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Sample records for laminar airflow tla

  1. A Comparison between Temperature-Controlled Laminar Airflow Device and a Room Air-Cleaner in Reducing Exposure to Particles While Asleep

    PubMed Central

    Spilak, Michal P.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Takai, Hisamitsu; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep environment might be a feasible method to alleviate these health symptoms. We performed full-scale laboratory measurements using a thermal manikin positioned on an experimental bed. Three ventilation settings were tested: with no filtration system operated, use of portable air cleaner and use of a temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) device. The first part of the experiment investigated the air-flow characteristics in the breathing zone. In the second part, particle removal efficiency was estimated. Measured in the breathing zone, the room air cleaner demonstrated high turbulence intensity, high velocity and turbulence diffusivity level, with a particle reduction rate of 52% compared to baseline after 30 minutes. The TLA device delivered a laminar airflow to the breathing zone with a reduction rate of 99.5%. During a periodical duvet lifting mimicking a subject’s movement in bed, the particle concentration was significantly lower with the TLA device compared to the room air cleaner. The TLA device provided a barrier which significantly reduced the introduction of airborne particles into the breathing zone. Further studies should be conducted for the understanding of the transport of resuspended particles between the duvet and the laying body. PMID:27898693

  2. Improved asthma control in patients with severe, persistent allergic asthma after 12 months of nightly temperature-controlled laminar airflow: an observational study with retrospective comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Uwe; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Gerstlauer, Michael; Lehmann, Sylvia; Gappa, Monika; Brenneken, Amelie; Schulz, Christian; Ahrens, Peter; Schreiber, Jens; Wittmann, Michael; Hamelmann, Eckard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Continuous or episodic allergen exposure is a major risk factor of frequent symptoms and exacerbations for patients with allergic asthma. It has been shown that temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) significantly reduced allergen exposure and airway inflammation and improved quality of life of patients with poorly controlled allergic asthma. Objective The objective was to evaluate the effects of nighttime TLA when used during real-life conditions for 12 consecutive months in addition to the patients’ regular medication. Methods This multicenter, pre- and postretrospective observational study included patients with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe allergic asthma who received add-on treatment with TLA for 12 consecutive months. Data on medication use, asthma control, asthma symptoms, lung function, use of hospital resources, and exacerbations were collected after 4 and 12 months and compared with corresponding data collected retrospectively from medical records during the year prior to inclusion in the study. Results Data from 30 patients (mean age 28; range 8–70) completing 4 months and 27 patients completing 12 months of TLA use are presented. The mean number of exacerbations was reduced from 3.6 to 1.3 (p<0.0001), and the ratio of asthma-related emergency room visits or hospitalizations diminished from 72.4 to 23.3% (p=0.001) or from 44.8 to 20.0% (p<0.05), respectively, after 12 months of TLA use. The Asthma Control Test index increased from 14.1 to 18.5 (p<0.0001). After 4 months of TLA use, clear improvements can be shown for most variables in line with the data collected after 12 months. Conclusions The addition of TLA to the patients’ regular medication significantly reduced exacerbations, asthma symptoms, and the utilization of hospital resources. The data support that TLA may be an important new non-pharmacological approach in the management of poorly controlled allergic asthma. PMID:26557252

  3. Surgical clothing systems in laminar airflow operating room: a numerical assessment.

    PubMed

    Sadrizadeh, Sasan; Holmberg, Sture

    2014-01-01

    This study compared two different laminar airflow distribution strategies - horizontal and vertical - and investigated the effectiveness of both ventilation systems in terms of reducing the sedimentation and distribution of bacteria-carrying particles. Three different staff clothing systems, which resulted in source strengths of 1.5, 4 and 5 CFU/s per person, were considered. The exploration was conducted numerically using a computational fluid dynamics technique. Active and passive air sampling methods were simulated in addition to recovery tests, and the results were compared. Model validation was performed through comparisons with measurement data from the published literature. The recovery test yielded a value of 8.1 min for the horizontal ventilation scenario and 11.9 min for the vertical ventilation system. Fewer particles were captured by the slit sampler and in sedimentation areas with the horizontal ventilation system. The simulated results revealed that under identical conditions in the examined operating room, the horizontal laminar ventilation system performed better than the vertical option. The internal constellation of lamps, the surgical team and objects could have a serious effect on the movement of infectious particles and therefore on postoperative surgical site infections.

  4. Techniques and clinical effect of aseptic procedures on patients with acute leukemia in laminar airflow rooms.

    PubMed

    Takeo, H; Sakurai, T; Amaki, I

    1983-01-01

    The techniques of aseptic procedures in the laminar airflow room (LAF) were evaluated in 110 adult patients undergoing antileukemic chemotherapy for remission induction. The patients were divided into three groups according to the regimens: Group A, consisting of 20 patients who stayed in the LAF and received the gown technique + sterile food + prophylactic oral and topical antibiotics; Group B, consisting of 12 patients who stayed in the LAF and received sterile food + prophylactic oral antibiotics; and Group C, consisting of 78 patients in open wards, who received prophylactic oral antibiotics alone. Species and numbers of microorganisms on the skin surface were far less in the patients in Group A than in those in Group B. Airborne microorganisms were counted by the air sampling method. No microorganisms could be detected at the time of the patient's rest and of blood collection in either Group A or B. Electrocardiography and X-ray examination caused an increase in the number of colonies to more than one colony in Group B, but Group A had a count of less than 0.5 colony. The colony counts became negative within 5 min after the cessation of each operation. The percentage of febrile days for patients with a peripheral granulocyte count of less than 100/microliter was 29% in Group A, 21% in Group B and 44% in Group C. The incidence of documented infections during the total hospital stay was 25% (5/20), 42% (5/12) and 86% (67/78), respectively. The aseptic procedures in Group B were not as strict as in Group A, but the incidence of infections in Group B was significantly lower than in Group C.

  5. Gaussian diffusion sphere model to predict deposition velocity onto wafers in laminar parallel airflow considering thermophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sang-Hee; Yook, Se-Jin; Han, Seog Young

    2012-11-01

    The Gaussian Diffusion Sphere Model (GDSM) was developed and improved to predict the particle deposition velocity onto a flat plate exposed to parallel airflow by considering thermophoresis in addition to the Brownian diffusion and the gravitational settling of particles. The plate surface temperature was varied and considered to be either hotter or colder than the temperature of the parallel airflow. The GDSM was able to estimate the particle deposition velocity under the influence of thermophoresis not only correctly but also very quickly, compared to the numerical approach to calculate the deposition velocity by simulating thermo-flow and particle transport. As the next step, the particle deposition velocities onto both face-up and face-down surfaces of the 450 mm wafer exposed to the parallel airflow were predicted with the GDSM by varying the wafer temperature. It was anticipated that the schemes of heating the wafer and placing the critical surface inverted during the horizontal transport of the wafer could greatly reduce the particulate contamination of the wafer critical surface.

  6. Airflow Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is an overview of research being done in laminar flow at Ames Dryden Flight Research Center and Langley Research Center. Airflow research at Ames Dryden has resulted in a special wing covering that will artificially induce laminar flow on the wing surface; this specially adapted wing is shown being tested in different flying conditions. This video also features research done at Langley in producing a chemical covering for wings that will make visible natural laminar flow and turbulent airflow patterns as they occur. Langley researchers explain possible use of this technology in supersonic flight.

  7. Airflow sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelbach, Herman R. (Inventor); Morgan, Michael D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is an airflow sensing system for determining the type of airflow flowing over a flight surface. A hot film sensor is driven by a constant voltage feedback circuit that maintains the voltage across the sensor at a predetermined level. A signal processing circuit receives an output signal of the feedback circuit and determines whether the output signal is indicative of laminar, transitional or turbulent airflow. Transitional airflow is distinguished from turbulent airflow by a signal having significant energy in a low-frequency passband from 50-80 Hz. The signal processing circuit drives a three-color LED display to provide a visual indication of the type of airflow being sensed.

  8. Timeline Analysis Program (TLA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. H.

    1976-01-01

    The Timeline Analysis Program (TLA-1) was described. This program is a crew workload analysis computer program that was developed and expanded from previous workload analysis programs, and is designed to be used on the NASA terminal controlled vehicle program. The following information is described: derivation of the input data, processing of the data, and form of the output data. Eight scenarios that were created, programmed, and analyzed as verification of this model were also described.

  9. Sequence types of Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with prosthetic joint infections are not present in the laminar airflow during prosthetic joint surgery.

    PubMed

    Månsson, Emeli; Hellmark, Bengt; Sundqvist, Martin; Söderquist, Bo

    2015-07-01

    Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) has demonstrated a predominance of healthcare-associated multi-drug resistant sequence types (ST2 and ST215). How, and when, patients acquire these nosocomial STs is not known. The aim was to investigate if sequence types of S. epidermidis associated with PJIs are found in the air during prosthetic joint surgery. Air sampling was undertaken during 17 hip/knee arthroplasties performed in operating theaters equipped with mobile laminar airflow units in a 500-bed hospital in central Sweden. Species identification was performed using MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Isolates identified as S. epidermidis were further characterized by MLST and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Seven hundred and thirty-five isolates were available for species identification. Micrococcus spp. (n = 303) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 217) constituted the majority of the isolates. Thirty-two isolates of S. epidermidis were found. S. epidermidis isolates demonstrated a high level of allelic diversity with 18 different sequence types, but neither ST2 nor ST215 was found. Commensals with low pathogenic potential dominated among the airborne microorganisms in the operating field during prosthetic joint surgery. Nosocomial sequence types of S. epidermidis associated with PJIs were not found, and other routes of inoculation are therefore of interest in future studies.

  10. Timeline analysis program (TLA-1), appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. H.

    1976-01-01

    Appendices for the Timeline Analysis Program (TLA-1) were given. The appendices contain the Atlanta terminal area scenarios, the task catalog and the control and display configurations for the forward and aft flight decks of the NASA 515 aircraft, and the event/procedure, phase, mission, and subsystem catalogs.

  11. F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Test Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    An F-16XL aircraft was used by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in a NASA-wide program to improve laminar airflow on aircraft flying at sustained supersonic speeds. It was th...

  12. Airflow control system

    DOEpatents

    Motszko, Sean Ronald; McEnaney, Ryan Patrick; Brush, Jeffrey Alan; Zimmermann, Daniel E.

    2007-03-13

    A dual airflow control system for an environment having a first air zone and a second air zone. The system includes a first input device operable to generate a first input signal indicative of a desired airflow to the first zone and a second input device operable to generate a second input signal indicative of a desired airflow to the second zone. First and second flow regulators are configured to regulate airflow to the first and second zones, respectively, such that the first and second regulators selectively provide the airflow to each of the first and second zones based on the first and second input signals. A single actuator is associated with the first and second flow regulators. The actuator is operable to simultaneously actuate the first and second flow regulators based on an input from the first and second input devices to allow the desired airflows to the first and the second zones.

  13. Surgical area contamination--comparable bacterial counts using disposable head and mask and helmet aspirator system, but dramatic increase upon omission of head-gear: an experimental study in horizontal laminar air-flow.

    PubMed

    Friberg, B; Friberg, S; Ostensson, R; Burman, L G

    2001-02-01

    The effect of different head coverings on air-borne transmission of bacteria and particles in the surgical area was studied during 30 strictly standardized sham operations performed in a horizontal laminar air flow (LAF) unit. The operating team members wore disposable gowns plus either a non-sterile head covering consisting of a squire type disposable hood and triple laminar face mask, a sterilized helmet aspirator system or no head cover at all. In the wound area both types of head cover resulted in low and comparable air (means of 8 and 4cfu/m(3)) and surface contamination (means of 69 and 126cfu/m(2)/h) rates. Omission of head-gear resulted in a three- to five-fold increase (P > or = 0.01- 0.001), depending on site sampled air contamination rate (mean of 22cfu/m(3)) whereas the bacterial sedimentation rate in the wound area increased about 60-fold ( P > or = 0.0001). A proper head cover minimized the emission of apparently heavy particles that were not removed by the horizontal LAF and contained mainly streptococci, presumably of respiratory tract origin. Dust particle counts revealed no differences between the three experimental situations. No correlation between air and surface contamination rates or between air contamination and air particle counts was found. We conclude that, from a bacteriological point of view, disposable hoods of squire type and face masks are equally as efficient as a helmet aspirator system and both will efficiently contain the substantial emission of bacteria-carrying droplets from the respiratory tract occurring when head cover is omitted. Finally, the use of bacterial air counts to assess surgical site surface contamination in horizontal LAF units must be seriously questioned.

  14. Assessing multizone airflow software

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, D.M.

    2001-12-01

    Multizone models form the basis of most computer simulations of airflow and pollutant transport in buildings. In order to promote computational efficiency, some multizone simulation programs, such as COMIS and CONTAM, restrict the form that their flow models may take. While these tools allow scientists and engineers to explore a wide range of building airflow problems, increasingly their use has led to new questions not answerable by the current generation of programs. This paper, directed at software developers working on the next generation of building airflow models, identifies structural aspects of COMIS and related programs that prevent them from easily incorporating desirable new airflow models. The paper also suggests criteria for evaluating alternate simulation environments for future modeling efforts.

  15. Genetic and biochemical analysis of the TLA1 gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Mautusi; Melis, Anastasios

    2010-02-01

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genomic DNA database contains a predicted open reading frame (ORF-P) without an apparent stop-codon and unknown coding sequence, located in close proximity and immediately upstream of the TLA1 gene (GenBank Accession No. AF534570). The latter was implicated in the regulation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis (Tetali et al. Planta 225:813-829, 2007). To provide currently lacking information on ORF-P and its potential participation in TLA1 gene expression, thus in the regulation of the chlorophyll antenna size, genetic and biochemical analyses were undertaken. The coding and UTR regions of the ORF-P were defined and delineated from those of the adjacent TLA1 gene. ORF-P is shown to encode a protein with a distinct RING-like zinc finger domain that is present in numerous eukaryotic proteins, believed to play a role in cellular ubiquitination, leading to regulation of cellular processes like signaling, growth, transcription, and DNA repair. It is further shown that the two genes share a 74-bp overlap between the 3' UTR region of ORF-P and the 5' UTR region of TLA1. However, they possess distinct start and stop codons and separate coding sequences, and transcribed as separate mRNAs without any trans-splicing between them. Complementation experiments showed that the TLA1 gene alone is sufficient to rescue the truncated chlorophyll antenna size phenotype of the tla1 mutant. Protein sequence alignments in C. reinhardtii and the colorless microalga Polytomella parva suggested that TLA1 defines the relationship between nucleus and organelle in microalgae, indirectly affecting the development of the chlorophyll antenna size.

  16. Morphological variation and airflow dynamics in the human nose.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Shackelford, Laura L; Georgi, J Nicole; Black, Michael T

    2004-01-01

    Airflow dynamics are recognized as being important to the functioning of the human nose in conditioning and filtering inspired air, yet these dynamics are poorly understood. Despite considerable research on airflow dynamics by otolaryngologists, respiratory physiologists, and toxicologists, major disagreements remain about the nature of airflow in the human nose. Specifically, there is little consensus about the character of nasal airflow regimes (laminar or turbulent) and about the major pathways of airflow through the internal chamber. Additionally, a number of features in the human nose have been argued to enhance airflow turbulence, thus increasing the exposure of moving air to the nasal mucosa and facilitating heat and moisture exchange in cold and/or dry climates. These features include: an inferior orientation of the nares; a nasal sill that is high relative to the floor of the internal nasal chamber; a nasal valve that is small in cross-sectional area relative to that of the internal chamber; and large, projecting conchae. The claim that these features affect airflow dynamics has never been tested. To clarify the nature of human nasal airflow and to test these claims of functional significance to nasal variation, we studied airflow across physiological flow rates using water and dye flowing through anatomically accurate acrylic models of human nasal air passageways (with adjustment of water flow rates to maintain dynamic similarity). The models were derived from direct casting of the nasal passageways of 10 Caucasian ("leptorrhine") cadavers (six male, four female). Measures of naris angle, nasal sill height, nasal valve area relative to internal chamber cross-sectional area, and relative projection of the inferior and middle turbinates were taken directly on the resulting casts. The relationships between aspects of nasal morphology and turbulent air flow were evaluated by examining the flow regimes (laminar, semiturbulent, or turbulent) at varying flow

  17. TLA-1: a New Plasmid-Mediated Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Silva, J.; Aguilar, C.; Ayala, G.; Estrada, M. A.; Garza-Ramos, U.; Lara-Lemus, R.; Ledezma, L.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli R170, isolated from the urine of an infected patient, was resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin but was susceptible to amikacin, cefotetan, and imipenem. This particular strain contained three different plasmids that encoded two β-lactamases with pIs of 7.0 and 9.0. Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole was transferred by conjugation from E. coli R170 to E. coli J53-2. The transferred plasmid, RZA92, which encoded a single β-lactamase, was 150 kb in length. The cefotaxime resistance gene that encodes the TLA-1 β-lactamase (pI 9.0) was cloned from the transconjugant by transformation to E. coli DH5α. Sequencing of the blaTLA-1 gene revealed an open reading frame of 906 bp, which corresponded to 301 amino acid residues, including motifs common to class A β-lactamases: 70SXXK, 130SDN, and 234KTG. The amino acid sequence of TLA-1 shared 50% identity with the CME-1 chromosomal class A β-lactamase from Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum; 48.8% identity with the VEB-1 class A β-lactamase from E. coli; 40 to 42% identity with CblA of Bacteroides uniformis, PER-1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and PER-2 of Salmonella typhimurium; and 39% identity with CepA of Bacteroides fragilis. The partially purified TLA-1 β-lactamase had a molecular mass of 31.4 kDa and a pI of 9.0 and preferentially hydrolyzed cephaloridine, cefotaxime, cephalothin, benzylpenicillin, and ceftazidime. The enzyme was markedly inhibited by sulbactam, tazobactam, and clavulanic acid. TLA-1 is a new extended-spectrum β-lactamase of Ambler class A. PMID:10722503

  18. TLA-1: a new plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Silva, J; Aguilar, C; Ayala, G; Estrada, M A; Garza-Ramos, U; Lara-Lemus, R; Ledezma, L

    2000-04-01

    Escherichia coli R170, isolated from the urine of an infected patient, was resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin but was susceptible to amikacin, cefotetan, and imipenem. This particular strain contained three different plasmids that encoded two beta-lactamases with pIs of 7.0 and 9.0. Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole was transferred by conjugation from E. coli R170 to E. coli J53-2. The transferred plasmid, RZA92, which encoded a single beta-lactamase, was 150 kb in length. The cefotaxime resistance gene that encodes the TLA-1 beta-lactamase (pI 9.0) was cloned from the transconjugant by transformation to E. coli DH5alpha. Sequencing of the bla(TLA-1) gene revealed an open reading frame of 906 bp, which corresponded to 301 amino acid residues, including motifs common to class A beta-lactamases: (70)SXXK, (130)SDN, and (234)KTG. The amino acid sequence of TLA-1 shared 50% identity with the CME-1 chromosomal class A beta-lactamase from Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum; 48.8% identity with the VEB-1 class A beta-lactamase from E. coli; 40 to 42% identity with CblA of Bacteroides uniformis, PER-1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and PER-2 of Salmonella typhimurium; and 39% identity with CepA of Bacteroides fragilis. The partially purified TLA-1 beta-lactamase had a molecular mass of 31.4 kDa and a pI of 9.0 and preferentially hydrolyzed cephaloridine, cefotaxime, cephalothin, benzylpenicillin, and ceftazidime. The enzyme was markedly inhibited by sulbactam, tazobactam, and clavulanic acid. TLA-1 is a new extended-spectrum beta-lactamase of Ambler class A.

  19. Airflow obstruction and exercise.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher B

    2009-03-01

    The primary abnormality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic airway inflammation which results in airflow limitation. Disease progression is usually depicted as an accelerated decline in FEV(1) over time. However, COPD patients also manifest progressive static hyperinflation due to the combined effects of reduced lung elastic recoil and increased airway resistance. Superimposed on static hyperinflation are further increases in operational lung volumes (dynamic hyperinflation) brought on during exercise, exacerbations or tachypnea. An important consequence of exertional dyspnea is activity limitation. COPD patients have been shown to spend only a third of the day walking or standing compared with age-matched healthy individuals who spend more than half of their time in these activities. Furthermore, the degree of activity limitation measured by an accelerometer worsens with disease progression. COPD patients have been shown to have an accelerated loss of aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) and this correlates with mortality just as is seen with hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Thus physical inactivity is an important therapeutic target in COPD. Summarizing; airflow obstruction leads to progressive hyperinflation, activity limitation, physical deconditioning and other comorbidities that characterize the COPD phenotype. Targeting the airflow obstruction with long-acting bronchodilator therapy in conjunction with a supervised exercise prescription is currently the most effective therapeutic intervention in earlier COPD. Other important manifestations of skeletal muscle dysfunction include muscle atrophy and weakness. These specific problems are best addressed with resistance training with consideration of anabolic supplementation.

  20. Development of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is regulated by the novel Tla1 gene.

    PubMed

    Tetali, Sarada D; Mitra, Mautusi; Melis, Anastasios

    2007-03-01

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii tla1 (truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size) mutant was generated upon DNA insertional mutagenesis and shown to specifically possess a smaller than wild type (WT) chlorophyll antenna size in both photosystems. Molecular and genetic analysis revealed that the exogenous plasmid DNA was inserted at the end of the 5' UTR and just prior to the ATG start codon of a hitherto unknown nuclear gene (termed Tla1), which encodes a protein of 213 amino acids. The Tla1 gene in the mutant is transcribed with a new 5' UTR sequence, derived from the 3' end of the transforming plasmid. This replacement of the native 5' UTR and promoter regions resulted in enhanced transcription of the tla1 gene in the mutant but inhibition in the translation of the respective tla1 mRNA. Transformation of the tla1 mutant with WT Tla1 genomic DNA successfully rescued the mutant. These results are evidence that polymorphism in the 5' UTR of the Tla1 transcripts resulted in the tla1 phenotype and that expression of the Tla1 gene is a prerequisite for the development/assembly of the Chl antenna in C. reinhardtii. A blast search with the Tla1 deduced amino acid sequence

  1. Suppression of Tla1 gene expression for improved solar conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae

    DOEpatents

    Melis, Anastasios; Mitra, Mautusi

    2010-06-29

    The invention provides method and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing TLA1 gene expression, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants, e.g., green microalgae, under bright sunlight conditions.

  2. Contamination control in HVAC systems for aseptic processing area. Part I: Case study of the airflow velocity in a unidirectional airflow workstation with computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, M

    2000-01-01

    A unidirectional airflow workstation for processing a sterile pharmaceutical product is required to be "Grade A," according to EU-GMP and WHO-GMP. These regulations have employed the wording of "laminar airflow" for unidirectional airflow, with an unclear definition given. This seems to have allowed many reports to describe discussion of airflow velocity only. The guidance values as to the velocity are expressed in various words of 90 ft/min, 0.45 m/sec, 0.3 m/sec, +/- 20%, or "homogeneous air speed." It has been also little clarified how variation in airflow velocity gives influences on contamination control of a workstation working with varying key characteristics, such as ceiling height, internal heat load, internal particle generation, etc. The present author has revealed following points from a case study using Computational Fluid Dynamics: the airflow characteristic in Grade A area shows no significant changes with varying the velocity of supplied airflow, and the particles generated from the operator will be exhausted outside Grade A area without contamination.

  3. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  4. Modulation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by TLA1 gene over-expression and RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Mautusi; Kirst, Henning; Dewez, David; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-12-19

    Truncated light-harvesting antenna 1 (TLA1) is a nuclear gene proposed to regulate the chlorophyll (Chl) antenna size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The Chl antenna size of the photosystems and the chloroplast ultrastructure were manipulated upon TLA1 gene over-expression and RNAi downregulation. The TLA1 over-expressing lines possessed a larger chlorophyll antenna size for both photosystems and contained greater levels of Chl b per cell relative to the wild type. Conversely, TLA1 RNAi transformants had a smaller Chl antenna size for both photosystems and lower levels of Chl b per cell. Western blot analyses of the TLA1 over-expressing and RNAi transformants showed that modulation of TLA1 gene expression was paralleled by modulation in the expression of light-harvesting protein, reaction centre D1 and D2, and VIPP1 genes. Transmission electron microscopy showed that modulation of TLA1 gene expression impacts the organization of thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast. Over-expressing lines showed well-defined grana, whereas RNAi transformants possessed loosely held together and more stroma-exposed thylakoids. Cell fractionation suggested localization of the TLA1 protein in the inner chloroplast envelope and potentially in association with nascent thylakoid membranes, indicating a role in Chl antenna assembly and thylakoid membrane biogenesis. The results provide a mechanistic understanding of the Chl antenna size regulation by the TLA1 gene.

  5. Laminar-Separation Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, G. S.; Carraway, D. L.; Lee, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    Reduction of viscous drag on airplanes explores limits of practical applications of natural laminar flow. Wind-tunnel and flight tests conducted to explore abilities of hot-film sensors to identify separation of laminar flow as principal mode of amplification of instability leading to transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Two different laminar-separation-sensor configurations developed and used to detect boundary-layer transitions. Results show hot-film laminar-separation-sensor technique viable means for detecting existence of transition as well as for indicating reversed flow in laminar-separation bubble. Refinement of sensor configurations provides tools necessary to explore, in all speed regimes, practical limits of laminar-flow applications and viscous-drag-reduction technology.

  6. Polyclonal antibodies against the TLA1 protein also recognize with high specificity the D2 reaction center protein of PSII in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Mautusi; Dewez, David; García-Cerdán, Jose Gines; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-04-01

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii DNA-insertional transformant truncated light-harvesting antenna 1 (tla1) mutant, helped identify the novel TLA1 gene (GenBank Accession # AF534570-71) as an important genetic determinant in the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis. Down-regulation in the amount of the TLA1 23 kDa protein in the cell resulted in smaller chlorophyll antenna size for both photosystems (in Tetali et al. Planta 225:813-829, 2007). Specific polyclonal antibodies, raised against the recombinant TLA1 protein, showed a cross-reaction with the predicted 23 kDa TLA1 protein in C. reinhardtii protein extracts, but also showed a strong cross-reaction with a protein band migrating to 28.5 kDa. Questions of polymorphism, or posttranslational modification of the TLA1 protein were raised as a result of the unexpected 28.5 kDa cross-reaction. Work in this paper aimed to elucidate the nature of the unexpected 28.5 kDa cross-reaction, as this was deemed to be important in terms of the functional role of the TLA1 protein in the regulation of the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis. Immuno-precipitation of the 28.5 kDa protein, followed by LC-mass spectrometry, showed amino acid sequences ascribed to the psbD/D2 reaction center protein of PSII. The common antigenic determinant between TLA1 and D2 was shown to be a stretch of nine conserved amino acids V-F-L(V)LP-GNAL in the C-terminus of the two proteins, constituting a high antigenicity "GNAL" domain. Antibodies raised against the TLA1 protein containing this domain recognized both the TLA1 and the D2 protein. Conversely, antibodies raised against the TLA1 protein minus the GNAL domain specifically recognized the 23 kDa TLA1 protein and failed to recognize the 28.5 kDa D2 protein. D2 antibodies raised against an oligopeptide containing this domain also cross-reacted with the TLA1 protein. It is concluded that the 28.5 kDa cross-reaction of C. reinhardtii protein extracts with antiTLA1 antibodies is due to

  7. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Airflow in Nasopharynx.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shome, Biswadip; Wang, Lian-Ping; Santare, Michael H.; Szeri, Andras Z.; Prasad, Ajay K.; Roberts, David

    1996-11-01

    A three-dimensional numerical simulation of airflow in nasopharynx (from the soft palate to the epiglottis) was conducted, using anatomically accurate model and finite element method, to study the influence of flow characteristics on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The results showed that the pressure drop in the nasopharynx is in the range 200-500 Pa. Ten different nasopharynx geometries resulting from three OSA treatment therapies (CPAP, mandibular repositioning devices, and surgery) were compared. The results confirmed that the airflow in the nasopharynx lies in the transitional flow regime and thus, a subtle change in the morphology caused by these treatment therapies has a large effect on the airflow. The onset of turbulence can cause as much as 40% of increase in pressure drop. For the transitional flow regime, the k-ɛ turbulence model was found to be the most appropriate model, when compared to the mixing length and the k-ω model, as it correctly reproduces the limiting laminar behavior. In addition, the pressure drop increased approximately as the square of the volumetric flow rate. Supported by NIH.

  8. tla1, a DNA insertional transformant of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size.

    PubMed

    Polle, Juergen E W; Kanakagiri, Sarada-Devi; Melis, Anastasios

    2003-05-01

    DNA insertional mutagenesis and screening of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was employed to isolate tla1, a stable transformant having a truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size. Molecular analysis showed a single plasmid insertion into an open reading frame of the nuclear genome corresponding to a novel gene ( Tla1) that encodes a protein of 213 amino acids. Genetic analysis showed co-segregation of plasmid and tla1 phenotype. Biochemical analyses showed the tla1 mutant to be chlorophyll deficient, with a functional chlorophyll antenna size of photosystem I and photosystem II being about 50% and 65% of that of the wild type, respectively. It contained a correspondingly lower amount of light-harvesting proteins than the wild type and had lower steady-state levels of Lhcb mRNA. The tla1 strain required a higher light intensity for the saturation of photosynthesis and showed greater solar conversion efficiencies and a higher photosynthetic productivity than the wild type under mass culture conditions. Results are discussed in terms of the tla1 mutation, its phenotype, and the role played by the Tla1 gene in the regulation of the photosynthetic chlorophyll antenna size in C. reinhardtii.

  9. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  10. Laminar-flow airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Dan M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An airfoil having a fore airfoil element, an aft airfoil element, and a slot region in between them. These elements induce laminar flow over substantially all of the fore airfoil element and also provide for laminar flow in at least a portion of the slot region. The method of the invention is one for inducing natural laminar flow over an airfoil. In the method, a fore airfoil element, having a leading and trailing edge, and an aft airfoil element define a slot region. Natural laminar flow is induced over substantially all of the fore airfoil element, by inducing the pressures on both surfaces of the fore airfoil element to decrease to a location proximate the trailing edge of the fore airfoil element using pressures created by the aft airfoil element.

  11. Laminar Soot Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K. -C.; Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    Soot formation within hydrocarbon-fueled flames is an important unresolved problem of combustion science for several reasons: soot emissions are responsible for more deaths than any other combustion pollutant, thermal loads due to continuum radiation from soot limit the durability of combustors, thermal radiation from soot is mainly responsible for the growth and spread of unwanted fires, carbon monoxide associated with soot emissions is responsible for most fire deaths, and limited understanding of soot processes is a major impediment to the development of computational combustion. Thus, soot processes within laminar nonpremixed (diffusion) flames are being studied, emphasizing space-based experiments at microgravity. The study is limited to laminar flames due to their experimental and computational tractability, noting the relevance of these results to practical flames through laminar flamelet concepts. The microgravity environment is emphasized because buoyancy affects soot processes in laminar diffusion flames whereas effects of buoyancy are small for most practical flames. Results discussed here were obtained from experiments carried out on two flights of the Space Shuttle Columbia. After a brief discussion of experimental methods, results found thus far are described, including soot concentration measurements, laminar flame shapes, laminar smoke points and flame structure. The present discussion is brief.

  12. Airflow patterns in complex workplaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, J.; Selby, J.M.; Lynch, T.P.; Langer, G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    There are many considerations in obtaining an accurate evaluation of aerosols. One aspect that has been neglected is the study of airflow patterns within the workplace. In many nuclear facilities, the operations performed required extensive equipment (e.g., glove boxes, piping) that create complex arrangements of physical barriers to flow. To provide samples of the airborne materials, particularly particles, knowledge of these complex airflow patterns is required for sampler placement. Recent studies have shown that materials introduced into the air flow within a workplace act as plumes embedded in major airflow streams. Portions of the plumes can recycle through the ventilated area, be lost to dead air pockets, or exhaust through unusual, unexpected outlets. Unusual flow patterns are observed even in relatively uncomplicated arrangements of equipment. This behavior must be factored into sampling/monitoring programs for evaluation of the airborne hazard to personnel within the workplace consistent with the objective of the program. Other factors that also must be considered to provide valid samples of airborne particulate materials are objectives of the sampling program, characteristics of the airborne particulate materials, nonsegregatory transport for the extracted materials, and requirements for the measurement techniques used.

  13. Assembly of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires expression of the TLA2-CpFTSY gene.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Henning; García-Cerdán, Jose Gines; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-02-01

    The truncated light-harvesting antenna2 (tla2) mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii showed a lighter-green phenotype, had a lower chlorophyll (Chl) per-cell content, and higher Chl a/b ratio than corresponding wild-type strains. Physiological analyses revealed a higher intensity for the saturation of photosynthesis and greater P(max) values in the tla2 mutant than in the wild type. Biochemical analyses showed that the tla2 strain was deficient in the Chl a-b light-harvesting complex, and had a Chl antenna size of the photosystems that was only about 65% of that in the wild type. Molecular and genetic analyses showed a single plasmid insertion in the tla2 strain, causing a chromosomal DNA rearrangement and deletion/disruption of five nuclear genes. The TLA2 gene, causing the tla2 phenotype, was cloned by mapping the insertion site and upon complementation with each of the genes that were deleted. Successful complementation was achieved with the C. reinhardtii TLA2-CpFTSY gene, whose occurrence and function in green microalgae has not hitherto been investigated. Functional analysis showed that the nuclear-encoded and chloroplast-localized CrCpFTSY protein specifically operates in the assembly of the peripheral components of the Chl a-b light-harvesting antenna. In higher plants, a cpftsy null mutation inhibits assembly of both the light-harvesting complex and photosystem complexes, thus resulting in a seedling-lethal phenotype. The work shows that cpftsy deletion in green algae, but not in higher plants, can be employed to generate tla mutants. The latter exhibit improved solar energy conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity under mass culture and bright sunlight conditions.

  14. Torque requirement of rotating rods in airflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, P. S.; Crossman, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the torque required for rotating a rotor disk fitted with a number of radially arranged rods placed into a ducted airflow. An array of stationary rods, also radially arranged, was placed upstream close to the rotor with a small gap between the rods to cause wake interference. The results show that torque generally increased with airflow and the rate of increase varied considerably. At lower values of airflow, the rate of increase was larger than at higher airflow, and definite torque peaks occurred at certain airflow rates, where the torque attained a maximum within the test airflow range. During the test, a maximum blade passage frequency of 2037 Hz was attained. The results also show that the torque peaks occurred at the same Strouhal number for all speeds.

  15. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar stability. The effects of supersonic laminar flow with distributed heating and cooling on active control will be studied. The primary tasks of the research applying to the NASA/Ames POC and LFSWT's nozzle design with laminar flow control are as follows: (1) supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition prediction; (2) effects of heating and cooling for supersonic laminar flow control; and (3) POC and LFSWT nozzle design with heating and cooling effects combining wall contour and length changes.

  16. Mechanical responses of rat vibrissae to airflow

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan S. W.; Graff, Matthew M.; Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The survival of many animals depends in part on their ability to sense the flow of the surrounding fluid medium. To date, however, little is known about how terrestrial mammals sense airflow direction or speed. The present work analyzes the mechanical response of isolated rat macrovibrissae (whiskers) to airflow to assess their viability as flow sensors. Results show that the whisker bends primarily in the direction of airflow and vibrates around a new average position at frequencies related to its resonant modes. The bending direction is not affected by airflow speed or by geometric properties of the whisker. In contrast, the bending magnitude increases strongly with airflow speed and with the ratio of the whisker's arc length to base diameter. To a much smaller degree, the bending magnitude also varies with the orientation of the whisker's intrinsic curvature relative to the direction of airflow. These results are used to predict the mechanical responses of vibrissae to airflow across the entire array, and to show that the rat could actively adjust the airflow data that the vibrissae acquire by changing the orientation of its whiskers. We suggest that, like the whiskers of pinnipeds, the macrovibrissae of terrestrial mammals are multimodal sensors – able to sense both airflow and touch – and that they may play a particularly important role in anemotaxis. PMID:27030774

  17. Development of laminar flow control wing surface porous structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klotzsche, M.; Pearce, W.; Anderson, C.; Thelander, J.; Boronow, W.; Gallimore, F.; Brown, W.; Matsuo, T.; Christensen, J.; Primavera, G.

    1984-01-01

    It was concluded that the chordwise air collection method, which actually combines chordwise and spanwise air collection, is the best of the designs conceived up to this time for full chord laminar flow control (LFC). Its shallower ducting improved structural efficiency of the main wing box resulting in a reduction in wing weight, and it provided continuous support of the chordwise panel joints, better matching of suction and clearing airflow requirements, and simplified duct to suction source minifolding. Laminar flow control on both the upper and lower surfaces was previously reduced to LFC suction on the upper surface only, back to 85 percent chord. The study concludes that, in addition to reduced wing area and other practical advantages, this system would be lighter because of the increase in effective structural wing thickness.

  18. Visualization of airflow growing soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Rahbi, Hamood; Bock, Matthew; Ryu, Sangjin

    2016-11-01

    Visualizing airflow inside growing soap bubbles can answer questions regarding the fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing, which is a model system for flows with a gas-liquid-gas interface. Also, understanding the soap bubble blowing process is practical because it can contribute to controlling industrial processes similar to soap bubble blowing. In this study, we visualized airflow which grows soap bubbles using the smoke wire technique to understand how airflow blows soap bubbles. The soap bubble blower setup was built to mimic the human blowing process of soap bubbles, which consists of a blower, a nozzle and a bubble ring. The smoke wire was placed between the nozzle and the bubble ring, and smoke-visualized airflow was captured using a high speed camera. Our visualization shows how air jet flows into the growing soap bubble on the ring and how the airflow interacts with the soap film of growing bubble.

  19. Homogeneous near surface activity distribution by double energy activation for TLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.

    2007-10-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) is a versatile tool for activating thin surface layers in order to study real-time the surface loss by wear, corrosion or erosion processes of the activated parts, without disassembling or stopping running mechanical structures or equipment. The research problem is the determination of the irradiation parameters to produce point-like or large area optimal activity-depth distribution in the sample. Different activity-depth profiles can be produced depending on the type of the investigated material and the nuclear reaction used. To produce activity that is independent of the depth up to a certain depth is desirable when the material removed from the surface by wear, corrosion or erosion can be collected completely. By applying dual energy irradiation the thickness of this quasi-constant activity layer can be increased or the deviation of the activity distribution from a constant value can be minimized. In the main, parts made of metals and alloys are suitable for direct activation, but by using secondary particle implantation the wear of other materials can also be studied in a surface range a few micrometers thick. In most practical cases activation of a point-like spot (several mm2) is enough to monitor the wear, corrosion or erosion, but for special problems relatively large surfaces areas of complicated spatial geometry need to be activated uniformly. Two ways are available for fulfilling this task, (1) production of large area beam spot or scanning the beam over the surface in question from the accelerator side, or (2) a programmed 3D movement of the sample from the target side. Taking into account the large variability of tasks occurring in practice, the latter method was chosen as the routine solution in our cyclotron laboratory.

  20. Effects of differences in nasal anatomy on airflow distribution: a comparison of four individuals at rest.

    PubMed

    Segal, Rebecca A; Kepler, Grace M; Kimbell, Julia S

    2008-11-01

    Differences in nasal anatomy among human subjects may cause significant differences in respiratory airflow patterns and subsequent dosimetry of inhaled gases and particles in the respiratory tract. This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study inter-individual differences in nasal airflow among four healthy individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were digitized and nasal-surface-area-to-volume ratios (SAVR) were calculated for 15 adults. Two males and two females, representative of the range of SAVR values, were selected for flow analysis. Nasal CFD models were constructed for each subject by a semi-automated process that provided input to a commercial mesh generator to generate structured hexahedral meshes (Gambit, Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA). Steady-state inspiratory laminar airflow at 15 L/min was calculated using commercial CFD software (FIDAP, Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA). Streamline patterns, velocities, and helicity values were compared. In all subjects, the majority of flow passed through the middle and ventral regions of the nasal passages; however, the amount and location of swirling flow differed among individuals. Cross-sectional flow allocation analysis also indicated inter-individual differences. Laboratory water-dye experiments confirmed streamlines and velocity magnitudes predicted by the computational model. These results suggest that significant inter-individual differences exist in bulk airflow patterns in the nose.

  1. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition, and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of supersonic laminar flow with distributed heating and cooling on active control will be studied. The primary tasks of the research applying to the NASA/Ames Proof of Concept (POC) Supersonic Wind Tunnel and Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) nozzle design with laminar flow control are as follows: (1) predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition, (2) effects of wall heating and cooling for supersonic laminar flow control, and (3) performance evaluation of POC and LFSWT nozzles design with wall heating and cooling effects applying at different locations and various length.

  2. Control of airborne nickel welding fumes by means of a vertical laminar air flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, T.C.

    1980-12-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effeciveness of a clean room facility with laminar air flow in the control of nickel fumes released from metal inert gas (MIG) and shielded metal arc (SMA) welding operations performed on mild steel using nickel filler materials. From data observed in these experiments, it appears that the laminar flow clean room approach to controlling welding fumes can be successful in certain small table top welding operations. However, almost any interferences that obstruct the downward airflow can result in eddy currents and subsequent build-up of fumes by entrapment. Airflow patterns differ significantly when comparing table top operations to welding on large cylindrical and/or doughnut shaped items. (JGB)

  3. Truncated photosystem chlorophyll antenna size in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon deletion of the TLA3-CpSRP43 gene.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Henning; Garcia-Cerdan, Jose Gines; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Ruehle, Thilo; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-12-01

    The truncated light-harvesting antenna size3 (tla3) DNA insertional transformant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a chlorophyll-deficient mutant with a lighter green phenotype, a lower chlorophyll (Chl) per cell content, and higher Chl a/b ratio than corresponding wild-type strains. Functional analyses revealed a higher intensity for the saturation of photosynthesis and greater light-saturated photosynthetic activity in the tla3 mutant than in the wild type and a Chl antenna size of the photosystems that was only about 40% of that in the wild type. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western-blot analyses showed that the tla3 strain was deficient in the Chl a/b light-harvesting complex. Molecular and genetic analyses revealed a single plasmid insertion in chromosome 4 of the tla3 nuclear genome, causing deletion of predicted gene g5047 and plasmid insertion within the fourth intron of downstream-predicted gene g5046. Complementation studies defined that gene g5047 alone was necessary and sufficient to rescue the tla3 mutation. Gene g5047 encodes a C. reinhardtii homolog of the chloroplast-localized SRP43 signal recognition particle, whose occurrence and function in green microalgae has not hitherto been investigated. Biochemical analysis showed that the nucleus-encoded and chloroplast-localized CrCpSRP43 protein specifically operates in the assembly of the peripheral components of the Chl a/b light-harvesting antenna. This work demonstrates that cpsrp43 deletion in green microalgae can be employed to generate tla mutants with a substantially diminished Chl antenna size. The latter exhibit improved solar energy conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity under mass culture and bright sunlight conditions.

  4. Laminar Soot Processes (LSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Kim, C. H.; Krishnan, S. S.; Lin, K.-C.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report of a research program considering the structure and the soot surface reaction properties of laminar nonpremixed (diffusion) flames. The study was limited to ground-based measurements of buoyant laminar jet diffusion flames at pressures of 0.1-1.0 atm. The motivation for the research is that soot formation in flames is a major unresolved problem of combustion science that influences the pollutant emissions, durability and performance of power and propulsion systems, as well as the potential for developing computational combustion. The investigation was divided into two phases considering the structure of laminar soot-containing diffusion flames and the soot surface reaction properties (soot surface growth and oxidation) of these flames, in turn. The first phase of the research addressed flame and soot structure properties of buoyant laminar jet diffusion flames at various pressures. The measurements showed that H, OH and O radical concentrations were generally in superequilibrium concentrations at atmospheric pressure but tended toward subequilibrium concentrations as pressures decreased. The measurements indicated that the original fuel decomposed into more robust compounds at elevated temperatures, such as acetylene (unless the original fuel was acetylene) and H, which are the major reactants for soot surface growth, and that the main effect of the parent fuel on soot surface growth involved its yield of acetylene and H for present test conditions. The second phase of the research addressed soot surface reaction properties, e.g., soot surface growth and surface oxidation. It was found that soot surface growth rates in both laminar premixed and diffusion flames were in good agreement, that these rates were relatively independent of fuel type, and that these rates could be correlated by the Hydrogen-Abstraction/Carbon-Addition (HACA) mechanisms of Colket and Hall (1994), Frenklach et al. (1990,1994), and Kazakov et al. (1995). It was also

  5. Association of the Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Gene blaTLA-1 with a Novel ISCR Element, ISCR20▿

    PubMed Central

    Berçot, Beatrice; Poirel, Laurent; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus; Nordmann, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    The blaTLA-1 gene encoding an extended-spectrum β-lactamase was identified in 11 enterobacterial isolates from Mexico City, Mexico. This gene was located on different plasmids and plasmid types with different sizes and incompatibility groups. It was associated with a novel insertion sequence, ISCR20, encoding a putative transposase that shared only 20% amino acid identity with the most closely related transposase of ISCR1. The ISCR20 element provided specific promoter sequences for expression of the blaTLA-1 gene. PMID:20585120

  6. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition, and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique will be studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames Proof of Concept (PoC) and Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel's (LFSWT's) nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: (1) predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition, (2) effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control, (3) performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths, and (4) effects of a conducted versus pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT.

  7. Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique will be studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames PoC and LFSWT's nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: Predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition; Effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control on a flat plate; Performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths; Effects of a conducted-vs-pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT; and Application of wall heating and/or cooling to laminar boundary layer and flow separation control of airfoils and investigation of related active control techniques.

  8. Airflow resistance of selected biomass materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.C.; Sumner, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure drop created when air was forced through beds of selected biomass materials was determined. Materials tested included peanut hulls, peanut hull pellets, maize cobs, and wood shavings, chips and bark. The data were presented as logarithmic plots and equations of pressure drop versus airflow. The airflow resistances of the biomass materials increased with an increase in bulk density and were found to be in the range between values for ear and shelled maize. 12 references.

  9. Laminar Soot Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Interior of the Equipment Module for the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP-2) experiment that fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 (LSP-1 flew on Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997). The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner (yellow ellipse), similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a radiometer or heat sensor (blue circle), and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  10. Laminar Soot Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Image of soot (smoke) plume made for the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment during the Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997. LSP-2 will fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002. The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner, similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a temperature sensor, and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  11. Laminar Soot Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment under way during the Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997. LSP-2 will fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001. The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner, similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a temperature sensor, and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  12. Hybrid Laminar Fin Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    the driving unit being an ejector . Reynolds numbers at cruise conditions a ½2 scale model has been chosen to be tested in the ONERA SI MA wind The...enabled laminar flow to be ONERA and based on advanced CFD -tools [3] the final fully demonstrated up to a Mach number of 0.6. For shape which is...for different Mach numbers. As A critical issue for the second item and therefore a part of a detailed analysis of these experimental results

  13. Structure of laminar sooting inverse diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Mikofski, Mark A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Williams, Timothy C.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Blevins, Linda G.

    2007-06-15

    The flame structure of laminar inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) was studied to gain insight into soot formation and growth in underventilated combustion. Both ethylene-air and methane-air IDFs were examined, fuel flow rates were kept constant for all flames of each fuel type, and airflow rates were varied to observe the effect on flame structure and soot formation. Planar laser-induced fluorescence of hydroxyl radicals (OH PLIF) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH PLIF), planar laser-induced incandescence of soot (soot PLII), and thermocouple-determined gas temperatures were used to draw conclusions about flame structure and soot formation. Flickering, caused by buoyancy-induced vortices, was evident above and outside the flames. The distances between the OH, PAH, and soot zones were similar in IDFs and normal diffusion flames (NDFs), but the locations of those zones were inverted in IDFs relative to NDFs. Peak OH PLIF coincided with peak temperature and marked the flame front. Soot appeared outside the flame front, corresponding to temperatures around the minimum soot formation temperature of 1300 K. PAHs appeared outside the soot layer, with characteristic temperature depending on the wavelength detection band. PAHs and soot began to appear at a constant axial position for each fuel, independent of the rate of air flow. PAH formation either preceded or coincided with soot formation, indicating that PAHs are important components in soot formation. Soot growth continued for some time downstream of the flame, at temperatures below the inception temperature, probably through reaction with PAHs. (author)

  14. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique will be studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames PoC and LFSWT's nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: (1) predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition; (2) effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control; (3) performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths; and (4) effects of a conducted -vs- pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT.

  15. RANS and LES simulations of the airflow through nasal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics and health problems. The long-term goal of the OpenNOSE project is to develop a reliable open-source computational tool based on the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox that can assist surgeons in their daily practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the turbulence model and boundary conditions on simulations of the airflow in nasal cavities. The geometry, including paranasal sinuses, was reconstructed from a carefully selected CT scan, and RANS and LES simulations were carried out for steady inspiration and expiration. At a flow rate near 20 l/min, the flow is laminar in most of the domain. During the inspiration phase, turbulence develops in nasopharynx and oropharynx regions; during the expiration phase, another vortical region is observed down the nostrils. A comparison between different boundary conditions suggests the use of a total pressure condition, or alternatively a uniform velocity, at the inlet and outlet. In future work the same geometry will be used for setting up a laboratory experiment, intended to cross-validate the numerical results.

  16. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  17. An electromagnetic energy scavenger from direct airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Hyok; Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Galle, Preston; Herrault, Florian; Wu, Xiaosong; Lee, Jin-Ho; Choi, Chang-Auk; Allen, Mark G.

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents two types of electromagnetic power generators exploiting direct conversion of airflow into mechanical vibration: (1) a windbelt-based vibratory linear energy scavenger targeting strong airflows and (2) a Helmholtz-resonator-based generator capable of scavenging energy from weaker airflows, i.e. environmental airflows. Both devices consist of two tightly coupled parts: a mechanical resonator, which produces high-frequency mechanical oscillation from quasi-constant airflow, and a permanent magnet/coil system, which generates electrical power from the resonator's motion. The proposed energy scavengers obviate the typically required matching of the resonant frequencies of the scavenger and the ambient energy sources it taps. This enables a device that is simpler, smaller and higher-frequency than the previously reported resonant power generator. The windbelt-based energy scavenger demonstrated a peak-to-peak output voltage of 81 mV at 0.53 kHz, from an input pressure of 50 kPa. The Helmholtz-resonator-based energy scavenger achieved a peak-to-peak output voltage of 4 mV at 1.4 kHz, from an input pressure of 0.2 kPa, which is equivalent to 5 m s-1 (10 mph) of wind velocity.

  18. Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques are developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique are studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames Proof-of-Concept (PoC) and the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel's (LFSWT's) nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: (1) Predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition; (2) Effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control on a flat plate; (3) Performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths; (4) Effects of a conducted -vs- pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT; and (5) Application of wall heating and/or cooling to laminar boundary layer and flow separation control of airfoils and investigation of related active control techniques.

  19. Overview of Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    The history of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) from the 1930s through the 1990s is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Early studies related to the natural laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. Although most of this publication is about slot-, porous-, and perforated-suction LFC concept studies in wind tunnel and flight experiments, some mention is made of thermal LFC. Theoretical and computational tools to describe the LFC aerodynamics are included for completeness.

  20. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  1. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  2. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  3. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  4. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  5. Laminar Flow Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, David F.

    1992-10-01

    The major thrust of this book is to present a technique of analysis that aids the formulation, understanding, and solution of problems of viscous flow. The intent is to avoid providing a "canned" program to solve a problem, offering instead a way to recognize the underlying physical, mathematical, and modeling concepts inherent in the solutions. The reader must first choose a mathematical model and derive governing equations based on realistic assumptions, or become aware of the limitations and assumptions associated with existing models. An appropriate solution technique is then selected. The solution technique may be either analytical or numerical. Computer-aided analysis algorithms supplement the classical analyses. The book begins by deriving the Navier-Stokes equation for a viscous compressible variable property fluid. The second chapter considers exact solutions of the incompressible hydrodynamic boundary layer equations solved with and without mass transfer at the wall. Forced convection, free convection, and the compressible laminar boundary layer are discussed in the remaining chapters. The text unifies the various topics by tracing a logical progression from simple to complex governing differential equations and boundary conditions. Numerical, parametric, and directed analysis problems are included at the end of each chapter.

  6. Structure of the airflow above surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Marc; Veron, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Weather, climate and upper ocean patterns are controlled by the exchanges of momentum, heat, mass, and energy across the ocean surface. These fluxes are, in turn, influenced by the small-scale physics at the wavy air-sea interface. We present laboratory measurements of the fine-scale airflow structure above waves, achieved in over 15 different wind-wave conditions, with wave ages Cp/u* ranging from 1.4 to 66.7 (where Cp is the peak phase speed of the waves, and u* the air friction velocity). The experiments were performed in the large (42-m long) wind-wave-current tank at University of Delaware's Air-Sea Interaction laboratory (USA). A combined Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Induced Fluorescence system was specifically developed for this study, and provided two-dimensional airflow velocity measurement as low as 100 um above the air-water interface. Starting at very low wind speeds (U10~2m/s), we directly observe coherent turbulent structures within the buffer and logarithmic layers of the airflow above the air-water interface, whereby low horizontal velocity air is ejected away from the surface, and higher velocity fluid is swept downward. Wave phase coherent quadrant analysis shows that such turbulent momentum flux events are wave-phase dependent. Airflow separation events are directly observed over young wind waves (Cp/u*<3.7) and counted using measured vorticity and surface viscous stress criteria. Detached high spanwise vorticity layers cause intense wave-coherent turbulence downwind of wave crests, as shown by wave-phase averaging of turbulent momentum fluxes. Mean wave-coherent airflow motions and fluxes also show strong phase-locked patterns, including a sheltering effect, upwind of wave crests over old mechanically generated swells (Cp/u*=31.7), and downwind of crests over young wind waves (Cp/u*=3.7). Over slightly older wind waves (Cp/u* = 6.5), the measured wave-induced airflow perturbations are qualitatively consistent with linear critical layer

  7. Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  8. Supersonic laminar-flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed, up to date systems studies of the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to various supersonic missions and/or vehicles, both civilian and military, are not yet available. However, various first order looks at the benefits are summarized. The bottom line is that laminar flow control may allow development of a viable second generation SST. This follows from a combination of reduced fuel, structure, and insulation weight permitting operation at higher altitudes, thereby lowering sonic boom along with improving performance. The long stage lengths associated with the emerging economic importance of the Pacific Basin are creating a serious and renewed requirement for such a vehicle. Supersonic LFC techniques are discussed.

  9. Hybrid laminar flow control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) in which leading edge suction is used in conjunction with wing pressure distribution tailoring to postpone boundary layer transition and reduce friction drag was examined. Airfoil design characteristics required for laminar flow control (LFC) were determined. The aerodynamic design of the HLFC wing for a 178 passenger commercial turbofan transport was developed, and a drag was estimated. Systems changes required to install HLFC were defined, and weights and fuel economy were estimated. The potential for 9% fuel reduction for a 3926-km (2120-nmi) mission is identified.

  10. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory.

  11. Laminar flow: Challenge and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, Mark E.

    1987-01-01

    Commercial air transportation has experienced revolutionary technology advances since WWII. These technology advances have resulted in an explosive growth in passenger traffic. Today, however, many technologies have matured, and maintaining a similar growth rate will be a challenge. A brief history of laminar flow technology and its application to subsonic and supersonic air transportation is presented.

  12. The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) Experiment Mounting Structure (EMS) was used to conduct the LSP experiment on Combustion Module-1. The EMS was inserted into the nozzle on the EMS and ignited by a hot wire igniter. The flame and its soot emitting properties were studied.

  13. Laminar-flow flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Richard D.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Bartlett, D. W.; Collier, F. S., Jr.; Braslow, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The flight testing conducted over the past 10 years in the NASA laminar-flow control (LFC) will be reviewed. The LFC program was directed towards the most challenging technology application, the high supersonic speed transport. To place these recent experiences in perspective, earlier important flight tests will first be reviewed to recall the lessons learned at that time.

  14. Considerations for efficient airflow design in cleanrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2004-07-29

    A high-performance cleanroom should provide efficient energy performance in addition to effective contamination control. Energy-efficient designs can yield capital and operational cost savings, and can be part of a strategy to improve productivity in the cleanroom industry. Based upon in-situ measurement data from ISO Class 5 clean rooms, this article discusses key factors affecting cleanroom air system performance and benefits of efficient airflow design in clean rooms. Cleanroom HVAC systems used in the semiconductor, pharmaceutical, and healthcare industries are very energy intensive, requiring large volumes of cleaned air to remove or dilute contaminants for satisfactory operations. There is a tendency, however, to design excessive airflow rates into cleanroom HVAC systems, due to factors such as design conservatism, lack of thorough understanding of airflow requirements, concerns about cleanliness reliability, and potential design and operational liabilities. Energy use of cleanroom environmental systems varies with system type and design, cleanroom functions, and the control of critical parameters such as temperature and humidity. In particular, cleanroom cleanliness requirements specified by cleanliness class have an impact on overall energy use. A previous study covering Europe and the US reveals annual cleanroom electricity usage for cooling and fan energy varies significantly depending on cleanliness class, and may account for up to three-quarters of total annual operating costs. A study on a semiconductor cleanroom in Japan found air delivery systems account for more than 30% of total power consumption. It is evident that the main factors dictating cleanroom operation energy include airflow rates and HVAC system efficiency. Improving energy efficiency in clean rooms may potentially contribute to significant savings in the initial costs of the facilities as well as operation and maintenance costs. For example, energy consumption by a typical chip

  15. Airflow limitation is accompanied by diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hellebrandová, L; Chlumský, J; Vostatek, P; Novák, D; Rýznarová, Z; Bunc, V

    2016-07-18

    Chronic airflow limitation, caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or by asthma, is believed to change the shape and the position of the diaphragm due to an increase in lung volume. We have made a comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of diaphragm in supine position with pulmonary functions, respiratory muscle function and exercise tolerance. We have studied the differences between patients with COPD, patients with asthma, and healthy subjects. Most interestingly we found the lung hyperinflation leads to the changes in diaphragmatic excursions during the breathing cycle, seen in the differences between the maximal expiratory diaphragm position (DPex) in patients with COPD and control group (p=0.0016). The magnitude of the diaphragmatic dysfunction was significantly related to the airflow limitation expressed by the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to slow vital capacity (FEV(1)/SVC), (%, p=0.0007); to the lung hyperinflation expressed as the ratio of the residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC), (%, p=0.0018) and the extent of tidal volume constrain expressed as maximal tidal volume (V(Tmax)), ([l], p=0.0002); and the ratio of tidal volume to slow vital capacity (V(T)/SVC), (p=0.0038) during submaximal exercise. These results suggest that diaphragmatic movement fails to contribute sufficiently to the change in lung volume in emphysema. Tests of respiratory muscle function were related to the position of the diaphragm in deep expiration, e.g. neuromuscular coupling (P(0.1)/V(T)) (p=0.0232). The results have shown that the lung volumes determine the position of the diaphragm and function of the respiratory muscles. Chronic airflow limitation seems to change the position of the diaphragm, which thereafter influences inspiratory muscle function and exercise tolerance. There is an apparent relationship between the position of the diaphragm and the pulmonary functions and exercise tolerance.

  16. Operational considerations for laminar flow aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of laminar flow technology for commercial transports during the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) laminar flow program. Practical, operational laminar flow control (LFC) systems have been designed, fabricated, and are undergoing flight testing. New materials, fabrication methods, analysis techniques, and design concepts were developed and show much promise. The laminar flow control systems now being flight tested on the NASA Jetstar aircraft are complemented by natural laminar flow flight tests to be accomplished with the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment. An overview of some operational aspects of this exciting program is given.

  17. Airflow elicits a spider's jump towards airborne prey. I. Airflow around a flying blowfly

    PubMed Central

    Klopsch, Christian; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C.; Barth, Friedrich G.

    2012-01-01

    The hunting spider Cupiennius salei uses airflow generated by flying insects for the guidance of its prey-capture jump. We investigated the velocity field of the airflow generated by a freely flying blowfly close to the flow sensors on the spider's legs. It shows three characteristic phases (I–III). (I) When approaching, the blowfly induces an airflow signal near the spider with only little fluctuation (0.013 ± 0.006 m s−1) and a strength that increases nearly exponentially with time (maximum: 0.164 ± 0.051 m s−1 s.d.). The spider detects this flow while the fly is still 38.4 ± 5.6 mm away. The fluctuation of the airflow above the sensors increases linearly up to 0.037 m s−1 with the fly's altitude. Differences in the time of arrival and intensity of the fly signal at different legs probably inform the spider about the direction to the prey. (II) Phase II abruptly follows phase I with a much higher degree of fluctuation (fluctuation amplitudes: 0.114 ± 0.050 m s−1). It starts when the fly is directly above the sensor and corresponds to the time-dependent flow in the wake below and behind the fly. Its onset indicates to the spider that its prey is now within reach and triggers its jump. The spider derives information on the fly's position from the airflow characteristics, enabling it to properly time its jump. The horizontal velocity of the approaching fly is reflected by the time of arrival differences (ranging from 0.038 to 0.108 s) of the flow at different legs and the exponential velocity growth rate (16–79 s−1) during phase I. (III) The air flow velocity decays again after the fly has passed the spider. PMID:22572032

  18. Diaphragm injury in individuals with airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Macgowan, N A; Evans, K G; Road, J D; Reid, W D

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of diaphragm injury, to quantify the injury and number of macrophages at the light microscopic level, and to determine their association with airflow obstruction in humans. Partial-thickness diaphragm biopsies were obtained from 21 subjects going for thoracotomy surgery (FEV(1): 74 +/- 34% predicted; range: 16 to 122% predicted). Cross sections cut from frozen diaphragm were processed with H&E or processed for immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal antibody Ber-MAC3 (DAKO Corp., Carpinteria, CA) to label macrophages. Area fractions (A(A)) or the proportions of the cross- sectional area were determined by point counting all viable fields of H&E-stained diaphragm cross sections. A(A) were 66.2 +/- 9.0% for normal muscle, 17.6 +/- 7.2% for abnormal muscle, and 16.3 +/- 4.2% for connective tissue. Percent predicted FEV(1) was inversely related to the A(A) of abnormal muscle (r = -0.53, p < 0.01) and directly related to the A(A) of normal muscle (r = 0.37, p < 0.05). The number of macrophages was not related to % predicted FEV(1) (mean +/- SD: 0.41 +/- 0.18/fiber; 52 +/- 19/mm(2)). We conclude that increasing severity of airflow obstruction is associated with an increased A(A) of abnormal diaphragm and a decreased A(A) of normal diaphragm.

  19. Natural Laminar Flow Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    A supercritical airfoil section was designed with favorable pressure gradients on both the upper and lower surfaces. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The outer wing panels of the F-111 TACT airplane were modified to incorporate partial span test gloves having the natural laminar, flow profile. Instrumentation was installed to provide surface pressure data as well as to determine transition location and boundary layer characteristics. The flight experiment encompassed 19 flights conducted with and without transition fixed at several locations for wing leading edge sweep angles which varied from 10 to 26 at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 0.85 and altitudes of 7620 meters and 9144 meters. Preliminary results indicate that a large portion of the test chord experienced laminar flow.

  20. Downstream Development of a Laminar Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Naoki; Matsumoto, Akira

    It was well-known that a disturbance, introduced artificially into a supercritical laminar boundary layer along a flat plate, is still laminar in the initial stage of its downstream development. Thus, we named it a "laminar spot" because it resembles a turbulent spot though its velocity perturbation remains laminar. From velocity measurements using a rake-type 16-channel hot-wire probe, we found that in the first stage of the downstream development of a laminar spot, its maximum width was at 0.2δ (what is called the critical layer) and one-half of its lateral growth angle was about 5°, which is almost one-half that of a turbulent spot. We call this region a "laminar spot region". In the present study, we measured in detail the velocity field of a laminar spot using a new hot-wire probe in the laminar spot region. The results showed that a laminar spot consists of some hairpin vortices and some induced U-shaped vortices under the hairpin vortices. Because of the interaction of the velocities induced by the respective vortex legs, the legs of the U-shaped vortices were located at the outermost part of the spot. Moreover, the new vortex legs extended spanwise at about 4° as the spot traveled downstream. Consequently, we concluded that the laminar spot grew spanwise in accordance with the span of these vortex legs.

  1. On wind turbine power performance measurements at inclined airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, T. F.

    2004-07-01

    The average airflow inclination in complex terrain may be substantial. The airflow inclination affects wind turbine performance and also affects the cup anemometer being used in power performance measurements. In this article the overall dependence of the power curve on inclined airflow is analysed for its influence on both the wind turbine and the cup anemometer. The wind turbine performance analysis is based on results of measurements and theoretical calculations with the aeroelastic code HAWC coupled to a 3D actuator disc model for varying yaw angle. The cup anemometer analysis at inclined flow is based on an averaging of measured angular characteristics in a wind tunnel with the distribution of airflow inclination angles over time. The relative difference in annual energy production in terrain with inclined airflow compared with flat terrain is simulated for cup anemometers with theoretical optimal angular characteristics for two different definitions of wind speed, as well as for five commercial cup anemometers with measured angular characteristics. Copyright

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Induced Airflow of Corona Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Xun-Nian; Wang, Wan-Bo; Huang, Zong-Bo; Li, Hua-Xing

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve the acceleration effect of corona discharge acting on air, we present an experimental study on the induced airflow produced by corona discharge between two parallel electrodes. The parameters investigated are the type of electrodes, actuation voltage and the distance in the absence of free airflow. The induced flow velocity is measured directly in the accelerated region using the particle image velocimetry technology. The results show that if corona discharge is not developed into arc discharge, the induced airflow velocity increases nearly linearly with the applied voltage and the maximum induced airflow velocity near the needle electrode reaches 36 m/s. It is expected that in the future, the result can be referred to in the research about effect of active flow control to reach much higher induced airflow speed.

  3. Analysis of the laminar flamelet concept for nonpremixed laminar flames

    SciTech Connect

    Claramunt, K.; Consul, R.; Carbonell, D.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.

    2006-06-15

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the application of the laminar flamelet concept to the multidimensional numerical simulation of nonpremixed laminar flames. The performance of steady and unsteady flamelets is analyzed. The deduction of the mathematical formulation of flamelet modeling is exposed and some commonly used simplifications are examined. Different models for the scalar dissipation rate dependence on the mixture fraction variable are analyzed. Moreover, different criteria to evaluate the Lagrangian-type flamelet lifetime for unsteady flamelets are investigated. Inclusion of phenomena such as differential diffusion with constant Lewis number for each species and radiation heat transfer are also studied. A confined co-flow axisymmetric nonpremixed methane/air laminar flame experimentally investigated by McEnally and Pfefferle (Combust. Sci. Technol. 116-117 (1996) 183-209) and numerically investigated by Bennett, McEnally, Pfefferle, and Smooke (Combust. Flame 123 (2000) 522-546), Consul, Perez-Segarra, Claramunt, Cadafalch, and Oliva (Combust. Theory Modelling 7 (3) (2003) 525-544), and Claramunt, Consul, Perez-Segarra, and Oliva (Combust. Flame 137 (2004) 444-457) has been used as a test case. Results obtained using the flamelet concept have been compared to data obtained from the full resolution of the complete transport equations using primitive variables. Finite-volume techniques over staggered grids are used to discretize the governing equations. A parallel multiblock algorithm based on domain decomposition techniques running with loosely coupled computers has been used. To assess the quality of the numerical solutions presented in this paper, a verification process based on the generalized Richardson extrapolation technique and on the grid convergence index (GCI) has been applied. (author)

  4. Room airflow studies using sonic anemometry.

    PubMed

    Wasiolek, P T; Whicker, J J; Gong, H; Rodgers, J C

    1999-06-01

    To ensure prompt response by real-time air monitors to an accidental release of toxic aerosols in a workplace, safety professionals should understand airflow patterns. This understanding can be achieved with validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer simulations, or with experimental techniques, such as measurements with smoke, neutrally buoyant markers, trace gases, or trace aerosol particles. As a supplementary technique to quantify airflows, the use of a state-of-the art, three-dimensional sonic anemometer was explored. This instrument allows for the precise measurements of the air-velocity vector components in the range of a few centimeters per second, which is common in many indoor work environments. Measurements of air velocities and directions at selected locations were made for the purpose of providing data for characterizing fundamental aspects of indoor air movement in two ventilated rooms and for comparison to CFD model predictions. One room was a mockup of a plutonium workroom, and the other was an actual functioning plutonium workroom. In the mockup room, air-velocity vector components were measured at 19 locations at three heights (60, 120 and 180 cm) with average velocities varying from 1.4 cm s-1 to 9.7 cm s-1. There were complex flow patterns observed with turbulence intensities from 39% up to 108%. In the plutonium workroom, measurements were made at the breathing-zone height, recording average velocities ranging from 9.9 cm s-1 to 35.5 cm s-1 with turbulence intensities from 33% to 108%.

  5. On laminar and turbulent friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Karman, TH

    1946-01-01

    Report deals, first with the theory of the laminar friction flow, where the basic concepts of Prandtl's boundary layer theory are represented from mathematical and physical points of view, and a method is indicated by means of which even more complicated cases can be treated with simple mathematical means, at least approximately. An attempt is also made to secure a basis for the computation of the turbulent friction by means of formulas through which the empirical laws of the turbulent pipe resistance can be applied to other problems on friction drag. (author)

  6. NASA Flight Tests Explore Supersonic Laminar Flow

    NASA Video Gallery

    In partnership with Aerion Corporation of Reno, Nevada, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center’s tested supersonic airflow over a small experimental airfoil design on its F-15B Test Bed aircraft du...

  7. Chevrons formation in laminar erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devauchelle, Olivier; Josserand, Christophe; Lagree, Pierre-Yves; Zaleski, Stephane; Nguyen, Khanh-Dang; Malverti, Luce; Lajeunesse, Eric

    2007-11-01

    When eroded by laminar free-surface flows, granular substrates may generate a rich variety of natural patterns. Among them are dunes, similar to the ones observed by Charru and Hinch in a Couette cell (Charru F, Hinch EJ ; Ripple formation on a particle bed sheared by a viscous liquid. Part 1. Steady flow ; JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 550: 111-121 MAR 10 2006). Chevron-shaped instabilities as those found on the sea-shore, can also be observed, sometimes in competition against dunes formation. These were first pointed out by Daerr et al. when pulling a plate covered with granular material out of a bath of water (Daerr A, Lee P, Lanuza J, et al. ; Erosion patterns in a sediment layer ; PHYSICAL REVIEW E 67 (6): Art. No. 065201 Part 2 JUN 2003). Both instabilities can grow in laminar open-channel flows, an experimental set-up which is more easily controlled. The mechanisms leading to the formation of these patterns are investigated and compared. Whereas dunes formation requires vertical inertia effects, we show that chevrons may result from the non-linear evolution of bars instability, which may grow even in purely viscous flows.

  8. Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence, using propane fuel, was taken STS-94, July 4 1997, MET:2/05:30 (approximate). LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel-like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (983KB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300184.html.

  9. Burning Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence was taken July 15, 1997, MET:14/10:34 (approximate) and shows the ignition and extinction of this flame. LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel -- like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (518KB, 20-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300182.html.

  10. The Evolution of Unidirectional Pulmonary Airflow.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C G

    2015-07-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the avian respiratory system is unique because air flows in the same direction through most of the gas-exchange tubules during both phases of ventilation. However, recent studies showing that unidirectional airflow also exists in crocodilians and lizards raise questions about the true phylogenetic distribution of unidirectional airflow, the selective drivers of the trait, the date of origin, and the functional consequences of this phenomenon. These discoveries suggest unidirectional flow was present in the common diapsid ancestor and are inconsistent with the traditional paradigm that unidirectional flow is an adaptation for supporting high rates of gas exchange. Instead, these discoveries suggest it may serve functions such as decreasing the work of breathing, decreasing evaporative respiratory water loss, reducing rates of heat loss, and facilitating crypsis. The divergence in the design of the respiratory system between unidirectionally ventilated lungs and tidally ventilated lungs, such as those found in mammals, is very old, with a minimum date for the divergence in the Permian Period. From this foundation, the avian and mammalian lineages evolved very different respiratory systems. I suggest the difference in design is due to the same selective pressure, expanded aerobic capacity, acting under different environmental conditions. High levels of atmospheric oxygen of the Permian Period relaxed selection for a thin blood-gas barrier and may have resulted in the homogeneous, broncho-alveolar design, whereas the reduced oxygen of the Mesozoic selected for a heterogeneous lung with an extremely thin blood-gas barrier. These differences in lung design may explain the puzzling pattern of ecomorphological diversification of Mesozoic mammals: all were small animals that did not occupy niches requiring a great aerobic capacity. The broncho-alveolar lung and the hypoxia of the Mesozoic may have restricted these mammals from exploiting

  11. Experimental evidence of condensation-driven airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyard, P.; Hodnett, M.; Poveda, G.; Burgos Salcedo, J. D.; Peña, C.

    2015-10-01

    The dominant "convection" model of atmospheric circulation is based on the premise that hot air expands and rises, to be replaced by colder air, thereby creating horizontal surface winds. A recent theory put forward by Makarieva and Gorshkov (2007, 2013) maintains that the primary motive force of atmospheric circulation derives from the intense condensation and sharp pressure reduction that is associated with regions where a high rate of evapotranspiration from natural closed-canopy forests provides the "fuel" for cloud formation. The net result of the "biotic pump" theory is that moist air flows from ocean to land, drawn in by the pressure changes associated with a high rate of condensation. To test the physics underpinning the biotic pump theory, namely that condensation of water vapour, at a sufficiently high rate, results in an uni-directional airflow, a 5 m tall experimental apparatus was designed and built, in which a 20 m3 body of atmospheric air is enclosed inside an annular 14 m long space (a "square donut") around which it can circulate freely, allowing for rotary air flows. One vertical side of the apparatus contains some 17 m of copper refrigeration coils, which cause condensation. The apparatus contains a series of sensors measuring temperature, humidity and barometric pressure every five seconds, and air flow every second. The laws of Newtonian physics are used in calculating the rate of condensation inside the apparatus. The results of more than one hundred experiments show a highly significant correlation, with r2 > 0.9, of airflow and the rate of condensation. The rotary air flows created appear to be consistent both in direction and velocity with the biotic pump hypothesis, the critical factor being the rate change in the partial pressure of water vapour in the enclosed body of atmospheric air. Air density changes, in terms of kinetic energy, are found to be orders of magnitude smaller than the kinetic energy of partial pressure change. The

  12. Laminar-flow wind tunnel experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, William D.; Harris, Charles D.; Sewall, William G.; Stack, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Although most of the laminar flow airfoils recently developed at the NASA Langley Research Center were intended for general aviation applications, low-drag airfoils were designed for transonic speeds and wind tunnel performance tested. The objective was to extend the technology of laminar flow to higher Mach and Reynolds numbers and to swept leading edge wings representative of transport aircraft to achieve lower drag and significantly improved operation costs. This research involves stabilizing the laminar boundary layer through geometric shaping (Natural Laminar Flow, NLF) and active control involving the removal of a portion of the laminar boundary layer (Laminar-Flow Control, LFC), either through discrete slots or perforated surface. Results show that extensive regions of laminar flow with large reductions in skin friction drag can be maintained through the application of passive NLF boundary-layer control technologies to unswept transonic wings. At even greater extent of laminar flow and reduction in the total drag level can be obtained on a swept supercritical airfoil with active boundary layer-control.

  13. Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, H. G.; Riveros-Rosas, D.

    2010-01-01

    There are many ways to visualize flow, either for laminar or turbulent flows. A very convincing way to show laminar and turbulent flows is by the perturbations on the surface of a beam of water coming out of a cylindrical tube. Photographs, taken with a flash, show the nature of the flow of water in pipes. They clearly show the difference between…

  14. Effect of Airflow Exposure on the Tear Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Shizuka; Tung, Cynthia; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Zavislan, James; Yoon, Geunyoung; Aquavella, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the effect of airflow exposure on the tear meniscus and blink frequency in normal and evaporative dry eye subjects. Methods. In 9 normal subjects and 9 short tear breakup time (SBUT) dry eye subjects, lower tear meniscus height (TMH) and area (TMA) and blink frequency were measured with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after 5 minutes of airflow exposure (1.5 ± 0.5 m/s). Results. In SBUT dry eyes, both TMH and TMA decreased significantly (P = 0.027, P = 0.027) with a significant increase of blink frequency after airflow exposure, while significant increase in TMA was found in normal eyes. Conclusion. Measurement of the tear meniscus with anterior segment OCT seems to be useful as a noninvasive and objective method for evaluating the effect of airflow on tear film. PMID:22570766

  15. Airflow Actuation of Shortfin Mako Shark Denticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devey, Sean; Hubner, Paul; Lang, Amy

    2016-11-01

    The shortfin mako shark is covered in microscopic scales called denticles, which may act as a mechanism for passive flow control. Recent research has investigated the theory that reversing flow could passively bristle these denticles, which could delay flow separation. Water tunnel studies have supported this theory, yet a wind tunnel study at a greater dynamic pressure found no significant differences between an airfoil covered with mako skin and a smooth airfoil. A likely cause is that surface tension between denticles, which must be wet to retain flexibility, prevented bristling. This would not be an issue in water. To determine what reverse airflow characteristics cause denticle bristling in air, a benchtop study was conducted in which a jet of air was impinged upon a sample of wet mako skin in the reverse flow direction. A microscope and camera captured video of the denticles under the air jet, and image analysis techniques were used to detect bristling. Analysis shows sporadic bristling around 16 m/s (q = 150 Pa) but full bristling does not occur until above 35 m/s (q = 740 Pa). The free stream velocities required to achieve such reversal speeds are much higher. For this reason, mechanical analogues will be used rather than real skin in future studies of this mechanism. Funding from Boeing and NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  16. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Cetto, R.; Calmet, H.; Gambaruto, A. M.; Tolley, N. S.; Houzeaux, G.; Schroter, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s−1 peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

  17. Measuring rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Delp, Woody

    2002-10-01

    During the last few years, new technologies have been introduced for measuring the flow rates of outside air into HVAC systems. This document describes one particular technology for measuring these airflows, a system and a related protocol developed to evaluate this and similar measurement technologies under conditions without wind, and the results of our evaluations. We conclude that the measurement technology evaluated can provide a reasonably accurate measurement of OA flow rate over a broad range of flow, without significantly increasing airflow resistance.

  18. Airflow synchronous with oscillatory acceleration reflects involuntary respiratory muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard E; Lee, Hsueh-Tze; Loring, Stephen H

    2004-06-25

    To explore mechanisms causing involuntary airflow synchronous with oscillatory axial whole body acceleration (oscillatory axial acceleration, OAA) such as that during locomotion, we monitored airflow, acceleration, and electromyograms (EMGs) of the rib cage and abdominal muscles in standing subjects undergoing OAA at 3, 6, and 9 Hz at accelerations of 0.1-0.95 g. Subjects relaxed or performed static respiratory maneuvers at constant lung volume with glottis open. Oscillatory airflows (0.01-3.01 s(-1)) synchronous with OAA were not consistent with expectations for a passive respiratory system, and were larger during active respiratory efforts than during relaxation. Peak inspiratory airflow usually preceded peak upward acceleration by 90-180 degrees. In 80% of runs with respiratory muscles voluntarily activated or relaxed, EMGs showed activity synchronous with OAA. Changes in periodic muscle activity coincided with changes in oscillatory airflow. We conclude that periodic muscle activity, probably a reflex response to body wall deformation during OAA, strongly influences the involuntary airflow synchronous with OAA.

  19. Development of an Ultrasonic Airflow Measurement Device for Ducted Air

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Andrew B.; Aslam, Nauman; Underwood, Christopher P.; Danaher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an in-duct ultrasonic airflow measurement device has been designed, developed and tested. The airflow measurement results for a small range of airflow velocities and temperatures show that the accuracy was better than 3.5% root mean square (RMS) when it was tested within a round or square duct compared to the in-line Venturi tube airflow meter used for reference. This proof of concept device has provided evidence that with further development it could be a low-cost alternative to pressure differential devices such as the orifice plate airflow meter for monitoring energy efficiency performance and reliability of ventilation systems. The design uses a number of techniques and design choices to provide solutions to lower the implementation cost of the device compared to traditional airflow meters. The design choices that were found to work well are the single sided transducer arrangement for a “V” shaped reflective path and the use of square wave transmitter pulses ending with the necessary 180° phase changed pulse train to suppress transducer ringing. The device is also designed so that it does not have to rely on high-speed analogue to digital converters (ADC) and intensive digital signal processing, so could be implemented using voltage comparators and low-cost microcontrollers. PMID:25954952

  20. Natural laminar flow application to transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of NASA during the last 15 years has been the development of laminar flow technology for aircraft drag reduction. Of equal importance is achieving a state of readiness that will allow the successful application of this technology by industry to large, long-range aircraft. Recent progress in achieving extensive laminar flow with limited suction on the Boeing 757 has raised the prospects from practical application of the hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) concept to subsonic aircraft. Also, better understanding of phenomena affecting laminar flow stability and response to disturbances has encouraged consideration of natural laminar flow (NLF), obtained without suction or active mechanical means, for application to transport aircraft larger than previously thought feasible. These ideas have inspired the current NASA/ASEE project with goals as follows: explore the feasibility of extensive NLF for aircraft at high Reynolds number under realistic flight conditions; determine the potential applications of NLF technology and the conditions under which they may be achieved; and identify existing aircraft that could be adapted to carry out flight experiments to validate NLF technology application. To achieve these objectives, understanding of the physical limits to natural laminar flow and possible ways to extend these limits was sought. The primary factors involved are unit Reynolds number, Mach number, wing sweep, thickness, and lift coefficients as well as surface pressure gradients and curvature. Based on previous and ongoing studies using laminar boundary layer stability theory, the interplay of the above factors and the corresponding transition limits were postulated.

  1. Mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow screen reduces air contamination in a simulated setting for intra-vitreal injection.

    PubMed

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Traversari, Roberto; van der Linden, Jan Willem; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y; Lapid, Oren; Schlingemann, Reinier O

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of a mobile ultra-clean laminar airflow screen reduces the air-borne particle counts in the setting of a simulated procedure of an intra-vitreal injection. A mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow (UDF) screen was tested in a simulated procedure for intra-vitreal injections in a treatment room without mechanical ventilation. One UDF was passed over the instrument tray and the surgical area. The concentration of particles was measured in the background, over the instrument table, and next to the ocular area. The degree of protection was calculated at the instrument table and at the surgical site. Use of the UDF mobile screen reduced the mean particle concentration (particles > 0.3 microns) on the instrument table by a factor of at least 100.000 (p < 0.05), and over the patient's eye by at least a factor of 436 (p < 0.05), which in clinical practice translates into significantly reduced air contamination. Mobile UDF screen reduces the mean particle concentration substantially. The mobile UDF screen may therefore allow for a safer procedural environment for ambulatory care procedures such as intra-vitreal injections in treatment rooms.

  2. Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, Jerry N. (Compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Part 3 of the Symposium proceedings contains papers addressing advanced airfoil development, flight research experiments, and supersonic transition/laminar flow control research. Specific topics include the design and testing of natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils, NLF wing gloves, and NLF nacelles; laminar boundary-layer stability over fuselage forebodies; the design of low noise supersonic/hypersonic wind tunnels; and boundary layer instability mechanisms on swept leading edges at supersonic speeds.

  3. Soot Formation in Laminar Premixed Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; Krishnan, S. S.; Faeth, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    Soot processes within hydrocarbon-fueled flames affect emissions of pollutant soot, thermal loads on combustors, hazards of unwanted fires and capabilities for computational combustion. In view of these observations, the present study is considering processes of soot formation in both burner-stabilized and freely-propagating laminar premixed flames. These flames are being studied in order to simplify the interpretation of measurements and to enhance computational tractability compared to the diffusion flame environments of greatest interest for soot processes. In addition, earlier studies of soot formation in laminar premixed flames used approximations of soot optical and structure properties that have not been effective during recent evaluations, as well as questionable estimates of flow residence times). The objective of present work was to exploit methods of avoiding these difficulties developed for laminar diffusion flames to study soot growth in laminar premixed flames. The following description of these studies is brief.

  4. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  5. Effect of Airflows on Repetitive Nanosecond Volume Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Huo, Yuxin; Song, Jian; Yu, Daren; Zhang, Chaohai

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure discharges excited by repetitive nanosecond pulses have attracted significant attention for various applications. In this paper, a plate-plate discharge with airflows is excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. Under different experiment conditions, the applied voltages, discharge currents, and discharge images are recorded. The plasma images presented here indicate that the volume discharge modes vary with airflow speeds, and a diffuse and homogeneous volume discharge occurs at the speed of more than 35 m/s. The role of airflows provides different effects on the 2-stage pulse discharges. The 1st pulse currents nearly maintain consistency for different airflow speeds. However, the 2nd pulse current has a change trend of first decreasing and then rapidly increasing, and the value difference for 2nd pulse currents is about 20 A under different airflows. In addition, the experimental results are discussed according to the electrical parameters and discharge images. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51006027, 51437002, and 51477035)

  6. Evaluation of airflow patterns following procedures established by NUREG-1400.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Brad G; Khan, Fenton; Mendoza, Donaldo P

    2006-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's guide, NUREG-1400, addresses many aspects of air sampling in the work place. Here, we present detailed examples of the methodology used to conduct two qualitative airflow studies at different sites. In one test, smoke was used to evaluate the airflow patterns within a high-bay building for the purpose of determining appropriate locations for air monitoring equipment. The study revealed a stagnant layer of the air within the transfer area that made predicting movement of contamination within the transfer area difficult. Without conducting an airflow study, the stagnant layer may not have been identified and could have resulted in placement of samplers at inappropriate locations. In a second test, smoke was used to verify the effectiveness of an air space barrier curtain. The results showed that the curtain adequately separated the two air spaces. The methodology employed in each test provided sound, easy to interpret information that satisfied the requirements of each test. The methods described in this article can be applied at most facilities where determination of airflow patterns or the verification of suspected airflow patterns is required.

  7. Laminar Flow Breakdown due to Particle Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    effect on the boundary layer when encountering cirrus cloud , is incomplete. The observed performance degradations [5, 9] have been attributed to the...crystals as occurring in cirrus cloud would have a detrimental effect on the performance of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) systems. During flight tests of...full chord suction type LFC systems aboard two X-21 aircraft, laminar flow was entirely lost when entering thick cirrus cloud and degraded even in

  8. On plane submerged laminar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenen, Wilfried; Sanchez, Antonio L.

    2016-11-01

    We address the laminar flow generated when a developed stream of liquid of kinematic viscosity ν flowing along channel of width 2 h discharges into an open space bounded by two symmetric plane walls departing from the channel rim with an angle α 1 . Attention is focused on values of the jet volume flux 2 Q such that the associated Reynolds number Re = Qh / ν is of order unity. The formulation requires specification of the boundary conditions far from the channel exit. If the flow is driven by the volume flux, then the far-field solution corresponds to Jeffery-Hamel self-similar flow. However, as noted by Fraenkel (1962), such solutions exist only for α <129o in a limited range of Reynolds numbers 0 <=Re <=Rec (α) (e.g. Rec = 1 . 43 for α = π / 2). It is reasoned that an alternative solution, driven by a fraction of the momentum flux of the feed stream, may also exist for all values of Re and α, including a near-centerline Bickley jet, a surrounding Taylor potential flow driven by the jet entrainment, and a Falkner-Skan near-wall boundary layer. Numerical integrations of the Navier-Stokes equations are used to ascertain the existence of these different solutions.

  9. Airflow studies in a forced ventilated chamber with low partitions

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, W.K.; Tsui, K.F.

    1995-12-31

    A climate chamber was used to study experimentally the airflow characteristics in a ventilated space with low partitions. Two types of commonly used air distribution devices were selected for the study--a ceiling diffuser and side grille systems. A total of 16 tests were performed using the two diffusers with partition heights varying up to 1.8 m (5.91 ft) above floor level. From the measured results, the thermal comfort indices were assessed. A stabilization effect of airflow was found when the partition height reached 1.8 m (5.91 ft). Local draft risk was located in the occupied zone. Also, the modified Archimedes number proposed by Jackman (1990) was used to describe the indoor airflow in the absence of a workable design guide for partitioned spaces.

  10. Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2005-01-01

    Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

  11. Unidirectional pulmonary airflow patterns in the savannah monitor lizard.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Emma R; Cieri, Robert L; Butler, James P; Farmer, C G

    2014-02-20

    The unidirectional airflow patterns in the lungs of birds have long been considered a unique and specialized trait associated with the oxygen demands of flying, their endothermic metabolism and unusual pulmonary architecture. However, the discovery of similar flow patterns in the lungs of crocodilians indicates that this character is probably ancestral for all archosaurs--the group that includes extant birds and crocodilians as well as their extinct relatives, such as pterosaurs and dinosaurs. Unidirectional flow in birds results from aerodynamic valves, rather than from sphincters or other physical mechanisms, and similar aerodynamic valves seem to be present in crocodilians. The anatomical and developmental similarities in the primary and secondary bronchi of birds and crocodilians suggest that these structures and airflow patterns may be homologous. The origin of this pattern is at least as old as the split between crocodilians and birds, which occurred in the Triassic period. Alternatively, this pattern of flow may be even older; this hypothesis can be tested by investigating patterns of airflow in members of the outgroup to birds and crocodilians, the Lepidosauromorpha (tuatara, lizards and snakes). Here we demonstrate region-specific unidirectional airflow in the lungs of the savannah monitor lizard (Varanus exanthematicus). The presence of unidirectional flow in the lungs of V. exanthematicus thus gives rise to two possible evolutionary scenarios: either unidirectional airflow evolved independently in archosaurs and monitor lizards, or these flow patterns are homologous in archosaurs and V. exanthematicus, having evolved only once in ancestral diapsids (the clade encompassing snakes, lizards, crocodilians and birds). If unidirectional airflow is plesiomorphic for Diapsida, this respiratory character can be reconstructed for extinct diapsids, and evolved in a small ectothermic tetrapod during the Palaeozoic era at least a hundred million years before the

  12. Resistance to airflow through bedding materials used in infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, D J; Helms, P; Matthew, D J; Skinner, D

    1982-01-01

    Various bedding materials used in infancy, including duvets (or continental quilts), were tested for airflow using the British Standards Institution tests for pillows or fabrics. Resistance was also measured when the items were placed on a dummy infant face. Measurements were made on washed and unwashed garments, which were tested both dry and wet. Results suggest that all the bedding materials tested are safe for use even in the newborn period. The duvets produced slightly lower resistance to breathing than conventional blankets and sheets. In view of the wide variety of infant bedding fabrics it seems desirable for standard airflow performance requirements to be introduced. PMID:7092309

  13. Reducing airflow energy use in multiple zone vav systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukur, Ahmed Gidado

    Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are the most popular HVAC systems in commercial buildings. VAV systems are designed to deliver airflows at design conditions which only occur for a few hours in a year. Minimizing energy use in VAV systems requires reducing the amount of airflow delivered through the system at part load conditions. Air Handling Unit (AHU) fans are the major drivers of airflow in VAV systems and installing a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) is the most common method of regulating airflow in VAV systems. A VFD drive does not necessarily save energy without use of an appropriate control strategy. Static pressure reset (SPR) is considered to be the most energy efficient control strategy for AHU fans with VFDs installed. The implementation of SPR however has many challenges; for example, rogue zones--zones which have faulty sensors or failed controls and actuators, system dynamics like hunting and system diversity. By investigating the parameters associated with the implementation of SPR in VAV systems, a new, improved, more stable SPR algorithm was developed and validated. This approach was further improved using Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) to eliminate rogue zones. Additionally, a CO2-Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) based minimum airflow control was used to further reduce ventilation airflow and save more energy from SPR. Energy savings ranging from 25% to 51% were recorded in actual buildings with the new SPR algorithm. Finally, a methodology that utilizes historical VAV data was developed to estimate the potential savings that could be realized using SPR. The approach employed first determines an effective system loss coefficient as a function of mean damper position using the historical duct static pressure, VAV damper positions and airflows. Additionally, the historical data is used to identify the maximum mean duct damper position realizable as a result of insuring a sufficient number of VAVs are fully open at any time. Savings are

  14. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  15. Airflow energy harvesting with high wind velocities for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Z. J.; Tuddenham, S. B.; Zhu, M.

    2016-11-01

    An airflow energy harvester capable of harvesting energy from vortices at high speed is presented in this paper. The airflow energy harvester is implemented using a modified helical Savonius turbine and an electromagnetic generator. A power management module with maximum power point finding capability is used to manage the harvested energy and convert the low voltage magnitude from the generator to a usable level for wireless sensors. The airflow energy harvester is characterized using vortex generated by air hitting a plate in a wind tunnel. By using an aircraft environment with wind speed of 17 m/s as case study, the output power of the airflow energy harvester is measured to be 126 mW. The overall efficiency of the power management module is 45.76 to 61.2%, with maximum power point tracking efficiency of 94.21 to 99.72% for wind speed of 10 to 18 m/s, and has a quiescent current of 790 nA for the maximum power point tracking circuit.

  16. Study of Airflow Out of the Mouth During Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catford, J.C.; And Others

    Airflow outside the mouth is diagnostic of articulatory activities in the vocal tract, both total volume-velocity and the distribution of particle velocities over the flow-front being useful for this purpose. A system for recording and displaying both these types of information is described. This consists of a matrix of l6 hot-wire anemometer flow…

  17. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  2. Wing Leading Edge Joint Laminar Flow Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Aaron; Westphal, Russell V.; Zuniga, Fanny A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Koga, Dennis J.

    1996-01-01

    An F-104G aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has been equipped with a specially designed and instrumented test fixture to simulate surface imperfections of the type likely to be present near the leading edge on the wings of some laminar flow aircraft. The simulated imperfections consisted of five combinations of spanwise steps and gaps of various sizes. The unswept fixture yielded a pressure distribution similar to that of some laminar flow airfoils. The experiment was conducted at cruise conditions typical for business-jets and light transports: Mach numbers were in the range 0.5-0.8, and unit Reynolds numbers were 1.5-2.5 million per foot. Skin friction measurements indicated that laminar flow was often maintained for some distance downstream of the surface imperfections. Further work is needed to more precisely define transition location and to extend the experiments to swept-wing conditions and a broader range of imperfection geometries.

  3. Laminar Heating Validation of the OVERFLOW Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillard, Randolph P.; Dries, Kevin M.

    2005-01-01

    OVERFLOW, a structured finite difference code, was applied to the solution of hypersonic laminar flow over several configurations assuming perfect gas chemistry. By testing OVERFLOW's capabilities over several configurations encompassing a variety of flow physics a validated laminar heating was produced. Configurations tested were a flat plate at 0 degrees incidence, a sphere, a compression ramp, and the X-38 re-entry vehicle. This variety of test cases shows the ability of the code to predict boundary layer flow, stagnation heating, laminar separation with re-attachment heating, and complex flow over a three-dimensional body. In addition, grid resolutions studies were done to give recommendations for the correct number of off-body points to be applied to generic problems and for wall-spacing values to capture heat transfer and skin friction. Numerical results show good comparison to the test data for all the configurations.

  4. Neuroimaging characteristics of pseudosubcortical laminar heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Li, Li Min; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Cendes, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Subcortical laminar heterotopia (SLH) is a subtype of malformation of cortical development characterized by laminar gray matter between the cortex and ventricles, which can vary in thickness and may be continuous or discontinuous. The objective of this study is to describe a normal finding of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging that may simulate an SLH. SLH is isointense to cortex on both T1- and T2-weighted/FLAIR images, usually both anteriorly and posteriorly in location. Conversely, pseudo-SLH is a normal variant present only at the posterior aspect of the brain, and with dark signal on both T1- and T2-weighted/FLAIR images.

  5. Flow/Soot-Formation Interactions in Nonbuoyant Laminar Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z.; Lin, K.-C.; Sunderland, P. B.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report of a research program considering interactions between flow and soot properties within laminar diffusion flames. Laminar diffusion flames were considered because they provide model flame systems that are far more tractable for theoretical and experimental studies than more practical turbulent diffusion flames. In particular, understanding the transport and chemical reaction processes of laminar flames is a necessary precursor to understanding these processes in practical turbulent flames and many aspects of laminar diffusion flames have direct relevance to turbulent diffusion flames through application of the widely recognized laminar flamelet concept of turbulent diffusion flames. The investigation was divided into three phases, considering the shapes of nonbuoyant round laminar jet diffusion flames in still air, the shapes of nonbuoyant round laminar jet diffusion flames in coflowing air, and the hydrodynamic suppression of soot formation in laminar diffusion flames.

  6. Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, Jerry N. (Compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Since the mid 1970's, NASA, industry, and universities have worked together to conduct important research focused at developing laminar flow technology that could reduce fuel consumption for general aviation, commuter, and transport aircraft by as much as 40 to 50 percent. The symposium was planned in view of the recent accomplishments within the areas of laminar flow control and natural laminar flow, and the potential benefits of laminar flow technology to the civil and military aircraft communities in the United States. Included were technical sessions on advanced theory and design tool development; wind tunnel and flight research; transition measurement and detection techniques; low and high Reynolds number research; and subsonic and supersonic research.

  7. Laminar flamelet modeling of turbulent diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mell, W. E.; Kosaly, G.; Planche, O.; Poinsot, T.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1990-12-01

    In modeling turbulent combustion, decoupling the chemistry from the turbulence is of great practical significance. In cases in which the equilibrium chemistry model breaks down, laminar flamelet modeling (LFM) is a promising approach to decoupling. Here, the validity of this approach is investigated using direct numerical simulation of a simple chemical reaction in two-dimensional turbulence.

  8. Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

  9. Computational Investigation of Dynamic Glottal Aperture Effects on Respiratory Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yan, Hong; Dong, Haibo

    2008-11-01

    The periodic movement of the glottal aperture (vocal folds) during tidal breathing has been long recognized as a factor in altering the airflow dynamics in the tracheobrnchial region. The potential influence from these altered flow structures on the transport and deposition of inhaled particles is not known. However, studies devoted to this dynamic physiological feature are scarce due to the complex anatomy in of the larynx and numerical challenges in simulating dynamic geometries. In this study, a high-fidelity immersed boundary solver is used to investigate this problem. A 3D human oral-larynx-lung model is firstly reconstructed from MRI data. The role of the vocal fold movement and associated airflow characteristics such as vortex shedding, Coanda effect etc. during inhalation and exhalation are then numerically studied.

  10. Efficient airflow design for cleanrooms improves business bottom lines

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2003-01-05

    Based on a review of airflow design factors and in-situ energy measurements in ISO Cleanliness Class-5 cleanrooms, this paper addresses the importance of energy efficiency in airflow design and opportunities of cost savings in cleanroom practices. The paper discusses design factors that can long lastingly affect cleanroom system performance, and demonstrates benefits of energy efficient cleanroom design from viewpoints of environmental control and business operations. The paper suggests that a high performance cleanroom should not only be effective in contamination control, but also be efficient in energy and environmental performance. The paper also suggests that energy efficient design practice stands to bring in immediate capital cost savings and operation cost savings, and should be regarded by management as a strategy to improve business bottom lines.

  11. Air Trapping and Airflow Obstruction in Newborn Cystic Fibrosis Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Ryan J.; Michalski, Andrew S.; Bauer, Christian; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Gross, Thomas J.; Awadalla, Maged S.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Taft, Peter J.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Diwakar, Amit; Ochs, Matthias; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Beichel, Reinhard R.; Meyerholz, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Air trapping and airflow obstruction are being increasingly identified in infants with cystic fibrosis. These findings are commonly attributed to airway infection, inflammation, and mucus buildup. Objectives: To learn if air trapping and airflow obstruction are present before the onset of airway infection and inflammation in cystic fibrosis. Methods: On the day they are born, piglets with cystic fibrosis lack airway infection and inflammation. Therefore, we used newborn wild-type piglets and piglets with cystic fibrosis to assess air trapping, airway size, and lung volume with inspiratory and expiratory X-ray computed tomography scans. Micro–computed tomography scanning was used to assess more distal airway sizes. Airway resistance was determined with a mechanical ventilator. Mean linear intercept and alveolar surface area were determined using stereologic methods. Measurements and Main Results: On the day they were born, piglets with cystic fibrosis exhibited air trapping more frequently than wild-type piglets (75% vs. 12.5%, respectively). Moreover, newborn piglets with cystic fibrosis had increased airway resistance that was accompanied by luminal size reduction in the trachea, mainstem bronchi, and proximal airways. In contrast, mean linear intercept length, alveolar surface area, and lung volume were similar between both genotypes. Conclusions: The presence of air trapping, airflow obstruction, and airway size reduction in newborn piglets with cystic fibrosis before the onset of airway infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation indicates that cystic fibrosis impacts airway development. Our findings suggest that early airflow obstruction and air trapping in infants with cystic fibrosis might, in part, be caused by congenital airway abnormalities. PMID:24168209

  12. Three-Dimensional Engineered High Fidelity Normal Human Lung Tissue-Like Assemblies (TLA) as Targets for Human Respiratory Virus Infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Deatly, A. M.; Suderman, M. T.; Lin, Y.-H.; Chen, W.; Gupta, C. K.; Randolph, V. B.; Udem, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    Unlike traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like assemblies (TLA) (Goodwin et aI, 1992, 1993, 2000 and Nickerson et aI. , 2001,2002) offer high organ fidelity with the potential to emulate the infective dynamics of viruses and bacteria in vivo. Thus, utilizing NASA micro gravity Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology, in vitro human broncho-epithelial (HBE) TLAs were engineered to mimic in vivo tissue for study of human respiratory viruses. These 3D HBE TLAs were propagated from a human broncho-tracheal cell line with a mesenchymal component (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and either an adult human broncho-epithelial cell (BEAS-2B) or human neonatal epithelial cell (16HBE140-) as the overlying element. Resulting TLAs share several characteristic features with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including tight junctions, desmosomes and cilia (SEM, TEM). The presence of epithelium and specific lung epithelium markers furthers the contention that these HBE cells differentiate into TLAs paralleling in vivo tissues. A time course of infection of these 3D HBE TLAs with human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) wild type A2 strain, indicates that virus replication and virus budding are supported and manifested by increasing virus titer and detection of membrane-bound F and G glycoproteins. Infected 3D HBE TLAs remain intact for up to 12 days compared to infected 2D cultures that are destroyed in 2-3 days. Infected cells show an increased vacuolation and cellular destruction (by transmission electron microscopy) by day 9; whereas, uninfected cells remain robust and morphologically intact. Therefore, the 3D HBE TLAs mimic aspects of human respiratory epithelium providing a unique opportunity to analyze, for the first time, simulated in vivo viral infection independent of host immune response.

  13. Realistic glottal motion and airflow rate during human breathing.

    PubMed

    Scheinherr, Adam; Bailly, Lucie; Boiron, Olivier; Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Pichelin, Marine; Caillibotte, Georges; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    The glottal geometry is a key factor in the aerosol delivery efficiency for treatment of lung diseases. However, while glottal vibrations were extensively studied during human phonation, the realistic glottal motion during breathing is poorly understood. Therefore, most current studies assume an idealized steady glottis in the context of respiratory dynamics, and thus neglect the flow unsteadiness related to this motion. This is particularly important to assess the aerosol transport mechanisms in upper airways. This article presents a clinical study conducted on 20 volunteers, to examine the realistic glottal motion during several breathing tasks. Nasofibroscopy was used to investigate the glottal geometrical variations simultaneously with accurate airflow rate measurements. In total, 144 breathing sequences of 30s were recorded. Regarding the whole database, two cases of glottal time-variations were found: "static" or "dynamic" ones. Typically, the peak value of glottal area during slow breathing narrowed from 217 ± 54 mm(2) (mean ± STD) during inspiration, to 178 ± 35 mm(2) during expiration. Considering flow unsteadiness, it is shown that the harmonic approximation of the airflow rate underevaluates the inertial effects as compared to realistic patterns, especially at the onset of the breathing cycle. These measurements provide input data to conduct realistic numerical simulations of laryngeal airflow and particle deposition.

  14. Energy Harvesting from Human Motion Using Footstep-Induced Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, H.; Xu, R.; Seto, K.; Yeatman, E. M.; Kim, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an unobtrusive in-shoe energy harvester converting foot-strike energy into electricity to power wearable or portable devices. An air-pumped turbine system is developed to address the issues of the limited vertical deformation of shoes and the low frequency of human motion that impede harvesting energy from this source. The air pump is employed to convert the vertical foot-strike motion into airflow. The generated airflow passes through the miniaturized wind turbine whose transduction is realized by an electromagnetic generator. Energy is extracted from the generator with a higher frequency than that of footsteps, boosting the output power of the device. The turbine casing is specifically designed to enable the device to operate continuously with airflow in both directions. A prototype was fabricated and then tested under different situations. A 6 mW peak power output was obtained with a 4.9 Ω load. The achievable power from this design was estimated theoretically for understanding and further improvement.

  15. Airflow calibration of a bellmouth inlet for measurement of compressor airflow in turbine-powered propulsion simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The development of turbine-powered propulsion simulators for high-speed wind tunnel models requires a bellmouth inlet which can accurately measure compressor-inlet airflow. A bellmouth inlet was instrumented with total pressure probes, static pressure probes, and thermocouples for airflow measurement. The bellmouth flowmeter against a critical venturi flowmeter was calibrated. The calibration was done at four inlet pressures ranging from 58 to 114 kPa. The bellmouth discharge coefficient varied as a function of bellmouth-throat Mach number. Over the range of Reynolds number and Mach number tested the Reynolds number was not a significant influence on the discharge coefficient. The overall accuracy of the bellmouth inlet as a flowmeter was estimated to be + or - 0.5% of the flowmeter reading.

  16. Insect contamination protection for laminar flow surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, Cynthia C.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of modern aircraft surfaces to achieve laminar flow was well-accepted in recent years. Obtaining the maximum benefit of laminar flow for aircraft drag reduction requires maintaining minimum leading-edge contamination. Previously proposed insect contamination prevention methods have proved impractical due to cost, weight, or inconvenience. Past work has shown that insects will not adhere to water-wetted surfaces, but the large volumes of water required for protection rendered such a system impractical. The results of a flight experiment conducted by NASA to evaluate the performance of a porous leading-edge fluid discharge ice protection system operated as an insect contamination protections system are presented. In addition, these flights explored the environmental and atmospheric conditions most suitable for insect accumulation.

  17. Evaluation of laminar flow microbiological safety cabinets.

    PubMed

    Staat, R H; Beakley, J W

    1968-10-01

    The microbiological control efficiency of two class 100 laminar down-flow hoods was determined by using aerosols of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores. The first unit challenged utilized a slanted eyelid to partially enclose the front work opening. This hood showed nearly perfect control of ambient organisms in the work area. It also gave a 10(6) or greater drop in the number of organisms passing out of the exhaust system. However, when the interior work area of the hood was challenged, significant numbers of spores penetrated the air barrier and escaped into the ambient air. A redesigned laminar flow hood was built incorporating a vertical eyelid and a reduced opening to the work area. This hood showed the same excellent characteristics for controlling ambient contamination. Exhaust system leakage was also extremely low. Air barrier efficiency for the newer hood was increased with lower amounts of spore penetration into the ambient air.

  18. Trans-Laminar-Reinforced (TLR) Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinders, Mark; Dickinson, Larry

    1997-01-01

    A Trans-Laminar-Reinforced (TLR) composite is defined as composite laminate with up to five percent volume of fibrous reinforcement oriented in a 'trans-laminar' fashion in the through-thickness direction. The TLR can be continuous threads as in 'stitched laminates', or it can be discontinuous rods or pins as in 'Z-Fiber(TM) materials. It has been repeatedly documented in the literature that adding TLR to an otherwise two dimensional laminate results in the following advantages: substantially improved compression-after-impact response; considerably increased fracture toughness in mode 1 (double cantilever beam) and mode 2 (end notch flexure); and severely restricted size and growth of impact damage and edge delamination. TLR has also been used to eliminate catastrophic stiffener disbonding in stiffened structures. TLR directly supports the 'Achilles heel' of laminated composites, that is delamination. As little as one percent volume of TLR significantly alters the mechanical response of laminates. The objective of this work was to characterize the effects of TLR on the in-plane and inter-laminar mechanical response of undamaged composite laminates. Detailed finite element models of 'unit cells', or representative volumes, were used to study the effects of adding TLR on the elastic constants; the in-plane strength; and the initiation of delamination. Parameters investigated included TLR material, TLR volume fraction, TLR diameter, TLR through-thickness angle, ply stacking sequence, and the microstructural features of pure resin regions and curved in-plane fibers. The work was limited to the linear response of undamaged material with at least one ply interface. An inter-laminar dominated problem of practical interest, a flanged skin in bending, was also modeled.

  19. Laminar Flow in the Ocean Ekman Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, J. T. H.

    INTRODUCTION THE EFFECT OF A STABLE DENSITY GRADIENT THE FATAL FLAW FLOW VISUALIZATION THE DISCOVERY OF LAMINAR FLOW FINE STRUCTURE WAVE-INDUCED SHEAR INSTABILITY BILLOW TURBULENCE REVERSE TRANSITION REVISED PARADIGM ONE-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF THE UPPER OCEAN DIURNAL VARIATION BUOYANT CONVECTION BILLOW TURBULENCE IN THE DIURNAL THERMOCLINE CONSEQUENCES FOR THE EKMAN CURRENT PROFILE SOLAR RADIATION APPLICATIONS Slippery Seas of Acapulco Pollution Afternoon Effect in Sonar Patchiness Fisheries Climate DISCUSSION CONCLUSION REFERENCES

  20. Exponential DNA Replication by Laminar Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Dieter; Goddard, Noel L.; Libchaber, Albert

    2003-10-01

    It is shown that laminar thermal convection can drive a chain reaction of DNA replication. The convection is triggered by a constant horizontal temperature gradient, moving molecules along stationary paths between hot and cold regions. This implements the temperature cycling for the classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplification is shown to be exponential and reaches 100 000-fold gains within 25min. Besides direct applications, the mechanism might have implications for the molecular evolution of life.

  1. Laminar streak enhancement using streamwise grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Carlos; Martín, Juan Ángel

    2011-11-01

    Laminar streak promotion in a flat plate boundary layer results in an increase of the stability of the Tollmien-Schlichting waves with respect to that of the 2D Blasius profile. This stabilization delays the laminar-turbulent transition, increasing the laminar phase of the flow. The stabilization effect is stronger for higher streak amplitudes, and therefore simple ways of generating high amplitude stable streaks are sought to be used as boundary layer flow control methods. In a recent experiment [Tallamelli & Franson,AIAA 2010-4291] high amplitude stable steady streaks have been produced using Miniature Vortex Generators (MGVs), where one array of MGVs is used to excite the streak and a second array is used downstream to enhance their amplitude. In this presentation we numerically explore the possibility of enhancing the streaks using a different passive mechanism: streamwise grooves carved in the plate. We will present some numerical simulations for different values of the spanwise period of the streaks and of the grooves, and we will show the combinations that provide maximum streak amplitude.

  2. Trans-laminar-reinforced (TLR) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Larry Charles

    1997-11-01

    A Trans-Laminar-Reinforced (TLR) composite is defined as composite laminate with up to five percent volume of fibrous reinforcement oriented in a "trans-laminar" fashion in the through-thickness direction. The TLR can be continuous threads as in "stitched laminates", or it can be discontinuous rods or pins as in "Z-FiberspTM" materials. Adding TLR to an otherwise two dimensional laminate results in the following advantages: substantially improved compression-after-impact response; considerably increased fracture toughness in mode I (double cantilever beam) and mode II (end notch flexure); and severely restricted size and growth of impact damage and edge delamination. TLR has also been used to eliminate catastrophic stiffener disbonding in stiffened structures. As little as one percent volume of TLR significantly alters the mechanical response of laminates. The objective of this work was to characterize the effects of TLR on the in-plane and inter-laminar mechanical response of undamaged composite laminates. Detailed finite element models were made of "unit cells," or representative volumes, and an inter-laminar dominated problem of practical interest. The work was limited to the linear response of undamaged material with at least one ply interface. Adding a few percent TLR had a small negative effect on the in-plane extensional and shear moduli, Esbx, Esby and Gsbxy, but had a large positive effect (up to 60 percent) on the thickness direction extensional modulus, Esbz. The out-of-plane shear moduli, Gsbxz and Gsbyz, were significantly affected only with the use of a TLR with a shear modulus an order of magnitude greater than that of the composite lamina. A simple stiffness averaging method for calculating the elastic constants was found to compare closely with the finite element results, with the greatest difference being found in the inter-laminar shear moduli, Gsbxz and Gsbyz. Delamination initiation was studied with a strength of materials approach in the unit

  3. Airflow, gas deposition, and lesion distribution in the nasal passages.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, K T; Monticello, T M

    1990-01-01

    The nasal passages of laboratory animals and man are complex, and lesions induced in the delicate nasal lining by inhaled air pollutants vary considerably in location and nature. The distribution of nasal lesions is generally a consequence of regional deposition of the inhaled material, local tissue susceptibility, or a combination of these factors. Nasal uptake and regional deposition are are influenced by numerous factors including the physical and chemical properties of the inhaled material, such as water solubility and reactivity; airborne concentration and length of exposure; the presence of other air contaminants such as particulate matter; nasal metabolism, and blood and mucus flow. For certain highly water-soluble or reactive gases, nasal airflow patterns play a major role in determining lesion distribution. Studies of nasal airflow in rats and monkeys, using casting and molding techniques combined with a water-dye model, indicate that nasal airflow patterns are responsible for characteristic differences in the distribution of nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde in these species. Local tissue susceptibility is also a complex issue that may be a consequence of many factors, including physiologic and metabolic characteristics of the diverse cell populations that comprise each of the major epithelial types lining the airways. Identification of the principal factors that influence the distribution and nature of nasal lesions is important when attempting the difficult process of determining potential human risks using data derived from laboratory animals. Toxicologic pathologists can contribute to this process by carefully identifying the site and nature of nasal lesions induced by inhaled materials. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:2200663

  4. Integrative pathway genomics of lung function and airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Sina A; Loth, Daan W; Soler Artigas, María; Birkland, Timothy P; Wilk, Jemma B; Wain, Louise V; Brody, Jennifer A; Obeidat, Ma'en; Hancock, Dana B; Tang, Wenbo; Rawal, Rajesh; Boezen, H Marike; Imboden, Medea; Huffman, Jennifer E; Lahousse, Lies; Alves, Alexessander C; Manichaikul, Ani; Hui, Jennie; Morrison, Alanna C; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Smith, Albert Vernon; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Evans, David M; Strachan, David P; Deary, Ian J; Hofman, Albert; Gläser, Sven; Wilson, James F; North, Kari E; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heckbert, Susan R; Jarvis, Deborah L; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schulz, Holger; Barr, R Graham; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; O'Connor, George T; Kähönen, Mika; Cassano, Patricia A; Hysi, Pirro G; Dupuis, Josée; Hayward, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M; Hall, Ian P; Parks, William C; Tobin, Martin D; London, Stephanie J

    2015-12-01

    Chronic respiratory disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of lung function measures have identified several trait-associated loci, but explain only a modest portion of the phenotypic variability. We postulated that integrating pathway-based methods with GWASs of pulmonary function and airflow obstruction would identify a broader repertoire of genes and processes influencing these traits. We performed two independent GWASs of lung function and applied gene set enrichment analysis to one of the studies and validated the results using the second GWAS. We identified 131 significantly enriched gene sets associated with lung function and clustered them into larger biological modules involved in diverse processes including development, immunity, cell signaling, proliferation and arachidonic acid. We found that enrichment of gene sets was not driven by GWAS-significant variants or loci, but instead by those with less stringent association P-values. Next, we applied pathway enrichment analysis to a meta-analyzed GWAS of airflow obstruction. We identified several biologic modules that functionally overlapped with those associated with pulmonary function. However, differences were also noted, including enrichment of extracellular matrix (ECM) processes specifically in the airflow obstruction study. Network analysis of the ECM module implicated a candidate gene, matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10), as a putative disease target. We used a knockout mouse model to functionally validate MMP10's role in influencing lung's susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. By integrating pathway analysis with population-based genomics, we unraveled biologic processes underlying pulmonary function traits and identified a candidate gene for obstructive lung disease.

  5. Integrative pathway genomics of lung function and airflow obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Loth, Daan W.; Soler Artigas, María; Birkland, Timothy P.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Wain, Louise V.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Obeidat, Ma'en; Hancock, Dana B.; Tang, Wenbo; Rawal, Rajesh; Boezen, H. Marike; Imboden, Medea; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Lahousse, Lies; Alves, Alexessander C.; Manichaikul, Ani; Hui, Jennie; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Smith, Albert Vernon; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Evans, David M.; Strachan, David P.; Deary, Ian J.; Hofman, Albert; Gläser, Sven; Wilson, James F.; North, Kari E.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heckbert, Susan R.; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schulz, Holger; Barr, R. Graham; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; O'Connor, George T.; Kähönen, Mika; Cassano, Patricia A.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Dupuis, Josée; Hayward, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M.; Hall, Ian P.; Parks, William C.; Tobin, Martin D.; London, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic respiratory disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of lung function measures have identified several trait-associated loci, but explain only a modest portion of the phenotypic variability. We postulated that integrating pathway-based methods with GWASs of pulmonary function and airflow obstruction would identify a broader repertoire of genes and processes influencing these traits. We performed two independent GWASs of lung function and applied gene set enrichment analysis to one of the studies and validated the results using the second GWAS. We identified 131 significantly enriched gene sets associated with lung function and clustered them into larger biological modules involved in diverse processes including development, immunity, cell signaling, proliferation and arachidonic acid. We found that enrichment of gene sets was not driven by GWAS-significant variants or loci, but instead by those with less stringent association P-values. Next, we applied pathway enrichment analysis to a meta-analyzed GWAS of airflow obstruction. We identified several biologic modules that functionally overlapped with those associated with pulmonary function. However, differences were also noted, including enrichment of extracellular matrix (ECM) processes specifically in the airflow obstruction study. Network analysis of the ECM module implicated a candidate gene, matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10), as a putative disease target. We used a knockout mouse model to functionally validate MMP10's role in influencing lung's susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. By integrating pathway analysis with population-based genomics, we unraveled biologic processes underlying pulmonary function traits and identified a candidate gene for obstructive lung disease. PMID:26395457

  6. Optimal Determination of Respiratory Airflow Patterns Using a Nonlinear Multicompartment Model for a Lung Mechanics System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hancao; Haddad, Wassim M.

    2012-01-01

    We develop optimal respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system. Specifically, we use classical calculus of variations minimization techniques to derive an optimal airflow pattern for inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. The physiological interpretation of the optimality criteria used involves the minimization of work of breathing and lung volume acceleration for the inspiratory phase, and the minimization of the elastic potential energy and rapid airflow rate changes for the expiratory phase. Finally, we numerically integrate the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value problems to determine the optimal airflow patterns over the inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. PMID:22719793

  7. Optimal determination of respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system.

    PubMed

    Li, Hancao; Haddad, Wassim M

    2012-01-01

    We develop optimal respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system. Specifically, we use classical calculus of variations minimization techniques to derive an optimal airflow pattern for inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. The physiological interpretation of the optimality criteria used involves the minimization of work of breathing and lung volume acceleration for the inspiratory phase, and the minimization of the elastic potential energy and rapid airflow rate changes for the expiratory phase. Finally, we numerically integrate the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value problems to determine the optimal airflow patterns over the inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles.

  8. Evaluation of airflow patterns in 2706-T and 2706-TA

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    1999-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the current placement of fixed head air samplers and continuous air monitors (CAMs) in the 2706-T and 2706-TA Complex. The airflow study consisted of 6 configurations of facility HVAC and HEPA filtration equipment to determine impacts on CAM location. The results of this study provide recommendations based on guidance in DOE G 411.1-8 and NUREG-1400 for placement of fixed head air samplers or CAMS within 2706-T and 2706-TA.

  9. CFD modeling of pharmaceutical isolators with experimental verification of airflow.

    PubMed

    Nayan, N; Akay, H U; Walsh, M R; Bell, W V; Troyer, G L; Dukes, R E; Mohan, P

    2007-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to predict the airflow in a transfer isolator using a commercial CFD code. In order to assess the ability of the CFD approach in predicting the flow inside an isolator, hot wire anemometry measurements and a novel experimental flow visualization technique consisting of helium-filled glycerin bubbles were used. The results obtained have been shown to agree well with the experiments and show that CFD can be used to model barrier systems and isolators with practical fidelity. This indicates that CFD can and should be used to support the design, testing, and operation of barrier systems and isolators.

  10. Vapor-Generator Wand Helps To Reveal Airflow Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robelen, David B.

    1993-01-01

    In vapor-generator wand, liquid propylene glycol flows into electrically heated stainless-steel tube. Liquid boils in heated tube, and emerging vapor forms dense, smoke-like fog used to make airflow patterns visible. Built in variety of sizes, suitable for uses ranging from tabletop demonstrations to research in wind tunnels. For best viewing, plume illuminated by bright, focused incandescent spotlight at right angle to viewing direction. Viewing further enhanced by coating walls of test chamber with flat, dark color to minimize reflections and increase contrast.

  11. Elliptic Length Scales in Laminar, Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0109 ELLIPTIC LENGTH SCALES IN LAMINAR, TWO- DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC FLOWS James H. Miller Vehicle Technology Branch...SUBTITLE ELLIPTIC LENGTH SCALES IN LAMINAR, TWO-DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC FLOWS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...ANSI Std. Z39-18 1 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Elliptic Length Scales in Laminar, Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flows

  12. Undoped and Hole-Doped Superconductors T'-La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4 (x = 0 and 0.05) Prepared by Solid-State Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Tomohisa; Kato, Masatsune; Noji, Takashi; Koike, Yoji

    2012-07-01

    We have successfully synthesized La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4 (x = 0 and 0.05) with the Nd2CuO4-type (T'-type) structure by means of the structural transformation at low temperatures from the K2NiF4-type (T-type) structure via the Sr2CuO3-type (S-type) structure. Superconductivity has appeared by postannealing T'-La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4 in vacuum at 700 °C for the removal of excess oxygen. The superconducting transition temperatures are 20 and 13 K for x = 0 and 0.05, respectively. T'-La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4 with x = 0.05 is, at least nominally, the first hole-doped superconducting cuprate with the T'-type structure.

  13. Flame Structure and Scalar Properties in Microgravity Laminar Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, D. A.; Lim, J.; Sivathanu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Recent results from microgravity combustion experiments conducted in the Zero Gravity Facility (ZGF) 5.18 second drop tower are reported. Emission mid-infrared spectroscopy measurements have been completed to quantitatively determine the flame temperature, water and carbon dioxide vapor concentrations, radiative emissive power, and soot concentrations in a microgravity laminar ethylene/air flame. The ethylene/air laminar flame conditions are similar to previously reported experiments including the Flight Project, Laminar Soot Processes (LSP). Soot concentrations and gas temperatures are in reasonable agreement with similar results available in the literature. However, soot concentrations and flame structure dramatically change in long duration microgravity laminar diffusion flames as demonstrated in this paper.

  14. Forced-air patient warming blankets disrupt unidirectional airflow.

    PubMed

    Legg, A J; Hamer, A J

    2013-03-01

    We have recently shown that waste heat from forced-air warming blankets can increase the temperature and concentration of airborne particles over the surgical site. The mechanism for the increased concentration of particles and their site of origin remained unclear. We therefore attempted to visualise the airflow in theatre over a simulated total knee replacement using neutral-buoyancy helium bubbles. Particles were created using a Rocket PS23 smoke machine positioned below the operating table, a potential area of contamination. The same theatre set-up, warming devices and controls were used as in our previous study. This demonstrated that waste heat from the poorly insulated forced-air warming blanket increased the air temperature on the surgical side of the drape by > 5°C. This created convection currents that rose against the downward unidirectional airflow, causing turbulence over the patient. The convection currents increased the particle concentration 1000-fold (2 174 000 particles/m(3) for forced-air warming vs 1000 particles/m(3) for radiant warming and 2000 particles/m(3) for the control) by drawing potentially contaminated particles from below the operating table into the surgical site. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:407-10.

  15. CFD simulation of turbulent airflow around wind turbine airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbrooks, David N.

    The airflow around wind turbines has proved to be a difficult problem to approach by means of today's Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. One reason for this difficulty lies within the stall characteristics of turbine airfoils. For the purposes of this research, the popular commercial CFD code, FLUENT was employed to facilitate the understanding of airflow around wind turbines through the study of various turbulence models. Parallel processing was employed to enhance computational performance as well as lower simulation times. The system used for simulation is the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI Wind Turbine. The coefficients of pressure for the airfoil were extracted from the simulated data and compared against data obtained during the NREL Phase VI Wind Turbine data campaign. Since power is a driving factor of the design of wind turbine blades, the aspect of power was also examined and compared. After the completion of the baseline study, a parametric study was carried out to examine the effects of rotor speed downstream of the turbine blades.

  16. Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, Jerry N. (Compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Part 2 of the Symposium proceedings includes papers addressing various topics in basic wind tunnel research/techniques and computational transitional research. Specific topics include: advanced measurement techniques; laminar flow control; Tollmien-Schlichting wave characteristics; boundary layer transition; flow visualization; wind tunnel tests; flight tests; boundary layer equations; swept wings; and skin friction.

  17. Velocity profiles in laminar diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Margle, Janice M.

    1986-01-01

    Velocity profiles in vertical laminar diffusion flames were measured by using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Four fuels were used: n-heptane, iso-octane, cyclohexane, and ethyl alcohol. The velocity profiles were similar for all the fuels, although there were some differences in the peak velocities. The data compared favorably with the theoretical velocity predictions. The differences could be attributed to errors in experimental positioning and in the prediction of temperature profiles. Error in the predicted temperature profiles are probably due to the difficulty in predicting the radiative heat losses from the flame.

  18. Laminar natural convection under nonuniform gravity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienhard, J.; Eichhorn, R.; Dhir, V.

    1972-01-01

    Laminar natural convection is analyzed for cases in which gravity varies with the distance from the leading edge of an isothermal plate. The study includes situations in which gravity varies by virtue of the varying slope of a surface. A general integral solution method which includes certain known integral solutions as special cases is developed to account for arbitrary position-dependence of gravity. A series method of solution is also developed for the full equations. Although it is more cumbersome it provides verification of the integral method.

  19. Design Considerations for Laminar Flow Control Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate major design considerations involved in the application of laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For commercial transports with a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mil) and a payload of 200 passengers, parametric configuration analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of aircraft performance, operational, and geometric parameters on fuel efficiency. Study results indicate that major design goals for aircraft optimization include maximization of aspect ratio and wing loading and minimization of wing sweep consistent with wing volume and airport performance requirements.

  20. Large eddy simulations of laminar separation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadieux, Francois

    The flow over blades and airfoils at moderate angles of attack and Reynolds numbers ranging from ten thousand to a few hundred thousands undergoes separation due to the adverse pressure gradient generated by surface curvature. In many cases, the separated shear layer then transitions to turbulence and reattaches, closing off a recirculation region -- the laminar separation bubble. To avoid body-fitted mesh generation problems and numerical issues, an equivalent problem for flow over a flat plate is formulated by imposing boundary conditions that lead to a pressure distribution and Reynolds number that are similar to those on airfoils. Spalart & Strelet (2000) tested a number of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models for a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate. Although results with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model were encouraging, none of the turbulence models tested reliably recovered time-averaged direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. The purpose of this work is to assess whether large eddy simulation (LES) can more accurately and reliably recover DNS results using drastically reduced resolution -- on the order of 1% of DNS resolution which is commonly achievable for LES of turbulent channel flows. LES of a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate are performed using a compressible sixth-order finite-difference code and two incompressible pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solvers at resolutions corresponding to approximately 3% and 1% of the chosen DNS benchmark by Spalart & Strelet (2000). The finite-difference solver is found to be dissipative due to the use of a stability-enhancing filter. Its numerical dissipation is quantified and found to be comparable to the average eddy viscosity of the dynamic Smagorinsky model, making it difficult to separate the effects of filtering versus those of explicit subgrid-scale modeling. The negligible numerical dissipation of the pseudo-spectral solvers allows an unambiguous

  1. Geometries for roughness shapes in laminar flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor); Martin, Glenn L. (Inventor); Domack, Christopher S. (Inventor); Obara, Clifford J. (Inventor); Hassan, Ahmed A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A passive interface mechanism between upper and lower skin structures, and a leading edge structure of a laminar flow airfoil is described. The interface mechanism takes many shapes. All are designed to be different than the sharp orthogonal arrangement prevalent in the prior art. The shapes of the interface structures are generally of two types: steps away from the centerline of the airfoil with a sloping surface directed toward the trailing edge and, the other design has a gap before the sloping surface. By properly shaping the step, the critical step height is increased by more than 50% over the orthogonal edged step.

  2. Estimating Engine Airflow in Gas-Turbine Powered Aircraft with Clean and Distorted Inlet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Steenken, W. G.; Yuhas, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The P404-GF-400 Powered F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to examine the impact of inlet-generated total-pressure distortion on estimating levels of engine airflow. Five airflow estimation methods were studied. The Reference Method was a fan corrected airflow to fan corrected speed calibration from an uninstalled engine test. In-flight airflow estimation methods utilized the average, or individual, inlet duct static- to total-pressure ratios, and the average fan-discharge static-pressure to average inlet total-pressure ratio. Correlations were established at low distortion conditions for each method relative to the Reference Method. A range of distorted inlet flow conditions were obtained from -10 deg. to +60 deg. angle of attack and -7 deg. to +11 deg. angle of sideslip. The individual inlet duct pressure ratio correlation resulted in a 2.3 percent airflow spread for all distorted flow levels with a bias error of -0.7 percent. The fan discharge pressure ratio correlation gave results with a 0.6 percent airflow spread with essentially no systematic error. Inlet-generated total-pressure distortion and turbulence had no significant impact on the P404-GE400 engine airflow pumping. Therefore, a speed-flow relationship may provide the best airflow estimate for a specific engine under all flight conditions.

  3. IEA BESTEST Multi-Zone Non-Airflow In-Depth Diagnostic Cases: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.; Alexander, D.; Felsmann, C.; Strachan, P.; Wijsman, A.

    2011-11-01

    This paper documents a set of in-depth diagnostic test cases for multi-zone heat transfer models that do not include the heat and mass transfer effects of airflow between zones. The multi-zone non-airflow test cases represent an extension to IEA BESTEST (Judkoff and Neymark 1995a).

  4. A Series of Laminar Jet Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence, using propane fuel, was taken STS-94, July 4 1997, MET:2/05:30 (approximate). LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel-like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (249KB JPEG, 1350 x 1524 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300185.html.

  5. Series of Laminar Soot Processes Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence was taken July 15, 1997, MET:14/10:34 (approximate) and shows the ignition and extinction of this flame. LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel -- like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (189KB JPEG, 1350 x 1517 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300183.html.

  6. A Theoretical Study on Airflow Motive Force and Heat Transfer by the Water Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuyuki

    On assuming the abscissa moving uniformly with the horizontal airflow in disregard of gravity, airflow motive force and heat transfer by the water spray have been easily analyzed theoretically. Here main results are as follows. The theoretical maximum airflow motive pressure is proportional to both the initial relative velocity of waterdrop and the relative water flow per unit cross-sectional area of the apparatus to the airflow or the moving abscissa but unrelated to the size of waterdrop. The airflow motive pressure approaches to the above maximum with an increase in the length of the apparatus. Making the waterdrop size smaller has an effect on the aparatus to get longer virtually. The initial velocity of waterdrop or the spraying nozzle pressure has little effect on the heat transfer between the air and the water.

  7. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  8. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    PubMed

    Lentink, David; de Kat, Roeland

    2014-01-01

    Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  9. Bronchial hypersecretion, chronic airflow limitation, and peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, F; Brille, D

    1981-11-01

    Men with and men without a history of peptic ulcers were compared using respiratory symptoms and spirographic measurements taken from data recorded in an epidemiologic study. Among the 1,049 men examined, 7% reported a history of peptic ulcer. A clear relationship appeared between bronchial hypersecretion and peptic ulcers. It persisted after adjustment for age, smoking habits, social class, and country of origin. Men with ulcers inhaled tobacco smoke more often. Ulcers, smoking, and chronic phlegm were independently related to a lower body build index. It seems that the relationship between smoking and ulcers was greater among men with chronic phlegm, and it is postulated that peptic ulcers and "chronic bronchitis" might be related to a "common secretory disorder." After adjustment for age, men with a history of peptic ulcers had, not a lower FEV1, but a higher vital capacity. A slightly lower FEV1/VC ratio cannot in such cases be considered as an index of chronic airflow limitation.

  10. Mushrooms use convectively created airflows to disperse their spores

    PubMed Central

    Dressaire, Emilie; Yamada, Lisa; Song, Boya; Roper, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of basidiomycete fungal species rely on mushroom spores to spread across landscapes. It has long been thought that spores depend on favorable winds for dispersal—that active control of spore dispersal by the parent fungus is limited to an impulse delivered to the spores to carry them clear of the gill surface. Here we show that evaporative cooling of the air surrounding the pileus creates convective airflows capable of carrying spores at speeds of centimeters per second. Convective cells can transport spores from gaps that may be only 1 cm high and lift spores 10 cm or more into the air. This work reveals how mushrooms tolerate and even benefit from crowding and explains their high water needs. PMID:26929324

  11. Airflow and optic flow mediate antennal positioning in flying honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Roy Khurana, Taruni; Sane, Sanjay P

    2016-01-01

    To maintain their speeds during navigation, insects rely on feedback from their visual and mechanosensory modalities. Although optic flow plays an essential role in speed determination, it is less reliable under conditions of low light or sparse landmarks. Under such conditions, insects rely on feedback from antennal mechanosensors but it is not clear how these inputs combine to elicit flight-related antennal behaviours. We here show that antennal movements of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, are governed by combined visual and antennal mechanosensory inputs. Frontal airflow, as experienced during forward flight, causes antennae to actively move forward as a sigmoidal function of absolute airspeed values. However, corresponding front-to-back optic flow causes antennae to move backward, as a linear function of relative optic flow, opposite the airspeed response. When combined, these inputs maintain antennal position in a state of dynamic equilibrium. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14449.001 PMID:27097104

  12. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

    PubMed

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  13. Airflow design for cleanrooms and its economic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2002-08-20

    A cleanroom is designed to control the concentration of airborne particles. As a result, large amount of cleaned air is often required to remove or dilute contaminants for satisfactory operations in critical cleanroom environment. Cleanroom environmental systems (HVAC systems) in semiconductor, pharmaceutical, and healthcare industries are much more energy intensive compared to their counterparts (HVAC systems) serving commercial buildings such as typical office buildings. There is a tendency in cleanroom design and operation, however, to provide excessive airflow rates by HVAC systems, largely due to design conservatism, lack of understanding in airflow requirements, and more often, concerns such as cleanliness reliability, design and operational liabilities. A combination of these likely factors can easily result in HVAC systems' over-design. Energy use of cleanroom environmental systems varies with the system design, cleanroom functions, and critical parameter control including temperatures and humidities. In particular, cleanroom cleanliness requirements specified by ''cleanliness class'' [1],[2] often cast large impact on energy use. A review of studies on cleanroom operation costs indicated that energy costs could amount to 65-75% of the total annual cost associated with cleanroom operation and maintenance in some European countries[3]. Depending on cleanroom cleanliness classes, annual cleanroom electricity use for cooling and fan energy ranged approximately between 1,710 kWh/m{sup 2} and 10,200 kWh/m{sup 2} (or 160 kWh/ft{sup 2} and 950 kWh/ft{sup 2}) in California[4], USA. Cleanroom fan energy use typically consumed half of total HVAC energy use in three states in the USA[5]. For cleanrooms in a wafer-process semiconductor factory in Japan[6], HVAC systems used 43% of power consumption of an entire cleanroom factory, while air delivery systems account for 30% of the total power consumption. Fan energy use for cleanrooms of ISO Classes 3,4,5 collectively

  14. Effect of airflow on biodrying of gardening wastes in reactors.

    PubMed

    Colomer-Mendoza, F J; Herrera-Prats, L; Robles-Martínez, F; Gallardo-Izquierdo, A; Piña-Guzmán, A B

    2013-05-01

    Biodrying consists of reducing moisture by using the heat from aerobic bio-degradation. The parameters that control the process are: aeration, temperature during the process, initial moisture of biowaste, and temperature and relative humidity of the input air. Lawn mowing and garden waste from the gardens of the University Jaume I, Castellón (Spain) were used as a substrate. Biodrying was performed in 10 reactors with known air volumes from 0.88 to 6.42 L/(min x kg dry weight). To promote aeration, 5 of the reactors had 15% of a bulking agent added. The experiment lasted 20 days. After the experiments it was found that the bulking agent led to greater weight loss. However, the increased airflow rate was not linearly proportional to the weight loss.

  15. The Tla protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50: a homolog of the RI protease precursor (PrpRI) is an outer membrane receptor required for growth on low levels of hemin.

    PubMed

    Aduse-Opoku, J; Slaney, J M; Rangarajan, M; Muir, J; Young, K A; Curtis, M A

    1997-08-01

    The prpR1 gene of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 encodes the polyprotein precursor (PrpRI) of an extracellular arginine-specific protease. PrpRI is organized into four distinct domains (pro, alpha, beta, and gamma) and is processed to a heterodimeric protease (RI) which comprises the alpha and beta components in a noncovalent association. The alpha component contains the protease active site, whereas the beta component appears to have a role in adherence and hemagglutination processes. DNA sequences homologous to the coding region for the RI beta component are present at multiple loci on the P. gingivalis chromosome and may represent a family of related genes. In this report, we describe the cloning, sequence analysis, and characterization of one of these homologous loci isolated in plasmid pJM7. The 6,041-bp P. gingivalis DNA fragment in pJM7 contains a major open reading frame of 3,291 bp with coding potential for a protein with an Mr 118,700. An internal region of the deduced sequence (V304 to N768) shows 98% identity to the beta domain of PrpRI, and the recombinant product of pJM7 is immunoreactive with an antibody specific to the RI beta component. The N terminus of the deduced sequence has regional similarity to TonB-linked receptors which are frequently involved in periplasmic translocation of hemin, iron, colicins, or vitamin B12 in other bacteria. We have therefore designated this gene tla (TonB-linked adhesin). In contrast to the parent strain, an isogenic mutant of P. gingivalis W50 in which the tla was insertionally inactivated was unable to grow in medium containing low concentrations of hemin (<2.5 mg liter(-1)), and hemin-depleted cells of this mutant failed to respond to hemin in an agar diffusion plate assay. These data suggest a role for this gene product in hemin acquisition and utilization. Furthermore, the mutant produced significantly less arginine- and lysine-specific protease activities than the parent strain, indicating that there may be a

  16. Induced airflow in flying insects II. Measurement of induced flow.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P; Jacobson, Nathaniel P

    2006-01-01

    The flapping wings of insects and birds induce a strong flow over their body during flight. Although this flow influences the sensory biology and physiology of a flying animal, there are very little data on the characteristics of this self-generated flow field or its biological consequences. A model proposed in the companion paper estimated the induced flow over flying insects. In this study, we used a pair of hot wire anemometers to measure this flow at two locations near the body of a tethered flapping hawk moth, Manduca sexta. The axial inflow anemometer measured the airflow prior to its entry into the stroke plane, whereas the radial outflow anemometer measured the airflow after it crossed the stroke plane. The high temporal resolution of the hot wire anemometers allowed us to measure not only the mean induced flow but also subtle higher frequency disturbances occurring at 1-4 times the wing beat frequency. These data provide evidence for the predictions of a mathematical model proposed in the companion paper. Specifically, the absolute value of the measured induced flow matches the estimate of the model. Also, as predicted by the model, the induced flow varies linearly with wing beat frequency. Our experiments also show that wing flexion contributes significantly to the observed higher frequency disturbances. Thus, the hot wire anemometry technique provides a useful means to quantify the aerodynamic signature of wing flexion. The phasic and tonic components of induced flow influence several physiological processes such as convective heat loss and gas exchange in endothermic insects, as well as alter the nature of mechanosensory and olfactory stimuli to the sensory organs of a flying insect.

  17. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  18. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  19. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  20. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  1. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  2. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  3. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  4. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  5. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  6. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  7. Laminar flow control SPF/08 feasibility demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, R. C.; Williams, N. R.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of applying superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) technology to laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts was demonstrated. Procedures were developed to produce smooth, flat titanium panels, using thin -0.016 inch sheets, meeting LFC surface smoothness requirements. Two large panels 28 x 28 inches were fabricated as final demonstration articles. The first was flat on the top and bottom sides demonstrating the capability of the tooling and the forming and diffusion bonding procedures to produce flat, defect free surfaces. The second panel was configurated for LFC porous panel treatment by forming channels with dimpled projections on the top side. The projections were machined away leaving holes extending into the panel. A perforated titanium sheet was adhesively bonded over this surface to complete the LFC demonstration panel. The final surface was considered flat enough to meet LFC requirements for a jet transport aircraft in cruising flight.

  8. Progress in natural laminar flow research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    For decades, since the earliest attempts to obtain natural laminar flow (NLF) on airplanes, three classical objections to its practicality have been held in the aeronautical community. These objectives concerned first, the capability to manufacture practical airframe surfaces smooth enough for NLF; second, the apparent inherent instability and sensitivity of NLF; and third, the accumulation of contamination such as insect debris in flight. This paper explains recent progress in our understanding of the achieveability and maintainability of NLF on modern airframe surfaces. This discussion explains why previous attempts to use NLF failed and what has changed regarding the three classical objections to NLF practicality. Future NASA research plans are described concerning exploring the limits of NLF usefulness, production tolerances, operational considerations, transition behavior and measurement methods, and NLF design applications.

  9. Laminar flow control perforated wing panel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischler, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Many structural concepts for a wing leading edge laminar flow control hybrid panel were analytically investigated. After many small, medium, and large tests, the selected design was verified. New analytic methods were developed to combine porous titanium sheet bonded to a substructure of fiberglass and carbon/epoxy cloth. At -65 and +160 F test conditions, the critical bond of the porous titanium to the composite failed at lower than anticipated test loads. New cure cycles, design improvements, and test improvements significantly improved the strength and reduced the deflections from thermal and lateral loadings. The wave tolerance limits for turbulence were not exceeded. Consideration of the beam column midbay deflections from the combinations of the axial and lateral loadings and thermal bowing at -65 F, room temperature, and +160 F were included. Many lap shear tests were performed at several cure cycles. Results indicate that sufficient verification was obtained to fabricate a demonstration vehicle.

  10. Thermohydrodynamic analysis for laminar lubricating films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, H. G.; Brewe, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    A Galerkin-type analysis to include thermal effects in laminar lubricating films was performed. The lubricant properties were assumed constant except for a temperature-dependent Newtonian viscosity. The cross-film temperature profile is established by collocation at the film boundaries and two interior Lobatto points. The interior temperatures are determined by requiring that the zeroth and first moment of the energy equation be satisfied across the film. The fluidity is forced to conform to a third--degree polynomial appropriate to the Lobatto-point temperatures. Preliminary indications are that the use of just two such sampling points enables satisfactory prediction of bearing performance even in the presence of substantial viscosity variation.

  11. Base pressure in laminar supersonic flow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messiter, A. F.; Hough, G. R.; Feo, A.

    1973-01-01

    An asymptotic description is proposed for supersonic laminar flow over a wedge or a backward-facing step, for large Reynolds number and for a base or step height which is small compared with the boundary-layer length. The analysis is carried out for adiabatic wall conditions and a viscosity coefficient proportional to temperature. In a particular limit corresponding to a very thick boundary layer, a similarity law is obtained for the base pressure. For a thinner boundary layer an asymptotic form for the base pressure is obtained which shows the dependence on the parameters explicitly and which permits good agreement with experiment. This latter result is based on an inviscid-flow approximation for the corner expansion and for reattachment with viscous forces important primarily in a thin sublayer about the dividing streamline. A prediction of the pressure distribution at reattachment is given and the result is compared with experimental pressure distributions.

  12. Evaluation of the Edgegard laminar flow hood.

    PubMed

    Coriell, L L; McGarrity, G J

    1970-09-01

    In a horizontal back-to-front flow high-efficiency particulate air-filtered laminar hood, it is shown that a Blake bottle obstruction to the air flow causes a downstream cone of turbulent air which can draw microbial contamination into the work area of the hood. In controlled experiments, contamination with T3 coliphage was reduced by a series of perforations around the open edge of the hood which eliminates the cone of turbulent air. The average reduction in phage counts was 90.75, 86.79, 91.12, and 98.92%, depending upon the site of nebulization. The phage counts were reduced in 48 of the 51 tests.

  13. On the combustion of a laminar spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Yeshayahou; Bulzan, Daniel L.

    1993-01-01

    A spray combustor, with flow velocities in the laminar range, exhibits a unique operating mode where large amplitude, self-induced oscillations of the flame shape occur. The phenomenon, not previously encountered, only occurs when fuel is supplied in the form of fine liquid droplets and does not occur when fuel is supplied in gaseous form. Several flow mechanisms are coupled in such a fashion as to trigger and maintain the oscillatory motion of the flame. These mechanisms include heat transfer and evaporation processes, dynamics of two-phase flows, and effects of gravity (buoyancy forces). An interface volume, lying above the fuel nozzle and below the flame was found to be the most susceptible to gravity effects and postulated to be responsible for inducing the oscillatory motion. Heptane fuel was used in the majority of the tests. Tests performed with iso-octane also showed similar results.

  14. Toward a laminar-flow-control transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    Analyses were conducted to define a practical design for an advanced technology laminar flow control (LRC) transport for initial passenger operation in the early 1990's. Mission requirements, appropriate design criteria, and level of technology for the study aircraft were defined. The characteristics of the selected configuration were established, aircraft and LFC subsystems compatible with the mission requirements were defined, and the aircraft was evaluated in terms of fuel efficiency. A wing design integrating the LFC ducting and metering system into advanced composite wing structure was developed, manufacturing procedures for the surface panel design were established, and environmental and structural testing of surface panel components were conducted. Test results revealed a requirement for relatively minor changes in the manufacturing procedures employed, but have shown the general compatibility of both the selected design and the use of composite materials with the requirements of LFC wing surface panels.

  15. Steady laminar flow of fractal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Mena, Baltasar; Susarrey, Orlando; Samayoa, Didier

    2017-02-01

    We study laminar flow of a fractal fluid in a cylindrical tube. A flow of the fractal fluid is mapped into a homogeneous flow in a fractional dimensional space with metric induced by the fractal topology. The equations of motion for an incompressible Stokes flow of the Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. It is found that the radial distribution for the velocity in a steady Poiseuille flow of a fractal fluid is governed by the fractal metric of the flow, whereas the pressure distribution along the flow direction depends on the fractal topology of flow, as well as on the fractal metric. The radial distribution of the fractal fluid velocity in a steady Couette flow between two concentric cylinders is also derived.

  16. The Laminar Cortex Model: A New Continuum Cortex Model Incorporating Laminar Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiaxin; Vegh, Viktor; Reutens, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Local field potentials (LFPs) are widely used to study the function of local networks in the brain. They are also closely correlated with the blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal, the predominant contrast mechanism in functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed a new laminar cortex model (LCM) to simulate the amplitude and frequency of LFPs. Our model combines the laminar architecture of the cerebral cortex and multiple continuum models to simulate the collective activity of cortical neurons. The five cortical layers (layer I, II/III, IV, V, and VI) are simulated as separate continuum models between which there are synaptic connections. The LCM was used to simulate the dynamics of the visual cortex under different conditions of visual stimulation. LFPs are reported for two kinds of visual stimulation: general visual stimulation and intermittent light stimulation. The power spectra of LFPs were calculated and compared with existing empirical data. The LCM was able to produce spontaneous LFPs exhibiting frequency-inverse (1/ƒ) power spectrum behaviour. Laminar profiles of current source density showed similarities to experimental data. General stimulation enhanced the oscillation of LFPs corresponding to gamma frequencies. During simulated intermittent light stimulation, the LCM captured the fundamental as well as high order harmonics as previously reported. The power spectrum expected with a reduction in layer IV neurons, often observed with focal cortical dysplasias associated with epilepsy was also simulated. PMID:23093925

  17. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    PubMed

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-11-18

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands.

  18. F-111 TACT natural laminar flow glove flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.; Trujillo, B.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements in cruise efficiency on the order of 15 to 40% are obtained by increasing the extent of laminar flow over lifting surfaces. Two methods of achieving laminar flow are being considered, natural laminar flow and laminar flow control. Natural laminar flow (NLF) relies primarily on airfoil shape while laminar flow control involves boundary layer suction or blowing with mechanical devices. The extent of natural laminar flow that could be achieved with consistency in a real flight environment at chord Reynolds numbers in the range of 30 x 10(6) power was evaluated. Nineteen flights were conducted on the F-111 TACT airplane having a NLF airfoil glove section. The section consists of a supercritical airfoil providing favorable pressure gradients over extensive portions of the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. Boundary layer measurements were obtained over a range of wing leading edge sweep angles at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 0.85. Data were obtained for natural transition and for a range of forced transition locations over the test airfoil.

  19. NASA F-16XL supersonic laminar flow control program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of the NASA supersonic laminar flow control program are provided. Successful application of laminar flow control to a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) offers significant benefits in reductions of take-off gross weight, mission fuel burn, cruise drag, structural temperatures, engine size, emissions, and sonic boom. The ultimate economic success of the proposed HSCT may depend on the successful adaption of laminar flow control, which offers the single most significant potential improvements in lift drag ratio (L/D) of all the aerodynamic technologies under consideration. The F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) Experiment was conceived based on the encouraging results of in-house and NASA supported industry studies to determine if laminar flow control is feasible for the HSCT. The primary objective is to achieve extensive laminar flow (50-60 percent chord) on a highly swept supersonic wing. Data obtained from the flight test will be used to validate existing Euler and Navier Stokes aerodynamic codes and transition prediction boundary layer stability codes. These validated codes and developed design methodology will be delivered to industry for their use in designing supersonic laminar flow control wings. Results from this experiment will establish preliminary suction system design criteria enabling industry to better size the suction system and develop improved estimates of system weight, fuel volume loss due to wing ducting, turbocompressor power requirements, etc. so that benefits and penalties can be more accurately assessed.

  20. Chemical kinetic model uncertainty minimization through laminar flame speed measurements.

    PubMed

    Park, Okjoo; Veloo, Peter S; Sheen, David A; Tao, Yujie; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N; Wang, Hai

    2016-10-01

    Laminar flame speed measurements were carried for mixture of air with eight C3-4 hydrocarbons (propene, propane, 1,3-butadiene, 1-butene, 2-butene, iso-butene, n-butane, and iso-butane) at the room temperature and ambient pressure. Along with C1-2 hydrocarbon data reported in a recent study, the entire dataset was used to demonstrate how laminar flame speed data can be utilized to explore and minimize the uncertainties in a reaction model for foundation fuels. The USC Mech II kinetic model was chosen as a case study. The method of uncertainty minimization using polynomial chaos expansions (MUM-PCE) (D.A. Sheen and H. Wang, Combust. Flame 2011, 158, 2358-2374) was employed to constrain the model uncertainty for laminar flame speed predictions. Results demonstrate that a reaction model constrained only by the laminar flame speed values of methane/air flames notably reduces the uncertainty in the predictions of the laminar flame speeds of C3 and C4 alkanes, because the key chemical pathways of all of these flames are similar to each other. The uncertainty in model predictions for flames of unsaturated C3-4 hydrocarbons remain significant without considering fuel specific laminar flames speeds in the constraining target data set, because the secondary rate controlling reaction steps are different from those in the saturated alkanes. It is shown that the constraints provided by the laminar flame speeds of the foundation fuels could reduce notably the uncertainties in the predictions of laminar flame speeds of C4 alcohol/air mixtures. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that an accurate prediction of the laminar flame speed of a particular C4 alcohol/air mixture is better achieved through measurements for key molecular intermediates formed during the pyrolysis and oxidation of the parent fuel.

  1. On the stable hovering of an asymmetric body in oscillatory airflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Weathers, Annie; Childress, Stephen; Zhang, Jun

    2010-03-01

    A free rigid body, built with up-down asymmetry can hover in a vertical oscillatory airflow if the airflow amplitude and frequency exceed certain thresholds. The key to free hovering lies in the difference in drag coefficients as the airflow passes the object in two opposite directions. The hovering motion is surprisingly stable and robust, lasting for thousands of oscillation periods. We describe a series of flow visualizations of vortex shedding by the hovering object, which show how correcting moments restore its orientation, leading to stable hovering. This study may shed light on the stability of the hovering flight of insects.

  2. Disorders of resonance and airflow secondary to cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Ann W

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to help the reader understand what contributes to normal resonance for speech production. In addition, the reader will learn about the types of resonance disorders and their characteristics. The causes of resonance disorders will be described with a guideline on how they should be treated. This article also includes a discussion of normal airflow for speech and the perceptual speech characteristics that often occur when there is abnormal nasal airflow. Secondary characteristics of nasal airflow, including weak or omitted consonants, short utterance length, nasal grimace, and compensatory articulation productions, are also described.

  3. Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.

  4. Inductively coupled plasma torch with laminar flow cooling

    DOEpatents

    Rayson, Gary D.; Shen, Yang

    1991-04-30

    An improved inductively coupled gas plasma torch. The torch includes inner and outer quartz sleeves and tubular insert snugly fitted between the sleeves. The insert includes outwardly opening longitudinal channels. Gas flowing through the channels of the insert emerges in a laminar flow along the inside surface of the outer sleeve, in the zone of plasma heating. The laminar flow cools the outer sleeve and enables the torch to operate at lower electrical power and gas consumption levels additionally, the laminar flow reduces noise levels in spectroscopic measurements of the gaseous plasma.

  5. Current Laminar Flow Control Experiments at NASA Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al

    2010-01-01

    An experiment to demonstrate laminar flow over the swept wing of a subsonic transport is being developed. Discrete Roughness Elements are being used to maintain laminar flow over a substantial portion of a wing glove. This passive laminar flow technology has only come to be recognized as a significant player in airliner drag reduction in the last few years. NASA is implementing this experiment and is planning to demonstrate this technology at full-scale Bight cruise conditions of a small-to-medium airliner.

  6. Airflow and nanoparticle deposition in a 16-generation tracheobronchial airway model

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to achieve both manageable simulation and local accuracy of airflow and nanoparticle deposition in a representative human tracheobronchial (TB) region, the complex airway network was decomposed into adjustable triple-bifurcation units, spreading axially and laterally. Gi...

  7. Modeling Airflow Using Subject-Specific 4DCT-Based Deformable Volumetric Lung Models

    PubMed Central

    Ilegbusi, Olusegun J.; Li, Zhiliang; Seyfi, Behnaz; Min, Yugang; Meeks, Sanford; Kupelian, Patrick; Santhanam, Anand P.

    2012-01-01

    Lung radiotherapy is greatly benefitted when the tumor motion caused by breathing can be modeled. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of using anisotropic and subject-specific tissue elasticity for simulating the airflow inside the lungs. A computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) based approach is presented to simulate airflow inside a subject-specific deformable lung for modeling lung tumor motion and the motion of the surrounding tissues during radiotherapy. A flow-structure interaction technique is employed that simultaneously models airflow and lung deformation. The lung is modeled as a poroelastic medium with subject-specific anisotropic poroelastic properties on a geometry, which was reconstructed from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scan datasets of humans with lung cancer. The results include the 3D anisotropic lung deformation for known airflow pattern inside the lungs. The effects of anisotropy are also presented on both the spatiotemporal volumetric lung displacement and the regional lung hysteresis. PMID:23365554

  8. Evaluation of circumferential airflow uniformity entering combustors from compressors. Volume 1: Discussion of data and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shadowen, J. H.; Egan, W. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The compressor discharge airflow uniformity of two compressors from advanced engines, the J58 and F100/F401, was studied. Compressor discharge pressures and temperatures at up to 33 circumferential rake locations allowed the airflow distribution to be ascertained and computer plotted. Several flight conditions and compressor variables, i.e., inlet distortion, modified seals, etc., were analyzed. An unexpectedly high nonuniform airflow was found for both compressors. Circumferential airflow deviation differences of up to 52% from maximum to minimum were found for the J58, and up to 40% for the F100/F401. The effects of aerodynamic and thermal distortion were found to be additive. The data were analyzed for influence of exit guide vane wakes and found free of any effect. Data system errors were small in relation to the measured pressure and temperature variations.

  9. Airflow obstruction: is it asthma or is it COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Rogliani, Paola; Ora, Josuel; Puxeddu, Ermanno; Cazzola, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of guideline recommendations, diagnostic confusion between COPD and asthma appears common, and often it is very difficult to decide whether the obstruction is caused by asthma or COPD in a patient with airway obstruction. However, there are well-defined features that help in differentiating asthma from COPD in the presence of fixed airflow obstruction. Nonetheless, the presentations of asthma and COPD can converge and mimic each other, making it difficult to give these patients a diagnosis of either condition. The association of asthma and COPD in the same patient has been designated mixed asthma–COPD phenotype or overlap syndrome. However, since the absence of a clear definition and the inclusion of patients with different characteristics under this umbrella term, it may not facilitate treatment decisions, especially in the absence of clinical trials addressing this heterogeneous population. We are realizing that neither asthma nor COPD are single diseases, but rather syndromes consisting of several endotypes and phenotypes, consequently comprising a spectrum of diseases that must be recognized and adequately treated with targeted therapy. Therefore, we must treat patients by personalizing therapy on the basis of those treatable traits present in each subject. PMID:27942210

  10. The incompressibility assumption in computational simulations of nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Cal, Ismael R; Cercos-Pita, Jose Luis; Duque, Daniel

    2017-04-03

    Most of the computational works on nasal airflow up to date have assumed incompressibility, given the low Mach number of these flows. However, for high temperature gradients, the incompressibility assumption could lead to a loss of accuracy, due to the temperature dependence of air density and viscosity. In this article we aim to shed some light on the influence of this assumption in a model of calm breathing in an Asian nasal cavity, by solving the fluid flow equations in compressible and incompressible formulation for different ambient air temperatures using the OpenFOAM package. At low flow rates and warm climatological conditions, similar results were obtained from both approaches, showing that density variations need not be taken into account to obtain a good prediction of all flow features, at least for usual breathing conditions. This agrees with most of the simulations previously reported, at least as far as the incompressibility assumption is concerned. However, parameters like nasal resistance and wall shear stress distribution differ for air temperatures below [Formula: see text]C approximately. Therefore, density variations should be considered for simulations at such low temperatures.

  11. Factors affecting distribution of airflow in a human tracheobronchial cast.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B S; Sussman, R G; Lippmann, M

    1993-09-01

    Air velocity was measured at end airways of hollow replicate casts of the human tracheobronchial tree in order to determine the flow distribution within casts extending to 3 mm diameter airways. Measurements were made by hot-wire anemometry for constant inspiratory flow rates of 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 L.min-1. Average flow distribution among the lung lobes was as follows: right upper, 18.5%; right middle, 9.2%; right lower, 32.3%; left upper, 15.7%; and left lower, 24.3%. An empirical model derived from the experimental flow distribution data demonstrated the effect of various morphometric parameters of the hollow cast on the distribution of airflow. Airway cross-sectional area, branching angle and total path-length were found to have the greatest influence. As the tracheal flow rate decreased from 60 to 7.5 L.min-1, the influence of branching angle was reduced, while total path-length became more influential. These results provide evidence for the transition of flow regimes within the TB tree within normal physiological flow ranges.

  12. Chronic airflow limitation in developing countries: burden and priorities.

    PubMed

    Aït-Khaled, Nadia; Enarson, Donald A; Ottmani, Salah; El Sony, Asma; Eltigani, Mai; Sepulveda, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory disease has never received priority in relation to its impact on health. Estimated DALYs lost in 2002 were 12% globally (similar for industrialized and developing countries). Chronic airflow limitation (due mainly to asthma and COPD) alone affects more than 100 million persons in the world and the majority of them live in developing countries. International guidelines for management of asthma (GINA) and COPD (GOLD) have been adopted and their cost-effectiveness demonstrated in industrialized countries. As resources are scarce in developing countries, adaptation of these guidelines using only essential drugs is required. It remains for governments to set priorities. To make these choices, a set of criteria have been proposed. It is vital that the results of scientific investigations are presented in these terms to facilitate their use by decision-makers. To respond to this emerging public health problem in developing countries, WHO has developed 2 initiatives: "Practical Approach to Lung Health (PAL)" and the Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD)", and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (The Union) has launched a new initiative to increase affordability of essential asthma drugs for patients in developing countries termed the "Asthma Drug Facility" (ADF), which could facilitate the care of patients living in these parts of the world.

  13. Evaluation of airflow patterns following procedures established by NUREG-1400

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Khan, Fenton; Mendoza, Donaldo P.

    2006-07-26

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's NUREG-1400 addresses many aspects of air sampling in the work place. Here, we present two detailed examples of the implementation of qualitative air flow studies at different scales using guidelines established by NUREG-1400. In one test, smoke was used to evaluate the airflow patterns within the transfer area of the 105 KE Basin, located on the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The purpose of the study was to determine appropriate locations for air monitoring equipment in support of sludge water pumping activities. The study revealed a stagnant layer of the air within the transfer area that made predicting movement of contamination within the transfer area difficult. Without conducting an air flow study, the stagnant layer would not have been identified, and could have resulted in locating samplers at inappropriate locations. In a second test, smoke was used to verify the effectiveness of an air space barrier curtain. The results showed that the curtain adequately separated the two air spaces. The methodology employed in each test provided sound, easy to interpret information that satisfied the requirements of each test.

  14. Studies of premixed laminar and turbulent flames at microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    A two and one-half year experimental and theoretical research program on the properties of laminar and turbulent premixed gas flames at microgravity was conducted. Progress during this program is identified and avenues for future studies are discussed.

  15. Design of fuselage shapes for natural laminar flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodbele, S. S.; Vandam, C. P.; Vijgen, P. M. H. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent technological advances in airplane construction techniques and materials allow for the production of aerodynamic surfaces without significant waviness and roughness, permitting long runs of natural laminar flow (NLF). The present research effort seeks to refine and validate computational design tools for use in the design of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric natural-laminar-flow bodies. The principal task of the investigation involves fuselage body shaping using a computational design procedure. Analytical methods were refined and exploratory calculations conducted to predict laminar boundary-layer on selected body shapes. Using a low-order surface-singularity aerodynamic analysis program, pressure distribution, boundary-layer development, transition location and drag coefficient have been obtained for a number of body shapes including a representative business-aircraft fuselage. Extensive runs of laminar flow were predicted in regions of favorable pressure gradient on smooth body surfaces. A computational design procedure was developed to obtain a body shape with minimum drag having large extent of NLF.

  16. Assessment of the National Transonic Facility for Laminar Flow Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Sutanto, Mary I.; Witkowski, David P.; Watkins, A. Neal; Rivers, Melissa B.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    A transonic wing, designed to accentuate key transition physics, is tested at cryogenic conditions at the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley. The collaborative test between Boeing and NASA is aimed at assessing the facility for high-Reynolds number testing of configurations with significant regions of laminar flow. The test shows a unit Reynolds number upper limit of 26 M/ft for achieving natural transition. At higher Reynolds numbers turbulent wedges emanating from the leading edge bypass the natural transition process and destroy the laminar flow. At lower Reynolds numbers, the transition location is well correlated with the Tollmien-Schlichting-wave N-factor. The low-Reynolds number results suggest that the flow quality is acceptable for laminar flow testing if the loss of laminar flow due to bypass transition can be avoided.

  17. Selected experiments in laminar flow: An annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Aaron; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Since the 1930s, there have been attempts to reduce drag on airplanes by delaying laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition. Experiments conducted during the 1940's, while successful in delaying transition, were discouraging because of the careful surface preparation necessary to meet roughness and waviness requirements. The resulting lull in research lasted nearly 30 years. By the late 1970s, airframe construction techniques had advanced sufficiently that the high surface quality required for natural laminar flow (NLF) and laminar flow control (LFC) appeared possible on production aircraft. As a result, NLF and LFC research became widespread. This report is an overview of that research. The experiments summarized herein were selected for their applicability to small transonic aircraft. Both flight and wind tunnel tests are included. The description of each experiment is followed by corresponding references. Part One summarizes NLF experiments; Part Two deals with LFC and hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) experiments.

  18. Lung sound intensity in patients with emphysema and in normal subjects at standardised airflows.

    PubMed Central

    Schreur, H J; Sterk, P J; Vanderschoot, J; van Klink, H C; van Vollenhoven, E; Dijkman, J H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A common auscultatory finding in pulmonary emphysema is a reduction of lung sounds. This might be due to a reduction in the generation of sounds due to the accompanying airflow limitation or to poor transmission of sounds due to destruction of parenchyma. Lung sound intensity was investigated in normal and emphysematous subjects in relation to airflow. METHODS: Eight normal men (45-63 years, FEV1 79-126% predicted) and nine men with severe emphysema (50-70 years, FEV1 14-63% predicted) participated in the study. Emphysema was diagnosed according to pulmonary history, results of lung function tests, and radiographic criteria. All subjects underwent phonopneumography during standardised breathing manoeuvres between 0.5 and 2 1 below total lung capacity with inspiratory and expiratory target airflows of 2 and 1 l/s respectively during 50 seconds. The synchronous measurements included airflow at the mouth and lung volume changes, and lung sounds at four locations on the right chest wall. For each microphone airflow dependent power spectra were computed by using fast Fourier transformation. Lung sound intensity was expressed as log power (in dB) at 200 Hz at inspiratory flow rates of 1 and 2 l/s and at an expiratory flow rate of 1 l/s. RESULTS: Lung sound intensity was well repeatable on two separate days, the intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.77 to 0.94 between the four microphones. The intensity was strongly influenced by microphone location and airflow. There was, however, no significant difference in lung sound intensity at any flow rate between the normal and the emphysema group. CONCLUSION: Airflow standardised lung sound intensity does not differ between normal and emphysematous subjects. This suggests that the auscultatory finding of diminished breath sounds during the regular physical examination in patients with emphysema is due predominantly to airflow limitation. Images PMID:1440459

  19. Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on bio-drying of dewatered sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Gu, Wei-Mei; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2010-12-01

    Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy utilization, in which sludge is dried by means of the heat generated by aerobic degradation of its organic substances. The study aimed at investigating the interactive influence of air-flow rate and turning frequency on water removal and biomass energy utilization. Results showed that a higher air-flow rate (0.0909m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) led to lower temperature than did the lower one (0.0455m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) by 17.0% and 13.7% under turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate and lower turning frequency, temperature cumulation was almost similar to that with the lower air-flow rate and higher turning frequency. The doubled air-flow rate improved the total water removal ratio by 2.86% (19.5gkg(-1) initial water) and 11.5% (75.0gkg(-1) initial water) with turning per two days and four days respectively, indicating that there was no remarkable advantage for water removal with high air-flow rate, especially with high turning frequency. The heat used for evaporation was 60.6-72.6% of the total heat consumption (34,400-45,400kJ). The higher air-flow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS) degradation thus improving heat generation by 1.95% (800kJ) and 8.96% (3200kJ) with turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by sensible heat of inlet air and heat utilization efficiency for evaporation was higher than the lower one. With the higher turning frequency, sensible heat of materials and heat consumed by turning was higher than lower one.

  20. Effects of airflow on body temperatures and sleep stages in a warm humid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Iwaki, Tatsuya

    2008-03-01

    Airflow is an effective way to increase heat loss—an ongoing process during sleep and wakefulness in daily life. However, it is unclear whether airflow stimulates cutaneous sensation and disturbs sleep or reduces the heat load and facilitates sleep. In this study, 17 male subjects wearing short pyjamas slept on a bed with a cotton blanket under two of the following conditions: (1) air temperature (Ta) 26°C, relative humidity (RH) 50%, and air velocity (V) 0.2 m s-1; (2) Ta 32°C, RH 80%, V 1.7 m s-1; (3) Ta 32°C; RH 80%, V 0.2 m s-1 (hereafter referred to as 26/50, 32/80 with airflow, and 32/80 with still air, respectively). Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, and mental electromyograms were obtained for all subjects. Rectal (Tre) and skin (Ts) temperatures were recorded continuously during the sleep session, and body-mass was measured before and after the sleep session. No significant differences were observed in the duration of sleep stages between subjects under the 26/50 and 32/80 with airflow conditions; however, the total duration of wakefulness decreased significantly in subjects under the 32/80 with airflow condition compared to that in subjects under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss under the 32/80 with airflow condition were significantly higher compared to those under the 26/50 condition, and significantly lower than those under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). An alleviated heat load due to increased airflow was considered to exist between the 32/80 with still air and the 26/50 conditions. Airflow reduces the duration of wakefulness by decreasing Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss in a warm humid condition.

  1. Bioinspired carbon nanotube fuzzy fiber hair sensor for air-flow detection.

    PubMed

    Maschmann, Matthew R; Ehlert, Gregory J; Dickinson, Benjamin T; Phillips, David M; Ray, Cody W; Reich, Greg W; Baur, Jeffery W

    2014-05-28

    Artificial hair sensors consisting of a piezoresistive carbon-nanotube-coated glass fiber embedded in a microcapillary are assembled and characterized. Individual sensors resemble a hair plug that may be integrated in a wide range of host materials. The sensors demonstrate an air-flow detection threshold of less than 1 m/s with a piezoresistive sensitivity of 1.3% per m/s air-flow change.

  2. Evaluation of circumferential airflow uniformity entering combustors from compressors. Volume 2: Data supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shadowen, J. H.; Egan, W. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A study of the airflow uniformity leaving compressors and entering combustors was made using compressors from two advanced engines, the J58 and F100/F401. The data used in the analysis of each case is presented in tabular form and computer-generated profile plots. A plot of the square root of the dynamic pressure ratio, which is similar to airflow deviation, is also presented.

  3. Natural laminar flow airfoil analysis and trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of an airfoil for a large commercial transport cruising at Mach 0.8 and the use of advanced computer techniques to perform the analysis are described. Incorporation of the airfoil into a natural laminar flow transport configuration is addressed and a comparison of fuel requirements and operating costs between the natural laminar flow transport and an equivalent turbulent flow transport is addressed.

  4. Natural laminar-turbulent transition delay by dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, Maxim; Kogan, Mikhail; Litvinov, Vladimir; Uspensky, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    The use dielectric barrier discharge for the delay of laminar turbulent transition excited by natural flow disturbances in a quiet wind-tunnel was investigated experimentally. Optimal electrodes location and the operational regime of high-voltage impulse generator provided maximal downstream shift of transition location were found. It was demonstrated that the 10% increase of the laminar part of boundary layer can be obtained using barrier discharge with the cross-flow electrodes. This gives up to 20% friction drag reduction.

  5. Airflow in the Human Nasal Passage and Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Haribalan; Jain, Ravi; Douglas, Richard G.; Tawhai, Merryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic surgery is performed on patients with chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation. Little is known about how sinus surgery affects sinonasal airflow. In this study nasal passage geometry was reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging from healthy normal, pre-operative, and post-operative subjects. Transient air flow through the nasal passage during calm breathing was simulated. Subject-specific differences in ventilation of the nasal passage were observed. Velocity magnitude at ostium was different between left and right airway. In FESS, airflow in post-surgical subjects, airflow at the maxillary sinus ostium was upto ten times higher during inspiration. In a Lothrop procedure, airflow at the frontal sinus ostium can be upto four times higher during inspiration. In both post-operative subjects, airflow at ostium was not quasi-steady. The subject-specific effect (of surgery) on sinonasal interaction evaluated through airflow simulations may have important consequences for pre- and post-surgical assessment and surgical planning, and design for improvement of the delivery efficiency of nasal therapeutics. PMID:27249219

  6. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    PubMed

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  7. An investigation on airflow in disordered nasal cavity and its corrected models by tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. K.; Chung, S. K.

    2004-06-01

    Knowledge of airflow characteristics in nasal cavities is essential to understand the physiology and pathology aspects of nasal breathing. Several studies have utilized physical models of the healthy nasal cavity to investigate the relationship between nasal anatomy and airflow. Since the final goal of these works is their contribution to the diagnosis and treatment of nasal diseases, therefore, the next step in this topic must be followed by the studies for disordered nasal cavities. In this paper, airflows in normal and abnormal nasal cavities and surgically created models, which simulate surgical treatment, are investigated experimentally by PIV. High-resolution computerized tomogram data and careful manipulation of the model surface by the ear, nose and throat doctor provide more sophisticated nasal cavity models. The correlation based correction PIV algorithm with window offset is used for PIV flow analysis. Average and RMS distributions in sagittal and coronal sections are obtained for inspiratory and expiratory nasal airflows. Comparisons in nasal airflows for both normal and abnormal cases are also examined. Airflow characteristics that are related to the abnormalities in the nasal cavity are proposed. In the case of simulations of surgical operations, velocity and RMS distributions in coronal section change locally, this may cause some difficulties in physiologic functions of noses and may hurt mucosal surface.

  8. Laminar Tendon Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Kyle A.; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Illeperuma, Widusha R.; Suo, Zhigang; Xu, Qiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A strong isotropic material that is both biocompatible and biodegradable is desired for many biomedical applications, including rotator cuff repair, tendon and ligament repair, vascular grafting, among others. Recently, we developed a technique, called “bioskiving” to create novel 2D and 3D constructs from decellularized tendon, using a combination of mechanical sectioning, and layered stacking and rolling. The unidirectionally aligned collagen nanofibers (derived from sections of decellularized tendon) offer good mechanical properties to the constructs compared with those fabricated from reconstituted collagen. Methods In this paper, we studied the effect that several variables have on the mechanical properties of structures fabricated from tendon slices, including crosslinking density and the orientation in which the fibers are stacked. Results We observed that following stacking and crosslinking, the strength of the constructs is significantly improved, with crosslinked sections having an ultimate tens ile strength over 20 times greater than non-crosslinked samples, and a modulus nearly 50 times higher. The mechanism of the mechanical failure mode of the tendon constructs with or without crosslinking was also investigated. Conclusions The strength and fiber organization, combined with the ability to introduce transversely isotropic mechanical properties makes the laminar tendon composites a biocompatiable material that may find future use in a number of biomedical and tissue engineering applications. PMID:25691802

  9. Stability of laminar electron layers. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Chernin, D.; Lau, Y.Y.

    1984-06-22

    The stability of a finite thickness, laminar cylindrical shell of electrons rotating azimuthally and enclosed in a coaxial waveguide is considered. The equilibrium rotation of the electrons is supported either by a radial electric field, an axial magnetic field, or a combination of both. The stability problem is formulated exactly as an eigenvalue problem, including all relativistic and electromagnetic effects as well as all effects of self and applied equilibrium fields. An approximate dispersion relation, valid for thin beams, is obtained analytically and the classical results for the longitudinal modes, i.e., the negative mass, cyclotron maser and diocotron instabilities and for the transvers mode are recovered in appropriate limits. The dispersion relation is relatively simple and is valid for arbitrary values of the equilibrium electric and magnetic fields and for arbitrary bean energy. It therefore provides a ready comparison of the small signal properties of such devices as the Astron, gyrotron, orbitron, heliotron and the various cross field devices. It may also be of interest in accelerator and space physics applications. Some heretofore unnoticed effects on beam stability of equilibrium fields are reported; one such effect in particular leads to formulation of a simple, effective method either to maximize or eliminate altogether the longitudinal mode growth. Results from the dispersion relation compare favorably to results obtained from a numerical solution of the eigenvalue problem.

  10. Radiative interactions in laminar duct flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trivedi, P. A.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented for infrared radiative energy transfer in gases when other modes of energy transfer occur simultaneously. Two types of geometries are considered, a parallel plate duct and a circular duct. Fully developed laminar incompressible flows of absorbing-emitting species in black surfaced ducts are considered under the conditions of uniform wall heat flux. The participating species considered are OH, CO, CO2, and H2O. Nongray as well as gray formulations are developed for both geometries. Appropriate limiting solutions of the governing equations are obtained and conduction-radiation interaction parameters are evaluated. Tien and Lowder's wide band model correlation was used in nongray formulation. Numerical procedures are presented to solve the integro-differential equations for both geometries. The range of physical variables considered are 300 to 2000 K for temperature, 0.1 to 100.0 atm for pressure, and 0.1 to 100 cm spacings between plates/radius of the tube. An extensive parametric study based on nongray formulation is presented. Results obtained for different flow conditions indicate that the radiative interactions can be quite significant in fully developed incompressible flows.

  11. Laminar flow past a rotating circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sangmo; Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Sangsan

    1999-11-01

    The present study numerically investigates two-dimensional laminar flow past a circular cylinder rotating with a constant angular velocity, for the purpose of controlling vortex shedding and understanding the underlying flow mechanism. Numerical simulations are performed for flows with Re=60, 100, and 160 in the range of 0⩽α⩽2.5, where α is the circumferential speed at the cylinder surface normalized by the free-stream velocity. Results show that the rotation of a cylinder can suppress vortex shedding effectively. Vortex shedding exists at low rotational speeds and completely disappears at α>αL, where αL is the critical rotational speed which shows a logarithmic dependence on Re. The Strouhal number remains nearly constant regardless of α while vortex shedding exists. With increasing α, the mean lift increases linearly and the mean drag decreases, which differ significantly from those predicted by the potential flow theory. On the other hand, the amplitude of lift fluctuation stays nearly constant with increasing α (<αL), while that of drag fluctuation increases. Further studies from the instantaneous flow fields demonstrate again that the rotation of a cylinder makes a substantial effect on the flow pattern.

  12. Laminar Flow past a Rotating Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongjoo; Choi, Haecheon

    2000-11-01

    In this study, laminar flow past a rotating sphere is numerically investigated to understand the effect of the streamwise rotation on the flow characteristics behind a sphere. The present numerical method is based on a newly developed immersed boundary method in a cylindrical coordinate. Numerical simulations are performed at Re =100, 250 and 300 in the range of 0 <= ω^* <= 1.0, where ω^* is the maximum circumferential speed at the sphere surface normalized by the free-stream velocity. At ω^*=0 (without rotation), the flow past a sphere experiences steady axisymmetry, steady plane-symmetry, and unsteady plane-symmetry, respectively, at Re =100, 250 and 300. When the rotational speed increases, the drag increases for all the Reynolds numbers investigated, whereas the lift shows a non-monotonic behavior depending on the Reynolds number. At Re =100, the flow past a sphere shows steady axisymmetry for all the rotational speeds considered and thus the lift is zero. On the other hand, at Re =250 and 300, the flow becomes unsteady with rotation. With increasing rotational speed, the lift first decreases and then increases, showing a local minimum of lift at a specific rotational speed. The three-dimensional vortical structures behind a sphere are significantly modified by the streamwise rotation. For example, the vortical structures at Re =300 are completely changed and phase locked with rotation at ω^*=0.6.

  13. A New Approach to Laminar Flowmeters

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Fernando Lopez; Diaz, Alvaro Deibe; Lema, Marcos Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Santiago Vazquez

    2010-01-01

    After studying the performance and characteristics of actual laminar flowmeters a new disposition for this type of sensors is proposed in such a way that the measurement errors introduced by the intrinsic nature of the device can be minimized. The preliminary study shows that the developing entry region introduces non-linearity effects in all these devices. These effects bring about not only errors, but also a change in the slope of the linear calibration respect of the Poiseuille relation. After a subsequent analysis on how these non-linearity errors can be reduced, a new disposition of this type of flowmeters is introduced. This device makes used of flow elements having pressure taps at three locations along its length and connected to three isolated chambers. In this way, the static pressure can be measured at three locations and contributed to by the pressure taps at the level of each chamber. Thus the linearization error is reduced with an additional advantage of producing a reduced pressure drop. PMID:22163486

  14. Comparison between Mach 2 rarefied airflow modification by an electrical discharge and numerical simulation of airflow modification by surface heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisse, J. D.; Léger, L.; Depussay, E.; Lago, V.; Burtschell, Y.

    2009-10-01

    This study is devoted to numerical and experimental investigations about the influence of an electrical discharge over a flat plate immersed in a rarefied Mach 2 airflow. Regarding the experimental work, a negative dc discharge is created by applying a potential difference gap between two spanwise aluminum electrodes flush mounted on the plate. The electrode placed close to the leading edge is connected to the negative dc voltage, the second one is grounded. The influence due to the presence of the electric discharge is investigated with a glass Pitot tube by measuring the pressure proles above the flat plate. These experimental results are compared to the numerical work, where the effect of a surface temperature increase is simulated. Different effects can be attributed to the electrical discharge: the ionization of the gas above the plate with the creation of charged species, the acceleration of the positive charged species, the heat of the gas volume above the flat plate, and the heating of the surface of the flat plate. The Pitot probe measurements have shown a thickening of the boundary layer and the increasing of the angle of the shock wave, and the simulation of the surface temperature increase shows the same effect. These arguments let to think that the heating effect due to the temperature increase in the flat plate is the major one among the other effects mentioned above.

  15. Rain-induced subsurface airflow and Lisse effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, H.; Jiao, J.J.; Weeks, E.P.

    2008-01-01

    Water-level increase after rainfall is usually indicative of rainfall recharge to groundwater. This, however, may not be true if the Lisse effect occurs. This effect represents the water-level increase in a well driven by airflow induced by an advancing wetting front during highly intensive rains. The rainwater, which may behave like a low-permeability lid, seals the ground surface so that the air pressure beneath the wetting front is increased because of air compression due to downward movement of the wetting front. A rapid and substantial rise of the water level in the well screened below water table, which bears no relationship to groundwater recharge, can be induced when various factors such as soil properties and the rain-runoff condition combine favorably. A transient, three-dimensional and variably saturated flow model was employed to study the air and groundwater flows in the soil under rain conditions. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to evaluate the reliability of the theory of the Lisse effect presented by Weeks to predict its magnitude in modeled situations that mimic the physical complexity of real aquifers, and to conduct parametric studies on the sensitivity of the water-level rise in the well to soil properties and the rain event. The simulation results reveal that the magnitude of the Lisse effect increases with the ponding depth. Soil permeability plays a key role in generating the Lisse effect. The water-level rise in the well is delayed relative to the air-pressure rise in the unsaturated zone when the soil permeability is low, and the maximum water-level rise is less than the maximum air pressure induced by rain infiltration. The simulation also explores the sensitivity of the Lisse effect to the van Genuchten parameters and the water table depth. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Laminar Diffusion Flame Studies (Ground- and Space-Based Studies)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Lin, K.-C.; Sunderland, P. B.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Laminar diffusion flames are of interest because they provide model flame systems that are far more tractable for analysis and experiments than more practical turbulent diffusion flames. Certainly, understanding flame processes within laminar diffusion flames must precede understanding these processes in more complex turbulent diffusion flames. In addition, many properties of laminar diffusion flames are directly relevant to turbulent diffusion flames using laminar flamelet concepts. Laminar jet diffusion flame shapes (luminous flame boundaries) have been of particular interest since the classical study of Burke and Schumann because they are a simple nonintrusive measurement that is convenient for evaluating flame structure predictions. Thus, consideration of laminar flame shapes is undertaken in the following, emphasizing conditions where effects of gravity are small, due to the importance of such conditions to practical applications. Another class of interesting properties of laminar diffusion flames are their laminar soot and smoke point properties (i.e., the flame length, fuel flow rate, characteristic residence time, etc., at the onset of soot appearance in the flame (the soot point) and the onset of soot emissions from the flame (the smoke point)). These are useful observable soot properties of nonpremixed flames because they provide a convenient means to rate several aspects of flame sooting properties: the relative propensity of various fuels to produce soot in flames; the relative effects of fuel structure, fuel dilution, flame temperature and ambient pressure on the soot appearance and emission properties of flames; the relative levels of continuum radiation from soot in flames; and effects of the intrusion of gravity (or buoyant motion) on emissions of soot from flames. An important motivation to define conditions for soot emissions is that observations of laminar jet diffusion flames in critical environments, e.g., space shuttle and space station

  17. Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Meng

    1994-01-01

    Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.

  18. Laminar flame propagation in a stratified charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ra, Youngchul

    The propagation of laminar flame from a rich or stoichiometric mixture to a lean mixture in a stratified methane-air charge was investigated experimentally and numerically. Emphasis was on the understanding of the flame behavior in the transition region; in particular, on the mechanism of burning velocity enhancement in this region. In the experimental setup, mixtures of two different equivalence ratios were separated by a soap bubble in a spherical constant volume combustion vessel. The richer mixture inside the bubble was ignited by a focused laser beam. The flame development was observed by Schlieren technique and flame speeds were measured by heat release analysis of the pressure data. An one-dimensional, time- dependant numerical simulation of the flame propagation in a charge with step-stratification was used to interpret the experimental results. Both the experimental and numerical studies showed that the instantaneous flame speed depended on the previous flame history. Thus a `strong' (with mixture equivalence ratio close to stoichiometric) flame can sustain propagation into finite regions of substantially lean equivalence ratio. Both thermal and chemical effects were crucial for explaining the mechanism of the flame speed enhancement in the transition period. Because of the presence of this `back- support' effect, the usual concept of specifying the burning velocity as a function of the end gas state is inadequate for a stratified charge. A simple correlation for instantaneous flame velocity based on the local burned gas temperature is developed. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253- 1690.)

  19. Airflow Measurement of the Car HVAC Unit Using Hot-wire Anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Planka, Michal; Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    Thermal environment in a vehicular cabin significantly influence drivers' fatigue and passengers' thermal comfort. This environment is traditionally managed by HVAC cabin system that distributes air and modifies its properties. In order to simulate cabin thermal behaviour, amount of the air led through car vents must be determined. The aim of this study was to develop methodology to measure airflow from the vents, and consequently calculate corresponding air distribution coefficients. Three climatic cases were selected to match European winter, summer, and spring / fall conditions. Experiments were conducted on a test vehicle in a climatic chamber. The car HVAC system was set to automatic control mode, and the measurements were executed after the system stabilisation—each case was independently measured three times. To be able to evaluate precision of the method, the airflow was determined at the system inlet (HVAC suction) and outlet (each vent), and the total airflow values were compared. The airflow was calculated by determining a mean value of the air velocity multiplied by an area of inlet / outlet cross-section. Hot-wire anemometry was involved to measure the air velocity. Regarding the summer case, total airflow entering the cabin was around 57 l s-1 with 60 % of the air entering the cabin through dashboard vents; no air was supplied to the feet compartment. The remaining cases had the same total airflow of around 42 l s-1, and the air distribution was focused mainly on feet and windows. The inlet and outlet airflow values show a good match with a maximum mass differential of 8.3 %.

  20. Computational Analysis of the G-III Laminar Flow Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Liao, Wei; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2011-01-01

    Under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project, flight experiments are planned with the primary objective of demonstrating the Discrete Roughness Elements (DRE) technology for passive laminar flow control at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. In this paper, we present a preliminary computational assessment of the Gulfstream-III (G-III) aircraft wing-glove designed to attain natural laminar flow for the leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6deg. Analysis for a flight Mach number of 0.75 shows that it should be possible to achieve natural laminar flow for twice the transition Reynolds number ever achieved at this sweep angle. However, the wing-glove needs to be redesigned to effectively demonstrate passive laminar flow control using DREs. As a by-product of the computational assessment, effect of surface curvature on stationary crossflow disturbances is found to be strongly stabilizing for the current design, and it is suggested that convex surface curvature could be used as a control parameter for natural laminar flow design, provided transition occurs via stationary crossflow disturbances.

  1. Brief history of laminar flow clean room systems

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, W J

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the development and evolution of laminar flow clean rooms and hoods and describes the underlying principles and rationales associated with development of this type of clean room system and Federal Standard No. 209. By the mid 1970's, over a thousand hospitals in the US had installed laminar flow equipment in operating rooms. During the past several years a great deal of attention has been focused on conserving energy in clean rooms. Some gains in energy conservation have been achieved by improved design, off hours shutdown, and closer evaluation of requirements for clean rooms. By the early 1970's, the laminar flow principle had been carried from the Laboratory and applied to production hardware to create a mature industry producing and marketing a variety of laminar flow equipment in less than 10 years time. This achievement was made possible by literally dozens of persons in industry, government, military, and private individuals who developed hardware, added numerous innovations, and had the foresight to apply the technology to many fields other than industrial clean rooms. Now, with laminar flow devices available, class 100 levels are readily achievable and maintained, and at the same time require fewer operating restrictions than previously possible.

  2. Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) Experiment: Findings From Space Flight Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Yuan, Z. G.; Aalburg, C.; Diez, F. J.; Faeth, G. M.

    2003-01-01

    The present experimental study of soot processes in hydrocarbon-fueled laminar nonbuoyant and nonpremixed (diffusion) flames at microgravity within a spacecraft was motivated by the relevance of soot to the performance of power and propulsion systems, to the hazards of unwanted fires, and to the emission of combustion-generated pollutants. Soot processes in turbulent flames are of greatest practical interest, however, direct study of turbulent flames is not tractable because the unsteadiness and distortion of turbulent flames limit available residence times and spatial resolution within regions where soot processes are important. Thus, laminar diffusion flames are generally used to provide more tractable model flame systems to study processes relevant to turbulent diffusion flames, justified by the known similarities of gas-phase processes in laminar and turbulent diffusion flames, based on the widely-accepted laminar flamelet concept of turbulent flames. Unfortunately, laminar diffusion flames at normal gravity are affected by buoyancy due to their relatively small flow velocities and, as discussed next, they do not have the same utility for simulating the soot processes as they do for simulating the gas phase processes of turbulent flames.

  3. Laminar and turbulent heating predictions for mars entry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyong; Yan, Chao; Zheng, Weilin; Zhong, Kang; Geng, Yunfei

    2016-11-01

    Laminar and turbulent heating rates play an important role in the design of Mars entry vehicles. Two distinct gas models, thermochemical non-equilibrium (real gas) model and perfect gas model with specified effective specific heat ratio, are utilized to investigate the aerothermodynamics of Mars entry vehicle named Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). Menter shear stress transport (SST) turbulent model with compressible correction is implemented to take account of the turbulent effect. The laminar and turbulent heating rates of the two gas models are compared and analyzed in detail. The laminar heating rates predicted by the two gas models are nearly the same at forebody of the vehicle, while the turbulent heating environments predicted by the real gas model are severer than the perfect gas model. The difference of specific heat ratio between the two gas models not only induces the flow structure's discrepancy but also increases the heating rates at afterbody of the vehicle obviously. Simple correlations for turbulent heating augmentation in terms of laminar momentum thickness Reynolds number, which can be employed as engineering level design and analysis tools, are also developed from numerical results. At the time of peak heat flux on the +3σ heat load trajectory, the maximum value of momentum thickness Reynolds number at the MSL's forebody is about 500, and the maximum value of turbulent augmentation factor (turbulent heating rates divided by laminar heating rates) is 5 for perfect gas model and 8 for real gas model.

  4. Spontaneous transfer of droplets across microfluidic laminar interfaces.

    PubMed

    Deng, Nan-Nan; Wang, Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2016-11-01

    The precise manipulation of droplets in microfluidics has revolutionized a myriad of drop-based technologies, such as multiple emulsion preparation, drop fusion, drop fission, drop trapping and drop sorting, which offer promising new opportunities in chemical and biological fields. In this paper, we present an interfacial-tension-directed strategy for the migration of droplets across liquid-liquid laminar streams. By carefully controlling the interfacial energies, droplets of phase A are able to pass across the laminar interfaces of two immiscible fluids from phase B to phase C due to a positive spreading coefficient of phase C over phase B. To demonstrate this, we successfully perform the transfer of water droplets across an oil-oil laminar interface and the transfer of oil droplets across an oil-water laminar interface. The whole transfer process is spontaneous and only takes about 50 ms. We find that the fluid dynamics have an impact on the transfer processes. Only if the flowrate ratios are well matched will the droplets pass through the laminar interface successfully. This interfacial-tension-directed transfer of droplets provides a versatile procedure to make new structures and control microreactions as exemplified by the fabrication of giant unilamellar vesicles and cell-laden microgels.

  5. Laminarization of Turbulent Boundary Layer on Flexible and Rigid Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the control of turbulent boundary layer flow over flexible and rigid surfaces downstream of a concave-convex geometry has been made. The concave-convex curvature induces centrifugal forces and a pressure gradient on the growth of the turbulent boundary layer. The favorable gradient is not sufficient to overcome the unfavorable; thus, the net effect is a destabilizing, of the flow into Gortler instabilities. This study shows that control of the turbulent boundary layer and structural loading can be successfully achieved by using localized surface heating because the subsequent cooling and geometrical shaping downstream over a favorable pressure gradient is effective in laminarization of the turbulence. Wires embedded in a thermally insulated substrate provide surface heating. The laminarized velocity profile adjusts to a lower Reynolds number, and the structure responds to a lower loading. In the laminarization, the turbulent energy is dissipated by molecular transport by both viscous and conductivity mechanisms. Laminarization reduces spanwise vorticity because of the longitudinal cooling gradient of the sublayer profile. The results demonstrate that the curvature-induced mean pressure gradient enhances the receptivity of the flow to localized surface heating, a potentially viable mechanism to laminarize turbulent boundary layer flow; thus, the flow reduces the response of the flexible structure and the resultant sound radiation.

  6. Modelling the Effect of Tree Foliage on Sprayer Airflow in Orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melese Endalew, Ayenew; Debaer, Christof; Rutten, Nick; Vercammen, Jef; Delele, Mulugeta Admasu; Ramon, Herman; Nicolaï, Bart M.; Verboven, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The effect of tree foliage on sprayer airflow through pear trees in a fruit orchard was studied and modelled in detail. A new three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics model that integrates the 3-D canopy architecture with a local closure model to simulate the effect of the stem and branches and leaves of trees separately on airflow was developed. The model was validated with field observations made in an experimental orchard (pcfruit, Sint-Truiden, Belgium) in spring and summer 2008 and was used to investigate the airflow from three air-assisted orchard sprayers (Condor V, Duoprop and AirJet quatt). Velocity magnitudes were measured before and behind leafless and fully-leafed pear canopies across the row while the operating sprayers are passing along the row, and were compared with the simulations. The simulation results predicted the measured values well with all the local relative errors within 20%. The effect of foliar density on airflow from the three air assisted sprayers was manifested by changing the magnitude and direction of the sprayers' air velocity behind the canopy, especially at the denser regions of the canopy and by changing the pattern of velocity decay horizontally along the jet. The developed methodology will also allow a thorough investigation of atmospheric airflow in canopy structures.

  7. The fluid dynamics of canine olfaction: unique nasal airflow patterns as an explanation of macrosmia

    PubMed Central

    Craven, Brent A.; Paterson, Eric G.; Settles, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    The canine nasal cavity contains hundreds of millions of sensory neurons, located in the olfactory epithelium that lines convoluted nasal turbinates recessed in the rear of the nose. Traditional explanations for canine olfactory acuity, which include large sensory organ size and receptor gene repertoire, overlook the fluid dynamics of odorant transport during sniffing. But odorant transport to the sensory part of the nose is the first critical step in olfaction. Here we report new experimental data on canine sniffing and demonstrate allometric scaling of sniff frequency, inspiratory airflow rate and tidal volume with body mass. Next, a computational fluid dynamics simulation of airflow in an anatomically accurate three-dimensional model of the canine nasal cavity, reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans, reveals that, during sniffing, spatially separate odour samples are acquired by each nostril that may be used for bilateral stimulus intensity comparison and odour source localization. Inside the nose, the computation shows that a unique nasal airflow pattern develops during sniffing, which is optimized for odorant transport to the olfactory part of the nose. These results contrast sharply with nasal airflow in the human. We propose that mammalian olfactory function and acuity may largely depend on odorant transport by nasal airflow patterns resulting from either the presence of a highly developed olfactory recess (in macrosmats such as the canine) or the lack of one (in microsmats including humans). PMID:20007171

  8. The measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide is influenced by airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Togores, B; Bosch, M; Agustí, A G

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) is often estimated from measurements of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COexh). This study investigates whether the presence of airflow obstruction significantly alters the relationship between COexh and COHb. Eighty-one regular smokers were prospectively studied and divided in four groups according to the presence and severity of airflow obstruction (none, mild, moderate, severe). In each subject, the authors measured in this order: 1) arterial blood gases; 2) haemoglobin concentration and COHb (by co-oxymetry); 3) COexh; 4) lung volumes; and 5) forced spirometry. The size of the measurement error (deltaCO) was calculated from the difference between COHb and COexh. Neither the smoking history nor COexh were different in the four groups of subjects studied. In contrast, deltaCO increased in parallel to the degree of airflow obstruction. DeltaCO was >2% (a threshold value normally used in the clinic to separate smokers from nonsmokers) only in patients with severe airflow obstruction. A stepwise multivariate analysis showed that both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (percentage reference) and COHb contributed significantly (p<0.0001) to predict deltaCO. This study shows that the estimation of carboxyhaemoglobin from exhaled carbon monoxide measurements can be inaccurate in patients with severe airflow obstruction. In these patients, the direct measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin seems advisable in clinical practice.

  9. The effects of inferior turbinoplasty on nasal airflow during cosmetic rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Zojaji, R; Keshavarzmanesh, M; Bakhshaee, M; Behdani, R; Esmaeelzadeh, S; MazloumFarsiBaf, M

    2016-04-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most common and challenging cosmetic procedures. One of the complications of rhinoplasty associated with dissatisfaction is nasal obstruction, which is often due to narrowing of the nasal valve area. Application of certain procedures such as turbinoplasty can prevent and correct this problem. This study aim was to investigate the effect of inferior turbinoplasty in reduction of airflow resistance and nasal obstruction. Using active anterior rhinomanometry, nasal airflow was measured in 50 patients who underwent cosmetic rhinoplasty and bilateral turbinoplasty before and 6 months after surgery. None of the patients subjectively complained of nasal obstruction before or after surgery. According to rhinomanometry results, improvement in nasal airflow was seen both in inspiration and expiration, although only expiration was significant (p = 0.034). Airflow changes in males and females and in different age groups was not significant (p > 0.05). It appears that rhinoplasty does not adversely affect nasal airflow when it is accompanied by simple adjuvant procedure inferior turbinoplasty.

  10. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T.; Chen, D.; Wang, P.H.; Chen, J.; Deng, J.

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  11. Effects of airflow on the distribution of filaments in atmospheric AC dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhihui; Qi, Haicheng; Liu, Yidi; Yan, Huijie; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) accompanied by airflow has attracted a significant attention for its extensive applications. In this paper, the effects of airflow on the characteristics of the atmospheric air DBD plasma are experimentally investigated using the DBD reactor excited by a 15 kHz AC power source. In order to study the discharge filaments distribution at different flow rates, transparent conductive indium tin oxide film is used as the upper electrode, and quartz glasses are used as insulated dielectrics. Experiment results prove that the breakdown voltage is decreased and more current pulses with declined amplitudes are produced when the airflow is introduced into the discharge gap. It is confirmed that although the discharge seems to be diffuse in the presence of airflow to the naked eyes, the discharge mode remains filamentary in the intensified charge-coupled device images within a single AC cycle. By acquiring the images with a different exposure time, it can be recognized that the discharge filaments move along the flow field direction with a velocity less than the corresponding flow rate. The movement of discharge filaments is attributed to the motion of the charge induced by the airflow.

  12. Three-dimensional airflow and sediment transport patterns over barchan dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander B.; Jackson, Derek W. T.; Cooper, J. Andrew G.

    2017-02-01

    Airflow dynamics and potential sediment transport were measured and modelled across various barchan dune topographies and incident wind conditions. Modification of near surface flow was recorded simultaneously in three dimensions (3D) using dense arrays of high-resolution 3D ultrasonic anemometers. In situ measurements provided rigorous validation and calibration for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. Measured and modelled results show good agreement between flow velocity, directionality, and turbulence intensity. Modelling of characteristic airflow conditions and surface shear stress beyond the instrument locations, elucidated airflow dynamics across the entire landform surface at an unprecedented level of detail. Emergent turbulent airflow patterns were identified in the form of two counter-rotating vortices that converge at the dune centreline downwind of the dune crest. Integrating a sediment transport function with CFD surface airflow allows for the spatial mapping of flux patterns across the entirety of the dune and interdune surface. On the stoss slope and laterally along the outer barchan arms, there is strong potential sediment flux in response to increased streamwise stress. In lee-side locations, sediment transport remains at 'above threshold' conditions and is redirected in response to complex turbulent vortices identified in the overlying wake zone. The precision of the models allows for the identification of complex flow perturbations and associated surface stresses that prove difficult to measure in the field. CFD in combination with a sediment transport function is demonstrated to be a useful tool in investigating morphodynamics of mobile dune systems.

  13. Tuberculosis associates with both airflow obstruction and low lung function: BOLD results

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, André F. S.; Coton, Sonia; Kato, Bernet; Tan, Wan C.; Studnicka, Michael; Janson, Christer; Gislason, Thorarinn; Mannino, David; Bateman, Eric D.; Buist, Sonia; Burney, Peter G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In small studies and cases series, a history of tuberculosis has been associated with both airflow obstruction, which is characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and restrictive patterns on spirometry. Objective To assess the association between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric abnormalities in adults. Methods The study was performed in adults, aged 40 and above, who took part in the multicentre cross-sectional, general population-based, Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study, had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and information on a history of tuberculosis. The associations between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction were assessed within each participating centre, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. These estimates were stratified by high and low/middle income countries, according to gross national income. Results A self-reported history of tuberculosis was associated with airflow obstruction (adjusted odds ratio = 2.51, 95% confidence interval 1.83-3.42) and spirometric restriction (adjusted odds ratio = 2.13, 95% confidence interval 1.42-3.19). Conclusion A history of tuberculosis was associated with both airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction, and should be considered as a potentially important cause of obstructive disease and low lung function, particularly where tuberculosis is common. PMID:26113680

  14. Computer simulation of airflow through a multi-generation tracheobronchial conducting airway

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, B.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Yeh, Hsu-Chi

    1995-12-01

    Knowledge of airflow patterns in the human lung is important for an analysis of lung diseases and drug delivery of aerosolized medicine for medical treatment. However, very little systematic information is available on the pattern of airflow in the lung and on how this pattern affects the deposition of toxicants in the lung, and the efficacy of aerosol drug therapy. Most previous studies have only considered the airflow through a single bifurcating airway. However, the flow in a network of more than one bifurcation is more complicated due to the effect of interrelated lung generations. Because of the variation of airway geometry and flow condition from generation to generation, a single bifurcating airway cannot be taken as a representative for the others in different generations. The flow in the network varies significantly with airway generations because of a redistribution of axial momentum by the secondary flow motions. The influence of the redistribution of flow is expected in every generation. Therefore, a systematic information of the airflow through a multi-generation tracheobronchial conducting airway is needed, and it becomes the purpose of this study. This study has provided information on airflow in a lung model which is necessary to the study of the deposition of toxicants and therapeutic aerosols.

  15. Changes in nasal airflow and heat transfer correlate with symptom improvement after surgery for nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kimbell, J S; Frank, D O; Laud, Purushottam; Garcia, G J M; Rhee, J S

    2013-10-18

    Surgeries to correct nasal airway obstruction (NAO) often have less than desirable outcomes, partly due to the absence of an objective tool to select the most appropriate surgical approach for each patient. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can be used to investigate nasal airflow, but variables need to be identified that can detect surgical changes and correlate with patient symptoms. CFD models were constructed from pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans for 10 NAO patients showing no evidence of nasal cycling. Steady-state inspiratory airflow, nasal resistance, wall shear stress, and heat flux were computed for the main nasal cavity from nostrils to posterior nasal septum both bilaterally and unilaterally. Paired t-tests indicated that all CFD variables were significantly changed by surgery when calculated on the most obstructed side, and that airflow, nasal resistance, and heat flux were significantly changed bilaterally as well. Moderate linear correlations with patient-reported symptoms were found for airflow, heat flux, unilateral allocation of airflow, and unilateral nasal resistance as a fraction of bilateral nasal resistance when calculated on the most obstructed nasal side, suggesting that these variables may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of nasal surgery objectively. Similarity in the strengths of these correlations suggests that patient-reported symptoms may represent a constellation of effects and that these variables should be tracked concurrently during future virtual surgery planning.

  16. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to examine airflow characteristics in Empty Nose Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Tim; Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Thamboo, Andrew; Velasquez, Nathalia; Nayak, Jayakar V.; Sellier, Mathieu; Moin, Parviz

    2016-11-01

    The enigmatic disorder, empty nose syndrome (ENS), presents with a complex subjective symptom profile despite objectively patent nasal airways, and recent reports suggest that surgical augmentation of the nasal airway can improve quality of life and ENS-related complaints. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was performed both prior to, and following, inferior turbinate augmentation to model the resultant changes in airflow patterns and better understand the pathophysiology of ENS. An ENS patient with marked reduction in ENS symptoms following turbinate augmentation was identified, and pre- and post-operative CT imaging was collected. A Finite element framework with the variational multiscale method (Esmaily-Moghadam, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 2015) was used to compute the airflow, temperature, and moisture transport through the nasal cavity. Comparison of the CFD results following corrective surgery showed higher levels of airflow turbulence. Augmentation produced 50%, 25%, and 25% increases in root mean square pressure, wall shear stress, and heat flux respectively. These results provide insight into the changes in nasal airflow characteristics attainable through surgical augmentation, and by extension, how nasal airflow patterns may be distorted in the 'overly patent' airway of ENS patients. Supported by Stanford University CTR and Fulbright New Zealand.

  17. Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the `flow monograms` describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the `interface monograms`, whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system `operational monogram`. The `operational monogram` enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop.

  18. Laminar flow control, 1976 - 1982: A selected annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    Laminar Flow Control technology development has undergone tremendous progress in recent years as focused research efforts in materials, aerodynamics, systems, and structures have begun to pay off. A virtual explosion in the number of research papers published on this subject has occurred since interest was first stimulated by the 1976 introduction of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Laminar Flow Control Program. The purpose of this selected bibliography is to list available, unclassified laminar flow (both controlled and natural) research completed from about 1975 to mid 1982. Some earlier pertinent reports are included but listed separately in the Appendix. Reports listed herein emphasize aerodynamics and systems studies, but some structures work is also summarized. Aerodynamic work is mainly limited to the subsonic and transonic sped regimes. Because wind-tunnel flow qualities, such as free stream disturbance level, play such an important role in boundary-layer transition, much recent research has been done in this area and it is also included.

  19. IR thermography for dynamic detection of laminar-turbulent transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Bernhard; Filius, Adrian; Tropea, Cameron; Grundmann, Sven

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the potential of infrared (IR) thermography for the dynamic detection of laminar-turbulent transition. The experiments are conducted on a flat plate at velocities of 8-14 m/s, and the transition of the laminar boundary layer to turbulence is forced by a disturbance source which is turned on and off with frequencies up to 10 Hz. Three different heating techniques are used to apply the required difference between fluid and structure temperature: a heated aluminum structure is used as an internal structure heating technique, a conductive paint acts as a surface bounded heater, while an IR heater serves as an example for an external heating technique. For comparison of all heating techniques, a normalization is introduced and the frequency response of the measured IR camera signal is analyzed. Finally, the different heating techniques are compared and consequences for the design of experiments on laminar-turbulent transition are discussed.

  20. Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, John P. (Inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and flow reattachment of a fluid stream by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals, each representing the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of an airfoil or the like that extends parallel to the fluid stream. The output signals are concurrently compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment. The novelty in this invention is the discovery and use of the phase reversal phenomena to detect laminar separation and attachment of a fluid stream from any surface such as an airfoil supported therein.

  1. Natural Laminar Flow Design for Wings with Moderate Sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Lynde, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the aerodynamic design of wings with natural laminar flow is under development at the NASA Langley Research Center. The approach involves the addition of new flow constraints to an existing knowledge-based design module for use with advanced flow solvers. The uniqueness of the new approach lies in the tailoring of target pressure distributions to achieve laminar flow on transonic wings with leading-edge sweeps and Reynolds numbers typical of current transports. The method is demonstrated on the Common Research Model configuration at critical N-factor levels representative of both flight and high-Reynolds number wind tunnel turbulence levels. The design results for the flight conditions matched the target extent of laminar flow very well. The design at wind tunnel conditions raised some design issues that prompted further improvements in the method, but overall has given promising results.

  2. Method for laminar boundary layer transition visualization in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor); Gall, Peter D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of visualizing laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition, shock location, and laminar separation bubbles around a test surface. A liquid crystal coating is formulated using an unencapsulated liquid crystal operable in a temperature bandwidth compatible with the temperature environment around the test surface. The liquid crystal coating is applied to the test surface, which is preferably pretreated by painting with a flat, black paint to achieve a deep matte coating, after which the surface is subjected to a liquid or gas flow. Color change in the liquid crystal coating is produced in response to differences in relative shear stress within the boundary layer around the test surface. The novelty of this invention resides in the use of liquid crystals which are sensitive to shear stress to show aerodynamic phenomena such as a boundary layer transition, shock location, and laminar separation bubbles around a test surface.

  3. Lockheed laminar-flow control systems development and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Roy H.

    1987-01-01

    Progress is summarized from 1974 to the present in the practical application of laminar-flow control (LFC) to subsonic transport aircraft. Those efforts included preliminary design system studies of commercial and military transports and experimental investigations leading to the development of the leading-edge flight test article installed on the NASA JetStar flight test aircraft. The benefits of LFC on drag, fuel efficiency, lift-to-drag ratio, and operating costs are compared with those for turbulent flow aircraft. The current activities in the NASA Industry Laminar-Flow Enabling Technologies Development contract include summaries of activities in the Task 1 development of a slotted-surface structural concept using advanced aluminum materials and the Task 2 preliminary conceptual design study of global-range military hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) to obtain data at high Reynolds numbers and at Mach numbers representative of long-range subsonic transport aircraft operation.

  4. Competition between pressure effects and airflow influence for the performance of plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegseis, J.; Barckmann, K.; Grundmann, S.; Frey, J.; Tropea, C.

    2014-05-15

    The present work addresses the combined influence of pressure variations and different airflow velocities on the discharge intensity of plasma actuators. Power consumption, plasma length, and discharge capacitance were investigated systematically for varying pressure levels (p = 0.1–1 bar) and airflow velocities (U{sub ∞}=0−100 m/s) to characterize and quantify the favorable and adverse effects on the discharge intensity. In accordance with previous reports, an increasing plasma actuator discharge intensity is observed for decreasing pressure levels. At constant pressure levels, an adverse airflow influence on the electric actuator performance is demonstrated. Despite the improved discharge intensity at lower pressure levels, the seemingly improved performance of the plasma actuators is accompanied with a more pronounced drop of the relative performance. These findings demonstrate the dependency of the (kinematic and thermodynamic) environmental conditions on the electric performance of plasma actuators, which in turn affects the control authority of plasma actuators for flow control applications.

  5. Airflow resistance measurement for a layer of granular material based on the Helmholtz resonance phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Nishizu, Takahisa; Tomatsu, Eiji; Katsuno, Nakako

    2017-04-01

    A Helmholtz resonance technique was employed to predict the airflow resistance of layers of granular materials, namely glass beads, brown rice, soybean, adzuki beans, and corn kernels. Each granular sample was placed on the tube mouth of an open-type Helmholtz resonator. The resonant frequency was determined by measuring the electric impedance of a loudspeaker that was installed in the resonator and driven by a chirp signal linearly sweeping from 90 to 220 Hz for 6.0 s. For a changing sample layer thickness, the resonant frequency was measured, and the specific airflow resistance was calculated by measuring the static pressure drop required for N2 gas to flow through the layer at a constant velocity of 0.042 m/s. When the thickness of the layer was fixed, the Helmholtz resonant frequency decreased as the specific airflow resistance increased, regardless of the kind of granular material.

  6. Microphonic versus end-tidal carbon dioxide nasal airflow detection in neonates with apnea.

    PubMed

    Toubas, P L; Duke, J C; Sekar, K C; McCaffree, M A

    1990-12-01

    Impedance pneumography in combination with expired CO2 monitoring are commonly used techniques for detecting central and obstructive apnea in infants. In this investigation an American Telephone and Telegraph StarSet-1 3000-ohm self-actuating microphone connected to the end of an infant cannula was used to monitor neonatal nasal airflow to detect breaths and apnea. The microphone was placed in a soundproof container to eliminate environmental sound artifacts. Analyses of 100 breaths from five patient samples during active and quiet sleep showed that there was no significant difference between microphone and expired CO2 recording of respiration. The techniques were 98% and 96% sensitive, respectively. Microphonic detection of nasal airflow identified 27 of the 32 episodes of upper airway obstruction (84.2%) registered by end-tidal CO2 recording. Inspiratory and expiratory events could also be well documented. Microphonic recording of nasal airflow is a reliable and inexpensive technique to detect apnea.

  7. Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, John P. (Inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for simultaneously detecting laminar separation and reattachment of a fluid stream such as an airstream from and to the upper surface of an airfoil by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals. Each signal represents the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of the airfoil that extends parallel to the airstream. The output signals are simultaneously compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment.

  8. Roughness and waviness requirements for laminar flow surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obara, Clifford J.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1986-01-01

    Many modern metal and composite airframe manufacturing techniques can provide surface smoothness which is compatible with natural laminar flow (NLF) requirements. An important consideration is manufacturing roughness of the surface in the form of steps and gaps perpendicular to the freestream. The principal challenge to the design and manufacture of laminar flow surfaces today appears to be in the installation of leading-edge panels on wing, nacelle, and empennage surfaces. A similar challenge is in the installation of access panels, doors, windows, fuselage noses, and engine nacelles. Past work on roughness and waviness manufacturing tolerances and comparisons with more recent experiments are reviewed.

  9. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  10. What is normal nasal airflow? A computational study of 22 healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nasal airflow is essential for functioning of the human nose. Given individual variation in nasal anatomy, there is yet no consensus what constitutes normal nasal airflow patterns. We attempt to obtain such information that is essential to differentiate disease-related variations. Methods Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulated nasal airflow in 22 healthy subjects during resting breathing. Streamline patterns, airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, wall stress, turbulence, and vortical flow characteristics under quasi-steady state were analyzed. Patency ratings, acoustically measured minimum cross-sectional area (MCA), and rhinomanometric nasal resistance (NR) were examined for potential correlations with morphological and airflow-related variables. Results Common features across subjects included: >50% total pressure-drop reached near the inferior turbinate head; wall shear stress, NR, turbulence energy, and vorticity were lower in the turbinate than in the nasal valve region. However, location of the major flow path and coronal velocity distributions varied greatly across individuals. Surprisingly, on average, more flow passed through the middle than the inferior meatus and correlated with better patency ratings (r=-0.65, p<0.01). This middle flow percentage combined with peak post-vestibule nasal heat loss and MCA accounted for >70% of the variance in subjective patency ratings and predicted patency categories with 86% success. Nasal index correlated with forming of the anterior dorsal vortex. Expected for resting breathing, the functional impact for local and total turbulence, vorticity, and helicity was limited. As validation, rhinomanometric NR significantly correlated with CFD simulations (r=0.53, p<0.01). Conclusion Significant variations of nasal airflow found among healthy subjects; Key features may have clinically relevant applications. PMID:24664528

  11. How much does nasal cavity morphology matter? Patterns and rates of olfactory airflow in phyllostomid bats

    PubMed Central

    Eiting, Thomas P.; Perot, J. Blair; Dumont, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of the nasal cavity in mammals with a good sense of smell includes features that are thought to improve olfactory airflow, such as a dorsal conduit that delivers odours quickly to the olfactory mucosa, an enlarged olfactory recess at the back of the airway, and a clear separation of the olfactory and respiratory regions of the nose. The link between these features and having a good sense of smell has been established by functional examinations of a handful of distantly related mammalian species. In this paper, we provide the first detailed examination of olfactory airflow in a group of closely related species that nevertheless vary in their sense of smell. We study six species of phyllostomid bats that have different airway morphologies and foraging ecologies, which have been linked to differences in olfactory ability or reliance. We hypothesize that differences in morphology correlate with differences in the patterns and rates of airflow, which in turn are consistent with dietary differences. To compare species, we make qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the patterns and rates of airflow through the olfactory region during both inhalation and exhalation across the six species. Contrary to our expectations, we find no clear differences among species in either the patterns of airflow through the airway or in rates of flow through the olfactory region. By and large, olfactory airflow seems to be conserved across species, suggesting that morphological differences appear to be driven by other mechanical demands on the snout, such as breathing and feeding. Olfactory ability may depend on other aspects of the system, such as the neurobiological processing of odours that work within the existing morphology imposed by other functional demands on the nasal cavity. PMID:25520358

  12. Aerodynamic-wave break-up of liquid sheets in swirling airflows and combustor modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental mean drop diameter data were obtained for the atomization of liquid sheets injected axially downstream in high velocity swirling and nonswirling airflow. Conventional simplex pressure atomizing fuel nozzles and splash type fuel injectors were studied under simulated combustor inlet airflow conditions. A general empirical expression relating recirprocal mean drop diameter to airstream mass velocity was obtained and is presented. The finest degree of atomization, i.e., the highest value of the coefficient C, was obtained with swirl can combustor modules (C = 15) as compared with pressure atomizing nozzles (C = 12).

  13. A Comparative Study of Airflow and Odorant Deposition in the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Joseph; Rumple, Christopher; Ranslow, Allison; Quigley, Andrew; Pang, Benison; Neuberger, Thomas; Krane, Michael; van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The complex structure of the mammalian nasal cavity provides a tortuous airflow path and a large surface area for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of inspired contaminants, and olfaction. Due to the small and contorted structure of the nasal turbinals, nasal anatomy and function remains poorly understood in most mammals. Here, we utilize high-resolution MRI scans to reconstruct anatomically-accurate models of the mammalian nasal cavity. These data are used to compare the form and function of the mammalian nose. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of nasal airflow and odorant deposition are presented and used to compare olfactory function across species (primate, rodent, canine, feline, ungulate).

  14. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune’s symmetry axis — that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected.

  15. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes

    PubMed Central

    Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune’s symmetry axis — that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected. PMID:26572966

  16. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J R; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-11-17

    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune's symmetry axis - that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected.

  17. F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Scott G.; Fischer, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    The F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment was part of the NASA High-Speed Research Program. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate extensive laminar flow, to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and design methodology, and to establish laminar flow control design criteria. Topics include the flight test hardware and design, airplane modification, the pressure and suction distributions achieved, the laminar flow achieved, and the data analysis and code correlation.

  18. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  19. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  20. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  1. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  2. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  3. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  4. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  5. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  6. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  7. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  8. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  9. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  10. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  11. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  12. Further experiments on the stability of laminar and turbulent hydrogen-air flames at reduced pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fine, Burton

    1957-01-01

    Stability limits for laminar and turbulent hydrogen-air burner flames were measured as a function of pressure, burner diameter, and composition. On the basis of a simple flame model, turbulent flashback involved a smaller effective penetration distance than laminar flashback. No current theoretical treatment predicts the observed pressure and diameter dependence of laminar and turbulent blowoff.

  13. Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Banks, Daniel W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    A flight-test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80-inch (203 cm) chord and 40-inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). The test article was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0 deg to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2-D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, were similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.

  14. Application of laminar flow control to supersonic transport configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P. G.; Nagel, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility and impact of implementing a laminar flow control system on a supersonic transport configuration were investigated. A hybrid laminar flow control scheme consisting of suction controlled and natural laminar flow was developed for a double-delta type wing planform. The required suction flow rates were determined from boundary layer stability analyses using representative wing pressure distributions. A preliminary design of structural modifications needed to accommodate suction through a perforated titanium skin was carried out together with the ducting and systems needed to collect, compress and discharge the suction air. The benefits of reduced aerodynamic drag were weighed against the weight, volume and power requirement penalties of suction system installation in a mission performance and sizing program to assess the net benefits. The study showed a feasibility of achieving significant laminarization of the wing surface by use of a hybrid scheme, leading to an 8.2 percent reduction in the cruise drag. This resulted in an 8.5 percent reduction in the maximum takeoff weight and a 12 percent reduction in the fuel burn after the inclusion of the LFC system installation penalties. Several research needs were identified for a resolution of aerodynamics, structural and systems issues before these potential benefits could be realized in a practical system.

  15. Soot Formation in Hydrocarbon/Air Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Faeth, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    Soot processes within hydrocarbon/air diffusion flames are important because they affect the durability and performance of propulsion systems, the hazards of unwanted fires, the pollutant and particulate emissions from combustion processes, and the potential for developing computational combustion. Motivated by these observations, this investigation involved an experimental study of the structure and soot properties of round laminar jet diffusion flames, seeking an improved understanding of soot formation (growth and nucleation) within diffusion flames. The present study extends earlier work in this laboratory concerning laminar smoke points (l) and soot formation in acetylene/air laminar jet diffusion flames (2), emphasizing soot formation in hydrocarbon/air laminar jet diffusion flames for fuels other than acetylene. In the flame system, acetylene is the dominant gas species in the soot formation region and both nucleation and growth were successfully attributed to first-order reactions of acetylene, with nucleation exhibiting an activation energy of 32 kcal/gmol while growth involved negligible activation energy and a collision efficiency of O.53%. In addition, soot growth in the acetylene diffusion flames was comparable to new soot in premixed flame (which also has been attributed to first-order acetylene reactions). In view of this status, a major issue is the nature of soot formation processes in diffusion flame involving hydrocarbon fuels other than acetylene. In particular, information is needed about th dominant gas species in the soot formation region and the impact of gas species other than acetylene on soot nucleation and growth.

  16. Numerical studies of laminar and turbulent drag reduction, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Orszag, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The flow over wave shaped surfaces is studied using a Navier Stokes solver. Detailed comparisons with theoretical results are presented, including the stability of a laminar flow over wavy surfaces. Drag characteristics of nonplanar surfaces are predicted using the Navier-Stokes solver. The secondary instabilities of wall bounded and free shear flows are also discussed.

  17. Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshom, Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.

  18. Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, M. A.; Banks, D. W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80-inch (203 cm) chord and 40-inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The wing was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0 deg to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2-D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, were similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.

  19. Flame Radiation, Structure, and Scalar Properties in Microgravity Laminar Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, Douglas; Lim, Jongmook; Sivathanu, Yudaya

    2007-01-01

    Results from microgravity combustion experiments conducted in the Zero Gravity Research Facility (ZGF) 5.18 second drop facility are reported. The results quantify flame radiation, structure, and scalar properties during the early phase of a microgravity fire. Emission mid-infrared spectroscopy measurements have been completed to quantitatively determine the flame temperature, water and carbon dioxide vapor concentrations, radiative emissive power, and soot concentrations in microgravity laminar methane/air, ethylene/nitrogen/air and ethylene/air jet flames. The measured peak mole fractions for water vapor and carbon dioxide are found to be in agreement with state relationship predictions for hydrocarbon/air combustion. The ethylene/air laminar flame conditions are similar to previously reported results including those from the flight project, Laminar Soot Processes (LSP). Soot concentrations and gas temperatures are in reasonable agreement with similar results available in the literature. However, soot concentrations and flame structure dramatically change in long-duration microgravity laminar diffusion flames as demonstrated in this report.

  20. Application of porous materials for laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Fairly smooth porous materials were elected for study Doweave; Fibermetal; Dynapore; and perforated titanium sheet. Factors examined include: surface smoothness; suction characteristics; porosity; surface impact resistance; and strain compatibility. A laminar flow control suction glove arrangement was identified with material combinations compatible with thermal expansion and structural strain.

  1. Numerical assessment of accurate measurements of laminar flame speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulier, Joules; Bizon, Katarzyna; Chaumeix, Nabiha; Meynet, Nicolas; Continillo, Gaetano

    2016-12-01

    In combustion, the laminar flame speed constitutes an important parameter that reflects the chemistry of oxidation for a given fuel, along with its transport and thermal properties. Laminar flame speeds are used (i) in turbulent models used in CFD codes, and (ii) to validate detailed or reduced mechanisms, often derived from studies using ideal reactors and in diluted conditions as in jet stirred reactors and in shock tubes. End-users of such mechanisms need to have an assessment of their capability to predict the correct heat released by combustion in realistic conditions. In this view, the laminar flame speed constitutes a very convenient parameter, and it is then very important to have a good knowledge of the experimental errors involved with its determination. Stationary configurations (Bunsen burners, counter-flow flames, heat flux burners) or moving flames (tubes, spherical vessel, soap bubble) can be used. The spherical expanding flame configuration has recently become popular, since it can be used at high pressures and temperatures. With this method, the flame speed is not measured directly, but derived through the recording of the flame radius. The method used to process the radius history will have an impact on the estimated flame speed. Aim of this work is to propose a way to derive the laminar flame speed from experimental recording of expanding flames, and to assess the error magnitude.

  2. Estimation of Laminar Burning Velocities by Direct Digital Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uske, J.; Barat, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Bunsen burner flame, which is the most common flame in the laboratory, can be easily studied for its dynamics because of modern, economical digital technology available to student laboratories. Direct digital photography of Bunsen flames is used to obtain laminar burning velocities of selected gaseous hydrocarbon/air flames.

  3. Laminar-turbulent transition delay on a swept wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodulin, V. I.; Ivanov, A. V.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Hanifi, A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper describes the results of experiments on robustness of laminar-turbulent transition control on a swept-wing using distributed micro-sized roughness (DMSR) elements. These elements introduce controlled stationary vortices which are able to significantly modify the base flow and its stability characteristics. We have performed parametric study first varying height and period of the DMSR elements in order to find the most stabilizing effect on boundary later flow in compare to uncontrolled reference case without DMSR. Significant downstream shift of laminar-turbulent transition position due to application of DMSR is found and well documented with help of thermography. The robustness of this flow control method was studied by variation of the wind-tunnel flow quality introducing significant sound background or introducing enhanced turbulence level (applying turbulizing grids). The wind-tunnel tests performed with turbulence-generating grids (at enhanced turbulence levels) have shown that laminar-turbulent transition moves upstream in this case, while DMSR-elements loose their effectiveness for transition control (no matter in quiet sound conditions or at elevated sound background). The experiments on acoustic influence have shown that without DMSR acoustic does not effect transition location. However, in case then laminar-turbulent transition is delayed by presence of DMSR, an additional transition delay was observed when harmonic acoustic waves of certain frequency were excited.

  4. Combustion Module-1 with Laminar Soot Process (LSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Technicians install the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment into the combustion chamber of Combustion Module-1. CM-1 was one of the most complex and technologically sophisticated pieces of hardware ever to be included as a part of a Spacelab mission.

  5. Laminar Soot Processes Experiment Shedding Light on Flame Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment investigated soot processes in nonturbulent, round gas jet diffusion flames in still air. The soot processes within these flames are relevant to practical combustion in aircraft propulsion systems, diesel engines, and furnaces. However, for the LSP experiment, the flames were slowed and spread out to allow measurements that are not tractable for practical, Earth-bound flames.

  6. Flight tests of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, M. A.; Banks, D. W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80 inch (203 cm) chord and 40 inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The test article was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0° to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, was similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.

  7. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    DOEpatents

    Maschke, Alfred W.

    1985-01-01

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow throughout the assembly.

  8. Experimental and modelling study of the effect of airflow orientation with respect to strip electrode on ozone production of surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, J.; Pekárek, S.; Soukup, I.

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the effect of airflow orientation with respect to the strip active electrode on concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide produced in a planar generator based on the surface dielectric barrier discharge. The orientation of the airflow was tested in parallel and perpendicular with respect to the strips. It was found that in the investigated range of average discharge power, the ozone concentration increases approximately by 25% when airflow was oriented in parallel with respect to the strips in comparison with perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Similarly the increase of nitrogen dioxide concentration was observed for parallel orientation of the airflow with respect to the strips in comparison with the perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Within the range of wavelengths from 250 to 1100 nm, the changes of intensities of spectral lines associated with airflow orientation have been observed. A 3D numerical model describing ion trajectories and airflow patterns have also been developed.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of impacts of an obstruction on airflow in underground mines

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, L.; Goodman, G.; Martikainen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous airflow monitoring can improve the safety of the underground work force by ensuring the uninterrupted and controlled distribution of mine ventilation to all working areas. Air velocity measurements vary significantly and can change rapidly depending on the exact measurement location and, in particular, due to the presence of obstructions in the air stream. Air velocity must be measured at locations away from obstructions to avoid the vortices and eddies that can produce inaccurate readings. Further, an uninterrupted measurement path cannot always be guaranteed when using continuous airflow monitors due to the presence of nearby equipment, personnel, roof falls and rib rolls. Effective use of these devices requires selection of a minimum distance from an obstacle, such that an air velocity measurement can be made but not affected by the presence of that obstacle. This paper investigates the impacts of an obstruction on the behavior of downstream airflow using a numerical CFD model calibrated with experimental test results from underground testing. Factors including entry size, obstruction size and the inlet or incident velocity are examined for their effects on the distributions of airflow around an obstruction. A relationship is developed between the minimum measurement distance and the hydraulic diameters of the entry and the obstruction. A final analysis considers the impacts of continuous monitor location on the accuracy of velocity measurements and on the application of minimum measurement distance guidelines. PMID:26388684

  10. Detection of Mouse Cough Based on Sound Monitoring and Respiratory Airflow Waveforms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liyan; Lai, Kefang; Lomask, Joseph Mark; Jiang, Bert; Zhong, Nanshan

    2013-01-01

    Detection for cough in mice has never yielded clearly audible sounds, so there is still a great deal of debates as to whether mice can cough in response to tussive stimuli. Here we introduce an approach for detection of mouse cough based on sound monitoring and airflow signals. 40 Female BALB/c mice were pretreated with normal saline, codeine, capasazepine or desensitized with capsaicin. Single mouse was put in a plethysmograph, exposed to aerosolized 100 µmol/L capsaicin for 3 min, followed by continuous observation for 3 min. Airflow signals of total 6 min were recorded and analyzed to detect coughs. Simultaneously, mouse cough sounds were sensed by a mini-microphone, monitored manually by an operator. When manual and automatic detection coincided, the cough was positively identified. Sound and sound waveforms were also recorded and filtered for further analysis. Body movements were observed by operator. Manual versus automated counts were compared. Seven types of airflow signals were identified by integrating manual and automated monitoring. Observation of mouse movements and analysis of sound waveforms alone did not produce meaningful data. Mouse cough numbers decreased significantly after all above drugs treatment. The Bland-Altman and consistency analysis between automatic and manual counts was 0.968 and 0.956. The study suggests that the mouse is able to present with cough, which could be detected by sound monitoring and respiratory airflow waveform changes. PMID:23555643

  11. Study on airflow characteristics in the semi-closed irregular narrow flow channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuzhen; Hu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Linhang; Hu, Xudong; Jin, Yingzi

    2016-04-01

    The air-jet loom is widely used in the textile industry. The interaction mechanism of airflow and yarn is not clear in such a narrow flow channel, the gas consumption is relatively large, the yarn motion is unstable and the weft insertion is often interrupted during the operation. In order to study the characteristics of the semi-closed flow field in profiled dents, the momentum conservation equation is modified and the model parameters and boundary conditions are set. Compared with the different r, the ratio of profiled dent's thickness and gap, the results show that the smaller the r is, the smaller the velocity fluctuations of the airflow is. When the angle of profiled dents α is close to zero, the diffusion of the airflow will be less. The experiment is also conducted to verify the result of the simulation with a high-speed camera and pressure sensor in profiled dents. The airflow characteristics in the semi-closed irregular narrow flow channel in the paper would provide the theoretical basis for optimizing the weft insertion process of the air-jet loom.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of respiratory airflow in human nasal cavity and its characteristic dimension study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Yu, Chi

    2008-04-01

    To study the airflow distribution in human nasal cavity during respiration and the characteristic parameters of nasal structure, three-dimensional, anatomically accurate representations of 30 adult nasal cavity models were reconstructed based on processed tomography images collected from normal people. The airflow fields in nasal cavities were simulated by fluid dynamics with finite element software ANSYS. The results showed that the difference of human nasal cavity structure led to different airflow distribution in the nasal cavities and variation of the main airstream passing through the common nasal meatus. The nasal resistance in the regions of nasal valve and nasal vestibule accounted for more than half of the overall resistance. The characteristic model of nasal cavity was extracted on the basis of characteristic points and dimensions deduced from the original models. It showed that either the geometric structure or the airflow field of the two kinds of models was similar. The characteristic dimensions were the characteristic parameters of nasal cavity that could properly represent the original model in model studies on nasal cavity.

  13. Measuring Airflow in Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems. Module 23. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on measuring airflow in local exhaust ventilation systems. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each…

  14. Computational and experimental study of airflow around a fan powered UVGI lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaligotla, Srikar; Tavakoli, Behtash; Glauser, Mark; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2011-11-01

    The quality of indoor air environment is very important for improving the health of occupants and reducing personal exposure to hazardous pollutants. An effective way of controlling air quality is by eliminating the airborne bacteria and viruses or by reducing their emissions. Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) lamps can effectively reduce these bio-contaminants in an indoor environment, but the efficiency of these systems depends on airflow in and around the device. UVGI lamps would not be as effective in stagnant environments as they would be when the moving air brings the bio-contaminant in their irradiation region. Introducing a fan into the UVGI system would augment the efficiency of the system's kill rate. Airflows in ventilated spaces are quite complex due to the vast range of length and velocity scales. The purpose of this research is to study these complex airflows using CFD techniques and validate computational model with airflow measurements around the device using Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. The experimental results including mean velocities, length scales and RMS values of fluctuating velocities are used in the CFD validation. Comparison of these data at different locations around the device with the CFD model predictions are performed and good agreement was observed.

  15. Citric acid cough threshold and airway responsiveness in asthmatic patients and smokers with chronic airflow obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Auffarth, B; de Monchy, J G; van der Mark, T W; Postma, D S; Koëter, G H

    1991-01-01

    The relation between citric acid cough threshold and airway hyperresponsiveness was investigated in 11 non-smoking patients with allergic asthma (mean FEV1 94% predicted) and 25 non-atopic smokers with chronic airflow obstruction (mean FEV1 65% predicted). Cough threshold was determined on two occasions by administering doubling concentrations of citric acid. Seven of the 11 asthmatic subjects and 14 of 25 smokers with chronic airflow obstruction had a positive cough threshold on both test days. Cough threshold measurements were reproducible in both groups (standard deviation of duplicate measurements 1.2 doubling concentrations in asthma, 1.1 doubling concentrations in chronic airflow obstruction). Citric acid provocation did not cause bronchial obstruction in most patients, though four patients had a fall in FEV1 of more than 20% for a short time on one occasion only. No significant difference in cough threshold was found between the two patient groups despite differences in baseline FEV1 values. There was no significant correlation between cough threshold and the provocative concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) histamine in either group. Thus sensory nerves can be activated with a tussive agent in patients with asthma and chronic airflow obstruction without causing bronchial smooth muscle contraction. PMID:1948792

  16. Airflow produced by dielectric barrier discharge between asymmetric parallel rod electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Kazuo; Tanaka, Motofumi; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi

    2007-09-15

    We observed a novel type of airflow produced by an atmospheric rf discharge between asymmetric parallel rod electrodes. The electrodes were a bare metal rod 1 mm in diameter and a glass-coated metal rod 3.2 mm in diameter. The thrust, measured by a pendulum, increased with discharge input power.

  17. Turbine Air-Flow Test Rig CFD Results for Test Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Josh

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the Turbine Air-Flow Test (TAFT) rig computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results for test matrix. The topics include: 1) TAFT Background; 2) Design Point CFD; 3) TAFT Test Plan and Test Matrix; and 4) CFD of Test Points. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  18. Test-Retest Reliability of Respiratory Resistance Measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallena, Sally K.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Johnson, Arthur T.; Vossoughi, Jafar; Tian, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine reliability of the airflow perturbation device (APD) to measure respiratory resistance within and across sessions during resting tidal (RTB) and postexercise breathing in healthy athletes, and during RTB across trials within a session in athletes with paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM)…

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, AIRFLOW PRODUCTS AFP30

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AFP30 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Airflow Products. The pressure drop across the filter was 62 Pa clean and 247 Pa dust loaded. The filtration effici...

  20. Cooling tower irrigator layout with allowances for non-uniformity of the airflow velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushnov, A. S.; Ryabushenko, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    This article covers the results of analysis of aerodynamic processes in the cooling tower irrigator and provides the approaches to optimal layout of preformed packing blocks (of the irrigator) developed based on these results. The analysis of the airflow velocity field in the cooling towers shows that the irrigation space can be broken down into the following zones: the peripheral zone of the cooling tower near the airblast windows, the zone near the cooling tower center, and the intermediate zone. Furthermore, the highest level of nonuniformity of the airflow velocity field in cooling towers is in the zone adjoining the tower's airblast windows. The proposed concept of the cooling tower irrigator's layout is made with allowances for the airflow velocity field characteristics in the cross-section of the irrigation space of the cooling tower. Based on this concept, we suggest that higher irrigator blocks should be placed in the zone of increased airflow consumption, which provides the possibility to enhance the hydraulic resistance and, respectively, decrease the gas flow velocity as well as to boost the efficiency of chilling the circulating water in the cooling tower. For this purpose, additional irrigator blocks can be of the same design as the main irrigator. As an option, it is possible to use blocks of the geometry and design other than the main irrigator block in the cooling tower.

  1. Experimental investigation of transient thermal behavior of an airship under different solar radiation and airflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Fu; Xia, Xin-Lin; Sun, Chuang

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of the thermal behavior of airships is crucial to the development of airship technology. An experiment apparatus is constructed to investigate the thermal response characteristics of airships, and the transient temperature distributions of both hull and inner gas are obtained under the irradiation of a solar simulator and various airflow conditions. In the course of the research, the transient temperature change of the experimental airship is measured for four airflow speeds of 0 m/s (natural convection), 3.26 m/s, 5.5 m/s and 7.0 m/s, and two incident solar radiation values of 842.4 W/m2 and 972.0 W/m2. The results show that solar irradiation has significant influence on the airship hull and inner gas temperatures even if the airship stays in a ground airflow environment where the heat transfer is dominated by radiation and convection. The airflow around the airship is conducive to reduce the hull temperature and temperature nonuniformity. Transient thermal response of airships rapidly varies with time under solar radiation conditions and the hull temperature remains approximately constant in ˜5-10 min. Finally, a transient thermal model of airship is developed and the model is validated through comparison with the experimental data.

  2. Airflow produced by dielectric barrier discharge between asymmetric parallel rod electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuo; Tanaka, Motofumi; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi

    2007-09-01

    We observed a novel type of airflow produced by an atmospheric rf discharge between asymmetric parallel rod electrodes. The electrodes were a bare metal rod 1 mm in diameter and a glass-coated metal rod 3.2 mm in diameter. The thrust, measured by a pendulum, increased with discharge input power.

  3. Numerical Simulation of an Enclosed Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame in Microgravity Environment: Comparison with ELF Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Kezhong; Venuturumilli, Rajasekhar; Ryan, Brandon J.; Chen, Lea-Der

    2001-01-01

    been some research on the stability of laminar flames, but most studies have focused on turbulent flames. It is also well known that the airflow around the fuel jet can significantly alter the lift off, reattachment and blow out of the jet diffusion flame. Buoyant convection is sufficiently strong in 1-g flames that it can dominate the flow-field, even at the burner rim. In normal-gravity testing, it is very difficult to delineate the effects of the forced airflow from those of the buoyancy-induced flow. Comparison of normal-gravity and microgravity flames provides clear indication of the influence of forced and buoyant flows on the flame stability. The overall goal of the Enclosed Laminar Flames (ELF) investigation (STS-87/USMP-4 Space Shuttle mission, November to December 1997) is to improve our understanding of the effects of buoyant convection on the structure and stability of co-flow diffusion flame, e.g., see http://zeta.lerc.nasa.gov/expr/elf.htm. The ELF hardware meets the experiment hardware limit of the 35-liter interior volume of the glovebox working area, and the 180x220-mm dimensions of the main door. The ELF experiment module is a miniature, fan-driven wind tunnel, equipped with a gas supply system. A 1.5-mm diameter nozzle is located on the duct's flow axis. The cross section of the duct is nominally a 76-mm square with rounded corners. The forced air velocity can be varied from about 0.2 to 0.9 m/s. The fuel flow can be set as high as 3 std. cubic centimeter (cc) per second, which corresponds to a nozzle exit velocity of up to 1.70 m/s. The ELF hardware and experimental procedure are discussed in detail in Brooker et al. The 1-g test results are repeated in several experiments following the STS-87 Mission. The ELF study is also relevant to practical systems because the momentum-dominated behavior of turbulent flames can be achieved in laminar flames in microgravity. The specific objectives of this paper are to evaluate the use reduced model for

  4. Improving aviation safety with information visualization: Airflow hazard display for helicopter pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon, Cecilia Rodriguez

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visual information to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that information visualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and information visualization in other safety

  5. Usability Evaluation of a Flight-Deck Airflow Hazard Visualization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2004-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with unseen airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices, downdrafts, low level wind shear, microbursts, or turbulence from surrounding vegetation or structures near the landing site. These hazards can be dangerous even to airliners; there have been hundreds of fatalities in the United States in the last two decades attributable to airliner encounters with microbursts and low level wind shear alone. However, helicopters are especially vulnerable to airflow hazards because they often have to operate in confined spaces and under operationally stressful conditions (such as emergency search and rescue, military or shipboard operations). Providing helicopter pilots with an augmented-reality display visualizing local airflow hazards may be of significant benefit. However, the form such a visualization might take, and whether it does indeed provide a benefit, had not been studied before our experiment. We recruited experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots for a preliminary usability study to evaluate a prototype augmented-reality visualization system. The study had two goals: first, to assess the efficacy of presenting airflow data in flight; and second, to obtain expert feedback on sample presentations of hazard indicators to refine our design choices. The study addressed the optimal way to provide critical safety information to the pilot, what level of detail to provide, whether to display specific aerodynamic causes or potential effects only, and how to safely and effectively shift the locus of attention during a high-workload task. Three-dimensional visual cues, with varying shape, color, transparency, texture, depth cueing, and use of motion, depicting regions of hazardous airflow, were developed and presented to the pilots. The study results indicated that such a visualization system could be of significant value in improving safety during critical takeoff and landing operations, and also

  6. Pulmonary anatomy in the Nile crocodile and the evolution of unidirectional airflow in Archosauria

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, John R.; Farmer, CG

    2013-01-01

    The lungs of birds have long been known to move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through most of the tubular gas-exchanging bronchi (parabronchi). Recently a similar pattern of airflow has been observed in American alligators, a sister taxon to birds. The pattern of flow appears to be due to the arrangement of the primary and secondary bronchi, which, via their branching angles, generate inspiratory and expiratory aerodynamic valves. Both the anatomical similarity of the avian and alligator lung and the similarity in the patterns of airflow raise the possibility that these features are plesiomorphic for Archosauria and therefore did not evolve in response to selection for flapping flight or an endothermic metabolism, as has been generally assumed. To further test the hypothesis that unidirectional airflow is ancestral for Archosauria, we measured airflow in the lungs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). As in birds and alligators, air flows cranially to caudally in the cervical ventral bronchus, and caudally to cranially in the dorsobronchi in the lungs of Nile crocodiles. We also visualized the gross anatomy of the primary, secondary and tertiary pulmonary bronchi of C. niloticus using computed tomography (CT) and microCT. The cervical ventral bronchus, cranial dorsobronchi and cranial medial bronchi display similar characteristics to their proposed homologues in the alligator, while there is considerable variation in the tertiary and caudal group bronchi. Our data indicate that the aspects of the crocodilian bronchial tree that maintain the aerodynamic valves and thus generate unidirectional airflow, are ancestral for Archosauria. PMID:23638399

  7. Effects of mass airflow rate through an open-circuit gas quantification system when measuring carbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Stacey A; Bradford, James A; Moffet, Corey A

    2017-01-01

    Methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO) represent 11 and 81%, respectively, of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural CH emissions account for approximately 43% of all anthropogenic CH emissions. Most agricultural CH emissions are attributed to enteric fermentation within ruminant livestock; hence, the heightened interest in quantifying and mitigating this source. The automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS; GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD) evaluated here can be placed in a pasture with grazing cattle and can measure their CH and CO emissions with spot sampling. However, improper management of the GQS can have an erroneous effect on emission estimates. One factor affecting the quality of emission estimates is the airflow rates through the GQS to ensure a complete capture of the breath cloud emitted by the animal. It is hypothesized that at lower airflow rates this cloud will be incompletely captured. To evaluate the effect of airflow rate through the GQS on emission estimates, a data set was evaluated with 758 CO and CH emission estimates with a range in airflows of 10.7 to 36.6 L/s. When airflow through the GQS was between 26.0 and 36.6 L/s, CO and CH emission estimates were not affected ( = 0.14 and 0.05, respectively). When airflow rates were less than 26.0 L/s, CO and CH emission estimates were lower and decreased as airflow rate decreased ( < 0.0001). We hypothesize that when airflow through the GQS decreases below 26 L/s, breath capture was incomplete and CO and CH emissions are underestimated. Maintaining mass airflow through a GQS at rates greater than 26 L/s is important for producing high quality CO and CH emission estimates.

  8. Momentum and heat transport scalings in laminar vertical convection.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, Olga

    2016-05-01

    We derive the dependence of the Reynolds number Re and the Nusselt number Nu on the Rayleigh number Ra and the Prandtl number Pr in laminar vertical convection (VC), where a fluid is confined between two differently heated isothermal vertical walls. The boundary layer equations in laminar VC yield two limiting scaling regimes: Nu∼Pr^{1/4}Ra^{1/4}, Re∼Pr^{-1/2}Ra^{1/2} for Pr≪1 and Nu∼Pr^{0}Ra^{1/4}, Re∼Pr^{-1}Ra^{1/2} for Pr≫1. These theoretical results are in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulations for Ra from 10^{5} to 10^{10} and Pr from 10^{-2} to 30. The transition between the regimes takes place for Pr around 10^{-1}.

  9. Natural laminar flow and airplane stability and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, Cornelis P.

    1986-01-01

    Location and mode of transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer flow have a dominant effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil section. The influences of these parameters on the sectional lift and drag characteristics of three airfoils are examined. Both analytical and experimental results demonstrate that when the boundary layer transitions near the leading edge as a result of surface roughness, extensive trailing-edge separation of the turbulent boundary layer may occur. If the airfoil has a relatively sharp leading-edge, leading-edge stall due to laminar separation can occur after the leading-edge suction peak is formed. These two-dimensional results are used to examine the effects of boundary layer transition behavior on airplane longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control.

  10. Hypersonic laminar/turbulent transition: computations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlik, E.; Kornilov, V.; Ferrier, M.; Fedioun, I.; Davidenko, D.

    2012-01-01

    In order to predict the laminar/turbulent transition on a hypersonic vehicle forebody at Mach numbers 4 and 6, the three-dimensional (3D) modal linear stability analysis is applied, coupled with the eN method. Nevertheless, N factors are unknown for wind tunnel conditions. Experimental investigations have been carried out on a flat plate in the blowdown wind tunnel T-313 of ITAM RAS (Novosibirsk). At M∞ = 2 to 6, the position of laminar/turbulent transition was measured by both Pitot tube and thermocouples. Then, stability analysis allows computing N factors at transition on the flat plate: they are about 3 ˜ 4, typical of conventional wind tunnels. These flat plate correlations can then be used to predict the transition on the forebody in the same wind tunnel. Experiments for the forebody are currently in progress and will allow checking the predicted transition location.

  11. Effect of heat loss on laminar flamelet species concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccanera, Marco; Lentini, Diego

    2016-10-01

    The effects of heat loss on the structure of laminar flamelets, which are the constitutive elements of turbulent flames under the most common operating conditions, are investigated for typical aeronautical gas-turbine operating conditions at take-off. The magnitude of heat loss is quantified via the "enthalpy defect" measured with respect to an adiabatic flame. A procedure to generate laminar flamelets with an assigned enthalpy defect at the boundaries is devised and applied to nonpremixed propane/air flames, as propane reproduces the essential features of higher hydrocarbon combustion. It is found, contrary to commonly held beliefs, that the enthalpy defect has a significant effect on the concentration not only of minor species, but also of main reaction products. Such effects are found in general to be more pronounced for fuel-rich conditions. An impact is anticipated on the formation rate of nitric oxides. The effects of scalar dissipation rate are also discussed.

  12. LAMINAR TRANSITIONAL AND TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS FOR COMPRESSIBLE AXISYMMETRIC FLOW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    This is a finite-difference program for calculating the viscous compressible boundary layer flow over either planar or axisymmetric surfaces. The flow may be initially laminar and progress through a transitional zone to a fully turbulent flow, or it may remain laminar, depending on the imposed boundary conditions, laws of viscosity, and numerical solution of the momentum and energy equations. The flow may also be forced into a turbulent flow at a chosen spot by the data input. The input may contain factors of arbitrary Reynolds number, free-stream Mach number, free stream turbulence, wall heating or cooling, longitudinal wall curvature, wall suction or blowing, and wall roughness. The solution may start from an initial Falkner-Skan similarity profile, an approximate equilibrium turbulent profile, or an initial arbitrary input profile. This program has been implemented on the IBM 7094/7044 Direct Couple System. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and was developed in 1974.

  13. Hydrodynamic Fluctuations in Laminar Fluid Flow. II. Fluctuating Squire Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz de Zárate, José M.; Sengers, Jan V.

    2013-02-01

    We use fluctuating hydrodynamics to evaluate the enhancement of thermally excited fluctuations in laminar fluid flow using plane Couette flow as a representative example. In a previous publication (J. Stat. Phys. 144:774, 2011) we derived the energy amplification arising from thermally excited wall-normal fluctuations by solving a fluctuating Orr-Sommerfeld equation. In the present paper we derive the energy amplification arising from wall-normal vorticity fluctuation by solving a fluctuating Squire equation. The thermally excited wall-normal vorticity fluctuations turn out to yield the dominant contribution to the energy amplification. In addition, we show that thermally excited streaks, even in the absence of any externally imposed perturbations, are present in laminar fluid flow.

  14. Detection of airflow limitation using a handheld spirometer in a primary care setting

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Siew-Mooi; Pang, Yong-Kek; Price, David; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Lee, Ping-Yein; Irmi, Ismail; Faezah, Hassan; Ruhaini, Ismail; Chia, Yook-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care settings is difficult to achieve chiefly due to lack of availability of spirometry. This study estimated the prevalence of airflow limitation among chronic smokers using a handheld spirometer in this setting. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed on consecutive patients who were ≥40 years old with ≥10 pack-years smoking history. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to obtain demographic data and relevant information. Handheld spirometry was performed according to a standard protocol using the COPd-6 device (Model 4000, Vitalograph, Ennis, Ireland) in addition to standard spirometry. Airflow limitation was defined as ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced expiratory volume in 6 s <0.75 (COPd-6) or FEV1/forced vital capacity <0.7. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of airflow limitation. Results A total of 416 patients were recruited with mean age of 53 years old. The prevalence of airflow limitation was 10.6% (n = 44) with COPd-6 versus 6% as gauged using standard spirometry. Risk factors for airflow limitation were age >65 years (odds ratio (OR) 3.732 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.100–1.280), a history of ‘bad health’ (OR 2.524, 95% CI: 1.037–6.142) and low to normal body mass index (OR 2.914, 95% CI: 1.191–7.190). Conclusions In a primary care setting, handheld spirometry (COPd-6) found a prevalence of airflow limitation of ∼10% in smokers. Patients were older, not overweight and had an ill-defined history of health problems. SUMMARY AT A GLANCE Prevalence of COPD is unknown in Malaysia. The prevalence of COPD using a handheld spirometer (COPd-6TM) was 10.6% versus 6% as gauged using standard spirometry. Predictors of COPD were older age, lower BMI and a history of ‘bad health’. Case-finding for COPD should be targeted in this special population. PMID:24708063

  15. Design Guide for Laminar Flow Fluidic Amplifiers and Sensors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-27

    input * and output characteristics for the geometry of any amplifier . The only constraint is that the flow out of the supply nozzle remains laminar and...supply pressure in the range of 2 to 20 MPa. Although turbulent flow jet deflection amplifiers have useful characteristics , their low gain and low dynamic...simple proportional fluidic controllers using turbulent flow amplifiers indicated that the characteristics of these devices would restrict the

  16. Laminar shocks in high power laser plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, R. A.; Bingham, R.; Norreys, P.; Trines, R.

    2014-02-15

    We propose a theory to describe laminar ion sound structures in a collisionless plasma. Reflection of a small fraction of the upstream ions converts the well known ion acoustic soliton into a structure with a steep potential gradient upstream and with downstream oscillations. The theory provides a simple interpretation of results dating back more than forty years but, more importantly, is shown to provide an explanation for recent observations on laser produced plasmas relevant to inertial fusion and to ion acceleration.

  17. An elementary model for autoignition of laminar jets

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Peter V.; Gotti, Daniel J.; Hegde, Uday G.; Hicks, Michael C.; Kulis, Michael J.; Sivashinsky, Gregory I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate and analyse an elementary model for autoignition of cylindrical laminar jets of fuel injected into an oxidizing ambient at rest. This study is motivated by renewed interest in analysis of hydrothermal flames for which such configuration is common. As a result of our analysis, we obtain a sharp characterization of the autoignition position in terms of the principal physical and geometrical parameters of the problem. PMID:26345080

  18. Development of a laminar boundary layer behind a suction point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuest, Walter

    1952-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is made of the development of a laminar boundary layer behind a suction slot that is assumed to cut off part of the boundary layer without exerting any sink effect. The development, which is approximate, is based on the heat conduction equation. The heat conduction equation enters the analysis through a linearization of the Prandtl-Mises form of the boundary-layer equation.

  19. Ground vibration test of the laminar flow control JStar airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, M. W.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Ellison, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    A ground vibration test was conducted on a Lockheed JetStar airplane that had been modified for the purpose of conducting laminar flow control experiments. The test was performed prior to initial flight flutter tests. Both sine-dwell and single-point-random excitation methods were used. The data presented include frequency response functions and a comparison of mode frequencies and mode shapes from both methods.

  20. Flame Shapes of Nonbuoyant Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z. G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The shapes (flame-sheet and luminous-flame boundaries) of steady nonbuoyant round hydrocarbon-fueled laminar-jet diffusion flames in still and coflowing air were studied both experimentally and theoretically. Flame-sheet shapes were measured from photographs using a CH optical filter to distinguish flame-sheet boundaries in the presence of blue CO2 and OH emissions and yellow continuum radiation from soot. Present experimental conditions included acetylene-, methane-, propane-, and ethylene-fueled flames having initial reactant temperatures of 300 K, ambient pressures of 4-50 kPa, jet exit Reynolds number of 3-54, initial air/fuel velocity ratios of 0-9 and luminous flame lengths of 5-55 mm; earlier measurements for propylene- and 1,3-butadiene-fueled flames for similar conditions were considered as well. Nonbuoyant flames in still air were observed at micro-gravity conditions; essentially nonbuoyant flames in coflowing air were observed at small pressures to control effects of buoyancy. Predictions of luminous flame boundaries from soot luminosity were limited to laminar smokepoint conditions, whereas predictions of flame-sheet boundaries ranged from soot-free to smokepoint conditions. Flame-shape predictions were based on simplified analyses using the boundary layer approximations along with empirical parameters to distinguish flame-sheet and luminous flame (at the laminar smoke point) boundaries. The comparison between measurements and predictions was remarkably good and showed that both flame-sheet and luminous-flame lengths are primarily controlled by fuel flow rates with lengths in coflowing air approaching 2/3 lengths in still air as coflowing air velocities are increased. Finally, luminous flame lengths at laminar smoke-point conditions were roughly twice as long as flame-sheet lengths at comparable conditions due to the presence of luminous soot particles in the fuel-lean region of the flames.

  1. Flame Shapes of Nonbuoyant Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames. Appendix K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The shapes (flame-sheet and luminous-flame boundaries) of steady nonbuoyant round hydrocarbon-fueled laminar-jet diffusion flames in still and coflowing air were studied both experimentally and theoretically. Flame-sheet shapes were measured from photographs using a CH optical filter to distinguish flame-sheet boundaries in the presence of blue C02 and OH emissions and yellow continuum radiation from soot. Present experimental conditions included acetylene-, methane-, propane-, and ethylene-fueled flames having initial reactant temperatures of 300 K, ambient pressures of 4-50 kPa, jet exit Reynolds number of 3-54, initial air/fuel velocity ratios of 0-9 and luminous flame lengths of 5-55 mm; earlier measurements for propylene- and 1,3-butadiene-fueled flames for similar conditions were considered as well. Nonbuoyant flames in still air were observed at micro-gravity conditions; essentially nonbuoyant flames in coflowing air were observed at small pressures to control effects of buoyancy. Predictions of luminous flame boundaries from soot luminosity were limited to laminar smoke-point conditions, whereas predictions of flame-sheet boundaries ranged from soot-free to smoke-point conditions. Flame-shape predictions were based on simplified analyses using the boundary layer approximations along with empirical parameters to distinguish flame-sheet and luminous-flame (at the laminar smoke point) boundaries. The comparison between measurements and predictions was remarkably good and showed that both flame-sheet and luminous-flame lengths are primarily controlled by fuel flow rates with lengths in coflowing air approaching 2/3 lengths in still air as coflowing air velocities are increased. Finally, luminous flame lengths at laminar smoke-point conditions were roughly twice as long as flame-sheet lengths at comparable conditions due to the presence of luminous soot particles in the fuel-lean region of the flames.

  2. Structure and Soot Formation Properties of Laminar Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Leathy, A. M.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    Soot formation within hydrocarbon-fueled flames is an important unresolved problem of combustion science for several reasons: soot emissions are responsible for more deaths than any other combustion-generated pollutant, thermal loads due to continuum radiation from soot limit the durability of combustors, thermal radiation from soot is mainly responsible for the growth and spread of unwanted fires, carbon monoxide emissions associated with soot emissions are responsible for most fire deaths, and limited understanding of soot processes in flames is a major impediment to the development of computational combustion. Motivated by these observations, soot processes within laminar premixed and nonpremixed (diffusion) flames are being studied during this investigation. The study is limited to laminar flames due to their experimental and computational tractability, noting the relevance of these results to practical flames through laminar flamelet concepts. Nonbuoyant flames are emphasized because buoyancy affects soot processes in laminar diffusion flames whereas effects of buoyancy are small for most practical flames. This study involves both ground- and space-based experiments, however, the following discussion will be limited to ground-based experiments because no space-based experiments were carried out during the report period. The objective of this work was to complete measurements in both premixed and nonpremixed flames in order to gain a better understanding of the structure of the soot-containing region and processes of soot nucleation and surface growth in these environments, with the latter information to be used to develop reliable ways of predicting soot properties in practical flames. The present discussion is brief, more details about the portions of the investigation considered here can be found in refs. 8-13.

  3. The Effects of Gravity on Wrinkled Laminar Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Larry W.; Zhou, Liming; Cheng, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of gravity are significant to the dynamics of idealized unconfined open premixed flames. Moderate to low turbulence Reynolds number flames, i.e., wrinkled laminar flames, of various unconfined geometries have been used extensively for investigating fundamental processes of turbulent flame propagation and to validate theoretical models. Without the wall constraints, the flames are free to expand and interact with surrounding ambient air. The flow field in which the flame exists is determined by a coupling of burner geometry, flame orientation and the gravity field. These complex interactions raise serious questions regarding the validity of comparing the experimental data of open flames with current theoretical and numerical models that do not include the effects of gravity nor effects of the larger aerodynamic flowfield. Therefore, studies of wrinkled laminar flame in microgravity are needed for a better understanding of the role of gravity on flame characteristics such as the orientation, mean aerodynamics stretch, flame wrinkle size and burning rate. Our approach to characterize and quantify turbulent flame structures under microgravity is to exploit qualitative and quantitative flow visualization techniques coupled with video recording and computer controlled image analysis technologies. The experiments will be carried out in the 2.2 second drop tower at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The longest time scales of typical wrinkled laminar flames in the geometries considered here are in the order of 10 msec. Hence, the duration of the drop is sufficient to obtain the amount of statistical data necessary for characterize turbulent flame structures.

  4. Laminar and Connectional Organization of a Multisensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Foxworthy, W. Alex; Clemo, H. Ruth; Meredith, M. Alex

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of sensory signals as they pass through cortical circuits has been revealed almost exclusively through studies of the primary sensory cortices, where principles of laminar organization, local connectivity and parallel processing have been elucidated. In contrast, almost nothing is known about the circuitry or laminar features of multisensory processing in higher-order, multisensory cortex. Therefore, using the ferret higher-order multisensory rostral posterior parietal (PPr) cortex, the present investigation employed a combination of multichannel recording and neuroanatomical techniques to elucidate the laminar basis of multisensory cortical processing. The proportion of multisensory neurons, the share of neurons showing multisensory integration, and the magnitude of multisensory integration were all found to differ by layer in a way that matched the functional or connectional characteristics of the PPr. Specifically, the supragranular layers (L2–3) demonstrated among the highest proportions of multisensory neurons and the highest incidence of multisensory response enhancement, while also receiving the highest levels of extrinsic inputs, exhibiting the highest dendritic spine densities, and providing a major source of local connectivity. In contrast, layer 6 showed the highest proportion of unisensory neurons while receiving the fewest external and local projections and exhibiting the lowest dendritic spine densities. Coupled with a lack of input from principal thalamic nuclei and a minimal layer 4, these observations indicate that this higher-level multisensory cortex shows unique functional and organizational modifications from the well-known patterns identified for primary sensory cortical regions. PMID:23172137

  5. Natural laminar flow experiments on modern airplane surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Obara, C. J.; Yip, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    Flight and wind-tunnel natural laminar flow experiments have been conducted on various lifting and nonlifting surfaces of several airplanes at unit Reynolds numbers between 0.63 x 10 to the 6th power/ft and 3.08 x 10 to the 6th power/ft, at Mach numbers from 0.1 to 0.7, and at lifting surface leading-edge sweep angles from 0 deg to 63 deg. The airplanes tested were selected to provide relatively stiff skin conditions, free from significant roughness and waviness, on smooth modern production-type airframes. The observed transition locations typically occurred downstream of the measured or calculated pressure peak locations for the test conditions involved. No discernible effects on transition due to surface waviness were observed on any of the surfaces tested. None of the measured heights of surface waviness exceeded the empirically predicted allowable surface waviness. Experimental results consistent with spanwise contamination criteria were observed. Large changes in flight-measured performance and stability and control resulted from loss of laminar flow by forced transition. Rain effects on the laminar boundary layer caused stick-fixed nose-down pitch-trim changes in two of the airplanes tested. No effect on transition was observed for flight through low-altitude liquid-phase clouds. These observations indicate the importance of fixed-transition tests as a standard flight testing procedure for modern smooth airframes.

  6. Type I planet migration in nearly laminar disks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Lubow, S H; Lin, D

    2008-01-01

    We describe two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the migration of low-mass planets ({<=}30 M{sub {circle_plus}}) in nearly laminar disks (viscosity parameter {alpha} < 10{sup -3}) over timescales of several thousand orbit periods. We consider disk masses of 1, 2, and 5 times the minimum mass solar nebula, disk thickness parameters of H/r = 0.035 and 0.05, and a variety of {alpha} values and planet masses. Disk self-gravity is fully included. Previous analytic work has suggested that Type I planet migration can be halted in disks of sufficiently low turbulent viscosity, for {alpha} {approx} 10{sup -4}. The halting is due to a feedback effect of breaking density waves that results in a slight mass redistribution and consequently an increased outward torque contribution. The simulations confirm the existence of a critical mass (M{sub {alpha}} {approx} 10M{sub {circle_plus}}) beyond which migration halts in nearly laminar disks. For {alpha} {approx}> 10{sup -3}, density feedback effects are washed out and Type I migration persists. The critical masses are in good agreement with the analytic model of Rafikov. In addition, for {alpha} {approx}> 10{sup -4} steep density gradients produce a vortex instability, resulting in a small time-varying eccentricity in the planet's orbit and a slight outward migration. Migration in nearly laminar disks may be sufficiently slow to reconcile the timescales of migration theory with those of giant planet formation in the core accretion model.

  7. Laminar and connectional organization of a multisensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Foxworthy, W Alex; Clemo, H Ruth; Meredith, M Alex

    2013-06-01

    The transformation of sensory signals as they pass through cortical circuits has been revealed almost exclusively through studies of the primary sensory cortices, for which principles of laminar organization, local connectivity, and parallel processing have been elucidated. In contrast, almost nothing is known about the circuitry or laminar features of multisensory processing in higher order, multisensory cortex. Therefore, using the ferret higher order multisensory rostral posterior parietal (PPr) cortex, the present investigation employed a combination of multichannel recording and neuroanatomical techniques to elucidate the laminar basis of multisensory cortical processing. The proportion of multisensory neurons, the share of neurons showing multisensory integration, and the magnitude of multisensory integration were all found to differ by layer in a way that matched the functional or connectional characteristics of the PPr. Specifically, the supragranular layers (L2/3) demonstrated among the highest proportions of multisensory neurons and the highest incidence of multisensory response enhancement, while also receiving the highest levels of extrinsic inputs, exhibiting the highest dendritic spine densities, and providing a major source of local connectivity. In contrast, layer 6 showed the highest proportion of unisensory neurons while receiving the fewest external and local projections and exhibiting the lowest dendritic spine densities. Coupled with a lack of input from principal thalamic nuclei and a minimal layer 4, these observations indicate that this higher level multisensory cortex shows functional and organizational modifications from the well-known patterns identified for primary sensory cortical regions.

  8. Laminar flow downregulates Notch activity to promote lymphatic sprouting.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dongwon; Park, Eunkyung; Jung, Eunson; Seong, Young Jin; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Lee, Esak; Hong, Mingu; Lee, Sunju; Ishida, Hiroaki; Burford, James; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Adams, Ralf H; Srikanth, Sonal; Gwack, Yousang; Chen, Christopher S; Vogel, Hans J; Koh, Chester J; Wong, Alex K; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2017-04-03

    The major function of the lymphatic system is to drain interstitial fluid from tissue. Functional drainage causes increased fluid flow that triggers lymphatic expansion, which is conceptually similar to hypoxia-triggered angiogenesis. Here, we have identified a mechanotransduction pathway that translates laminar flow-induced shear stress to activation of lymphatic sprouting. While low-rate laminar flow commonly induces the classic shear stress responses in blood endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), only LECs display reduced Notch activity and increased sprouting capacity. In response to flow, the plasma membrane calcium channel ORAI1 mediates calcium influx in LECs and activates calmodulin to facilitate a physical interaction between Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), the major regulator of shear responses, and PROX1, the master regulator of lymphatic development. The PROX1/KLF2 complex upregulates the expression of DTX1 and DTX3L. DTX1 and DTX3L, functioning as a heterodimeric Notch E3 ligase, concertedly downregulate NOTCH1 activity and enhance lymphatic sprouting. Notably, overexpression of the calcium reporter GCaMP3 unexpectedly inhibited lymphatic sprouting, presumably by disturbing calcium signaling. Endothelial-specific knockouts of Orai1 and Klf2 also markedly impaired lymphatic sprouting. Moreover, Dtx3l loss of function led to defective lymphatic sprouting, while Dtx3l gain of function rescued impaired sprouting in Orai1 KO embryos. Together, the data reveal a molecular mechanism underlying laminar flow-induced lymphatic sprouting.

  9. Airflow energy harvesters of metal-based PZT thin films by self-excited vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, E.; Tsujiura, Y.; Kurokawa, F.; Hida, H.; Kanno, I.

    2014-11-01

    We developed self-excited vibration energy harvesters of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films using airflow. To enhance the self-excited vibration, we used 30-μm-thick stainless steel (SS304) foils as base cantilevers on which PZT thin films were deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering. To compensate for the initial bending of PZT/SS304 unimorph cantilever due to the thermal stress, we deposited counter PZT thin films on the back of the SS304 cantilever. We evaluated power-generation performance and vibration mode of the energy harvester in the airflow. When the angle of attack (AOA) was 20° to 30°, large vibration was generated at wind speeds over 8 m/s. By FFT analysis, we confirmed that stable self-excited vibration was generated. At the AOA of 30°, the output power reached 19 μW at wind speeds of 12 m/s.

  10. Stabilization of liquid hydrocarbon fuel combustion by using a programmable microwave discharge in a subsonic airflow

    SciTech Connect

    Kopyl, P. V.; Surkont, O. S.; Shibkov, V. M.; Shibkova, L. V.

    2012-06-15

    Under conditions of a programmable discharge (a surface microwave discharge combined with a dc discharge), plasma-enhanced combustion of alcohol injected into a subsonic (M = 0.3-0.9) airflow in the drop (spray) phase is stabilized. It is shown that the appearance of the discharge, its current-voltage characteristic, the emission spectrum, the total emission intensity, the heat flux, the electron density, the hydroxyl emission intensity, and the time dependences of the discharge current and especially discharge voltage change substantially during the transition from the airflow discharge to stabilized combustion of the liquid hydrocarbon fuel. After combustion stabilization, more than 80% of liquid alcohol can burn out, depending on the input power, and the flame temperature reaches {approx}2000 K.

  11. Regenerative heat exchanger with a periodic change in the airflow direction for room ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtsev, M. I.; Borodulin, V. Yu.; Letushko, V. N.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental research of heat transfer in air-to-air regenerative heat exchanger with periodic change of flow direction. The temperatures of the airflow and the material of regenerative packing in different sections have been obtained. The temperature efficiency of the heat exchanger has been determined at different flow rates. The developed mathematical model of the regenerative heat exchanger is described. It is shown that the model fairly well describes the experimental results. Based on numerical studies the dependence of thermal efficiency of the heat exchanger on the airflow rate is determined. It is shown that changing the ratio of the oppositely directed flow rates, it is possible to regulate the temperature of the air flowing into the room. The possibility of using the model for optimizing the operational and design parameters of heat exchanger is demonstrated.

  12. Influence of airflow rate and substrate nature on heterogeneous struvite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Saidou, H; Ben Moussa, S; Ben Amor, M

    2009-01-01

    In wastewater treatment plants a hard scale consisting of struvite crystals can be formed, in pipes and recirculation pumps, during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of airflow rate and substrate nature on nucleation type, induction period and supersaturation coefficient during struvite precipitation. A crystallization reactor similar to that designed for calcium carbonate precipitation was used. The pH of synthetic wastewater solution was increased by air bubbling. Experimental results indicated that the airflow increased heterogeneous precipitation of struvite. The susceptibility to scale formation was more important on polyamide and polyvinyl chloride than on stainless steel. In all cases, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy showed that the precipitated solid phase was solely struvite. No difference in crystal morphology was observed. However, at similar experimental conditions, the particle size of struvite was higher for stainless-steel material than that for plastic materials.

  13. Methane emissions and airflow patterns along longwall faces and through bleeder ventilation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schatzel, Steven J.; Dougherty, Heather N.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an investigation of longwall face and bleeder ventilation systems using tracer gas experiments and computer network ventilation. The condition of gateroad entries, along with the caved material’s permeability and porosity changes as the longwall face advances, determine the resistance of the airflow pathways within the longwall’s worked-out area of the bleeder system. A series of field evaluations were conducted on a four-panel longwall district. Tracer gas was released at the mouth of the longwall section or on the longwall face and sampled at various locations in the gateroads inby the shield line. Measurements of arrival times and concentrations defined airflow/gas movements for the active/completed panels and the bleeder system, providing real field data to delineate these pathways. Results showed a sustained ability of the bleeder system to ventilate the longwall tailgate corner as the panels retreated. PMID:26925166

  14. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, John C.; Xenofos, George D.; Farrow, John L.; Tyler, Tom; Williams, Robert; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a full-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrumentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors.

  15. A Joint Numerical-Experimental Study on Impact Induced Intra-laminar and Inter-laminar Damage in Laminated Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, A.; Caputo, F.; Di Felice, G.; Saputo, S.; Toscano, C.; Lopresto, V.

    2016-06-01

    The investigation of the mechanical response of fibre-reinforced composite laminates under impact loads can be very difficult due to the occurrence of simultaneous failure phenomena. Indeed, as a consequence of low velocity impacts, intra-laminar damages, like fibre and matrix cracking, and inter-laminar damages, such as delaminations, can take place simultaneously. These damage mechanisms can lead to significant reductions in strength and stability of the composite structure. In this paper a joint numerical-experimental study is proposed which, by means of non-destructive testing techniques (Ultra-sound and thermography) and non-linear explicit FEM analyses, aims to completely characterise the impact induced damage in composite laminates under low velocity impacts. Indeed the proposed numerical tool has been used to improve the understanding of the experimental data obtained by Non-Destructive Techniques. Applications on samples tested according to the AECMA (European Association of Aerospace Manufacturers) prEn6038 standard at three different impact energies are presented. The interaction between numerical and experimental investigation allowed to obtain an exhaustive insight on the different phases of the impact event considering the inter-laminar damage formation and evolution.

  16. A Computational Study of the Respiratory Airflow Characteristics in Normal and Obstructed Human Airways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    normal and three different obstructed airway geometries, consisting of symmetric, asym- metric, and random obstructions. Fig. 2 shows the geometric ...normal and obstructed airways Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to the airflow caused by geometric properties, such as airway obstruction...pressure drops. Resistance values were dependent on the degree and geometric distribution of the obstruction sites. In the symmetric obstruction model

  17. Risk factors for persistent airflow limitation: Analysis of 306 patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingcheng; Gao, Shuncui; Zhu, Wei; Su, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : To determine the risk factors associated with persistent airflow limitation in patients with asthma. Method s: This study was designed and carried out in the department of respiratory medicine, fourth People’s Hospital of Jinan City, Shandong province, China between Jan 2012 and Dec 2012. Three hundred and six asthma patients participating in the study were divided into persistent airflow limitation group (PAFL) and no persistent airflow limitation group (NPAFL). The patients participated in pulmonary function tests and sputum induction examination. The clinical data including age, gender, onset age, disease course, smoking history, family history, regular corticosteroid inhalation, hospitalization history and presence of atopy were collected. Results : In 306 patients, 128 (40.5%) were included in PAFL group and 178(59.5%) in NPAFL group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated smoking (≥10 pack-years; OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 31.2), longer asthma duration (≥ 20years) (OR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.7 to 28.5), absence of regular corticosteroid inhalation (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 14.5) and neutrophil in induced sputum≥65% (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.8) were independent risk factors for PAFL. Conclusions : Smoking, longer asthma duration and increased neutrophil in induced sputum are risk factors for PAFL, while regular corticosteroid inhalation is protective factor. Smoking cessation and regular corticosteroid inhalation may play an important role in preventing the occurrence of persistent airflow limitation group (PAFL). PMID:25674145

  18. White Sands Missile Range 2007 Urban Study: Data Processing - Volume DP-3 (Airflow Qualitative Assessment)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Characterization Research: 1. To acquire data for verification of urban micro-meteorology models , such as ARL’s diagnostic Three-Dimensional Wind Field ...was conducted in March 2003. In this WSMR 2003 Urban Study (W03US) field study, four wind tunnel airflow patterns (Fetch Flow, Velocity Acceleration...3DWF) model and Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC) model . 2. To characterize behavior of turbulent

  19. Payload bay atmospheric vent airflow testing at the Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, James D., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Several concerns related to venting the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload bay during launch led to laboratory experiments with a flight-type vent box installed in the wall of a subsonic wind tunnel. This report describes the test setups and procedures used to acquire data for characterization of airflow through the vent box and acoustic tones radiated from the vent-box cavity. A flexible boundary-layer spoiler which reduced the vent-tone amplitude is described.

  20. Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Guo, Haipeng

    2009-10-01

    Most analytical and numerical models developed to analyze pumping test data focus on saturated flow below the water table. Traditionally the soil above the initial water table prior to pumping has been thought to have little influence on the test results and has usually been ignored. It is hypothesized that, if the unsaturated zone is capped by low-permeability soil, airflow in the unsaturated zone may be developed during pumping and may have impact on the drawdown in the aquifer. A transient, three-dimensional and variably saturated flow model is employed to simulate the pumping-induced air and groundwater flows in both the saturated zone and unsaturated zone with a low-permeability layer. The results demonstrate that negative pressure in the unsaturated zone can be generated by pumping. The negative pressure begins to appear as the drawdown rate increases to a maximum, approaches a peak before the drawdown rate becomes zero, and then gradually disappears. Drawdown obtained from the capped aquifer is much greater because the water in the pores in the unsaturated zone is sucked by the negative pressure and the gravity drainage from the pores is hampered. Consequently, the drawdown versus time curve does not conform to the traditional S-shaped curve for an unconfined aquifer but is similar to that of a confined aquifer. If the airflow caused by the low-permeability cap is ignored, the error in estimated drawdown could be over 80% for the specific parameters and aquifer configuration used in the study. The possible errors in parameter estimation when airflow is ignored are explored. Overall, the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer can be overestimated and the specific yield of the aquifer underestimated if airflow is ignored. The estimation error for specific yield tends to be greater than that in hydraulic conductivity.

  1. Airflow study of pathologic larynges using a constant temperature anemometer: further experience.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, K; Fujita, F

    1992-08-01

    Phonatory airflow was recorded in 361 laryngeal disease patients and 59 normal subjects by using a constant temperature anemometer to measure Isshiki's proposed parameter, the AC/DC percentage. The pathologic groups displayed AC/DC percentage values smaller than those of the normal group. The value differentials observed among the various diseases suggest that the AC/DC percentage may reflect the vibrational capacity of the vocal cords.

  2. 3D airflow dynamics over transverse ridges Mpekweni, South Africa: implications for dune field migration behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew; Green, Andrew; Beyers, Meiring; Wiles, Errol; Benallack, Keegan

    2016-04-01

    Un-vegetated dune fields provide excellent opportunities to examine airflow dynamics over various types and scales of dune landforms. The three dimensional surface over which lower boundary layers travel, help adjust surface airflow and consequently the aeolian response of the dunes themselves. The use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modelling in recent studies now enables investigation of the 3D behaviour of airflow over complex terrain, providing new insights into heterogeneous surface flow and aeolian response of dune surfaces on a large (dunefield) scale. Using a largely un-vegetated coastal dune field site at Mpekweni, Eastern Cape, South Africa, a detailed (0.1m gridded) terrestrial laser scanning survey was conducted to create a high resolution topographical surface. Using local wind flow measurements and local met station records as input, CFD modelling was performed for a number of scenarios involving variable direction and magnitude to examine surface flow patterns across multiple dune forms. Near surface acceleration, expansion and separation of airflow inducing convergence and divergence (steering) of flow velocity streamlines are investigated. Flow acceleration over dune crests/brink lines is a key parameter in driving dune migration and slip face dynamics. Dune aspect ratio (height to length) is also important in determining the degree of crestal flow acceleration, with an increase in flow associated with increasing aspect ratios. Variations in dune height appear to be the most important parameter in driving general flow acceleration. The results from the study provide new insights into dune migration behaviour at this site as well as surface flow behaviour across multiple dune configurations and length scales within un-vegetated dune fields.

  3. Airflow elicits a spider's jump towards airborne prey. II. Flow characteristics guiding behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Klopsch, Christian; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C.; Barth, Friedrich G.

    2013-01-01

    When hungry, the wandering spider Cupiennius salei is frequently seen to catch flying insect prey. The success of its remarkable prey-capture jump from its sitting plant into the air obviously depends on proper timing and sensory guidance. In this study, it is shown that particular features of the airflow generated by the insect suffice to guide the spider. Vision and the reception of substrate vibrations and airborne sound are not needed. The behavioural reactions of blinded spiders were examined by exposing them to natural and synthetic flows imitating the fly-generated flow or particular features of it. Thus, the different roles of the three phases previously identified in the fly-generated flow and described in the companion paper could be demonstrated. When exposing the spider to phase I flow only (exponentially increasing flow velocity with very little fluctuation and typical of the fly's approach), an orienting behaviour could be observed but a prey-capture jump never be elicited. Remarkably, the spider reacted to the onset of phase II (highly fluctuating flow) of a synthetically generated flow field with a jump as frequently as it did when exposed to natural fly-generated flows. In all cases using either natural or artificial flows, the spider's jump was triggered before its flow sensors were hit by phase III flow (steadily decreasing airflow velocity). Phase III may tell the spider that the prey has passed by already in case of no prey-capture reaction. Our study underlines the relevance of airflow in spider behaviour. It also reflects the sophisticated workings of their flow sensors (trichobothria) previously studied in detail. Presumably, the information contained in prey-generated airflows plays a similar role in many other arthropods. PMID:23427092

  4. Unsteady-state airflow and particle deposition in a three-generation human lung geometry.

    PubMed

    Nazridoust, Kambiz; Asgharian, Bahman

    2008-04-01

    The study of particle transport and deposition in the human lung is critical in health risk assessment of air pollutants and in pharmaceutical drug delivery. Several computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have investigated particle deposition in the lung for simplified airflow scenarios. A shortcoming with most CFD studies is uncertainty regarding flow boundary conditions, which directly impacts airflow and particle deposition. The influence of inlet and outlet conditions on airflow and particle deposition in lung common airways was assessed here. Common airways consisted of nine airways of the human lung ahead of lobes: the trachea, main, and lobar bronchi connected as a network of cylindrical tubes with dimensions based on morphometric measurements. Three different boundary conditions were used: (1) prescribed constant flow rate at the trachea entrance and atmospheric pressure at terminal branch exits, (2) atmospheric pressure at the trachea inlet and prescribed outlet flow rates corresponding to uniform lobar expansion, and (3) the same as case (2) with exit flow rates according to nonuniform lobar expansion. Unsteady airflow fields were numerically solved for a 2-s inhalation. Spherical particles of 1 nm to 10 microm diameter were injected at the trachea inlet, and particle deposition patterns during inhalation were evaluated. A Lagrangian particle tracking method was used that included particle inertia, gravity, and Brownian motion. Predicted flows showed similar trends but with a notable difference in magnitude. Lower particle deposition was found in case (1) for all particle sizes. The differences among these cases indicated the significance of realistic boundary conditions for accurate assessment of the flow field and particle deposition.

  5. SMA actuators for vibration control and experimental determination of model parameters dependent on ambient airflow velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.

    2016-05-01

    This article demonstrates the practical applicability of a method of modelling shape memory alloys (SMAs) as actuators. For this study, a pair of SMA wires was installed in an antagonistic manner to form an actuator, and a linear differential equation that describes the behaviour of the actuator’s generated force relative to its input voltage was derived for the limited range below the austenite onset temperature. In this range, hysteresis need not be considered, and the proposed SMA actuator can therefore be practically applied in linear control systems, which is significant because large deformations accompanied by hysteresis do not necessarily occur in most vibration control cases. When specific values of the parameters used in the differential equation were identified experimentally, it became clear that one of the parameters was dependent on ambient airflow velocity. The values of this dependent parameter were obtained using an additional SMA wire as a sensor. In these experiments, while the airflow distribution around the SMA wires was varied by changing the rotational speed of the fans in the wind tunnels, an input voltage was conveyed to the SMA actuator circuit, and the generated force was measured. In this way, the parameter dependent on airflow velocity was estimated in real time, and it was validated that the calculated force was consistent with the measured one.

  6. Pale nasal mucosa affects airflow limitations in upper and lower airways in asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Odajima, Hiroshi; Yamada, Atsunobu; Taba, Naohiko; Murakami, Yoko; Nishima, Sankei

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe asthmatics are thought to have severer rhinitis than mild asthmatics. A pale nasal mucosa is a typical clinical finding in subjects with severe allergic rhinitis. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether a pale nasal mucosa affects airflow limitations in the upper and lower airways in asthmatic children. Methods Rhinomanometry, nasal scraping, and spirometry were performed in 54 asthmatic children (median age, 10 years). The nasal mucosa was evaluated by an otolaryngologist. Thirty-seven patients were treated with inhaled corticosteroids, and 11 patients were treated with intranasal corticosteroids. Results Subjects with a pale nasal mucosa (n = 23) exhibited a lower nasal airflow (p < 0.05) and a larger number of nasal eosinophils (p < 0.05) in the upper airway as well as lower pulmonary functional parameters (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), i.e., the forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and the peak expiratory flow, compared with the subjects who exhibited a normal or pinkish mucosa (n = 31). No significant difference in the forced expiratory flow between 25%–75% of the FVC, regarded as indicating the peripheral airway, was observed between the 2 groups. Conclusion A pale nasal mucosa may be a predictor of eosinophil infiltration of the nasal mucosa and central airway limitations in asthmatic children. When allergists observe a pale nasal mucosa in asthmatic children, they should consider the possibility of airflow limitations in not only the upper airway, but also the lower airway. PMID:27803882

  7. Emphysema Predicts Hospitalisation and Incident Airflow Obstruction among Older Smokers: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, David A.; Ahmed, Firas S.; Austin, John H. M.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Keller, Brad M.; Lemeshow, Adina; Reeves, Anthony P.; Mesia-Vela, Sonia; Pearson, G. D. N.; Shiau, Maria C.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Barr, R. Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Emphysema on CT is common in older smokers. We hypothesised that emphysema on CT predicts acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease among older smokers. Materials and Methods Participants in a lung cancer screening study age ≥60 years were recruited into a prospective cohort study in 2001–02. Two radiologists independently visually assessed the severity of emphysema as absent, mild, moderate or severe. Percent emphysema was defined as the proportion of voxels ≤ −910 Hounsfield Units. Participants completed a median of 5 visits over a median of 6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was hospitalization, emergency room or urgent office visit for chronic lower respiratory disease. Spirometry was performed following ATS/ERS guidelines. Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVC ratio <0.70 and FEV1<80% predicted. Results Of 521 participants, 4% had moderate or severe emphysema, which was associated with acute episodes of care (rate ratio 1.89; 95% CI: 1.01–3.52) adjusting for age, sex and race/ethnicity, as was percent emphysema, with similar associations for hospitalisation. Emphysema on visual assessment also predicted incident airflow obstruction (HR 5.14; 95% CI 2.19–21.1). Conclusion Visually assessed emphysema and percent emphysema on CT predicted acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease, with the former predicting incident airflow obstruction among older smokers. PMID:24699215

  8. COMIS -- an international multizone air-flow and contaminant transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.

    1998-08-01

    A number of interzonal models have been developed to calculate air flows and pollutant transport mechanisms in both single and multizone buildings. A recent development in multizone air-flow modeling, the COMIS model, has a number of capabilities that go beyond previous models, much as COMIS can be used as either a stand-alone air-flow model with input and output features or as an infiltration module for thermal building simulation programs. COMIS was designed during a 12 month workshop at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in 1988-89. In 1990, the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems program created a working group on multizone air-flow modeling, which continued work on COMIS. The group`s objectives were to study physical phenomena causing air flow and pollutant (e.g., moisture) transport in multizone buildings, develop numerical modules to be integrated in the previously designed multizone air flow modeling system, and evaluate the computer code. The working group supported by nine nations, officially finished in late 1997 with the release of IISiBat/COMIS 3.0, which contains the documented simulation program COMIS, the user interface IISiBat, and reports describing the evaluation exercise.

  9. Elasto-Aerodynamics-Driven Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Scavenging Air-Flow Energy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuhua; Mu, Xiaojing; Wang, Xue; Gu, Alex Yuandong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2015-10-27

    Efficient scavenging the kinetic energy from air-flow represents a promising approach for obtaining clean, sustainable electricity. Here, we report an elasto-aerodynamics-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on contact electrification. The reported TENG consists of a Kapton film with two Cu electrodes at each side, fixed on two ends in an acrylic fluid channel. The relationship between the TENG output power density and its fluid channel dimensions is systematically studied. TENG with a fluid channel size of 125 × 10 × 1.6 mm(3) delivers the maximum output power density of about 9 kW/m(3) under a loading resistance of 2.3 MΩ. Aero-elastic flutter effect explains the air-flow induced vibration of Kapton film well. The output power scales nearly linearly with parallel wiring of multiple TENGs. Connecting 10 TENGs in parallel gives an output power of 25 mW, which allows direct powering of a globe light. The TENG is also utilized to scavenge human breath induced air-flow energy to sustainably power a human body temperature sensor.

  10. Human-mediated dispersal of seeds by the airflow of vehicles.

    PubMed

    von der Lippe, Moritz; Bullock, James M; Kowarik, Ingo; Knopp, Tatjana; Wichmann, Matthias C; Wichmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Human-mediated dispersal is known as an important driver of long-distance dispersal for plants but underlying mechanisms have rarely been assessed. Road corridors function as routes of secondary dispersal for many plant species but the extent to which vehicles support this process remains unclear. In this paper we quantify dispersal distances and seed deposition of plant species moved over the ground by the slipstream of passing cars. We exposed marked seeds of four species on a section of road and drove a car along the road at a speed of 48 km/h. By tracking seeds we quantified movement parallel as well as lateral to the road, resulting dispersal kernels, and the effect of repeated vehicle passes. Median distances travelled by seeds along the road were about eight meters for species with wind dispersal morphologies and one meter for species without such adaptations. Airflow created by the car lifted seeds and resulted in longitudinal dispersal. Single seeds reached our maximum measuring distance of 45 m and for some species exceeded distances under primary dispersal. Mathematical models were fit to dispersal kernels. The incremental effect of passing vehicles on longitudinal dispersal decreased with increasing number of passes as seeds accumulated at road verges. We conclude that dispersal by vehicle airflow facilitates seed movement along roads and accumulation of seeds in roadside habitats. Dispersal by vehicle airflow can aid the spread of plant species and thus has wide implications for roadside ecology, invasion biology and nature conservation.

  11. The effects of a hot drink on nasal airflow and symptoms of common cold and flu.

    PubMed

    Sanu, A; Eccles, R

    2008-12-01

    Hot drinks are a common treatment for common cold and flu but there are no studies reported in the scientific and clinical literature on this mode of treatment. This study investigated the effects of a hot fruit drink on objective and subjective measures of nasal airflow, and on subjective scores for common cold/flu symptoms in 30 subjects suffering from common cold/flu. The results demonstrate that the hot drink had no effect on objective measurement of nasal airflow but it did cause a significant improvement in subjective measures of nasal airflow. The hot drink provided immediate and sustained relief from symptoms of runny nose, cough, sneezing, sore throat, chilliness and tiredness, whereas the same drink at room temperature only provided relief from symptoms of runny nose, cough and sneezing. The effects of the drinks are discussed in terms of a placebo effect and physiological effects on salivation and airway secretions. In conclusion the results support the folklore that a hot tasty drink is a beneficial treatment for relief of most symptoms of common cold and flu.

  12. Effects of groove type on airflow speed and pressure during rotor spinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R. H.; Liu, C.; Xue, Y.; Gao, W. D.

    2017-01-01

    Groove type is critical to the compactness of fibrous ring in groove and cohesion between fibers. The effect of groove type to high speed airflow during rotor spun yarn spinning process was investigated. Airflow speed and static pressure of G, T, U and S grooves of the 36 mm diameter rotor were studied by Fluent Software respectively. The results showed that under the same conditions, speeds in four slotted size were G>T>U>S within the range from 0° to 360° in groove. At 0° and 360° positions, the static pressures were G>S>U>T. While for the rest of angle position, the static pressures were S>U>T>G. Taking T slot as example, static pressures of the rotors were between -7330.80 Pa and -13719.63 Pa. High speed airflows were divided into two streams as soon as they enter into the inner wall of rotor (0o point), one clockwise and one reverse direction, which joined together at point of 180o. This phenomenon gives light to understand fiber strands stretch and twisting as yarn in rotor which can be used to optimize spinning parameters during spinning and design new rotor type.

  13. Using Coupled Energy, Airflow and IAQ Software (TRNSYS/CONTAM) to Evaluate Building Ventilation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J; Polidoro, Brian J

    2016-03-01

    Building energy analysis tools are available in many forms that provide the ability to address a broad spectrum of energy-related issues in various combinations. Often these tools operate in isolation from one another, making it difficult to evaluate the interactions between related phenomena and interacting systems, forcing oversimplified assumptions to be made about various phenomena that could otherwise be addressed directly with another tool. One example of such interdependence is the interaction between heat transfer, inter-zone airflow and indoor contaminant transport. In order to better address these interdependencies, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed an updated version of the multi-zone airflow and contaminant transport modelling tool, CONTAM, along with a set of utilities to enable coupling of the full CONTAM model with the TRNSYS simulation tool in a more seamless manner and with additional capabilities that were previously not available. This paper provides an overview of these new capabilities and applies them to simulating a medium-size office building. These simulations address the interaction between whole-building energy, airflow and contaminant transport in evaluating various ventilation strategies including natural and demand-controlled ventilation.

  14. Human-Mediated Dispersal of Seeds by the Airflow of Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    von der Lippe, Moritz; Bullock, James M.; Kowarik, Ingo; Knopp, Tatjana; Wichmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Human-mediated dispersal is known as an important driver of long-distance dispersal for plants but underlying mechanisms have rarely been assessed. Road corridors function as routes of secondary dispersal for many plant species but the extent to which vehicles support this process remains unclear. In this paper we quantify dispersal distances and seed deposition of plant species moved over the ground by the slipstream of passing cars. We exposed marked seeds of four species on a section of road and drove a car along the road at a speed of 48 km/h. By tracking seeds we quantified movement parallel as well as lateral to the road, resulting dispersal kernels, and the effect of repeated vehicle passes. Median distances travelled by seeds along the road were about eight meters for species with wind dispersal morphologies and one meter for species without such adaptations. Airflow created by the car lifted seeds and resulted in longitudinal dispersal. Single seeds reached our maximum measuring distance of 45 m and for some species exceeded distances under primary dispersal. Mathematical models were fit to dispersal kernels. The incremental effect of passing vehicles on longitudinal dispersal decreased with increasing number of passes as seeds accumulated at road verges. We conclude that dispersal by vehicle airflow facilitates seed movement along roads and accumulation of seeds in roadside habitats. Dispersal by vehicle airflow can aid the spread of plant species and thus has wide implications for roadside ecology, invasion biology and nature conservation. PMID:23320077

  15. Reconstruction of sound source signal by analytical passive TR in the environment with airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Long; Li, Min; Yang, Debin; Niu, Feng; Zeng, Wu

    2017-03-01

    In the acoustic design of air vehicles, the time-domain signals of noise sources on the surface of air vehicles can serve as data support to reveal the noise source generation mechanism, analyze acoustic fatigue, and take measures for noise insulation and reduction. To rapidly reconstruct the time-domain sound source signals in an environment with flow, a method combining the analytical passive time reversal mirror (AP-TR) with a shear flow correction is proposed. In this method, the negative influence of flow on sound wave propagation is suppressed by the shear flow correction, obtaining the corrected acoustic propagation time delay and path. Those corrected time delay and path together with the microphone array signals are then submitted to the AP-TR, reconstructing more accurate sound source signals in the environment with airflow. As an analytical method, AP-TR offers a supplementary way in 3D space to reconstruct the signal of sound source in the environment with airflow instead of the numerical TR. Experiments on the reconstruction of the sound source signals of a pair of loud speakers are conducted in an anechoic wind tunnel with subsonic airflow to validate the effectiveness and priorities of the proposed method. Moreover the comparison by theorem and experiment result between the AP-TR and the time-domain beamforming in reconstructing the sound source signal is also discussed.

  16. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  17. Large-eddy simulation of airflow and heat transfer in a general ward of hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Farhad; Himika, Taasnim Ahmed; Molla, Md. Mamun

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a very popular alternative computational technique, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been used for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of airflow and heat transfer in general ward of hospital. Different Reynolds numbers have been used to study the airflow pattern. In LES, Smagorinsky turbulence model has been considered and a discussion has been conducted in brief. A code validation has been performed comparing the present results with benchmark results for lid-driven cavity problem and the results are found to agree very well. LBM is demonstrated through simulation in forced convection inside hospital ward with six beds with a partition in the middle, which acted like a wall. Changes in average rate of heat transfer in terms of average Nusselt numbers have also been recorded in tabular format and necessary comparison has been showed. It was found that partition narrowed the path for airflow and once the air overcame this barrier, it got free space and turbulence appeared. For higher turbulence, the average rate of heat transfer increased and patients near the turbulence zone released maximum heat and felt more comfortable.

  18. On intra- and intersubject variabilities of airflow in the human lungs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiwoong; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2009-01-01

    The effects of intra- and intersubject variabilities in airway geometry on airflow in the human lungs are investigated by large eddy simulation. The airway models of two human subjects consisting of extra- and intrathoracic airways are reconstructed from CT images. For intrasubject study, airflows at two inspiratory flow rates are simulated on the airway geometries of the same subject with four different levels of truncation. These airway models are the original complete geometry and three geometries obtained by truncating the original one at the subglottis, the supraglottis, and the laryngopharynx, respectively. A comparison of the airflows in the complete geometry model shows that the characteristics of the turbulent laryngeal jet in the trachea are similar regardless of Reynolds number in terms of mean velocities, turbulence statistics, coherent structures, and pressure distribution. The truncated airway models, however, do not produce the similar flow structures observed in the complete geometry. An improved inlet boundary condition is then proposed for the airway model truncated at the laryngopharynx to improve the accuracy of solution. The new boundary condition significantly improves the mean flow. The spectral analysis shows that turbulent characteristics are captured downstream away from the glottis. For intersubject study, although the overall flow characteristics are similar, two morphological factors are found to significantly affect the flows between subjects. These are the constriction ratio of the glottis with respect to the trachea and the curvature and shape of the airways. PMID:19901999

  19. Coolant pressure and airflow distribution in a strut-supported transpiration-cooled vane for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Poferl, D. J.; Richards, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis to predict pressure and flow distribution in a strut-supported wire-cloth vane was developed. Results were compared with experimental data obtained from room-temperature airflow tests conducted over a range of vane inlet airflow rates from 10.7 to 40.4 g/sec (0.0235 to 0.0890 lb/sec). The analytical method yielded reasonably accurate predictions of vane coolant flow rate and pressure distribution.

  20. Flight-measured laminar boundary-layer transition phenomena including stability theory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obara, C. J.; Holmes, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted on a single-engine turboprop aircraft fitted with a 92-in-chord, 3-ft-span natural laminar flow glove at glove section lift coefficients from 0.15 to 1.10. The boundary-layer transition measurement methods used included sublimating chemicals and surface hot-film sensors. Transition occurred downstream of the minimum pressure point. Hot-film sensors provided a well-defined indication of laminar, laminar-separation, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers. Theoretical calculations of the boundary-layer parameters provided close agreement between the predicted laminar-separation point and the measured transition location. Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave growth n-factors between 15 and 17 were calculated at the predicted point of laminar separation. These results suggest that for many practical airplane cruise conditions, laminar separation (as opposed to T-S instability) is the major cause of transition in predominantly two-dimensional flows.

  1. Laminar screw fixation in the subaxial cervical spine: A report on three cases

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Hironori; Aota, Yoichi; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Although laminar screw fixation is often used at the C2 and C7 levels, only few previous case reports have presented the use of laminar screws at the C3-C6 levels. Here, we report a novel fixation method involving the use of practical laminar screws in the subaxial spine. We used laminar screws in the subaxial cervical spine in two cases to prevent vertebral artery injury and in one case to minimize exposure of the lamina. This laminar screw technique was successful in all three cases with adequate spinal rigidity, which was achieved without complications. The use of laminar screws in the subaxial cervical spine is a useful option for posterior fusion of the cervical spine. PMID:27795952

  2. Relationship between Pulmonary Airflow and Resistance in Patients with Airway Narrowing Using An 1-D Network Resistance and Compliance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sanghun; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long

    2016-11-01

    To predict the proper relationship between airway resistance and regional airflow, we proposed a novel 1-D network model for airway resistance and acinar compliance. First, we extracted 1-D skeletons at inspiration images, and generated 1-D trees of CT unresolved airways with a volume filling method. We used Horsfield order with random heterogeneity to create diameters of the generated 1-D trees. We employed a resistance model that accounts for kinetic energy and viscous dissipation (Model A). The resistance model is further coupled with a regional compliance model estimated from two static images (Model B). For validation, we applied both models to a healthy subject. The results showed that Model A failed to provide airflows consistent with air volume change, whereas Model B provided airflows consistent with air volume change. Since airflows shall be regionally consistent with air volume change in patients with normal airways, Model B was validated. Then, we applied Model B to severe asthmatic subjects. The results showed that regional airflows were significantly deviated from air volume change due to airway narrowing. This implies that airway resistance plays a major role in determining regional airflows of patients with airway narrowing. Support for this study was provided, in part, by NIH Grants U01 HL114494, R01 HL094315, R01 HL112986, and S10 RR022421.

  3. Transition Induced by Fixed and Freely Convecting Spherical Particles in Laminar Boundary Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    91-J-1646 Sperical Particles in Laminar Boundary Layers " .AUTW0WS) H. L. Petrie, P. J. Morris, A. R. Bajwa, D. C. Vincent 7. PIMowG onuOaxnZ.ON NAWIS ...92 3.5.3 Method of Solution ......................... 94 3.5.4 Results and Discussion ....................... 94 3.5.4.1 Wake...laminar to turbulent flow is an important aspect of fluid dynamics in numerous engineering applications. Natural transition in laminar boundary layers

  4. Secondary Airflow Structure around Clustered Shrubs and Its Significance for Vegetated Dune Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Qian, Guangqiang; Lu, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    Shrubs have an important significance in aeolian processes due to their disturbance of the local airflow. In the formation of vegetated dunes, there is an iterative interaction between shrub geometry, the structure of the secondary airflow, and the interaction between neighboring shrubs. Understanding the dynamics of vegetated dunes thus requires an insight into the airflow fields around shrubs. Based on aerodynamic and aeolian sand physics theory, this project measured the complex secondary flow field and aeolian sand deposition pattern around single and cluster shrubs with varied densities (i.e., 0.05, 0.08, 0.15, 0.20) and gap ratios (the ratio of the gap spacing between the shrub models to the center-to-center distance for the shrub models, ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 with side-by-side arrangement and 1.2 to 4.3 with tandem arrangement) using the particle image velocimetry system through wind tunnle simulation. The relationship between the secondary airflow structure and the shrub's porosity and arrangement was analyzed quantitatively. Research results revealed that porosity (density) is the key parameter to affect the flow patterns around single shrub. Compared to solid obstacles, bleed flow through the shrubs has great influence on the secondary airflow patterns around itself. Under cluster modes, the distance between two adjacent shrubs has great influence on flow field structures around them. The flow patterns around two side-by-side arranged shrubs can be classified into three kinds of modes, that is: single-bluff-body, biased flow pattern and parallel vortex streets. The flow patterns around two tandem arranged shrubs can be classified into three regimes, that is: the extended body regime, reattachment regime and co-shedding regime. The "shadow zone" with low velocity in the lee of shrubs is the optimal position for sand deposition, but its form, size and orientation would varied with the shrub porosity and gap ratio between them. With the increase of the gap

  5. Quality improvement of melt extruded laminar systems using mixture design.

    PubMed

    Hasa, D; Perissutti, B; Campisi, B; Grassi, M; Grabnar, I; Golob, S; Mian, M; Voinovich, D

    2015-07-30

    This study investigates the application of melt extrusion for the development of an oral retard formulation with a precise drug release over time. Since adjusting the formulation appears to be of the utmost importance in achieving the desired drug release patterns, different formulations of laminar extrudates were prepared according to the principles of Experimental Design, using a design for mixtures to assess the influence of formulation composition on the in vitro drug release from the extrudates after 1h and after 8h. The effect of each component on the two response variables was also studied. Ternary mixtures of theophylline (model drug), monohydrate lactose and microcrystalline wax (as thermoplastic binder) were extruded in a lab scale vertical ram extruder in absence of solvents at a temperature below the melting point of the binder (so that the crystalline state of the drug could be maintained), through a rectangular die to obtain suitable laminar systems. Thanks to the desirability approach and a reliability study for ensuring the quality of the formulation, a very restricted optimal zone was defined within the experimental domain. Among the mixture components, the variation of microcrystalline wax content played the most significant role in overall influence on the in vitro drug release. The formulation theophylline:lactose:wax, 57:14:29 (by weight), selected based on the desirability zone, was subsequently used for in vivo studies. The plasma profile, obtained after oral administration of the laminar extruded system in hard gelatine capsules, revealed the typical trend of an oral retard formulation. The application of the mixture experimental design associated to a desirability function permitted to optimize the extruded system and to determine the composition space that ensures final product quality.

  6. IFTS measurements of a laboratory scale laminar flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoby, Michael R.; Harley, Jacob L.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2011-10-01

    A point-and-shoot, passive remote sensing technology is highly desired to accurately monitor the combustion efficiency (CE) of petrochemical flares. A Phase II DOE-funded SBIR effort is being led by Spectral Sciences, Inc. to develop the methodologies needed to enable remote CE measurements via spectral remote sensing. Part of this effort entails standing up a laboratory-scale flare measurement laboratory to develop and validate CE measurements. This paper presents an overview and summarizes current progress of the Air Force Institute of Technology's (AFIT) contribution to this multi-organization, two-year effort. As a first step, a Telops Hyper-Cam longwave infrared (LWIR, 750-1300cm-1 or 7.7-13.3μm) imaging Fourier-transformspectrometer (IFTS) is used to examine a laminar, calibration flame produced by a Hencken burner. Ethylene and propane were combusted under several different fuel/air mixing ratios. For each event, 300 hyperspectral datacubes were collected on a 172(W)×200(H) pixel window at a 1.5cm-1 spectral resolution. Each pixel had approximately a 1.5×1.5mm2 instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV). Structured emission is evident throughout the combustion region with several lines arising from H2O; other lines have not yet been assigned. These first known IFTS measurements of a laminar Hencken-burner flame are presented along with some preliminary analysis. While the laminar flame appears stationary to the eye, significant flame flicker at a fundamental frequency of 17Hz was observed in the LWIR, and this is expected to complicate spectral interpretation for species concentrations and temperature retrieval. Changes to the fuel-air ratio (FAR) produced sizable changes in spectral intensity. Combustion spectra of ethylene and propane corresponding to ideal FAR were nearly identical.

  7. Laminar circuit organization and response modulation in mouse visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Olivas, Nicholas D.; Quintanar-Zilinskas, Victor; Nenadic, Zoran; Xu, Xiangmin

    2012-01-01

    The mouse has become an increasingly important animal model for visual system studies, but few studies have investigated local functional circuit organization of mouse visual cortex. Here we used our newly developed mapping technique combining laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) with fast voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging to examine the spatial organization and temporal dynamics of laminar circuit responses in living slice preparations of mouse primary visual cortex (V1). During experiments, LSPS using caged glutamate provided spatially restricted neuronal activation in a specific cortical layer, and evoked responses from the stimulated layer to its functionally connected regions were detected by VSD imaging. In this study, we first provided a detailed analysis of spatiotemporal activation patterns at specific V1 laminar locations and measured local circuit connectivity. Then we examined the role of cortical inhibition in the propagation of evoked cortical responses by comparing circuit activity patterns in control and in the presence of GABAa receptor antagonists. We found that GABAergic inhibition was critical in restricting layer-specific excitatory activity spread and maintaining topographical projections. In addition, we investigated how AMPA and NMDA receptors influenced cortical responses and found that blocking AMPA receptors abolished interlaminar functional projections, and the NMDA receptor activity was important in controlling visual cortical circuit excitability and modulating activity propagation. The NMDA receptor antagonist reduced neuronal population activity in time-dependent and laminar-specific manners. Finally, we used the quantitative information derived from the mapping experiments and presented computational modeling analysis of V1 circuit organization. Taken together, the present study has provided important new information about mouse V1 circuit organization and response modulation. PMID:23060751

  8. High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization for Natural Laminar Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashad, Ramy

    To ensure the long-term sustainability of aviation, serious effort is underway to mitigate the escalating economic, environmental, and social concerns of the industry. Significant improvement to the energy efficiency of air transportation is required through the research and development of advanced and unconventional airframe and engine technologies. In the quest to reduce airframe drag, this thesis is concerned with the development and demonstration of an effective design tool for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of subsonic and transonic airfoils. The objective is to advance the state-of-the-art in high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization by incorporating and exploiting the phenomenon of laminar-turbulent transition in an efficient manner. A framework for the design and optimization of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) airfoils is developed and demonstrated with transition prediction capable of accounting for the effects of Reynolds number, freestream turbulence intensity, Mach number, and pressure gradients. First, a two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver has been extended to incorporate an iterative laminar-turbulent transition prediction methodology. The natural transition locations due to Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities are predicted using the simplified eN envelope method of Drela and Giles or, alternatively, the compressible form of the Arnal-Habiballah-Delcourt criterion. The boundary-layer properties are obtained directly from the Navier-Stokes flow solution, and the transition to turbulent flow is modeled using an intermittency function in conjunction with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The RANS solver is subsequently employed in a gradient-based sequential quadratic programming shape optimization framework. The laminar-turbulent transition criteria are tightly coupled into the objective and gradient evaluations. The gradients are obtained using a new augmented discrete-adjoint formulation for non-local transition

  9. Predicting Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow over a Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajnarayan, Dev (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A prediction of whether a point on a computer-generated surface is adjacent to laminar or turbulent flow is made using a transition prediction technique. A plurality of instability modes are obtained, each defined by one or more mode parameters. A vector of regressor weights is obtained for the known instability growth rates in a training dataset. For an instability mode in the plurality of instability modes, a covariance vector is determined. A predicted local instability growth rate at the point is determined using the covariance vector and the vector of regressor weights. Based on the predicted local instability growth rate, an n-factor envelope at the point is determined.

  10. A 'similarity' solution for laminar swirling core flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, D. G.

    1984-05-01

    The far downstream region of laminar core flows with weak, strong, or very strong swirl embedded in a uniform parallel following stream is investigated analytically. Linearized similarity solutions based on the small-axial-disturbance-velocity assumption of Oseen are obtained using methods similar to those employed by Batchelor (1964) for strong trailing vortices. Strong swirl is shown to reduce axial velocity on and near the core axis, with two reversals as distance from the axis increases. Very strong swirl (a momentumless jet) is associated with an axial velocity profile having its maximum off the center line.

  11. A numerical study of laminar flames propagating in stratified mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiacheng

    Numerical simulations are carried out to study the structure and speed of laminar flames propagating in compositionally and thermally stratified fuel-air mixtures. The study is motivated by the need to understand the physics of flame propagation in stratified-charge engines and model it. The specific question of interest in this work is: how does the structure and speed of the flame in the stratified mixture differ from that of the flame in a corresponding homogeneous mixture at the same equivalence ratio, temperature, and pressure? The studies are carried out in hydrogen-air, methane-air, and n-heptane-air mixtures. A 30-species 184-step skeletal mechanism is employed for methane oxidation, a 9-species 21-step mechanism for hydrogen oxidation, and a 37-species 56-step skeletal mechanism for n-heptane oxidation. Flame speed and structure are compared with corresponding values for homogeneous mixtures. For compositionally stratified mixtures, as shown in prior experimental work, the numerical results suggest that when the flame propagates from a richer mixture to a leaner mixture, the flame speed is faster than the corresponding speed in the homogeneous mixture. This is caused by enhanced diffusion of heat and species from the richer mixture to the leaner mixture. In fact, the effects become more pronounced in leaner mixtures. Not surprisingly, the stratification gradient influences the results with shallower gradients showing less effect. The controlling role that diffusion plays is further assessed and confirmed by studying the effect of a unity Lewis number assumption in the hydrogen/air mixtures. Furthermore, the effect of stratification becomes less important when using methane or n-heptane as fuel. The laminar flame speed in a thermally stratified mixture is similar to the laminar flame speed in homogeneous mixture at corresponding unburned temperature. Theoretical analysis is performed and the ratio of extra thermal diffusion rate to flame heat release rate

  12. Acute hepatic encephalopathy presenting as cortical laminar necrosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Hee; Roh, Sook Young

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 55-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis who presented with status epilepticus. Laboratory analysis showed markedly elevated blood ammonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed widespread cortical signal changes with restricted diffusion, involving both temporo-fronto-parietal cortex, while the perirolandic regions and occipital cortex were uniquely spared. A follow-up brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with increased signals on T1-weighted images in both the basal ganglia and temporal lobe cortex, representing cortical laminar necrosis. We suggest that the brain lesions, in our case, represent a consequence of toxic effect of ammonia.

  13. Laminar-turbulent transition on the flying wing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, A. M.; Zanin, B. Yu.; Katasonov, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    Results of an experimental study of a subsonic flow past aircraft model having "flying wing" form and belonging to the category of small-unmanned aerial vehicles are reported. Quantitative data about the structure of the flow near the model surface were obtained by hot-wire measurements. It was shown, that with the wing sweep angle 34 °the laminar-turbulent transition scenario is identical to the one on a straight wing. The transition occurs through the development of a package of unstable oscillations in the boundary layer separation.

  14. Laminar flow transition: A large-eddy simulation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, S.

    1982-01-01

    A vectorized, semi-implicit code was developed for the solution of the time-dependent, three dimensional equations of motion in plane Poiseuille flow by the large-eddy simulation technique. The code is tested by comparing results with those obtained from the solutions of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Comparisons indicate that finite-differences employed along the cross-stream direction act as an implicit filter. This removes the necessity of explicit filtering along this direction (where a nonhomogeneous mesh is used) for the simulation of laminar flow transition into turbulence in which small scale turbulence will be accounted for by a subgrid scale turbulence model.

  15. Fluerics 40: LJARS, The Laminar Jet Angular Rate Sensor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    0.5. Using this criterion and the fact that the boundary layer grows as the square root of downstream distance, we obtain (’Lxt- kit t -(X (Xn)1/j (s...nontrivial integration, Yr hs c Xore s 2Ps/ 1/2 l~ pcr 2 4 Xvo (sp - core) r.x 7/3 , l sp - core+ X~o + ) - j (19) which reduces to 20 7= . YrI be X FS (x...control channel plus the 19G. Roe, Fluidic Laminar Angular Rate Sensor Research Program, McDonnell Douglas, Titusville, FL, HDL-CR-75-020-1 (November

  16. Transient radiative energy transfer in incompressible laminar flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Singh, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the transient radiative interactions of nongray absorbing-emitting species in laminar fully-developed flows between two parallel plates. The particular species considered are OH, CO, CO2, and H2O and different mixtures of these. Transient and steady-state results are obtained for the temperaure distribution and bulk temperature for different plate spacings, wall temperatures, and pressures. Results, in general, indicate that the rate of radiative heating can be quite high during earlier times. This information is useful in designing thermal protection systems for transient operations.

  17. On laminar-turbulent transition in nanofluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzey, D. V.; Zhigarev, V. A.; Pryazhnikov, M. I.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents experimental data on the laminar-turbulent transition in the nanofluid flow in the pipe. The transition in the flows of such fluids is shown to have lower Reynolds numbers than in the base fluid. The degree of the flow destabilization increases with an increase in concentration of nanoparticles and a decrease in their size. On the other hand, in the turbulent flow regime, the presence of particles in the flow leads to the suppression of smallscale turbulent fluctuations. The correlation of the measured viscosity coefficient of considered nanofluids is presented.

  18. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.; Fernald, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering design study was performed in which laminar flow control (LFC) was integrated into the wing of a commercial passenger transport aircraft. A baseline aircraft configuration was selected and the wing geometry was defined. The LFC system, with suction slots, ducting, and suction pumps was integrated with the wing structure. The use of standard aluminum technology and advanced superplastic formed diffusion bonded titanium technology was evaluated. The results of the design study show that the LFC system can be integrated with the wing structure to provide a structurally and aerodynamically efficient wing for a commercial transport aircraft.

  19. Application of laminar flow control to the High Speed Civil Transport - The NASA Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Michael C.; Vemuru, Chandra S.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) program encompasses the development of refined CFD methods and boundary layer stability codes for the highly 3D supersonic flow conditions encountered by the F-16XL technology demonstration aircraft and the prospective High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). While the F-16XL-1 aircraft continues to gather SLFC data, work is under way on the F-16XL-2 aircraft: which will furnish attach-line design criteria, code-calibration data, and an improved understanding of the flowfield over a wing that will add confidence to the design of HSCTs' boundary layer-controlling air-suction panels.

  20. Laminar flow control leading edge glove flight test article development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, W. E.; Mcnay, D. E.; Thelander, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A laminar flow control (LFC) flight test article was designed and fabricated to fit into the right leading edge of a JetStar aircraft. The article was designed to attach to the front spar and fill in approx. 70 inches of the leading edge that are normally occupied by the large slipper fuel tank. The outer contour of the test article was constrained to align with an external fairing aft of the front spar which provided a surface pressure distribution over the test region representative of an LFC airfoil. LFC is achieved by applying suction through a finely perforated surface, which removes a small fraction of the boundary layer. The LFC test article has a retractable high lift shield to protect the laminar surface from contamination by airborne debris during takeoff and low altitude operation. The shield is designed to intercept insects and other particles that could otherwise impact the leading edge. Because the shield will intercept freezing rain and ice, a oozing glycol ice protection system is installed on the shield leading edge. In addition to the shield, a liquid freezing point depressant can be sprayed on the back of the shield.

  1. On the determination of laminar flame speeds from stretched flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. K.; Law, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of stretch on the determination of the laminar flame speed are experimentally studied by using the positively-stretched stagnation flame and negatively-stretched bunsen flame, and by using lean and rich mixtures of methane, propane, butane, and hydrogen with air whose effective Lewis numbers are either greater or less than unity. Results demonstrate that flame speed determination can be influenced by stretch through two factors: (1) Preferential diffusion which tends to increase or decrease the flame temperature and burning rate depending on the effective Lewis number, and (2) Flow divergence which causes the flame speed to assume higher values when evaluated at the upstream boundary of the preheat zone instead of the reaction zone. Recent data on flame speed including the present ones are then examined from the unified viewpoint of flame stretch, leading to satisfactory resolution of the discrepancies between them. The present study also proposes a methodology of determining the laminar flame speeds by using the stagnation flame and linearly extrapolating the data to zero stretch rate.

  2. Three dimensional breakdown of an impulsively forced laminar separation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelis, Theodoros; Kotsonis, Marios

    2016-11-01

    The spatio-temporal behaviour of a short laminar separation bubble is investigated experimentally. The bubble develops on a flat plate driven by an adverse pressure gradient wall at Reynolds number based on displacement thickness at separation of Reδs* = 975 . The boundary layer is impulsively forced by means of AC dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator located upstream of the separation point. The full four-dimensional flow development is captured by time resolved tomographic PIV measurements using the multi-pass light amplification technique. Immediately after forcing, a convectively unstable wave packet emerges due to selective amplification of modes which interacts with the reattachment process. The interaction becomes non-linear at the reattachment region, where Λ structures typical of laminar separation bubbles are captured before the occurrence of breakdown. The structures and breakdown are characterised in terms of temporal evolution, spanwise coherence and energy budget. The diminishing of Λ structures triggers a sharp reduction in size of the separation bubble by interfering with the natural shedding process. As a result, the bubble significantly elongates without shedding undergoing bursting before recovering to its unperturbed state.

  3. Transmembrane semaphorin signalling controls laminar stratification in the mammalian retina.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Ryota L; Nguyen-Ba-Charvet, Kim T; Parray, Aijaz; Badea, Tudor C; Chédotal, Alain; Kolodkin, Alex L

    2011-02-10

    In the vertebrate retina, establishment of precise synaptic connections among distinct retinal neuron cell types is critical for processing visual information and for accurate visual perception. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), amacrine cells and bipolar cells establish stereotypic neurite arborization patterns to form functional neural circuits in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), a laminar region that is conventionally divided into five major parallel sublaminae. However, the molecular mechanisms governing distinct retinal subtype targeting to specific sublaminae within the IPL remain to be elucidated. Here we show that the transmembrane semaphorin Sema6A signals through its receptor PlexinA4 (PlexA4) to control lamina-specific neuronal stratification in the mouse retina. Expression analyses demonstrate that Sema6A and PlexA4 proteins are expressed in a complementary fashion in the developing retina: Sema6A in most ON sublaminae and PlexA4 in OFF sublaminae of the IPL. Mice with null mutations in PlexA4 or Sema6A exhibit severe defects in stereotypic lamina-specific neurite arborization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing dopaminergic amacrine cells, intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) and calbindin-positive cells in the IPL. Sema6A and PlexA4 genetically interact in vivo for the regulation of dopaminergic amacrine cell laminar targeting. Therefore, neuronal targeting to subdivisions of the IPL in the mammalian retina is directed by repulsive transmembrane guidance cues present on neuronal processes.

  4. Transmembrane semaphorin signaling controls laminar stratification in the mammalian retina

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Ryota L.; Nguyen-Ba-Charvet, Kim T.; Parray, Aijaz; Badea, Tudor C.; Chédotal, Alain; Kolodkin, Alex L.

    2010-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, establishment of precise synaptic connections among distinct retinal neuron cell types is critical for processing visual information and for accurate visual perception. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), amacrine cells, and bipolar cells establish stereotypic neurite arborization patterns to form functional neural circuits in the inner plexiform layer (IPL)1–3: a laminar region that is conventionally divided into five major parallel sublaminae1,2. However, the molecular mechanisms governing distinct retinal subtype targeting to specific sublaminae within the IPL remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that the transmembrane semaphorin Sema6A signals through its receptor PlexinA4 (PlexA4) to control lamina-specific neuronal stratification in the mouse retina. Expression analyses demonstrate that Sema6A and PlexA4 proteins are expressed in a complementary fashion in the developing retina: Sema6A in most ON sublaminae and PlexA4 in OFF sublaminae of the IPL. Mice with null mutations in PlexA4 or Sema6A exhibit severe defects in stereotypic lamina-specific neurite arborization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing dopaminergic amacrine cells, intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs), and calbindin-positive cells in the IPL. Sema6A and PlexA4 genetically interact in vivo with respect to the regulation of dopaminergic amacrine cell laminar targeting. Therefore, neuronal targeting to subdivisions of the IPL in the mammalian retina is directed by repulsive transmembrane guidance cues present on neuronal processes. PMID:21270798

  5. Laminar-flow fluid mixer for fast fluorescence kinetics studies.

    PubMed Central

    Pabit, Suzette A; Hagen, Stephen J

    2002-01-01

    The ability to mix aqueous liquids on microsecond time scales, while consuming minimal amounts of sample and maintaining UV-visible optical access to the mixing region, is highly desirable for a range of biophysical studies of fast protein and nucleic acid interactions and folding. We have constructed a laminar coaxial jet mixer that allows the measurement of UV-excited fluorescence from nanoliter and microliter quantities of material, mixed at microsecond rates. The mixer injects a narrow cylindrical stream (radius a < 1 microm) of fluorescent sample into a larger flow of diluting buffer that moves through a capillary (100 microm i.d.) at a speed approximately 20 cm/s, under laminar flow conditions (Re approximately equal to 14). Construction from a fused silica capillary allows the laser excitation (at 266 nm) and detection (at 350 nm) of tryptophan fluorescence at reasonably low working concentrations, without interference from background fluorescence. Using this mixer we have measured sub-millisecond fluorescence quenching kinetics while consuming fluorescent sample at rates no greater than 6 nl/s. Consumption of the diluting buffer is also very modest (approximately 1-3 microl/s) in comparison with other rapid mixer designs. PMID:12414719

  6. Airborne drug levels in a laminar-flow hood

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberg, M.L.; Quinn, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The airborne levels of fluorouracil and cefazolin sodium injections after manipulation of these drug products inside a horizontal laminar-flow hood were measured. The Biotest RCS Centrifugal Air Sampler, generally used to measure microbial levels in air, was adapted with a paper filter to measure drug levels in air. In each of nine trials, five ampuls of fluorouracil were opened in the hood and transferred to empty vials. Likewise, in each of nine trials, 50 vials of cefazolin sodium 1 g were reconstituted and transferred to small-volume i.v. solutions. Drug manipulations were performed between the hood's filter and the Biotest, which was placed inside the hood. Drug collected on the filter in the Biotest was assayed with ultraviolet spectrophotometry after extraction. The range of fluorouracil collected by the Biotest was from 0 to 14 microgram, corresponding to 0-0.07 microgram/liter of sample air. Recovered cefazolin sodium ranged from 28 to 131 microgram, or 0.02-0.11 microgram/liter of sampled air. Following routine manipulation of drug products in a laminar-flow hood, the drug can contaminate, the air flowing over the product.

  7. Airborne drug levels in a laminar-flow hood.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, M L; Quinn, M J

    1981-09-01

    The airborne levels of fluorouracil and cefazolin sodium injections after manipulation of these drug products inside a horizontal laminar-flow hood were measured. The Biotest RCS Centrifugal Air Sampler, generally used to measure microbial levels in air, was adapted with a paper filter to measure drug levels in air. In each of nine trials, five ampuls of fluorouracil were opened in the hood and transferred to empty vials. Likewise, in each of nine trials, 50 vials of cefazolin sodium 1 g were reconstituted and transferred to small-volume i.v. solutions. Drug manipulations were performed between the hood's filter and the Biotest, which was placed inside the hood. Drug collected on the filter in the Biotest was assayed with ultraviolet spectrophotometry after extraction. The range of fluorouracil collected by the Biotest was from 0 to 14 microgram, corresponding to 0-0.07 microgram/liter of sample air. Recovered cefazolin sodium ranged from 28 to 131 microgram, or 0.02-0.11 microgram/liter of sampled air. Following routine manipulation of drug products in a laminar-flow hood, the drug can contaminate, the air flowing over the product.

  8. Laminar flow over a backward-facing step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebib, A.; Homsy, G. M.

    1984-09-01

    The steady, two-dimensional flow of an incompressible fluid over a backward-facing step is computed by a finite difference procedure. The flow depends upon the Reynolds number, Re, based on the inlet flow conditions, and on the dimensionless step height, s. Spatially resolved, accurate solutions are obtained for a range of s for Reynolds numbers as high as 350. The primary flow feature is a steady separated region immediately in back of the step. Additionally, a secondary separated vortex can appear on the top, straight wall of the channel. A region is delineated in the (s,Re) plane where laminar separation occurs on the top surface. It is concluded that there is no flow reversal on the top surface if Re is less than about 200, regardless of the step height s. The occurrence of this secondary vortex is associated with laminar separation of the top boundary layer produced by an adverse pressure gradient along the top of the channel.

  9. Superhydrophobic drag reduction in laminar flows: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choongyeop; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2016-12-01

    A gas in between micro- or nanostructures on a submerged superhydrophobic (SHPo) surface allows the liquid on the structures to flow with an effective slip. If large enough, this slippage may entail a drag reduction appreciable for many flow systems. However, the large discrepancies among the slippage levels reported in the literature have led to a widespread misunderstanding on the drag-reducing ability of SHPo surfaces. Today we know that the amount of slip, generally quantified with a slip length, is mainly determined by the structural features of SHPo surfaces, such as the pitch, solid fraction, and pattern type, and further affected by secondary factors, such as the state of the liquid-gas interface. Reviewing the experimental data of laminar flows in the literature comprehensively and comparing them with the theoretical predictions, we provide a global picture of the liquid slip on structured surfaces to assist in rational design of SHPo surfaces for drag reduction. Because the trapped gas, called plastron, vanishes along with its slippage effect in most application conditions, lastly we discuss the recent efforts to prevent its loss. This review is limited to laminar flows, for which the SHPo drag reduction is reasonably well understood.

  10. Streamwise Vorticity Generation in Laminar and Turbulent Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, Aodeji O.; Wilson, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    Complex streamwise vorticity fields are observed in the evolution of non-circular jets. Generation mechanisms are investigated via Reynolds-averaged (RANS), large-eddy (LES) and direct numerical (DNS) simulations of laminar and turbulent rectangular jets. Complex vortex interactions are found in DNS of laminar jets, but axis-switching is observed only when a single instability mode is present in the incoming mixing layer. With several modes present, the structures are not coherent and no axis-switching occurs, RANS computations also produce no axis-switching. On the other hand, LES of high Reynolds number turbulent jets produce axis-switching even for cases with several instability modes in the mixing layer. Analysis of the source terms of the mean streamwise vorticity equation through post-processing of the instantaneous results shows that, complex interactions of gradients of the normal and shear Reynolds stresses are responsible for the generation of streamwise vorticity which leads to axis-switching. RANS computations confirm these results. k - epsilon turbulence model computations fail to reproduce the phenomenon, whereas algebraic Reynolds stress model (ASM) computations, in which the secondary normal and shear stresses are computed explicitly, succeeded in reproducing the phenomenon accurately.

  11. Discussion of test results in the design of laminar airfoils for competition gliders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrowski, J.; Skrzynski, S.; Litwinczyk, M.

    1980-01-01

    The deformation of flow in the boundary layer and the local separation of a laminar layer (laminar bubbles) from various airfoils were investigated. These phenomena were classified and their influence is discussed. Various aerodynamic characteristics are discussed and the principles for prescribing pressure distribution to attain a high value of c sub z max with a possibly low drag coefficient are described.

  12. Computer program for calculating laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers for a compressible axisymmetric flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J. A.; Gregg, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Finite-difference computer program calculates viscous compressible boundary layer flow over either planar or axisymmetric surfaces. Flow may be initially laminar and progress through transitional zone to fully turbulent flow, or it may remain laminar, depending on imposed boundary conditions, laws of viscosity, and numerical solution of momentum and energy equations.

  13. A Realistic Theoretical Model for Laminar Flow over a Flat Plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-14

    laminar flow over a flat plate. For 111= I and a= I, thi s equation reduces to the Hiemenz [6] equation for laminar 2-D stagnation point flow. 6...New York, 1979. [6] K. Hiemenz , "Die Grenzschicht an eimen in den gleichformigen Fllissigkeitsstrom eingetauchten geraden Kreiszylinder," Dingler’s

  14. Nasal Airflow Measured by Rhinomanometry Correlates with FeNO in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jong-Hau; Liu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Jiunn-Ren; Dai, Zen-Kong

    2016-01-01

    Background Rhinitis and asthma share similar immunopathological features. Rhinomanometry is an important test used to assess nasal function and spirometry is an important tool used in asthmatic children. The degree to which the readouts of these tests are correlated has yet to be established. We sought to clarify the relationship between rhinomanometry measurements, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and spirometric measurements in asthmatic children. Methods Patients’ inclusion criteria: age between 5 and 18 years, history of asthma with nasal symptoms, and no anatomical deformities. All participants underwent rhinomanometric evaluations and pulmonary function and FeNO tests. Results Total 84 children were enrolled. By rhinomanometry, the degree of nasal obstruction was characterized as follows: (1) no obstruction in 33 children, (2) slight obstruction in 29 children, and (3) moderate obstruction in 22 children. FeNO was significantly lower in patients without obstruction than those with slight or moderate obstruction. Dividing patients according to ATS Clinical Practice Guidelines regarding FeNO, patients < 12 years with FeNO > 20 ppb had a lower total nasal airflow rate than those with FeNO < 20 ppb. Patients ≥ 12 years with FeNO > 25 ppb had a lower total nasal airflow rate than those with FeNO < 25 ppb. Conclusions Higher FeNO was associated with a lower nasal airflow and higher nasal resistance. This supports a relationship between upper and lower airway inflammation, as assessed by rhinomanometry and FeNO. The results suggest that rhinomanometry may be integrated as part of the functional assessment of asthma. PMID:27792747

  15. Porous silver nanosheets: a novel sensing material for nanoscale and microscale airflow sensors.

    PubMed

    Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Zhao, Boxin; Zhou, Norman Y

    2015-11-06

    Fabrication of nanoscale and microscale machines and devices is one of the goals of nanotechnology. For this purpose, different materials, methods, and devices should be developed. Among them, various types of miniaturized sensors are required to build the nanoscale and microscale systems. In this research, we introduce a new nanoscale sensing material, silver nanosheets, for applications such as nanoscale and microscale gas flow sensors. The silver nanosheets were synthesized through the reduction of silver ions by ascorbic acid in the presence of poly(methacrylic acid) as a capping agent, followed by the growth of silver in the shape of hexagonal and triangular nanoplates, and self-assembly and nanojoining of these structural blocks. At the end of this process, the synthesized nanosheets were floated on the solution. Then, their electrical and thermal stability was demonstrated at 120 °C, and their atmospheric corrosion resistance was clarified at the same temperature range by thermogravimetric analysis. We employed the silver nanosheets in fabricating airflow sensors by scooping out the nanosheets by means of a sensor substrate, drying them at room temperature, and then annealing them at 300 °C for one hour. The fabricated sensors were tested for their ability to measure airflow in the range of 1 to 5 ml min(-1), which resulted in a linear response to the airflow with a response and recovery time around 2 s. Moreover, continuous dynamic testing demonstrated that the response of the sensors was stable and hence the sensors can be used for a long time without detectable drift in their response.

  16. Porous silver nanosheets: a novel sensing material for nanoscale and microscale airflow sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Zhao, Boxin; Zhou, Norman Y.

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication of nanoscale and microscale machines and devices is one of the goals of nanotechnology. For this purpose, different materials, methods, and devices should be developed. Among them, various types of miniaturized sensors are required to build the nanoscale and microscale systems. In this research, we introduce a new nanoscale sensing material, silver nanosheets, for applications such as nanoscale and microscale gas flow sensors. The silver nanosheets were synthesized through the reduction of silver ions by ascorbic acid in the presence of poly(methacrylic acid) as a capping agent, followed by the growth of silver in the shape of hexagonal and triangular nanoplates, and self-assembly and nanojoining of these structural blocks. At the end of this process, the synthesized nanosheets were floated on the solution. Then, their electrical and thermal stability was demonstrated at 120 °C, and their atmospheric corrosion resistance was clarified at the same temperature range by thermogravimetric analysis. We employed the silver nanosheets in fabricating airflow sensors by scooping out the nanosheets by means of a sensor substrate, drying them at room temperature, and then annealing them at 300 °C for one hour. The fabricated sensors were tested for their ability to measure airflow in the range of 1 to 5 ml min-1, which resulted in a linear response to the airflow with a response and recovery time around 2 s. Moreover, continuous dynamic testing demonstrated that the response of the sensors was stable and hence the sensors can be used for a long time without detectable drift in their response.

  17. Robust Unidirectional Airflow through Avian Lungs: New Insights from a Piecewise Linear Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Emily P.; Ben-Tal, Alona

    2016-01-01

    Avian lungs are remarkably different from mammalian lungs in that air flows unidirectionally through rigid tubes in which gas exchange occurs. Experimental observations have been able to determine the pattern of gas flow in the respiratory system, but understanding how the flow pattern is generated and determining the factors contributing to the observed dynamics remains elusive. It has been hypothesized that the unidirectional flow is due to aerodynamic valving during inspiration and expiration, resulting from the anatomical structure and the fluid dynamics involved, however, theoretical studies to back up this hypothesis are lacking. We have constructed a novel mathematical model of the airflow in the avian respiratory system that can produce unidirectional flow which is robust to changes in model parameters, breathing frequency and breathing amplitude. The model consists of two piecewise linear ordinary differential equations with lumped parameters and discontinuous, flow-dependent resistances that mimic the experimental observations. Using dynamical systems techniques and numerical analysis, we show that unidirectional flow can be produced by either effective inspiratory or effective expiratory valving, but that both inspiratory and expiratory valving are required to produce the high efficiencies of flows observed in avian lungs. We further show that the efficacy of the inspiratory and expiratory valving depends on airsac compliances and airflow resistances that may not be located in the immediate area of the valving. Our model provides additional novel insights; for example, we show that physiologically realistic resistance values lead to efficiencies that are close to maximum, and that when the relative lumped compliances of the caudal and cranial airsacs vary, it affects the timing of the airflow across the gas exchange area. These and other insights obtained by our study significantly enhance our understanding of the operation of the avian respiratory

  18. Instrumentation and measurement of airflow and temperature in attics fitted with ridge and soffit vents

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, M.I.; Brenner, R.J.

    1998-12-31

    This study established a research facility where airflow velocities, temperature, and differential pressures could be measured at the ridge of an attic. Following the construction of a test building, sensors were constructed, calibrated, and installed inside the attic. Paired tests were performed for three different ridge vent treatments; two were rolled type vents and one was a baffled vent. When both attics were fitted with the same ridge vent, the airspeed and differential pressure profiles at the ridge were very similar for both attics, indicating that any observed differences in airspeed and differential pressure were caused by the ridge vent treatment used. The baffled vent and rolled vents were then installed on the ridge of the west and east attics, respectively. The data demonstrated that the baffled ridge vent provided a minimum of twice the ridge airspeed of the rolled vents, when all wind conditions were considered. On the day selected to study the direction of the airflows at the ridge, the baffled vent had airflow speeds at the ridge similar to the rolled vent without fabric backing. The baffled vent allowed air to come out of the attic through both sides of the ridge (negative differential pressures on both sides), while the rolled vent without fabric backing caused air to enter through the south side of the ridge and exit through the north side (positive differential pressure on the south side and negative differential pressure on the north), in effect short-circuiting the vent. The fabric-backed rolled vent allowed attic air to come out of the attic through both sides of the ridge, as did the baffled vent, but the airspeed was slower. The baffled vent was the one with the highest airspeed at the ridge and also had both sides of the vent under negative differential pressure, providing the most effective ventilation.

  19. Variability and reversibility of the slow and forced vital capacity in chronic airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gove, R I; Shepherd, J; Burge, P S

    1987-04-01

    The variability of the forced (FVC) and slow vital capacity (SVC) manoeuvres were compared in 33 adult patients with chronic airflow obstruction. The reversibility of the two manoeuvres to nebulized salbutamol were compared in 18 of the patients. Both manoeuvres had equally small variances both before and after bronchodilator. The degree of reversibility of the FVC was however significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than the SVC. Although both measurements are equally variable, the FVC has a greater capacity for reversibility, which may have clinical significance.

  20. Single-stage electrohydraulic servosystem for actuating on airflow valve with frequencies to 500 hertz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, J. A., Jr.; Mehmed, O.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    An airflow valve and its electrohydraulic actuation servosystem are described. The servosystem uses a high-power, single-stage servovalve to obtain a dynamic response beyond that of systems designed with conventional two-stage servovalves. The electrohydraulic servosystem is analyzed and the limitations imposed on system performance by such nonlinearities as signal saturations and power limitations are discussed. Descriptions of the mechanical design concepts and developmental considerations are included. Dynamic data, in the form of sweep-frequency test results, are presented and comparison with analytical results obtained with an analog computer model is made.

  1. Effects of CT resolution and radiodensity threshold on the CFD evaluation of nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Quadrio, Maurizio; Pipolo, Carlotta; Corti, Stefano; Messina, Francesco; Pesci, Chiara; Saibene, Alberto M; Zampini, Samuele; Felisati, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    The article focuses on the robustness of a CFD-based procedure for the quantitative evaluation of the nasal airflow. CFD ability to yield robust results with respect to the unavoidable procedural and modeling inaccuracies must be demonstrated to allow this tool to become part of the clinical practice in this field. The present article specifically addresses the sensitivity of the CFD procedure to the spatial resolution of the available CT scans, as well as to the choice of the segmentation level of the CT images. We found no critical problems concerning these issues; nevertheless, the choice of the segmentation level is potentially delicate if carried out by an untrained operator.

  2. Relation of pulmonary vessel size to transfer factor in subjects with airflow obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Musk, A.W.

    1983-11-01

    In a group of 61 consecutive patients undergoing assessment of airflow obstruction, a significant linear relation was demonstrated between measurements of the diameter of the midzonal pulmonary vessels on the plain chest radiographs and transfer factor (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Since reduction in transfer factor has been shown to relate to structural emphysema, reduction in midzone vessel caliber implies the same. However, in the individual patient neither the transfer factor nor structural emphysema can be reliably predicted from midzone vessel diameters alone.

  3. Using Coupled Energy, Airflow and IAQ Software (TRNSYS/CONTAM) to Evaluate Building Ventilation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dols, W. Stuart.; Emmerich, Steven J.; Polidoro, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Building energy analysis tools are available in many forms that provide the ability to address a broad spectrum of energy-related issues in various combinations. Often these tools operate in isolation from one another, making it difficult to evaluate the interactions between related phenomena and interacting systems, forcing oversimplified assumptions to be made about various phenomena that could otherwise be addressed directly with another tool. One example of such interdependence is the interaction between heat transfer, inter-zone airflow and indoor contaminant transport. In order to better address these interdependencies, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed an updated version of the multi-zone airflow and contaminant transport modelling tool, CONTAM, along with a set of utilities to enable coupling of the full CONTAM model with the TRNSYS simulation tool in a more seamless manner and with additional capabilities that were previously not available. This paper provides an overview of these new capabilities and applies them to simulating a medium-size office building. These simulations address the interaction between whole-building energy, airflow and contaminant transport in evaluating various ventilation strategies including natural and demand-controlled ventilation. Practical Application CONTAM has been in practical use for many years allowing building designers, as well as IAQ and ventilation system analysts, to simulate the complex interactions between building physical layout and HVAC system configuration in determining building airflow and contaminant transport. It has been widely used to design and analyse smoke management systems and evaluate building performance in response to chemical, biological and radiological events. While CONTAM has been used to address design and performance of buildings implementing energy conserving ventilation systems, e.g., natural and hybrid, this new coupled simulation capability will

  4. Gas crossflow effects on airflow through a wire-form transpiration cooling material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A. S.; Russell, L. M.; Poferl, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental analysis was conducted to determine the effects of gas stream flow parallel to the discharging surface on the flow characteristics of a wire-form porous material. Flow data were obtained over a range of transpiration airflow rates from 0.129 to 0.695/grams per second-centimeter squared and external gas stream Mach numbers from 0 to 0.46. The conclusion was drawn that the flow characteristics of the wire cloth were not significantly affected by the external gas flows.

  5. Emphysema and Airflow Obstruction in Non-Smoking Coal Miners with Pneumoconiosis

    PubMed Central

    Altınsoy, Bülent; Öz, İbrahim İlker; Erboy, Fatma; Tor, Meltem; Atalay, Figen

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that functional impairment in subjects with coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) is principally due to emphysema and airflow obstruction, rather than underlying restrictive mechanisms. However, cigarette smoking has remained a major confounder. The aim of this study was to assess whether coal dust exposure was associated with emphysema and/or airflow obstruction in the absence of smoking history. Material/Method The subjects evaluated for possible pneumoconiosis between 2013 and 2015 were retrospectively enrolled into this study. After excluding those with history of smoking, tuberculosis, or lung cancer, the study population was a total of 57 subjects. The emphysema severity and airflow obstruction were quantified by computed tomographic densitometry analysis and spirometry, respectively. For comparability regarding emphysema, 9 age- and sex-matched nonsmoker (n=9) control subjects without known lung disease were randomly selected from a radiology database. Results Emphysema severity was significantly higher in the CWP group compared with the control group (15% vs. 4%, p<0.001). The median percent emphysema and percentage of those with FEV1/FVC <0.7 was 13% and 37% in subjects with simple CWP and 18% and 67% in subjects with complicated CWP, respectively. Percent emphysema and Perc15 (15th percentile of the attenuation curve) was correlated with FEV1/FVC (r=−0.45, r=−0.47) and FEF25–75 (r=−0.36, r=−0.56), respectively, but not with perfusion score. A linear regression analysis showed that factors associated with emphysema were FEV1/FVC (β=−0.24, p=0.009) and large opacity (β=−3.97, p=0.079), and factors associated with FEV1/FVC were percent emphysema (β=−0.51, p=0.018) and tenure (β=−0.63, p=0.044). Conclusions Our results support the observation that coal dust exposure is associated with emphysema and airflow obstruction, independent of smoking status. PMID:27956734

  6. Oxidative stress in hoof laminar tissue of horses with lethal gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Laskoski, Luciane Maria; Dittrich, Rosangela Locatelli; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo; Brum, Juliana Sperotto; Brandão, Yara; Brito, Harald Fernando Vicente; de Sousa, Renato Silva

    2016-03-01

    Tissue damage caused by oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases in animals and man, and is believed to play a role in the development of laminitis in horses. The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress associated with laminar lesions in horses with lethal gastrointestinal disorders. Laminar tissue samples of the hoof of 30 horses were used. Tissue samples were divided as follows: six healthy horses (control group-CG), and 24 horses that died after complications of gastrointestinal diseases (group suffering from gastrointestinal disorders-GDG). Superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and nitrotyrosine immunostaining and the severity of laminar lesions were evaluated. Presence of laminar lesions and immunostaining for nitrotyrosine and SOD2 were only evident in horses from the GDG group. Thus, oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of laminar lesions secondary to gastrointestinal disorders.

  7. Fine-scale flight strategies of gulls in urban airflows indicate risk and reward in city living.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Emily L C; Williamson, Cara; Windsor, Shane P

    2016-09-26

    Birds modulate their flight paths in relation to regional and global airflows in order to reduce their travel costs. Birds should also respond to fine-scale airflows, although the incidence and value of this remains largely unknown. We resolved the three-dimensional trajectories of gulls flying along a built-up coastline, and used computational fluid dynamic models to examine how gulls reacted to airflows around buildings. Birds systematically altered their flight trajectories with wind conditions to exploit updraughts over features as small as a row of low-rise buildings. This provides the first evidence that human activities can change patterns of space-use in flying birds by altering the profitability of the airscape. At finer scales still, gulls varied their position to select a narrow range of updraught values, rather than exploiting the strongest updraughts available, and their precise positions were consistent with a strategy to increase their velocity control in gusty conditions. Ultimately, strategies such as these could help unmanned aerial vehicles negotiate complex airflows. Overall, airflows around fine-scale features have profound implications for flight control and energy use, and consideration of this could lead to a paradigm-shift in the way ecologists view the urban environment.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  8. Fine-scale flight strategies of gulls in urban airflows indicate risk and reward in city living

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Emily L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Birds modulate their flight paths in relation to regional and global airflows in order to reduce their travel costs. Birds should also respond to fine-scale airflows, although the incidence and value of this remains largely unknown. We resolved the three-dimensional trajectories of gulls flying along a built-up coastline, and used computational fluid dynamic models to examine how gulls reacted to airflows around buildings. Birds systematically altered their flight trajectories with wind conditions to exploit updraughts over features as small as a row of low-rise buildings. This provides the first evidence that human activities can change patterns of space-use in flying birds by altering the profitability of the airscape. At finer scales still, gulls varied their position to select a narrow range of updraught values, rather than exploiting the strongest updraughts available, and their precise positions were consistent with a strategy to increase their velocity control in gusty conditions. Ultimately, strategies such as these could help unmanned aerial vehicles negotiate complex airflows. Overall, airflows around fine-scale features have profound implications for flight control and energy use, and consideration of this could lead to a paradigm-shift in the way ecologists view the urban environment. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528784

  9. Airflow behavior changes in upper airway caused by different head and neck positions: Comparison by computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Huang, Shi-Wei; Chen, Lian-Hua; Qi, Yang; Qiu, Yi-Min; Li, Shi-Tong

    2017-02-08

    The feasibility of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to evaluate airflow characteristics in different head and neck positions has not been established. This study compared the changes in volume and airflow behavior of the upper airway by CFD simulation to predict the influence of anatomical and physiological airway changes due to different head-neck positions on mechanical ventilation. One awake volunteer with no risk of difficult airway underwent computed tomography in neutral position, extension position (both head and neck extended), and sniffing position (head extended and neck flexed). Three-dimensional airway models of the upper airway were reconstructed. The total volume (V) and narrowest area (Amin) of the airway models were measured. CFD simulation with an Spalart-Allmaras model was performed to characterize airflow behavior in neutral, extension, and sniffing positions of closed-mouth and open-mouth ventilation. The comparison result for V was neutral airflow rate. In sniffing position, pressure differences decreased and velocity remained almost constant. Recirculation airflow was generated near the subglottic region in neutral and extension positions. Sniffing position improves airway patency by increasing airway volume and decreasing airway resistance, suggesting that sniffing position may be the optimal choice for mask ventilation.

  10. Suppression of Soot Formation and Shapes of Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    Laminar nonpremixed (diffusion) flames are of interest because they provide model flame systems that are far more tractable for analysis and experiments than practical turbulent flames. In addition, many properties of laminar diffusion flames are directly relevant to turbulent diffusion flames using laminar flamelet concepts. Finally, laminar diffusion flame shapes have been of interest since the classical study of Burke and Schumann because they involve a simple nonintrusive measurement that is convenient for evaluating flame shape predictions. Motivated by these observations, the shapes of round hydrocarbon-fueled laminar jet diffusion flames were considered, emphasizing conditions where effects of buoyancy are small because most practical flames are not buoyant. Earlier studies of shapes of hydrocarbon-fueled nonbuoyant laminar jet diffusion flames considered combustion in still air and have shown that flames at the laminar smoke point are roughly twice as long as corresponding soot-free (blue) flames and have developed simple ways to estimate their shapes. Corresponding studies of hydrocarbon-fueled weakly-buoyant laminar jet diffusion flames in coflowing air have also been reported. These studies were limited to soot-containing flames at laminar smoke point conditions and also developed simple ways to estimate their shapes but the behavior of corresponding soot-free flames has not been addressed. This is unfortunate because ways of selecting flame flow properties to reduce soot concentrations are of great interest; in addition, soot-free flames are fundamentally important because they are much more computationally tractable than corresponding soot-containing flames. Thus, the objectives of the present investigation were to observe the shapes of weakly-buoyant laminar jet diffusion flames at both soot-free and smoke point conditions and to use the results to evaluate simplified flame shape models. The present discussion is brief.

  11. Airflow and thrust calibration of an F100 engine, S/N P680059, at selected flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Lee, D.; Rodriguez, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    An airflow and thrust calibration of an F100 engine, S/N P680059, was conducted to study airframe propulsion system integration losses in turbofan-powered high-performance aircraft. The tests were conducted with and without thrust augmentation for a variety of simulated flight conditions with emphasis on the transonic regime. The resulting corrected airflow data generalized into one curve with corrected fan speed while corrected gross thrust increased as simulated flight conditions increased. Overall agreement between measured data and computed results was 1 percent for corrected airflow and -1 1/2 percent for gross thrust. The results of an uncertainty analysis are presented for both parameters at each simulated flight condition.

  12. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xenofos, George; Forbes, John; Farrow, John; Williams, Robert; Tyler, Tom; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2003-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a fill-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrUmentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors. The test rig provided steady and unsteady pressure data necessary to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The rig also helped characterize the turbine blade loading conditions. Test and CFD analysis results are to be presented in another JANNAF paper.

  13. Visualization of nasal airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. J. M.; Mitchell, G.; Bailie, N.; Thornhill, D.; Watterson, J.; Kimbell, J. S.

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between airflow patterns in the nasal cavity and nasal function is poorly understood. This paper reports an experimental study of the interplay between symptoms and airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis. This pathology is characterized by mucosal dryness, fetor, progressive atrophy of anatomical structures, a spacious nasal cavity, and a paradoxical sensation of nasal congestion. A physical replica of the patient's nasal geometry was made and particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize and measure the flow field. The nasal replica was based on computed tomography (CT) scans of the patient and was built in three steps: three-dimensional reconstruction of the CT scans; rapid prototyping of a cast; and sacrificial use of the cast to form a model of the nasal passage in clear silicone. Flow patterns were measured by running a water-glycerol mixture through the replica and evaluating the displacement of particles dispersed in the liquid using PIV. The water-glycerol flow rate used corresponded to an air flow rate representative of a human breathing at rest. The trajectory of the flow observed in the left passage of the nose (more affected by atrophic rhinitis) differed markedly from what is considered normal, and was consistent with patterns of epithelial damage observed in cases of the condition. The data are also useful for validation of computational fluid dynamics predictions.

  14. Scanning LDV for vibration measurement of filiform hairs in crickets in response to induced airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santulli, C.; Finn, T. J.; Seidel, R.; Jeronimidis, G.

    2006-06-01

    Cercal hairs represent in cricket a wind sensitive escape system, able to detect the airflow generated from predating species. These sensors have been studied as a biomimetic concept to allow the development of MEMS for biomedical use. In particular, the behaviour of the hairs, including airflow response, resonant frequency and damping, has been investigated up to a frequency of 20 kHz. The microscopic nature of the hairs, the complex vibrations of excited hairs and the high damping of the system suggested that the use of Laser Doppler vibrometry could possibly improve the test performance. Two types of tests were performed: in the first case the hairs were indirectly excited using the signal obtained from a vibrating aluminium plate, whilst in the second case the hairs were directly excited using a white noise chirp. The results from the first experiment indicated that the hairs move in-phase with the exciting signal up to frequencies in the order of 10 kHz, responding to the vibration modes of the plate with a signal attenuation of 12 to 20 dB. The chirp experiment revealed the presence of rotational resonant modes at 6850 and 11300 Hz. No clear effect of hair length was perceivable on the vibration response of the filiform sensors. The obtained results proved promising to support the mechanical and vibration characterisation of the hairs and suggest that scanning Laser vibrometry can be used extensively on highly dampened biological materials.

  15. Preparation of CNTs rope by electrostatic and airflow field carding with high speed rotor spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, J. F.; Liu, J. F.; Zou, J. T.; Dai, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    The large-scale preparation of disorderly CNTs with a length larger than 3 mm using CVD method were aligned in polymer monomer airflow fields in a quartz tube with an internal diameter of 200 μm and a length of 1.5 m. The airflow aligned CNTs at the output end of the pipe connects to a copper nozzle with an electrostatic field of applied voltage 5x105 V/m and space length of 0.03 m, which were further realigned using via electrostatic spinning. End to end spray into the high speed rotor twisted single-stranded carbon nanotubes threads via rotor spinning technology. The essential component of this technique was the use of carbon nanotubes at a high rotory speed (200000 r/min) combined with the double twisting of filaments that were twisted together to increase the radial friction of the entire section. SEM micrography showed that carbon nanotube thread has a uniform diameter of approximately 200 μm. Its tensile strength was tested up to 2.7 Gpa, with a length of several meters.

  16. A Numerical Model of Viscoelastic Layer Entrainment by Airflow in Cough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitran, Sorin M.

    2008-07-01

    Coughing is an alternative mode of ensuring mucus clearance in the lung when normal cilia induced flow breaks down. A numerical model of this process is presented with the following aspects. (1) A portion of the airway comprising the first three bronchus generations is modeled as radially reinforced elastic tubes. Elasticity equations are solved to predict airway deformation under effect of airway pressure. (2) The compressible, turbulent flow induced by rapid lung contraction is modeled by direct numerical simulation for Reynolds numbers in the range 5,000-10,000 and by Large Eddy Simulation for Reynolds numbers in the range 5,000-40,000. (3) A two-layer model of the airway surface liquid (ASL) covering the airway epithelial layer is used. The periciliary liquid (PCL) in direct contact with the epithelial layer is considered to be a Newtonian fluid. Forces modeling cilia beating can act upon this layer. The mucus layer between the PCL and the interior airflow is modeled as an Oldroyd-B fluid. The overall computation is a fluid-structure interaction simulation that tracks changes in ASL thickness and airway diameters that result from impulsive airflow boundary conditions imposed at bronchi ends. In particular, the amount of mucus that is evacuated from the system is computed as a function of cough intensity and mucus rheological properties.

  17. GOLD criteria overestimate airflow limitation in one-third of cases in the general Finnish population

    PubMed Central

    Timonen, Kirsi; Lindqvist, Ari; Piirilä, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) diagnostic criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) use a fixed threshold of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (<0.70) in post-bronchodilation spirometry to indicate disease, which has been shown to underestimate and overestimate disease prevalence in younger and older adults, respectively, whilst criteria based on reference values have better accuracy. Differences in reference values have limited their use in international studies. However, the new Global Lung Function Initiative reference values (GLI2012) showed FEV1/FVC to be the least dependent on ethnicity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of airflow limitation with GLI2012 and the degree of underdetection or overestimation related to the use of GOLD in the general population. A Finnish population sample of 1323 subjects (45% male) with post-bronchodilation spirometry was studied. 80 subjects (6.0%) and 55 subjects (4.2%) were identified with airflow limitation with GOLD and GLI2012 criteria, respectively. The proportion of overestimation with GOLD increased with age from 25% of cases in 50-year-olds to 54% in 70-year-olds. Using z-score-based grading resulted in more dispersion in severity grading. In conclusion, the GOLD criteria cause a marked overestimation already from 50-year-olds and should be replaced with the GLI2012 criteria to improve diagnostic accuracy. PMID:28053971

  18. Detailed predictions of particle aspiration affected by respiratory inhalation and airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inthavong, Kiao; Ge, Qin Jiang; Li, Xiang Dong; Tu, Ji Yuan

    2012-12-01

    The effects of air pollution found in the atmosphere and exposure to airborne particles are an important problem in the interest of public health. Exposure to contaminated air under different flow conditions is studied using the latest computational fluid dynamics models. For the first time the upper respiratory airway is integrated into a human body and placed inside a room, facing different airflow speeds (0.05-0.35 m s-1). It was found that the airflow streamlines diverged as it approached the human body, at the torso and accelerated upwards past the face and head before separating at the rear of the head, forming recirculating regions in the wake behind the body. Inhaled particles were tracked backwards to determine its origins. At a plane upstream from the face the locations of particles inhaled form a region known as the critical area, which is presented. This study establishes a better understanding of particle inhalability and provides a step towards a more holistic approach in determining inhalation toxicology effects of exposure to atmospheric particles.

  19. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2010-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, and it is also applicable for future propulsion systems research that may use the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. This report describes the flight test preparation and execution, and the local flowfield properties calculated from pressure measurements of the rake. Data from the two Rake Airflow Gage Experiment research flights demonstrate that the F-15B airplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of 2 were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  20. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, an< it is also applicable for future propulsion systems research that may use the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. This report describes the flight test preparation and execution, and the local flow-field properties calculated from pressure measurements of the rake. Data from the two Rake Airflow Gage Experiment research flights demonstrate that the F-15B airplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of -2 deg were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  1. Clearance of viscoelastic mucus simulant with airflow in a rectangular channel, an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Amgad A; Evrensel, Cahit A; Krumpe, Peter E

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of mucus simulant with airflow in a rectangular channel is investigated experimentally. Two different viscoelastic gel mucus simulants are prepared by cross linking Borax with Locust Bean Gum (LBG) solution; liquid-like (LM) with lower storage modulus and semi-solid (SM). The rheological difference between LM and SM represent the qualitative change from liquid-like healthy mucus to the one with higher storage modulus found in a person with lung disease. The study concentrates on the effect of viscoelastic layer thickness and rheology on the wave formation and clearance due to its interaction with airflow. The results indicate that the onset air velocity for wave initiation reduces by increasing layer thickness. This effect is more pronounced for SM. Slowly propagating waves initiate at a lower air velocity for LM compared to SM for thinner layer thickness and this behavior reverses for a thicker layer. Although SM clears at a critical air velocity, LM does not show clearance behavior, defined as separation of layer section from rest and movement in the downstream flow direction. This seems to suggest that thicker mucus with higher elastic modulus, similar to the mucus for a person with lung disease, may clear easier with a two-phase air-liquid flow, as in cough.

  2. Calibration for Thrust and Airflow Measurements in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Roger A.; Wolter, John D.

    2010-01-01

    CE-22 facility procedures and measurements for thrust and airflow calibration obtained with choked-flow ASME nozzles are presented. Six calibration nozzles are used at an inlet total pressure from 20 to 48 psia. Throat areas are from 9.9986 to 39.986 sq. in.. Throat Reynolds number varies from 1.8 to 7.9 million. Nozzle gross thrust coefficient (CFG) uncertainty is 0.25 to 0.75 percent, with smaller uncertainly generally for larger nozzles and higher inlet total pressure. Nozzle discharge coefficient (CDN) uncertainty is 0.15 percent or less for all the data. ASME nozzle calibrations need to be done before and after research model testing to achieve these uncertainties. In addition, facility capability in terms of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and nozzle airflow are determined. Nozzle pressure ratio of 50 or more is obtainable at 40 psia for throat areas between 20 and 30 sq. in.. Also presented are results for two of the ASME nozzles vectored at 10deg, a dead-weight check of the vertical (perpendicular to the jet axis) force measurement, a calibration of load cell forces for the effects of facility tank deflection with tank pressure, and the calibration of the metric-break labyrinth seal.

  3. Collective Odor Source Estimation and Search in Time-Variant Airflow Environments Using Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yang, Wei-Xing; Wang, Yang; Zeng, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the collective odor source localization (OSL) problem in a time-varying airflow environment using mobile robots. A novel OSL methodology which combines odor-source probability estimation and multiple robots’ search is proposed. The estimation phase consists of two steps: firstly, the separate probability-distribution map of odor source is estimated via Bayesian rules and fuzzy inference based on a single robot’s detection events; secondly, the separate maps estimated by different robots at different times are fused into a combined map by way of distance based superposition. The multi-robot search behaviors are coordinated via a particle swarm optimization algorithm, where the estimated odor-source probability distribution is used to express the fitness functions. In the process of OSL, the estimation phase provides the prior knowledge for the searching while the searching verifies the estimation results, and both phases are implemented iteratively. The results of simulations for large-scale advection–diffusion plume environments and experiments using real robots in an indoor airflow environment validate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed OSL method. PMID:22346650

  4. Vibration energy harvesting from an array of flexible stalks exposed to airflow: a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardonio, P.; Zilletti, M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the vibration energy harvesting of a system formed by an array of identical artificial flexible stalks connected by equal axial springs. The stalks are excited in bending by the propagating eddies produced by a mixing layer airflow at the top end of the canopy. The energy harvesting is localised in one pivotal stalk, which is equipped with a harvester. The paper first contrasts the spectra of the energy harvested by this system and by a classical system, formed by an equal array of mechanically uncoupled beams, which are all equipped with harvesters. Since the proposed system forms a periodic structure, this analysis considers variations of the stiffness of the harvesting stalk and of the connecting springs, which may lead to natural frequencies veering and mode localisation effects. Finally, the paper presents a parametric study that highlights how the bending stiffness of the harvesting stalk, the axial stiffness of the connecting springs and the energy absorption coefficient of the harvester influence the energy extraction. The study shows that, particularly in presence of strongly correlated drag force excitations produced on the stalks by the airflow, the energy harvested with the proposed system with a single harvester is comparable to that of a more complex and more expensive system formed by a whole array of harvesters.

  5. GOLD criteria overestimate airflow limitation in one-third of cases in the general Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi; Lindqvist, Ari; Piirilä, Päivi

    2016-10-01

    The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) diagnostic criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) use a fixed threshold of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (<0.70) in post-bronchodilation spirometry to indicate disease, which has been shown to underestimate and overestimate disease prevalence in younger and older adults, respectively, whilst criteria based on reference values have better accuracy. Differences in reference values have limited their use in international studies. However, the new Global Lung Function Initiative reference values (GLI2012) showed FEV1/FVC to be the least dependent on ethnicity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of airflow limitation with GLI2012 and the degree of underdetection or overestimation related to the use of GOLD in the general population. A Finnish population sample of 1323 subjects (45% male) with post-bronchodilation spirometry was studied. 80 subjects (6.0%) and 55 subjects (4.2%) were identified with airflow limitation with GOLD and GLI2012 criteria, respectively. The proportion of overestimation with GOLD increased with age from 25% of cases in 50-year-olds to 54% in 70-year-olds. Using z-score-based grading resulted in more dispersion in severity grading. In conclusion, the GOLD criteria cause a marked overestimation already from 50-year-olds and should be replaced with the GLI2012 criteria to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  6. An experimental relationship between airflow and carbon dioxide concentrations at a rural site.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Isidro A; Sánchez, M Luisa; García, M Ángeles; Pardo, Nuria

    2015-11-15

    The influence of airflow on CO2 concentrations is considered. Two years of measurements recorded with a Picarro G1301 analyser during the night at a rural site were used. Three concentration groups were formed and were related to wind speed. Yearly, directional, and hourly evolution indicated that the isolated contribution of factors affecting CO2 concentrations proves hard to evaluate. Two approaches to airflow based on average wind and a rotating residual were considered. Around two thirds of observations corresponded to anticyclonic rotations. Firstly, circular hodographs of rotating residuals indicated that wavelengths were in the mesoscale range. The greatest concentrations were linked to the lowest wind speeds and no prevailing directions were revealed by the roundness calculation in a spatial analysis using hexagonal cells. Secondly, composite hodographs for anticyclonic turnings were calculated, the greatest concentrations being associated to hodographs with a pronounced curvature. Moreover, these were successfully parameterised using two models. A harmonic function was first used, which satisfactorily fitted hodographs linked to low and intermediate concentrations. The second model initially described the wind direction of residuals with the error function since its change was slow in early and late night-time. Residuals were later parameterised with a second order logarithmic spiral. This procedure successfully fitted the most curved hodographs of low and high concentrations.

  7. Evaluation of an experimental short-length annular combustor: One-side-entry dilution airflow concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.; Biaglow, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate an experimental short-length annular combustor that uses a one-side-entry dilution airflow concept. The combustor design features scoops on the outer liner for controlling the primary- and secondary-zone airflow distribution. Combustor inlet total pressures were limited to 62 N/sq cm (90 psia) with inlet-air temperatures from 590 K (600 F) to 890 K (1150 F). At a diffuser inlet Mach number of 0.25, the exit temperature pattern factor was 0.44 with an average exit temperature of 1436 K (2124 F) and a total pressure loss of 4.3 percent. At a diffuser inlet Mach number of 0.31, the exit temperature pattern factor was reduced to 0.29 with an average exit temperature of 1450 K (2151 F) and a total pressure loss of 6.1 percent. Nominal combustion efficiencies of 100 percent were obtained with the ASTM A-1 fuel. Exhaust gas emissions, smoke, and altitude relight data are included with exit-temperature profiles and distribution patterns.

  8. Predicting Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow over a Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajnarayan, Dev (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A prediction of whether a point on a computer-generated surface is adjacent to laminar or turbulent flow is made using a transition prediction technique. A plurality of boundary-layer properties at the point are obtained from a steady-state solution of a fluid flow in a region adjacent to the point. A plurality of instability modes are obtained, each defined by one or more mode parameters. A vector of regressor weights is obtained for the known instability growth rates in a training dataset. For each instability mode in the plurality of instability modes, a covariance vector is determined, which is the covariance of a predicted local growth rate with the known instability growth rates. Each covariance vector is used with the vector of regressor weights to determine a predicted local growth rate at the point. Based on the predicted local growth rates, an n-factor envelope at the point is determined.

  9. Postfragmentation density function for bacterial aggregates in laminar flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Erin; Bortz, David M.; Dzul, Steve; Solomon, Michael; Younger, John

    2011-04-01

    The postfragmentation probability density of daughter flocs is one of the least well-understood aspects of modeling flocculation. We use three-dimensional positional data of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial flocs in suspension and the knowledge of hydrodynamic properties of a laminar flow field to construct a probability density function of floc volumes after a fragmentation event. We provide computational results which predict that the primary fragmentation mechanism for large flocs is erosion. The postfragmentation probability density function has a strong dependence on the size of the original floc and indicates that most fragmentation events result in clumps of one to three bacteria eroding from the original floc. We also provide numerical evidence that exhaustive fragmentation yields a limiting density inconsistent with the log-normal density predicted in the literature, most likely due to the heterogeneous nature of K. pneumoniae flocs. To support our conclusions, artificial flocs were generated and display similar postfragmentation density and exhaustive fragmentation.

  10. Material development for laminar flow control wing panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    The absence of suitable porous materials or techniques for the economic perforation of surface materials has previously restricted the design of laminar flow control (LFC) wing panels to a consideration of mechanically slotted LFC surfaces. A description is presented of a program which has been conducted to exploit recent advances in materials and manufacturing technology for the fabrication of reliable porous or perforated LFC surface panels compatible with the requirements of subsonic transport aircraft. Attention is given to LFC design criteria, surface materials, surface concepts, the use of microporous composites, perforated composites, and perforated metal. The described program was successful in that fabrication processes were developed for producing predictable perforated panels both of composite and of metal.

  11. Laminar boundary-layer flow of non-Newtonian fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, F. N.; Chern, S. Y.

    1979-01-01

    A solution for the two-dimensional and axisymmetric laminar boundary-layer momentum equation of power-law non-Newtonian fluid is presented. The analysis makes use of the Merk-Chao series solution method originally devised for the flow of Newtonian fluid. The universal functions for the leading term in the series are tabulated for n from 0.2 to 2. Equations governing the universal functions associated with the second and the third terms are provided. The solution together with either Lighthill's formula or Chao's formula constitutes a simple yet general procedure for the calculation of wall shear and surface heat transfer rate. The theory was applied to flows over a circular cylinder and a sphere and the results compared with published data.

  12. Metal-metal laminar composites for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, C. A.; Weeton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to obtain indications of the potentialities of laminar metal-metal composites for elevated temperature use. Most of the composites consisted of multiple layers or laminae of tungsten alternated with laminae of Nichrome V, a ductile, weaker but oxidation-resistant alloy. Composites with 50 volume percent of each phase were tested in tension and stress rupture at temperatures of 871 and 1093 C (1600 and 2000 F) and in impact at 23 and 524 C (73 and 975 F). A tension and a short time stress-rupture test was conducted on specimens of 77 v/o W-Re-Hf-C/23 v/o Inconel alloy 600 at 1093 C (2000 F).

  13. Enhanced photocatalysis in a pilot laminar falling film slurry reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Puma, G.L.; Yue, P.L.

    1999-09-01

    Laminar falling film slurry (LFFS) photocatalytic reactors are one of the most efficient reactor configurations for conducting heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, particularly for wastewater treatment. This paper presents a study on the oxidation of an aqueous salicylic acid waste in a pilot continuous flow LFFS photocatalytic reactor which has an optimum design for light absorption. In conducting the oxidation reaction, heterogeneous photocatalysis was supplemented with other photon-assisted processes. The effect of light intensity, radiation wavelength, oxidizing-enhancing agents, substrate and photocatalyst concentration, and exposure time were studied. A comparison of six different photon-based processes showed that higher oxidation rates of salicylic acid were obtained when there was concomitant photocatalysis, photolysis, and UV peroxidation. The oxidation rates of salicylic acid with this combined process were at least 1 order of magnitude higher in comparison with those for UVA photocatalysis and 3-fold higher in comparison with homogeneous UVC photolysis/UVC peroxidation.

  14. A theoretical study of ignition in the laminar mixing layer

    SciTech Connect

    Law, C.K.; Law, H.K.

    1981-01-01

    The structure of the weakly-reactive states leading to ignition in the laminar mixing layer flow is studied both analytically and numerically. It is shown that the flow consists of a reactive region and a self-similar frozen region separated by a transitional, non-similar frozen region that the reactive region is intrinsically non-similar because of its excessively slow diffusion rate and that the ignition characteristics are primarily governed by the velocity of the hot stream and therefore minimally dependent on the velocity distribution. Fundamental functional groups are identified and an explicit prescription is presented, for large activation energy reactions, for the evaluation of the minimum streamwise distance to achieve ignition.

  15. The analysis of a nonsimilar laminar boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, D. D.; Bertin, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    A computer code is described which yields accurate solutions for a broad range of laminar, nonsimilar boundary layers, providing the inviscid flow field is known. The boundary layer may be subject to mass injection for perfect-gas, nonreacting flows. If no mass injection is present, the code can be used with either perfect-gas or real-gas thermodynamic models. Solutions, ranging from two-dimensional similarity solutions to solutions for the boundary layer on the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry conditions, have been obtained with the code. Comparisons of these solutions, and others, with solutions presented in the literature; and with solutions obtained from other codes, demonstrate the accuracy of the present code.

  16. The numerical calculation of laminar boundary-layer separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.; Steger, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Iterative finite-difference techniques are developed for integrating the boundary-layer equations, without approximation, through a region of reversed flow. The numerical procedures are used to calculate incompressible laminar separated flows and to investigate the conditions for regular behavior at the point of separation. Regular flows are shown to be characterized by an integrable saddle-type singularity that makes it difficult to obtain numerical solutions which pass continuously into the separated region. The singularity is removed and continuous solutions ensured by specifying the wall shear distribution and computing the pressure gradient as part of the solution. Calculated results are presented for several separated flows and the accuracy of the method is verified. A computer program listing and complete solution case are included.

  17. High-flaps for natural laminar flow airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Harry L.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the NACA and NASA low-drag airfoil research is presented with particular emphasis given to the development of mechanical high-lift flap systems and their application to general aviation aircraft. These flap systems include split, plain, single-slotted, and double-slotted trailing-edge flaps plus slat and Krueger leading-edge devices. The recently developed continuous variable-camber high-lift mechanism is also described. The state-of-the-art of theoretical methods for the design and analysis of multi-component airfoils in two-dimensional subsonic flow is discussed, and a detailed description of the Langley MCARF (Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis Program) computer code is presented. The results of a recent effort to design a single- and double-slotted flap system for the NASA high speed natural laminar flow (HSNLF) (1)-0213 airfoil using the MCARF code are presented to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the code.

  18. Computational wing design studies relating to natural laminar flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, Edgar G.

    1986-01-01

    Two research studies are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wing planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first study supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second study. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs.

  19. Lineage-specific laminar organization of cortical GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Ciceri, Gabriele; Dehorter, Nathalie; Sols, Ignasi; Huang, Z Josh; Maravall, Miguel; Marín, Oscar

    2013-09-01

    In the cerebral cortex, pyramidal cells and interneurons are generated in distant germinal zones, and so the mechanisms that control their precise assembly into specific microcircuits remain an enigma. Here we report that cortical interneurons labeled at the clonal level do not distribute randomly but rather have a strong tendency to cluster in the mouse neocortex. This behavior is common to different classes of interneurons, independently of their origin. Interneuron clusters are typically contained within one or two adjacent cortical layers, are largely formed by isochronically generated neurons and populate specific layers, as revealed by unbiased hierarchical clustering methods. Our results suggest that different progenitor cells give rise to interneurons populating infra- and supragranular cortical layers, which challenges current views of cortical neurogenesis. Thus, specific lineages of cortical interneurons seem to be produced to primarily mirror the laminar structure of the cerebral cortex, rather than its columnar organization.

  20. A computationally efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughmer, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this research is to accurately predict the characteristics of the laminar separation bubble and its effects on airfoil performance. To this end, a model of the bubble is under development and will be incorporated in the analysis section of the Eppler and Somers program. As a first step in this direction, an existing bubble model was inserted into the program. It was decided to address the problem of the short bubble before attempting the prediction of the long bubble. In the second place, an integral boundary-layer method is believed more desirable than a finite difference approach. While these two methods achieve similar prediction accuracy, finite-difference methods tend to involve significantly longer computer run times than the integral methods. Finally, as the boundary-layer analysis in the Eppler and Somers program employs the momentum and kinetic energy integral equations, a short-bubble model compatible with these equations is most preferable.

  1. A theoretical study of a laminar diffusion flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frair, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame are discussed, with an emphasis on the behavior of such flames at increasing pressures. The flame-sheet or Burke-Schumann model (in terms of Bessel functions) and various boundary layer numerical solutions are presented and their results compared with experimental data. The most promising theoretical model combines the numerical flow field solution of the Patankar-Spalding computer code with the Pratt-Wormeck chemical reaction subroutine. The flame shapes for pressures of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 atmospheres were computed and agree remarkably well with experimental data. There is a noticeable shape change with pressure, believed to be a result of buoyancy effects. The chemical concentration profiles do not exhibit much dependence on pressure, a reflection of the fact that only one chemical mechanism was utilized at all pressures.

  2. Turbulence and Laminar Structures: Can They Co-Exist?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    Schwarzschild first suggested that the laminar structures observed in the high Reynolds number Re = UL/nu approx. = (10(exp 12)) solar photosphere are the result of turbulence rather than a proof of its absence. He reasoned that since turbulence generates large turbulent viscosities nu(sub t) much greater than nu, the "effective" Reynolds number Re = UL/nu(sub t) approx. = O(1). Schwarzschild's argument is, however, incomplete for it assumes that the entire role of the non-linear interactions is to "enhance" viscosity. While this is not true in general, we present a proof of how and why it may occur, thus completing Schwarzschild's argument. We further discuss the fact that the same model non-local turbulence models have been shown to reproduce LES data for a variety of flows pertaining to astrophysics, geophysics and laboratory situations (at a fraction of the time).

  3. Fluerics 42: Some commonly used laminar fluidic gain blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzewiecki, T. M.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents data and operating experience information on many commonly used laminar gain blocks from two to eight stages. In addition, as an aid to design, a short computer program is presented, suitable for use with a pocket programmable calculator. Outputs from this program are individual stage data including nominal supply pressures and flows and staged gain. Also available is the net gain and the bandwidth at 90 deg of phase shift. Several examples of this program are given to cover multiple-stage gain blocks. As an example of the utility of the program, a step-by-step tradeoff study is presented for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology fluidic servovalve, for which an attempt is made to maximize bandwidth and minimize leakage flow.

  4. Representing Model Inadequacy in Combustion Mechanisms of Laminar Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Rebecca; Moser, Robert; Oliver, Todd

    2015-11-01

    An accurate description of the chemical processes involved in the oxidation of hydrocarbons may include hundreds of reactions and thirty or more chemical species. Kinetics models of these chemical mechanisms are often embedded in a fluid dynamics solver to represent combustion. Because the computational cost of such detailed mechanisms is so high, it is common practice to use drastically reduced mechanisms. But, this introduces modeling errors which may render the model inadequate. In this talk, we present a formulation of the model inadequacy in reduced models of combustion mechanisms. Our goal is to account for the discrepancy between the detailed model and its reduced version by incorporating an additive, linear, probabilistic inadequacy model. In effect, it is a random matrix, whose entries are characterized by probability distributions and which displays interesting properties due to conservation constraints. In particular, we investigate how the inclusion of the random matrix affects the prediction of flame speed in a one-dimensional hydrogen laminar flame.

  5. Laminar separation control effects of shortfin mako shark skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Michael Thomas

    Shark skin is investigated as a means of laminar flow separation control due to its preferential flow direction as well as the potential for scales to erect and obstruct low-momentum backflow resulting from an adverse pressure gradient acting on the boundary layer. In this study, the effect of the scales on flow reversal is observed in laminar flow conditions. This is achieved by comparing the flow over a pectoral fin from a shortfin mako shark to that over the same fin that is painted to neutralize the effect of the scales on the flow. The effect of the scales on flow reversal is also observed by comparing the flow over a smooth PVC cylinder to that over the same cylinder with samples of mako shark skin affixed to the entire circumference of the cylinder. These samples were taken from the flank region of the shark because the scales at this location have been shown to have the greatest angle of erection compared to the scales on the rest of the shark's body. Scales at this location have an average crown length of 220 microm with a maximum bristling angle of proximately 50 degrees. Because these scales have the highest bristling angle, they have the best potential for separation control. All data was taken using time-resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. The flow over the pectoral fin was analyzed at multiple angles of attack. It was found that the shark skin had the effect of decreasing the size of the separated region over both the pectoral fin and the cylinder as well as decreasing the magnitudes of the reversing flow found in these regions. For all Reynolds numbers tested, drag reduction over 28% was found when applying the sharkskin to the cylinder.

  6. Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Mike; Banks, Dan; Garzon, Andres; Matisheck, Jason

    2014-01-01

    IR thermography was used to characterize the transition front on a S-NLF test article at chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million Changes in transition due to Mach number, Reynolds number, and surface roughness were investigated - Regions of laminar flow in excess of 80% chord at chord Reynolds numbers greater than 14 million IR thermography clearly showed the transition front and other flow features such as shock waves impinging upon the surface A series of parallel oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, were found to cause premature transition at higher Reynolds numbers. NASA has a current goal to eliminate barriers to the development of practical supersonic transport aircraft Drag reduction through the use of supersonic natural laminar flow (S-NLF) is currently being explored as a means of increasing aerodynamic efficiency - Tradeoffs work best for business jet class at M<2 Conventional high-speed designs minimize inviscid drag at the expense of viscous drag - Existence of strong spanwise pressure gradient leads to crossflow (CF) while adverse chordwise pressure gradients amplifies and Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) instabilities Aerion Corporation has patented a S-NLF wing design (US Patent No. 5322242) - Low sweep to control CF - dp/dx < 0 on both wing surfaces to stabilize TS - Thin wing with sharp leading edge to minimize wave drag increase due to reduction in sweep NASA and Aerion have partnered to study S-NLF since 1999 Series of S-NLF experiments flown on the NASA F-15B research test bed airplane Infrared (IR) thermography used to characterize transition - Non-intrusive, global, good spatial resolution - Captures significant flow features well

  7. Thermal performance characterization of residential wall systems using a calibrated hot box with airflow induced by differential pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.C.; Ober, D.G.; Goodrow, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    ASTM E 283 ad ASTM E 1424 in conjunction with ASTM C 976 were used to study the effect of airflow on thermal performance of the wall. A typical residential 2 {times} 4 stud wall was constructed and placed on top of a subfloor, making a 2.44 {times} 2.74 m (8 by 9 ft) test specimen. This base wall assembly was then covered with two types of XPS sheathing, various housewraps, a 15{number_sign} felt, and a polyethylene vapor retarder film in 40 different configurations and tested individually per ASTM E 283 and per ASTM C 976. For 24 of the 40 C 976 tests, a differential pressure was induced across the test wall as per and ASTM E 1424. Airflows ranged from undetectable airflow at 0 {center_dot} Pa {Delta}P to 1.63 L/s {center_dot} m{sup 2} for the base wall assembly alone. Difference in airflow resistance performance between the ASTM E 283 and ASTM E 1424 test methods were noted. Thermal testing results incorporating both ASTM C 976 and ASTM E 1424 for tests 1--28 produced apparent thermal conductances (C-values) in the range of 0.40 W/m{sup 2} {center_dot} K for a nondetectable airflow level to 1.81 W/m{sup 2} {center_dot} K for an airflow of 1.53 L/s {center_dot} m{sup 2} for the base wall assembly alone with a 20-Pa {Delta}P. The calculated C-value for this base wall assembly was 0.40 W/m{sup 2} {center_dot} K. Test results reveal that airflow rates as low as 0.2 L/s {center_dot} m{sup 2} could produce a 46% increase in apparent C-value. Similar thermal performance differences were revealed when thicker shiplap XPS sheathing was used. Tests were also conducted using an Air-Tight Drywall configuration showing the effect of wind washing on thermal performance. By sealing the gypsum drywall on the base wall assembly tested, the apparent C-value, when exposed to a 12.5 Pa wind pressure, was found to be equivalent to a base wall assembly configuration which allows 0.15 L/s {center_dot} m{sup 2} airflow to penetrate completely through.

  8. Laminar flow control research at TsAGI: Past and present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, S. L.; Kiselev, A. Ph.; Kuryachii, A. P.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a brief review of activities in laminar flow control being performed at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after Prof. N.E. Zhukovsky (TsAGI). These efforts are focused on the improvement of the existing laminar flow control methods and on the development of new ones. The investigations have demonstrated the effectiveness of aircraft surface laminarization applications with the aim of friction drag reduction. The opportunity of considerable delaying of laminar-turbulent transition due to special wing profile geometry and using boundary layer suction and surface cooling has been verified at sub- and supersonic speeds through various wind tunnel testing at TsAGI and during flying laboratory experiments at the Flight Research Institute (LII). The investigations on using hybrid laminar flow control systems for friction drag reduction were also carried out. New techniques of laminar flow control were proposed, in particular, the method of local heating of the wing leading edge, boundary layer laminarization by means of receptivity control, and electrohydrodynamic methods of boundary layer stability control.

  9. A Study of Laminar Separation Bubble in the Concave Region of an Airfoil Using Laser Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan; Meyers, James F.; Dagenhart, John R.; Harvey, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Laser velocimetry (LV) was used to study the nature of laminar separation bubbles in the concave region of a 1.83-meter airfoil model which was tested in the NASA Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. Three component, coincident data from LV measurements including histograms of particle velocity, mean velocity profiles, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stresses within the shear layer were used to determine the locations of laminar separation, transition, and turbulent reattachment. Boundary-layer parameters determined from velocity profiles were used to compare the results with existing empirical relations for describing the laminar separation bubble.

  10. Summary of past experience in natural laminar flow and experimental program for resilient leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, B. H.

    1979-01-01

    The potential of natural laminar flow for significant drag reduction and improved efficiency for aircraft is assessed. Past experience with natural laminar flow as reported in published and unpublished data and personal observations of various researchers is summarized. Aspects discussed include surface contour, waviness, and smoothness requirements; noise and vibration effects on boundary layer transition, boundary layer stability criteria; flight experience with natural laminar flow and suction stabilized boundary layers; and propeller slipstream, rain, frost, ice and insect contamination effects on boundary layer transition. The resilient leading edge appears to be a very promising method to prevent leading edge insect contamination.

  11. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control glove flight conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, A. S.

    1979-01-01

    A laminar flow control glove applied to the wing of a short to medium range jet transport with aft mounted engines was designed. A slotted aluminum glove concept and a woven stainless steel mesh porous glove concept suction surfaces were studied. The laminar flow control glove and a dummy glove with a modified supercritical airfoil, ducting, modified wing leading and trailing edges, modified flaps, and an LFC trim tab were applied to the wing after slot spacing suction parameters, and compression power were determined. The results show that a laminar flow control glove can be applied to the wing of a jet transport with an appropriate suction system installed.

  12. A perspective of laminar-flow control. [aircraft energy efficiency program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braslow, A. L.; Muraca, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    A historical review of the development of laminar flow control technology is presented with reference to active laminar boundary-layer control through suction, the use of multiple suction slots, wind-tunnel tests, continuous suction, and spanwise contamination. The ACEE laminar flow control program is outlined noting the development of three-dimensional boundary-layer codes, cruise-noise prediction techniques, airfoil development, and leading-edge region cleaning. Attention is given to glove flight tests and the fabrication and testing of wing box designs.

  13. Site, environmental and airflow characteristics for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In conjunction with an emission monitoring study, long-term airflow and environmental data were collected from four regional producer-owned and -operated mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains. The barns were oriented east-west, with approximate dimensions of an 8-m south wal...

  14. Numerical simulation of soft palate movement and airflow in human upper airway by fluid-structure interaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Chi; Wang, Yuefang; Liu, Yingxi

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, the authors present airflow field characteristics of human upper airway and soft palate movement attitude during breathing. On the basis of the data taken from the spiral computerized tomography images of a healthy person and a patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS), three-dimensional models of upper airway cavity and soft palate are reconstructed by the method of surface rendering. Numerical simulation is performed for airflow in the upper airway and displacement of soft palate by fluid-structure interaction analysis. The reconstructed three-dimensional models precisely preserve the original configuration of upper airways and soft palate. The results of the pressure and velocity distributions in the airflow field are quantitatively determined, and the displacement of soft palate is presented. Pressure gradients of airway are lower for the healthy person and the airflow distribution is quite uniform in the case of free breathing. However, the OSAHS patient remarkably escalates both the pressure and velocity in the upper airway, and causes higher displacement of the soft palate. The present study is useful in revealing pathogenesis and quantitative mutual relationship between configuration and function of the upper airway as well as in diagnosing diseases related to anatomical structure and function of the upper airway.

  15. Using a Swinging Vane Anemometer to Measure Airflow. Module 14. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on using a swinging vane anemometer to measure airflow. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each…

  16. Airflow calibration and exhaust pressure/temperature survey of an F404, S/N 215-109, turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Maureen E.; Kirchgessner, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    A General Electric F-404 turbofan engine was calibrated for thrust and airflow at the NASA Lewis Propulsion System Laboratory in support of future flight tests of the X-29 aircraft. Tests were conducted with and without augmentation, over a range of flight conditions, including the two design points of the airplane. Data obtained during the altitude tests will be used to correct two independent gross thrust calculation routines which will be installed and operated on the airplane to determine in-flight gross thrust. Corrected airflow data as a function of corrected fan speed collapsed onto a single curve. Similarly, trends were observed and defined for both augmented and dry thrust. Overall agreement between measured data and F-404 Engine Spec Deck data was within 2 percent for airflow and 6 percent for thrust. The results of an uncertainty analysis for thrust and airflow is presented. In addition to the thrust calibration, the exhaust gas boundary layer pressure and temperatures were surveyed at selected condition and engine power levels to obtain data for another NASA F-404 program. Test data for these surveys are presented.

  17. Contam airflow models of three large buildings: Model descriptions and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Douglas R.; Price, Phillip N.

    2009-09-30

    Airflow and pollutant transport models are useful for several reasons, including protection from or response to biological terrorism. In recent years they have been used for deciding how many biological agent samplers are needed in a given building to detect the release of an agent; to figure out where those samplers should be located; to predict the number of people at risk in the event of a release of a given size and location; to devise response strategies in the event of a release; to determine optimal trade-offs between sampler characteristics (such as detection limit and response time); and so on. For some of these purposes it is necessary to model a specific building of interest: if you are trying to determine optimal sampling locations, you must have a model of your building and not some different building. But for many purposes generic or 'prototypical' building models would suffice. For example, for determining trade-offs between sampler characteristics, results from one building will carry over other, similar buildings. Prototypical building models are also useful for comparing or testing different algorithms or computational pproaches: different researchers can use the same models, thus allowing direct comparison of results in a way that is not otherwise possible. This document discusses prototypical building models developed by the Airflow and Pollutant Transport Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The models are implemented in the Contam v2.4c modeling program, available from the National Institutes for Standards and Technology. We present Contam airflow models of three virtual buildings: a convention center, an airport terminal, and a multi-story office building. All of the models are based to some extent on specific real buildings. Our goal is to produce models that are realistic, in terms of approximate magnitudes, directions, and speeds of airflow and pollutant transport. The three models vary substantially in detail. The airport model

  18. Patient-specific modelling of pulmonary airflow using GPU cluster for the application in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Miki, T; Wang, X; Aoki, T; Imai, Y; Ishikawa, T; Takase, K; Yamaguchi, T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel patient-specific method of modelling pulmonary airflow using graphics processing unit (GPU) computation that can be applied in medical practice. To overcome the barriers imposed by computation speed, installation price and footprint to the application of computational fluid dynamics, we focused on GPU computation and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The GPU computation and LBM are compatible due to the characteristics of the GPU. As the optimisation of data access is essential for the performance of the GPU computation, we developed an adaptive meshing method, in which an airway model is covered by isotropic subdomains consisting of a uniform Cartesian mesh. We found that 4(3) size subdomains gave the best performance. The code was also tested on a small GPU cluster to confirm its performance and applicability, as the price and footprint are reasonable for medical applications.

  19. Airflow-aligned helical nanofilament (B4) phase in topographic confinement

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Min-Jun; Kim, Hanim; Chen, Dong; Shen, Yongqiang; Yi, Youngwoo; Korblova, Eva; Walba, David M.; Clark, Noel A.; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a controlled helical nanofilament (HNF: B4) phase under topographic confinement with airflow that can induce a shear force and temperature gradient on the sample. The resulting orientation and ordering of the B4 phase in this combinational effort was directly investigated using microscopy. The structural freedom of the complex B7 phase, which is a higher temperature phase than the B4 phase, can result in relatively complex microscopic arrangements of HNFs compared with the B4 phase generated from the simple layer structure of the B2 phase. This interesting chiral/polar nanofilament behaviour offers new opportunities for further exploration of the exotic physical properties of the B4 phase. PMID:27384747

  20. QUANTITATIVE CT ANALYSIS, AIRFLOW OBSTRUCTION AND LUNG CANCER IN THE PITTSBURGH LUNG SCREENING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David O; Leader, Joseph K; Fuhrman, Carl R; Reilly, John J; Sciurba, Frank C.; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2011-01-01

    Background To study the relationship between emphysema, airflow obstruction and lung cancer in a high risk population we performed quantitative analysis of screening computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods Subjects completed questionnaires, spirometry and low-dose helical chest CT. Analyses compared cases and controls according to automated quantitative analysis of lung parenchyma and airways measures. Results Our case-control study of 117 matched pairs of lung cancer cases and controls did not reveal any airway or lung parenchymal findings on quantitative analysis of screening CT scans that were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Airway measures including wall area %, lumen perimeter, lumen area and average wall HU, and parenchymal measures including lung fraction < −910 Hounsfield Units (HU), were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions The relationship between visual assessment of emphysema and increased lung cancer risk could not be verified by quantitative analysis of low-dose screening CT scans in a high risk tobacco exposed population. PMID:21610523

  1. Airflow limitation as a risk factor for low bone mineral density and hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Herland, Trine; Apalset, Ellen M; Eide, Geir Egil; Tell, Grethe S; Lehmann, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether airflow limitation is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and risk of hip fractures. Methods A community sample of 5,100 subjects 47–48 and 71–73 years old and living in Bergen was invited. Participants filled in questionnaires and performed a post-bronchodilator spirometry measuring forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). All attendants were invited to have a BMD measurement of the hip. During 10 years of follow-up, information on death was collected from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry, and incident hip fractures were registered from regional hospital records of discharge diagnoses and surgical procedure codes. Results The attendance rate was 69% (n=3,506). The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (FEV1/FVC<0.7) was 9%. In multiple logistic regression, the lowest quartile of BMD versus the three upper was significantly predicted by FEV1/FVC<0.7 and FEV1% predicted (odds ratio [OR]: 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11 to 2.25, and OR per increase of 10%: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.99, respectively). Hip fracture occurred in 126 (4%) participants. In a Cox regression analysis, FEV1% predicted was associated with a lowered risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio per increase of 10%: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.997). Conclusion Airflow limitation is positively associated with low BMD and risk of hip fracture in middle-aged and elderly. PMID:27733234

  2. Respiratory-triggered electron beam CT with integrated spirometry for evaluation of dynamic airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Welch, Mike; Szold, Oded; Levine, Michael; Aberle, Denise R.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose is to integrate time-attenuation curves from Electron-Beam CT with flow-time curves from spirometry in the analysis of airflow obstruction. A pressure-sensitive switch was connected between a spirometer mouthpiece and a modified EBCT scanner keyboard. The onset of expiratory flow causes pressure changes which simultaneously trigger EBCT and spirometric acquisitions. Subjects performed a forced expiratory maneuver, during which EBCT images of the lung were obtained every 500 ms using 130 kVp, 630 mA, 100 ms scan time and 3 mm collimation. From EBCT images, time-attenuation curves were generated for each of three zones (non-dependent, middle and dependent lung) using small ROIs (12 mm2) placed over approximately the same anatomic regions of lung. The resulting time- attenuation curves and flow-time curves were then superimposed. Two normal subjects, two subjects with emphysema and three lung transplant subjects have been studied to date. In normal subjects, lung attenuation increases steadily during the first 4 - 6 seconds of expiration, whereas in patients with emphysema, lung attenuation was relatively constant over the course of expiration. Lung transplant subjects show both of these characteristics--normal characteristics for the transplant lung and emphysematous characteristics for the native lung. Lung transplant subjects may also demonstrate some dynamics between transplant and diseased lung. Respiratory-triggered EBCT can be used to simultaneously acquire time-attenuation and flow-time data. This has been used to characterize dynamic airflow patterns in patients with respiratory disease.

  3. Airflow mechanics in models of equine obstructive airway disease under conditions simulating exercise.

    PubMed

    Bayly, W M; Slocombe, R F

    1997-01-01

    Effects of respiratory tract obstructions on ventilatory mechanics in horses exercising at high speeds were tested with a fibreglass replica of the airways (nares to mainstem bronchi) of an adult horse. Segmental pressures were recorded at six sites along the model at four different unidirectional flows (1300-4100 litre min-1), and the respective resistances (R) to airflow were calculated. The external nares and the larynx made the greatest contributions to the total resistance (RTOT) when no obstruction was present. Modifying the model to simulate severe pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH) had no effect on R at the larynx or at any point in the trachea under these flow conditions. Two 16 litre anaesthetic rebreathing bags were attached to the bronchial end of the model, and tidal ventilation generated by a piston pump. Upper (nares to pharynx) and lower tract R (RU and RL) and RTOT, and dynamic compliance were determined for pump volumes (Vp) of six and 12 litres, at pumping frequencies (fp) of 20-100 min-1 while the airway was clear, and after modifying it to simulate either PLH or partial bronchial obstruction. Model condition had no effect on RU. However, RL and RTOT were higher in the PLH simulated condition when fp > or = 90 and Vp = 12 litres (P < 0.05). This suggested that severe PLH may significantly interfere with airflow distal to the site of the lesions during high frequency high volume ventilation of the type seen in galloping horses. With partial bronchial obstruction RL and RTOT were increased when fp > 34 with each Vp. The applicability of the model was verified by comparing results from the unobstructed state with those from normal horses exercising on a treadmill.

  4. Envelope Analysis of the Airflow Signal To Improve Polysomnographic Assessment of Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Javier A.; Arancibia, José M.; Bassi, Alejandro; Vivaldi, Ennio A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Given the detailed respiratory waveform signal provided by the nasal cannula in polysomnographic (PSG) studies, to quantify sleep breathing disturbances by extracting a continuous variable based on the coefficient of variation of the envelope of that signal. Design: Application of an algorithm for envelope analysis to standard nasal cannula signal from actual polysomnographic studies. Setting: PSG recordings from a sleep disorders center were analyzed by an algorithm developed on the Igor scientific data analysis software. Patients or Participants: Recordings representative of different degrees of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) severity or illustrative of the covariation between breathing and particularly relevant factors and variables. Interventions: The method calculated the coefficient of variation of the envelope for each 30-second epoch. The normalized version of that coefficient was defined as the respiratory disturbance variable (RDV). The method outcome was the all-night set of RDV values represented as a time series. Measurements and Results: RDV quantitatively reflected departure from normal sinusoidal breathing at each epoch, providing an intensity scale for disordered breathing. RDV dynamics configured itself in recognizable patterns for the airflow limitation (e.g., in UARS) and the apnea/hypopnea regimes. RDV reliably highlighted clinically meaningful associations with staging, body position, oximetry, or CPAP titration. Conclusions: Respiratory disturbance variable can assess sleep breathing disturbances as a gradual phenomenon while providing a comprehensible and detailed representation of its dynamics. It may thus improve clinical diagnosis and provide a revealing descriptive tool for mechanistic sleep disordered breathing modeling. Respiratory disturbance variable may contribute to attaining simplified screening methodologies, novel diagnostic criteria, and insightful research tools. Citation: Díaz JA; Arancibia JM; Bassi A

  5. Subglottal pressure, tracheal airflow, and intrinsic laryngeal muscle activity during rat ultrasound vocalization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Vocal production requires complex planning and coordination of respiratory, laryngeal, and vocal tract movements, which are incompletely understood in most mammals. Rats produce a variety of whistles in the ultrasonic range that are of communicative relevance and of importance as a model system, but the sources of acoustic variability were mostly unknown. The goal was to identify sources of fundamental frequency variability. Subglottal pressure, tracheal airflow, and electromyographic (EMG) data from two intrinsic laryngeal muscles were measured during 22-kHz and 50-kHz call production in awake, spontaneously behaving adult male rats. During ultrasound vocalization, subglottal pressure ranged between 0.8 and 1.9 kPa. Pressure differences between call types were not significant. The relation between fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure within call types was inconsistent. Experimental manipulations of subglottal pressure had only small effects on fundamental frequency. Tracheal airflow patterns were also inconsistently associated with frequency. Pressure and flow seem to play a small role in regulation of fundamental frequency. Muscle activity, however, is precisely regulated and very sensitive to alterations, presumably because of effects on resonance properties in the vocal tract. EMG activity of cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscle was tonic in calls with slow or no fundamental frequency modulations, like 22-kHz and flat 50-kHz calls. Both muscles showed brief high-amplitude, alternating bursts at rates up to 150 Hz during production of frequency-modulated 50-kHz calls. A differentiated and fine regulation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles is critical for normal ultrasound vocalization. Many features of the laryngeal muscle activation pattern during ultrasound vocalization in rats are shared with other mammals. PMID:21832032

  6. Peripheral resistance: a link between global airflow obstruction and regional ventilation distribution.

    PubMed

    Wongviriyawong, C; Harris, R S; Greenblatt, E; Winkler, T; Venegas, J G

    2013-02-15

    Airflow obstruction and heterogeneities in airway constriction and ventilation distribution are well-described prominent features of asthma. However, the mechanistic link between these global and regional features has not been well defined. We speculate that peripheral airway resistance (R(p)) may provide such a link. Structural and functional parameters are estimated from PET and HRCT images of asthmatic (AS) and nonasthmatic (NA) subjects measured at baseline (BASE) and post-methacholine challenge (POST). Conductances of 35 anatomically defined proximal airways are estimated from airway geometry obtained from high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. Compliances of sublobar regions subtended by 19 most distal airways are estimated from changes in regional gas volume between two lung volumes. Specific ventilations (sV) of these sublobar regions are evaluated from 13NN-washout PET scans. For each pathway connecting the trachea to sublobar region, values of R(p) required to explain the sV distribution and global airflow obstruction are computed. Results show that R(p) is highly heterogeneous within each subject, but has average values consistent with global values in the literature. The contribution of R(p) to total pathway resistance (R(T)) increased substantially for POST (P < 0.0001). The fraction R(p)/R(T) was higher in AS than NA at POST (P < 0.0001) but similar at BASE (range: 0.960-0.997, median: 0.990). For POST, R(p)/R(T) range was 0.979-0.999 (NA) and 0.981-0.995 (AS). This approach allows for estimations of peripheral airway resistance within anatomically defined sublobar regions in vivo human lungs and may be used to evaluate peripheral effects of therapy in a subject specific manner.

  7. Airflow Dynamics of Coughing in Healthy Human Volunteers by Shadowgraph Imaging: An Aid to Aerosol Infection Control

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Julian W.; Nicolle, Andre; Pantelic, Jovan; Koh, Gerald C.; Wang, Liang De; Amin, Muhammad; Klettner, Christian A.; Cheong, David K. W.; Sekhar, Chandra; Tham, Kwok Wai

    2012-01-01

    Cough airflow dynamics have been previously studied using a variety of experimental methods. In this study, real-time, non-invasive shadowgraph imaging was applied to obtain additional analyses of cough airflows produced by healthy volunteers. Twenty healthy volunteers (10 women, mean age 32.2±12.9 years; 10 men, mean age 25.3±2.5 years) were asked to cough freely, then into their sleeves (as per current US CDC recommendations) in this study to analyze cough airflow dynamics. For the 10 females (cases 1–10), their maximum detectable cough propagation distances ranged from 0.16–0.55 m, with maximum derived velocities of 2.2–5.0 m/s, and their maximum detectable 2-D projected areas ranged from 0.010–0.11 m2, with maximum derived expansion rates of 0.15–0.55 m2/s. For the 10 males (cases 11–20), their maximum detectable cough propagation distances ranged from 0.31–0.64 m, with maximum derived velocities of 3.2–14 m/s, and their maximum detectable 2-D projected areas ranged from 0.04–0.14 m2, with maximum derived expansion rates of 0.25–1.4 m2/s. These peak velocities were measured when the visibility of the exhaled airflows was optimal and compare favorably with those reported previously using other methods, and may be seen as a validation of these previous approaches in a more natural setting. However, the propagation distances can only represent a lower limit due to the inability of the shadowgraph method to visualize these cough airflows once their temperature cools to that of the ambient air, which is an important limitation of this methodology. The qualitative high-speed video footage of these volunteers coughing into their sleeves demonstrates that although this method rarely completely blocks the cough airflow, it decelerates, splits and redirects the airflow, eventually reducing its propagation. The effectiveness of this intervention depends on optimum positioning of the arm over the nose and mouth during coughing, though unsightly stains

  8. An Approach to the Constrained Design of Natural Laminar Flow Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Bradford E.

    1997-01-01

    A design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. After obtaining the initial airfoil's pressure distribution at the design lift coefficient using an Euler solver coupled with an integral turbulent boundary layer method, the calculations from a laminar boundary layer solver are used by a stability analysis code to obtain estimates of the transition location (using N-Factors) for the starting airfoil. A new design method then calculates a target pressure distribution that will increase the laminar flow toward the desired amount. An airfoil design method is then iteratively used to design an airfoil that possesses that target pressure distribution. The new airfoil's boundary layer stability characteristics are determined, and this iterative process continues until an airfoil is designed that meets the laminar flow requirement and as many of the other constraints as possible.

  9. Observations and implications of natural laminar flow on practical airplane surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Obara, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of natural laminar flow (NLF) experiments conducted by NASA to determine if modern aircraft structures can benefit from NLF as do sailplanes are presented. Seven aircraft, ranging from a Cessna 210 to a Learjet 28/29, with relatively stiff skins were flown in production configurations with no modifications. Measurements were made of the boundary-layer laminar to turbulent transition locations on various aerodynamic surfaces, the effect of a total loss of laminar flow, the effect of the propeller slipstream on the wing boundary-layer transition and the boundary-layer profiles, the wing section profile drag, the effect of flight through clouds, and insect debris contamination effects. Favorable pressure gradients for NLF were concluded to be feasible up to a transition Reynolds number of 11 million. Laminar flows were observed in propeller slipstreams, and insects were found to cause transition 1/4 of the time.

  10. A method of rapidly estimating the position of the laminar separation point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Doenhoff, Albert E

    1938-01-01

    A method is described of rapidly estimating the position of the laminar separation point from the given pressure distribution along a body; the method is applicable to a fairly wide variety of cases. The laminar separation point is found by the von Karman-Millikan method for a series of velocity distributions along a flat plate, which consist of a region of uniform velocity followed by a region of uniform decreased velocity. It is shown that such a velocity distribution can frequently replace the actual velocity distribution along a body insofar as the effects on laminar separation are concerned. An example of the application of the method is given by using it to calculate the position of the laminar separation point on the NACA 0012 airfoil section at zero lift. The agreement between the position of the separation point calculated according to the present method and that found from more elaborate computations is very good.

  11. Current Evidence for the Use of Laminar Flow in Reducing Infection Rates in Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    James, M; Khan, W.S; Nannaparaju, M.R; Bhamra, J.S; Morgan-Jones, R

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of laminar air flow in orthopaedic theatres by Sir John Charnley, it has widely become accepted as the standard during orthopaedic procedures such as joint arthroplasty. We present a review of available current literature for the use of laminar flow operating theatre ventilation during total joint arthroplasty and examines the effectiveness of laminar flow ventilated operating theatres in preventing post-operative wound infection. Results of our findings suggest that while bacterial and air particulate is reduced by laminar air flow systems, there is no conclusive effect on the reduction of post-operative wound infections following total joint arthroplasty. We conclude that a combination of strict aseptic technique, prophylactic antibiotics and good anaesthetic control during surgery remains crucial to reduce post-operative surgical infections. PMID:26587068

  12. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation related to the paper of the same name describing Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of low speed stall aerodynamics of a swept wing with a laminar flow wing glove.

  13. Air Vehicles Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0020: Prediction of Manufacturing Tolerances for Laminar Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    AFRL-VA-WP-TR-2005-3060 AIR VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0020 : Prediction Of... Technology Integration Program (AVTIP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER Delivery Order 0020 : Prediction Of Manufacturing Tolerances For Laminar Flow 5c. PROGRAM

  14. Laminar boundary layer in conditions of natural transition to turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyakov, N. F.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental study of regularities of a natural transition of a laminar boundary layer to a turbulent layer at low subsonic air flow velocities are presented, analyzed and compared with theory and model experiments.

  15. Tackling a Hot Paradox: Laminar Soot Processes-2 (LSP-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, Gerard M.; Urban, David L.; Over, Ann (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The last place you want to be in traffic is behind the bus or truck that is belching large clouds of soot onto your freshly washed car. Besides looking and smelling bad, soot is a health hazard. Particles range from big enough to see to microscopic and can accumulate in the lungs, potentially leading to debilitating or fatal lung diseases. Soot is wasted energy, and therein lies an interesting paradox: Soot forms in a flame's hottest regions where you would expect complete combustion and no waste. Soot enhances the emissions of other pollutants (carbon monoxide and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, etc.) from flames and radiates unwanted heat to combustion chambers (a candle's yellowish glow is soot radiating heat), among other effects. The mechanisms of soot formation are among the most important unresolved problems of combustion science because soot affects contemporary life in so many ways. Although we have used fire for centuries, many fundamental aspects of combustion remain elusive, in part because of limits imposed by the effects of gravity on Earth. Hot or warm air rises quickly and draws in fresh cold air behind it, thus giving flames the classical teardrop shape. Reactions occur in a very small zone, too fast for scientists to observe, in detail, what is happening inside the flame. The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP-2) experiments aboard STS-107 will use the microgravity environment of space to eliminate buoyancy effects and thus slow the reactions inside a flame so they can be more readily studied. 'Laminar' means a simple, smooth fuel jet burning in air, somewhat like a butane lighter. This classical flame approximates combustion in diesel engines, aircraft jet propulsion engines, and furnaces and other devices. LSP-2 will expand on surprising results developed from its first two flights in 1997. The data suggest the existence of a universal relationship, the soot paradigm, that, if proven, will be used to model and control combustion systems on Earth. STS-107

  16. Structure and Early Soot Oxidation Properties of Laminar Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Leathy, A. M.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    Soot is an important unsolved problem of combustion science because it is present in most hydrocarbon-fueled flames and current understanding of the reactive and physical properties of soot in flame environments is limited. This lack of understanding affects progress toward developing reliable predictions of flame radiation properties, reliable predictions of flame pollutant emission properties and reliable methods of computational combustion, among others. Motivated by these observations, the present investigation extended past studies of soot formation in this laboratory, to consider soot oxidation in laminar diffusion flames using similar methods. Early work showed that O2 was responsible for soot oxidation in high temperature O2-rich environments. Subsequent work in high temperature flame environments having small O2 concentrations, however, showed that soot oxidation rates substantially exceeded estimates based on the classical O2 oxidation rates of Nagle and Strickland-Constable and suggests that radicals such as O and OH might be strong contributors to soot oxidation for such conditions. Neoh et al. subsequently made observations in premixed flames, supported by later work, that showed that OH was responsible for soot oxidation at these conditions with a very reasonable collision efficiency of 0.13. Subsequent studies in diffusion flames, however, were not in agreement with the premixed flame studies: they agreed that OH played a dominant role in soot oxidation in flames, but found collision efficiencies that varied with flame conditions and were not in good agreement with each other or with Neoh et al. One explanation for these discrepancies is that optical scattering and extinction properties were used to infer soot structure properties for the studies that have not been very successful for representing the optical properties of soot. Whatever the source of the problem, however, these differences among observations of soot oxidation in premixed and

  17. Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of butanol isomers-air mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Xiaolei; Huang, Zuohua; Wu, Si; Li, Qianqian

    2010-12-15

    Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of the butanol-air premixed flames and its isomers are investigated using the spherically expanding flame with central ignition at initial temperature of 428 K and initial pressures of 0.10 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.50 MPa and 0.75 MPa. Laminar burning velocities and sensitivity factor of n-butanol-air mixtures are computed using a newly developed kinetic mechanism. Unstretched laminar burning velocity, adiabatic temperature, Lewis number, Markstein length, critical flame radius and Peclet number are obtained over a wide range of equivalence ratios. Effect of molecular structure on laminar burning velocity of the isomers of butanol is analyzed from the aspect of C-H bond dissociation energy. Study indicates that although adiabatic flame temperatures of the isomers of butanol are the same, laminar burning velocities give an obvious difference among the isomers of butanol. This indicates that molecular structure has a large influence on laminar burning velocities of the isomers of butanol. Branching (-CH3) will decrease laminar burning velocity. Hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atoms gives higher laminar burning velocity compared to that attaching to the inner carbon atoms. Calculated dissociation bond energies show that terminal C-H bonds have larger bond energies than that of inner C-H bonds. n-Butanol, no branching and with hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atom, gives the largest laminar burning velocity. tert-Butanol, with highly branching and hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the inner carbon atom, gives the lowest laminar burning velocity. Laminar burning velocities of iso-butanol and sec-butanol are between those of n-butanol and tert-butanol. The instant of transition to cellularity is experimentally determined for the isomers of butanol and subsequently interpreted on the basis of hydrodynamic and diffusion-thermal instabilities. Little effect

  18. Hydrodynamic Suppression of Soot Formation in Laminar Coflowing Jet Diffusion Flames. Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.; Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor); Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Effects of flow (hydrodynamic) properties on limiting conditions for soot-free laminar non-premixed hydrocarbon/air flames (called laminar soot-point conditions) were studied, emphasizing non-buoyant laminar coflowing jet diffusion flames. Effects of air/fuel-stream velocity ratios were of particular interest; therefore, the experiments were carried out at reduced pressures to minimize effects of flow acceleration due to the intrusion of buoyancy. Test conditions included reactant temperatures of 300 K; ambient pressures of 3.7-49 8 kPa; methane-, acetylene-, ethylene-, propane-, and methane-fueled flames burning in coflowing air with fuel-port diameters of 1.7, 3.2, and 6.4 mm, fuel jet Reynolds numbers of 18-121; air coflow velocities of 0-6 m/s; and air/fuel-stream velocity ratios of 0.003-70. Measurements included laminar soot-point flame lengths, laminar soot-point fuel flow rates, and laminar liftoff conditions. The measurements show that laminar soot-point flame lengths and fuel flow rates can be increased, broadening the range of fuel flow rates where the flames remain soot free, by increasing air/fuel-stream velocity ratios. The mechanism of this effect involves the magnitude and direction of flow velocities relative to the flame sheet where increased air/fuel-stream velocity ratios cause progressive reduction of flame residence times in the fuel-rich soot-formation region. The range of soot-free conditions is limited by both liftoff, particularly at low pressures, and the intrusion of effects of buoyancy on effective air/fuel-stream velocity ratios, particularly at high pressures. Effective correlations of laminar soot- and smoke-point flame lengths were also found in terms of a corrected fuel flow rate parameter, based on simplified analysis of laminar jet diffusion flame structure. The results show that laminar smoke-point flame lengths in coflowing air environments are roughly twice as long as soot-free (blue) flames under comparable conditions due to

  19. A theoretical and experimental study of preferential-diffusion/stretch interactions of laminar premixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Oh Chae

    Recent work shows that preferential-diffusion/stretch interactions of laminar premixed flames are sufficiently robust to affect the stability of practical strongly-turbulent flames. In addition, past measurements of laminar burning velocities should be re-assessed because there generally was no attempt to control flame stretch. Finally, the sensitivity of laminar premixed flames to stretch (represented by the Markstein number) should be studied to better understand and model the properties of laminar premixed flames. Motivated by these considerations, an experimental and computational study of preferential-diffusion/stretch interactions for laminar premixed flames, for both alkane/alcohol-fuel-vapor-fueled flames (as practical fuels) and hydrogen-fueled flames (considering diluent-variation effects) was carried out during the present investigation. Considering outwardly-propagating spherical laminar premixed flames, laminar burning velocities of fuel-vapor/oxygen/nitrogen flames and hydrogen/oxygen/diluent (nitrogen, argon or helium) flames were measured for various values of stretch, fuel-equivalence ratios (0.6--4.5) and pressures (0.3--3 atm). The measurements were reduced to find fundamental unstretched laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers. The measurements were also used to evaluate corresponding numerical simulations of the experimentally-observed flames, based on contemporary detailed H2/O2 reaction mechanisms. Both measured and predicted ratios of unstretched to stretched laminar burning velocities varied linearly with flame stretch (represented by the Karlovitz number), yielding a constant Markstein number for a particular reactant mixture. The present flames were very sensitive to flame stretch (i.e., they had large Markstein numbers with significant ratios of unstretched to stretched laminar burning velocities) for levels of flame stretch well below quenching conditions. Increasing flame temperatures tended to reduce flame sensitivity to

  20. Heat transfer by laminar flow in a vertical pipe with twisted-tape inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaczak, A.

    Heat transfer for laminar flow of water in an air-cooled vertical copper pipe with four twisted-tape inserts was determined experimentally. The tests were executed for laminar flow within 110<=Re<=1500, 8.1<=Gz <= 82.0 and 1.62<=y<=5.29. The correlation equation for heat transfer was defined for the tested range. The obtained results were compared to the results of other authors.