers provided additional information. It was important to examine microscopic sections from various levels of the paraffin-embedded tissue block to adequately assess invasiveness. Sections stained using antibodies against Ki-67/MIB-1, phospohistone-H3 (PHH3), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin D, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and E-cadherin antigens were used to characterize brain-invasive meningiomas and to investigate the process of brain invasion. Only increased expression of the extracellular matrix modulator MMP-9 correlated with brain-invasive growth (p=0.025). Examination of HES-stained sections identified brain invasion. Use of relevant immunohistochemical markers did not contribute substantially to this evaluation. Evaluation of stepwise sections should be considered when brain-invasive growth is suspected. MMP-9 may be an important mediator of brain-invasive growth. PMID:25400818

  16. Chick Heart Invasion Assay for Testing the Invasiveness of Cancer Cells and the Activity of Potentially Anti-invasive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Roman, Bart I; Stevens, Christian V; Mus, Liselot M; Parmar, Virinder S; De Wever, Olivier; Mareel, Marc M

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the chick heart assay is to offer a relevant organ culture method to study tumor invasion in three dimensions. The assay can distinguish between invasive and non-invasive cells, and enables study of the effects of test compounds on tumor invasion. Cancer cells - either as aggregates or single cells - are confronted with fragments of embryonic chick heart. After organ culture in suspension for a few days or weeks the confronting cultures are fixed and embedded in paraffin for histological analysis. The three-dimensional interaction between the cancer cells and the normal tissue is then reconstructed from serial sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin or after immunohistochemical staining for epitopes in the heart tissue or the confronting cancer cells. The assay is consistent with the recent concept that cancer invasion is the result of molecular interactions between the cancer cells and their neighbouring stromal host elements (myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix components, etc.). Here, this stromal environment is offered to the cancer cells as a living tissue fragment. Supporting aspects to the relevance of the assay are multiple. Invasion in the assay is in accordance with the criteria of cancer invasion: progressive occupation and replacement in time and space of the host tissue, and invasiveness and non-invasiveness in vivo of the confronting cells generally correlates with the outcome of the assay. Furthermore, the invasion pattern of cells in vivo, as defined by pathologists, is reflected in the histological images in the assay. Quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) analysis of the results obtained with numerous potentially anti-invasive organic congener compounds allowed the study of structure-activity relations for flavonoids and chalcones, and known anti-metastatic drugs used in the clinic (e.g., microtubule inhibitors) inhibit invasion in the assay as well. However, the assay does not take into account

  17. Expression of hemidesmosomes and component proteins is lost by invasive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bergstraesser, L. M.; Srinivasan, G.; Jones, J. C.; Stahl, S.; Weitzman, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Hemidesmosomes are multiprotein structures that attach basal cells of stratified epithelia to basement membranes. Although normal human breast epithelia are not stratified, we observed expression of electron-dense hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome protein components by breast epithelial and myoepithelial cells at the basal lamina in vivo. Primary cultured normal human breast epithelial cells also contained hemidesmosomes and component proteins, and could be used as a model for hemidesmosome assembly and regulation. In these cultured cells, hemidesmosome proteins were expressed and localized basally in an unvaried temporal pattern, and electron-dense hemidesmosomes were not seen until the final protein was localized to the cell base. In addition, rate of localization was influenced by confluence, doubling time, and extracellular matrix. Invasive breast cancer cells did not express hemidesmosomes or most of the component proteins in vivo. In carcinoma in situ, cells away from the basement membrane lacked hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome proteins, and cells at the basement membrane exhibited abnormalities of hemidesmosome protein expression. Primary human malignant breast cells in culture exhibited a mix of hemidesmosome phenotypes. These data suggest that hemidesmosomes may be important subcellular structures in determining the cytoarchitecture of the breast epithelium. Further, their downregulation may influence cytoarchitecture remodeling closely linked with cell cycle, motility, and extracellular matrix interactions; and their loss in carcinoma may be associated with loss of normal cytoarchitecture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7495306

  18. The Body Image Dissatisfaction and Psychological Symptoms among Invasive and Minimally Invasive Aesthetic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Y. Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Hayatbini, Niki; Asgharnejad Farid, Ali Asghar; Gharaee, Banafsheh; Latifi, Noor Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elective aesthetic surgeries are increasing in the Iranian population with reasons linked to body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms. This study compared the body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms among invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery patients and a control group. METHODS Data from 90 participants (invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, minimally invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, and control group=30 Ss) were included. Subjects were assessed on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms to provide an evidence for a continuum of body image dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery clients. RESULTS Between the three groups of invasive, minimally invasive aesthetic surgeries and control on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity), there was a significant difference. CONCLUSION These findings have implications for pre-surgical assessment as well as psychological interventions rather than invasive medical interventions at first step. PMID:27579270

  19. The population biology of fungal invasions.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, P; Feurtey, A; Hood, M E; Snirc, A; Clavel, J; Dutech, C; Roy, M; Giraud, T

    2015-05-01

    Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous, and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther-smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life history traits are particularly unfavourable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions.

  20. Serine Protease-mediated Host Invasion by the Parasitic Nematode Steinernema carpocapsae*

    PubMed Central

    Toubarro, Duarte; Lucena-Robles, Miguel; Nascimento, Gisela; Santos, Romana; Montiel, Rafael; Veríssimo, Paula; Pires, Euclides; Faro, Carlos; Coelho, Ana V.; Simões, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae is an insect parasitic nematode used in biological control, which infects insects penetrating by mouth and anus and invading the hemocoelium through the midgut wall. Invasion has been described as a key factor in nematode virulence and suggested to be mediated by proteases. A serine protease cDNA from the parasitic stage was sequenced (sc-sp-1); the recombinant protein was produced in an Escherichia coli system, and a native protein was purified from the secreted products. Both proteins were confirmed by mass spectrometry to be encoded by the sc-sp-1 gene. Sc-SP-1 has a pI of 8.7, a molecular mass of 27.3 kDa, a catalytic efficiency of 22.2 × 104 s−1 m−1 against N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA, and is inhibited by chymostatin (IC 0.07) and PMSF (IC 0.73). Sc-SP-1 belongs to the chymotrypsin family, based on sequence and biochemical analysis. Only the nematode parasitic stage expressed sc-sp-1. These nematodes in the midgut lumen, prepared to invade the insect hemocoelium, expressed higher levels than those already in the hemocoelium. Moreover, parasitic nematode sense insect peritrophic membrane and hemolymph more quickly than they do other tissues, which initiates sc-sp-1 expression. Ex vivo, Sc-SP-1 was able to bind to insect midgut epithelium and to cause cell detachment from basal lamina. In vitro, Sc-SP-1 formed holes in an artificial membrane model (Matrigel), whereas Sc-SP-1 treated with PMSF did not, very likely because it hydrolyzes matrix glycoproteins. These findings highlight the S. carpocapsae-invasive process that is a key step in the parasitism thus opening new perspectives for improving nematode virulence to use in biological control. PMID:20656686

  1. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  2. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis

  3. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis".

  4. [Minimally invasive iridocorneal angle surgery].

    PubMed

    Jordan, J F

    2012-07-01

    The classical filtration surgery with trabeculectomy or drainage of chamber fluid with episcleral implants is the most effective method for permanent reduction of intraocular pressure to lower and normal levels. Even though both operative procedures are well-established the high efficiency of the method causes potentially dangerous intraoperative as well as interoperative complications with a frequency which cannot be ignored. In the past this led to a search for low complication alternatives with non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS) and the search is still continuing. Trabecular meshwork surgery in particular with continuous development of new operation techniques steered the focus to a complication-poor and minimally invasive, gonioscopic glaucoma surgery.

  5. Apexum: A Minimum Invasive Procedure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The new Apexum procedure (Apexum Ltd, Or-Yehuda, Israel) is based on a minimally invasive removal of periapical chronically inflamed tissues through a root canal access. Apexum procedure (a novel method that allows for the removal or debulking of periapical tissues without using scalpels, periosteal elevators, or sutures) results in significant less postoperative discomfort or pain than conventional root canal treatment or than reported for conventional apical surgery. The removal or debulking of the periapical inflamed tissues, using the Apexum procedure, seems to enhance healing kinetics with no adverse events.

  6. Microrobots for minimally invasive medicine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bradley J; Kaliakatsos, Ioannis K; Abbott, Jake J

    2010-08-15

    Microrobots have the potential to revolutionize many aspects of medicine. These untethered, wirelessly controlled and powered devices will make existing therapeutic and diagnostic procedures less invasive and will enable new procedures never before possible. The aim of this review is threefold: first, to provide a comprehensive survey of the technological state of the art in medical microrobots; second, to explore the potential impact of medical microrobots and inspire future research in this field; and third, to provide a collection of valuable information and engineering tools for the design of medical microrobots.

  7. Biological invasions and the conservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Pascal, M; Le Guyader, H; Simberloff, D

    2010-08-01

    Consideration of definitions of 'biological invasion' and 'biodiversity' shows why invasions have recently generated great interest among conservationists. Many studies show that invasion numbers have increased drastically over the last five centuries, that this exponential increase is not levelling off, and that human activities are the only reason for the phenomenon. Many mechanisms are portrayed in an evolutionary framework and their consequences for biodiversity are described at three levels of life--gene, species and ecosystem. Examples from islands show that insular ecosystems are especially prone to damage from invasions; they also serve as 'laboratories' to elucidate the nature of invasion impacts. An important management approach--eradication--is discussed. Eradicating invaders not only aids understanding of their impacts on native species but also in understanding how ecosystems function. In fact, biological invasions can be seen as 'experiments', providing a rare opportunity to help answer certain fundamental scientific questions.

  8. Biological Invasions: A Challenge In Ecological Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Smith, J. A.; Stohlgren, T. J.; Graves, S.; Trees, C.; Rood, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The spread of invasive species is one of the most daunting environmental, economic, and human-health problems facing the United States and the World today. It is one of several grand challenge environmental problems being considered by NASA's Earth Science Vision for 2025. The invasive species problem is complex and presents many challenges. Developing an invasive species predictive capability could significantly advance the science and technology of ecological forecasting.

  9. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa D; Gharat, Leena A; Tupsakhare, Suyog D; Gabhane, Mahesh H

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption exhibiting no external signs. The resorptive condition is often detected by routine radiographic examination. The clinical features vary from a small defect at the gingival margin to a pink coronal discoloration of the tooth crown resulting in ultimate cavitation of the overlying enamel which is painless unless pulpal or periodontal infection supervenes. Radiographic features of lesions vary from well-delineated to irregularly bordered mottled radiolucencies, and these can be confused with dental caries. A characteristic radiopaque line generally separates the image of the lesion from that of the root canal, because the pulp remains protected by a thin layer of predentin until late in the process. Histopathologically, the lesions contain fibrovascular tissue with resorbing clastic cells adjacent to the dentin surface. More advanced lesions display fibro-osseous characteristics with deposition of ectopic bonelike calcifications both within the resorbing tissue and directly on the dentin surface. How to cite this article: Kandalgaonkar SD, Gharat LA, Tupsakhare SD, Gabhane MH. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(6):124-30 . PMID:24453457

  10. [Combination therapy for invasive aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel

    2011-03-01

    The frequency of invasive fungal infections, and specifically invasive aspergillosis, has increased in the last few decades. Despite the development of new antifungal agents, these infections are associated with high mortality, ranging from 40% to 80%, depending on the patient and the localization of the infection. To reduce these figures, several therapeutic strategies have been proposed, including combination therapy. Most of the available data on the efficacy of these combinations are from experimental models, in vitro data and retrospective observational studies or studies with a small number of patients that have included both patients in first-line treatment and those receiving rescue therapy; in addition there are many patients with possible forms of aspergillosis and few with demonstrated or probable forms. To date, there is no evidence that combination therapy has significantly higher efficacy than monotherapy; however, combination therapy could be indicated in severe forms of aspergillosis, or forms with central nervous involvement or extensive pulmonary involvement with respiratory insufficiency, etc. Among the combinations, the association of an echinocandin--the group that includes micafungin--with voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin B seems to show synergy. These combinations are those most extensively studied in clinical trials and therefore, although the grade of evidence is low, are recommended by the various scientific societies. PMID:21420576

  11. Biology of invasive termites: a worldwide review.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Forschler, Brian T; Grace, J Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The number of recognized invasive termite species has increased from 17 in 1969 to 28 today. Fourteen species have been added to the list in the past 44 years; 10 have larger distributions and 4 have no reported change in distribution, and 3 species are no longer considered invasive. Although most research has focused on invasive termites in urban areas, molecular identification methods have answered questions about certain species and found that at least six species have invaded natural forest habitats. All invasive species share three characteristics that together increase the probability of creating viable propagules: they eat wood, nest in food, and easily generate secondary reproductives. These characteristics are most common in two families, the Kalotermitidae and Rhinotermitidae (which make up 21 species on the invasive termite list), particularly in three genera, Cryptotermes, Heterotermes, and Coptotermes (which together make up 16 species). Although it is the largest termite family, the Termitidae (comprising 70% of all termite species) have only two invasive species, because relatively few species have these characteristics. Islands have double the number of invasive species that continents do, with islands in the South Pacific the most invaded geographical region. Most invasive species originate from Southeast Asia. The standard control methods normally used against native pest termites are also employed against invasive termites; only two eradication attempts, in South Africa and New Zealand, appear to have been successful, both against Coptotermes species. PMID:23020620

  12. Minimally Invasive Cardiovascular Surgery: Incisions and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Nathaniel B.; Argenziano, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the modern era of cardiac surgery, most operations have been performed via median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. This paradigm is changing, however, as cardiovascular surgery is increasingly adopting minimally invasive techniques. Advances in patient evaluation, instrumentation, and operative technique have allowed surgeons to perform a wide variety of complex operations through smaller incisions and, in some cases, without cardiopulmonary bypass. With patients desiring less invasive operations and the literature supporting decreased blood loss, shorter hospital length of stay, improved postoperative pain, and better cosmesis, minimally invasive cardiac surgery should be widely practiced. Here, we review the incisions and approaches currently used in minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27127555

  13. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis.

  14. National Institute of Invasive Species Science (NIISS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org) is a consortium of governmental and nongovernmental partners, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), whose aim is to provide reliable information and advanced decision support tools for documenting, understanding, predicting, assessing, and addressing the threat of invasive species in the United States. The Institute coordinates the National Aeronautical and Space Administrationa??s (NASAa??s) Invasive Species National Application activities for the Department of the Interior and has al lead role in developing NASA-derived remote sensing and landscape-scale predictive modeling capabilities for the invasive species community.

  15. Invasive plants have broader physiological niches.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Steven I; Richardson, David M

    2014-07-22

    Invasive species cost the global economy billions of dollars each year, but ecologists have struggled to predict the risk of an introduced species naturalizing and invading. Although carefully designed experiments are needed to fully elucidate what makes some species invasive, much can be learned from unintentional experiments involving the introduction of species beyond their native ranges. Here, we assess invasion risk by linking a physiologically based species distribution model with data on the invasive success of 749 Australian acacia and eucalypt tree species that have, over more than a century, been introduced around the world. The model correctly predicts 92% of occurrences observed outside of Australia from an independent dataset. We found that invasiveness is positively associated with the projection of physiological niche volume in geographic space, thereby illustrating that species tolerant of a broader range of environmental conditions are more likely to be invasive. Species achieve this broader tolerance in different ways, meaning that the traits that define invasive success are context-specific. Hence, our study reconciles studies that have failed to identify the traits that define invasive success with the urgent and pragmatic need to predict invasive success.

  16. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets.

    PubMed

    Ganley, Robert P; Iwagaki, Noboru; del Rio, Patricia; Baseer, Najma; Dickie, Allen C; Boyle, Kieran A; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Abraira, Victoria E; Zimmerman, Amanda; Riddell, John S; Todd, Andrew J

    2015-05-13

    The superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord contains numerous inhibitory interneurons, which regulate the transmission of information perceived as touch, pain, or itch. Despite the importance of these cells, our understanding of their roles in the neuronal circuitry is limited by the difficulty in identifying functional populations. One group that has been identified and characterized consists of cells in the mouse that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the prion protein (PrP) promoter. Previous reports suggested that PrP-GFP cells belonged to a single morphological class (central cells), received inputs exclusively from unmyelinated primary afferents, and had axons that remained in lamina II. However, we recently reported that the PrP-GFP cells expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and/or galanin, and it has been shown that nNOS-expressing cells are more diverse in their morphology and synaptic connections. We therefore used a combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, and anatomical approach to reexamine the PrP-GFP cells. We provide evidence that they are morphologically diverse (corresponding to "unclassified" cells) and receive synaptic input from a variety of primary afferents, with convergence onto individual cells. We also show that their axons project into adjacent laminae and that they target putative projection neurons in lamina I. This indicates that the neuronal circuitry involving PrP-GFP cells is more complex than previously recognized, and suggests that they are likely to have several distinct roles in regulating the flow of somatosensory information through the dorsal horn.

  17. Detection of catecholamine and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) containing nerve endings in the median eminence and the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis by fluorescence histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on the same microscopic sections.

    PubMed

    Ibata, Y; Watanabe, K; Kinoshita, H; Kubo, S; Sano, Y; Sin, S; Hashimura, E; Imagawa, K

    1979-02-01

    Distribution of catecholamine (CA) and LH-RH nerve endings in the median eminence (ME) and the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) of the rat was investigated by application of fluorescence histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on the same sections of the tissue. In the ME, those two kinds of endings coexisted in the lateral portion of the middle part of ME, and in the wall of tuberoinfundibular sulcus, where they might be considered to have functional correlation. In the OVLT they were also distributed in fairly near distance, but they were not so closely associated as observed in the ME.

  18. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: Prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herron, P.M.; Martine, C.T.; Latimer, A.M.; Leicht-Young, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of introduced species requires the early identification of species that pose a significant threat of becoming invasive. To better understand the invasive ecology of species in New England, USA, we compiled a character data set with which to compare non-native species that are known invaders to non-native species that are not currently known to be invasive. In contrast to previous biological trait-based models, we employed a Bayesian hierarchical analysis to identify sets of plant traits associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms (vines, shrubs, and trees). The resulting models identify a suite of 'invasive traits' highlighting the ecology associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms. The most effective predictors of invasiveness that emerged from our model were 'invasive elsewhere', 'fast growth rate', 'native latitudinal range', and 'growth form'. The contrast among growth forms was pronounced. For example, 'wind dispersal' was positively correlated with invasiveness in trees, but negatively correlated in shrubs and vines. The predictive model was able to correctly classify invasive plants 67% of the time (22/33), and non-invasive plants 95% of the time (204/215). A number of potential future invasive species in New England that deserve management consideration were identified. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  19. Coevolution between Native and Invasive Plant Competitors: Implications for Invasive Species Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely...

  20. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

  1. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade.

  2. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. PMID:26249172

  3. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  4. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  5. A minimally invasive smile enhancement.

    PubMed

    Peck, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry refers to a wide variety of dental treatments. On the restorative aspect of dental procedures, direct resin bonding can be a very conservative treatment option for the patient. When tooth structure does not need to be removed, the patient benefits. Proper treatment planning is essential to determine how conservative the restorative treatment will be. This article describes the diagnosis, treatment options, and procedural techniques in the restoration of 4 maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin. The procedural steps are reviewed with regard to placing the composite and the variety of colors needed to ensure a natural result. Finishing and polishing of the composite are critical to ending with a natural looking dentition that the patient will be pleased with for many years.

  6. Non-invasive glucose monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A non-invasive method for determining blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 700 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor in the anterior chamber is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated aqueous humor; and then determining the blood glucose level (or the level of another analyte of interest) for the subject from the Raman spectrum. Preferably, the detecting step is followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing method is also disclosed.

  7. Anaesthesia for minimally invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dec, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity. It offers well-known benefits to the patient. However, restricted access to the surgical site and gas insufflation into the body cavities may result in severe complications. From the anaesthetic point of view MIS poses unique challenges associated with creation of pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide absorption, specific positioning and monitoring a patient to whom the anaesthetist has often restricted access, in a poorly lit environment. Moreover, with refinement of surgical procedures and growing experience the anaesthetist is presented with patients from high-risk groups (obese, elderly, with advanced cardiac and respiratory disease) who once were deemed unsuitable for the laparoscopic technique. Anaesthetic management is aimed at getting the patient safely through the procedure, minimizing the specific risks arising from laparoscopy and the patient's coexisting medical problems, ensuring quick recovery and a relatively pain-free postoperative course with early return to normal function. PMID:26865885

  8. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  9. Studies on the histogenesis of the tunica mucosa of the stomach of the Egyptian water buffalo (Bos bubalus L.) III. Histogenesis of the mucosa of the ventricular sulcus (esophageal groove).

    PubMed

    Osman, A H; Berg, R

    1982-01-01

    In the fetus with 9 cm CRL the ventricular groove was made up of two lips and a floor. The mucosa consisted of a Lamina epithelialis and a Lamina propria mucosae. The basal zone of the Lamina epithelialis was uneven in the floor of the groove and showed wedge-shaped evaginations into the superficial one. The luminal surface of the Lamina epithelialis of the floor became undulant in the fetus with 27 cm CRL. The Lamina muscularis mucosae became evident in the fetus with 73 cm CRL. In this fetal stage the Lamina epithelialis of the floor became differentiated into the Strata basale, spinosum, granulosum and corneum.

  10. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion

  11. Quinine sulfate and bacterial invasion

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Ronni; Baroni, Adone; Greco, Rita; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Ruocco, Eleonora; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    Background As many patients who receive antimalarial drugs for treatment of noninfectious, inflammatory diseases are also immunosuppressed and might have a concomitant bacterial infection, we studied the effectiveness of these drugs against bacterial infections, to find out whether they could protect against (and even treat) such conditions and obviate the need for an additional antibiotic drug. Methods Effect of QS on bacterial growth: Escherichia coli (E. coli) HB101 pRI203 were cultured overnight at 37°C in TSB and inoculated (approx 1 × 107 cells /ml) in MEM in the presence of QS at various concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM). The effect of QS at concentration of 50 and 100 μM on the entry process of E. coli HB101 pRI203 into HeLa cells was studied under different experimental conditions: 1. QS was incubated with 3 × 105 HeLa cells for 60 min at 37°C prior to infection. 2. QS was added to HeLa cell monolayers during the infection period. Results QS showed no antibacterial activity after 24 h of incubation. The invasive efficiency of the bacteria was significantly inhibited at a dose-dependent manner, when QS was added to HeLa cells for 60 min at 37°C prior to infection (condition 1), and to a lesser extent when added during the period of infection (condition 2). Conclusions Although the antimalarials are generally regarded as being inactive against most extracellular bacterial species, our results indicate that QS significantly inhibited the internalization/invasion efficacy of E. coli in the host cells. PMID:12437776

  12. Evolutionary speed of species invasions.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Gisela; Rodríguez, Diego

    2002-04-01

    Successful invasion may depend of the capacity of a species to adjust genetically to a spatially varying environment. This research modeled a species invasion by examining the interaction between a quantitative genetic trait and population density. It assumed: (I) a quantitative genetic trait describes the adaptation of an individual to its local ecological conditions; (2) populations far from the local optimum grow more slowly than those near the optimum; and (3) the evolution of a trait depends on local population density, because differences in local population densities cause asymmetrical gene flow. This genetics-density interaction determined the propagation speed of populations. Numerical simulations showed that populations spread by advancing as two synchronic traveling waves, one for population density and one for trait adaptation. The form of the density wave was a step front that advances homogenizing populations at their carrying capacity; the adaptation wave was a curve with finite slope that homogenizes populations at full adaptation. The largest speed of population expansion, for a dimensionless analysis, corresponded to an almost homogeneous spatial environment when this model approached an ecological description such as the Fisher-Skellam's model. A large genetic response also favored faster speeds. Evolutionary speeds, in a natural scale, showed a wide range of rates that were also slower compared to models that only consider demographics. This evolutionary speed increased with high heritability, strong stabilizing selection, and high intrinsic growth rate. It decreased for steeper environmental gradients. Also indicated was an optimal dispersal rate over which evolutionary speed declined. This is expected because dispersal moves individuals further, but homogenizes populations genetically, making them maladapted. The evolutionary speed was compared to observed data. Furthermore, a moderate increase in the speed of expansion was predicted for

  13. Ecological Principles for Invasive Plant Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses continue to advance at an alarming rate despite efforts of control by land managers. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) is a holistic framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes and adaptive management into a succ...

  14. Mapping invasive weeds using airborne hyperspectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plant species present a serious problem to the natural environment and have adverse ecological and economic impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems they invade. This article provides a brief overview on the use of remote sensing for mapping invasive plant species in both terrestr...

  15. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land managers long have identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework to guide the implementation of successful restoration, especially where invasive plants dominate the ecosystem. A holistic, ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosy...

  16. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  17. Indirect effects of parasites in invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduced species disrupt native communities and biodiversity worldwide. Parasitic infections (and at times, their absence) are thought to be a key component in the success and impact of biological invasions by plants and animals. They can facilitate or limit invasions, and positively or negatively...

  18. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery I

    PubMed Central

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Mehall, John R.; Wolfe, J. Alan; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Farivar, R. Saeid; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Hargrove, W. Clark; Khan, Junaid H.; Lehr, Eric J.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Widespread adoption of minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement may be fostered by practice consensus and standardization. This expert opinion, first of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices in patient evaluation and selection for minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and discusses preoperative planning for cannulation and myocardial protection. PMID:27654407

  19. Ecological and evolutionary insights from species invasions.

    PubMed

    Sax, Dov F; Stachowicz, John J; Brown, James H; Bruno, John F; Dawson, Michael N; Gaines, Steven D; Grosberg, Richard K; Hastings, Alan; Holt, Robert D; Mayfield, Margaret M; O'Connor, Mary I; Rice, William R

    2007-09-01

    Species invasions provide numerous unplanned and frequently, but imperfectly, replicated experiments that can be used to better understand the natural world. Classic studies by Darwin, Grinnell, Elton and others on these species-invasion experiments provided invaluable insights for ecology and evolutionary biology. Recent studies of invasions have resulted in additional insights, six of which we discuss here; these insights highlight the utility of using exotic species as 'model organisms'. We also discuss a nascent hypothesis that might provide a more general, predictive understanding of invasions and community assembly. Finally, we emphasize how the study of invasions can help to inform our understanding of applied problems, such as extinction, ecosystem function and the response of species to climate change.

  20. Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Arian D; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G; O'Neill, Adam J

    2010-08-01

    Invasive species are regarded as one of the top five drivers of the global extinction crisis. In response, extreme measures have been applied in an attempt to control or eradicate invasives, with little success overall. We tested the idea that state shifts to invasive dominance are symptomatic of losses in ecosystem resilience, due to the suppression of apex predators. This concept was investigated in Australia where the high rate of mammalian extinctions is largely attributed to the destructive influence of invasive species. Intensive pest control is widely applied across the continent, simultaneously eliminating Australia's apex predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). We show that predator management accounts for shifts between two main ecosystem states. Lethal control fractures dingo social structure and leads to bottom-up driven increases in invasive mesopredators and herbivores. Where control is relaxed, dingoes re-establish top-down regulation of ecosystems, allowing for the recovery of biodiversity and productivity. PMID:20545732

  1. Invasive plants may promote predator-mediated feedback that inhibits further invasion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of invasive species requires placing invasion within a full community context. Plant invaders are often considered in the context of herbivores that may drive invasion by avoiding invaders while consuming natives (enemy escape), or inhibit invasion by consuming invaders (biotic resistance). However, predators that attack those herbivores are rarely considered as major players in invasion. Invasive plants often promote predators, generally by providing improved habitat. Here, we show that predator-promoting invaders may initiate a negative feedback loop that inhibits invasion. By enabling top-down control of herbivores, predator-promoting invaders lose any advantage gained through enemy escape, indirectly favoring natives. In cases where palatable invaders encounter biotic resistance, predator promotion may allow an invader to persist, but not dominate. Overall, results indicate that placing invaders in a full community context may reveal reduced impacts of invaders compared to expectations based on simple plant–plant or plant–herbivore subsystems. PMID:26120430

  2. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  3. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the urinary bladder in a patient with bladder cancer previously treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy.

    PubMed

    Numakura, Satoe; Morikawa, Teppei; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Toyoaki; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-02-01

    We report an extremely rare case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the urinary bladder. A 68-year-old man presented with gross hematuria. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary tumors in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Pathological diagnosis was high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma with lamina propria invasion. The patient received six treatments with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. Seven months after surgery, follow-up cystoscopy showed three elevated lesions in the urinary bladder, two of which were identified histologically as recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Microscopic examination of the lesion at the anterior wall revealed diffuse infiltration of medium to large histiocytoid cells in the lamina propria, many of which had distorted nuclei and nuclear grooves. Dense eosinophilic infiltration was also observed. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytoid cells were diffusely positive for S-100 and CD1a, but negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and melanosome-associated antigen recognized by HMB-45. Based on the histological and immunohistochemical features, we diagnosed the lesion as LCH of the urinary bladder. There was no evidence of recurrence of either bladder cancer or LCH after an 18-month follow-up. To avoid misdiagnosis, urologists and pathologists should be aware that LCH may develop in the urinary bladder after intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer.

  4. Minimally invasive removal of lumbar intradural extramedullary lesions using the interlaminar approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Jian; Ying, Guang-Yu; Chen, Ai-Qin; Wang, Lin-Lin; Yu, Dan-Feng; Zhu, Liang-Liang; Ren, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Chen; Wu, Peng-Cheng; Yao, Ying; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Posterior midline laminectomy or hemilaminectomy has been successfully applied as the standard microsurgical technique for the treatment of spinal intradural pathologies. However, the associated risks of postoperative spinal instability increase the need for subsequent fusion surgery to prevent potential long-term spinal deformity. Continuous efforts have been made to minimize injuries to the surrounding tissue resulting from surgical manipulations. The authors report here their experiences with a novel minimally invasive surgical approach, namely the interlaminar approach, for the treatment of lumbar intraspinal tumors. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted of patients at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine who underwent minimally invasive resection of lumbar intradural-extramedullary tumors. By using an operative microscope, in addition to an endoscope when necessary, the authors were able to treat all patients with a unilateral, paramedian, bone-sparing interlaminar technique. Data including preoperative neurological status, tumor location, size, pathological diagnosis, extension of resections, intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay, and clinical outcomes were obtained through clinical and radiological examinations. RESULTS Eighteen patients diagnosed with lumbar intradural-extramedullary tumors were treated from October 2013 to March 2015 by this interlaminar technique. A microscope was used in 15 cases, and the remaining 3 cases were treated using a microscope as well as an endoscope. There were 14 schwannomas, 2 ependymomas, 1 epidermoid cyst, and 1 enterogenous cyst. Postoperative radiological follow-up revealed complete removal of all the lesions and no signs of bone defects in the lamina. At clinical follow-up, 14 of the 18 patients had less pain, and patients' motor/sensory functions improved or remained normal in all cases except 1. CONClUSIONS When meeting certain selection criteria

  5. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  6. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  7. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  8. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.

  9. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  10. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  11. Eating the competition speeds up invasions.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard J

    2011-04-23

    Many introduced species engage in intraguild predation (IGP), the consumption of species with which they compete for shared resources. While the factors influencing local persistence of IG predator and prey species are well-understood, using these factors to predict the invasion speed of an introduced IG predator has received less attention. Existing theory predicts that native competitors slow invasions via depletion of shared resources, but this fails to account for additional resources acquired when an invader consumes competitors. Here, I outline a general framework for understanding the effect of IGP on invasion speeds. I find that invaders that consume native competitors may be able to spread where invasion by pure competitors would fail, and that invasion speed increases with increasing levels of IGP. Notably, if the benefit from consuming competitors outweighs the loss of shared resources to competitors, invasion proceeds faster than invasion in the absence of competitors. This may explain empirical observations of rapid spread rates of invaders that feed at multiple trophic levels.

  12. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    FORT is also the administrative home of the National Institute of Invasive Species Science, a growing consortium of partnerships between government and private organizations established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its many cooperators. The Institute was formed to develop cooperative approaches for invasive species science that meet the urgent needs of land managers and the public. Its mission is to work with others to coordinate data and research from many sources to predict and reduce the effects of harmful nonnative plants, animals, and diseases in natural areas and throughout the United States, with a strategic approach to information management, research, modeling, technical assistance, and outreach. The Institute research team will develop local-, regional-, and national- scale maps of invasive species and identify priority invasive species, vulnerable habitats, and pathways of invasion. County-level and point data on occurrence will be linked to plot-level and site-level information on species abundance and spread. FORT scientists and Institute partners are working to integrate remote sensing data and GIS-based predictive models to track the spread of invasive species across the country. This information will be linked to control and restoration efforts to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. Understanding both successes and failures will advance the science of invasive species containment and control as well as restoration of habitats and native biodiversity.

  13. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  14. Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chimera, Charles; Clifford, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. Conclusions/Significance Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the “polluter-pays” principle. PMID:19384412

  15. Dynamics of an experimental microbial invasion.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Francisco; Zamor, Richard M; Najar, Fares Z; Roe, Bruce A; Hambright, K David

    2015-09-15

    The ecological dynamics underlying species invasions have been a major focus of research in macroorganisms for the last five decades. However, we still know little about the processes behind invasion by unicellular organisms. To expand our knowledge of microbial invasions, we studied the roles of propagule pressure, nutrient supply, and biotic resistance in the invasion success of a freshwater invasive alga, Prymnesium parvum, using microcosms containing natural freshwater microbial assemblages. Microcosms were subjected to a factorial design with two levels of nutrient-induced diversity and three levels of propagule pressure, and incubated for 7 d, during which P. parvum densities and microbial community composition were tracked. Successful invasion occurred in microcosms receiving high propagule pressure whereas nutrients or community diversity played no role in invasion success. Invaded communities experienced distinctive changes in composition compared with communities where the invasion was unsuccessful. Successfully invaded microbial communities had an increased abundance of fungi and ciliates, and decreased abundances of diatoms and cercozoans. Many of these changes mirrored the microbial community changes detected during a natural P. parvum bloom in the source system. This role of propagule pressure is particularly relevant for P. parvum in the reservoir-dominated southern United States because this species can form large, sustained blooms that can generate intense propagule pressures for downstream sites. Human impact and global climate change are currently causing widespread environmental changes in most southern US freshwater systems that may facilitate P. parvum establishment and, when coupled with strong propagule pressure, could put many more systems at risk for invasion. PMID:26324928

  16. Dynamics of an experimental microbial invasion

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Francisco; Zamor, Richard M.; Najar, Fares Z.; Roe, Bruce A.; Hambright, K. David

    2015-01-01

    The ecological dynamics underlying species invasions have been a major focus of research in macroorganisms for the last five decades. However, we still know little about the processes behind invasion by unicellular organisms. To expand our knowledge of microbial invasions, we studied the roles of propagule pressure, nutrient supply, and biotic resistance in the invasion success of a freshwater invasive alga, Prymnesium parvum, using microcosms containing natural freshwater microbial assemblages. Microcosms were subjected to a factorial design with two levels of nutrient-induced diversity and three levels of propagule pressure, and incubated for 7 d, during which P. parvum densities and microbial community composition were tracked. Successful invasion occurred in microcosms receiving high propagule pressure whereas nutrients or community diversity played no role in invasion success. Invaded communities experienced distinctive changes in composition compared with communities where the invasion was unsuccessful. Successfully invaded microbial communities had an increased abundance of fungi and ciliates, and decreased abundances of diatoms and cercozoans. Many of these changes mirrored the microbial community changes detected during a natural P. parvum bloom in the source system. This role of propagule pressure is particularly relevant for P. parvum in the reservoir-dominated southern United States because this species can form large, sustained blooms that can generate intense propagule pressures for downstream sites. Human impact and global climate change are currently causing widespread environmental changes in most southern US freshwater systems that may facilitate P. parvum establishment and, when coupled with strong propagule pressure, could put many more systems at risk for invasion. PMID:26324928

  17. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    PubMed

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  18. Excluding access to invasion hubs can contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Florance, Daniel; Webb, Jonathan K.; Dempster, Tim; Kearney, Michael R.; Worthing, Alex; Letnic, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Many biological invasions do not occur as a gradual expansion along a continuous front, but result from the expansion of satellite populations that become established at ‘invasion hubs’. Although theoretical studies indicate that targeting control efforts at invasion hubs can effectively contain the spread of invasions, few studies have demonstrated this in practice. In arid landscapes worldwide, humans have increased the availability of surface water by creating artificial water points (AWPs) such as troughs and dams for livestock. By experimentally excluding invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) from AWP, we show that AWP provide a resource subsidy for non-arid-adapted toads and serve as dry season refuges and thus invasion hubs for cane toads in arid Australia. Using data on the distribution of permanent water in arid Australia and the dispersal potential of toads, we predict that systematically excluding toads from AWP would reduce the area of arid Australia across which toads are predicted to disperse and colonize under average climatic conditions by 38 per cent from 2 242 000 to 1 385 000 km2. Our study shows how human modification of hydrological regimes can create a network of invasion hubs that facilitates a biological invasion, and confirms that targeted control at invasion hubs can reduce landscape connectivity to contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate. PMID:21345870

  19. Excluding access to invasion hubs can contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Florance, Daniel; Webb, Jonathan K; Dempster, Tim; Kearney, Michael R; Worthing, Alex; Letnic, Mike

    2011-10-01

    Many biological invasions do not occur as a gradual expansion along a continuous front, but result from the expansion of satellite populations that become established at 'invasion hubs'. Although theoretical studies indicate that targeting control efforts at invasion hubs can effectively contain the spread of invasions, few studies have demonstrated this in practice. In arid landscapes worldwide, humans have increased the availability of surface water by creating artificial water points (AWPs) such as troughs and dams for livestock. By experimentally excluding invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) from AWP, we show that AWP provide a resource subsidy for non-arid-adapted toads and serve as dry season refuges and thus invasion hubs for cane toads in arid Australia. Using data on the distribution of permanent water in arid Australia and the dispersal potential of toads, we predict that systematically excluding toads from AWP would reduce the area of arid Australia across which toads are predicted to disperse and colonize under average climatic conditions by 38 per cent from 2,242,000 to 1,385,000 km(2). Our study shows how human modification of hydrological regimes can create a network of invasion hubs that facilitates a biological invasion, and confirms that targeted control at invasion hubs can reduce landscape connectivity to contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate. PMID:21345870

  20. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    PubMed

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants. PMID:24352844

  1. Invasive Aspergillosis in Hematological Patients.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in hematological patients, although its outcome has been improving. Prolonged and profound neutropenia in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia and stem cell transplantation is a major risk factor for IA. Allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease and corticosteroid use are also at high risk. Management in a protective environment with high efficiency particular air (HEPA) filter is generally recommended to prevent aspergillosis in patients with prolonged and profound neutropenia. Antifungal prophylaxis against Aspergillus species should be considered in patients with past history of aspergillosis or colonization of Aspergillus species, at facilities with high incidence of IA and those without a protective environment. Early diagnosis and prompt antifungal treatment is important to improve outcome. Imaging studies such as computed tomography and biomarkers such as galactomannan antigen and β-D-glucan are useful for early diagnosis. Empirical antifungal treatment based on persistent or recurrent fever during neutropenia despite broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is generally recommended in high-risk patients. Alternatively, a preemptive treatment strategy has recently been proposed in the context of progress in the early diagnosis of IA based on the results of imaging studies and biomarkers. Voriconazole is recommended for initial therapy for IA. Liposomal amphotericin B is considered as alternative initial therapy. Combination antifungal therapy of echinocandin with voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin B could be a choice for refractory cases. PMID:27251320

  2. Multiple-well invasion percolation.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A D; Romeu, M C; Moreira, A A; Andrade, R F S; Andrade, J S

    2008-04-01

    When the invasion percolation model is applied as a simplified model for the displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous one, the distribution of displaced mass follows two distinct universality classes, depending on the criteria used to stop the displacement. Here we study the distribution of mass for this process, in the case where four extraction wells are placed around a single injection well in the middle of a square lattice. Our analysis considers the limit where the pressure of the extraction well Pe is zero; in other words, an extraction well is capped as soon as less viscous fluid reaches that extraction well. Our results show that, as expected, the probability of stopping the production with small amounts of displaced mass is greatly reduced. We also investigate whether or not creating extra extraction wells is an efficient strategy. We show that the probability of increasing the amount of displaced fluid by adding an extra extraction well depends on the total recovered mass obtained before adding this well. The results presented here could be relevant to determine efficient strategies in oil exploration. PMID:18517620

  3. LESSons in minimally invasive urology.

    PubMed

    Dev, Harveer; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Tewari, Ashutosh; Rane, Abhay

    2011-05-01

    Since the introduction of laparoscopic surgery, the promise of lower postoperative morbidity and improved cosmesis has been achieved. LaparoEndoscopic Single Site (LESS) surgery potentially takes this further. Following the first human urological LESS report in 2007, numerous case series have emerged, as well as comparative studies comparing LESS with standard laparoscopy. Technological developments in instrumentation, access and optics devices are overcoming some of the challenges that are raised when operating through a single site. Further advances in the technique have included the incorporation of robotics (R-LESS), which exploit the ergonomic benefits of ex vivo robotic platforms in an attempt to further improve the implementation of LESS procedures. In the future, urologists may be able to benefit from in vivo micro-robots that will allow the manipulation of tissue from internal repositionable platforms. The use of magnetic anchoring and guidance systems (MAGS) might allow the external manoeuvring of intra-corporeal instruments to reduce clashing and facilitate triangulation. However, the final promise in minimally invasive surgery is natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), with its scarless technique. It remains to be seen whether NOTES, LESS, or any of these future developments will prove their clinical utility over standard laparoscopic methods.

  4. Adopting a new philosophy: minimal invasion.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Joseph A

    2006-06-01

    Dentistry is a dynamic profession with new trends evolving. Minimally invasive dentistry is becoming not just a concept but a way of practicing. Creative people are finding ways, materials, and technology that enable patients to experience less hard-tissue or soft-tissue removal, improved prevention and maintenance, and increased attention to a philosophy of "less is more." The World Congress of Minimally Invasive Dentistry was formed to facilitate the sharing of these new concepts. The members embrace change, and dentistry offers the constant opportunity for such. As the standard of care moves toward minimally invasive dentistry, patients will benefit. PMID:16792118

  5. Evolution Arrests Invasions of Cooperative Populations.

    PubMed

    Korolev, Kirill S

    2015-11-13

    Population expansions trigger many biomedical and ecological transitions, from tumor growth to invasions of non-native species. Although population spreading often selects for more invasive phenotypes, we show that this outcome is far from inevitable. In cooperative populations, mutations reducing dispersal have a competitive advantage. Such mutations then steadily accumulate at the expansion front, bringing invasion to a halt. Our findings are a rare example of evolution driving the population into an unfavorable state, and they could lead to new strategies to combat unwelcome invaders.

  6. Clinical technique for invasive cervical root resorption

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Luiz Fernando Machado; Silveira, Carina Folgearini; Martos, Josué; Piovesan, Edno Moacir; César Neto, João Batista

    2011-01-01

    This clinical case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of an external invasive cervical resorption. A 17-year-old female patient had a confirmed diagnosis of invasive cervical resorption class 4 by cone beam computerized tomography. Although, there was no communication with the root canal, the invasive resorption process was extending into the cervical and middle third of the root. The treatment of the cervical resorption of the lateral incisor interrupted the resorptive process and restored the damaged root surface and the dental functions without any esthetic sequelae. Both the radiographic examination and computed tomography are imperative to reveal the extent of the defect in the differential diagnosis. PMID:22144822

  7. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  8. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... is to provide national leadership regarding invasive species issues. Purpose of Meeting: The meeting... will be no ISAC business conducted during the orientation session, which is closed to the public....

  9. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ..., ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause. The Council is co-chaired by the Secretary... ecosystem level; or that, (2) holistically address prevention, eradication, control and...

  10. Molecular basis of invasion in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McSherry, E A; Donatello, S; Hopkins, A M; McDonnell, S

    2007-12-01

    Cancer cell invasion involves the breaching of tissue barriers by cancer cells, and the subsequent infiltration of these cells throughout the surrounding tissue. In breast cancer, invasion at the molecular level requires the coordinated efforts of numerous processes within the cancer cell and its surroundings. Accumulation of genetic changes which impair the regulation of cell growth and death is generally accepted to initiate cancer. Loss of cell-adhesion molecules, resulting in a loss in tissue architecture, in parallel with matrix remodelling may also confer a motile or migratory advantage to breast cancer cells. The tumour microenvironment may further influence the behaviour of these cancer cells through expression of cytokines, growth factors, and proteases promoting chemotaxis and invasion. This review will attempt to summarise recent work on these fundamental processes influencing or facilitating breast cancer cell invasion. (Part of a Multi-author Review). PMID:17957337

  11. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiven...

  12. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiv...

  13. Molecular basis of invasion in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McSherry, E A; Donatello, S; Hopkins, A M; McDonnell, S

    2007-12-01

    Cancer cell invasion involves the breaching of tissue barriers by cancer cells, and the subsequent infiltration of these cells throughout the surrounding tissue. In breast cancer, invasion at the molecular level requires the coordinated efforts of numerous processes within the cancer cell and its surroundings. Accumulation of genetic changes which impair the regulation of cell growth and death is generally accepted to initiate cancer. Loss of cell-adhesion molecules, resulting in a loss in tissue architecture, in parallel with matrix remodelling may also confer a motile or migratory advantage to breast cancer cells. The tumour microenvironment may further influence the behaviour of these cancer cells through expression of cytokines, growth factors, and proteases promoting chemotaxis and invasion. This review will attempt to summarise recent work on these fundamental processes influencing or facilitating breast cancer cell invasion. (Part of a Multi-author Review).

  14. Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... SIR login) Interventional Radiology Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer Interventional Radiology Treatments Offer New Options and Hope ... have in the fight against breast cancer. About Breast Cancer When breast tissue divides and grows at an ...

  15. Microbial invasions: the process, patterns, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Cyrus Alexander; Elsas, Jan Dirk van; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2015-11-01

    There has recently been a surge of literature examining microbial invasions into a variety of environments. These studies often include a component of biological diversity as a major factor determining an invader's fate, yet common results are rarely cross-compared. Since many studies only present a snapshot of the entire invasion process, a bird's eye view is required to piece together the entire continuum, which we find consists of introduction, establishment, spread, and impact phases. We further examine the patterns and mechanisms associated with invasion resistance and create a mechanistic synthesis governed by the species richness, species evenness, and resource availability of resident communities. We conclude by exploring the advantages of using a theoretical invasion framework across different fields.

  16. Invasive aspergillosis in near drowning nonneutropenic patient.

    PubMed

    Munta, Kartik; Gopal, Palepu B N; Vigg, Ajit

    2015-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed people has been well documented, but to diagnose and treat in an immunocompetent individual after near drowning, it requires early suspicion and proper empirical treatment. We report a case diagnosed to have invasive aspergillosis with systemic dissemination of the infection to the brain, gluteal muscles, and kidneys after a fall in a chemical tank of a paper manufacturing company. He was ventilated for acute respiratory distress syndrome and managed with antibiotics and vasopressors. Due to nonresolving pneumonia and positive serum galactomannan, trans-tracheal biopsy was performed which confirmed invasive aspergillosis and was treated with antifungals. With the availability of galactomannan assay and better radiological investigative modalities, occurrence of such invasive fungal infections in cases of drowning patients should be considered early in such patients and treated with appropriate antifungals.

  17. Territorial Invasion in the Classroom: Invadee Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Gilda Moss

    1980-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study testing dominance and subordination among the spatially central and peripheral in 14 college classrooms. Differences in the defense of territory, upon invasion, between spatially central and spatially peripheral humans were investigated. (BT)

  18. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole heart surgery - discharge ... You had minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery on one ... an artery from your chest to create a detour, or bypass, around ...

  19. Group A Streptococcus invasive infections: a review

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Karl A.; Laverdière, Michel

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of group A Streptococcus (GAS) invasive infections has been increasing worldwide, and there is no obvious explanation for this phenomenon. In 1993, a working group on severe GAS infections was established to define accurately what constitutes an invasive infection. Three types of infection are particularly feared: necrotizing fasciitis, myositis and a newly defined entity, named streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) because of a certain analogy with its staphylococcal counterpart. GAS produces many toxins responsible for its clinical manifestations. Some of them, labelled streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins, have been characterized as superantigens. These proteins play a key role in initiating the immune response to GAS and are mostly responsible for the precipitous course of invasive infections. Death rates are high in streptococcal invasive infections, ranging from about 20% for necrotizing fasciitis to almost 100% for myositis. Therapy consists mainly of high doses of antibiotic combinations, aggressive surgery, and intravenous administration of immunoglobulins for STSS. PMID:9030079

  20. Will extreme climatic events facilitate biological invasions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme climatic events, such as intense heat waves, hurricanes, floods and droughts, can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and more extreme events are projected with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of these events for biological invasions, which themselves...

  1. [EVOLUTION OF MINIMALLY INVASIVE CARDIAC SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is an attractive choice for patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. We review the history of minimally invasive valve surgery in this article. Due to many innovations in surgical tools, cardiopulmonary bypass systems, visualization systems, and robotic systems as well as surgical techniques, minimally invasive cardiac surgery has become standard care for valve lesion repair. In particular, aortic cross-clamp techniques and methods for cardioplegia using the Chitwood clamp and root cannula or endoballoon catheter in combination with femoro-femoral bypass systems have made such procedures safer and more practical. On the other hand, robotically assisted surgery has not become standard due to the cost and slow learning curve. However, along with the development of robotics, this less-invasive technique may provide another choice for patients in the near future. PMID:27295770

  2. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of Commerce. The duty of the Council.../coastal environments in the world, with over 50 invasive species that threaten the Bay's vibrant...

  3. Diagnostic Challenges Caused by Endoscopic Biopsy of Colonic Polyps: A Systematic Evaluation of Epithelial Misplacement With Review of Problematic Polyps From the Bowel Cancer Screening Program, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Panarelli, Nicole C; Somarathna, Thusitha; Samowitz, Wade S; Kornacki, Susan; Sanders, Scott A; Novelli, Marco R; Shepherd, Neil A; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2016-08-01

    Endoscopic mucosal biopsy may misplace mucosal elements into the submucosa of colonic adenomas, mimicking invasive adenocarcinoma. Biopsy-related misplacement can be more challenging to recognize than typical misplaced epithelium (pseudoinvasion) in pedunculated polyps. We compared the features of 16 polyps with biopsy-related misplaced epithelium with those of 10 adenomas with pseudoinvasion and 10 adenomas with invasive adenocarcinoma and performed Ki67 and p53 immunostaining on all cases. Features of misplaced epithelium in polyps referred to the Bowel Cancer Screening Program Expert Board in the United Kingdom were also evaluated for the same morphologic features. Biopsy-related epithelial misplacement occurred in adenomas throughout the colon and often appeared infiltrative (69%), including epithelial cells singly dispersed within reactive fibroinflammatory stroma or granulation tissue (44%). Misplaced epithelium displayed only low-grade cytologic features and was associated with extruded mucin (75%), tattoo pigment (63%), and misplaced normal glands (38%); scant lamina propria and muscularis mucosae were often present (88% and 44%, respectively). Cases referred to the Bowel Cancer Screening Program Expert Board also contained infiltrative-appearing misplaced epithelium (91%) that was cytologically low grade (72%), contained nondysplastic glands (11%), and showed other signs of injury. In contrast, misplaced epithelium in pedunculated polyps always had a lobular contour with a rim of lamina propria, hemorrhage, and/or hemosiderin. Invasive carcinomas showed malignant cytology and desmoplasia; most (70%) lacked features of trauma. Ki67 and p53 staining was patchy and weak in the misplaced epithelium, whereas invasive carcinomas showed increased staining for one or both markers. Pathologists should be aware that endoscopically manipulated adenomas may contain misplaced epithelium that simulates malignancy. PMID:26975041

  4. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. [Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (MIP)].

    PubMed

    Nagele, U; Schilling, D; Anastasiadis, A G; Walcher, U; Sievert, K D; Merseburger, A S; Kuczyk, M; Stenzl, A

    2008-09-01

    Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithopaxy (MIP) was developed to combine the excellent stone-free rates of the conventional percutaneous nephrolithopaxy (PCNL) technique with the low morbidity of the miniaturized PCNL (Mini-Perc) and, at the same time, achieve a high level of patient comfort. The procedure is characterized not only by the diameter of the miniaturized 18-Fr Amplatz sheath that was adopted from the Mini-Perc but also by the following features: ultrasound-guided puncture of the kidney; single-step dilatation of the access tract; ballistic lithotripsy; a low-pressure irrigation system together with stone retraction by irrigation with a specially designed nephroscope sheath, for the so-called vacuum cleaner effect; and a sealed and tubeless access tract with primary closure of the channel independent of hemorrhage and without a second-look procedure.The results of the first 57 patients demonstrate primary stone-free rates of 92.9% with operating times averaging 62 (25-123) min. Severe complications, such as sepsis or bleeding requiring blood transfusion, did not occur. The high and predictable stone-free rate and a low morbidity comparable to that of ureteroscopy and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy make MIP an attractive option for patients and urologists. The "vacuum cleaner effect" with quick removal of stone fragments reduces operating time and prevents new stone formation by avoiding residual fragments. The direct and primary closure of the access tract increases patient comfort and is justified by the reintervention rate of less than 8% in the presented cohort.The lack of a need for second-look nephroscopies, the vacuum cleaner effect, improved patient comfort without nephrostomy tubes, as well as surgery times comparable to that of traditional PCNL demonstrate a consequent evolution of the Mini-Perc. MIP therefore represents a promising and future-oriented module in modern stone therapy.

  6. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.

  7. Facts About Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), Columbia, Missouri, carry out basic and applied research on the ecology of invasive fishes in the Missouri and Mississippi river basins. Emphasis is placed on improving understanding of the life cycles of bighead and silver carp to provide information needed to manage these aggressively invasive species. USGS scientists collaborate with Federal and State management agencies and universities, nationally and internationally, to fill critical science information gaps.

  8. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  9. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line V; Drijfhout, Falko P; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M; Seifert, Bernhard; Hughes, David P; Schulz, Andreas; Petersen, Klaus S; Konrad, Heino; Stauffer, Christian; Kiran, Kadri; Espadaler, Xavier; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Aktaç, Nihat; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jones, Graeme R; Nash, David R; Pedersen, Jes S; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects. PMID:19050762

  10. The advantages of minimally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Gordon J

    2005-11-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry, in cases in which it is appropriate, is a concept that preserves dentitions and supporting structures. In this column, I have discussed several examples of minimally invasive dental techniques. This type of dentistry is gratifying for dentists and appreciated by patients. If more dentists would practice it, the dental profession could enhance the public's perception of its honesty and increase its professionalism as well.

  11. The Evolution of Invasiveness in Garden Ants

    PubMed Central

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line V.; Drijfhout, Falko P.; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C.; Steiner, Florian M.; Seifert, Bernhard; Hughes, David P.; Schulz, Andreas; Petersen, Klaus S.; Konrad, Heino; Stauffer, Christian; Kiran, Kadri; Espadaler, Xavier; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Aktaç, Nihat; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jones, Graeme R.; Nash, David R.; Pedersen, Jes S.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects. PMID:19050762

  12. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  13. Aortic Valve Surgery: Minimally Invasive Options

    PubMed Central

    Ramlawi, Basel; Bedeir, Kareem; Lamelas, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery has not been adopted by a significant proportion of cardiac surgeons despite proven benefits. This may be related to a high learning curve and technical issues requiring retraining. In this review, we discuss the data for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and describe our operative technique for both ministernotomy and anterior thoracotomy approaches. We also discuss the advent of novel sutureless valves and how these techniques compare to available transcatheter aortic valve procedures. PMID:27127559

  14. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    PubMed

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to

  15. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    PubMed

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to

  16. Invasive Disease Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Marien I.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of severe Haemophilus influenza infections, such as sepsis and meningitis, has declined substantially since the introduction of the H. influenzae serotype b vaccine. However, the H. influenzae type b vaccine fails to protect against nontypeable H. influenzae strains, which have become increasingly frequent causes of invasive disease, especially among children and the elderly. We summarize recent literature supporting the emergence of invasive nontypeable H. influenzae and describe mechanisms that may explain its increasing prevalence over the past 2 decades. PMID:26407156

  17. Future of Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Whealon, Matthew; Vinci, Alessio; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is slowly taking over as the preferred operative approach for colorectal diseases. However, many of the procedures remain technically difficult. This article will give an overview of the state of minimally invasive surgery and the many advances that have been made over the last two decades. Specifically, we discuss the introduction of the robotic platform and some of its benefits and limitations. We also describe some newer techniques related to robotics. PMID:27582647

  18. Screening for characteristic microRNAs between pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, XIAO-LU; WEN, SHANG-YUN; AI, ZHI-HONG; WANG, JUAN; XU, YAN-LI; TENG, YIN-CHENG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristic microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed during the pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer. A gene expression profile (GSE7803) containing 21 invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma samples, 10 normal squamous cervical epithelium samples and seven high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion samples, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using significance analysis of microarray software, and a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The miRNAs that interacted with the identified DEGs were selected, based on the TarBase v5.0 database. Regulatory networks were constructed from these selected miRNAs along with their corresponding target genes among the DEGs. The regulatory networks were visualized using Cytoscape. A total of 1,160 and 756 DEGs were identified in the pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer, respectively. The results of the GO enrichment demonstrated that the DEGs were predominantly involved in the immune response and the cell cycle, in the pre-invasive and invasive stages, respectively. Furthermore, a total of 18 and 26 characteristic miRNAs were screened in the pre-invasive and invasive stages, respectively. These miRNAs may be potential biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis and treatment of the different stages of cervical cancer. PMID:25695263

  19. Adaptive invasive species distribution models: A framework for modeling incipient invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Corral, Lucia; Fricke, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of species distribution model(s) (SDM) for approximating, explaining, and predicting changes in species’ geographic locations is increasingly promoted for proactive ecological management. Although frameworks for modeling non-invasive species distributions are relatively well developed, their counterparts for invasive species—which may not be at equilibrium within recipient environments and often exhibit rapid transformations—are lacking. Additionally, adaptive ecological management strategies address the causes and effects of biological invasions and other complex issues in social-ecological systems. We conducted a review of biological invasions, species distribution models, and adaptive practices in ecological management, and developed a framework for adaptive, niche-based, invasive species distribution model (iSDM) development and utilization. This iterative, 10-step framework promotes consistency and transparency in iSDM development, allows for changes in invasive drivers and filters, integrates mechanistic and correlative modeling techniques, balances the avoidance of type 1 and type 2 errors in predictions, encourages the linking of monitoring and management actions, and facilitates incremental improvements in models and management across space, time, and institutional boundaries. These improvements are useful for advancing coordinated invasive species modeling, management and monitoring from local scales to the regional, continental and global scales at which biological invasions occur and harm native ecosystems and economies, as well as for anticipating and responding to biological invasions under continuing global change.

  20. Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management.

    PubMed

    Leger, Elizabeth A; Espeland, Erin K

    2010-03-01

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely to compete with invaders. When population sizes and genetic diversity of native species are large enough, natives may be able to evolve traits that allow them to co-occur with invasive species. Native species may also evolve to become significant competitors with invasive species, and thus affect the fitness of invaders. Invasive species may respond in turn, creating either transient or continuing coevolution between competing species. In addition to demographic factors such as population size and growth rates, a number of factors including gene flow, genetic drift, the number of selection agents, encounter rates, and genetic diversity may affect the ability of native and invasive species to evolve competitive ability against one another. We discuss how these factors may differ between populations of native and invasive plants, and how this might affect their ability to respond to selection. Management actions that maintain genetic diversity in native species while reducing population sizes and genetic diversity in invasive species could promote the ability of natives to evolve improved competitive ability.

  1. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  2. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species) and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring. PMID:26882479

  3. Invasive Insects Differ from Non-Invasive in Their Thermal Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kenis, Marc; Honěk, Alois; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether two basic thermal requirements for insect development, lower developmental thresholds, i.e. temperatures at which development ceases, and sums of effective temperatures, i.e. numbers of day degrees above the lower developmental thresholds necessary to complete development, differ among insect species that proved to be successful invaders in regions outside their native range and those that did not. Focusing on species traits underlying invasiveness that are related to temperature provides insights into the mechanisms of insect invasions. The screening of thermal requirements thus could improve risk-assessment schemes by incorporating these traits in predictions of potentially invasive insect species. We compared 100 pairs of taxonomically-related species originating from the same continent, one invasive and the other not reported as invasive. Invasive species have higher lower developmental thresholds than those never recorded outside their native ranges. Invasive species also have a lower sum of effective temperatures, though not significantly. However, the differences between invasive and non-invasive species in the two physiological measures were significantly inversely correlated. This result suggests that many species are currently prevented from invading by low temperatures in some parts of the world. Those species that will overcome current climatic constraints in regions outside their native distribution due to climate change could become even more serious future invaders than present-day species, due to their potentially faster development. PMID:26090826

  4. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kristina M.; Neubauer, Nikki L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the field of obstetrics and gynecology as far back as the 1940s when culdoscopy was first introduced as a visualization tool. Gynecologists then began to employ minimally invasive surgery for adhesiolysis and obtaining biopsies but then expanded its use to include procedures such as tubal sterilization (Clyman (1963), L. E. Smale and M. L. Smale (1973), Thompson and Wheeless (1971), Peterson and Behrman (1971)). With advances in instrumentation, the first laparoscopic hysterectomy was successfully performed in 1989 by Reich et al. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology was being developed alongside its benign counterpart. In the 1975s, Rosenoff et al. reported using peritoneoscopy for pretreatment evaluation in ovarian cancer, and Spinelli et al. reported on using laparoscopy for the staging of ovarian cancer. In 1993, Nichols used operative laparoscopy to perform pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer patients. The initial goals of minimally invasive surgery, not dissimilar to those of modern medicine, were to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery and therefore improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. This review will summarize the history and use of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology and also highlight new minimally invasive surgical approaches currently in development. PMID:23997959

  5. The evolutionary consequences of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Andrew V; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge of invasion biology is the development of a predictive framework that prevents new invasions. This is inherently difficult because different biological characteristics are important at the different stages of invasion: opportunity/transport, establishment and spread. Here, we draw from recent research on a variety of taxa to examine the evolutionary causes and consequences of biological invasions. The process of introduction may favour species with characteristics that promote success in highly disturbed, human-dominated landscapes, thus exerting novel forms of selection on introduced populations. Moreover, evidence is accumulating that multiple introductions can often be critical to the successful establishment and spread of introduced species, as they may be important sources of genetic variation necessary for adaptation in new environments or may permit the introduction of novel traits. Thus, not only should the introduction of new species be prevented, but substantial effort should also be directed to preventing the secondary introduction of previously established species (and even movement of individuals among introduced populations). Modern molecular techniques can take advantage of genetic changes postintroduction to determine the source of introduced populations and their vectors of spread, and to elucidate the mechanisms of success of some invasive species. Moreover, the growing availability of genomic tools will permit the identification of underlying genetic causes of invasive success.

  6. [Minimally Invasive Open Surgery for Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuo; Watanabe, Shunichi

    2016-07-01

    Significant efforts have been made to reduce the invasiveness of surgical procedures by surgeons for a long time. Surgeons always keep it in mind that the basic principle performing less invasive surgical procedures for malignant tumors is to decrease the invasiveness for patients without compromising oncological curability and surgical safety. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been used increasingly as a minimally invasive approach to lung cancer surgery. Whereas, whether VATS lobectomy is a less invasive procedure and has equivalent or better clinical effect compared with open lobectomy for patients with lung cancer remains controversial because of the absence of randomized prospective studies. The degree of difficulty for anatomical lung resection depends on the degree of the fissure development, mobility of hilar lymph nodes, and the degree of pleural adhesions. During pulmonary surgery, thoracic surgeons always have to deal with not only these difficulties but other unexpected events such as intraoperative bleeding. Recently, we perform pulmonary resection for lung cancer with minimally invasive open surgery (MIOS) approach. In this article, we introduce the surgical procedure of MIOS and demonstrate short-term results. Off course, the efficacy of MIOS needs to be further evaluated with long-term results. PMID:27440030

  7. Perspectives on trans-Pacific biological invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2002-01-01

    Trans-Pacific biological invasion is one of the most striking and influential biological phenomena occurring in modern times and the process is still accelerating, and the associated invasives form neo-disjuncts (cf. many well-known paleo-disjuncts) between eastern Asia and North America. To better understand this phenomenon and the related taxa, I address the following questions: 1) what types of species (e.g., life/growth form) have been, or are likely to be, associated with trans-Pacific (eastern Asia, North America) invasions; 2) what has happened or may happen to these species after their remote geographic separation, and 3) what aspects of these species and their native and non-native habitats should be better understood for improved control. To answer these questions, comparisons of the invasive species' characteristics in their native and invaded habitats need to be examined, including: l) genetics, 2) life history/morphology (e.g., plant size, seed size, etc.), 3) ecology (e.g., life/growth forms, pollinators, competitors), 4) distributions (e.g., range size, shape, latitude) in their native (source) and introduced (target) ranges or habitats, and 5) physical factors such as soil, water, and climate. The purpose of these studies is 1) to identify the limiting factors that restrict the distributions of exotic species in native ranges, 2) to understand why invasive species are successful in the introduced ranges, 3) to predict possible future invasions, and, ultimately, 4) to provide information for more efficient and effective management.

  8. Invasive species management and research using GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcombe, Tracy R.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2007-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are powerful tools in the field of invasive species management. GIS can be used to create potential distribution maps for all manner of taxa, including plants, animals, and diseases. GIS also performs well in the early detection and rapid assessment of invasive species. Here, we used GIS applications to investigate species richness and invasion patterns in fish in the United States (US) at the 6-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) level. We also created maps of potential spread of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in the southeastern US at the 8-digit HUC level using regression and environmental envelope techniques. Equipped with this potential map, resource managers can target their field surveys to areas most vulnerable to invasion. Advances in GIS technology, maps, data, and many of these techniques can be found on websites such as the National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org). Such websites provide a forum for data sharing and analysis that is an invaluable service to the invasive species community.

  9. Understanding the genetic basis of invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Prentis, Peter J; Pavasovic, Ana

    2013-05-01

    Invasive species provide excellent study systems to evaluate the ecological and evolutionary processes that contribute to the colonization of novel environments. While the ecological processes that contribute to the successful establishment of invasive plants have been studied in detail, investigation of the evolutionary processes involved in successful invasions has only recently received attention. In particular, studies investigating the genomic and gene expression differences between native and introduced populations of invasive species are just beginning and are required if we are to understand how plants become invasive. In the current issue of Molecular Ecology, Hodgins et al. (2013) tackle this unresolved question, by examining gene expression differences between native and introduced populations of annual ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The study identifies a number of potential candidate genes based on gene expression differences that may be responsible for the success of annual ragweed in its introduced range. Furthermore, genes involved in stress response are over-represented in the differentially expressed gene set. Future experiments could use functional studies to test whether changes in gene expression at these candidate genes do in fact underlie changes in growth characteristics and reproductive output observed in this and other invasive species. PMID:23738371

  10. Positional and Curvature Difference of Lamina Cribrosa According to the Baseline Intraocular Pressure in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Woo; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the variation of lamina cribrosa (LC) structure based on the baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and healthy individuals using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods A total of 108 eyes with POAG and 61 healthy eyes were recruited. Based on the baseline IOP, the POAG eyes were divided into higher-baseline IOP (HTG; baseline IOP > 21 mmHg, n = 38 eyes) and lower-baseline IOP (NTG; baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg, n = 70 eyes). The anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID), mean LC depth (mLCD), and the LC curvature index (mLCD–ALID) were measured, and compared among the three groups. The regional variation of LC structure was evaluated by vertical-horizontal ALID difference. Results The mLCD and LC curvature index were greatest in HTG eyes (520.3 ± 123.0 and 80.9 ± 30.7 μm), followed by NTG (463.2 ± 110.5 and 64.5 ± 30.7 μm) and healthy eyes (382.9 ± 107.6 and 47.6 ± 25.7 μm, all P < 0.001). However, there were no significant difference in ALID between HTG and NTG eyes. The vertical-horizontal ALID difference was larger in NTG eyes (72.8 ± 56.2 μm) than in HTG (32.7 ± 61.4 μm, P = 0.004) and healthy eyes (25.5 ± 34.8 μm, P < 0.001). Conclusions Lamina cribrosa position and curvature differed in POAG eyes with low and high IOP. This would support the theory that IOP induced biomechanical effects on the optic play a role on glaucoma. PMID:27611970

  11. Junction Protein Shrew-1 Influences Cell Invasion and Interacts with Invasion-promoting Protein CD147

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Alexander; Ruonala, Mika; Jakob, Viktor; Suthaus, Jan; Boles, Eckhard; Wouters, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Shrew-1 was previously isolated from an endometriotic cell line in our search for invasion-associated genes. It proved to be a membrane protein that targets to the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells, interacting with E-cadherin–catenin complexes of adherens junctions. Paradoxically, the existence of adherens junctions is incompatible with invasion. To investigate whether shrew-1 can indeed influence cellular invasion, we overexpressed it in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. This resulted in enhanced invasiveness, accompanied by an increased matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 level in the supernatant, raising the question about the role of shrew-1 in this process. Logic suggested we looked for an interaction with CD147, a known promoter of invasiveness and MMP activity. Indeed, genetics-based, biochemical, and microscopy experiments revealed shrew-1– and CD147-containing complexes in invasive endometriotic cells and an interaction in epithelial cells, which was stronger in MCF7 tumor cells, but weaker in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In contrast to the effect mediated by overexpression, small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of either shrew-1 or CD147 in HeLa cells decreased invasiveness without affecting the proliferation behavior of HeLa cells, but the knockdown cells displayed decreased motility. Altogether, our results imply that shrew-1 has a function in the regulation of cellular invasion, which may involve its interaction with CD147. PMID:17267690

  12. Admixture between native and invasive populations may increase invasiveness of Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, Mark; Röckle, Michael; Stift, Marc

    2015-09-22

    Self-fertilization and admixture of genotypes from different populations can have major fitness consequences in native species. However, few studies have addressed their potential roles in invasive species. Here, we used plants of Mimulus guttatus from seven native North American, three invasive Scottish and four invasive New Zealand populations to address this. We created seeds from self-fertilization, within-population outcrossing, between-population outcrossing within the same range, and outcrossing between the native and invasive ranges. A greenhouse experiment showed that native and invasive plants of M. guttatus suffered to similar degrees from inbreeding depression, in terms of asexual reproduction and biomass production. After outcrossing with plants from other populations, M. guttatus benefited from heterosis, in terms of asexual and sexual reproduction, and biomass production, particularly when plants from native and invasive populations were crossed. This suggests that, when novel genotypes of M. guttatus from the native North American range will be introduced to the invasive ranges, subsequent outcrossing with M. guttatus plants that are already there might further boost invasiveness of this species. PMID:26354937

  13. Admixture between native and invasive populations may increase invasiveness of Mimulus guttatus

    PubMed Central

    van Kleunen, Mark; Röckle, Michael; Stift, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Self-fertilization and admixture of genotypes from different populations can have major fitness consequences in native species. However, few studies have addressed their potential roles in invasive species. Here, we used plants of Mimulus guttatus from seven native North American, three invasive Scottish and four invasive New Zealand populations to address this. We created seeds from self-fertilization, within-population outcrossing, between-population outcrossing within the same range, and outcrossing between the native and invasive ranges. A greenhouse experiment showed that native and invasive plants of M. guttatus suffered to similar degrees from inbreeding depression, in terms of asexual reproduction and biomass production. After outcrossing with plants from other populations, M. guttatus benefited from heterosis, in terms of asexual and sexual reproduction, and biomass production, particularly when plants from native and invasive populations were crossed. This suggests that, when novel genotypes of M. guttatus from the native North American range will be introduced to the invasive ranges, subsequent outcrossing with M. guttatus plants that are already there might further boost invasiveness of this species. PMID:26354937

  14. Current and emerging therapeutic modalities for hyperhidrosis, part 2: moderately invasive and invasive procedures.

    PubMed

    Ram, Ramin; Lowe, Nicholas J; Yamauchi, Paul S

    2007-04-01

    Hyperhidrosis (HH) hinders patient quality of life and causes the secondary effect of excess cutaneous sweat. Treatment modalities include conservative and noninvasive therapies such as topical agents and iontophoresis. This article reviews moderately invasive and invasive procedures, such as botulinum toxin, curettage, and endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS), and compares their advantages and disadvantages in safety and efficacy. PMID:17500375

  15. Admixture between native and invasive populations may increase invasiveness of Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, Mark; Röckle, Michael; Stift, Marc

    2015-09-22

    Self-fertilization and admixture of genotypes from different populations can have major fitness consequences in native species. However, few studies have addressed their potential roles in invasive species. Here, we used plants of Mimulus guttatus from seven native North American, three invasive Scottish and four invasive New Zealand populations to address this. We created seeds from self-fertilization, within-population outcrossing, between-population outcrossing within the same range, and outcrossing between the native and invasive ranges. A greenhouse experiment showed that native and invasive plants of M. guttatus suffered to similar degrees from inbreeding depression, in terms of asexual reproduction and biomass production. After outcrossing with plants from other populations, M. guttatus benefited from heterosis, in terms of asexual and sexual reproduction, and biomass production, particularly when plants from native and invasive populations were crossed. This suggests that, when novel genotypes of M. guttatus from the native North American range will be introduced to the invasive ranges, subsequent outcrossing with M. guttatus plants that are already there might further boost invasiveness of this species.

  16. Factors promoting marine invasions: a chemoecological approach.

    PubMed

    Mollo, Ernesto; Gavagnin, Margherita; Carbone, Marianna; Castelluccio, Francesco; Pozone, Ferdinando; Roussis, Vassilios; Templado, José; Ghiselin, Michael T; Cimino, Guido

    2008-03-25

    The Mediterranean Sea is losing its biological distinctiveness, and the same phenomenon is occurring in other seas. It gives urgency to a better understanding of the factors that affect marine biological invasions. A chemoecological approach is proposed here to define biotic conditions that promote biological invasions in terms of enemy escape and resource opportunities. Research has focused on the secondary metabolite composition of three exotic sea slugs found in Greece that have most probably entered the Mediterranean basin by Lessepsian migration, an exchange that contributes significantly to Mediterranean biodiversity. We have found toxic compounds with significant activity as feeding deterrents both in the cephalaspidean Haminoea cyanomarginata and in the nudibranch Melibe viridis. These findings led us to propose aposematism in the former and dietary autonomy in producing defensive metabolites in the latter case, as predisposing factors to the migration. In the third mollusk investigated, the anaspidean Syphonota geographica, the topic of marine invasions has been approached through a study of its feeding biology. The identification of the same compounds from both the viscera of each individual, separately analyzed, and their food, the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, implies a dietary dependency. The survival of S. geographica in the Mediterranean seems to be related to the presence of H. stipulacea. The initial invasion of this exotic pest would seem to have paved the way for the subsequent invasion of a trophic specialist that takes advantage of niche opportunities. PMID:18337492

  17. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  18. Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, M.B.; Wikle, C.K.; Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing.

  19. Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, M.B.; Wikle, C.K.; Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing. ?? 2006, The International Biometric Society.

  20. Biological invasions, climate change and genomics.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Griffin, Philippa C; Oakeshott, John G; Byrne, Margaret; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    The rate of biological invasions is expected to increase as the effects of climate change on biological communities become widespread. Climate change enhances habitat disturbance which facilitates the establishment of invasive species, which in turn provides opportunities for hybridization and introgression. These effects influence local biodiversity that can be tracked through genetic and genomic approaches. Metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches provide a way of monitoring some types of communities under climate change for the appearance of invasives. Introgression and hybridization can be followed by the analysis of entire genomes so that rapidly changing areas of the genome are identified and instances of genetic pollution monitored. Genomic markers enable accurate tracking of invasive species' geographic origin well beyond what was previously possible. New genomic tools are promoting fresh insights into classic questions about invading organisms under climate change, such as the role of genetic variation, local adaptation and climate pre-adaptation in successful invasions. These tools are providing managers with often more effective means to identify potential threats, improve surveillance and assess impacts on communities. We provide a framework for the application of genomic techniques within a management context and also indicate some important limitations in what can be achieved.

  1. Eight questions about invasions and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Strayer, David L

    2012-10-01

    I pose eight questions central to understanding how biological invasions affect ecosystems, assess progress towards answering those questions and suggest ways in which progress might be made. The questions concern the frequency with which invasions affect ecosystems; the circumstances under which ecosystem change is most likely; the functions that are most often affected by invaders; the relationships between changes to ecosystems, communities, and populations; the long-term responses of ecosystems to invasions; interactions between biological invasions and other anthropogenic activities and the difficulty of managing undesirable impacts of non-native species. Some questions have been answered satisfactorily, others require more data and thought, and others might benefit from being reformulated or abandoned. Actions that might speed progress include careful development of trait-based approaches; strategic collection and publication of new data, including more frequent publication of negative results; replacement of expert opinion with hard data where needed; careful consideration of whether questions really need to be answered, especially in cases where answers are being provided for managers and policy-makers; explicit attention to and testing of the domains of theories; integrating invasions better into an ecosystem context; and remembering that our predictive ability is limited and will remain so for the foreseeable future.

  2. Factors promoting marine invasions: a chemoecological approach.

    PubMed

    Mollo, Ernesto; Gavagnin, Margherita; Carbone, Marianna; Castelluccio, Francesco; Pozone, Ferdinando; Roussis, Vassilios; Templado, José; Ghiselin, Michael T; Cimino, Guido

    2008-03-25

    The Mediterranean Sea is losing its biological distinctiveness, and the same phenomenon is occurring in other seas. It gives urgency to a better understanding of the factors that affect marine biological invasions. A chemoecological approach is proposed here to define biotic conditions that promote biological invasions in terms of enemy escape and resource opportunities. Research has focused on the secondary metabolite composition of three exotic sea slugs found in Greece that have most probably entered the Mediterranean basin by Lessepsian migration, an exchange that contributes significantly to Mediterranean biodiversity. We have found toxic compounds with significant activity as feeding deterrents both in the cephalaspidean Haminoea cyanomarginata and in the nudibranch Melibe viridis. These findings led us to propose aposematism in the former and dietary autonomy in producing defensive metabolites in the latter case, as predisposing factors to the migration. In the third mollusk investigated, the anaspidean Syphonota geographica, the topic of marine invasions has been approached through a study of its feeding biology. The identification of the same compounds from both the viscera of each individual, separately analyzed, and their food, the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, implies a dietary dependency. The survival of S. geographica in the Mediterranean seems to be related to the presence of H. stipulacea. The initial invasion of this exotic pest would seem to have paved the way for the subsequent invasion of a trophic specialist that takes advantage of niche opportunities.

  3. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance.

  4. Biological invasions, climate change and genomics

    PubMed Central

    Chown, Steven L; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Griffin, Philippa C; Oakeshott, John G; Byrne, Margaret; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    The rate of biological invasions is expected to increase as the effects of climate change on biological communities become widespread. Climate change enhances habitat disturbance which facilitates the establishment of invasive species, which in turn provides opportunities for hybridization and introgression. These effects influence local biodiversity that can be tracked through genetic and genomic approaches. Metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches provide a way of monitoring some types of communities under climate change for the appearance of invasives. Introgression and hybridization can be followed by the analysis of entire genomes so that rapidly changing areas of the genome are identified and instances of genetic pollution monitored. Genomic markers enable accurate tracking of invasive species’ geographic origin well beyond what was previously possible. New genomic tools are promoting fresh insights into classic questions about invading organisms under climate change, such as the role of genetic variation, local adaptation and climate pre-adaptation in successful invasions. These tools are providing managers with often more effective means to identify potential threats, improve surveillance and assess impacts on communities. We provide a framework for the application of genomic techniques within a management context and also indicate some important limitations in what can be achieved. PMID:25667601

  5. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance. PMID:26835653

  6. Non-invasive monitoring of spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Bastany, Zoya J R; Askari, Shahbaz; Dumont, Guy A; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Spreading depression (SD), a slow propagating depolarization wave, plays an important role in pathophysiology of different neurological disorders. Yet, research into SD-related disorders has been hampered by the lack of non-invasive recording techniques of SD. Here we compared the manifestations of SD in continuous non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings to invasive electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in order to obtain further insights into generator structures and electrogenic mechanisms of surface recording of SD. SD was induced by KCl application and simultaneous SD recordings were performed by scalp EEG as well as ECoG electrodes of somatosensory neocortex of rats using a novel homemade EEG amplifier, AgCl recording electrodes, and high chloride conductive gel. Different methods were used to analyze the data; including the spectrogram, bi-spectrogram, pattern distribution, relative spectrum power, and multivariable Gaussian fit analysis. The negative direct current (DC) shifts recorded by scalp electrodes exhibited a high homogeneity to those recorded by ECoG electrodes. Furthermore, this novel method of recording and analysis was able to separate SD recorded by scalp electrodes from non-neuronal DC shifts induced by other potential generators, such as the skin, muscles, arteries, dura, etc. These data suggest a novel application for continuous non-invasive monitoring of DC potential changes, such as SD. Non-invasive monitoring of SD would allow early intervention and improve outcome in SD-related neurological disorders. PMID:27397413

  7. Evaluation of Consistency in Spheroid Invasion Assays

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros Castillo, Liliana R.; Oancea, Andrei-Dumitru; Stüllein, Christian; Régnier-Vigouroux, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular tumor spheroids embedded in a matrix represent invaluable tools to analyze cell invasion. Spheroid sizes and invasiveness are the main observables easily measurable to evaluate effects of biological or pharmaceutical manipulations on invasion. They largely account for these 3-D platforms variability, leading to flaws in data interpretation. No method has been established yet that characterizes this variability and guarantees a reliable use of 3-D platforms. Spheroid initial/end sizes and invasiveness were systematically analyzed and compared in spheroids of U87MG cells generated by three different methods and embedded at different times in a collagen matrix. A normality test was used to characterize size distribution. We introduced the linearity-over-yield analysis as a novel mathematical tool to assess end sizes and invasion reproducibility. We further provide a proof of concept by applying these tools to the analysis of a treatment known to be effective beforehand. We demonstrate that implementation of these statistical and mathematical tools warranted a confident quantification and interpretation of in 3-D conducted assays. We propose these tools could be incorporated in a guideline for generation and use of 3-D platforms. PMID:27334575

  8. Intravital microscopy of the lung: minimizing invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Fiole, Daniel; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    In vivo microscopy has recently become a gold standard in lung immunology studies involving small animals, largely benefiting from the democratization of multiphoton microscopy allowing for deep tissue imaging. This technology represents currently our only way of exploring the lungs and inferring what happens in human respiratory medicine. The interest of lung in vivo microscopy essentially relies upon its relevance as a study model, fulfilling physiological requirements in comparison with in vitro and ex vivo experiments. However, strategies developed in order to overcome movements of the thorax caused by breathing and heartbeats remain the chief drawback of the technique and a major source of invasiveness. In this context, minimizing invasiveness is an unavoidable prerequisite for any improvement of lung in vivo microscopy. This review puts into perspective the main techniques enabling lung in vivo microscopy, providing pros and cons regarding invasiveness. PMID:26846880

  9. Mechatronic Feasibility of Minimally Invasive, Atraumatic Cochleostomy

    PubMed Central

    Caversaccio, Marco; Proops, David; Brett, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Robotic assistance in the context of lateral skull base surgery, particularly during cochlear implantation procedures, has been the subject of considerable research over the last decade. The use of robotics during these procedures has the potential to provide significant benefits to the patient by reducing invasiveness when gaining access to the cochlea, as well as reducing intracochlear trauma when performing a cochleostomy. Presented herein is preliminary work on the combination of two robotic systems for reducing invasiveness and trauma in cochlear implantation procedures. A robotic system for minimally invasive inner ear access was combined with a smart drilling tool for robust and safe cochleostomy; evaluation was completed on a single human cadaver specimen. Access to the middle ear was successfully achieved through the facial recess without damage to surrounding anatomical structures; cochleostomy was completed at the planned position with the endosteum remaining intact after drilling as confirmed by microscope evaluation. PMID:25110661

  10. Minimally invasive surgery for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Melby, Spencer J; Damiano, Ralph J

    2016-04-01

    The surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been revolutionized over the past two decades through surgical innovation and improvements in endoscopic imaging, ablation technology, and surgical instrumentation. These advances have prompted the development of the less complex and less morbid Cox-Maze IV procedure, and have allowed its adaptation to a minimally invasive right mini-thoracotomy approach that can be used in stand-alone AF ablation and in patients undergoing concomitant mitral and tricuspid valve surgery. Other minimally invasive ablation techniques have been developed for stand-alone AF ablation, including video-assisted pulmonary vein isolation, extended left atrial lesion sets, and a hybrid approach. This review will discuss the tools, techniques, and outcomes of minimally invasive surgical procedures currently being practiced for AF ablation.

  11. [Minimally invasive operations in vascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Stádler, Petr; Sedivý, Petr; Dvorácek, Libor; Slais, Marek; Vitásek, Petr; El Samman, Khaled; Matous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery provides an attractive alternative compared with conventional surgical approaches and is popular with patients, particularly because of its favourable cosmetic results. Vascular surgery has taken its inspiration from general surgery and, over the past few years, has also been reducing the invasiveness of its operating methods. In addition to traditional laparoscopic techniques, we most frequently encounter the endovascular treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and, most recently, robot-assisted surgery in the area of the abdominal aorta and pelvic arteries. Minimally invasive surgical interventions also have other advantages, including less operative trauma, a reduction in post-operative pain, shorter periods spent in the intensive care unit and overall hospitalization times, an earlier return to normal life and, finally, a reduction in total treatment costs.

  12. Treatment of invasive candidiasis with echinocandins.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Steinbach, Angela; Vehreschild, Jörg Janne; Cornely, Oliver A

    2009-11-01

    Blood stream infections by Candida spp. represent the majority of invasive fungal infections in intensive care patients. The high crude mortality of invasive candidiasis remained essentially unchanged during the last two decades despite new treatment options that became available. The echinocandins, the latest class of antifungals introduced since 2001, exhibit potent activity against clinically relevant fungi including most Candida spp. In several randomised multicentre phase III trials, anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin showed convincing efficacy when compared with standard treatment regimens. In all trials, echinocandins were at least non-inferior to standard treatments. Anidulafungin was shown to be superior to fluconazole. Echinocandins have a favourable tolerability profile and exhibit a minimal potential for drug interactions since their pharmacokinetics is independent of renal and--largely--hepatic function. As a result of these properties, echinocandins are appropriate drugs of choice for invasive candidiasis in intensive care where many patients experience organ failure and receive multiple drugs with complex interactions.

  13. Minimally Invasive